WorldWideScience

Sample records for include behavior modification

  1. Behavior Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Randolph M.

    2010-01-01

    In a perfect world, students would never talk back to school staff and never argue or fight with each other. They would complete all their assigned tasks, and disciplinary actions never would be needed. Unfortunately, people don't live in a perfect world. Student behavior is a daily concern. Teachers continue to refer students to the office as a…

  2. Behavior Modification in Coaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Annette Rutt; Stillman, Stephen M.

    1979-01-01

    An example of behavior modification used in athletic coaching is presented. The case study involves a member of a women's basketball team and details the use of behavior modification for both weight reduction and skill improvement. (JMF)

  3. Human Rights and Behavior Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Philip

    1974-01-01

    Criticisms of behavior modification, which charge that it violates ethical and legal principles, are discussed and reasons are presented to explain behavior modification's susceptibility to attack. (GW)

  4. Behavior Modification: Education's Watergate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrison, Muriel Paskin

    Several of the theoretical and experimental assumptions relating to behavior modification are examined and criticized: (1) the human mind can only be understood by observing and measuring the functional behavior it causes, (2) performance can be equated with learning, (3) reward systems and token economies improve intrinsic learning, and (4) all…

  5. Medication for Behavior Modification in Birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeeland, Yvonne

    2018-01-01

    The use of behavior modifying drugs may be considered in birds with behavior problems, especially those refractory to behavior modification therapy and environmental management. To accomplish behavior change, a variety of drugs can be used, including psychoactive drugs, hormones, antihistamines,

  6. Behavior Modification in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Mryon; Whitman, Joan

    1971-01-01

    This article presents the theoretical rationale for behavior modification, principally through its comparison with traditional psychotherapies, and suggests some behavior modification techniques for the classroom management of maladaptive behavior. (Author)

  7. Mechanisms of behavior modification in clinical behavioral medicine in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiyin; Su, Zhonghua; Ji, Feng; Zhu, Min; Bai, Bo

    2014-08-01

    Behavior modification, as the core of clinical behavioral medicine, is often used in clinical settings. We seek to summarize behavior modification techniques that are commonly used in clinical practice of behavioral medicine in China and discuss possible biobehavioral mechanisms. We reviewed common behavior modification techniques in clinical settings in China, and we reviewed studies that explored possible biobehavioral mechanisms. Commonly used clinical approaches of behavior modification in China include behavior therapy, cognitive therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, health education, behavior management, behavioral relaxation training, stress management intervention, desensitization therapy, biofeedback therapy, and music therapy. These techniques have been applied in the clinical treatment of a variety of diseases, such as chronic diseases, psychosomatic diseases, and psychological disorders. The biobehavioral mechanisms of these techniques involve the autonomic nervous system, neuroendocrine system, neurobiochemistry, and neuroplasticity. Behavior modification techniques are commonly used in the treatment of a variety of somatic and psychological disorders in China. Multiple biobehavioral mechanisms are involved in successful behavior modification.

  8. Behavior Modification: A Classroom Clockwork Orange?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Jeffry; Kiraly, John, Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Behavior modification, if used properly, is a powerful and useful tool. As with many tools, improper use can cause temporary or permanent damage. The educational program might include behavior modification as one tool in a battery of many tools used to promote healthy change in behavior. (CS)

  9. Ethical Considerations in Behavior Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, James

    1976-01-01

    Article discusses use of behavior modification techniques to further needs of those in positions of power at expense of the individual. As the implications of this abuse of knowledge become wider through the technology of computers and electronic surveillance systems, psychologists must instruct themselves in methods of countercontrol. (RW)

  10. Medication for Behavior Modification in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zeeland, Yvonne

    2018-01-01

    The use of behavior modifying drugs may be considered in birds with behavior problems, especially those refractory to behavior modification therapy and environmental management. To accomplish behavior change, a variety of drugs can be used, including psychoactive drugs, hormones, antihistamines, analgesics, and anticonvulsants. Because their prescription to birds is off-label, these drugs are considered appropriate only when a sound rationale can be provided for their use. This requires a (correct) behavioral diagnosis to be established. In addition, regular monitoring and follow-up are warranted to determine the efficacy of the treatment and evaluate the occurrence of potential adverse side effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A review of different behavior modification strategies designed to reduce sedentary screen behaviors in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeves, Jeremy A; Thompson, Dixie L; Bassett, David R; Fitzhugh, Eugene C; Raynor, Hollie A

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that reducing sedentary screen behaviors may be a strategy for preventing and treating obesity in children. This systematic review describes strategies used in interventions designed to either solely target sedentary screen behaviors or multiple health behaviors, including sedentary screen behaviors. Eighteen studies were included in this paper; eight targeting sedentary screen behaviors only, and ten targeting multiple health behaviors. All studies used behavior modification strategies for reducing sedentary screen behaviors in children (aged 1-12 years). Nine studies only used behavior modification strategies, and nine studies supplemented behavior modification strategies with an electronic device to enhance sedentary screen behaviors reductions. Many interventions (50%) significantly reduced sedentary screen behaviors; however the magnitude of the significant reductions varied greatly (-0.44 to -3.1 h/day) and may have been influenced by the primary focus of the intervention, number of behavior modification strategies used, and other tools used to limit sedentary screen behaviors.

  12. Modification of Behavior: Application in Classroom Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ille, Sister Janiece; Bezzi, D. R.

    The emphasis of this research report was on modification of classroom behavior. After a brief introduction, the two main learning theories of Gestalt-field psychology and stimulus-response association were investigated. The importance of the individual in modifying his own behavior was stressed in Gestalt-field psychology. The importance of…

  13. Modification of feeding circuits in the evolution of social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Eva K; O'Connell, Lauren A

    2017-01-01

    Adaptive trade-offs between foraging and social behavior intuitively explain many aspects of individual decision-making. Given the intimate connection between social behavior and feeding/foraging at the behavioral level, we propose that social behaviors are linked to foraging on a mechanistic level, and that modifications of feeding circuits are crucial in the evolution of complex social behaviors. In this Review, we first highlight the overlap between mechanisms underlying foraging and parental care and then expand this argument to consider the manipulation of feeding-related pathways in the evolution of other complex social behaviors. We include examples from diverse taxa to highlight that the independent evolution of complex social behaviors is a variation on the theme of feeding circuit modification. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Common sense behavior modification: a guide for practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Debra F; Pike, Amy L

    2014-05-01

    Behavior problems are often given as a reason for pet relinquishment to shelters. When presented with any behavior problem, veterinarians should perform a thorough physical examination (including neurologic and orthopedic examination) and a minimum database, including a complete blood cell count, chemistry panel, and total T4 and free T4 by equilibrium dialysis if values are low to rule out any medical contributions. Veterinarians should be a source of information regarding management, safety, and basic behavior modification for common behavior problems. Additionally, various control devices offer pet owners the ability to better manage their pets in difficult situations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Hypnotherapy: A Combined Approach Using Psychotherapy and Behavior Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Bruce

    1987-01-01

    Discusses use of hypnosis in traditional psychoanalysis, compares use of hypnosis in behavior modification therapy versus psychoanalysis, and presents a hypno-behavioral model which combines both approaches using hypnosis as the medium. (Author/NB)

  16. Modification of Student Snacking: Comparison of Behavioral Teaching Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovell, Melbourne F.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    This research project tested the effects of two behavior modification programs, one emphasizing self-control and one traditional nutrition education, on the snacking habits of 91 fourth grade students. The project's methodology is discussed. (JL)

  17. Behavior Modification: Basic Principles. Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David L.; Axelrod, Saul

    2005-01-01

    This classic book presents the basic principles of behavior emphasizing the use of preventive techniques as well as consequences naturally available in the home, business, or school environment to change important behaviors. This book, and its companion piece, "Measurement of Behavior," represents more than 30 years of research and strategies in…

  18. Modification of TOUGH2 to Include the Dusty Gas Model for Gas Diffusion; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WEBB, STEPHEN W.

    2001-01-01

    The GEO-SEQ Project is investigating methods for geological sequestration of CO(sub 2). This project, which is directed by LBNL and includes a number of other industrial, university, and national laboratory partners, is evaluating computer simulation methods including TOUGH2 for this problem. The TOUGH2 code, which is a widely used code for flow and transport in porous and fractured media, includes simplified methods for gas diffusion based on a direct application of Fick's law. As shown by Webb (1998) and others, the Dusty Gas Model (DGM) is better than Fick's Law for modeling gas-phase diffusion in porous media. In order to improve gas-phase diffusion modeling for the GEO-SEQ Project, the EOS7R module in the TOUGH2 code has been modified to include the Dusty Gas Model as documented in this report. In addition, the liquid diffusion model has been changed from a mass-based formulation to a mole-based model. Modifications for separate and coupled diffusion in the gas and liquid phases have also been completed. The results from the DGM are compared to the Fick's law behavior for TCE and PCE diffusion across a capillary fringe. The differences are small due to the relatively high permeability (k= 10(sup -11) m(sup 2)) of the problem and the small mole fraction of the gases. Additional comparisons for lower permeabilities and higher mole fractions may be useful

  19. On the genetic modification of psychology, personality, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzke, Alex B

    2012-12-01

    I argue that the use of heritable modifications for psychology, personality, and behavior should be limited to the reversal or prevention of relatively unambiguous instances of pathology or likely harm (e.g. sociopathy). Most of the likely modifications of psychological personality would not be of this nature, however, and parents therefore should not have the freedom to make such modifications to future children. I argue by examining the viewpoints of both the individual and society. For individuals, modifications would interfere with their capacity for self-determination in a way that undermines the very concept of self-determination. I argue that modification of psychology and personality is unlike present parenting in morally significant ways. For society, modification offers a medium for power to manipulate the makeup of persons and populations, possibly causing biological harm to the species and altering our conceptions of social responsibility.

  20. Behavior Modification in Special Education in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkey, Peter

    1977-01-01

    West German literature on educational behavior modification is summarized, and empirical studies of behavior modification intervention with special education students at the elementary level are surveyed. (SBH)

  1. Obesity Treatment: Environment and Behavior Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Maryanne

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is commonly encountered in veterinary patients. Although there are various published dietary approaches to achieving weight loss, successful long-term prevention of weight regain has proven elusive. Adding environmental and behavioral treatment strategies to a weight loss plan may help the veterinary team, the pet, and the pet owner maximize the effectiveness of the program. Because the owner directly affects the environment and behavior of the pet undergoing a weight loss plan, treatment strategies with an emphasis on owner involvement is the focus of this review. Veterinary use of the 5 A's behavioral counseling approach with the pet owner is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. PREVIEW Behavior Modification Intervention Toolbox (PREMIT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahlert, Daniela; Unyi-Reicherz, Annelie; Stratton, Gareth

    2016-01-01

    development took five progressive steps, in line with the Public Health Action Cycle: (1) Summing-up the intervention goal(s), target group and the setting, (2) uncovering the generative psychological mechanisms, (3) identifying behavior change techniques and tools, (4) preparing for evaluation and (5...... and feasible to evaluate. PREMIT is part of an intervention trial, which aims to prevent the onset of type-2 diabetes in pre-diabetics in eight clinical centers across the world by guiding them in changing their physical activity and dietary behavior through a group counseling approach. METHODS: The program...

  3. Psychological factors that promote behavior modification by obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakagawa Akinori

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The weight-loss effect of team medical care in which counseling is provided by clinical psychologists was investigated in an university hospital obesity (OB clinic. Nutritional and exercise therapy were also studied. In our previous study, we conducted a randomized, controlled trial with obese patients and confirmed that subjects who received counseling lost significantly more weight than those in a non-counseling group. The purpose of this study was to identify the psychological characteristics assessed by ego states that promote behavior modification by obese patients. Methods 147 obese patients (116 females, 31 males; mean age: 45.9 ± 15.4 years participated in a 6-month weight-loss program in our OB clinic. Their psychosocial characteristics were assessed using the Tokyo University Egogram (TEG before and after intervention. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare weight and psychological factors before and after intervention. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify factors affecting weight loss. Results Overall, 101 subjects (68.7% completed the program, and their data was analyzed. The subjects mean weight loss was 6.2 ± 7.3 kg (Z = 7.72, p 2 (Z = 7.65, p Z = 1.95, p Z = 2.46, p p p = 0.06 was observed. Conclusion This study of a 6-month weight-loss program that included counseling by clinical psychologists confirmed that the A ego state of obese patients, which is related to their self-monitoring skill, and the FC ego state of them, which is related to their autonomy, were increased. Furthermore, the negative aspects of the FC ego state related to optimistic and instinctive characteristics inhibited the behavior modification, while the A ego state represented objective self-monitoring skills that may have contributed to weight loss.

  4. A Practical Reinforcement Hierarchy for Classroom Behavior Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Barry T.

    1983-01-01

    Proposed a practical reinforcement hierarchy for classroom-based behavior modification programs. The seven-level hierarchy ranged from primitive consequences (Infantile Physical Contact and Food) through the more abstract consequences (Praise and Internal Self-Reinforcement). Suggestions were made for using the hierarchy in teacher consultation…

  5. Use of Behavior Modification with L. D. Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Frank P.

    Reviewed was research on the application of operant conditioning techniques to the modification of the classroom behavior of learning disabled students. The methodology and results of the studies were examined and each study summarized. It was concluded that there was little common interpretation of the term "learning disabilities" and that all of…

  6. Beyond behavior modification: Benefits of social-emotional/self-regulation training for preschoolers with behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Paulo A; Hart, Katie

    2016-10-01

    The current study evaluated the initial efficacy of three intervention programs aimed at improving school readiness in preschool children with externalizing behavior problems (EBP). Participants for this study included 45 preschool children (76% boys; Mage=5.16years; 84% Hispanic/Latino background) with at-risk or clinically elevated levels of EBP. During the summer between preschool and kindergarten, children were randomized to receive three newly developed intervention packages. The first and most cost effective intervention package was an 8-week School Readiness Parenting Program (SRPP). Families randomized into the second and third intervention packages received not only the weekly SRPP, but children also attended two different versions of an intensive kindergarten summer readiness class (M-F, 8a.m.-5p.m.) that was part of an 8-week summer treatment program for pre-kindergarteners (STP-PreK). One version included the standard behavioral modification system and academic curriculum (STP-PreK) while the other additionally contained social-emotional and self-regulation training (STP-PreK Enhanced). Baseline, post-intervention, and 6-month follow-up data were collected on children's school readiness outcomes including parent, teacher, and objective assessment measures. Analyses using linear mixed models indicated that children's behavioral functioning significantly improved across all groups in a similar magnitude. Children in the STP-PreK Enhanced group, however, experienced greater growth across time in academic achievement, emotion knowledge, emotion regulation, and executive functioning compared to children in the other groups. These findings suggest that while parent training is sufficient to address children's behavioral difficulties, an intensive summer program that goes beyond behavioral modification and academic preparation by targeting socio-emotional and self-regulation skills can have incremental benefits across multiple aspects of school readiness

  7. Measurement and modification of the EEG and related behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterman, M. B.

    1991-01-01

    Electrophysiological changes in the sensorimotor pathways were found to accompany the effect of rhythmic EEG patterns in the sensorimotor cortex. Additionally, several striking behavioral changes were seen, including in particular an enhancement of sleep and an elevation of seizure threshold to epileptogenic agents. This raised the possibility that human seizure disorders might be influenced therapeutically by similar training. Our objective in human EEG feedback training became not only the facilitation of normal rhythmic patterns, but also the suppression of abnormal activity, thus requiring complex contingencies directed to the normalization of the sensorimotor EEG. To achieve this, a multicomponent frequency analysis was developed to extract and separate normal and abnormal elements of the EEG signal. Each of these elements was transduced to a specific component of a visual display system, and these were combined through logic circuits to present the subject with a symbolic display. Variable criteria provided for the gradual shaping of EEG elements towards the desired normal pattern. Some 50-70% of patients with poorly controlled seizure disorders experienced therapeutic benefits from this approach in our laboratory, and subsequently in many others. A more recent application of this approach to the modification of human brain function in our lab has been directed to the dichotomous problems of task overload and underload in the contemporary aviation environment. At least 70% of all aviation accidents have been attributed to the impact of these kinds of problems on crew performance. The use of EEG in this context has required many technical innovations and the application of the latest advances in EEG signal analysis. Our first goal has been the identification of relevant EEG characteristics. Additionally, we have developed a portable recording and analysis system for application in this context. Findings from laboratory and in-flight studies suggest that we

  8. Supportive intervention using a mobile phone in behavior modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hareva, David H; Okada, Hiroki; Kitawaki, Tomoki; Oka, Hisao

    2009-04-01

    The authors previously developed a mobile ecological momentary assessment (EMA) system as a real-time data collection device using a mobile phone. In this study, a real-time advice function and real-time reporting function were added to the previous system as a supportive intervention. The improved system was found to work effectively and was applied to several clinical cases, including patients with depressive disorder, dizziness, smoking habit, and bronchial asthma. The average patient compliance rate was high (89%) without the real-time advice and higher (93%) with the advice. The trends in clinical data for patients using a mobile EMA with/without the new function were analyzed for up to several months. In the case of dizziness, an improving trend in its clinical data was observed after applying the real-time advice, and in the case of depressive disorder, a stabilizing trend was observed. The mobile EMA system with the real-time advice function could be useful as a supportive intervention in behavior modification and for motivating patients in self-management of their disease.

  9. Behavior Modification for Persons with Developmental Disabilities: Treatments and Supports. Volume I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L., Ed.; Laud, Rinita B., Ed.; Matson, Michael L., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    In the last few decades, the field of dual diagnosis as applied to those with intellectual disabilities has boasted a monumental surge in assessment devices and treatment approaches. These relatively recent advances include those in the development of behavior modification principles and procedures that have had a dramatic impact on services for…

  10. Nutritional and behavioral modification therapies of obesity: facts and fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranešić Bender, Darija; Krznarić, Zeljko

    2012-01-01

    Current practice guidelines for management of overweight and obesity recommend a tripartite treatment - lifestyle modification program of diet, exercise, and behavior therapy for all persons with a body mass index of at least 30 (and those with body mass index 25 plus two weight-related comorbidities). Behavior therapy provides the structure that facilitates meeting goals for energy intake and expenditure. Lately, there has been a shift in focus from behavior change to cognitive change because it improves long-term results of lifestyle modification programs. Weight loss diets based on the amounts of individual macronutrients (high-protein diets, low-fat diets and low-carbohydrate diets, etc.) in the diet are not more effective than 'classical' low-calorie and balanced diets. An exception has been detected only in short-term diets with a low glycemic load. Also, epidemiological studies show that there is an inversely proportional relationship between body weight and Mediterranean diet. Cognitive behavioral therapy based on the Mediterranean diet has proven to be effective in clinical practice with regard to weight loss, body fat distribution, biochemical parameters, blood pressure and simplicity of following the diet. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Transient Response Dynamic Module Modifications to Include Static and Kinetic Friction Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misel, J. E.; Nenno, S. B.; Takahashi, D.

    1984-01-01

    A methodology that supports forced transient response dynamic solutions when both static and kinetic friction effects are included in a structural system model is described. Modifications that support this type of nonlinear transient response solution are summarized for the transient response dynamics (TRD) NASTRAN module. An overview of specific modifications for the NASTRAN processing subroutines, INITL, TRD1C, and TRD1D, are described with further details regarding inspection of nonlinear input definitions to define the type of nonlinear solution required, along with additional initialization requirements and specific calculation subroutines to successfully solve the transient response problem. The extension of the basic NASTRAN nonlinear methodology is presented through several stages of development to the point where constraint equations and residual flexibility effects are introduced into the finite difference Newmark-Beta recurrsion formulas. Particular emphasis is placed on cost effective solutions for large finite element models such as the Space Shuttle with friction degrees of freedom between the orbiter and payloads mounted in the cargo bay. An alteration to the dynamic finite difference equations of motion is discussed, which allows one to include friction effects at reasonable cost for large structural systems such as the Space Shuttle. Data are presented to indicate the possible impact of transient friction loads to the payload designer for the Space Shuttle. Transient response solution data are also included, which compare solutions without friction forces and those with friction forces for payloads mounted in the Space Shuttle cargo bay. These data indicate that payload components can be sensitive to friction induced loads.

  12. Effects of Methylphenidate and Behavior Modification on the Social and Academic Behavior of Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders: The Moderating Role of Callous/Unemotional Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Carrey, Normand J.; Willoughby, Michael T.; King, Sara; Andrade, Brendan F.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether response to behavior modification with and without methylphenidate differed for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct problems (CP) depending on the presence of callous/unemotional (CU) traits. Participants were 37 children ages 7 to 12, including 19 with ADHD/CP-only and 18 with…

  13. Local Staff (LS) - Proposal by the Management, Including related Modifications to the Staff Rules And Regulations

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    The issue of Local Staff (LS) has been discussed since May 2002 at successive meetings of TREF and the Committees, leading to a proposal document by the Management, which was examined at TREF last November. As reported by the Chairman of TREF to the Finance Committee in December, the Management has now revised its proposal in the light of discussions at the Forum. This document summarises the background, the main aims, scope and features of LS, as well as estimated consequences of implementing the Management's proposal, including those indicated in the Human Resources Plan submitted last December. Related modifications of the Staff Rules and Regulations required to implement the Management's proposal are set out in Annex 8. After discussion at TREF in February 2003, the Management hereby submits its proposal for approval by the Finance Committee and the Council, for entry into force as of 1 April 2003. This time-scale would permit gradual implementation of LS starting this year, which is consistent with the f...

  14. A vastly increased chemical variety of RNA modifications that includes a thioacetal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Magro, Christina; Keller, Patrick; Kotter, Annika; Werner, Stephan; Duarte, Victor; Marchand, Virginie; Ignarski, Michael; Freiwald, Anja; Müller, Roman-Ulrich; Dieterich, Christoph; Motorin, Yuri; Butter, Falk; Atta, Mohammed; Helm, Mark

    2018-04-06

    Recently discovered new chemical entities in RNA modifications have provided surprises with respect to functional groups that enlarge the chemical space of RNA. Using LC-MS, we found over one hundred signals of RNA constituents that contained a ribose moiety in tRNAs from E. coli. Feeding experiments with variegated stable isotope labeled compounds identified 37 compounds, representing new structures of RNA modifications. One structure was elucidated by deuterium exchange and high resolution mass spectrometry. The structure of msms2i6A (2-methylthiomethylenethio-N6-isopentenyl-adenosine) was confirmed by methione-D3 feeding experiments and finally by synthesis of the nucleobase. The msms2i6A contains a thioacetal, which we demonstrated in vitro to be biosynthetically derived from ms2i6A by the action of the radical-SAM enzyme MiaB. This enzyme performs thiomethylation, forming ms2i6A from i6A in a first turnover. The newly discovered thioacetal is formed by a second turnover, now involving hydrogen abstraction from the previously introduced methyl group. Not only are thioacetals extremely rare in natural product chemistry, but also does this constitute a novel enzymatic mechanism for their formation. In conjunction with the pool of 36 new modification, this work describes a new layer of RNA modification chemistry. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. A Direct School Intervention Program for the Modification of Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, Neil M.; Levin, Louis

    1975-01-01

    An intervention program for the modification of classroom aggressive behavior is outlined. The primary components of this program are positive reinforcement, behavior rehearsal and modeling, and group activity procedures. (Author)

  16. Designing the user interfaces of a behavior modification intervention for obesity & eating disorders prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulos, Ioannis; Maramis, Christos; Mourouzis, Alexandros; Maglaveras, Nicos

    2015-01-01

    The recent immense diffusion of smartphones has significantly upgraded the role of mobile user interfaces in interventions that build and/or maintain healthier lifestyles. Indeed, high-quality, user-centered smartphone applications are able to serve as advanced front-ends to such interventions. These smartphone applications, coupled with portable or wearable sensors, are being employed for monitoring day to day health-related behaviors, including eating and physical activity. Some of them take one step forward by identifying unhealthy behaviors and contributing towards their modification. This work presents the design as well as the preliminary implementation of the mobile user interface of SPLENDID, a novel, sensor-oriented intervention for preventing obesity and eating disorders in young populations. This is implemented by means of an Android application, which is able to monitor the eating and physical activity behaviors of young individuals at risk for obesity and/or eating disorders, subsequently guiding them towards the modification of those behaviors that put them at risk. Behavior monitoring is based on multiple data provided by a set of communicating sensors and self-reported information, while guidance is facilitated through a feedback/encouragement provision and goal setting mechanism.

  17. The Role of Sulforaphane in Epigenetic Mechanisms, Including Interdependence between Histone Modification and DNA Methylation

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufman-Szymczyk, Agnieszka; Majewski, Grzegorz; Lubecka-Pietruszewska, Katarzyna; Fabianowska-Majewska, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    Carcinogenesis as well as cancer progression result from genetic and epigenetic changes of the genome that leads to dysregulation of transcriptional activity of genes. Epigenetic mechanisms in cancer cells comprise (i) post-translation histone modification (i.e., deacetylation and methylation); (ii) DNA global hypomethylation; (iii) promoter hypermethylation of tumour suppressor genes and genes important for cell cycle regulation, cell differentiation and apoptosis; and (iv) posttranscription...

  18. Determinants of prosocial behavior in included versus excluded contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther eCuadrado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prosocial behavior is increasingly becoming necessary as more and more individuals experience exclusion. In this context it is important to understand the motivational determinants of prosocial behavior. Here we report two experiments which analyzed the influence of dispositional (prosocialness; rejection sensitivity and motivational variables (prosocial self-efficacy; prosocial collective efficacy; trust; anger; social affiliation motivation on prosocial behavior under neutral contexts (Study 1, and once under inclusion or exclusion conditions (Study 2. Both studies provided evidence for the predicted mediation of prosocial behavior. Results in both neutral and inclusion and exclusion conditions supported our predictive model of prosocial behavior. In the model dispositional variables predicted motivational variables, which in turn predicted prosocial behavior. We showed that the investigated variables predicted prosocial behavior; this suggests that to promote prosocial behavior one could (1 foster prosocialness, prosocial self and collective efficacy, trust in others and affiliation motivation and (2 try to reduce negative feelings and the tendency to dread rejection in an attempt to reduce the negative impact that these variables have on prosocial behavior. Moreover, the few differences that emerged in the model between the inclusion and exclusion contexts suggested that in interventions with excluded individuals special care emphasis should be placed on addressing rejection sensitivity and lack of trust.

  19. A process model of voluntary travel behavior modification and effects of Travel Feedback Programs (TFPs)

    OpenAIRE

    Taniguchi, Ayako

    2007-01-01

    This study tested an integrated process model of travel behavior modification. We used a model that combined the theory of planned behavior (TPB), norm activation theory (NAT), a theory of implementation intention, and theories of habit. To test the integrated model, we used panel data (n = 208) obtained before and after travel feedback programs (TFPs); the TFP is a communication program aimed at voluntary travel behavior modification, from automobile use to non-auto means of travel such as p...

  20. The Role of Sulforaphane in Epigenetic Mechanisms, Including Interdependence between Histone Modification and DNA Methylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kaufman-Szymczyk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Carcinogenesis as well as cancer progression result from genetic and epigenetic changes of the genome that leads to dysregulation of transcriptional activity of genes. Epigenetic mechanisms in cancer cells comprise (i post-translation histone modification (i.e., deacetylation and methylation; (ii DNA global hypomethylation; (iii promoter hypermethylation of tumour suppressor genes and genes important for cell cycle regulation, cell differentiation and apoptosis; and (iv posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression by noncoding microRNA. These epigenetic aberrations can be readily reversible and responsive to both synthetic agents and natural components of diet. A source of one of such diet components are cruciferous vegetables, which contain high levels of a number of glucosinolates and deliver, after enzymatic hydrolysis, sulforaphane and other bioactive isothiocyanates, that are involved in effective up-regulation of transcriptional activity of certain genes and also in restoration of active chromatin structure. Thus a consumption of cruciferous vegetables, treated as a source of isothiocyanates, seems to be potentially useful as an effective cancer preventive factor or as a source of nutrients improving efficacy of standard chemotherapies. In this review an attempt is made to elucidate the role of sulforaphane in regulation of gene promoter activity through a direct down-regulation of histone deacetylase activity and alteration of gene promoter methylation in indirect ways, but the sulforaphane influence on non-coding micro-RNA will not be a subject of this review.

  1. The Role of Sulforaphane in Epigenetic Mechanisms, Including Interdependence between Histone Modification and DNA Methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman-Szymczyk, Agnieszka; Majewski, Grzegorz; Lubecka-Pietruszewska, Katarzyna; Fabianowska-Majewska, Krystyna

    2015-12-12

    Carcinogenesis as well as cancer progression result from genetic and epigenetic changes of the genome that leads to dysregulation of transcriptional activity of genes. Epigenetic mechanisms in cancer cells comprise (i) post-translation histone modification (i.e., deacetylation and methylation); (ii) DNA global hypomethylation; (iii) promoter hypermethylation of tumour suppressor genes and genes important for cell cycle regulation, cell differentiation and apoptosis; and (iv) posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression by noncoding microRNA. These epigenetic aberrations can be readily reversible and responsive to both synthetic agents and natural components of diet. A source of one of such diet components are cruciferous vegetables, which contain high levels of a number of glucosinolates and deliver, after enzymatic hydrolysis, sulforaphane and other bioactive isothiocyanates, that are involved in effective up-regulation of transcriptional activity of certain genes and also in restoration of active chromatin structure. Thus a consumption of cruciferous vegetables, treated as a source of isothiocyanates, seems to be potentially useful as an effective cancer preventive factor or as a source of nutrients improving efficacy of standard chemotherapies. In this review an attempt is made to elucidate the role of sulforaphane in regulation of gene promoter activity through a direct down-regulation of histone deacetylase activity and alteration of gene promoter methylation in indirect ways, but the sulforaphane influence on non-coding micro-RNA will not be a subject of this review.

  2. Science and Human Behavior, dualism, and conceptual modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuriff, G E

    2003-11-01

    Skinner's Science and Human Behavior is in part an attempt to solve psychology's problem with mind-body dualism by revising our everyday mentalistic conceptual scheme. In the case of descriptive mentalism (the use of mentalistic terms to describe behavior), Skinner offers behavioral "translations." In contrast, Skinner rejects explanatory mentalism (the use of mental concepts to explain behavior) and suggests how to replace it with a behaviorist explanatory framework. For experiential mentalism, Skinner presents a theory of verbal behavior that integrates the use of mentalistic language in first-person reports of phenomenal experience into a scientific framework.

  3. Modification of a fire drought index for tropical wetland ecosystems by including water table depth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taufik, Muh; Setiawan, B.I.; Lanen, van H.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss how an existing empirical drought index, i.e. the Keetch-Byram Drought Index (KBDI) that is commonly used for assessing forest fire danger, has been adjusted and modified for improved use in tropical wetland ecosystems. The improvement included: (i) adjustment of the

  4. Magnetic behavior of cobalt bromide hydrates including a deuterated form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeFotis, G.C., E-mail: gxdefo@wm.edu; Hampton, A.S.; Van Dongen, M.J.; Komatsu, C.H.; DeSanto, C.L.; Davis, C.M.

    2017-04-15

    The magnetic properties of little examined CoBr{sub 2}• 2H{sub 2}O and new CoBr{sub 2}• H{sub 2}O and CoBr{sub 2}• D{sub 2}O are studied. Curie-Weiss fits, χ{sub M}=C/(T-θ), yield θ of −9.9, 9.4 and 10.0 K, respectively, over a 30–80 K linear range for each. Higher temperature data are fit assuming two moderately separated low lying Kramers doublets, with exchange accounted for in a mean-field approximation. Susceptibility maxima appear at 9.5, 15.4 and 15.5 K, with χ{sub max} of 0.163, 0.375 and 0.435 emu/mol, respectively. Antiferromagnetic ordering is estimated to occur at 9.0, 13.7 and 13.8 K, in the same order. The ratio T{sub c}/T{sub max} is 0.95, 0.89 and 0.89, respectively, suggesting little low dimensional magnetic character in singly hydrated systems. Data at lower temperatures for the dihydrate are fit with an antiferromagnetic 3D-Ising model. For singly hydrated systems the large size of χ{sub max} prevents this; weakened interchain antiferromagnetic interactions yield enhanced susceptibility maxima. Magnetization data exhibit field induced transitions near 13.5 kG for the dihydrate, and near 6.5 kG for singly hydrated systems with enhanced hysteresis. These transitions are interpreted as metamagnetic in nature. - Highlights: • CoBr{sub 2}• 2H{sub 2}O has a larger susceptibility maximum at lower temperature than CoCl{sub 2}• 2H{sub 2}O. • Enhanced antiferromagnetic susceptibility maxima occur in CoBr{sub 2}·H{sub 2}O and CoBr{sub 2}• D{sub 2}O. • Metamagnetic transitions occur at much lower fields in monohydrates than dehydrate. • Interchain antiferromagnetic exchange is weaker in monohydrates than dehydrate. • CoBr{sub 2}• H{sub 2}O exhibit spin glass behavior similar to that seen previously in CoCl{sub 2}·H{sub 2}O.

  5. Effect of Subliminal Stimulation of Symbiotic Fantasies on Behavior Modification Treatment of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    And Others; Silverman, Lloyd H.

    1978-01-01

    Obese women were treated in behavior modification programs for overeating. Behavior programs were accompanied by subliminal stimulation and by symbiotic and control messages. The symbiotic condition gave evidence of enhancing weight loss. This finding supports the proposition that subliminal stimulation of symbiotic fantasies can enhance the…

  6. Maternal Behavior Modifications during Pretense and Their Long-Term Effects on Toddlers' Understanding of Pretense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamichi, Naoko

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies indicate the need to investigate the sources of toddlers' understanding of another person's pretense. The present study is a cultural and longitudinal extension of the work of Lillard and Witherington (2004), who claimed that mothers modify their behaviors during pretense and that the some of these behavior modifications help their…

  7. An Original Behavior Modification Program for Weight Reduction: Minimal Intervention and Permanent Habit Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lublin, Irwin; Kirkish, Patricia

    This description of a weight reduction program, based on generalizations derived from eight years of work with overweight persons, discusses the clients' rationalization of overeating behaviors. In this behavior modification program, the client is required to permanently give up one high calorie food and to write down all foods eaten before actual…

  8. A Secure Behavior Modification Sensor System for Physical Activity Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Today, advances in wireless sensor networks are making it possible to capture large amounts of information about a person and their interaction within their home environment. However, what is missing is how to ensure the security of the collected data and its use to alter human behavior for positive benefit. In this research, exploration was…

  9. Modification of severe violent and aggressive behavior among psychiatric inpatients through the use of a short-term token economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Soon; Lee, Kyunghee

    2012-12-01

    Meager research has been carried out to determine the effectiveness of the token economy among patients behaving violently in mental hospitals. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the Short-Term Token Economy (STTE) on violent behavior among chronic psychiatric in-patients. A nonequivalent control group design method was utilized. Participants in an experimental group (n=22) and control group (n=22) took part in this study from January to April, 2008. Observation on aggressive behavior among male in-patients in one hospital as a baseline was made during the week before the behavior modification program and measurement of aggressive behavior was done using the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS), which includes verbal attacks, property damage and physical attacks. The aggressive behavior scores of the experimental group decreased, those of the control group, scores showed an increase after the eight-week behavior modification program utilizing STTE. The results of the study indicate that STTE is effective in reducing the incidence of aggressive behavior among male in-patients in psychiatric hospitals. The outcome of this study should be helpful in reducing the use of coercive measures or psychoactive medication in controlling the violent behavior among in-patients in hospitals.

  10. The IAEA transport regulations: main modifications included in the 1996 edition and the possible impact of its adoption in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Vietri, J.R.; Novo, R.G.; Bianchi, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: This paper points out a comparative analysis between the requirements of the 1985 edition (as Amended 1990), in-force in almost all countries included Argentina, and the 1996 edition, that is foresee to put in-force 1st January 2001, of the Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material, published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The English version of the 1996 edition was published in December 1996 and the Spanish one in September 1997. Such edition was the culmination of a difficult consensus and harmonisation reached after an analysis process of the-years cycle between the IAEA Member Sates and related international organisations (United Nations, International Civil Aviation Organisation, International Air Transport Association, International Federation of Air Lines Pilots Associations, International Maritime Organisation) as well as regional organisations (Economic Commission for Europe, Commission of the European Communities). Both editions of the Regulations include a set of design, operational and administrative requirements that substantially do not differ as for their safety basic philosophy. However, the 1996 edition introduces numerous modifications of different magnitude, which will derive in technological, economic and operative consequences. Of such modifications the paper only analysed the relevant ones which update the state of art in the subject and allow the Regulations continue maintaining an acceptable level of control of the radiation, criticality and thermal hazards to persons, property and the environment during the transport of radioactive material. In addition, the paper briefly describes the possible impact that the main modifications induced in the 1996 edition of the Regulations should have, depending on the type of user considered either in Argentina or in other Latin America countries. However, it is desirable that the personal of competent authorities of each country involved in transport

  11. Effectiveness of a behavior modification program for older people with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ounnapiruk, Liwan; Wirojratana, Virapun; Meehatchai, Nitaya; Turale, Sue

    2014-06-01

    This quasi-experimental study examined the effectiveness of a behavior modification program for diabetic control in Thai elders with uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes. Purposive sampling was used to select 30 elders from one community as an intervention group, and 30 from a neighboring community as a control group. The intervention group participated in a program of 12 weeks' duration involving activities related to group counseling, group discussion, and an empowerment process that enhanced appropriate consumption of healthy diet, medication taking, and exercise. Data were collected by interviews using a questionnaire to assess knowledge of diabetes, perceived self-efficacy, and diabetes control behavior, including fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin, were examined at the baseline and three months thereafter. At program completion, the intervention group had significantly higher scores of knowledge, self-efficacy, and health behaviors than those in the control group, but blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin were not significantly different. Although nurses can use aspects of this program to benefit elders with diabetes who require support and education, further research is required to provide improved health outcomes such as better glycemic control. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Effectiveness of behavioral modification techniques with visual distraction using intrasulcular local anesthesia in hearing disabled children during pulp therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Fakhruddin, Kausar Sadia; Gorduysus, Mehmet Omer; El Batawi, Hisham

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Assessing the effectiveness of behavioral modification techniques in combination with visual distraction with/without video eyewear using computerized delivery system-intrasulcular (CDS-IS) during the application of local anesthetic in hearing-impaired pediatric patients undergoing pulp therapy of primary molars. Materials and Methods: This randomized, crossover clinical study includes 15 children (7 boys and 8 girls), mean age was 6.1 years. Children were randomly distributed into...

  13. Behavior Modification in the Classroom: An Abstract Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Barbara, Comp.

    An annotated selective bibliography of documents on operation conditioning which are found in the ERIC microfiche collection and in journal literature is presented. Abstracts of these documents were taken from Research in Education (RIE) and Current Index to Journals in Education (CIJE). Included are published and unpublished studies focusing on…

  14. PREVIEW Behavior Modification Intervention Toolbox (PREMIT): A Study Protocol for a Psychological Element of a Multicenter Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlert, Daniela; Unyi-Reicherz, Annelie; Stratton, Gareth; Meinert Larsen, Thomas; Fogelholm, Mikael; Raben, Anne; Schlicht, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Losing excess body weight and preventing weight regain by changing lifestyle is a challenging but promising task to prevent the incidence of type-2 diabetes. To be successful, it is necessary to use evidence-based and theory-driven interventions, which also contribute to the science of behavior modification by providing a deeper understanding of successful intervention components. To develop a physical activity and dietary behavior modification intervention toolbox (PREMIT) that fulfills current requirements of being theory-driven and evidence-based, comprehensively described and feasible to evaluate. PREMIT is part of an intervention trial, which aims to prevent the onset of type-2 diabetes in pre-diabetics in eight clinical centers across the world by guiding them in changing their physical activity and dietary behavior through a group counseling approach. The program development took five progressive steps, in line with the Public Health Action Cycle: (1) Summing-up the intervention goal(s), target group and the setting, (2) uncovering the generative psychological mechanisms, (3) identifying behavior change techniques and tools, (4) preparing for evaluation and (5) implementing the intervention and assuring quality. PREMIT is based on a trans-theoretical approach referring to valid behavior modification theories, models and approaches. A major "product" of PREMIT is a matrix, constructed for use by onsite-instructors. The matrix includes objectives, tasks and activities ordered by periods. PREMIT is constructed to help instructors guide participants' behavior change. To ensure high fidelity and adherence of program-implementation across the eight intervention centers standardized operational procedures were defined and "train-the-trainer" workshops were held. In summary PREMIT is a theory-driven, evidence-based program carefully developed to change physical activity and dietary behaviors in pre-diabetic people.

  15. PREVIEW behavior modification intervention toolbox (PREMIT: a study protocol for a psychological element of a multicenter project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Kahlert

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Losing excess body weight and preventing weight regain by changing lifestyle is a challenging but promising task to prevent the incidence of type-2 diabetes. To be successful, it is necessary to use evidence-based and theory-driven interventions, which also contribute to the science of behavior modification by providing a deeper understanding of successful intervention components. Objective: To develop a physical activity and dietary behavior modification intervention toolbox (PREMIT that fulfills current requirements of being theory-driven and evidence-based, comprehensively described and feasible to evaluate. PREMIT is part of an intervention trial, which aims to prevent the onset of type-2 diabetes in pre-diabetics in eight clinical centers across the world by guiding them in changing their physical activity and dietary behavior through a group counselling approach. Methods: The program development took five progressive steps, in line with the Public Health Action Cycle: (1 Summing-up the intervention goal(s, target group and the setting, (2 uncovering the generative psychological mechanisms, (3 identifying behavior change techniques and tools, (4 preparing for evaluation and (5 implementing the intervention and assuring quality. Results: PREMIT is based on a trans-theoretical approach referring to valid behavior modification theories, models and approaches. A major ‘product’ of PREMIT is a matrix, constructed for use by onsite-instructors. The matrix includes objectives, tasks and activities ordered by periods. PREMIT is constructed to help instructors guide participant’s behavior change. To ensure high fidelity and adherence of program-implementation across the eight intervention centers standardized operational procedures were defined and train-the-trainer workshops were held. In summary PREMIT is a theory-driven, evidence-based program carefully developed to change physical activity and dietary behaviors in pre

  16. Rapid Smoking as a Technique of Behavior Modification: Caution in Selection of Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Robert

    1974-01-01

    This article contains an attack on the behavior modification technique of rapid smoking as a method of aversion therapy, on the grounds that it may prove fatal for some people. A counter-argument is offered by another author stating that the technique is quite useable but should be approached with caution. (Author/PC)

  17. On the Value of Nonremovable Reminders for Behavior Modification: An Application to Nail-Biting (Onychophagia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koritzky, Gilly; Yechiam, Eldad

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the effectiveness of a novel behavior modification method for dysfunctional and impulsive habits, based on nonremovable reminders (NrRs). NrRs were implemented by having participants wear nonremovable wristbands designated to constantly remind them of their resolution to quit the targeted habit (nail-biting). Participants were…

  18. Cognitive, Behavioral and Emotional Empathy in Pharmacy Students: Targeting Programs for Curriculum Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra A. Tamayo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Empathy is an essential trait for pharmacists and is recognized as a core competency that can be developed in the classroom. There is a growing body of data regarding levels of empathy in pharmacy students; however, these studies have not measured differences in behavioral, cognitive, and emotional empathy. The goal of this study was to parse the underlying components of empathy and correlate them to psychosocial attributes, with the overall goal of identifying curriculum modifications to enhance levels of empathy in pharmacy students.Methods: IRB approval was obtained to measure empathy levels in pharmacy students attending Midwestern University. An online, anonymous survey administered through a secure website (REDCap was used. This survey utilized the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (Medical Student version and included questions regarding demographics and personality traits. Empathy questions were sub-divided into behavioral, cognitive, and emotional categories. Data are presented as mean ± SEM with significance set at P < 0.05.Results: Three hundred and four pharmacy students at Midwestern University participated in a fall survey with an overall response rate of 37%. The average empathy score was 110.4 ± 0.8 on a scale of 20-140; which is comparable to empathy scores found by Fjortoft et al. and Van Winkle et al. Validating prior research, females scored significantly higher than males in empathy as well as behavioral, cognitive, and emotional subcomponents. For the entire population, emotional empathy was significantly higher than cognitive and behavioral empathy (P < 0.05. Furthermore, negative correlations to empathy were observed for self-serving behavior (R = 0.490, P < 0.001, medical authoritarianism (R = 0.428, P < 0.001, and experience of coercion (R = 0.344, P < 0.001. Conclusion: Overall, empathy levels in pharmacy students are similar to prior studies with females scoring higher than males. Emotional empathy may play a

  19. DASH - Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS): High School – Including Sexual Orientation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — High School Dataset – Including Sexual Orientation. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health behaviors among...

  20. Knowledge of Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder of Behavior Modification Methods and Their Training Needs Accordingly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeb, Raid Mousa Al-Shaik

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed at identifying knowledge of parents of children with autism spectrum disorder of behavior modification methods and their training needs accordingly. The sample of the study consisted of (98) parents in Jordan. A scale of behavior modification methods was constructed, and then validated. The results of the study showed that the…

  1. Metrics for the Human Proteome Project 2016: Progress on Identifying and Characterizing the Human Proteome, Including Post-Translational Modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omenn, Gilbert S; Lane, Lydie; Lundberg, Emma K; Beavis, Ronald C; Overall, Christopher M; Deutsch, Eric W

    2016-11-04

    The HUPO Human Proteome Project (HPP) has two overall goals: (1) stepwise completion of the protein parts list-the draft human proteome including confidently identifying and characterizing at least one protein product from each protein-coding gene, with increasing emphasis on sequence variants, post-translational modifications (PTMs), and splice isoforms of those proteins; and (2) making proteomics an integrated counterpart to genomics throughout the biomedical and life sciences community. PeptideAtlas and GPMDB reanalyze all major human mass spectrometry data sets available through ProteomeXchange with standardized protocols and stringent quality filters; neXtProt curates and integrates mass spectrometry and other findings to present the most up to date authorative compendium of the human proteome. The HPP Guidelines for Mass Spectrometry Data Interpretation version 2.1 were applied to manuscripts submitted for this 2016 C-HPP-led special issue [ www.thehpp.org/guidelines ]. The Human Proteome presented as neXtProt version 2016-02 has 16,518 confident protein identifications (Protein Existence [PE] Level 1), up from 13,664 at 2012-12, 15,646 at 2013-09, and 16,491 at 2014-10. There are 485 proteins that would have been PE1 under the Guidelines v1.0 from 2012 but now have insufficient evidence due to the agreed-upon more stringent Guidelines v2.0 to reduce false positives. neXtProt and PeptideAtlas now both require two non-nested, uniquely mapping (proteotypic) peptides of at least 9 aa in length. There are 2,949 missing proteins (PE2+3+4) as the baseline for submissions for this fourth annual C-HPP special issue of Journal of Proteome Research. PeptideAtlas has 14,629 canonical (plus 1187 uncertain and 1755 redundant) entries. GPMDB has 16,190 EC4 entries, and the Human Protein Atlas has 10,475 entries with supportive evidence. neXtProt, PeptideAtlas, and GPMDB are rich resources of information about post-translational modifications (PTMs), single amino acid

  2. Biofouling behavior and performance of forward osmosis membranes with bioinspired surface modification in osmotic membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Cheng, Qianxun; Tian, Qing; Yang, Bo; Chen, Qianyuan

    2016-07-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) has received considerable interest for water and energy related applications in recent years. Biofouling behavior and performance of cellulose triacetate (CTA) forward osmosis membranes with bioinspired surface modification via polydopamine (PD) coating and poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) grafting (PD-g-PEG) in a submerged osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR) were investigated in this work. The modified membranes exhibited lower flux decline than the pristine one in OMBR, confirming that the bioinspired surface modification improved the antifouling ability of the CTA FO membrane. The result showed that the decline of membrane flux related to the increase of the salinity and MLSS concentration of the mixed liquid. It was concluded that the antifouling ability of modified membranes ascribed to the change of surface morphology in addition to the improvement of membrane hydrophilicity. The bioinspired surface modifications might improve the anti-adhesion for the biopolymers and biocake. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Practice makes perfect? Patient response to a prebariatric surgery behavior modification program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, Dana; Kotlowski, Rebecca

    2005-01-01

    Although bariatric surgery has been identified as an effective treatment for weight loss in the morbidly obese, some patients regain weight postoperatively. A pre-treatment program focused on changing lifestyle behaviors could facilitate improved post-surgical outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine patient satisfaction and perceived usefulness of a preoperative program. Participants completed a bariatric surgery program that incorporated a 6-week behavior modification component before the surgery date. A selfreport questionnaire was sent to individuals who had completed the program. The questionnaire assessed demographics, satisfaction with the pre-surgery program, and patients' perceived usefulness of the program. Of 124 questionnaires sent, 70 were returned (56%). Participants had a mean age of 46.3 years. The majority of participants were Caucasian (97.1%), female (78.6%), and employed (68.6%). Mean preoperative BMI was 55.3; mean postoperative BMI was 36.3. Participants were 1 year post-surgery (mean 48.8 weeks). Patients were very satisfied with the overall program (mean Likert score 4.51), as well as with the behavior modification groups (mean 4.44). They found the groups to be very useful in making postoperative changes (mean 4.45). Patient satisfaction and perceived usefulness were not significantly correlated with the degree of weight lost (r=.05, P=.69; r=.05, P=.71). Patients found the preoperative behavior modification program useful in helping them make the necessary post-surgical lifestyle changes.

  4. Behavior Modification/Traditional Techniques for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Paul; Ryan, Joseph B.; Gunter, Philip L.; Denny, R. Kenton

    2012-01-01

    In addressing positive general education teaching practices for use with students with or at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD), the chapter emphasizes teacher behavior change research that has been informed by applied behavior analytic (ABA) principles. Its central theme is that general education teachers can access research…

  5. Child Care Teachers' Perspectives on Including Children with Challenging Behavior in Child Care Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesenberry, Amanda C.; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Hamann, Kira

    2014-01-01

    In this study, 9 teachers from 5 child care centers were interviewed to examine their perceptions on including children with challenging behavior in their classrooms. The findings provide a firsthand view into how child care teachers support children's social and emotional development and address challenging behavior. Results confirm previous…

  6. Structure of rat behavior in hole-board: II) multivariate analysis of modifications induced by diazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarrubea, Maurizio; Sorbera, Filippina; Crescimanno, Giuseppe

    2009-03-23

    In our previous study we suggested that multivariate analysis could improve hole-board test reliability providing a more useful tool to determine behavioral effects of anxiolytic drugs. To support this hypothesis, a multivariate analysis of rat behavior in hole-board, following administration of the reference anxiolytic drug diazepam, was carried out. Four groups, each composed of thirty male Wistar rats, were used: one saline and three diazepam injected (0.25, 0.5 and 2 mg/kg IP). Rat behavior was recorded for 10 min through a digital videocamera. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were carried out. In all groups, more than 80% of whole behavioral structure encompassed walking, climbing, rearing, immobile-sniffing, edge-sniff and head-dip. Moreover, modifications observed of a specific index, represented by edge-sniff/head-dip ratio, were correlated to diazepam-induced modifications of anxiety level. Cluster analysis showed that diazepam at 0.5 and 2 mg/kg induced important changes for [edge-sniff/head-dip] cluster. In addition, in all diazepam groups a [walking/climbing] cluster appeared. Path diagrams showed close relationships among different patterns both in saline and diazepam injected animals. Also, significant changes were detected following diazepam for transitions encompassing both general exploratory patterns (walking, climbing) and the specific ones (head-dip and edge-sniff). Adjusted residuals confirmed in all groups patterns relationships and, where present, significant behavioral associations. Results demonstrate that an anxiolytic activity can be revealed by head-dip/edge-sniff association weakening and by the addressing of behavioral structure toward general exploratory activity. Improvement of hole-board test reliability in behavioral study of anxiety, following multivariate analysis, is emphasized.

  7. The influence of a behavior modification interventional program on body mass index in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulabi, Tahereh; Khosh Niyat Nikoo, Mohsen; Amini, Fariba; Nazari, Hedayat; Mardani, Mahnaz

    2012-03-01

    The prevalence of obesity and overweight among children and adolescents is increasing rapidly. The present research was performed to determine the influence of a ''behavior modification'' program on body mass index (BMI) in obese public high school students in Iran. In this study, 152 adolescence and their parents were selected from 12 high schools of Khorram Abad from 2004 to 2006, and they were randomly assigned to either the intervention or the control groups. The "behavior modification" interventional program consisted of nutritional education, modifying dietary habits, teaching exercise programs, teaching nutritional facts to the parents, and performing exercises 3 days a week. The height and weight as well as waist, hip, and wrist circumferences of the participants were measured before and after implementing the interventional program. BMI and waist to hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. The adolescents and parents completed a nutrition knowledge questionnaire. Adolescents also completed the Beck's Depression Questionnaire. Adolescent's mean weight, BMI, and waist and hip circumferences decreased significantly after implementing the interventional program, in the intervention group (p≤0.001). In addition, the students' and parents' nutrition knowledge increased in the intervention group after implementing the interventional program (pbehavior modification'' interventional program is effective in reducing BMI in obese students, and therefore, school principals and planners can play an important role in controlling obesity by implementing this program via the students, their parents, and the school staff. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Near-surface modifications for improved crack tolerant behavior of high strength alloys: trends and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hettche, L.R.; Rath, B.B.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to examine the potential of surface modifications in improving the crack tolerant behavior of high strength alloys. Provides a critique of two of the most promising and versatile techniques: ion implantation and laser beam surface processing. Discusses crack tolerant properties; engineering characterization; publication trends and Department of Defense interests; and emergent surface modification techniques. Finds that the efficiency with which high strength alloys can be incorporated into a structure or component is dependent on the following crack tolerant properties: fracture toughness, fatigue resistance, sustained loading cracking resistance, fretting fatigue resistance, and hydrogen embrittlement resistance. Concludes that ion implantation and laser surface processing coupled with other advanced metallurgical procedures and fracture mechanic analyses provide the means to optimize both the bulk and surface controlled crack tolerant properties

  9. A Digital Framework to Support Providers and Patients in Diabetes Related Behavior Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, Samina; Vallis, Michael; Piccinini-Vallis, Helena; Imran, Syed Ali; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    2017-01-01

    We present Diabetes Web-Centric Information and Support Environment (D-WISE) that features: (a) Decision support tool to assist family physicians to administer Behavior Modification (BM) strategies to patients; and (b) Patient BM application that offers BM strategies and motivational interventions to engage patients. We take a knowledge management approach, using semantic web technologies, to model the social cognition theory constructs, Canadian diabetes guidelines and BM protocols used locally, in terms of a BM ontology that drives the BM decision support to physicians and BM strategy adherence monitoring and messaging to patients. We present the qualitative analysis of D-WISE usability by both physicians and patients.

  10. Radiation-curing of acrylate composites including carbon fibres: A customized surface modification for improving mechanical performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Arnaud; Pietras-Ozga, Dorota; Ponsaud, Philippe; Kowandy, Christelle; Barczak, Mariusz; Defoort, Brigitte; Coqueret, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The lower transverse mechanical properties of radiation-cured acrylate-based composites reinforced with carbon-fibre with respect to the thermosettable analogues was investigated from the viewpoint of chemical interactions at the interface between the matrix and the carbon material. XPS analysis of representative commercial carbon fibres revealed the presence of a significant amount of chemical functions potentially exerting an adverse effect on the initiation and propagation of the free radical polymerization initiated under high energy radiation. The EB-induced polymerization of n-butyl acrylate as a simple model monomer was conducted in the presence of various aromatic additives exhibiting a strong inhibiting effect, whereas thiols efficiently sensitize the initiation mechanism and undergo transfer reactions. A method based on the surface modification of sized fibres by thiomalic acid is proposed for overcoming the localized inhibition phenomenon and for improving the mechanical properties of the resulting acrylate-based composites. - Highlights: • Surface functions of C-fibres are analyzed for their effect on radical reaction. • Irradiation of nBu-acrylate in presence of aromatic additives reveals inhibition. • Thiol groups sensitize the radiation-initiated polymerization of nBu-acrylate. • Modification of C-fibres with thiomalic acid enhances composite properties

  11. A structural model of health behavior modification among patients with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goong, Hwasoo; Ryu, Seungmi; Xu, Lijuan

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to test a structural equation model in which social support, health beliefs, and stage of change predict the health behaviors of patients with cardiovascular disease. A cross-sectional correlational design was used. Using convenience sampling, a survey about social support, health belief, stage of change, and health behavior was completed by 314 adults with cardiovascular disease from outpatient clinics in 2 university hospitals in Korea. Data were analyzed using a structural equation model with the Analysis of Moment program. The participants were aged 53.44±13.19 years (mean±SD), and about 64% of them were male. The proposed model fit the data from the study well, explaining 19% and 60% of the variances in the stage of change and health behavior, respectively. The findings indicate that the performance of health behavior modification among the patients with cardiovascular disease can be explained by social support, health belief, and stage of change based on a health-belief and stage-of-change model. Further studies are warranted to confirm the efficacy of health-promoting strategies in initiating and maintaining the performance of health behaviors by providing social support from family and medical staff and enhancing health belief. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Educational effectiveness of a group health education program in the workplace and an examination of educational methods to promote behavior modification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Makoto; Odagiri, Keiichi; Suzuki, Naoko; Honda, Kumiko; Onoue, Kazue; Yamamoto, Makoto; Mizuta, Isagi; Uehara, Akihiko

    2014-01-01

    It is well-known that health education programs carried out in the work place are useful for employees' health promotion. However, the effectiveness of group health education programs for workers as a population approach is unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a group health education program in the workplace, and to investigate educational methods which support workers modifying their health behaviors. A total of 289 workers who received a group health education program in the manufacturing industry (mean age, 42.1 ± 11.3 years old; 175 males and 114 females) were enrolled in this study. The group health education program was carried out to educate the subjects about periodontitis, oral health actions and lifestyle behaviors to prevent oral diseases. Participants were required to fill out a self-administered questionnaire which included information about oral health knowledge, oral health actions, lifestyle behaviors and symptoms of periodontitis before, immediately after and one month after the education. We used McNemar's test for the paired comparison of questionnaire responses. The relation between acquiring knowledge about periodontitis and subjects' modification of oral health action, behavior modification and symptoms of periodontitis were examined using the chi-squared test. The relationships of knowledge retention about periodontitis, the modification of the oral health actions and lifestyle behaviors (i.e., cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and eating between meals), were examined with participants' characteristics (i.e., age, gender and occupational category) using Fisher's exact test. Knowledge about periodontitis significantly improved immediately after receiving the health education, and this effect of education was evident one month later. However, not all of the knowledge was sufficiently retained one month after the education session. The proportion of participants undertaking desirable oral health actions

  13. Effects of compositional modifications on the sensitization behavior of Fe-Cr-Mn steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgemon, G.L.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Bell, G.E.C.

    1992-01-01

    Fe-Cr-Mn steels may possibly be used in conjuction with aqueous blankets or coolants in a fusion device. Therefore, standard chemical immersion (modified Strauss) tests were conducted to characterize the effects of compositional modifications on the thermal sensitization behavior of these steels. A good correlation among weight losses, intergranular corrosion, and cracking was found. The most effective means of decreasing their susceptibility was through reduction of the carbon concentration of these steels to 0.1%, but the sensitization resistance of Fe-Cr-Mn-0.1 C compositions was still inferior to type 304L and other similar stainless steels. Alloying additions that form stable carbides did not have a very significant influence on the sensitization behavior. (orig.)

  14. Modification of fuel performance code to evaluate iron-based alloy behavior under LOCA scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovedi, Claudia; Martins, Marcelo Ramos, E-mail: claudia.giovedi@labrisco.usp.br, E-mail: mrmartin@usp.br [Laboratorio de Analise, Avaliacao e Gerenciamento de Risco (LabRisco/POLI/USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Abe, Alfredo; Muniz, Rafael O.R.; Gomes, Daniel de Souza; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e, E-mail: ayabe@ipen.br, E-mail: dsgomes@ipen.br, E-mail: teixiera@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Accident tolerant fuels (ATF) has been studied since the Fukushima Daiichi accident in the research efforts to develop new materials which under accident scenarios could maintain the fuel rod integrity for a longer period compared to the cladding and fuel system usually utilized in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). The efforts have been focused on new materials applied as cladding, then iron-base alloys appear as a possible candidate. The aim of this paper is to implement modifications in a fuel performance code to evaluate the behavior of iron based alloys under Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario. For this, initially the properties related to the thermal and mechanical behavior of iron-based alloys were obtained from the literature, appropriately adapted and introduced in the fuel performance code subroutines. The adopted approach was step by step modifications, where different versions of the code were created. The assessment of the implemented modification was carried out simulating an experiment available in the open literature (IFA-650.5) related to zirconium-based alloy fuel rods submitted to LOCA conditions. The obtained results for the iron-based alloy were compared to those obtained using the regular version of the fuel performance code for zircaloy-4. The obtained results have shown that the most important properties to be changed are those from the subroutines related to the mechanical properties of the cladding. The results obtained have shown that the burst is observed at a longer time for fuel rods with iron-based alloy, indicating the potentiality of this material to be used as cladding with ATF purposes. (author)

  15. Modification of fuel performance code to evaluate iron-based alloy behavior under LOCA scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovedi, Claudia; Martins, Marcelo Ramos; Abe, Alfredo; Muniz, Rafael O.R.; Gomes, Daniel de Souza; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e

    2017-01-01

    Accident tolerant fuels (ATF) has been studied since the Fukushima Daiichi accident in the research efforts to develop new materials which under accident scenarios could maintain the fuel rod integrity for a longer period compared to the cladding and fuel system usually utilized in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). The efforts have been focused on new materials applied as cladding, then iron-base alloys appear as a possible candidate. The aim of this paper is to implement modifications in a fuel performance code to evaluate the behavior of iron based alloys under Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario. For this, initially the properties related to the thermal and mechanical behavior of iron-based alloys were obtained from the literature, appropriately adapted and introduced in the fuel performance code subroutines. The adopted approach was step by step modifications, where different versions of the code were created. The assessment of the implemented modification was carried out simulating an experiment available in the open literature (IFA-650.5) related to zirconium-based alloy fuel rods submitted to LOCA conditions. The obtained results for the iron-based alloy were compared to those obtained using the regular version of the fuel performance code for zircaloy-4. The obtained results have shown that the most important properties to be changed are those from the subroutines related to the mechanical properties of the cladding. The results obtained have shown that the burst is observed at a longer time for fuel rods with iron-based alloy, indicating the potentiality of this material to be used as cladding with ATF purposes. (author)

  16. Alternative Education: A Comparative Case Study of the Behavior Modification Programs of Two Upstate South Carolina Alternative Schools for Youth Who Exhibit Behavior That Is Disruptive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scipio, Timothy Lamont

    2013-01-01

    This study examined behavior modification programs in schools designed to focus on discipline and that aim to reform disruptive behavior in students, usually over a limited period of time. This was a comparative case study of two type II alternative schools in the Upstate of South Carolina. The findings contributed to the research base regarding…

  17. Electrophysiological brain indices of risk behavior modification induced by contingent feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megías, Alberto; Torres, Miguel Angel; Catena, Andrés; Cándido, Antonio; Maldonado, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    The main aim of this research was to study the effects of response feedback on risk behavior and the neural and cognitive mechanisms involved, as a function of the feedback contingency. Sixty drivers were randomly assigned to one of three feedback groups: contingent, non-contingent and no feedback. The participants' task consisted of braking or not when confronted with a set of risky driving situations, while their electroencephalographic activity was continuously recorded. We observed that contingent feedback, as opposed to non-contingent feedback, promoted changes in the response bias towards safer decisions. This behavioral modification implied a higher demand on cognitive control, reflected in a larger amplitude of the N400 component. Moreover, the contingent feedback, being predictable and entailing more informative value, gave rise to smaller SPN and larger FRN scores when compared with non-contingent feedback. Taken together, these findings provide a new and complex insight into the neurophysiological basis of the influence of feedback contingency on the processing of decision-making under risk. We suggest that response feedback, when contingent upon the risky behavior, appears to improve the functionality of the brain mechanisms involved in decision-making and can be a powerful tool for reducing the tendency to choose risky options in risk-prone individuals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Neutron-induced modifications on Hostaphan and Makrofol wettability and etching behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, D.; El-Saftawy, A.A.; Abd El Aal, S.A.; Fayez-Hassan, M.; Al-Abyad, M.; Mansour, N.A.; Seddik, U.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the nature of polymers used as nuclear detectors is crucial to enhance their behaviors. In this work, the induced modifications in wettability and etching properties of Hostaphan and Makrofol polymers irradiated by different fluences of thermal neutrons are investigated. The wetting properties are studied by contact angle technique which showed the spread out of various liquids over the irradiated polymers surfaces (wettability enhanced). This wetting behavior is attributed to the induced changes in surface free energy (SFE), morphology, roughness, structure, hardness, and chemistry. SFE values are calculated by three different models and found to increase after neutrons irradiation associated with differences depending on the used model. These differences result from the intermolecular interactions in the liquid/polymer system. Surface morphology and roughness of both polymers showed drastic changes after irradiation. Additionally, surface structure and hardness of pristine and irradiated polymers were discussed and correlated to the surface wettability improvements. The changes in surface chemistry are examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), which indicate an increase in surface polarity due to the formation of polar groups. The irradiated polymers etching characteristics and activation energies are discussed as well. Lastly, it is evident that thermal neutrons show efficiency in improving surface wettability and etching properties of Hostaphan and Makrofol in a controlled way. - Highlights: • Neutrons radiation used to modify Hostaphan and Makrofol polymer wetting behavior. • Tailoring surface structure, topography and chemistry control its wettability. • Bulk etching rate and activation energy improved after neutrons irradiation.

  19. Influence of nitriding atmosphere on the modification of surface titanium with focus on the behavior of blood platelets adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitoriano, J.O.; Alves, C.; Braz, D.C.; Camara, R.B.G.; Rocha, H.A.O.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to analyze the influence of surface modification of titanium on the adhesion of blood platelets, through techniques of adhesion and morphological analyzes. Discs of titanium grade II received different surface treatments with plasma of Ar + N 2 + H 2 and Ar + H 2 , forming two experimental groups including only polished samples used as standard. Before and after treatment the samples were characterized according to topography, crystalline structure and wettability, using atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and testing of sessile drop, respectively. Platelet rich plasma (PRP) was applied on the modified surfaces in a culture plates. Images obtained by electron microscopy of adhered platelets were analyzed to verify the behavior of platelets in the different experimental conditions. (author)

  20. Behavior modification techniques used to prevent gestational diabetes: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouteris, Helen; Morris, Heather; Nagle, Cate; Nankervis, Alison

    2014-04-01

    The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and obesity is increasing in developed countries, presenting significant challenges to acute care and public health. The aim of this study is to systematically review published controlled trials evaluating behavior modification interventions to prevent the development of GDM. Nine studies were identified involving such techniques as repetition of information, use of verbal and written educational information, goal setting, and planning, in addition to group and individual counseling sessions. Of the 3 trials with GDM incidence as a primary outcome, only 1 showed a significant reduction. GDM was a secondary outcome in 6 studies where the prevention of excessive gestational weight gain was the primary outcome and only 1 trial study determined an effective intervention. The small number of effective interventions highlights a significant gap in evidence to inform maternity health policy and practice.

  1. Use of clomipramine, alprazolam, and behavior modification for treatment of storm phobia in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell-Davis, Sharon L; Seibert, Lynne M; Sung, Wailani; Parthasarathy, Valli; Curtis, Terry M

    2003-03-15

    To evaluate use of clomipramine, alprazolam, and behavior modification for treatment of storm phobia in dogs. Prospective open clinical trial. 40 dogs with storm phobia. Dogs received clomipramine at a dosage of 2 mg/kg (0.9 mg/lb), PO, every 12 hours for 3 months; then 1 mg/kg (0.45 mg/lb), PO, every 12 hours for 2 weeks; then 0.5 mg/kg (0.23 mg/lb), PO, every 12 hours for 2 weeks. Alprazolam was given at a dosage of 0.02 mg/kg (0.009 mg/lb), PO, as needed 1 hour before anticipated storms and every 4 hours as needed. Desensitization and counter-conditioning were conducted at home by the caregiver with an audio simulation of storm sounds that had induced a fear response during evaluation. 30 of the 32 dogs that completed the study had a degree of improvement, as measured by caregivers' global assessment. Two caregivers considered the storm phobia to be resolved. Panting, pacing, trembling, remaining near the caregiver, hiding, excessive salivation, destructiveness, excessive vocalization, self-trauma, and inappropriate elimination all decreased significantly during treatment. Improvement was greater during true storms (rain, thunder, and lightning) than during rain only. Response to audio simulation did not change during treatment. Four months after the study, improvement was maintained. The combination of clomipramine, alprazolam, and behavior modification can be effective in decreasing or eliminating storm phobia. Improvement could not be evaluated by use of audio simulation of a storm.

  2. [A case of occlusal support reconstruction with modification of occlusal plane by fixed prosthetic restoration including dental implant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriwaki, Yoshihiro

    2006-04-01

    A 54-year-old female patient visited our dental office July 1997. The patient's chief complaint was difficulty of chewing due to loss of the right mandibular molars. She had a collapsed occlusal plane with loss extended over a long period of time. This case report describes restoration of the occlusal plane and occlusal supporting area by fixed prosthesis including implant-supported crowns. Anterior guidance and provisional restoration are useful for reconstruction of the occlusal plane. In a dental arch with implant-supported and tooth-supported crowns, periodical dental checkup and occlusal equilibration are very important due to the existence of biomechanically different factors. The patient was very satisfied with the fixed prosthesis including implant-supported crowns. It is thought that implant treatment improves the quality of life of free-end partially edentulous patients.

  3. Dusty space plasma diagnosis using temporal behavior of polar mesospheric summer echoes during active modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahmoudian

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to study the effect of different plasma and dust parameters on Polar Mesospheric Summer Echoes (PMSE temporal behavior after turn-on and turn-off of radio wave heating and to use these responses to diagnose the properties of the dust layer. The threshold radar frequency and dust parameters for the enhancement or suppression of radar echoes after radio wave heating turn-on are investigated for measured mesospheric plasma parameters. The effect of parameters such as the electron temperature enhancement during heating, dust density, dust charge polarity, ion-neutral collision frequency, electron density and dust radius on the temporal evolution of electron irregularities associated with PMSE are investigated. The possible diagnostic information for various charged dust and background plasma quantities using the temporal behavior of backscattered radar power in active experiments is discussed. The computational results are used to make predictions for PMSE active modification experiments at 7.9, 56, 139, 224 and 930 MHz corresponding to existing radar facilities. Data from a 2009 VHF (224 MHz experiment at EISCAT is compared with the computational model to obtain dust parameters in the PMSE.

  4. Behavioral factors to include in guidelines for lifelong oral healthiness: an observational study in Japanese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimozato Miho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine which behavioral factors to include in guidelines for the Japanese public to achieve an acceptable level of oral healthiness. The objective was to determine the relationship between oral health related behaviors and symptoms related to oral disease and tooth loss in a Japanese adult community. Methods Oral health status and lifestyle were investigated in 777 people aged 20 years and older (390 men and 387 women. Subjects were asked to complete a postal questionnaire concerning past diet and lifestyle. The completed questionnaires were collected when they had health examinations. The 15 questions included their preference for sweets, how many between-meal snacks they usually had per day, smoking and drinking habits, presence of oral symptoms, and attitudes towards dental visits. Participants were asked about their behaviors at different stages of their life. The oral health examinations included examination of the oral cavity and teeth performed by dentists using WHO criteria. Odds ratios were calculated for all subjects, all 10 year age groups, and for subjects 30 years or older, 40 years or older, 50 years or older, and 60 years or older. Results Frequency of tooth brushing (OR = 3.98, having your own toothbrush (OR = 2.11, smoking (OR = 2.71 and bleeding gums (OR = 2.03 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in males. Frequency of between-meal snacks was strongly associated with number of retained teeth in females (OR = 4.67. Having some hobbies (OR = 2.97, having a family dentist (OR = 2.34 and consulting a dentist as soon as symptoms occurred (OR = 1.74 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in females. Factors that were significantly associated with tooth loss in both males and females included alcohol consumption (OR = 11.96, males, OR = 3.83, females, swollen gums (OR = 1.93, males, OR = 3.04, females and toothache (OR = 3.39, males, OR

  5. Health Promotion Behavior of Chinese International Students in Korea Including Acculturation Factors: A Structural Equation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Jung; Yoo, Il Young

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explain the health promotion behavior of Chinese international students in Korea using a structural equation model including acculturation factors. A survey using self-administered questionnaires was employed. Data were collected from 272 Chinese students who have resided in Korea for longer than 6 months. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The p value of final model is .31. The fitness parameters of the final model such as goodness of fit index, adjusted goodness of fit index, normed fit index, non-normed fit index, and comparative fit index were more than .95. Root mean square of residual and root mean square error of approximation also met the criteria. Self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturative stress and acculturation level had direct effects on health promotion behavior of the participants and the model explained 30.0% of variance. The Chinese students in Korea with higher self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturation level, and lower acculturative stress reported higher health promotion behavior. The findings can be applied to develop health promotion strategies for this population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. "The Knowledge of" Counselors in Balqa Governorate: Behavior Modification Strategies in Light of Some of the Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-basel, D-Nagham Mohammad Abu

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify the extent of knowledge of counselor behavior modification strategies. The current study sample consisted of (80) mentor and guide, were selected randomly from among all workers enrolled in regular public schools in the Balqa governorate represented the community study for the academic year 2012-2013. The study…

  7. Experimental modification of interpretation bias about animal fear in young children: effects on cognition, avoidance behavior, anxiety vulnerability, and physiological responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Kathryn J; Field, Andy P; Muris, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of experimentally modifying interpretation biases for children's cognitions, avoidance behavior, anxiety vulnerability, and physiological responding. Sixty-seven children (6-11 years) were randomly assigned to receive a positive or negative interpretation bias modification procedure to induce interpretation biases toward or away from threat about ambiguous situations involving Australian marsupials. Children rapidly learned to select outcomes of ambiguous situations, which were congruent with their assigned condition. Furthermore, following positive modification, children's threat biases about novel ambiguous situations significantly decreased, whereas threat biases significantly increased after negative modification. In response to a stress-evoking behavioral avoidance test, positive modification attenuated behavioral avoidance compared to negative modification. However, no significant effects of bias modification on anxiety vulnerability or physiological responses to this stress-evoking Behavioral Avoidance Task were observed.

  8. Effect of chemical modification on behavior of various organic vanadium forms during analysis by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalewska, Zofia

    2007-01-01

    The behavior of various organic V forms dissolved in xylene during analysis by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was compared. The investigated analyte forms included compounds with vanadium at the oxidation state III, IV or V, as well as N, O or S atoms in molecules. Another group consisted of petroleum products containing naturally-occurring V species. Although the characteristic mass determined under different analytical conditions was in the very wide range from 11 up to 55 pg, some rules of V behavior were found. In the case of porphyrins and petroleum products, the application of Pd as a chemical modifier (xylene solution of Pd(II) acetylacetonate) seemed to be crucial. It was shown that Pd must be introduced to a furnace together with a sample. Pd injected and thermally pretreated before the sample injection was less effective for porphyrins and the petroleum products, but it increased signals of V compounds containing O as donor atom. The iodine pretreatment followed by the methyltrioctylammonium chloride (MTOACl) pretreatment was advantageous for these V forms. The air ashing in a graphite tube appeared to be important to improve decomposition of the petroleum products. No significant influence of the V oxidation state on the analytical signal was observed. The behavior of V contained in two Conostan oil standards, the single-element and the S21 multielement standard, was different in many situations. Probably, the joint action of other elements is responsible for this effect. In general, chemical modification was applied in the work for two reasons: to reduce the V volatility (in some cases losses at about 300 deg. C were observed) and to enhance the atomization efficiency. For routine analysis air ashing, modification by Pd introduced into the furnace together with the sample solution and petroleum products with known V content as standard is recommended. Using this procedure the characteristic mass varied from 16 to 19 pg for

  9. Surface modification and fatigue behavior of nitinol for load bearing implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Sheldon A.

    Musculoskeletal disorders are recognized amongst the most significant human health problems that exist today. Even though considerable research and development has gone towards understanding musculoskeletal disorders, there is still lack of bone replacement materials that are appropriate for restoring lost structures and functions, particularly for load-bearing applications. Many materials on the market today, such as titanium and stainless steel, suffer from significantly higher modulus than natural bone and low bioactivity leading to stress shielding and implant loosening over longer time use. Nitinol (NiTi) is an equiatomic intermetallic compound of nickel and titanium whose unique biomechanical and biological properties contributed to its increasing use as a biomaterial. An innovative method for creating dense and porous net shape NiTi alloy parts has been developed to improve biological properties while maintaining comparable or better mechanical properties than commercial materials that are currently in use. Laser engineered net shaping (LENS(TM)) and surface electrochemistry modification was used to create dense/porous samples and micro textured surfaces on NiTi parts, respectively. Porous implants are known to promote cell adhesion and have a low elastic modulus, a combination that can significantly increase the life of an implant. However, porosity can significantly reduce the fatigue life of an implant, and very little work has been reported on the fatigue behavior of bulk porous metals, specifically on porous nitinol alloy. High-cycle rotating bending and compression-compression fatigue behavior of porous NiTi fabricated using LENS(TM) were studied. In cyclic compression loading, plastic strain increased with increasing porosity and it was evident that maximum strain was achieved during the first 50000 cycles and remained constant throughout the remaining loading. No failures were observed due to loading up to 150% of the yield strength. When subjected

  10. Effects of Cannabis Use on Human Behavior, Including Cognition, Motivation, and Psychosis: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkow, Nora D; Swanson, James M; Evins, A Eden; DeLisi, Lynn E; Meier, Madeline H; Gonzalez, Raul; Bloomfield, Michael A P; Curran, H Valerie; Baler, Ruben

    2016-03-01

    With a political debate about the potential risks and benefits of cannabis use as a backdrop, the wave of legalization and liberalization initiatives continues to spread. Four states (Colorado, Washington, Oregon, and Alaska) and the District of Columbia have passed laws that legalized cannabis for recreational use by adults, and 23 others plus the District of Columbia now regulate cannabis use for medical purposes. These policy changes could trigger a broad range of unintended consequences, with profound and lasting implications for the health and social systems in our country. Cannabis use is emerging as one among many interacting factors that can affect brain development and mental function. To inform the political discourse with scientific evidence, the literature was reviewed to identify what is known and not known about the effects of cannabis use on human behavior, including cognition, motivation, and psychosis.

  11. Intra-population variation in behavior modification by the acanthocephalan Acanthocephalus dirus: are differences mediated by host condition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caddigan, Sara C; Barkauskas, Rima T; Sparkes, Timothy C

    2014-11-01

    The acanthocephalan parasite Acanthocephalus dirus infects the freshwater isopod Caecidotea intermedius as an intermediate host before completing its life cycle in a fish. Male C. intermedius infected by A. dirus parasites are less likely to engage in mating behavior than uninfected males but there is a significant intra-population variation in the occurrence of this behavioral change. Previous studies on uninfected isopods have shown that glycogen content is a predictor of male mating behavior and we examined whether the intra-population variation in the mating behavior of infected male C. intermedius could be explained by this relationship. A field-based behavioral experiment was used to quantify intra-population variation in male mating behavior, which showed that 50% of infected males were responsive to females and 50% were not responsive. Biochemical analysis of responsive and non-responsive males revealed that glycogen content was a predictor of the mating behavior for uninfected males but was not a predictor of mating behavior for infected males. For infected males, parasite intensity was a predictor of mating behavior. Males that contained more A. dirus parasites were less likely to undergo modification of mating behavior. We propose that the intra-population variation in the mating behavior of infected C. intermedius identified in nature was not mediated by host condition.

  12. Oxidation and thermal shock behavior of thermal barrier coated 18/10CrNi alloy with coating modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guergen, Selim [Vocational School of Transportation, Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkmenistan); Diltemiz, Seyid Fehmi [Turkish Air Force1st Air Supply and Maintenance Center Command, Eskisehir (Turkmenistan); Kushan, Melih Cemal [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir (Turkmenistan)

    2017-01-15

    In this study, substrates of 18/10CrNi alloy plates were initially sprayed with a Ni-21Cr-10Al-1Y bond coat and then with an yttria stabilized zirconia top coat by plasma spraying. Subsequently, plasma-sprayed Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) were treated with two different modification methods, namely, vacuum heat treatment and laser glazing. The effects of modifications on the oxidation and thermal shock behavior of the coatings were evaluated. The effect of coat thickness on the bond strength of the coats was also investigated. Results showed enhancement of the oxidation resistance and thermal shock resistance of TBCs following modifications. Although vacuum heat treatment and laser glazing exhibited comparable results as per oxidation resistance, the former generated the best improvement in the thermal shock resistance of the TBCs. Bond strength also decreased as coat thickness increased.

  13. Benefits of a 12-week lifestyle modification program including diet and combined aerobic and resistance exercise on albuminuria in diabetic and non-diabetic Japanese populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto-Kabasawa, Keiko; Hosojima, Michihiro; Yata, Yusuke; Saito, Mariko; Tanaka, Noriko; Tanaka, Junta; Tanabe, Naohito; Narita, Ichiei; Arakawa, Masaaki; Saito, Akihiko

    2015-12-01

    Albuminuria is a biomarker for chronic kidney disease and an independent predictor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. A recent meta-analysis concluded that these risks increase with urinary albumin concentration, even when below the microalbuminuria threshold. Thus, minimizing urinary albumin may be a valuable therapeutic goal regardless of disease status. We investigated the benefits and safety of a 12-week lifestyle modification program including diet and combined aerobic and resistance exercise for reducing albuminuria in 295 normoalbuminuric or microalbuminuric Japanese adults, including 30 with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), 104 with metabolic syndrome (MS), and 145 with hypertension (HT). In the study population, the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR) was reduced significantly (ΔUACR -3.8 ± 16.8 mg/g, P < 0.001) with no change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (ΔeGFR -0.4 ± 7.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2), P = 0.343). The reduction in UACR was associated with decreased fasting plasma glucose (P < 0.05). The UACR was also reduced in the T2DM, MS, and HT groups with no change in eGFR. Reduced UACR was associated with decreased fasting plasma glucose in the MS group and decreased systolic blood pressure in the HT group. The UACR was also reduced in 46 subjects using renin-angiotensin system inhibitors with no change in eGFR. Our 12-week lifestyle modification program reduced UACR, maintained eGFR, and improved multiple fitness findings in Japanese subjects including T2DM, MS, and HT patients.

  14. TOUGH2 simulations of the TEVES Project including the behavior of a single-component NAPL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, S.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geohydrology Dept.

    1996-05-01

    The TEVES (Thermal Enhanced Vapor Extraction System) Project is a demonstration of a process designed to extract solvents and chemicals contained in the Chemical Waste Landfill at Sandia National Laboratories. In this process, the ground is electrically heated, and borehole(s) within the heated zone are maintained at a vacuum to draw air and evaporated contaminants into the borehole and a subsequent treatment facility. TOUGH2 simulations have been performed to evaluate the fluid flow and heat transfer behavior of the system. The TOUGH2 version used in this study includes air, water, and a single-component non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL). In the present simulations, an initial o-xylene inventory is assumed in the heated zone for illustration purposes. Variation in borehole (vapor extraction) vacuum, borehole location, and soil permeability were investigated. Simulations indicate that the temperatures in the soil are relatively insensitive to the magnitude of the borehole vacuum or the borehole locations. In contrast, however, the NAPL and liquid water saturation distributions are sensitive to these borehole parameters. As the borehole vacuum and air flow rate through the soil decrease, the possibility of contaminant (NAPL) migration from the heated zone into the surrounding unheated soil increases. The borehole location can also affect the likelihood of contaminant movement into the unheated soil.

  15. Effectiveness of behavioral modification techniques with visual distraction using intrasulcular local anesthesia in hearing disabled children during pulp therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhruddin, Kausar Sadia; Gorduysus, Mehmet Omer; El Batawi, Hisham

    2016-01-01

    Assessing the effectiveness of behavioral modification techniques in combination with visual distraction with/without video eyewear using computerized delivery system-intrasulcular (CDS-IS) during the application of local anesthetic in hearing-impaired pediatric patients undergoing pulp therapy of primary molars. This randomized, crossover clinical study includes 15 children (7 boys and 8 girls), mean age was 6.1 years. Children were randomly distributed into two groups (Group A, n = 7; Group B, n = 8). The study involved three sessions, 1-week apart. During Session I, employing Tell-Show-Do technique, prophylactic dental cleaning was done while participants were watching a movie with sign-language interpretation with/without visual eyewear. At the end of Session I, score on Smiley Faces Program was used for anxiety assessment. During Session II and III, respectively, both groups underwent pulp treatment of equivalent teeth in the opposite sides of the mouth with/without video eyewear vice versa. After the procedure, children were instructed to rate their pain during treatment on the Wong-Bakers' (WBs') Faces Pain Scale. Changes in pulse oximeter and heart rate were recorded every 5 min. Paired sample t -test and independent sample t -test were used to assess the significance of changes during each visit. There was a significant ( P > 0.04) change in the heart rate observed for Group A underwent pulp treatment while watching video using video eyewear. Self-reported mean pain score also increases during treatment sessions' with video eyewear, for both groups. Routine psychological (Tell-Show-Do) intervention along with visual distraction with full visibility of the surrounding and use of CDS-IS system for anesthetic delivery is recommended as an effective behavior management technique for children with hearing impairment undergoing invasive dental treatment.

  16. Mediation and modification of genetic susceptibility to obesity by eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Clifton, Emma Ad; Day, Felix R; Clément, Karine; Brage, Soren; Forouhi, Nita G; Griffin, Simon J; Koudou, Yves Akoli; Pelloux, Véronique; Wareham, Nicholas J; Charles, Marie-Aline; Heude, Barbara; Ong, Ken K

    2017-10-01

    Background: Many genetic variants show highly robust associations with body mass index (BMI). However, the mechanisms through which genetic susceptibility to obesity operates are not well understood. Potentially modifiable mechanisms, including eating behaviors, are of particular interest to public health. Objective: Here we explore whether eating behaviors mediate or modify genetic susceptibility to obesity. Design: Genetic risk scores for BMI (BMI-GRSs) were calculated for 3515 and 2154 adults in the Fenland and EDEN (Etude des déterminants pré et postnatals de la santé et du développement de l'enfant) population-based cohort studies, respectively. The eating behaviors-emotional eating, uncontrolled eating, and cognitive restraint-were measured through the use of a validated questionnaire. The mediating effect of each eating behavior on the association between the BMI-GRS and measured BMI was assessed by using the Sobel test. In addition, we tested for interactions between each eating behavior and the BMI-GRS on BMI. Results: The association between the BMI-GRS and BMI was mediated by both emotional eating (EDEN: P- Sobel = 0.01; Fenland: P- Sobel = 0.02) and uncontrolled eating (EDEN: P- Sobel = 0.04; Fenland: P -Sobel = 0.0006) in both sexes combined. Cognitive restraint did not mediate this association ( P -Sobel > 0.10), except among EDEN women ( P -Sobel = 0.0009). Cognitive restraint modified the relation between the BMI-GRS and BMI among men (EDEN: P -interaction = 0.0001; Fenland: P -interaction = 0.04) and Fenland women ( P -interaction = 0.0004). By tertiles of cognitive restraint, the association between the BMI-GRS and BMI was strongest in the lowest tertile of cognitive restraint, and weakest in the highest tertile. Conclusions: Genetic susceptibility to obesity was partially mediated by the "appetitive" eating behavior traits (uncontrolled and emotional eating) and, in 3 of the 4 population groups studied, was modified by cognitive restraint

  17. Prefrontal lobotomy on Evita was done for behavior/personality modification, not just for pain control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijensohn, Daniel E

    2015-07-01

    Eva Perón, best known as Evita, underwent a prefrontal lobotomy in 1952. Although the procedure was said to have been performed to relieve the pain of metastatic cancer, the author carried out a search for evidence that suggests that the procedure was prescribed to decrease violence and to modify Evita's behavior and personality, and not just for pain control. To further elucidate the circumstances surrounding the treatment of this well-known historic figure, the author reviewed the development of the procedure known as prefrontal lobotomy and its three main indications: management of psychiatric illness, control of intractable pain from terminal cancer, and mind control and behavior/personality modification. The role of pioneering neurosurgeons in the development of prefrontal lobotomy, particularly in Connecticut and at Yale University, was also studied, and the political and historical conditions in Argentina in 1952 and to the present were analyzed. Evita was the wife of Juan Perón, who was the supreme leader of the Peronist party as well as president of Argentina. In 1952, however, the Peronist government in Argentina was bicephalic because Evita led the left wing of the party and ran the Female Peronist Party and the Eva Perón Foundation. She was followed by a group of hardcore loyalists interested in accelerating the revolution. Evita was also suffering from metastatic cervical cancer, and her illness increased her anxiety and moved her to purchase weapons to start training workers' militias. Although the apparent purpose was to fight her husband's enemies, this was done without his knowledge. She delivered fiery political speeches and wrote incendiary documents that would have led to a fierce clash in the country at that time. Notwithstanding the disreputable connotation of conspiracy theories, evidence was found of a potentially sinister political conspiracy, led by General Perón, to quiet down his wife Evita and modify her behavior/personality to

  18. Modification and aging precipitation behavior of hypereutectic Al-21wt.%Si alloy treated by P+Ce combination

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    Liu Pei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the tested hypereutectic Al-21wt.%Si alloys were prepared by modifying the melt using different proportions of P and Ce, and then applying T6 heat treatment. The modification effects and mechanism of P+Ce complex modifier on the Si phase of hypereutectic Al-21wt.%Si alloy were studied, and the aging precipitation behavior after modification was characterized by means of tensile strength measurement, OM, SEM and TEM analysis. The results show that the massive primary silicon phase particles are significantly refined after modification, while the needle-like eutectic silicon crystals become fibrous and short. It was found that the mechanism of phosphorus modification on the primary silicon can be attributed to heterogeneous nucleation of AlP, while the modification mechanism of Ce can be explained by adsorbing-twinning theory. In the aged microstructure of the modified hypereutectic Al-21wt.%Si alloy, there existed some strengthening phases such as Al4Cu9, Al2Cu, AlCu3, and Al57Mn12. The P+Ce complex modifier not only affected the size of primary silicon and eutectic silicon, but also the aging behavior of alloys under the heat treatment process. When Al-21wt.%Si alloy was modified using 0.08%wt.P + 0.6wt.% Ce, the aging precipitates were dispersed uniformly in the alloy, and its mechanical properties at room and elevated temperatures are optimized (Rm = 287.6 MPa at RT, Rm = 210 MPa at 300 ℃.

  19. Effect of Behavior Modification on Outcome in Early- to Moderate-Stage Chronic Kidney Disease: A Cluster-Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, Kunihiro; Makino, Hirofumi; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Ito, Sadayoshi; Kimura, Kenjiro; Kusano, Eiji; Shibata, Takanori; Tomita, Kimio; Narita, Ichiei; Nishino, Tomoya; Fujigaki, Yoshihide; Mitarai, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Wada, Takashi; Nakamura, Teiji; Matsuo, Seiichi

    2016-01-01

    Owing to recent changes in our understanding of the underlying cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD), the importance of lifestyle modification for preventing the progression of kidney dysfunction and complications has become obvious. In addition, effective cooperation between general physicians (GPs) and nephrologists is essential to ensure a better care system for CKD treatment. In this cluster-randomized study, we studied the effect of behavior modification on the outcome of early- to moderate-stage CKD. Stratified open cluster-randomized trial. A total of 489 GPs belonging to 49 local medical associations (clusters) in Japan. A total of 2,379 patients (1,195 in group A (standard intervention) and 1,184 in group B (advanced intervention)) aged between 40 and 74 years, who had CKD and were under consultation with GPs. All patients were managed in accordance with the current CKD guidelines. The group B clusters received three additional interventions: patients received both educational intervention for lifestyle modification and a CKD status letter, attempting to prevent their withdrawal from treatment, and the group B GPs received data sheets to facilitate reducing the gap between target and practice. The primary outcome measures were 1) the non-adherence rate of accepting continuous medical follow-up of the patients, 2) the collaboration rate between GPs and nephrologists, and 3) the progression of CKD. The rate of discontinuous clinical visits was significantly lower in group B (16.2% in group A vs. 11.5% in group B, p = 0.01). Significantly higher referral and co-treatment rates were observed in group B (pbehavior modification of CKD patients, namely, significantly lower discontinuous clinical visits, and behavior modification of both GPs and nephrologists, namely significantly higher referral and co-treatment rates, resulting in the retardation of CKD progression, especially in patients with proteinuric Stage 3 CKD. The University Hospital Medical Information

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF EDUCATION USING MODIFICATION MODULE ON KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE, AND BEHAVIOR OF PREGNANCY CARE IN KENDARI, INDONESIA

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    Kartini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prenatal care is one way to prevent complications of pregnancy, and educational approach is the best approach to improve the knowledge of mothers about prenatal care. Aim: This study aimed to determine the influence of education on knowledge, attitude, and behavior of pregnancy care in Kendari, Indonesia Methods: This was Quasi Experimental study with pre-post design. There were 4 groups involved in this study, which were: 1 The group that received educational intervention using a modification module from the MHC book of the Department of Health, 2 The group that received educational intervention using MHC book of the Department of Health, 3 The group that only used modification modules from MHC book of the Department of Health, and 4 The group that only used the MHC book of Department of Health. The intervention was given for 6 months. Seventy eight of 4-months pregnant women were selected by purposive sampling. Data were collected by asking the respondents to fulfill the questionnaires, which adopted from the questionnaire of Faculty of Public Health, Hasanuddin University to measure knowledge (15 items, attitude (18 items, and behaviors (15 items of respondents. Data were analyzed by using Wilcoxon test and Kruskal Wallis test. Results: Results showed thre was an influence of education on knowledge, attitude, and behavior of pregnancy care. Improvement in knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of pregnancy care was higher in the group of pregnant women using a modification module Conclusion: Education through the class of pregnant woman has an impact to increase knowledge, attitude, and behavior of care of pregnant woman. It is therefore the efforts to maintain educational approach is necessary.

  1. Health Promotion Behavior of Chinese International Students in Korea Including Acculturation Factors: A Structural Equation Model

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    Sun Jung Kim, RN, PhD

    2016-03-01

    Conlcusions: The Chinese students in Korea with higher self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturation level, and lower acculturative stress reported higher health promotion behavior. The findings can be applied to develop health promotion strategies for this population.

  2. The Effect of Vocal Hygiene and Behavior Modification Instruction on the Self-Reported Vocal Health Habits of Public School Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackworth, Rhonda S.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of vocal hygiene and behavior modification instruction on self-reported behaviors of music teachers. Subjects (N = 76) reported daily behaviors for eight weeks: water consumption, warm-up, talking over music/noise, vocal rest, nonverbal commands, and vocal problems. Subjects were in experimental group 1 or 2, or the…

  3. Efficacy of Dietary Behavior Modification for Preserving Cardiovascular Health and Longevity

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    Moira McAllister Pryde

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD and its predisposing risk factors are major lifestyle and behavioral determinants of longevity. Dietary lifestyle choices such as a heart healthy diet, regular exercise, a lean weight, moderate alcohol consumption, and smoking cessation have been shown to substantially reduce CVD and increase longevity. Recent research has shown that men and women who adhere to this lifestyle can substantially reduce their risk of coronary heart disease (CHD. The preventive benefits of maintaining a healthy lifestyle exceed those reported for using medication and procedures. Among the modifiable preventive measures, diet is of paramount importance, and recent data suggest some misconceptions and uncertainties that require reconsideration. These include commonly accepted recommendations about polyunsaturated fat intake, processed meat consumption, fish choices and preparation, transfatty acids, low carbohydrate diets, egg consumption, coffee, added sugar, soft drink beverages, glycemic load, chocolate, orange juice, nut consumption, vitamin D supplements, food portion size, and alcohol.

  4. Prenatal Exposure to Organohalogens, Including Brominated Flame Retardants, Influences Motor, Cognitive, and Behavioral Performance at School Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roze, Elise; Meijer, Lisethe; Bakker, Attie; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Bos, Arend F.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Organohalogen compounds (OHCs) are known to have neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the influence of prenatal exposure to OHCs, including brominated flame retardants, on motor, cognitive, and behavioral outcome in healthy children of school age.

  5. Theory of Planned Behavior including self-stigma and perceived barriers explain help-seeking behavior for sexual problems in Iranian women suffering from epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Ying; Oveisi, Sonia; Burri, Andrea; Pakpour, Amir H

    2017-03-01

    To apply the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and the two additional concepts self-stigma and perceived barriers to the help-seeking behavior for sexual problems in women with epilepsy. In this 18-month follow-up study, TPB elements, including attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and behavioral intention along with self-stigma and perceived barriers in seeking help for sexual problems were assessed in n=818 women with epilepsy (94.0% aged ≤40years). The basic TPB model (model 1) and the TPB model additionally including self-stigma and perceived barriers (Model 2) were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). Both SEM models showed satisfactory model fits. According to model, attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention explained 63.1% of the variance in help-seeking behavior. Variance was slightly higher (64.5%) when including self-stigma and perceived barriers (model 2). In addition, the fit indices of the models were better highlighting the importance of self-stigma and perceived barriers in help-seeking behavior for sexual problems. Theory of Planned Behavior is useful in explaining help-seeking behavior for sexual problems in women with epilepsy. Self-stigma and perceived barriers are additional factors that should be considered in future interventions aiming to adopt TPB to improve help-seeking behavior for sexual problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Behavioral analysis of preterm neonates included in a tactile and kinesthetic stimulation program during hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Andréia M; Bergamasco, Niélsy H P

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of tactile and kinesthetic stimulation on behavioral and clinical development in preterm neonates while still in the hospital. Thirty-two clinically stable preterm infants weighing kinesthetic stimulation (n=16). Data on the infants' clinical progress were collected from medical charts and behavioral evaluations by means of a series of weekly, eight-minute films recorded from the time of inclusion into the study until hospital discharge. There was a trend towards a shorter duration of hospital stay, increased daily weight gain and a predominance of self-regulated behavior (regular breathing, state of alertness, balanced tonus, a range of postures, coordinated movements, hand-to-face movement control, suction, grip, support) in infants in the SG. With respect to motor control, comparative analysis of postconceptional ages according to age-bracket (I - 31-33 weeks 6/7; II - 34-36 weeks 6/7; and III - 37-39 weeks 6/7) revealed balanced tonus and coordinated voluntary movements in all three periods, a longer time spent in a range of postures (age bracket I) or in flexion (age bracket II) and more regular breathing in age bracket I in the SG. In the hospital, tactile and kinesthetic stimulation was shown to have a positive effect, contributing towards adjustment and self-regulation of behavior in the preterm newborn infant. Article registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) under the number ACTRN12610000133033.

  7. Including Students with Severe Disabilities in All Levels of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawken, Leanne S.; O'Neill, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    Throughout its evolution, school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) has explicitly promoted the perspective that it should involve all students in a given school setting. However, the literature on SWPBS has not always fully and clearly addressed the involvement of students with severe disabilities. This article will (a) briefly review the…

  8. Behavior Modification for Obesity: The Evaluation of Exercise, Contingency Management, and Program Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    And Others; Stalonas, Peter M., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Investigated behavioral programs for obesity. Exercise and self-managed contingency components were compared using obese subjects who were evaluated after treatment and follow-up. Significant weight loss was observed at termination. The influence of exercise at follow-up was noticeable. Subjects engaged in behaviors, yet behaviors were not related…

  9. Gender Differences in Workplace Deviant Behavior of University Teachers and Modification Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Muhammad Nadeem; Sarwar, Muhammad; Awan, Riffat-un-Nisa; Arif, Muhammad Irfan

    2011-01-01

    Any behavior that does not conform to social organizational norms is deviance. This study was conducted to test whether there is any difference in organizational deviance and interpersonal deviance behavior, deviance behavior of male-female university teachers. All teaching staff of the University of Sargodha was target population and for…

  10. Simulation of Weld Mechanical Behavior to Include Welding-Induced Residual Stress and Distortion: Coupling of SYSWELD and Abaqus Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Memorandum Simulation of Weld Mechanical Behavior to Include Welding-Induced Residual Stress and Distortion: Coupling of SYSWELD and Abaqus Codes...Weld Mechanical Behavior to Include Welding-Induced Residual Stress and Distortion: Coupling of SYSWELD and Abaqus Codes by Charles R. Fisher...Welding- Induced Residual Stress and Distortion: Coupling of SYSWELD and Abaqus Codes 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N/A 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c

  11. Simulation of Weld Mechanical Behavior to Include Welding Induced Residual Stress and Distortion: Coupling of SYSWELD and Abaqus Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    data .  scaleFactor: Scale factor to convert SYSWELD units to units in Abaqus analysis for field of interest. A help description can be obtained by...Memorandum Simulation of Weld Mechanical Behavior to Include Welding-Induced Residual Stress and Distortion: Coupling of SYSWELD and Abaqus Codes...Weld Mechanical Behavior to Include Welding-Induced Residual Stress and Distortion: Coupling of SYSWELD and Abaqus Codes by Charles R. Fisher

  12. The effects of a pedometer-based behavioral modification program with telephone support on physical activity and sedentary behavior in type 2 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Greef, Karlijn P; Deforche, Benedicte I; Ruige, Johannes B; Bouckaert, Jacques J; Tudor-Locke, Catrine E; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse M

    2011-08-01

    Effectiveness of a behavioral modification program on physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior in diabetes patients. Ninety-two patients were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. The 24-weeks intervention consisted of a face-to-face session, pedometer and seven telephone follow-ups. Mean selection criteria were 35-75 years; 25-35 kg/m(2); ≤ 12% HbA1c, treated for type 2 diabetes; no PA limitations. PA and sedentary behavior were measured by pedometer, accelerometer and questionnaire over the short- (24 weeks) and intermediate- (1 year) term. The intervention group increased their steps/day by 2744, their total PA by 23 min/day (pbehavior by 23 min/day (pbehavior (pbehavioral modification program with telephone support showed lasting positive effects on steps/day, PA and sedentary behavior. This study tested a convenient way to increase PA among type 2 diabetes patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A single intraperitoneal injection of endotoxin in rats induces long-lasting modifications in behavior and brain protein levels of TNF-α and IL-18

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    Bossù Paola

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic inflammation might cause neuronal damage and sustain neurodegenerative diseases and behavior impairment, with the participation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, like tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-18. However, the potential contribution of these cytokines to behavioral impairment in the long-term period has not been fully investigated. Methods Wistar rats were treated with a single intraperitoneal injection of LPS (5 mg/kg or vehicle. After 7 days and 10 months, the animal behavior was evaluated by testing specific cognitive functions, as mnesic, discriminative, and attentional functions, as well as anxiety levels. Contextually, TNF-α and IL-18 protein levels were measured by ELISA in defined brain regions (that is, frontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum, cerebellum, and hypothalamus. Results Behavioral testing demonstrated a specific and persistent cognitive impairment characterized by marked deficits in reacting to environment modifications, possibly linked to reduced motivational or attentional deficits. Concomitantly, LPS induced a TNF-α increase in the hippocampus and frontal cortex (from 7 days onward and cerebellum (only at 10 months. Interestingly, LPS treatment enhanced IL-18 expression in these same areas only at 10 months after injection. Conclusions Overall, these results indicate that the chronic neuroinflammatory network elicited by systemic inflammation involves a persistent participation of TNF-α accompanied by a differently regulated contribution of IL-18. This leads to speculation that, though with still unclear mechanisms, both cytokines might take part in long-lasting modifications of brain functions, including behavioral alteration.

  14. Comparison of behavioral profiles for anxiety-related comorbidities including ADHD and selective mutism in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin-Decanini, Tal; Connolly, Sucheta D; Simpson, David; Suarez, Liza; Jacob, Suma

    2013-09-01

    Elucidating differences in social-behavioral profiles of children with comorbid presentations, utilizing caregiver as well as teacher reports, will refine our understanding of how contextual symptoms vary across anxiety-related disorders. In our pediatric anxiety clinic, the most frequent diagnoses and comorbidities were mixed anxiety (MA; ≥ 1 anxiety disorder; N = 155), anxiety with comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (MA/ADHD, N = 47) and selective mutism (SM, N = 48). Behavioral measures (CPRS, CTRS) were analyzed using multiple one-way multivariate analyses of covariance tests. Differences between the three diagnostic groups were examined using completed parent and teacher reports (N = 135, 46, and 48 for MA, MA/ADHD, and SM groups, respectively). Comparisons across the MA, MA/ADHD, and SM groups indicate a significant multivariate main effect of group for caregiver and teacher responses (P < 0.01). Caregivers reported that children with SM are similar in profile to those with MA, and both groups were significantly different from the MA/ADHD group. Teachers reported that children with SM had more problems with social behaviors than with the MA or MA/ADHD groups. Further comparison indicates a significant main effect of group (P < 0.001), such that children with SM have the greatest differences in behavior observed by teachers versus caregivers. Clinical profiles between MA/ADHD, MA, and SM groups varied, illustrating the importance of multi-rater assessment scales to capture subtle distinctions and to inform treatment planning given that comorbidities occur frequently in children who present with anxiety. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Effectiveness of two different behavioral modification techniques among 5-7-year-old children: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Aruna Prashanth; Bondarde, Prashant Arjun; Patil, Sudha Bhimangouda; Dodamani, Arun Suresh; Vishwakarma, Prashanth Yachrappa; Mujawar, Shoeb A

    2017-01-01

    Dental fear is a common, essential, and inevitable emotion that appears as a response to the stressful situation, which raises children's anxiety level, resulting in reduced demand for pediatric dental care. (1) To compare and evaluate the effectiveness of customized tell-play-do (TPD) technique with live modeling for behavior management of children. (2) To compare the behavioral modification techniques in managing the children during their dental visits. Ninety-eight children aged 5-7 years were enrolled in the study and randomly allocated into two groups. Phase I: first visit. Group I - children were conditioned to receive various dental procedures using live modeling followed by oral prophylaxis. Group II - TPD technique was introduced with customized playing dental objects followed by oral prophylaxis. Phase II: second visit. After 7 days interval, all the study subjects were subjected to rotary restorative treatment. Heart rate, Facial Image Scale (FIS), and Venham-6-point index were used before intervention, after intervention, and during dental procedure to quantify the anxious behavior. All 98 children after intervention underwent oral prophylaxis on first visit and rotary restorative treatment on second visit. The average pulse rate, FIS, and Venham scale scores were significantly lower among children who received TPD intervention when compared to those who received live modeling intervention. Unpaired t-test at 5% level of significance was considered as statistical significance. TPD is effective in reducing children's fear and anxiety about dental treatment, children enjoy playing with customized dental object. Thus, to promote adaptive behavior, TPD could be an alternate behavioral modification technique during pediatric dentistry.

  16. Effectiveness of two different behavioral modification techniques among 5–7-year-old children: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Prashanth Vishwakarma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental fear is a common, essential, and inevitable emotion that appears as a response to the stressful situation, which raises children's anxiety level, resulting in reduced demand for pediatric dental care. Aims: (1 To compare and evaluate the effectiveness of customized tell-play-do (TPD technique with live modeling for behavior management of children. (2 To compare the behavioral modification techniques in managing the children during their dental visits. Materials and Methods: Ninety-eight children aged 5–7 years were enrolled in the study and randomly allocated into two groups. Phase I: first visit. Group I - children were conditioned to receive various dental procedures using live modeling followed by oral prophylaxis. Group II - TPD technique was introduced with customized playing dental objects followed by oral prophylaxis. Phase II: second visit. After 7 days interval, all the study subjects were subjected to rotary restorative treatment. Evaluation: Heart rate, Facial Image Scale (FIS, and Venham-6-point index were used before intervention, after intervention, and during dental procedure to quantify the anxious behavior. Results: All 98 children after intervention underwent oral prophylaxis on first visit and rotary restorative treatment on second visit. The average pulse rate, FIS, and Venham scale scores were significantly lower among children who received TPD intervention when compared to those who received live modeling intervention. Unpaired t-test at 5% level of significance was considered as statistical significance. Conclusions: TPD is effective in reducing children's fear and anxiety about dental treatment, children enjoy playing with customized dental object. Thus, to promote adaptive behavior, TPD could be an alternate behavioral modification technique during pediatric dentistry.

  17. Applying the model of Goal-Directed Behavior, including descriptive norms, to physical activity intentions: A contribution to improving the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contributed to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) ap...

  18. Beneficial Effects of Brief Psychoeducational Intervention (Self-Management and Behavioral Modification on Quality of the Life for Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bagherian

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Although psychoeducational interventions have been recommended for improving quality of life (QOL in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, the effectiveness of these plans in improving quality of life remains unclear. The objective of this study was to assess beneficial effects of brief psychoeducational intervention (including self-management and behavioral modification on quality of the life for patients with COPD.Materials & Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 42 consecutive patients with COPD were allocated to the intervention group or the control group. Patients in the intervention group received an usual care plus brief psychoeducational intervention (including self-management and behavioral modification while the control group received an usual care only. QOL was assessed using the brief version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life instrument (WHOQOL-BREF at baseline, post psychoeducational intervention and three months after intervention. "Analysis of covariance" and "covariance in repeated measures" was used to analyze the data. Results: The results of covariance in repeated measures showed that significant differences in all domains of QOL including physical (p<0.0001, psychological (p<0.002, social (p<0.0001 and environmental (p<0.006 between two groups. Also the findings obtained from Analysis of covariance in follow up data indicated that significant differences in three domains of QOL including physical (p<0.0001, social (p<0.026 and environmental (p<0.042 between two groups. However, there was no significant difference in psychological domain between two groups.Conclusion: Although, investigating precisely beneficial effects of these psychoeducational interventions requires research design with suitable sample size and an enough follow up period, the findings proved beneficial effects of brief multidimensionally psychoeducational intervention along consistent

  19. Activity behavior of a HPLC column including α-chymotrypsin immobilized monosized-porous particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilici, Z.; Camli, S.T.; Unsal, E.; Tuncel, A.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, a polymer-based, α-chymotrypsin (CT) immobilized HPLC column was prepared as a potential material for affinity-HPLC and chiral separation applications. Monosized-macroporous particles were synthesized as the support material by a relatively new polymerization protocol, the so-called, 'modified seeded polymerization'. The particles were obtained in the form of styrene-glycidyl methacrylate- divinylbenzene terpolymer approximately 11 μm in size. The particles were treated with aqueous ammonia to have primary amine groups on the porous surface. The amine functionalized particles were reacted by glutaraldehyde and the enzyme, CT, was covalently attached. CT carrying monosized-porous particles were slurry packed into the HPLC column 50 mmx4.6 mm in size. Since the activity behavior of immobilized CT played an important role in the enantiomeric separations performed by similar columns, the enzymatic activity behavior of the column produced by our protocol was determined. For this purpose, HPLC column was used as a packed bed reactor and the enzymatic reaction was continuously followed by measuring the absorbance of the output flow by the UV-detector of HPLC. S-shaped absorbance-time curves were obtained by monitoring the reactor output both in dynamic and steady-state periods. The columns with relatively lower immobilized enzyme content were more sensitive to the changes in the operating conditions and responded with more appreciable substrate conversion changes. The maximum reaction rate of the immobilized enzyme was estimated as approximately 25% of the free one by the mathematical model describing the activity behavior of the column. No significant loss was observed in the activity of the immobilized enzyme during the course of the experiments

  20. Finding practical phenomenological models that include both photoresist behavior and etch process effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sunwook; Do, Thuy; Sturtevant, John

    2015-03-01

    For more than five decades, the semiconductor industry has overcome technology challenges with innovative ideas that have continued to enable Moore's Law. It is clear that multi-patterning lithography is vital for 20nm half pitch using 193i. Multi-patterning exposure sequences and pattern multiplication processes can create complicated tolerance accounting due to the variability associated with the component processes. It is essential to ensure good predictive accuracy of compact etch models used in multipatterning simulation. New modelforms have been developed to account for etch bias behavior at 20 nm and below. The new modeling components show good results in terms of global fitness and some improved predication capability for specific features. We've also investigated a new methodology to make the etch model aware of 3D resist profiles.

  1. The behavior of various chemical forms of nickel in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry under different chemical modification approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalewska, Zofia

    2012-01-01

    Various organic and inorganic Ni forms were investigated using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Experiments without chemical modification showed a wide range of characteristic mass values for Ni (from 6.7 to 29 pg) and the importance of interaction with graphite. With the aim of achieving signal unification of organic Ni forms, different ways of chemical modification were tested. Some rules that govern the behavior of Ni were found and confirmed a significant role of the organic component of the analyte molecule in the analytical process. The application of air as an internal furnace gas in the pyrolysis phase and the Pd modifier injected with the sample solution improved the signal of porphyrins, while the application of iodine and methyltrioctylammonium chloride was required for organic compounds containing oxygen-bound Ni atoms. The Ni signal was strongly diminished when an aqueous solution containing hydrochloric acid was measured with the Pd modifier injected over the sample. Using the developed analytical methods, the range of characteristic mass values for various Ni forms totally dissolved in organic or aqueous solution was 6.5–7.9 pg. - Highlights: ► Some rules that govern behavior of organic Ni forms during GFAAS analysis were found. ► Interaction with graphite can significantly influence evaporation of porphyrins. ► Determination of Ni in form of porphyrins needs Pd organic modifier and air ashing. ► Determination of Ni in O-bound organic compounds needs pretreatment with I2+MTOACl. ► Chemical modification for GFAAS determination of Ni in HCl-containing solution.

  2. Seismic behavior of circular reinforced concrete bridge columns under combined loading including torsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Reinforced concrete (RC) columns of skewed and curved bridges with unequal spans and column heights can be subjected to : combined loading including axial, flexure, shear, and torsion loads during earthquakes. The combination of axial loads, shear : ...

  3. Sol-Gel Behavior of Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose (HPMC in Ionic Media Including Drug Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil C. Joshi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Sol-gel transformations in HPMC (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose are being increasingly studied because of their role in bio-related applications. The thermo-reversible behavior of HPMC is particularly affected by its properties and concentration in solvent media, nature of additives, and the thermal environment it is exposed to. This article contains investigations on the effects of salt additives in Hofmeister series on the HPMC gelation. Various findings regarding gelation with salt ions as well as with the ionic and non-ionic surfactants are presented. The gel formation in physiological salt fluids such as simulated gastric and intestine fluids is also examined with the interest in oral drug delivery systems. The processes of swelling, dissolution and dispersion of HPMC tablets in simulated bio-fluids are explored and the release of a drug from the tablet affected by such processes is studied. Explanations are provided based on the chemical structure and the molecular binding/association of HPMC in a media. The test results at the body or near-body temperature conditions helped in understanding the progress of the gelation process within the human body environment. The detailed interpretation of various molecule level interactions unfolded the sol-gel mechanisms and the influence of a few other factors. The obtained test data and the established mathematical models are expected to serve as a guide in customizing applications of HPMC hydrogels.

  4. Sol-Gel Behavior of Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose (HPMC) in Ionic Media Including Drug Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sunil C.

    2011-01-01

    Sol-gel transformations in HPMC (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose) are being increasingly studied because of their role in bio-related applications. The thermo-reversible behavior of HPMC is particularly affected by its properties and concentration in solvent media, nature of additives, and the thermal environment it is exposed to. This article contains investigations on the effects of salt additives in Hofmeister series on the HPMC gelation. Various findings regarding gelation with salt ions as well as with the ionic and non-ionic surfactants are presented. The gel formation in physiological salt fluids such as simulated gastric and intestine fluids is also examined with the interest in oral drug delivery systems. The processes of swelling, dissolution and dispersion of HPMC tablets in simulated bio-fluids are explored and the release of a drug from the tablet affected by such processes is studied. Explanations are provided based on the chemical structure and the molecular binding/association of HPMC in a media. The test results at the body or near-body temperature conditions helped in understanding the progress of the gelation process within the human body environment. The detailed interpretation of various molecule level interactions unfolded the sol-gel mechanisms and the influence of a few other factors. The obtained test data and the established mathematical models are expected to serve as a guide in customizing applications of HPMC hydrogels. PMID:28824113

  5. Surface modification of carbon/epoxy prepreg using oxygen plasma and its effect on the delamination resistance behavior of carbon/epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M.H.; Rhee, K.Y.; Kim, H.J.; Jung, D.H.

    2007-01-01

    It was shown in previous study that the fracture toughness of carbon/epoxy laminated composites could be significantly improved by modifying the surface of the prepreg using Ar + irradiation in an oxygen environment. In this study, the surface of carbon/epoxy prepreg was modified using an oxygen plasma to improve the delamination resistance behavior of carbon/epoxy laminated composites. The variation of the contact angle on the prepreg surface was determined as a function of the modification time, in order to determine the optimal modification time. An XPS analysis was conducted to investigate the chemical changes on the surface of the prepreg caused by the plasma modification. Mode I delamination resistance curves of the composites with and without surface modification were plotted as a function of the delamination increment. The results showed that the contact angle varied from ∼64 o to ∼47 o depending on the modification time and reached a minimum for a modification time of 30 min. The XPS analysis showed that the hydrophilic carbonyl C=O group was formed by the oxygen plasma modification. The results also showed that the delamination resistance behavior was significantly improved by the plasma modification of the prepreg. This improvement was caused by the better layer-to-layer adhesion as well as increased interfacial strength between the fibers and matrix

  6. The real-time control of planetary rovers through behavior modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David P.

    1991-01-01

    It is not yet clear of what type, and how much, intelligence is needed for a planetary rover to function semi-autonomously on a planetary surface. Current designs assume an advanced AI system that maintains a detailed map of its journeys and the surroundings, and that carefully calculates and tests every move in advance. To achieve these abilities, and because of the limitations of space-qualified electronics, the supporting rover is quite sizable, massing a large fraction of a ton, and requiring technology advances in everything from power to ground operations. An alternative approach is to use a behavior driven control scheme. Recent research has shown that many complex tasks may be achieved by programming a robot with a set of behaviors and activation or deactivating a subset of those behaviors as required by the specific situation in which the robot finds itself. Behavior control requires much less computation than is required by tradition AI planning techniques. The reduced computation requirements allows the entire rover to be scaled down as appropriate (only down-link communications and payload do not scale under these circumstances). The missions that can be handled by the real-time control and operation of a set of small, semi-autonomous, interacting, behavior-controlled planetary rovers are discussed.

  7. Effect of Ultrasonic Nano-Crystal Surface Modification (UNSM) on the Passivation Behavior of Aged 316L Stainless Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Tae; Lee, Jung-Hee; Kim, Young-Sik

    2017-06-27

    Stainless steels have good corrosion resistance in many environments but welding or aging can decrease their resistance. This work focused on the effect of aging time and ultrasonic nano-crystal surface modification on the passivation behavior of 316L stainless steel. In the case of slightly sensitized 316L stainless steel, increasing the aging time drastically decreased the pitting potential, increased the passive current density, and decreased the resistance of the passive film, even though aging did not form chromium carbide and a chromium depletion zone. This behavior is due to the micro-galvanic corrosion between the matrix and carbon segregated area, and this shows the importance of carbon segregation in grain boundaries to the pitting corrosion resistance of stainless steel, in addition to the formation of the chromium depletion zone. UNSM (Ultrasonic Nano Crystal Surface Modification)-treatment to the slightly sensitized 316L stainless steel increased the pitting potential, decreased the passive current density, and increased the resistance of the passive film. However, in the case of heavily sensitized 316L stainless steel, UNSM-treatment decreased the pitting potential, increased the passive current density, and decreased the resistance of the passive film. This behavior is due to the dual effects of the UNSM-treatment. That is, the UNSM-treatment reduced the carbon segregation, regardless of whether the stainless steel 316L was slightly or heavily sensitized. However, since this treatment made mechanical flaws in the outer surface in the case of the heavily sensitized stainless steel, UNSM-treatment may eliminate chromium carbide, and this flaw can be a pitting initiation site, and therefore decrease the pitting corrosion resistance.

  8. Modification of Anxious Behavior after Psychogenic Trauma and Treatment with Galanin Receptor Antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyudyno, V I; Tsikunov, S G; Abdurasulova, I N; Kusov, A G; Klimenko, V M

    2015-07-01

    Effects of blockage of central galanin receptors on anxiety manifestations were studied in rats with psychogenic trauma. Psychogenic trauma was modeled by exposure of a group of rats to the situation when the partner was killed by a predator. Antagonist of galanin receptors was intranasally administered before stress exposure. Animal behavior was evaluated using the elevated-plus maze test, free exploratory paradigm, and open-field test. Psychogenic trauma was followed by an increase in anxiety level and appearance of agitated behavior. Blockage of galanin receptors aggravated behavioral impairment, which manifested in the pathological anxious reactions - manifestations of hypervigilance and hyperawareness. The results suggest that endogenous pool of galanin is involved into prevention of excessive CNS response to stressful stimuli typical of posttraumatic stress disorder.

  9. Thermal enhanced vapor extraction systems: Design, application and performance prediction including contaminant behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelan, J.M.; Webb, S.W.

    1994-01-01

    Soil heating technologies have been proposed as a method to accelerate contaminant removal from subsurface soils. These methods include the use of hot air, steam, conductive heaters, in-situ resistive heating and in-situ radiofrequency heating (Buettner et.al., EPA, Dev et.al., Heath et.al.). Criteria for selection of a particular soil heating technology is a complex function of contaminant and soil properties, and efficiency in energy delivery and contaminant removal technologies. The work presented here seeks to expand the understanding of the interactions of subsurface water, contaminant, heat and vacuum extraction through model predictions and field data collection. Field demonstration will involve the combination of two soil heating technologies (resistive and dielectric) with a vacuum vapor extraction system and will occur during the summer of 1994

  10. Correctional Officer Training in Behavior Modification. Final Report (1970-1973).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R.R.; And Others

    A report is presented of the findings from a three-year project to train 40 correctional officers as behavioral change agents. The project had two objectives: (1) to encourage the officers to view the institution as a rehabilitative instrument, predisposing them to learn to use alternatives to punishment and become treatment-oriented, and (2) to…

  11. Modification of Verbal Behavior of the Mentally Impaired Elderly by Their Spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Glenn R.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Two male stroke victims (ages 63 and 67) whose verbal disorders impaired social interactions and suggested the need for nursing home placement were treated by teaching spouses to reinforce positive and ignore undesired verbal responses. Problem behaviors were reduced sufficiently to permit continued home care, and alternative positive behaviors…

  12. The Neurological Basis and Potential Modification of Emotional Intelligence through Affective/Behavioral Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    A, LeBel, J, James , P, & Yada, R. (Eds), Obesity Prevention: The Role of Brain and Society on Individual Behavior. Academic Press, London. Pp 57...bipolar disorder: A correlative MRI study [abstract]. Meeting of the International Congress on Schizophrenia Research. Whistler , British Columbia...abstract]. Meeting of the International Congress on Schizophrenia Research. Whistler , British Columbia. April 2001. 28. Gruber, SA, Killgore

  13. Neurological Basis and Potential Modification of Emotional Intelligence through Affective/Behavioral Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Drewnowski, A, Lebel, J, James , P, & Yada, R. (Eds), Obesity Prevention: The Role of Brain and Society on Individual Behavior. Elsevier, Boston, 2010, pp...schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: A correlative MRI study [abstract]. Meeting of the International Congress on Schizophrenia Research. Whistler , British...schizophrenia [abstract]. Meeting of the International Congress on Schizophrenia Research. Whistler , British Columbia. April 2001. 28. Gruber, SA

  14. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety in Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Modification Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moree, Brittany N.; Davis, Thompson E., III

    2010-01-01

    Anxiety disorders have been found to be highly comorbid with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Even so, the identification and dissemination of empirically supported treatments for anxiety in adults or children who have ASD has lagged behind the larger evidence-based trend. This review examines the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy as a…

  15. Research in the Social Psychology of Persuasion and Behavior Modification: Relevant to School Health Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Richard I.

    1973-01-01

    Brief description of a series of investigations designed to determine the relative effectiveness of various motivators in effecting oral hygiene behavior in a group of junior high school. Presented at the annual meeting of the American School Health Association, San Diego, California, 1972. (JC)

  16. Behavior Modification of Aggressive Children in Child Welfare: Evaluation of a Combined Intervention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitkowski, Dennis; Petermann, Franz; Buttner, Peter; Krause-Leipoldt, Carsten; Petermann, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    Children and adolescents with aggressive disorders are prevalent in child welfare settings. Therefore, the assumption is that child welfare services would benefit from a cognitive-behavioral intervention. This study investigates whether implementation of the training with aggressive children (TAC) could improve the outcome of child welfare. Twelve…

  17. Gestational stress induces persistent depressive-like behavior and structural modifications within the postpartum nucleus accumbens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haim, Achikam; Sherer, Morgan; Leuner, Benedetta

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common complication following childbirth experienced by one in every five new mothers. Pregnancy stress enhances vulnerability to PPD and has also been shown to increase depressive-like behavior in postpartum rats. Thus, gestational stress may be an important translational risk factor that can be used to investigate the neurobiological mechanisms underlying PPD. Here we examined the effects of gestational stress on depressive-like behavior during the early/mid and late postpartum periods and evaluated whether this was accompanied by altered structural plasticity in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a brain region that has been linked to PPD. We show that early/mid (PD8) postpartum female rats exhibited more depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test as compared to late postpartum females (PD22). However, two weeks of restraint stress during pregnancy increased depressive-like behavior regardless of postpartum timepoint. In addition, dendritic length, branching, and spine density on medium spiny neurons in the NAc shell were diminished in postpartum rats that experienced gestational stress although stress-induced reductions in spine density were evident only in early/mid postpartum females. In the NAc core, structural plasticity was not affected by gestational stress but late postpartum females exhibited lower spine density and reduced dendritic length. Overall, these data not only demonstrate structural changes in the NAc across the postpartum period, they also show that postpartum depressive-like behavior following exposure to gestational stress is associated with compromised structural plasticity in the NAc and thus may provide insight into the neural changes that could contribute to PPD. PMID:25359225

  18. The effects of a novel hostile interpretation bias modification paradigm on hostile interpretations, mood, and aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlMoghrabi, Nouran; Huijding, Jorg; Franken, Ingmar H A

    2018-03-01

    Cognitive theories of aggression propose that biased information processing is causally related to aggression. To test these ideas, the current study investigated the effects of a novel cognitive bias modification paradigm (CBM-I) designed to target interpretations associated with aggressive behavior. Participants aged 18-33 years old were randomly assigned to either a single session of positive training (n = 40) aimed at increasing prosocial interpretations or negative training (n = 40) aimed at increasing hostile interpretations. The results revealed that the positive training resulted in an increase in prosocial interpretations while the negative training seemed to have no effect on interpretations. Importantly, in the positive condition, a positive change in interpretations was related to lower anger and verbal aggression scores after the training. In this condition, participants also reported an increase in happiness. In the negative training no such effects were found. However, the better participants performed on the negative training, the more their interpretations were changed in a negative direction and the more aggression they showed on the behavioral aggression task. Participants were healthy university students. Therefore, results should be confirmed within a clinical population. These findings provide support for the idea that this novel CBM-I paradigm can be used to modify interpretations, and suggests that these interpretations are related to mood and aggressive behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Different effects of bisphenol-A on memory behavior and synaptic modification in intact and estrogen-deprived female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohong; Gu, Ting; Shen, Qiaoqiao

    2015-03-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) has the capability of interfering with the effects of estrogens on modulating brain function. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of BPA on memory and synaptic modification in the hippocampus of female mice under different levels of cycling estrogen. BPA exposure (40, 400 μg/kg/day) for 8 weeks did not affect spatial memory and passive avoidance task of gonadally intact mice but improved ovariectomy (Ovx)-induced memory impairment, whereas co-exposure of BPA with estradiol benzoate (EB) diminished the rescue effect of EB on memory behavior of Ovx mice. The results of morphometric measurement showed that BPA positively modified the synaptic interface structure and increased the synaptic density of CA1 pyramidal cell in the hippocampus of Ovx females, but inhibited the enhancement of EB on synaptic modification and synaptogenesis of Ovx mice. Furthermore, BPA up-regulated synaptic proteins synapsin I and PSD-95 and NMDA receptor NR2B but inhibited EB-induced increase in PSD-95 and NR2B in the hippocampus of Ovx mice. These results suggest that BPA interfered with normal hormonal regulation in synaptic plasticity and memory of female mice as a potent estrogen mimetic and as a disruptor of estrogen under various concentrations of cycling estrogen. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  20. Behaviors of Polymer Additives Under EHL and Influences of Interactions Between Additives on Friction Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, T.

    1984-01-01

    Polymer additives have become requisite for the formulation of multigrade engine oils. The behavior of polymethacrylate (PMA)-thickened oils as lubricants in concentrated contacts under nominal rolling and pure sliding conditions was investigated by conventional optical interferometry. The PMA thickened oils behaved differently from the base oil in the formation of elastohydrodynamic (EHL) films. The higher the elastohydrodynamic molecular weight of the PMA contained in the lubricant, the thinner was the oil film under EHL conditions. The film thickness of shear-degraded PMA-thickened oils was also investigated. The behavior of graphite particles dispersed in both the base oil and the PMA-thickened oil was studied under pure sliding by taking photomicrographs. Many kinds of additives are contained in lubricating oil and the interactions between additives are considered. The interactions of zinc-organodithiophosphates (ZDP) with other additives is discussed.

  1. Drastic modification of the piezoresistive behavior of polymer nanocomposites by using conductive polymer coatings

    KAUST Repository

    Ventura, Isaac Aguilar

    2015-07-21

    We obtained highly conductive nanocomposites by adding conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS)-coated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to pristine insulating Polycarbonate. Because the PEDOT/PSS ensures efficient charge transfer both along and between the CNTs, we could attribute the improvement in electrical conductivity to coating. In addition to improving the electrical conductivity, the coating also modified the piezoresistive behavior of the nanocomposites compared to the material with pristine uncoated CNTs: whereas CNT/Polycarbonate samples exhibited a very strong piezoresistive effect, PEDOT/PSS-coated MWCNT/Polycarbonate samples exhibited very little piezoresistivity. We studied this change in piezoresistive behavior in detail by investigating various configurations of filler content. We investigated how this observation could be explained by changes in the microstructure and in the conduction mechanism in the interfacial regions between the nanofillers. Our study suggests that tailoring the piezoresistive response to specific application requirements is possible.

  2. Identifying trends in hydration behavior for modifications to the hydrophobicity of poly(n-isopropylacrylamide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Madeline L; Madura, Jeffry D

    2017-11-01

    Poly(n-isopropylacrylamide), PNIPAM, is a thermo-responsive polymer that has been thoroughly studied for its many applications, such as drug delivery and actuators. Below the lower critical solution temperature (LCST), PNIPAM is well hydrated in the elongated conformation. The transition occuring at the LCST results in a less hydrated collapsed state above the LCST. This volume phase transition is dependent upon the hydration of the polymer and its hydrophobicity. Some research has been done on potential modifications of PNIPAM for applications, but until now there has not been a study of the hydration properties as a function of hydrophobicity. The work presented in this paper applies a Voronoi analysis of the hydration of PNIPAM, as well as PNIPAM with other alkyl substituents. We show from classical MD simulations that increasing hydrophobicity can increase the volume phase change, but there is a lower limit to this trend. Additionally, replica exchange molecular dynamics were conducted on PNIPAM showing a fluctuation between elongated and collapsed states near the LCST. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Structural modification of coal-tar pitch fractions during mild oxidation - relevance to carbonization behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machnikowski, J.; Kaczmarska, H.; Gerus-Piasecka, I.; Diez, M.A.; Alvarez, R.; Garcia, R. [Wroclaw University of Technology, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2002-07-01

    Modified pitches with softening points of about 175{degree}C were prepared by air-blowing at 300{degree}C of coal-tar pitches from different commercial coke-oven tars. The modifications induced by the mild oxidation were monitored using solvent and extrographic fractionation, elemental analysis, H-1 NMR and HPLC. Optical microscopy was used to follow the effect of air-blowing on carbonization behaviour. Low molecular weight cata-condensed PAHs and those with basic nitrogen and hydroxylic functionalities present in extrographic fractions F2 and F4, respectively, are preferentially polymerized pitch constituents. In contrast, peri-condensed PAHs in extrographic fractions F2 and F3, are practically unreactive under the oxidation conditions used. The mild oxidation enhances the tendency of quinoline insoluble (QI) particles to form aggregates in an early stage of thermal treatment, modifying the mode of mesophase development and leading to a non-homogeneous optical texture. The enhanced propensity of QI to aggregation is discussed in terms of structural peculiarities of the parent pitch and possible oxidative polymerization reactions.

  4. Corrosion Behavior and Surface Modification of Mg-Zn Implant Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayad, I. M.; Maamoun, M. A.; Metwally, W. A.; El-Baradie, Z. M.; Abdel-Azim, A. N.

    2016-10-01

    In this study, Mg-Zn alloys (1-4 wt.% Zn) were fabricated with high-purity raw materials using a clean melting process (fluxless method) and a protective atmosphere of CO2 + 0.4 SF6. The as-cast microstructures of the investigated alloys were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopes, EDS and XRD. Corrosion properties of the prepared alloys were examined in simulated body fluid by electrochemical techniques and immersion test (hydrogen evolution method). Surface modification of the prepared alloys was performed using micro-arc oxidation (MAO) treatment and hydroxyapatite (HA) coating. Microstructure observation revealed that Zn was completely dissolved in the α-Mg matrix up to 2 wt.%. Higher Zn content led to a reduction in the grain size and the development of a second phase (MgZn2). Corrosion testing results revealed that Mg-1,2,3 wt.% Zn have almost the same degradation rate, whereas Mg-4Zn has the highest degradation rate. HA coating on MAO-treated magnesium alloys formed a dense and compact layer on the alloy surface, which had largely improved surface properties and enhanced corrosion resistance of the prepared alloys.

  5. Engine structure modifications effect on the flow behavior, combustion, and performance characteristics of DI diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taghavifar, Hadi; Khalilarya, Shahram; Jafarmadar, Samad

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Engine geometrical configuration was modified based on bowl radius and displacement. • The best engine performance indices associated with D3 and R1 structures. • Increasing the bowl radius and outward bowl displacement increases ignition delay. • The best configuration for uniform air/fuel mixture, TKE, and temperature is found. - Abstract: The simulation was carried out based on 1.8 L Ford diesel engine and the geometrical modification in structure of piston were considered in terms of bowl movement and the bowl size in four equal increments. Two major conflicting parameters in combustion and engine efficiency were taken into account and visualized in contour plots as the bowl geometry was varied: (1) the air/fuel mixing process demonstrated by Homogeneity Factor and equivalence ratio, (2) combustion initiation and work delivery by heat release rate, pressure curves, and indicated thermal efficiency. A new version of Coherent Flame Model’s sub-model (ECFM-3Z) was adopted during the calculations to shed light into the combustion chemistry and reaction rate in detail. It was found that the bowl displacement toward the cylinder wall, increases the mixture uniformity (higher HF) thus higher pressure and heat release rate peak were obtained with the penalty of combustion delay which substantially reduces the effective in-cylinder pressure. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that smaller bowl size induces better squish and vortex formation in the chamber, although lesser spray penetration and flame quenching owing to the spray-wall impingement reduces ignition delay

  6. Effect of Cationic Surface Modification on the Rheological Behavior and Microstructure of Nanocrystalline Cellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Tang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the microstructure and rheological behavior of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC and cationically modified NCC (CNCC were comparatively studied. The resultant CNCC generally showed improved dispersion and higher thermal stability in comparison to the un-modified NCC. The rheological behavior demonstrated that the viscosity of the NCC suspension substantially decreased with the increasing shear rate (0.01–100 s−1, showing the typical characteristics of a pseudoplastic fluid. In contrast, the CNCC suspensions displayed a typical three-region behavior, regardless of changes in pH, temperature, and concentration. Moreover, the CNCC suspensions exhibited higher shear stress and viscosity at a given shear rate (0.01–100 s−1 than the NCC suspension. Meanwhile, the dynamic viscoelasticity measurements revealed that the CNCC suspensions possessed a higher elastic (G′ and loss modulus (G″ than NCC suspensions over the whole frequency range (0.1–500 rad·s−1, providing evidence that the surface cationization of NCC makes it prone to behave as a gel-like structure.

  7. MAP-IT: A Practical Tool for Planning Complex Behavior Modification Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Sylvia; Kanning, Martina; Lauer, Romy; Steinacker, Jürgen M; Schlicht, Wolfgang

    2017-09-01

    Health research often aims to prevent noncommunicable diseases and to improve individual and public health by discovering intervention strategies that are effective in changing behavior and/or environments that are detrimental to one's health. Ideally, findings from original research support practitioners in planning and implementing effective interventions. Unfortunately, interventions often fail to overcome the translational block between science and practice. They often ignore theoretical knowledge, overlook empirical evidence, and underrate the impact of the environment. Accordingly, sustainable changes in individual behavior and/or the environment are difficult to achieve. Developing theory-driven and evidence-based interventions in the real world is a complex task. Existing implementation frameworks and theories often do not meet the needs of health practitioners. The purpose of this article is to synthesize existing frameworks and to provide a tool, the Matrix Assisting Practitioner's Intervention Planning Tool (MAP-IT), that links research to practice and helps practitioners to design multicomponent interventions. In this article, we use physical activity of older adults as an example to explain the rationale of MAP-IT. In MAP-IT, individual as well as environmental mechanisms are listed and behavior change techniques are linked to these mechanisms and to intervention components. MAP-IT is theory-driven and evidence-based. It is time-saving and helpful for practitioners when planning complex interventions.

  8. Trends in Modification of Smoking Behaviors Among Pregnant Women in West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertok, Ilana R Azulay; Haile, Zelalem T

    2017-05-01

    Background Rates of smoking among pregnant women in West Virginia are higher than national prenatal smoking rates. Recent research has pointed to the benefit of smoking reduction among a sample of pregnant women who participated in a clinical study in West Virginia. The purpose of the current study is to examine trends associated with reduced smoking exposure among a representative sample of pregnant women in the state. Method Secondary data analysis was conducted using de-identified weighted PRAMS 2005-2010 data from West Virginia examining factors associated with favorable change in prenatal smoking behavior, either quitting or reducing smoking in pregnancy. Results Multivariable analyses results demonstrate that pregnant women are more likely to engage in a favorable smoking behavior change if they were younger (smoking in pregnancy in West Virginia. Health care providers and policy makers should consider these factors in implementing approaches that will be effective in promoting smoking cessation and reduction among pregnant women in the state thereby reducing prenatal smoking exposure. Conclusion Population-based research has been used to identify factors associated with smoking cessation or reduction that can be used to develop appropriate and effective approaches to modifying health behaviors in specific populations.

  9. Barriers to the modification of sexual behavior among heterosexuals at risk for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, K; Gibson, W C

    1988-02-01

    A reliable estimate of the prevalence of HIV infection in the heterosexual population does not yet exist, and public health professionals assume it to still be low. Nevertheless, this does not mean that health educators should not reach this community. If this group learns what risk behaviors transmit HIV and subsequently changes its sexual behavior, the spread of HIV may be significantly reduced. There are many barriers, which are perceptual and attitudinal, to persuading at-risk heterosexuals to modify their behavior, however. For example, many believe that since they do not engage in anal intercourse (promoted as a principal mode of transmission), they will not acquire HIV. Health education on AIDS no longer should just inform the public about transmission and risk factors, but should work on altering perceptions and modifying attitudes. Before health educators can do this, however, fundamental data on high risk sexual practices, beliefs, and perceptions on AIDS are needed. The federal government must assign research gathering such data as a high priority, and then use the data to mount an effective national public health campaign concerning AIDS.

  10. Prenatal Exposure to Organohalogens, Including Brominated Flame Retardants, Influences Motor, Cognitive, and Behavioral Performance at School Age

    OpenAIRE

    Roze, Elise; Meijer, Lisethe; Bakker, Attie; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N.J.A.; Sauer, Pieter J.J.; Bos, Arend F.

    2009-01-01

    Background Organohalogen compounds (OHCs) are known to have neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. Objective We investigated the influence of prenatal exposure to OHCs, including brominated flame retardants, on motor, cognitive, and behavioral outcome in healthy children of school age. Methods This study was part of the prospective Groningen infant COMPARE (Comparison of Exposure-Effect Pathways to Improve the Assessment of Human Health Risks of Complex Environmental Mixtures of Organoha...

  11. Spilled oil and infaunal activity - Modification of burrowing behavior and redistribution of oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, H.E.; Kvenvolden, K.A.; Rapp, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    A series of experiments in Willapa Bay, Washington, indicates the degree to which the presence of spilled oil modifies the burrowing behavior of infauna and the extent to which the animals redistribute oil into intertidal sediment. Small amounts of North Slope crude oil introduced at low tide directly into burrow openings (mostly made by the crustacean Callianassa) resulted in a limited and temporary reduction in the number of burrow openings. In contrast, a layer of oil-saturated sand 1 cm thick buried about 5 cm below the sediment surface sharply reduced the number of burrow openings. After a year, the few new burrows penetrated only the margins of the experimental plot, and bioturbation below the buried oil-saturated sand layer declined dramatically. The experiments suggest that small amounts of oil temporarily stranded by tides in themselves have no long-range effect on burrowing behavior. The fauna, however, are capable of introducing measurable amounts of oil into the subsurface, where it is retained long after the rest of the stranded oil had washed away. A buried layer of oil-saturated sand greatly reduces infaunal activity; the oil presents an effective barrier that can persist for years. The oil incorporated into the sediment from burrow openings showed evidence of degradation after 7 months. In contrast the layer of buried oil remained essentially undergraded after a period of two years, even though oil in lower concentrations above the layer was degraded after a period of one year. This variation in degree of degradation of the buried oil, as well as the heterogeneity of oil distribution wherever the oil has been incorporated from the surface, emphasises the importance of careful sampling in any attempt to locate or monitor the presence of spilled oil in the substrate.In a series of experiments in Willapa Bay, Washington, small amounts of North Slope crude oil introduced at low tide directly into burrow openings resulted in a limited and temporary

  12. Mediators of physical activity change in a behavioral modification program for type 2 diabetes patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor-Locke Catrine E

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have reported significant behavioral impact of physical activity interventions. However, few have examined changes in potential mediators of change preceding behavioral changes, resulting in a lack of information concerning how the intervention worked. Our purpose was to examine mediation effects of changes in psychosocial variables on changes in physical activity in type 2 diabetes patients. Methods Ninety-two patients (62 ± 9 years, 30, 0 ± 2.5 kg/m2, 69% males participated in a randomized controlled trial. The 24-week intervention was based on social-cognitive constructs and consisted of a face-to-face session, telephone follow-ups, and the use of a pedometer. Social-cognitive variables and physical activity (device-based and self-reported were collected at baseline, after the 24-week intervention and at one year post-baseline. PA was measured by pedometer, accelerometer and questionnaire. Results Post-intervention physical activity changes were mediated by coping with relapse, changes in social norm, and social modeling from family members (p ≤ 0.05. One-year physical activity changes were mediated by coping with relapse, changes in social support from family and self-efficacy towards physical activity barriers (p ≤ 0.05 Conclusions For patients with type 2 diabetes, initiatives to increase their physical activity could usefully focus on strategies for resuming regular patterns of activity, on engaging family social support and on building confidence about dealing with actual and perceived barriers to activity. Trial Registration NCT00903500, ClinicalTrials.gov.

  13. Effectiveness of audiovisual distraction in behavior modification during dental caries assessment and sealant placement in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhruddin, Kausar Sadia; El Batawi, Hisham Yehia

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of audiovisual (AV) distraction in behavior modification during dental caries assessment and sealant placement in children with autism spectrum disorder. This study was conducted on 28 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, aged 6.5-9.8 years. Children underwent one introductory (desensitization) appointment and three treatment sessions. During the introductory session, children had the procedures explained to them, they watched a movie projected on a screen while oral screening and assessment of cooperation level were carried out. In treatment session I, oral examination, charting, and dental x-rays were undertaken, whereas the children watched movies with or without video eyewear. During treatment sessions II/III, dental prophylaxis was carried out on upper and lower jaws in addition to the application of dental sealants on the right upper and lower and the left upper and lower permanent molars, respectively, while the children were distracted by cartoon movies using video eyewear. Changes in pulse oximeter and heart rate were recorded every 5 min. Independent samples t -test was used to assess the significance of changes in pulse and O 2 saturation levels during each visit. International Caries Detection and Assessment System-code 2 was found to be the most prevalent ( n = 58; 52%). A significant difference ( P behavior in the subjects. Video eyewear distraction proved an effective tool in managing children with autism spectrum disorder during noninvasive preventive dental procedures.

  14. Methanol extract of Longanae Arillus augments pentobarbital-induced sleep behaviors through the modification of GABAergic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuan; Ma, Hong; Eun, Jae Soon; Nam, Sang-Yoon; Kim, Yun-Bae; Hong, Jin-Tae; Lee, Myung-Koo; Oh, Ki-Wan

    2009-03-18

    This experiment was performed to investigate whether methanol extract of Longanae Arillus (MELA) has hypnotic effects and/or enhances pentobarbital-induced sleep behaviors through the GABAergic systems. MELA prolonged sleep time and reduced sleep latency induced by pentobarbital similar to muscimol, a GABAA receptors agonist. MELA also increased sleep rate and sleep time in the combined administration with pentobarbital at the sub-hypnotic dosage and showed synergic effects with muscimol in potentiating sleep onset and enhancing sleep time induced by pentobarbital. However, MELA itself did not induce sleep at higher dose which was used in this experiment. In addition, both of MELA and pentobarbital increased chloride influx in primary cultured cerebellar granule cells. MELA increased GABAA receptors gamma-subunit expression and had no effect on the expression of alpha- and beta-subunits, and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) in primary cultured cerebellar granule cells, showing different expression of subunits from pentobarbital. In conclusion, MELA itself does not induce sleep, but it augments pentobarbital-induced sleep behaviors through the modification of GABAergic systems.

  15. Modification of the feeding behavior of dairy cows through live yeast supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, T J; Chevaux, E

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the feeding behavior of dairy cows is modified through live yeast supplementation. Twelve lactating Holstein dairy cows (2 primiparous and 10 multiparous) were individually exposed, in a replicated crossover design, to each of 2 treatment diets (over 35-d periods): (1) a control TMR and (2) a control TMR plus 1 × 10(10) cfu/head per day of live yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-1077; Levucell SC20; Lallemand Animal Nutrition, Montreal, QC, Canada). Milk production, feeding, and rumination behavior were electronically monitored for each animal for the last 7 d of each treatment period. Milk samples were collected for the last 6 d of each period for milk component analysis. Dry matter intake (28.3 kg/d), eating time (229.3 min/d), and rate (0.14 kg of dry matter/min) were similar between treatments. With yeast supplementation, meal criteria (minimum intermeal interval) were shorter (20.0 vs. 25.8 min), translating to cows tending to have more meals (9.0 vs. 7.8 meals/d), which tended to be smaller in size (3.4 vs. 3.8 kg/meal). Yeast-supplemented cows also tended to ruminate longer (570.3 vs. 544.9 min/d). Milk yield (45.8 kg/d) and efficiency of production (1.64 kg of milk/kg of dry matter intake) were similar between treatments. A tendency for higher milk fat percent (3.71 vs. 3.55%) and yield (1.70 vs. 1.63 kg/d) was observed when cows were supplemented with yeast. No differences in milk fatty acid composition were observed, with the exception of a tendency for a greater concentration of 18:2 cis-9,cis-12 fatty acid (2.71 vs. 2.48% of total fatty acids) with yeast supplementation. Yeast-supplemented cows had lower mean ruminal temperature (38.4 vs. 38.5 °C) and spent less time with rumen temperature above 39.0 °C (353.1 vs. 366.9 min/d), potentially indicating improved rumen pH conditions. Overall, the results show that live yeast supplementation tended to improve meal patterns and rumination, rumen

  16. Modification of boundary plasma behavior by Ion Bernstein Wave heating on HT-7 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guoshen

    2002-01-01

    Cooperated with Fusion Research Center, the University of Texas at Austin, U.S.A. The boundary plasma behavior during Ion Bernstein Wave (IBW) heating was investigated using Langmuir probe arrays on HT-7 tokamak. The particle confinement improvement of over a factor of 2 was observed in 30 MHz IBW heated plasma with RF power > 120 kW. The strong de-correlation effect of fluctuations resulted in that the turbulent particle flux dropped more than an order of magnitude. In IBW heated plasma, an additional inward E r and associated poloidal ExB flows were produced, which could account for the additional poloidal velocity in the electron diamagnetic direction in the scrape-of layer (SOL). Three-wave nonlinear phase coupling increased evidently and low frequency fluctuations (about 5 kHz) were generated, which dominated the boundary turbulence during IBW heating. The 5/2-D resonant layer was located in the plasma edge region, which is found to be the mechanism underlying these phenomena. (author)

  17. Surface modification of gold nanoparticles and their monolayer behavior at the air/water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chaio-Ling; Wang, Ke-Hsuan; Chang, Chien-Hsiang; Hsu, Wen-Ping; Lee, Yuh-Lang

    2011-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles were prepared by two different methods. The first method was chemically grafting the particles with different lengths of alkylthiol (C6SH, C12SH and C18SH). For the second method, the Au particles were surface modified first by mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA) to render a surface with carboxylic acid groups which play a role to physically adsorb cationic surfactant in chloroform. This method was termed physical/chemical method. In the first method, the effects of alkyl chain length and dispersion solvent on the monolayer behavior of surface modified gold nanoparticles was evaluated. The gold nanoparticles prepared by 1-hexanthiol demonstrated the narrowest size distribution. Most of them showed narrower particle size distributions in chloroform than in hexane. For the physical/chemical method, the particles can spread more uniformly on the water surface which is attributed to the amphiphilic character of the particles at the air/water interface. However, the particles cannot pack closely due to the relatively weak particle-particle interaction. The effect of alkyl chain length was also assessed for the second method.

  18. Sodium Silicate Behavior in Porous Media Applied for In-Depth Profile Modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein A. Akhlaghi Amiri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses alkaline sodium silicate (Na-silicate behavior in porous media. One of the advantages of the Na-silicate system is its water-like injectivity during the placement stage. Mixing Na-silicate with saline water results in metal silicate precipitation as well as immediate gelation. This work demonstrated that low salinity water (LSW, sea water diluted 25 times could be used as a pre-flush in flooding operations. A water override phenomenon was observed during gel formation which is caused by gravity segregation. Dynamic adsorption tests in the sand-packed tubes showed inconsiderable adsorbed silicon density (about 8.5 × 10−10 kg/cm3 for a solution with 33 mg/L silicon content, which is less than the estimated mono-layer adsorption density of 1.4 × 10−8 kg/cm3. Na-silicate enhanced water sweep efficiency after application in a dual-permeability sand-pack system, without leak off into the oil-bearing low permeability (LP zone. Field-scale numerical sensitivity studies in a layered reservoir demonstrated that higher permeability and viscosity contrasts and lower vertical/horizontal permeability ratio result in lower Na-silicate leakoff into the matrix. The length of the mixing zone between reservoir water and the injected Na-silicate solution, which is formed by low salinity pre-flush, acts as a buffer zone.

  19. Effectiveness of attentional bias modification and cognitive behavioral therapy on the reduction of pain intensity in patients with chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Babai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of Attentional Bias Modification (ABM and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT on the reduction of pain intensityin patients with chronic pain. This study was a quasiexperimental pretest-posttest design with control group. All patients who referred to physiotherapy clinics for pain during 2015 were participated in the study. They completed the Brief Pain Inventory-short form (BPI-SF for assessing severity of pain. Attentional bias was evaluated using computerized Dot-Probe task. The patients with chronic pain were screened by diagnostic criteria of DSM-V; neurologic diagnosis, and interview. 36 people were selected and randomly divided to three groups computer-based ABM, CBT, and control (12 cases in each group. Group A was trained in 8 sessions-each 15 minutes with the modified computerized Dot-Probe task for attentional bias modification. Group B was trained in 11 sessions-each 45 minutes with CBT program of Turk and Ferry for the chronic pain treatment. And Placebo program was administered for group C in which they completed 8 classic DotProbe sessions. In the end, for the posttest (T2 the participants were tested to identify the changes in biased attention to the emotional stimuli using classing Dot-Probe tasks, and BPI questionnaire to evaluate the changes of severity of pain. Data were analyzed using one-way variance analysis(ANOVA. On the BPI-SF, CBT more reduced the pain intensitythan computer-based ABM.In addition ABM treatment is more effective in reduction of attentional bias.Both of treatments are effective but CBT is more effective than ABM in reduction of pain intensity.

  20. Modification of boundary plasma behavior by Ion Bernstein Wave heating on the HT-7 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, G.S.; Wan, B.N.; Song, M.; Ling, B.L.; Li, C.F.; Li, J.

    2003-01-01

    The boundary plasma behavior during Ion Bernstein Wave heating was investigated using Langmuir probe arrays on the HT-7 tokamak. A distinct weak turbulence regime was reproducibly observed in the 30 MHz IBW heated plasmas with RF power larger than 120 kW, which resulted in a particle confinement improvement of a factor of 2. The strong suppression and decorrelation effect of fluctuations resulted in the turbulent particle flux dropping by more than an order of magnitude in the plasma boundary region. An additional inward radial electric field and associated poloidal ExB flows were produced, which could account for the additional poloidal velocity in the electron diamagnetic direction at some radial locations of the boundary plasma. The electrostatic fluctuations were nearly completely decorrelated in the high frequency region and only low frequency fluctuations remained. The poloidal correlation was considerably reduced in the high poloidal wave number region and only the fluctuations with long poloidal wavelength remained. Three-wave nonlinear phase coupling between the whole frequency domain and the very low frequency region increased significantly in both the plasma edge and the SOL. Quite low frequency fluctuations (about 5 kHz) were generated, which dominated the boundary turbulence during IBW heating. Detailed analyses suggested that, when an IBW with a frequency of 30 MHz was launched into a plasma with the toroidal magnetic field between 1.75 T and 2.0 T, the ion cyclotron resonant layer of 5/2.D was located in the plasma edge region. The poloidal ExB sheared flows generated by IBW near this layer due to a ponderomotive interaction were found to be the mechanism underlying these phenomena. (author)

  1. The behavior modification through the play of children aged 3-7 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Lamcja (Zeqaj

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The integration of theory, technique and common factors in psychotherapy has gained prominence since the 1990s. Previously, it was called eclecticism, but integration has become the preferred term to describe the blending of theory, technique and common factors (Norcross, 2005. In the past, eclecticism meant to choose from various theories and techniques a therapeutic strategy that appears best for a particular client (Schaefer, 2003, .308. However, Norcross (1987 explains eclecticism as a further integration through which various theories are applied on interactive and coordinated explanations of the therapy. Psychological disorders, especially in complex children and adolescents a multifaceted treatment approach is needed (Schaefer 2003. Indeed, many clients do not come with a clearly defined diagnosis, but rather several overlapping problems due to the co morbidity of issues (such as in the cases of complex trauma resulting in overlapping attention problems, along with phobias and sexualized behaviors. The clinicians trained in one theoretical and treatment approach are finding the “one size” cannot fit in all the presenting problems that are being faced today. Due to this multidimensional aspect the play child/play therapy calls for the unique demand that the therapist should wear a lot of different hats and should be skillful in changing from one therapeutic stance to another, in order to meet the needs of the child and of the various members in the child’s life (Coonerty, 1993. In one moment, the play therapist is intensively involved in deeply evocative and conflicted play therapy the child client. At that moment, the therapist needs to deal with the child’s internal struggles, setting limits and being an educator or mediator with the child, while in the next moment the therapist should be engaged with the role of a parent, or school psychologist, or classroom teacher to assess the child’s functioning

  2. Investigating the Variables in a Mock Exam Study Session Designed to Improve Student Exam Performance in an Undergraduate Behavior Modification and Therapy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Wesley H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify components of an optional mock exam review session (e.g. requiring students to write answers, providing students grading keys for questions) responsible for improvements in student performance on application-based short-essay exams in an undergraduate behavior modification course. Both…

  3. Weight loss with naltrexone SR/bupropion SR combination therapy as an adjunct to behavior modification: the COR-BMOD trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 56-week, randomized, placebo-controlled trial examined the efficacy and safety of naltrexone plus bupropion as an adjunct to intensive behavior modification (BMOD). A total of 793 participants (BMI = 36.5 +/- 4.2 kg/m(2)) was randomly assigned in a 1:3 ratio to: (i) placebo + BMOD (N = 202); or...

  4. The Single and Combined Effects of Multiple Intensities of Behavior Modification and Methylphenidate for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in a Classroom Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano, Gregory A.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Coles, Erika K.; Chacko, Anil; Wymbs, Brian T.; Walker, Kathryn S.; Arnold, Fran; Garefino, Allison; Keenan, Jenna K.; Onyango, Adia N.; Hoffman, Martin T.; Massetti, Greta M.; Robb, Jessica A.

    2007-01-01

    Currently behavior modification, stimulant medication, and combined treatments are supported as evidence-based interventions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in classroom settings. However, there has been little study of the relative effects of these two modalities and their combination in classrooms. Using a within-subject design, the…

  5. Experimental Modification of Interpretation Bias about Animal Fear in Young Children: Effects on Cognition, Avoidance Behavior, Anxiety Vulnerability, and Physiological Responding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Kathryn J.; Field, Andy P.; Muris, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of experimentally modifying interpretation biases for children's cognitions, avoidance behavior, anxiety vulnerability, and physiological responding. Sixty-seven children (6-11 years) were randomly assigned to receive a positive or negative interpretation bias modification procedure to induce interpretation…

  6. Modification in the thermo mechanical behavior of biodegradable polyesters submitted to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mega, Veronica I; Fernandez, Victor; Eisenberg, Patricia; Hermida, Elida B

    2006-01-01

    The biopolymers poly(3- polyhydroxy butyrate) (PHB), poly(3-hydroxy butyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and their mixtures with other biodegradables like polycaprolactone (PCL) are materials that can be used in the production of food packaging and in bioabsorbable medical applications because of their good processability, suitable mechanical properties and complete degradation in different environments. Radiation γ is an appropriate method for the sterilization of food packaging. It offers good storage stability and high microbiological safety. This work proposes to study the effect of radiation γ on the mechanical and thermal properties of sheets of PHB, PHBV and of a PHB-based commercial biodegradable mixture. The samples standardized for traction tests were irradiated in air, at a constant dosage rate of 10 kGy/h. The range of absorbed doses was from 10 to 179 kGy. The possible structural changes were evaluated by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy. The thermal properties were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the mechanical properties were measured with a universal test machine. The ruling mechanism during the gamma irradiation of Biocycle 1000 (PHB), 1400-2 (PHB-PCL) and PHBV is chain scission. The decreased vitreous transition melting and crytallization temperatures of PHB and PHBV after increasing the dosage, are evidence of the reduction in average molecular weight due to this mechanism. A similar effect was observed in the mechanical properties of irradiated PHBV, Biocycle 1000 and 1400-2: decreased resistance to traction and in the percentage of elongation to fracture, while the tensile module remains almost constant. The tenacity of the Biocycle 1000 is reduced more than that for the PHBV, which is less crystalline; showing that the damage occurs mostly in the crystalline region. This behavior is repeated in the Biocycle 1400-2. For the doses used in food irradiation or in sterilization of food packaging (≤ 20

  7. T-pattern analysis of diazepam-induced modifications on the temporal organization of rat behavioral response to anxiety in hole board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarrubea, Maurizio; Sorbera, Filippina; Magnusson, Magnus S; Crescimanno, Giuseppe

    2011-05-01

    By means of t-pattern analysis, it has been observed that the different events, characterizing rat behavior in hole board (HB), present close interrelationships which occur sequentially and with significant constraints on the interval lengths separating them. The aim of present research was to study, by means of descriptive and multivariate t-pattern analyses, the effects of the reference anxiolytic drug diazepam (DZP) on temporal structure of a rat's anxiety-related behavior in HB. Fifty-six male Wistar rats were tested for 10 min in HB. Video files, collected for each animal, were coded by means of a software coder, and event log files, generated for each subject, were analyzed by means of a specific software for temporal pattern analysis (t-pattern analysis). Significant diazepam-induced modifications were observed for durations of walking, climbing, edge-sniff, and face grooming. Dose-dependent decreases of t-patterns' total amount, of their mean occurrences and of their mean length for each group were detected. Also, t-patterns' mean occurrences, in terms of different composition, were reduced. Percent distributions showed a significant increase of t-patterns including walking for all administered groups, and significant reductions of t-patterns including climbing, immobile sniffing, and edge-sniff. Front-paw licking and face grooming were reduced at the higher DZP dose. Present study demonstrates, for the first time, that the temporal structure of Wistar rats' behavioral response to anxiety in HB changes following pharmacological manipulation of anxiety condition. Moreover, t-pattern analysis is suggested to represent a useful tool to evaluate and compare different classes of anti-anxiety molecules.

  8. Attention bias modification augments cognitive-behavioral group therapy for social anxiety disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarov, Amit; Marom, Sofi; Yahalom, Naomi; Pine, Daniel S; Hermesh, Haggai; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2017-12-20

    Cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBGT) is a first-line treatment for social anxiety disorder (SAD). However, since many patients remain symptomatic post-treatment, there is a need for augmenting procedures. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) examined the potential augmentation effect of attention bias modification (ABM) for CBGT. Fifty patients with SAD from three therapy groups were randomized to receive an 18-week standard CBGT with either ABM designed to shift attention away from threat (CBGT + ABM), or a placebo protocol not designed to modify threat-related attention (CBGT + placebo). Therapy groups took place in a large mental health center. Clinician and self-report measures of social anxiety and depression were acquired pre-treatment, post-treatment, and at 3-month follow-up. Attention bias was assessed at pre- and post-treatment. Patients randomized to the CBGT + ABM group, relative to those randomized to the CBGT + placebo group, showed greater reductions in clinician-rated SAD symptoms post-treatment, with effects maintained at 3-month follow-up. Group differences were not evident for self-report or attention-bias measures, with similar reductions in both groups. Finally, reduction in attention bias did not mediate the association between group and reduction in Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale Structured Interview (LSAS) scores. This is the first RCT to examine the possible augmenting effect of ABM added to group-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for adult SAD. Training patients' attention away from threat might augment the treatment response to standard CBGT in SAD, a possibility that could be further evaluated in large-scale RCTs.

  9. Pharmacological evaluation of sedative and hypnotic effects of schizandrin through the modification of pentobarbital-induced sleep behaviors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenning; Zhao, Xu; Mao, Xin; Liu, Aijing; Liu, Zhi; Li, Xiaolong; Bi, Kaishun; Jia, Ying

    2014-12-05

    The fruits of Schisandra chinensis have been recorded as an effective somnificant for the treatment of insomnia in some oriental countries pharmacopoeias. However, the mechanism of sedative and hypnotic effects of this kind of herb is still unclear. In the present study, schizandrin, which is the main component of Schisandra chinensis, was selected as a target compound to investigate possible mechanisms through behavioral pharmacology methods. The results showed that schizandrin possessed dose-dependent (5-45 mg/kg, i.p.) sedative effects on locomotion activity in normal mice, and produced a dose-dependent decrease in sleep latency and an increase in sleep duration in pentobarbital-treated mice; thus, itself did not induce sleep at higher dose which was used in this experiment (45 mg/kg, i.p.). It also can reverse the rodent models of insomnia induced by p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) and caffeine, which could exhibit a syne with 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) as well; therefore, the hypnotic effects of schizandrin were not inhibited by flumazenil (a specific gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A-BZD receptor antagonist). Altogether, these results indicated that schizandrin produces beneficial sedative and hypnotic bioactivity, which might be mediated by the modification of the serotonergic system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of micro-environment modification and polymer type on the in-vitro dissolution behavior and in-vivo performance of amorphous solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weiwei; Pan, Baoliang

    2017-06-15

    This study investigates the effects of micro-environment modification and polymer type on the in-vitro dissolution behavior and in-vivo performance of micro-environment pH modifying solid dispersions (pH M -SD) for the poorly water-soluble model drug Toltrazuril (TOL). Various pH M -SDs were prepared using Ca(OH) 2 as a pH-modifier in hydrophilic polymers, including polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000), polyvinylpyrrolidone k30 (PVPk30) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC). Based on the results of physicochemical characterizations and in-vitro dissolution testing, the representative ternary (Ca(OH) 2 :TOL:PEG6000/HPMC/PVPk30=1:8:24, w/w/w) and binary (TOL:PVPk30=1:3, w/w) solid dispersions were selected and optimized to perform in-vivo pharmacokinetic study. The micro-environment pH modification improved the in-vitro water-solubility and in-vivo bioavailability of parent drug TOL. Furthermore, the addition of alkalizers not only enhanced the release and absorption of prototype drug, but also promoted the generation of active metabolites, including toltrazuril sulfoxide (TOLSO) and toltrazuril sulfone (TOLSO 2 ). The in-vitro dissolution profiles and in-vivo absorption, distribution and metabolism behaviors of the pH M -SDs varied with polymer type. Moreover, in-vivo bioavailability of three active pharmaceutical ingredients increased with an increase in in-vitro dissolution rates of the drug from the pH M -SDs prepared with various polymers. Therefore, a non-sink in-vitro dissolution method can be used to predict the in-vivo performance of pH M -SDs formulated with various polymers with trend consistency. In-vitro and in-vivo screening procedures revealed that the pH M -SD composed of Ca(OH) 2 , TOL and PVPk30 at a weight ratio of 1:8:24, of which the safety was adequately proved via histopathological examination, may be a promising candidate for providing better clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Applying the Model of Goal-Directed Behavior, Including Descriptive Norms, to Physical Activity Intentions: A Contribution to Improving the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Gabriele; van Bavel, René; Baranowski, Tom; Duch-Brown, Néstor

    2016-08-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contribute to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) applied to physical activity (PA) intention. We also test the inclusion of a descriptive norms construct as an addition to the subjective norms construct, also applied to PA, resulting in two additional models: TPB including descriptive norms (TPB + DN) and MGDB including descriptive norms (MGDB + DN). The study is based on an online survey of 400 young adult Internet users, previously enrolled in a subject pool. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed that TPB and TPB + DN were not fit for purpose, while MGDB and MGDB + DN were. Structural equation modelling (SEM) conducted on MGDB and MGDB + DN showed that the inclusion of descriptive norms took over the significance of injunctive norms, and increased the model's account of total variance in intention to be physically active. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. A randomized controlled trial of Internet-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy for perfectionism including an investigation of outcome predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozental, Alexander; Shafran, Roz; Wade, Tracey; Egan, Sarah; Nordgren, Lise Bergman; Carlbring, Per; Landström, Andreas; Roos, Stina; Skoglund, Malin; Thelander, Elisabet; Trosell, Linnéa; Örtenholm, Alexander; Andersson, Gerhard

    2017-08-01

    Being highly attentive to details can be a positive feature. However, for some individuals, perfectionism can lead to distress and is associated with many psychiatric disorders. Cognitive behavior therapy has been shown to yield many benefits for those experiencing problems with perfectionism, but the access to evidence-based care is limited. The current study investigated the efficacy of guided Internet-based Cognitive Behavior Therapy (ICBT) and predictors of treatment outcome. In total, 156 individuals were included and randomized to an eight-week treatment or wait-list control. Self-report measures of perfectionism, depression, anxiety, self-criticism, self-compassion, and quality of life were distributed during screening and at post-treatment. Intention-to-treat were used for all statistical analyses. Moderate to large between-group effect sizes were obtained for the primary outcome measures, Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, subscales Concerns over Mistakes and Personal Standards, Cohen's d = 0.68-1.00, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [0.36-1.33], with 35 (44.9%) of the patients in treatment being improved. Predictors were also explored, but none were related to treatment outcome. In sum, guided ICBT can be helpful for addressing problems with clinical perfectionism, but research of its long-term benefits is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Chemical Cues which Include Amino Acids Mediate Species-Specific Feeding Behavior in Invasive Filter-Feeding Bigheaded Carps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, Aaron W; Sorensen, Peter W

    2017-04-01

    This study tested whether and how dissolved chemicals might assist food recognition in two filter-feeding fishes, the silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and the bighead carp (H. nobilis). These species evolved in Asia, are now invasive in the Mississippi River, and feed voraciously on microparticles including plankton. The food habits and biology of these carps are broadly similar to many filter-feeding fish, none of whose chemical ecology has been examined. We conducted five experiments. First, we demonstrated that buccal-pharngeal pumping (BPP), a behavior in which fish pump water into their buccal cavities, is responsible for sampling food: BPP activity in both silver and bighead carps was low and increased nearly 25-fold after exposure to a filtrate of a planktonic food mixture (P amino acids could explain about half of the activity of food filtrate, other unknown chemical stimuli were also implicated. Finally, occlusion experiments showed the olfactory sense has a very important, but not exclusive, role in bigheaded carp feeding behaviors and this might be exploited in both their control and culture.

  14. Populus GT43 family members group into distinct sets required for primary and secondary wall xylan biosynthesis and include useful promoters for wood modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratke, Christine; Pawar, Prashant Mohan-Anupama; Balasubramanian, Vimal K; Naumann, Marcel; Duncranz, Mathilda Lönnäs; Derba-Maceluch, Marta; Gorzsás, András; Endo, Satoshi; Ezcurra, Ines; Mellerowicz, Ewa J

    2015-01-01

    The plant GT43 protein family includes xylosyltransferases that are known to be required for xylan backbone biosynthesis, but have incompletely understood specificities. RT-qPCR and histochemical (GUS) analyses of expression patterns of GT43 members in hybrid aspen, reported here, revealed that three clades of the family have markedly differing specificity towards secondary wall-forming cells (wood and extraxylary fibres). Intriguingly, GT43A and B genes (corresponding to the Arabidopsis IRX9 clade) showed higher specificity for secondary-walled cells than GT43C and D genes (IRX14 clade), although both IRX9 and IRX14 are required for xylosyltransferase activity. The remaining genes, GT43E, F and G (IRX9-L clade), showed broad expression patterns. Transient transactivation analyses of GT43A and B reporters demonstrated that they are activated by PtxtMYB021 and PNAC085 (master secondary wall switches), mediated in PtxtMYB021 activation by an AC element. The high observed secondary cell wall specificity of GT43B expression prompted tests of the efficiency of its promoter (pGT43B), relative to the CaMV 35S (35S) promoter, for overexpressing a xylan acetyl esterase (CE5) or downregulating REDUCED WALL ACETYLATION (RWA) family genes and thus engineering wood acetylation. CE5 expression was weaker when driven by pGT43B, but it reduced wood acetyl content substantially more efficiently than the 35S promoter. RNAi silencing of the RWA family, which was ineffective using 35S, was achieved when using GT43B promoter. These results show the utility of the GT43B promoter for genetically engineering properties of wood and fibres. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Dynamical behaviors of Rb-E2F pathway including negative feedback loops involving miR449.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang; Liu, Haihong; Hao, Junjun; Liu, Zengrong

    2012-01-01

    MiRNAs, which are a family of small non-coding RNAs, regulate a broad array of physiological and developmental processes. However, their regulatory roles have remained largely mysterious. E2F is a positive regulator of cell cycle progression and also a potent inducer of apoptosis. Positive feedback loops in the regulation of Rb-E2F pathway are predicted and shown experimentally. Recently, it has been discovered that E2F induce a cluster of miRNAs called miR449. In turn, E2F is inhibited by miR449 through regulating different transcripts, thus forming negative feedback loops in the interaction network. Here, based on the integration of experimental evidence and quantitative data, we studied Rb-E2F pathway coupling the positive feedback loops and negative feedback loops mediated by miR449. Therefore, a mathematical model is constructed based in part on the model proposed in Yao-Lee et al. (2008) and nonlinear dynamical behaviors including the stability and bifurcations of the model are discussed. A comparison is given to reveal the implication of the fundamental differences of Rb-E2F pathway between regulation and deregulation of miR449. Coherent with the experiments it predicts that miR449 plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle progression and provides a twofold safety mechanism to avoid excessive E2F-induced proliferation by cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Moreover, numerical simulation and bifurcation analysis shows that the mechanisms of the negative regulation of miR449 to three different transcripts are quite distinctive which needs to be verified experimentally. This study may help us to analyze the whole cell cycle process mediated by other miRNAs more easily. A better knowledge of the dynamical behaviors of miRNAs mediated networks is also of interest for bio-engineering and artificial control.

  16. Dynamical behaviors of Rb-E2F pathway including negative feedback loops involving miR449.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yan

    Full Text Available MiRNAs, which are a family of small non-coding RNAs, regulate a broad array of physiological and developmental processes. However, their regulatory roles have remained largely mysterious. E2F is a positive regulator of cell cycle progression and also a potent inducer of apoptosis. Positive feedback loops in the regulation of Rb-E2F pathway are predicted and shown experimentally. Recently, it has been discovered that E2F induce a cluster of miRNAs called miR449. In turn, E2F is inhibited by miR449 through regulating different transcripts, thus forming negative feedback loops in the interaction network. Here, based on the integration of experimental evidence and quantitative data, we studied Rb-E2F pathway coupling the positive feedback loops and negative feedback loops mediated by miR449. Therefore, a mathematical model is constructed based in part on the model proposed in Yao-Lee et al. (2008 and nonlinear dynamical behaviors including the stability and bifurcations of the model are discussed. A comparison is given to reveal the implication of the fundamental differences of Rb-E2F pathway between regulation and deregulation of miR449. Coherent with the experiments it predicts that miR449 plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle progression and provides a twofold safety mechanism to avoid excessive E2F-induced proliferation by cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Moreover, numerical simulation and bifurcation analysis shows that the mechanisms of the negative regulation of miR449 to three different transcripts are quite distinctive which needs to be verified experimentally. This study may help us to analyze the whole cell cycle process mediated by other miRNAs more easily. A better knowledge of the dynamical behaviors of miRNAs mediated networks is also of interest for bio-engineering and artificial control.

  17. Can We Selectively Reduce Appetite for Energy-Dense Foods? An Overview of Pharmacological Strategies for Modification of Food Preference Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojanowska, Ewa; Ciosek, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Excessive intake of food, especially palatable and energy-dense carbohydrates and fats, is largely responsible for the growing incidence of obesity worldwide. Although there are a number of candidate antiobesity drugs, only a few of them have been proven able to inhibit appetite for palatable foods without the concurrent reduction in regular food consumption. In this review, we discuss the interrelationships between homeostatic and hedonic food intake control mechanisms in promoting overeating with palatable foods and assess the potential usefulness of systemically administered pharmaceuticals that impinge on the endogenous cannabinoid, opioid, aminergic, cholinergic, and peptidergic systems in the modification of food preference behavior. Also, certain dietary supplements with the potency to reduce specifically palatable food intake are presented. Based on human and animal studies, we indicate the most promising therapies and agents that influence the effectiveness of appetite-modifying drugs. It should be stressed, however, that most of the data included in our review come from preclinical studies; therefore, further investigations aimed at confirming the effectiveness and safety of the aforementioned medications in the treatment of obese humans are necessary.

  18. Modification of thermal and rheological behavior of asphalt binder by the addition of an ethylene-methyl acrylate-glycidyl methacrylate terpolymer and polyphosphoric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson da Silva Pereira

    Full Text Available Abstract This study evaluated the modification effects of adding ethylene-methyl acrylate-glycidyl methacrylate terpolymer (EMGMA in the presence of polyphosphoric acid (PPA to an asphalt binder graded as 50/70 (0.1mm in the Brazilian penetration grade specification (AC 50/70. The EMGMA terpolymer has been presented as a new alternative to modify asphalt binders properties, as scientific literature is scarce on its usage in this context and also on the role of PPA when used in combination with reactive polymers. The characteristics of the modified binder were analyzed by standard and rheological testing, including Multiple Stress Creep Recovery test (MSCR and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR analysis. The MSCR test showed that the modified binder presented lower values of non-recoverable compliances (Jnr and a higher percent recovery, when compared to the conventional binder. This behavior indicates that addition of EMGMA and PPA in asphalt binders could enhance the resistance to rutting of asphalt mixtures. The statistical evaluation showed that EMGMA had greater influence on the studied properties of Jnr (0.1kPa, MSCR recovery, softening point and elastic recovery at 25°C and that the PPA had also significant influence on these properties. FTIR analysis showed that chemical reactions occurred between the asphalt binder and EMGMA, forming a three-dimensional polymeric network, which promotes improved characteristics.

  19. Behavioral Modification of Parents With the Barkley Method to Increase Resilience of Mothers of Children With Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haji Seyed Javadi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Mothers of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder are faced with more stress than mothers of healthy children and this extreme stress can affect their ability to train their children effectively. Psychologists believe that there is a moderating factor between stressful events and psychological disorders that cause stressful events to have different effects on individuals. A type of this moderating factor is resiliency. Objectives To determine the efficacy of behavioral modification with Barkley method on resilience of mothers of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Patients and Methods Twenty-four mothers of children diagnosed with ADHD were randomly enrolled in this study. The mothers were selected from the 22nd of Bahman hospital of Qazvin city. Mothers with a low score in resilience with children aged between four and twelve years were assigned to experimental and control groups. In this study, a questionnaire was used to measure resilience. The data were analyzed by covariance analysis. Results The behavioral modification of mothers with the Barkley method significantly enhanced their resiliency with children of ADHD in the experimental group compared to the control group. Conclusions The behavioral modification was found to be effective for the resilience of mothers of children with ADHD.

  20. [The effects of a physical activity-behavior modification combined intervention(PABM-intervention) on metabolic risk factors in overweight and obese elementary school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Young-Ran; An, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Young-A; Woo, Hae-Young

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of a physical activity-behavior modification combined intervention(PABM-intervention) on metabolic risk factors in overweight and obese elementary school children. Thirty-two participants (BMI>or=85 percentile or relative obesity>or=10) were allocated to the PABM-intervention group and behavior modification only intervention group. The PABM-intervention was composed of exercise intervention consisting of 50 minutes of physical activity(Hip-hop dance & gym-based exercises) twice a week and the behavior modification intervention consisted of 50 minutes of instruction for modifying lifestyle habits(diet & exercise) once a week. Effectiveness of intervention was based on waist circumference, BP, HDL-cholesterol, TG, and fasting glucose before and after the intervention. The proportion of subjects with 1, 2, 3 or more metabolic risk factors were 28.1, 43.8, and 15.6%, respectively. After the 8-week intervention, waist circumference, systolic BP, diastolic BP, and HDL-cholesterol changed significantly(p<.01) in the PABM group. This provides evidence that a PABM-intervention is effective in changing metabolic risk factors such as waist circumference, systolic BP, diastolic BP, and HDL-cholesterol in overweight and obese elementary school children.

  1. Effect of goal attainment theory based education program on cardiovascular risks, behavioral modification, and quality of life among patients with first episode of acute myocardial infarction: Randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Moonkyoung; Song, Rhayun; Jeong, Jin-Ok

    2017-06-01

    Effect of goal-attainment-theory-based education program on cardiovascular risks, behavioral modification, and quality of life among patients with first episode of acute myocardial infarction: randomized study BACKGROUND: The behavioral modification strategies should be explored at the time of admission to lead the maximum effect of cardiovascular risk management. This randomized study aimed to elucidate the effects of a nurse-led theory-based education program in individuals with a first episode of acute myocardial infarction on cardiovascular risks, health behaviors, and quality of life over 6 months. The study involved a convenience sample of 64 patients with acute myocardial infarction who were randomly assigned to either the education group or the control group. The goal-attainment-based education program was designed to set the mutually agreed goals of risk management and the behavioral modification strategies for achieving those goals. Those in the control group received routine management only. The participants in both groups were contacted at 6-8 weeks and at 6 months after discharge to measure outcome variables. Repeated measure ANOVA was conducted using SPSSWIN (version 20.0) to determine the significance of differences in outcome variables over 6 months between the groups. Both groups showed significant positive changes in cardiovascular risks, health behaviors, and quality of life over 6 months. The 2-year risk of cardiovascular disease was significantly reduced in both study groups, but with no significant interaction effect (F=2.01, p=0.142). The performance and maintenance of health behaviors (F=3.75, p=0.029) and the mental component of quality of life (F=4.03, p=0.020) were significantly better in the education group than the control group. Applying a goal-oriented education program at an early stage of hospital management improved and maintained blood glucose, health behaviors, and mental component of the quality of life up to six months in

  2. Reliability of the qualitative behavior assessment as included in the Welfare Quality Assessment protocol for growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czycholl, I; Beilage, E Grosse; Henning, C; Krieter, J

    2017-08-01

    Positive emotions constitute a very important part of animal welfare. They are, however, also the most challenging elements to be objectively measured. Due to its feasibility, the qualitative behavior assessment (QBA) is included in the Welfare Quality Assessment protocol for growing pigs as the animal-based measurement tool for positive emotions. Reliability testing on the QBA in the form as included in the protocols is, however, rare. Therefore, the present study aimed at the evaluation of the inter- and intraobserver as well as test-retest reliability of the QBA in growing pigs. This was done by trained observers based on 19 joint on-farm assessments, the repeated assessments of 24 farms during 2 growing periods, and 107 video sequences. The results were compared between the observers and the repeated farm visits. Therefore, millimeter values were directly compared by calculation of Spearman's rank correlation coefficients (RS), and furthermore, the results were subjected to a principal component analysis (PCA). The results identified 2 main principal components (PC; PC1 and PC2) together explaining from 42 to 75% of the variation in the recorded variables of the different PCA. The factor loadings that the adjectives reached on PC1 and PC2 were compared by calculation of RS between observers and farm visits, respectively. Reliability was interpreted as acceptable if at least a moderate correlation was detected; that is, RS was greater than or equal to 0.4. Regarding the on-farm assessments, and, therefore, under practical conditions, no sufficient interobserver reliability (RS = -0.16 for PC1 and RS = 0.13 for PC2) was found. In terms of the test-retest reliability, only 1 comparison of 2 farm visits showed a positive correlation for PC1 (RS = 0.79) as well as for PC2 (RS = 0.64). The other 5 comparisons presented negative to weak positive correlations. However, based on video sequences, good interobserver (RS = 0.67 for PC1 and RS = 0.60 for PC2) and

  3. The effects of minor alloy modifications and heat treatment on the microstructure and creep rupture behavior of 2.25Cr-1Mo Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, J.A.; Chung, D.W.; Parker, E.R.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of alloy additions on the microstructure of simulated cooled and tempered 2.25Cr-1Mo steels have been studied using transmission electron microscopy. Carbide precipitation sequences have been identified in the modification 3Cr-1Mo-1Mn-1Ni and compared to those in 2.25Cr-1Mo steels modified with Mn and Ni and also with Ti, V and B. The influence of minor compositional changes on the creep rupture behavior of 2.25Cr-1Mo steel has been studied at 500 C, 560 C, and 600 C. The most significant effect of alloy modifications on creep properties resulted from additions of Mn and Cr. Preliminary studies show that 1% Mn and 0.5Mn + 1Ni + 0.75Cr additions significantly reduce creep strength at all three temperatures for tests up to 2000 hours duration. The 3Cr-1Mo-1Mn-1Ni steel showed improvements in rupture ductility at all temperatures when compared with the base 2.25Cr-1Mo steel and the manganese-nickel modifications. Plots of the Larson-Miller parameter for both these modifications lay within the scatter band for commercial 2.25Cr-1Mo steels

  4. African-American and Latina Women Seeking Public Health Services: Cultural Beliefs regarding Pregnancy, including Medication-taking Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Dalia Sanchez, MD, MCP, MHA, PhD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe cultural beliefs and medication-taking-behavior about pregnancy in African-American and Latina women. Design: qualitative study using phenomenological methodology; face-to-face, semi structured interviews and focus group. Thematic analysis was done to obtain themes consistent with the research objective. Setting: Maricopa County, Arizona, Department of Public-health Programs, November 2008 through April 2009.Participants: women seeking public-health services in the greater Phoenix, Arizona.Results: fifteen adult women representing two ethnic groups (seven African-Americans and eight Latinas participated. Themes derived from the interview data included: “The Dilemma: To Become or Not to Become Pregnant;” “The Ideal Stress-free World: Support System;” “Changing Worlds: Wanting Dependency;” and “The Health care System: Disconnection from Pregnancy to Postpartum.”Conclusions: based on the cultural themes: 1. pregnancies were not planned; 2. healthy life-style changes were not likely to occur during pregnancy; 3. basic facts about the biology of sexual intercourse and pregnancy were not understood, and there was no usage of any preconceptional or prenatal medications; and 4. professional health care was not desired or considered necessary (except during delivery. These cultural beliefs can contribute to negative birth outcomes, and need to be considered by pharmacists and other health-care providers. The information gained from this study can guide the implementation of educational programs developed by pharmacists that are more sensitive to the cultural beliefs and points of view of these particular women. Such programs would thus be more likely to be favorably received and utilized.

  5. Administering stuttering modification therapy in school settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Dale F; Dugan, Peter M

    2002-08-01

    Stuttering modification techniques can be used effectively in the school setting. In fact, speech-language pathologists can use this environment to their advantage to address not only disfluency but also the emotional and behavioral aspects of stuttering. Toward this end, stuttering modification goals and techniques are outlined, with a discussion of how to adapt them to school environments. Specific topics include writing clear, measurable IEP goals, taking advantage of the school setting to implement these goals, administering stuttering modification within a group therapy mode, involving parents and teachers, and monitoring progress.

  6. Effects of luminance contrast and its modifications on fixation behavior during free viewing of images from different categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açik, Alper; Onat, Selim; Schumann, Frank; Einhäuser, Wolfgang; König, Peter

    2009-06-01

    During viewing of natural scenes, do low-level features guide attention, and if so, does this depend on higher-level features? To answer these questions, we studied the image category dependence of low-level feature modification effects. Subjects fixated contrast-modified regions often in natural scene images, while smaller but significant effects were observed for urban scenes and faces. Surprisingly, modifications in fractal images did not influence fixations. Further analysis revealed an inverse relationship between modification effects and higher-level, phase-dependent image features. We suggest that high- and mid-level features--such as edges, symmetries, and recursive patterns--guide attention if present. However, if the scene lacks such diagnostic properties, low-level features prevail. We posit a hierarchical framework, which combines aspects of bottom-up and top-down theories and is compatible with our data.

  7. The effects of a novel hostile interpretation bias modification paradigm on hostile interpretations, mood, and aggressive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AlMoghrabi, Nouran; Huijding, Jorg; Franken, Ingmar H A

    2018-01-01

    Background and objectives Cognitive theories of aggression propose that biased information processing is causally related to aggression. To test these ideas, the current study investigated the effects of a novel cognitive bias modification paradigm (CBM-I) designed to target interpretations

  8. Mechanisms of metabonomic for a gateway drug: nicotine priming enhances behavioral response to cocaine with modification in energy metabolism and neurotransmitter level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Li

    Full Text Available Nicotine, one of the most commonly used drugs, has become a major concern because tobacco serves as a gateway drug and is linked to illicit drug abuse, such as cocaine and marijuana. However, previous studies mainly focused on certain genes or neurotransmitters which have already been known to participate in drug addiction, lacking endogenous metabolic profiling in a global view. To further explore the mechanism by which nicotine modifies the response to cocaine, we developed two conditioned place preference (CPP models in mice. In threshold dose model, mice were pretreated with nicotine, followed by cocaine treatment at the dose of 2 mg/kg, a threshold dose of cocaine to induce CPP in mice. In high-dose model, mice were only treated with 20 mg/kg cocaine, which induced a significant CPP. (1H nuclear magnetic resonance based on metabonomics was used to investigate metabolic profiles of the nucleus accumbens (NAc and striatum. We found that nicotine pretreatment dramatically increased CPP induced by 2 mg/kg cocaine, which was similar to 20 mg/kg cocaine-induced CPP. Interestingly, metabolic profiles showed considerable overlap between these two models. These overlapped metabolites mainly included neurotransmitters as well as the molecules participating in energy homeostasis and cellular metabolism. Our results show that the reinforcing effect of nicotine on behavioral response to cocaine may attribute to the modification of some specific metabolites in NAc and striatum, thus creating a favorable metabolic environment for enhancing conditioned rewarding effect of cocaine. Our findings provide an insight into the effect of cigarette smoking on cocaine dependence and the underlying mechanism.

  9. Mechanisms of Metabonomic for a Gateway Drug: Nicotine Priming Enhances Behavioral Response to Cocaine with Modification in Energy Metabolism and Neurotransmitter Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyu; Bu, Qian; Chen, Bo; Shao, Xue; Hu, Zhengtao; Deng, Pengchi; Lv, Lei; Deng, Yi; Zhu, Ruiming; Li, Yan; Zhang, Baolai; Hou, Jing; Du, Changman; Zhao, Qian; Fu, Dengqi; Zhao, Yinglan; Cen, Xiaobo

    2014-01-01

    Nicotine, one of the most commonly used drugs, has become a major concern because tobacco serves as a gateway drug and is linked to illicit drug abuse, such as cocaine and marijuana. However, previous studies mainly focused on certain genes or neurotransmitters which have already been known to participate in drug addiction, lacking endogenous metabolic profiling in a global view. To further explore the mechanism by which nicotine modifies the response to cocaine, we developed two conditioned place preference (CPP) models in mice. In threshold dose model, mice were pretreated with nicotine, followed by cocaine treatment at the dose of 2 mg/kg, a threshold dose of cocaine to induce CPP in mice. In high-dose model, mice were only treated with 20 mg/kg cocaine, which induced a significant CPP. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance based on metabonomics was used to investigate metabolic profiles of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and striatum. We found that nicotine pretreatment dramatically increased CPP induced by 2 mg/kg cocaine, which was similar to 20 mg/kg cocaine-induced CPP. Interestingly, metabolic profiles showed considerable overlap between these two models. These overlapped metabolites mainly included neurotransmitters as well as the molecules participating in energy homeostasis and cellular metabolism. Our results show that the reinforcing effect of nicotine on behavioral response to cocaine may attribute to the modification of some specific metabolites in NAc and striatum, thus creating a favorable metabolic environment for enhancing conditioned rewarding effect of cocaine. Our findings provide an insight into the effect of cigarette smoking on cocaine dependence and the underlying mechanism. PMID:24489831

  10. Sustaining a "culture of silence" in the neonatal intensive care unit during nonemergency situations: a grounded theory on ensuring adherence to behavioral modification to reduce noise levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swathi, S; Ramesh, A; Nagapoornima, M; Fernandes, Lavina M; Jisina, C; Rao, P N Suman; Swarnarekha, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to generate a substantive theory explaining how the staff in a resource-limited neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a developing nation manage to ensure adherence to behavioral modification components of a noise reduction protocol (NsRP) during nonemergency situations. The study was conducted after implementation of an NsRP in a level III NICU of south India. The normal routine of the NICU is highly dynamic because of various categories of staff conducting clinical rounds followed by care-giving activities. This is unpredictably interspersed with very noisy emergency management of neonates who suddenly fall sick. In-depth interviews were conducted with 36 staff members of the NICU (20 staff nurses, six nursing aides, and 10 physicians). Group discussions were conducted with 20 staff nurses and six nursing aides. Data analysis was done in line with the reformulated grounded theory approach, which was based on inductive examination of textual information. The results of the analysis showed that the main concern was to ensure adherence to behavioral modification components of the NsRP. This was addressed by using strategies to "sustain a culture of silence in NICU during nonemergency situations" (core category). The main strategies employed were building awareness momentum, causing awareness percolation, developing a sense of ownership, expansion of caring practices, evolution of adherence, and displaying performance indicators. The "culture of silence" reconditions the existing staff and conditions new staff members joining the NICU. During emergency situations, a "noisy culture" prevailed because of pragmatic neglect of behavioral modification when life support overrode all other concerns. In addition to this, the process of operant conditioning should be formally conducted once every 18 months. The results of this study may be adapted to create similar strategies and establish context specific NsRPs in NICUs with resource constraints.

  11. Spatio-temporal neighborhood impacts on internalizing and externalizing behaviors in U.S. elementary school children: Effect modification by child and family socio-demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Jamie L; Root, Elisabeth D

    2017-05-01

    Increasing evidence from experimental and non-experimental research has shown that children residing in disadvantaged neighborhoods exhibit greater levels of internalizing and externalizing behaviors, above and beyond individual characteristics, and family or school contexts. Using the ECLS-K, a nationally representative, longitudinal survey of U.S. school children, this study examined direct neighborhood effects on internalizing (N = 14,870; N = 10,610) and externalizing (N = 14,960; N = 10,730) behaviors at the beginning and end of elementary school. Using IPTW propensity scores to mitigate selection bias and ordinary least squares regression, we examined direct neighborhood effects when children were 7 years old (1st grade) and when they were 11 years old (5th grade). We also examined neighborhood effect modification by child child race/ethnicity, sex, family structure, and family SES. Both the direct effect and effect modification models indicated that living in disadvantaged neighborhoods had no impact on either internalizing or externalizing behaviors at the beginning of elementary school (age 7). At the end of elementary school (age 11), we found small, yet significant direct neighborhood associations with effect sizes ranging from 0.12 to 0.18 standard deviations. The effect modification analysis revealed that being black (relative to white) was the strongest moderator of the relationship between neighborhood context and internalizing and externalizing behaviors in 5th grade, with effect sizes ranging from 0.27 to 0.59 standard deviations. Being Hispanic in high poverty neighborhoods was found to be protective for externalizing behaviors, suggesting the presence of the Hispanic health paradox. We also found, that in some neighborhood contexts, child sex, family structure, and family socioeconomic status amplified or dampened the effect of neighborhood, but only for externalizing behaviors. These results demonstrate the importance of age

  12. Suppression of Remodeling Behaviors with Arachidonic Acid Modification for Enhanced in vivo Antiatherogenic Efficacies of Lovastatin-loaded Discoidal Recombinant High Density Lipoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongliang; Zhang, Mengyuan; Liu, Lisha; Zhang, Shuangshuang; Liu, Jianping; Zhang, Wenli

    2015-10-01

    A series of in vitro evaluation in our previous studies had proved that arachidonic acid (AA) modification could suppress the remodeling behaviors of lovastatin-loaded discoidal reconstituted high density lipoprotein (LT-d-rHDL) by restraining the reactivity with lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) for reducing undesired drug leakage. This study focuses on the investigation of AA-modified LT-d-rHDL (AA-LT-d-rHDL) in atherosclerotic New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit models to explore whether AA modification could enhance drug targeting delivery and improve antiatherogenic efficacies in vivo. After pharmacokinetics of AA-LT-d-rHDL modified with different AA amount were investigated in atherosclerotic NZW rabbits, atherosclerotic lesions targeting property was assessed by ex vivo imaging of aortic tree and drug distribution. Furthermore, their antiatherogenic efficacies were elaborately evaluated and compared by typical biochemical indices. With AA modification amount augmenting, circulation time of AA-LT-d-rHDL was prolonged, and drug accumulation in the target locus was increased, eventually the significant appreciation in antiatherogenic efficacies were further supported by lower level of bad cholesterol, decreased atherosclerotic lesions areas and mean intima-media thickness (MIT), markedly attenuated matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) protein expression and macrophage infiltration. This proof-of-concept study demonstrated that AA-LT-d-rHDL could enhance drug accumulation in atherosclerotic lesion and impede atherosclerosis progression more effectively.

  13. Effect of surface modification by nitrogen ion implantation on the electrochemical and cellular behaviors of super-elastic NiTi shape memory alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki-Ghaleh, H; Khalil-Allafi, J; Sadeghpour-Motlagh, M; Shakeri, M S; Masoudfar, S; Farrokhi, A; Beygi Khosrowshahi, Y; Nadernezhad, A; Siadati, M H; Javidi, M; Shakiba, M; Aghaie, E

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this investigation was to enhance the biological behavior of NiTi shape memory alloy while preserving its super-elastic behavior in order to facilitate its compatibility for application in human body. The surfaces of NiTi samples were bombarded by three different nitrogen doses. Small-angle X-ray diffraction was employed for evaluating the generated phases on the bombarded surfaces. The electrochemical behaviors of the bare and surface-modified NiTi samples were studied in simulated body fluid (SBF) using electrochemical impedance and potentio-dynamic polarization tests. Ni ion release during a 2-month period of service in the SBF environment was evaluated using atomic absorption spectrometry. The cellular behavior of nitrogen-modified samples was studied using fibroblast cells. Furthermore, the effect of surface modification on super-elasticity was investigated by tensile test. The results showed the improvement of both corrosion and biological behaviors of the modified NiTi samples. However, no significant change in the super-elasticity was observed. Samples modified at 1.4E18 ion cm(-2) showed the highest corrosion resistance and the lowest Ni ion release.

  14. Can't See the Wood for the Litter: Evaluation of Litter Behavior Modification in a Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann-Matthies, Petra; Bonigk, Isabel; Benkowitz, Dorothee

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated elementary school children's (n = 171) litter behavior during guided forest tours following two different treatments. Four classes received a verbal appeal not to litter in the forest, while another four classes received both a verbal appeal and a demonstration of the desired litter behavior (picking up litter, putting it…

  15. Fatigue Behavior and Modeling of Additively Manufactured Ti-6Al-4V Including Interlayer Time Interval Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torries, Brian; Shamsaei, Nima

    2017-12-01

    The effects of different cooling rates, as achieved by varying the interlayer time interval, on the fatigue behavior of additively manufactured Ti-6Al-4V specimens were investigated and modeled via a microstructure-sensitive fatigue model. Comparisons are made between two sets of specimens fabricated via Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS™), with variance in interlayer time interval accomplished by depositing either one or two specimens per print operation. Fully reversed, strain-controlled fatigue tests were conducted, with fractography following specimen failure. A microstructure-sensitive fatigue model was calibrated to model the fatigue behavior of both sets of specimens and was found to be capable of correctly predicting the longer fatigue lives of the single-built specimens and the reduced scatter of the double-built specimens; all data points fell within the predicted upper and lower bounds of fatigue life. The time interval effects and the ability to be modeled are important to consider when producing test specimens that are smaller than the production part (i.e., property-performance relationships).

  16. Differences in Tribological Behaviors upon Switching Fixed and Moving Materials of Tribo-pairs including Metal and Polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Aijie; Tian, Pengyi; Wen, Shizhu; Guo, Fei; Hu, Yueqiang; Jia, Wenpeng; Dong, Conglin; Tian, Yu

    2017-10-12

    The coefficient of friction (COF) between two materials is usually believed to be an intrinsic property of the materials themselves. In this study, metals of stainless steel (304) and brass (H62), and polymers of polypropylene (PP) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were tested on a standard ball-on-three-plates test machine. Significantly different tribological behaviors were observed when fixed and moving materials of tribo-pairs (metal/polymer) were switched. As an example, under the same applied load and rotating speed, the COF (0.49) between a rotating PP ball and three fixed H62 plates was approximately 2.3 times higher than that between switched materials of tribo-pairs. Meanwhile, the COF between H62 and PTFE was relatively stable. The unexpected tribological behaviors were ascribed to the thermal and mechanical properties of tribo-pairs. Theoretical analysis revealed that the differences in the maximum local temperature between switching the fixed and moving materials of tribo-pairs were consistent with the differences in the tested COF. This result indicated the precise prediction of the COF of two materials is complexcity, and that thermal and mechanical properties should be properly considered in designing tribo-pairs, because these properties may significantly affect tribological performance.

  17. Permit application modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This document contains the Permit Application Modifications for the Y-12 Industrial Landfill V site on the Oak Ridge Reservation. These modifications include the assessment of stability of the proposed Landfill V under static and loading conditions. Analyses performed include the general slope stability, veneer stability of the bottom liner and cover system, and a liquefaction potential assessment of the foundation soils.

  18. Permit application modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This document contains the Permit Application Modifications for the Y-12 Industrial Landfill V site on the Oak Ridge Reservation. These modifications include the assessment of stability of the proposed Landfill V under static and loading conditions. Analyses performed include the general slope stability, veneer stability of the bottom liner and cover system, and a liquefaction potential assessment of the foundation soils

  19. Mechanisms of action of a psychological intervention for dementia caregivers: effects of behavioral activation and modification of dysfunctional thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losada, Andrés; Márquez-González, María; Romero-Moreno, Rosa

    2011-11-01

    Different studies show the negative effects on caregivers' health of maladaptive thoughts and the positive effects of engaging in pleasurable activities on distress. The aim of this study is to (a) test the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral intervention aimed at training caregivers to flexibilize maladaptive thoughts regarding caregiving and increasing their leisure activities and to (b) analyse the mediator role in the effects of the intervention of caregivers' change in dysfunctional thoughts and behavioral activation. A total of 170 caregivers were contacted and randomly distributed to the intervention condition or to the control group. Depression, behavioral activation, and dysfunctional thoughts were assessed at baseline and post-intervention by 'blinded' interviewers. The intervention consisted in twelve group based sessions in which in addition to cognitive-behavioral techniques, caregivers' were trained in basic principles for caring for a relative with dementia. Significant intervention by time effects were found for depression, dysfunctional thoughts and frequency of leisure activities. Only significant positive effects were found for the intervention group. The regression analysis for testing mediational effects of dysfunctional thoughts and leisure activities on the relationship between participating on the intervention and changes in depressive symptomatology show that mediation is established in both cases. The results of our study contribute to the literature on interventions for dementia caregivers highlighting the positive mediator effect that modifying caregivers' dysfunctional thoughts and increasing their behavioral activation has on caregivers' depressive symptomatology. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Modification of the Feline-Ality™ Assessment and the Ability to Predict Adopted Cats’ Behaviors in Their New Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Emily; Gramann, Shannon; Drain, Natasha; Dolan, Emily; Slater, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary While millions of cats enter animal shelters every year, only 11.5% of pet cats are obtained from a shelter in the United States. Previous research has indicated that unrealistic expectations set by adopters can increase the chances of an adopted cat returning to the shelter. The ASPCA®’s Meet Your Match® Feline-ality™ adoption program was designed to provide adopters with accurate information about an adult cat’s future behavior in the home. This research explored the ability of the modified Feline-ality™ assessment when done one day after the cat entered the shelter. Our modified version was predictive of feline behavior post adoption. Abstract It is estimated that 2.5 million cats enter animal shelters in the United States every year and as few as 20% leave the shelter alive. Of those adopted, the greatest risk to post-adoption human animal bond is unrealistic expectations set by the adopter. The ASPCA®’s Meet Your Match® Feline-ality™ adoption program was developed to provide adopters with an accurate assessment of an adult cat’s future behavior in the home. However, the original Feline-ality™ required a three-day hold time to collect cat behaviors on a data card, which was challenging for some shelters. This research involved creating a survey to determine in-home feline behavior post adoption and explored the predictive ability of the in-shelter assessment without the data card. Our results show that the original Feline-ality™ assessment and our modified version were predictive of feline behavior post adoption. Our modified version also decreased hold time for cats to one day. Shelters interested in increasing cat adoptions, decreasing length of stay and improving the adoption experience can now implement the modified version for future feline adoption success. PMID:26479138

  1. Application of the Theoretical Domains Framework and the Behaviour Change Wheel to Understand Physicians' Behaviors and Behavior Change in Using Temporary Work Modifications for Return to Work: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horppu, Ritva; Martimo, K P; MacEachen, E; Lallukka, T; Viikari-Juntura, E

    2018-03-01

    Purpose Applying the theoretical domains framework (TDF) and the Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW) to understand physicians' behaviors and behavior change in using temporary work modifications (TWMs) for return to work (RTW). Methods Interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with 15 occupational physicians (OPs). Responses were coded using the TDF and the BCW. Results Key behaviors related to applying TWMs were initiating the process with the employee, making recommendations to the workplace, and following up the process. OP behaviors were influenced by several factors related to personal capability and motivation, and opportunities provided by the physical and social environment. Capability comprised relevant knowledge and skills related to applying TWMs, remembering to initiate TWMS and monitor the process, and being accustomed to reflective practice. Opportunity comprised physical resources (e.g., time, predefined procedures, and availability of modified work at companies), and social pressure from stakeholders. Motivation comprised conceptions of a proper OP role, confidence to carry out TWMs, personal RTW-related goals, beliefs about the outcomes of one's actions, feedback received from earlier cases, and feelings related to applying TWMs. OPs' perceived means to target these identified factors were linked to the following BCW intervention functions: education, training, persuasion, environmental restructuring, and enablement. The results suggest that at least these functions should be considered when designing future interventions. Conclusions Our study illustrates how theoretical frameworks TDF and BCW can be utilized in a RTW context to understand which determinants of physicians' behavior need to be targeted, and how, to promote desired behaviors.

  2. A Case Report of Dissociative Neurosis (Depersonalization Disorder) in an Adolescent Treated with Family Therapy and Behavior Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollinger, Stephen J.

    1983-01-01

    Describes the use of behavioral procedures as part of systems-oriented family therapy for the treatment of an adolescent girl's functional blackouts. Treatment successfully eliminated blackouts without directly addressing clear psychosexual issues. Discusses the case in terms of conceptualizing etiology and treatments and advocates working with…

  3. Modification of the Feline-Ality™ Assessment and the Ability to Predict Adopted Cats’ Behaviors in Their New Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Weiss

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that 2.5 million cats enter animal shelters in the United States every year and as few as 20% leave the shelter alive. Of those adopted, the greatest risk to post-adoption human animal bond is unrealistic expectations set by the adopter. The ASPCA®’s Meet Your Match® Feline-ality™ adoption program was developed to provide adopters with an accurate assessment of an adult cat’s future behavior in the home. However, the original Feline-ality™ required a three-day hold time to collect cat behaviors on a data card, which was challenging for some shelters. This research involved creating a survey to determine in-home feline behavior post adoption and explored the predictive ability of the in-shelter assessment without the data card. Our results show that the original Feline-ality™ assessment and our modified version were predictive of feline behavior post adoption. Our modified version also decreased hold time for cats to one day. Shelters interested in increasing cat adoptions, decreasing length of stay and improving the adoption experience can now implement the modified version for future feline adoption success.

  4. Fouling behavior of poly(ether)sulfone ultrafiltration membrane during concentration of whey proteins: Effect of hydrophilic modification using atmospheric pressure argon jet plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damar Huner, Irem; Gulec, Haci Ali

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of hydrophilic surface modification via atmospheric pressure jet plasma (ApJPls) on the fouling propensity of polyethersulfone (PES) ultrafiltration (UF) membranes during concentration of whey proteins. The distance from nozzle to substrate surface of 30mm and the exposure period of 5 times were determined as the most effective parameters enabling an increase in ΔG iwi value of the plain membrane from (-) 14.92±0.89mJ/m 2 to (+) 17.57±0.67mJ/m 2 . Maximum hydrophilicity and minimum surface roughness achieved by argon plasma action resulted in better antifouling behavior, while the hydraulic permeability and the initial permeate flux were decreased sharply due to the plasma-induced surface cross-linking. A quite steady state flux was obtained throughout the UF with the ApJPls modified PES membrane. The contribution of R frev to R t , which was 94% for the UF through the plain membrane, decreased to 43% after the plasma treatment. The overall results of this study highlighted the ApJPls modification decreased the fouling propensity of PES membrane without affecting the original protein rejection capability and improved the recovery of initial permeate flux after chemical cleaning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of nitriding atmosphere on the modification of surface titanium with focus on the behavior of blood platelets adhesion; Influencia da atmosfera nitretante na modificacao de superficies de titanio com enfase no comportamento de adesao de plaquetas sanguineas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitoriano, J.O.; Alves, C. [Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Arido (UFERSA), RN (Brazil); Braz, D.C.; Camara, R.B.G.; Rocha, H.A.O., E-mail: clodomiro.jr@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The present study aimed to analyze the influence of surface modification of titanium on the adhesion of blood platelets, through techniques of adhesion and morphological analyzes. Discs of titanium grade II received different surface treatments with plasma of Ar + N{sub 2} + H{sub 2} and Ar + H{sub 2}, forming two experimental groups including only polished samples used as standard. Before and after treatment the samples were characterized according to topography, crystalline structure and wettability, using atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and testing of sessile drop, respectively. Platelet rich plasma (PRP) was applied on the modified surfaces in a culture plates. Images obtained by electron microscopy of adhered platelets were analyzed to verify the behavior of platelets in the different experimental conditions. (author)

  6. An Exploratory Analysis of Child Feeding Beliefs and Behaviors Included in Food Blogs Written by Mothers of Preschool-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doub, Allison E; Small, Meg; Birch, Leann

    2016-02-01

    This study analyzed child feeding beliefs and behaviors, types of recipes, and their associations in blogs focused on child feeding. The authors selected 13 blogs using purposive snowball sampling, from which 158 blog posts were sampled and coded using directed qualitative content analysis. Child feeding beliefs and behaviors and types of recipes were coded using schemes developed from existing literature. Code frequencies were calculated. Chi-square tests for independence examined associations between child feeding and recipe codes. Bonferroni corrections were applied: P feeding beliefs and behaviors were coded in 78% and 49% of posts, respectively. Beliefs about children's food preferences (48% of posts) and involving children in food preparation (27% of posts) were the most frequent codes. Recipes were included in 66% of posts. Most recipes were for mixed dishes (32% of recipes), followed by sweets and desserts (19% of recipes). Vegetable recipes were more likely in posts that included behavior encouraging balance and variety (χ2 [1, n = 104] = 18.54; P feeding practices. Future research should explore how mothers use blogs to learn about child feeding. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of surface modification by ion implantation on the fatigue behavior in metastable β-phase Ti-24V alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    Fatigue response of ion implanted Ti-24V alloy was studied under strain and stress controlled fatigue conditions. The structural changes by ion implantation were investigated using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Nitrogen and boron implantation resulted in surface regions having a fine titanium nitride and dense titanium boride, respectively. A metastable substitutional solid solution was produced through vanadium implantation. These modifications in surface structure altered the surface deformation modes and crack initiation response and the related fatigue life under strain controlled fatigue conditions. Nitrogen and vanadium implantation resulted in a beneficial effect in strain controlled fatigue. The improvement contributed to enhancement of crack nucleation resistance through strain homogenization for nitrogen implanted surfaces and an increase of slip reversibility for vanadium implanted specimens. The inhomogeneous coarse slip resulting from boron implantation induced early crack initiation under strain controlled conditions and thereby reduced the fatigue life. Under stress controlled fatigue conditions, fatigue life and endurance limit were enhanced following ion implantation with nitrogen, boron, and vanadium

  8. How Compliance Measures, Behavior Modification, and Continuous Quality Improvement Led to Routine HIV Screening in an Emergency Department in Brooklyn, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Jermel Kyri; Sanchez, Travis H; Brown, Emily H; Thompson, Gina; Sanchez, Christina; Fils-Aime, Stephany; Maria, Jose

    2016-01-01

    New York State adopted a new HIV testing law in 2010 requiring medical providers to offer an HIV test to all eligible patients aged 13-64 years during emergency room or ambulatory care visits. Since then, Wyckoff Heights Medical Center (WHMC) in Brooklyn, New York, began implementing routine HIV screening organization-wide using a compliance, behavior-modification, and continuous quality-improvement process. WHMC first implemented HIV screening in the emergency department (ED) and evaluated progress with the following monthly indicators: HIV tests offered, HIV tests accepted, HIV tests ordered (starting in December 2013), HIV tests administered, positive HIV tests, and linkage to HIV care. Compliance with the delivery of HIV testing was determined by the proportion of patients who, after accepting a test, received one. During August 2013 through July 2014, of 57,852 eligible patients seen in the WHMC ED, a total of 31,423 (54.3%) were offered an HIV test. Of those, 8,229 (26.2%) patients accepted a test. Of those, 6,114 (74.3%) underwent a test. A total of 26 of the 6,114 patients tested (0.4%) had a positive test, and 24 of the 26 HIV-positive patients were linked to HIV medical care. By July 2014, the monthly proportion of patients offered a test was 62%; the proportion of those offered a test who had a test ordered was 98%, and the proportion of those with a test ordered who were tested was 81%. Testing compliance increased substantially at the WHMC ED, from 77% in December 2013 to >98% in July 2014. Using compliance-monitoring, behavior-modification, and continuous quality-improvement processes produced substantial increases in offers and HIV test completion. WHMC is replicating this approach across departments, and other hospitals implementing routine HIV screening programs should consider this approach as well.

  9. Modification of the effects of 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine on exploratory behavior in rats by monoamine oxidase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberstadt, Adam L; Buell, Mahalah R; Masten, Virginia L; Risbrough, Victoria B; Geyer, Mark A

    2008-11-01

    The hallucinogenic tea known as ayahuasca is made from a combination of psychoactive plants that contribute the active components N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and 5-methoxy-DMT (5-MeO-DMT), as well as the monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors (MAOIs) harmine and harmaline for oral activity. The present study examined the effects of 5-MeO-DMT in combination with MAOIs in rats using the behavioral pattern monitor, which enables analyses of patterns of locomotor activity and exploration. Interaction studies using the serotonin (5-HT)(1A) antagonist WAY-100635 (1.0 mg/kg) and the 5-HT(2A) antagonist MDL 11,939 (1.0 mg/kg) were also performed to assess the respective contributions of these receptors to the behavioral effects of 5-MeO-DMT in MAOI-treated animals. 5-MeO-DMT (0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 mg/kg) decreased locomotor activity and investigatory behavior. In rats pretreated with a behaviorally inactive dose of harmaline (0.1 mg/kg), 1.0 mg/kg 5-MeO-DMT had biphasic effects on locomotor activity, initially reducing locomotion and then increasing activity as time progressed. The ability of harmaline to shift 5-MeO-DMT to a biphasic locomotor pattern was shared by the selective MAO(A) inhibitor clorgyline, whereas the selective MAO(B) inhibitor (-)-deprenyl was ineffective. The late hyperactivity induced by the combination of 1.0 mg/kg 5-MeO-DMT and 0.3 mg/kg clorgyline was blocked by pretreatment with MDL 11,939. Pretreatment with WAY-100635 failed to attenuate either the early hypoactivity or the late hyperactivity. The ability of harmaline to modify the behavioral effects of 5-MeO-DMT is mediated by the inhibition of MAO(A). Furthermore, 5-HT(2A) receptors are responsible for the late hyperactivity induced by 5-MeO-DMT in the presence of MAO(A) inhibitors.

  10. Modification of the effects of 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine on exploratory behavior in rats by monoamine oxidase inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberstadt, Adam L.; Buell, Mahalah R.; Masten, Virginia L.; Risbrough, Victoria B.; Geyer, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    RATIONALE The hallucinogenic tea known as ayahuasca is made from a combination of psychoactive plants that contribute the active components N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and 5-methoxy-DMT (5-MeO-DMT), as well as the monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors (MAOIs) harmine and harmaline for oral activity. OBJECTIVE The present study examined the effects of 5-MeO-DMT in combination with MAOIs in rats using the Behavioral Pattern Monitor (BPM), which enables analyses of patterns of locomotor activity and exploration. Interaction studies using the serotonin (5-HT)1A antagonist WAY-100635 (1.0 mg/kg) and the 5-HT2A antagonist MDL 11,939 (1.0 mg/kg) were also performed to assess the respective contributions of these receptors to the behavioral effects of 5-MeO-DMT in MAOI-treated animals. RESULTS 5-MeO-DMT (0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 mg/kg) decreased locomotor activity and investigatory behavior. In rats pretreated with a behaviorally inactive dose of harmaline (0.1 mg/kg), 1.0 mg/kg 5-MeO-DMT had biphasic effects on locomotor activity, initially reducing locomotion and then increasing activity as time progressed. The ability of harmaline to shift 5-MeO-DMT to a biphasic locomotor pattern was shared by the selective MAOA inhibitor clorgyline, whereas the selective MAOB inhibitor (−)-deprenyl was ineffective. The late hyperactivity induced by the combination of 1.0 mg/kg 5-MeO-DMT and 0.3 mg/kg clorgyline was blocked by pretreatment with MDL 11,939. Pretreatment with WAY-100635 failed to attenuate either the early hypoactivity or the late hyperactivity. CONCLUSIONS The ability of harmaline to modify the behavioral effects of 5-MeO-DMT is mediated by inhibition of MAOA. Further, 5-HT2A receptors are responsible for the late hyperactivity induced by 5-MeO-DMT in the presence of MAOA inhibitors. PMID:18604652

  11. An evaluation of a college exercise leader program: using exercise science students as advocates for behavior modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Shelley Nicole; Henderson, Daniel R; Williams, Brian M; Burcin, Michelle M

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a college's exercise leadership program, which was developed to help students, faculty and staff implement behavior changes necessary to begin and maintain a comprehensive exercise program. From 2006-2011, a total 66 subjects were recruited and each was assigned to a student exercise leader. Based on comprehensive baseline assessments, each student designed an individualized exercise program for his/her subject. At program completion, the subjects were reassessed. Paired t tests were used to find significant statistical changes (P College Health Association known as Healthy Campus 2020. The findings from this study have a direct impact on programmatic efforts.

  12. Instruction in behavior modification can significantly alter soil-transmitted helminth (STH) re-infection following therapeutic de-worming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Julia W; Basaric-Keys, Jasna

    2006-01-01

    Five elementary ("prototypic") schools located in five districts in central Java were selected and the children examined for helminth infections (Ascaris, Trichuris, hookworm). They were de-wormed with a course of mebendazole and provided with 6-7 months of "behavioral remediation instruction" (BRI). In other ("control") schools, children were treated with mebendazole but were not provided BRI. The objective was to determine the effectiveness of BRI in minimizing infection/re-infection following deworming. After the 6-7 month course of BRI in the prototypic schools, all the children (in both the prototypic and control schools) were re-examined for geohelminth infection. The schools in two of the five districts were omitted from further analysis because the overall prevalence of infection was low (<10%) and the infections were dominated by hookworm which are only moderately susceptible to mebendazole. Comparisons of prototypic and control schools in the other three districts provided compelling evidence that BRI was quite effective in reducing both the frequency and intensity of infection with Ascaris and Trichuris. We suggest that instructing children and adults corrects personal habits which are conducive to infection and can be an effective and safe substitute for repeated deworming, reducing the opportunity for the emergence of drug-resistant helminthes, which should prolong the time benzimidazoles may be used for treatment of geohelminth infection.

  13. A cross-bridge based model of force depression: Can a single modification address both transient and steady-state behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corr, David T; Herzog, Walter

    2016-03-21

    Force depression (FD), the reduction of isometric force following active shortening, is a phenomenon of skeletal muscle that has received significant attention in biomechanical and physiological literature, yet the mechanisms underlying FD remain unknown. Recent experiments identified a slower rate of force redevelopment with increasing amounts of steady-state FD, suggesting that FD may be caused, at least in part, by a decrease in cross-bridge binding rate (Corr and Herzog, 2005; Koppes et al., 2014). Herein, we develop a cross-bridge based model of FD in which the binding rate function, f, decreases with the mechanical work performed during shortening. This modification incorporates a direct relationship between steady-state FD and muscle mechanical work (Corr and Herzog, 2005; Herzog et al., 2000; Kosterina et al., 2008), and is consistent with a proposed mechanism attributing FD to stress-induced inhibition of cross-bridge attachments (Herzog, 1998; Maréchal and Plaghki, 1979). Thus, for an increase in mechanical work, the model should predict a slower force redevelopment (decreased attachment rate) to a more depressed steady-state force (fewer attached cross-bridges), and a reduction in contractile element stiffness (Ford et al., 1981). We hypothesized that since this modification affects the cross-bridge kinetics, a corresponding model would be able to account for both transient and steady-state FD behaviors. Comparisons to prior experiments (Corr and Herzog, 2005; Herzog et al., 2000; Kosterina et al., 2008) show that both steady-state and transient aspects of FD, as well as the relationship of FD with respect to speed and amplitude of shortening, are well captured by this model. Thus, this relatively simple cross-bridge based model of FD lends support to a mechanism involving the inhibition of cross-bridge binding, and indicates that cross-bridge kinetics may play a critical role in FD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Modification of the effects of benzodiazepines on the exploratory behaviors of mice on a hole-board by diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, J; Ohsawa, M; Tsuji, M; Takeda, H; Matsumiya, T

    2001-05-01

    The effect of diabetes on the emotional behavior of mice was examined using an automatic hole-board apparatus. Changes in the emotional state of mice were evaluated in terms of changes in exploratory activity; i.e., total locomotor activity, numbers and duration of rearing and head-dipping, and latency to the first head-dipping. The number and duration of head-dipping in diabetic mice were less than those in non-diabetic mice. Diazepam (0.1-0.56 mg/kg, i.p.) dose-dependently increased the number and duration of head-dipping at doses that did not produce sedation in both diabetic and non-diabetic mice. In contrast, methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) decreased the number and duration of head-dipping in non-diabetic mice, but not in diabetic mice. The number and duration of head-dipping in diabetic mice were increased by treatment with flumazenil (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg, i.v.). These doses of flumazenil did not affect the number or duration of head-dipping in non-diabetic mice. The present data indicate that diabetic mice exhibited anxiety in the hole-board test and that a benzodiazepine receptor antagonist affected the attenuated number and duration of head-dipping in diabetic mice. The heightened anxiety in diabetic mice may be due to the dysfunction of the benzodiazepine receptor and/or of central inhibitory systems.

  15. Effect of Bronchodilation and Exercise Training with Behavior Modification on Exercise Tolerance and Downstream Effects on Symptoms and Physical Activity in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troosters, Thierry; Maltais, François; Leidy, Nancy; Lavoie, Kim L; Sedeno, Maria; Janssens, Wim; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Erzen, Damijan; De Sousa, Dorothy; Korducki, Lawrence; Hamilton, Alan; Bourbeau, Jean

    2018-04-17

    Bronchodilation and exercise training (ExT) improve exercise tolerance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); however, behavior modification is required to impact on daily physical activity (PA). To assess whether tiotropium/olodaterol, ±ExT, would improve exercise endurance time (EET) and PA compared with placebo in patients participating in a self-management behavior-modification (SMBM) program. A 12-week, randomized, partially double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial in patients with COPD (PHYSACTO®; NCT02085161). All patients were enrolled into SMBM and randomized 1:1:1:1 to once-daily placebo, tiotropium 5 µg, tiotropium/olodaterol 5/5 µg, or tiotropium/olodaterol 5/5 µg plus 8 weeks ExT. EET, measured by endurance shuttle walk test after 8 weeks, was the primary endpoint. Additional endpoints assessed downstream effects on PA (measured via accelerometry), and activity-related dyspnea and difficulty (using validated patient-reported questionnaires). SMBM + tiotropium/olodaterol, ±ExT, significantly improved EET at Week 8 versus SMBM + placebo (treatment ratio versus placebo: with ExT 1.46 [95% CI: 1.20, 1.78]; P=0.0002; without ExT 1.29 [1.06, 1.57]; P=0.0109). No significant increases in steps per day from baseline were observed over SMBM + placebo at Week 12 (increase of 1,098) when other therapies were added. Adding tiotropium/olodaterol, ±ExT, to SMBM reduced activity-related dyspnea versus placebo, while adding tiotropium/olodaterol + ExT reduced activity-related difficulty. Tiotropium/olodaterol, ±ExT, improved EET in patients with COPD taking part in an SMBM program. Combination bronchodilation, ±ExT, did not provide additional increases in objective PA compared with SMBM alone, but did reduce physical activity-related dyspnea and difficulty. Clinical trial registration available at www.clinicaltrials.gov, ID NCT02085161.

  16. A systematic study of mechanical properties, corrosion behavior and biocompatibility of AZ31B Mg alloy after ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiaoning; Qin, Haifeng; Gao, Hongyu; Mankoci, Steven; Zhang, Ruixia; Zhou, Xianfeng; Ren, Zhencheng; Doll, Gary L; Martini, Ashlie; Sahai, Nita; Dong, Yalin; Ye, Chang

    2017-09-01

    Magnesium alloys have tremendous potential for biomedical applications due to their good biocompatibility, osteoconductivity, and degradability, but can be limited by their poor mechanical properties and fast corrosion in the physiological environment. In this study, ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification (UNSM), a recently developed surface processing technique that utilizes ultrasonic impacts to induce plastic strain on metal surfaces, was applied to an AZ31B magnesium (Mg) alloy. The mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility of the alloy after UNSM treatment were studied systematically. Significant improvement in hardness, yield stress and wear resistance was achieved after the UNSM treatment. In addition, the corrosion behavior of UNSM-treated AZ31B was not compromised compared with the untreated samples, as demonstrated by the weight loss and released element concentrations of Mg and Al after immersion in alpha-minimum essential medium (α-MEM) for 24h. The in vitro biocompatibility of the AZ31B Mg alloys toward adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) before and after UNSM processing was also evaluated using a cell culture study. Comparable cell attachments were achieved between the two groups. These studies showed that UNSM could significantly improve the mechanical properties of Mg alloys without compromising their corrosion rate and biocompatibility in vitro. These findings suggest that UNSM is a promising method to treat biodegradable Mg alloys for orthopaedic applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Role of structural modifications of montmorillonite, electrical properties effect, physical behavior of nanocomposite proton conducting membranes for direct methanol fuel cell applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abidin K. Sainul

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Proton exchange membranes have been synthesized from polyimide (PI doped with different contents of montmorillonite (MMT which was obtained by solution casting technique. The enhancement of conductivity was achieved through modification with the MMT. Prepared membranes were systematically characterized in terms of ion exchange capacity, water uptake, methanol uptake, swelling behavior and proton conductivity. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements were used to confirm the structures of the PI/MMT composite electrolyte membranes. SEM surface morphological images of the composite membranes showed that the MMT nanoclay particles were dispersed uniformly within the membrane what was also reflected in XRD results which indicated a good compatibility of MMT particles with the polymer complex. The TGA spectra showed that the thermal stability of the membrane was reduced by adding MMT into the polymer network. The prepared membrane with 10 wt.% of modified MMT exhibited the highest proton conductivity value of 7.06 × 10-2 S·cm-1 at 70 °C. These results imply the potential application of the PI/MMT composite membranes as improved PEMs for DMFC applications.

  18. Effect of modifications in mineralized collagen fibril and extra-fibrillar matrix material properties on submicroscale mechanical behavior of cortical bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaohui; Ural, Ani

    2018-03-11

    A key length scale of interest in assessing the fracture resistance of bone is the submicroscale which is composed of mineralized collagen fibrils (MCF) and extra-fibrillar matrix (EFM). Although the processes through which the submicroscale constituents of bone contribute to the fracture resistance in bone have been identified, the extent of the modifications in submicroscale mechanical response due to the changes in individual properties of MCFs and EFM has not been determined. As a result, this study aims to quantify the influence of individual MCF and EFM material property modifications on the mechanical behavior (elastic modulus, ultimate strength, and resistance to failure) of bone at the submicroscale using a novel finite element modeling approach that incorporate 3D networks of MCFs with three different orientations as well as explicit representation of EFM. The models were evaluated under tensile loading in transverse (representing MCF separation) and longitudinal (representing MCF rupture) directions. The results showed that the apparent elastic modulus at the submicroscale under both loading directions for all orientations was only affected by the change in the elastic modulus of MCFs. MCF separation and rupture strengths were mainly dependent on the ultimate strength of EFM and MCFs, respectively, with minimal influence of other material properties. The extent of damage during MCF separation increased with increasing ultimate strength of EFM and decreased with increasing fracture energy of EFM with minimal contribution from elastic modulus of MCFs. For MCF rupture, there was an almost one-to-one linear relationship between the percent change in fracture energy of MCFs and the percent change in the apparent submicroscale fracture energy. The ultimate strength and elastic modulus of MCFs had moderate to limited influence on the MCF rupture fracture energy. The results of this study quantified the extent of changes that may be seen in the energy

  19. Personal behaviors including food consumption and mineral supplement use among Japanese adults: a secondary analysis from the National Health and Nutrition Survey, 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yoko; Tsubota-Utsugi, Megumi; Chiba, Tsuyoshi; Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo; Takimoto, Hidemi; Nishi, Nobuo; Umegaki, Keizo

    2016-01-01

    A daily mineral supplement is useful for those who are at risk of a deficiency. Some Western reports suggest that mineral supplement users have healthy behaviors and are not mineral-deficient. It is unknown whether the same phenomenon is observed in Japan where there is a different dietary culture. The aim of this study was to examine the characteristics of personal behaviors including food consumption nationwide among mineral supplement users from the National Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan 2003-2010. Data were obtained from 16,275 adults aged 20-59 years who completed sociodemographic, health status, and 1-day household dietary assessments. Supplement users were compared with non-users. Logistic regression models were utilized to identify the characteristics of food consumption and calcium and iron supplement use, using the medium intake group as a reference. Overall, 2.1% and 1.4% of adults reported using calcium supplements and iron supplements, respectively. Calcium supplement users were more likely to be physically active, non-smokers, and eat less fat compared with non-users. Furthermore, they were more likely than non-users to consume a higher intake of calcium from foods such as tea, vegetables, seaweeds, and fruits. Iron supplement users were more likely than non-users to be non-smokers. These individuals tended to have a high intake of seaweeds and fruits. Japanese adults who had healthier behaviors were more likely to use mineral supplements, especially calcium. Mineral supplement users tended to choose healthy foods such as seaweeds and fruits, without considering their overall mineral consumption.

  20. Evaluation of a Behavioral Guidance Structure at Bonneville Dam Second Powerhouse including Passage Survival of Juvenile Salmon and Steelhead using Acoustic Telemetry, 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faber, Derrek M.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Hughes, James S.; McComas, Roy L.; Kim, Jina; Townsend, R.L.; Fu, Tao; Skalski, J.R.; Fischer, Eric S.

    2010-01-01

    Summarizes research conducted at Bonneville Dam in 2008 to evaluate a prototype Behavioral Guidance Structure, that was deployed by the US Army Corps of Engineers in an effort to increase survival of outmigrating smolts at Bonneville Dam. In 2008, the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers contracted with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to conduct an acoustic telemetry study to evaluate a newly deployed 700-ft-long and 10-ft-deep behavioral guidance structure (BGS) located in the forebay of the Bonneville Dam second powerhouse (B2) and to estimate the survival of yearling Chinook salmon, subyearling Chinook salmon, and juvenile steelhead passing downstream through this powerhouse. The BGS was deployed to increase the survival of fish passing B2 by increasing the percentage of outmigrating smolts entering the B2 Corner Collector, a surface flow outlet known to be a relatively benign route for downstream passage at this dam. Fish longer than 95 mm were surgically implanted with Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) and passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags, held overnight in tanks supplied with continuous flow of river water to allow time for recovery from surgery and released upstream as part of two concurrent survival studies that were evaluating survival at John Day Dam and the Bonneville spillway. Tagged fish were released at or downstream of Arlington, Oregon, approximately 156 km upstream on the Columbia River. Additional release points included the tailwaters of John Day Dam and The Dalles Dam. The volitional movements of the tagged migrants were subsequently tracked through the B2 forebay to their eventual route of passage. Passage location was recorded and incorporated with detections from three downstream survival arrays to produce survival estimates. The tracked positions of fish in the forebay and passage distribution at B2 were evaluated to determine behavior relative to the BGS location.

  1. ADVANCED POWER SYSTEMS - ASH BEHAVIOR IN POWER SYSTEMS. INCLUDES THE SEMIANNUAL REPORT FOR THE PERIOD JANUARY 01, 1998 - JUNE 30, 1998.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The overall goal of this initiative is to develop fundamental knowledge of ash behavior in power systems for the purpose of increasing power production efficiency, reducing operation and maintenance costs, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. The specific objectives of this initiative focus primarily on ash behavior related to advanced power systems and include the following: Determine the current status of the fundamental ash interactions and deposition formation mechanisms as already reported through previous or ongoing projects at the EERC or in the literature; Determine sintering mechanisms for temperatures and particle compositions that are less well known and remain for the most part undetermined; Identify the relationship between the temperature of critical viscosity (T{sub cv}) as measured in a viscometer and the crystallization occurring in the melt; Perform a literature search on the use of heated-stage microscopy (HSM) for examining in situ ash-sintering phenomena and then validate the use of HSM in the determination of viscosity in spherical ash particles; Ascertain the formation and stability of specific mineral or amorphous phases in deposits typical of advanced power systems; and Evaluate corrosion for alloys being used in supercritical combustion systems.

  2. Effect of Combined Systematized Behavioral Modification Education Program With Desmopressin in Patients With Nocturia: A Prospective, Multicenter, Randomized, and Parallel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Yong Cho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The aims of this study were to investigate the efficacy of combining the systematized behavioral modification program (SBMP with desmopressin therapy and to compare this with desmopressin monotherapy in the treatment of nocturnal polyuria (NPU. Methods Patients were randomized at 8 centers to receive desmopressin monotherapy (group A or combination therapy, comprising desmopressin and the SBMP (group B. Nocturia was defined as an average of 2 or more nightly voids. The primary endpoint was a change in the mean number of nocturnal voids from baseline during the 3-month treatment period. The secondary endpoints were changes in the bladder diary parameters and questionnaires scores, and improvements in self-perception for nocturia. Results A total of 200 patients were screened and 76 were excluded from the study, because they failed the screening process. A total of 124 patients were randomized to receive treatment, with group A comprising 68 patients and group B comprising 56 patients. The patients' characteristics were similar between the groups. Nocturnal voids showed a greater decline in group B (-1.5 compared with group A (-1.2, a difference that was not statistically significant. Significant differences were observed between groups A and B with respect to the NPU index (0.37 vs. 0.29, P=0.028, the change in the maximal bladder capacity (-41.3 mL vs. 13.3 mL, P<0.001, and the rate of patients lost to follow up (10.3% [7/68] vs. 0% [0/56], P=0.016. Self-perception for nocturia significantly improved in both groups. Conclusions Combination treatment did not have any additional benefits in relation to reducing nocturnal voids in patients with NPU; however, combination therapy is helpful because it increases the maximal bladder capacity and decreases the NPI. Furthermore, combination therapy increased the persistence of desmopressin in patients with NPU.

  3. Media Reporting on Suicide: Evaluating the Effects of Including Preventative Resources and Psychoeducational Information on Suicide Risk, Attitudes, Knowledge, and Help-Seeking Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Caitlin L; Witte, Tracy K

    2017-05-15

    We evaluated the effects of exposure to a suicide news article on a variety of outcome variables and whether adhering to one specific media guideline (i.e., including psychoeducational information and preventative resources) buffered any of the negative effects of exposure. Participants were randomly assigned to read one of three articles and then asked to complete a battery of self-report questionnaires. Overall, we found no effect of exposure to a suicide news article, regardless of the inclusion of resources and information, with a few minor exceptions. Although researchers have demonstrated the effectiveness of media guidelines in the aggregate at reducing imitative suicidal behavior, it remains unclear which guidelines in particular are responsible for this effect. © 2017 The American Association of Suicidology.

  4. Low-temperature oxidizing plasma surface modification and composite polymer thin-film fabrication techniques for tailoring the composition and behavior of polymer surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Brendan D.

    This dissertation examines methods for modifying the composition and behavior of polymer material surfaces. This is accomplished using (1) low-temperature low-density oxidizing plasmas to etch and implant new functionality on polymers, and (2) plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) techniques to fabricate composite polymer materials. Emphases are placed on the structure of modified polymer surfaces, the evolution of polymer surfaces after treatment, and the species responsible for modifying polymers during plasma processing. H2O vapor plasma modification of high-density polyethylene (HDPE), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polycarbonate (PC), and 75A polyurethane (PU) was examined to further our understanding of polymer surface reorganization leading to hydrophobic recovery. Water contact angles (wCA) measurements showed that PP and PS were the most susceptible to hydrophobic recovery, while PC and HDPE were the most stable. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed a significant quantity of polar functional groups on the surface of all treated polymer samples. Shifts in the C1s binding energies (BE) with sample age were measured on PP and PS, revealing that surface reorganization was responsible for hydrophobic recovery on these materials. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to rule out the intrinsic thermal properties as the cause of reorganization and hydrophobic recovery on HDPE, LDPE, and PP. The different contributions that polymer cross-linking and chain scission mechanisms make to polymer aging effects are considered. The H2O plasma treatment technique was extended to the modification of 0.2 microm and 3.0 microm track-etched polycarbonate (PC-TE) and track-etched polyethylene terephthalate (PET-TE) membranes with the goal of permanently increasing the hydrophilicity of the membrane surfaces. Contact angle measurements on freshly treated and aged samples confirmed the wettability of the

  5. Identifying similar and different factors effecting long-term cardiac exercise rehabilitation behavior modification between New Zealand and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Stephanie; Lark, Sally; Fallows, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Cardiac Rehabilitation (CR) programs are the most cost-effective measure for reducing morbidity associated with Coronary Vascular Disease (CVD). To be more effective there is a need to understand what influences the maintenance of healthy behaviors. This study identifies similar and different influences in CR of the United Kingdom (UK) and New Zealand (NZ). A retrospective study. Participants had previously been discharged from CR for 6 to 12+ months within the UK (n = 22) and NZ (n = 21). Participant's attended a focus group. Discussions were digitally recorded, transcribed then thematically analyzed. The CR programs were observed over 2 months to enable comment on findings relating to 'theory in practice.' Similar positive patient experiences influencing behavior between groups and countries were; support, education, positive attitude, and motivation. Companionship and exercising alongside people with similar health problems was the major determinant for positive exercise behavior. Barriers to maintaining exercise included; physical disabilities, time constraints, and weather conditions. NZ participants were more affected by external factors (eg, opportunity, access, and time). Both CR programs were successful in facilitating the maintenance of healthy lifestyles. Exercising with other cardiac patients for support in a structured environment was the strongest influence in maintaining healthy lifestyles beyond CR programs.

  6. Exploratory study of the effects of wing-leading-edge modifications on the stall/spin behavior of a light general aviation airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Configurations with full-span and segmented leading-edge flaps and full-span and segmented leading-edge droop were tested. Studies were conducted with wind-tunnel models, with an outdoor radio-controlled model, and with a full-scale airplane. Results show that wing-leading-edge modifications can produce large effects on stall/spin characteristics, particularly on spin resistance. One outboard wing-leading-edge modification tested significantly improved lateral stability at stall, spin resistance, and developed spin characteristics.

  7. Attack of the S. Mutans!: a stereoscopic-3D multiplayer direct-manipulation behavior-modification serious game for improving oral health in pre-teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Ari; Rose, Howard; Kollin, Joel; Moss, William

    2011-03-01

    Attack! of the S. Mutans is a multi-player game designed to harness the immersion and appeal possible with wide-fieldof- view stereoscopic 3D to combat the tooth decay epidemic. Tooth decay is one of the leading causes of school absences and costs more than $100B annually in the U.S. In 2008 the authors received a grant from the National Institutes of Health to build a science museum exhibit that included a suite of serious games involving the behaviors and bacteria that cause cavities. The centerpiece is an adventure game where five simultaneous players use modified Wii controllers to battle biofilms and bacteria while immersed in environments generated within a 11-foot stereoscopic WUXGA display. The authors describe the system and interface used in this prototype application and some of the ways they attempted to use the power of immersion and the appeal of S3D revolution to change health attitudes and self-care habits.

  8. Evaluation of a Behavioral Guidance Structure at Bonneville Dam Second Powerhouse including Passage Survival of Juvenile Salmon and Steelhead using Acoustic Telemetry, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, Derrek M.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Hughes, James S.; McComas, Roy L.; Kim, Jina; Townsend, R. L.; Fu, Tao; Skalski, J. R.; Fischer, Eric S.

    2010-02-12

    Summarizes research conducted at Bonneville Dam in 2008 to evaluate a prototype Behavioral Guidance Structure, that was deployed by the US Army Corps of Engineers in an effort to increase survival of outmigrating smolts at Bonneville Dam.

  9. Lifestyle modification in the management of the metabolic syndrome: achievements and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Dalle Grave

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Riccardo Dalle Grave1, Simona Calugi1, Elena Centis2, Rebecca Marzocchi2, Marwan El Ghoch1, Giulio Marchesini21Department of Eating & Weight Disorder, Villa Garda Hospital, Garda (VR, Italy; 2Unit of Metabolic Diseases & Clinical Dietetics, Alma Mater Studiorum – University of Bologna, Bologna, ItalyAbstract: Lifestyle modification based on behavior therapy is the most important and effective strategy to manage the metabolic syndrome. Modern lifestyle modification therapy combines specific recommendations on diet and exercise with behavioral and cognitive strategies. The intervention may be delivered face-to-face or in groups, or in groups combined with individual sessions. The main challenge of treatment is helping patients maintain healthy behavior changes in the long term. In the last few years, several strategies have been evaluated to improve the long-term effect of lifestyle modification. Promising results have been achieved by combining lifestyle modification with pharmacotherapy, using meals replacement, setting higher physical activity goals, and long-term care. The key role of cognitive processes in the success/failure of weight loss and maintenance suggests that new cognitive procedures and strategies should be included in the traditional lifestyle modification interventions, in order to help patients build a mind-set favoring long-term lifestyle changes. These new strategies raise optimistic expectations for an effective treatment of metabolic syndrome with lifestyle modifications, provided public health programs to change the environment where patients live support them.Keywords: metabolic syndrome, obesity, lifestyle modification, cognitive behavior therapy

  10. Sustaining a “culture of silence” in the neonatal intensive care unit during nonemergency situations: A grounded theory on ensuring adherence to behavioral modification to reduce noise levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Swathi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to generate a substantive theory explaining how the staff in a resource-limited neonatal intensive care unit (NICU of a developing nation manage to ensure adherence to behavioral modification components of a noise reduction protocol (NsRP during nonemergency situations. The study was conducted after implementation of an NsRP in a level III NICU of south India. The normal routine of the NICU is highly dynamic because of various categories of staff conducting clinical rounds followed by care-giving activities. This is unpredictably interspersed with very noisy emergency management of neonates who suddenly fall sick. In-depth interviews were conducted with 36 staff members of the NICU (20 staff nurses, six nursing aides, and 10 physicians. Group discussions were conducted with 20 staff nurses and six nursing aides. Data analysis was done in line with the reformulated grounded theory approach, which was based on inductive examination of textual information. The results of the analysis showed that the main concern was to ensure adherence to behavioral modification components of the NsRP. This was addressed by using strategies to “sustain a culture of silence in NICU during nonemergency situations” (core category. The main strategies employed were building awareness momentum, causing awareness percolation, developing a sense of ownership, expansion of caring practices, evolution of adherence, and displaying performance indicators. The “culture of silence” reconditions the existing staff and conditions new staff members joining the NICU. During emergency situations, a “noisy culture” prevailed because of pragmatic neglect of behavioral modification when life support overrode all other concerns. In addition to this, the process of operant conditioning should be formally conducted once every 18 months. The results of this study may be adapted to create similar strategies and establish context specific NsRPs in NICUs

  11. An open trial of individualized face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy for psychological distress in parents of children after end of treatment for childhood cancer including a cognitive behavioral conceptualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungman, Lisa; Cernvall, Martin; Ghaderi, Ata; Ljungman, Gustaf; von Essen, Louise; Ljótsson, Brjánn

    2018-01-01

    A subgroup of parents of children who have been treated for childhood cancer report high levels of psychological distress. To date there is no empirically supported psychological treatment targeting cancer-related psychological distress in this population. The aim of the current study was to test the feasibility and preliminarily evaluate the effect of individualized face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for parents of children after the end of treatment for childhood cancer. A secondary aim was to present a cognitive behavioral conceptualization of cancer-related distress for these parents. An open trial was conducted where 15 parents of children who had completed successful treatment for cancer three months to five years earlier and who reported psychological distress related to a child's previous cancer disease were provided CBT at a maximum of 15 sessions. Participants were assessed at baseline, post-intervention, and three-month follow-up using self-reported psychological distress (including posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), depression, and anxiety) and the diagnostic Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Feasibility outcomes relating to recruitment, data collection, and delivery of the treatment were also examined. Individual case formulations for each participant guided the intervention and these were aggregated and presented in a conceptualization detailing core symptoms and their suggested maintenance mechanisms. A total of 93% of the participants completed the treatment and all of them completed the follow-up assessment. From baseline to post-assessment, parents reported significant improvements in PTSS, depression, and anxiety with medium to large effect sizes (Cohen's d = 0.65-0.92). Results were maintained or improved at a three-month follow-up. At baseline, seven (47%) participants fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder and four (29%) fulfilled the criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder, compared to

  12. Chemical Protein Modification through Cysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnoo, Smita B; Madder, Annemieke

    2016-04-01

    The modification of proteins with non-protein entities is important for a wealth of applications, and methods for chemically modifying proteins attract considerable attention. Generally, modification is desired at a single site to maintain homogeneity and to minimise loss of function. Though protein modification can be achieved by targeting some natural amino acid side chains, this often leads to ill-defined and randomly modified proteins. Amongst the natural amino acids, cysteine combines advantageous properties contributing to its suitability for site-selective modification, including a unique nucleophilicity, and a low natural abundance--both allowing chemo- and regioselectivity. Native cysteine residues can be targeted, or Cys can be introduced at a desired site in a protein by means of reliable genetic engineering techniques. This review on chemical protein modification through cysteine should appeal to those interested in modifying proteins for a range of applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Models of simulation and prediction of the behavior of dengue in four Colombian cities, including climate like modulating variable of the disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Giraldo, Jairo A; Boshell, Jose Francisco

    2004-01-01

    ARIMA-type models are proposed to simulate the behavior of dengue and to make apparent the relations with the climatic variability in four localities of Colombia. The climatic variable was introduced into the models as an index that modulates the behavior of the disease. It was obtained by means of a multivariate analysis of principal components. The investigation was carried out with information corresponding to the epidemiological weeks from January 1997 to December 2000, for both the number of disease cases and the data corresponding to the meteorological variables. The study shows that the variations of the climate between the previous 9 to 14 weeks have influence on the appearance of new cases of dengue. In particular, the precipitation in these weeks was seen to be greater when in later periods the disease presented epidemic characteristics than the precipitation in those weeks preceded the disease within endemic limits

  14. Hydraulic testing of Type Q septifoils including modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steimke, J.L.; Fowley, M.D.; Guerrero, H.N.

    1992-09-01

    On May 25, 1992 a leak of moderator was detected as K Reactor was approaching initial criticality. The partial length control rods were being withdrawn when the leak detectors in the Process Room alarmed. The apparent location of the moderator leak was the top of the guide tubes which are positioned over the new Type Q septifoils. The reactor was shut down immediately. In response, a testing program was begun at the Heat Transfer Laboratory (HTL). The goals of the program were to determine the cause of the septifoil leak and to test methods for preventing future leaks. These tests are described in this report

  15. Investigating Direct Links between Depression, Emotional Control, and Physical Punishment with Adolescent Drive for Thinness and Bulimic Behaviors, Including Possible Moderation by the Serotonin Transporter 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Rozenblat

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine the relationship between psychological and social factors (depression, emotional control, sexual abuse, and parental physical punishment and adolescent drive for Thinness and Bulimic behaviors in a large community sample, and to investigate possible genetic moderation.Method: Data were drawn from the Australian Temperament Project (ATP, a population-based cohort study that has followed a representative sample of 2443 participants from infancy to adulthood across 16 waves since 1983. A subsample of 650 participants (50.2% female of Caucasian descent who provided DNA were genotyped for a serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR. Adolescent disordered eating attitudes and behaviors were assessed using the Bulimia and Drive for Thinness scales of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (15–16 years. Depression and emotional control were examined at the same age using the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire, and an ATP-devised measure of emotional control. History of sexual abuse and physical punishment were assessed retrospectively (23–24 years in a subsample of 467 of those providing DNA.Results: EDI-2 scores were associated with depression, emotional control, and retrospectively reported parental physical punishment. Although there was statistically significant moderation of the relationship between parental physical punishment and bulimic behaviors by 5-HTTLPR (p = 0.0048, genotypes in this subsample were not in Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium. No other G×E interactions were significant. Conclusion: Findings from this study affirm the central importance of psychosocial processes in disordered eating patterns in adolescence. Evidence of moderation by 5-HTTLPR was not conclusive; however, genetic moderation observed in a subsample not in Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium warrants further investigation.

  16. A family of mixed-metal cyanide cubes with alternating octahedral and tetrahedral corners exhibiting a variety of magnetic behaviors including single molecule magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelter, Eric J; Karadas, Ferdi; Avendano, Carolina; Prosvirin, Andrey V; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Dunbar, Kim R

    2007-07-04

    A series of structurally related pseudocubic metal cyanide clusters of Re(II) and 3d metal ions [{MX}4{Re(triphos)(CN)3}4] (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn; X = Cl, I, -OCH3) have been prepared, and their magnetic and electrochemical properties have been probed to evaluate the effect of changing the identity of the 3d metal ion. Electrochemistry of the clusters reveals several rhenium-based oxidation and reduction processes, some of which result in cluster fragmentation. The richest electrochemistry was observed for the iron congener, which exists as the Re(I)/Fe(III) cluster at the resting potential and exhibits six clear one-electron reversible redox couples and two, closely spaced one-electron quasi-reversible processes. The [{MnIICl}4{ReII(triphos)(CN)3}4] complex exhibits single molecule magnetism with a fast tunneling relaxation process observed at H = 0 determined by micro-SQUID magnetization measurements. A comparative evaluation of the magnetic properties across the series reveals that the compounds exhibit antiferromagnetic coupling between the metal ions, except for [{NiIICl}4{ReII(triphos)(CN)3}4] that shows ferromagnetic behavior. Despite the large ground-state spin value of [{NiIICl}4{ReII(triphos)(CN)3}4] (S = 6), only manganese congeners exhibit SMM behavior to 1.8 K.

  17. Investigating the sorption behavior of cadmium from aqueous solution by potassium permanganate-modified biochar: quantify mechanism and evaluate the modification method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zixi; Zhang, Qian; Li, Meng; Niu, Dongyuan; Sang, Wenjiao; Verpoort, Francis

    2018-03-01

    In this work, a KMnO 4 -modified-biochar-based composite material with manganese oxide produced at 600 °C was fabricated to investigate the sorption mechanism of Cd(II) and to comprehensively evaluate the effect of the modification on biochar properties. Cd(II) adsorption mechanisms were mainly controlled by interaction with minerals, complexation with oxygen-containing functional groups, and cation-π interaction. The sorption capacity was significantly reduced after a deash treatment of biochar, almost shrunk by 3 and 3.5 times for pristine biochar (PBC) and modified biochar (MBC). For deashed PBC, oxygen-containing functional groups were the main contributor toward Cd(II) adsorption while interaction with minerals was significantly compromised and became negligible. The sorption capacity was also apparently decreased after the deash treatment of MBC; however, for deashed MBC, interaction with minerals still was the main contributor to the sorption ability, which could be attributed to the mechanism of interaction of Cd(II) with loaded MnO x on biochar. Cation-π interaction in MBC was notably enhanced compared to PBC due to the oxidation of KMnO 4 on biomass. Also, sorption performance by oxygen-containing functional groups was also enhanced. Hence, the modification by KMnO 4 has a significant effect on the Cd(II) sorption performance of biochar.

  18. PLUVIUS: a generalized one-dimensional model of reactive pollutant behavior, including dry deposition, precipitation formation, and wet removal. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easter, R.C.; Hales, J.M.

    1984-11-01

    This report is a second-edition user's manual for the PLUVIUS reactive-storm model. The PLUVIUS code simulates the formation of storm systems of a variety of types, and characterizes the behavior of air pollutants as they flow through, react within, and are scavenged by the storms. The computer code supplied with this report is known as PLUVIUS MOD 5.0, and is a substantial improvement over the MOD 3.1 version given in the original user's manual. Example applications of MOD 5.0 are given in the report to facilitate rapid application of the code for a variety of specific uses. 22 references, 7 figures, 48 tables.

  19. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  20. Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, L.I.

    2014-01-01

    Health behaviors are people’s actions, some purposefully deployed to promote or protect health; some thoughtlessly undertaken without concern for their potential risk to health; some consciously, even defiantly, deployed regardless of consequences to health. Risk behaviors are specific forms of

  1. A combined multibody and finite element approach for dynamic interaction analysis of high-speed train and railway structure including post-derailment behavior during an earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, M.; Wakui, H.; Sogabe, M.; Matsumoto, N.; Tanabe, Y.

    2010-06-01

    A combined multibody and finite element approach is given to solve the dynamic interaction of a Shinkansen train (high-speed train in Japan) and the railway structure including post-derailment during an earthquake effectively. The motion of the train is expressed in multibody dynamics. Efficient mechanical models to express interactions between wheel and track structure including post-derailment are given. Rail and track elements expressed in multibody dynamics and FEM are given to solve contact problems between wheel and long railway components effectively. The motion of a railway structure is modeled with various finite elements and rail and track elements. The computer program has been developed for the dynamic interaction analysis of a Shinkansen train and railway structure including post derailment during an earthquake. Numerical examples are demonstrated.

  2. The Use of a Residence Unit as an Aid to Training Parents in Behavior Modification: Turning Psychology Over to the Unwashed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Steven B.; Wiltz, Nick

    The authors describe the background for and explore the use of a unique apartment-like setting, complete with observational facilities, in which the parents of a hyperactive, aggressive boy were trained in the application of behavioral principles. Procedures consisted of having the entire family live in this setting for 5 consecutive days where…

  3. Behavior and failure of uniformly hydrided Zircaloy-4 fuel claddings between 25 C and 480 C under various stress states, including RIA loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Saux, M.; Carassou, S.; Averty, X.; Le Saux, M.; Besson, J.; Poussard, C.

    2010-01-01

    The anisotropic plastic behavior and the fracture of as-received and hydrided Cold-Worked Stress Relieved Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes are investigated under thermal-mechanical loading conditions representative of Pellet-Clad Mechanical Interaction during Reactivity Initiated Accidents in Pressurized Water Reactors. In order to study the combined effects of temperature, hydrogen content, loading direction and stress state, Axial Tensile, Hoop Tensile, Expansion Due to Compression and hoop Plane Strain Tensile tests are performed at room temperature, 350 C and 480 C on the material containing various hydrogen contents up to 1200 wt. ppm (hydrides are circumferential and homogeneously distributed). These tests are combined with digital image correlation and metallographic and fractographic observations at different scales. The flow stress of the material decreases with increasing temperature. The material is either strengthened or softened by hydrogen depending on temperature and hydrogen content. Plastic anisotropy depends on temperature but not on hydrogen content. The ductility of the material decreases with increasing hydrogen content at room temperature due to damage nucleation by hydride cracking. The plastic strain that leads to hydride fracture at room temperature decreases with increasing hydrogen content. The influence of stress triaxiality on hydride cracking is negligible in the studied range. The influence of hydrogen on material ductility is negligible at 350 C and 480 C since hydrides do not crack at these temperatures. The ductility of the material increases with increasing temperature. The evolution of material ductility is associated with a change in both the macroscopic fracture mode of the specimens and the microscopic failure mechanisms. (authors)

  4. Perceptual Modification of the Built Environment to Influence Behavior Associated with Physical Activity: Quasi-Experimental Field Studies of a Stair Banister Illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Rich; Capio, Catherine; Poolton, Jamie; Uiga, Liis

    2018-02-15

    Re-engineering the built environment to influence behaviors associated with physical activity potentially provides an opportunity to promote healthier lifestyles at a population level. Here we present evidence from two quasi-experimental field studies in which we tested a novel, yet deceptively simple, intervention designed to alter perception of, and walking behavior associated with, stairs in an urban area. Our objectives were to examine whether adjusting a stair banister has an influence on perceptions of stair steepness or on walking behavior when approaching the stairs. In study 1, we asked participants (n = 143) to visually estimate the steepness of a set of stairs viewed from the top, when the stair banister was adjusted so that it converged with or diverged from the stairs (± 1.91°) or remained neutral (± 0°). In study 2, the walking behavior of participants (n = 36) was filmed as they approached the stairs to descend, unaware of whether the banister converged, diverged, or was neutral. In study 1, participants estimated the stairs to be steeper if the banister diverged from, rather than converged with, the stairs. The effect was greater when participants were unaware of the adjustment. In study 2, walking speed was significantly slower when the banister diverged from, rather than converged with, the stairs. These findings encourage us to speculate about the potential to economically re-engineer features of the built environment to provide opportunities for action (affordances) that invite physical activity behavior or even promote safer navigation of the environment.

  5. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy and clinical outcomes among young adults reporting high-risk sexual behavior, including men who have sex with men, in coastal Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Susan M; Mugo, Peter; Gichuru, Evanson; Thiong'o, Alexander; Macharia, Michael; Okuku, Haile S; van der Elst, Elise; Price, Matthew A; Muraguri, Nicholas; Sanders, Eduard J

    2013-05-01

    African men who have sex with men (MSM) face significant stigma and barriers to care. We investigated antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among high-risk adults, including MSM, participating in a clinic-based cohort. Survival analysis was used to compare attrition across patient groups. Differences in adherence, weight gain, and CD4 counts after ART initiation were assessed. Among 250 HIV-1-seropositive adults, including 108 MSM, 15 heterosexual men, and 127 women, patient group was not associated with attrition. Among 58 participants who were followed on ART, 40 % of MSM had less than 95 % adherence, versus 28.6 % of heterosexual men and 11.5 % of women. Although MSM gained less weight after ART initiation than women (adjusted difference -3.5 kg/year), CD4 counts did not differ. More data are needed on barriers to adherence and clinical outcomes among African MSM, to ensure that MSM can access care and derive treatment and prevention benefits from ART.

  6. Study of Gaussian Doped Double Gate JunctionLess (GD-DG-JL) transistor including source drain depletion length: Model for sub-threshold behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Vandana; Kumar, Ayush; Saxena, Manoj; Gupta, Mridula

    2018-01-01

    The sub-threshold model formulation of Gaussian Doped Double Gate JunctionLess (GD-DG-JL) FET including source/drain depletion length is reported in the present work under the assumption that the ungated regions are fully depleted. To provide deeper insight into the device performance, the impact of gaussian straggle, channel length, oxide and channel thickness and high-k gate dielectric has been studied using extensive TCAD device simulation.

  7. Gomisin N isolated from Schisandra chinensis augments pentobarbital-induced sleep behaviors through the modification of the serotonergic and GABAergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenning; Mao, Xin; Zhao, Xu; Liu, Zhi; Liu, Bing; Li, Huan; Bi, Kaishun; Jia, Ying

    2014-07-01

    The fruits of Schisandra chinensis have been used for the treatment of insomnia in oriental countries for more than thousands of years. However, the pharmacological properties and the mechanism of sedative and hypnotic effects have not yet been studied. Gomisin N is one of the major bioactive constituents from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis, and in this paper we reported a detailed study on the effects and mechanisms of Gomisin N on its sedative and hypnotic activity for the first time. These results implied that Gomisin N possessed weak sedative effects on locomotion activity in normal mice, and produced a dose-dependent(5-45 mg/kg, i.p.) increase in sleep duration in pentobarbital-treated mice, thus, itself did not induce sleep at higher dose which was used in this experiment (45 mg/kg, i.p.). It also can reverse the rodent models of insomnia induced by p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) and caffeine, which could exhibit a synergistic effect with 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) as well; furthermore, the hypnotic effects of Gomisin N were inhibited by flumazenil (a specific GABAA-BZD receptor antagonist). Altogether, these results indicated that Gomisin N produced beneficial sedative and hypnotic bioactivity, which might be mediated by the modification of the serotonergic and GABAergic system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The WECHSL-Mod2 code: A computer program for the interaction of a core melt with concrete including the long term behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimann, M.; Stiefel, S.

    1989-06-01

    The WECHSL-Mod2 code is a mechanistic computer code developed for the analysis of the thermal and chemical interaction of initially molten LWR reactor materials with concrete in a two-dimensional, axisymmetrical concrete cavity. The code performs calculations from the time of initial contact of a hot molten pool over start of solidification processes until long term basemat erosion over several days with the possibility of basemat penetration. The code assumes that the metallic phases of the melt pool form a layer at the bottom overlayed by the oxide melt atop. Heat generation in the melt is by decay heat and chemical reactions from metal oxidation. Energy is lost to the melting concrete and to the upper containment by radiation or evaporation of sumpwater possibly flooding the surface of the melt. Thermodynamic and transport properties as well as criteria for heat transfer and solidification processes are internally calculated for each time step. Heat transfer is modelled taking into account the high gas flux from the decomposing concrete and the heat conduction in the crusts possibly forming in the long term at the melt/concrete interface. The WECHSL code in its present version was validated by the BETA experiments. The test samples include a typical BETA post test calculation and a WECHSL application to a reactor accident. (orig.) [de

  9. Escitalopram or novel herbal mixture treatments during or following exposure to stress reduce anxiety-like behavior through corticosterone and BDNF modifications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravid Doron

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are a major public health concern worldwide. Studies indicate that repeated exposure to adverse experiences early in life can lead to anxiety disorders in adulthood. Current treatments for anxiety disorders are characterized by a low success rate and are associated with a wide variety of side effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anxiolytic effects of a novel herbal treatment, in comparison to treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram. We recently demonstrated the anxiolytic effects of these treatments in BALB mice previously exposed to one week of stress. In the present study, ICR mice were exposed to post natal maternal separation and to 4 weeks of unpredictable chronic mild stress in adolescence, and treated during or following exposure to stress with the novel herbal treatment or with escitalopram. Anxiety-like behavior was evaluated in the elevated plus maze. Blood corticosterone levels were evaluated using radioimmunoassay. Brain derived neurotrophic factor levels in the hippocampus were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found that (1 exposure to stress in childhood and adolescence increased anxiety-like behavior in adulthood; (2 the herbal treatment reduced anxiety-like behavior, both when treated during or following exposure to stress; (3 blood corticosterone levels were reduced following treatment with the herbal treatment or escitalopram, when treated during or following exposure to stress; (4 brain derived neurotrophic factor levels in the hippocampus of mice treated with the herbal treatment or escitalopram were increased, when treated either during or following exposure to stress. This study expands our previous findings and further points to the proposed herbal compound's potential to be highly efficacious in treating anxiety disorders in humans.

  10. The WECHSL-Mod3 code: A computer program for the interaction of a core melt with concrete including the long term behavior. Model description and user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foit, J.J.; Adroguer, B.; Cenerino, G.; Stiefel, S.

    1995-02-01

    The WECHSL-Mod3 code is a mechanistic computer code developed for the analysis of the thermal and chemical interaction of initially molten reactor materials with concrete in a two-dimensional as well as in a one-dimensional, axisymmetrical concrete cavity. The code performs calculations from the time of initial contact of a hot molten pool over start of solidification processes until long term basemat erosion over several days with the possibility of basemat penetration. It is assumed that an underlying metallic layer exists covered by an oxidic layer or that only one oxidic layer is present which can contain a homogeneously dispersed metallic phase. Heat generation in the melt is by decay heat and chemical reactions from metal oxidation. Energy is lost to the melting concrete and to the upper containment by radiation or evaporation of sumpwater possibly flooding the surface of the melt. Thermodynamic and transport properties as well as criteria for heat transfer and solidification processes are internally calculated for each time step. Heat transfer is modelled taking into account the high gas flux from the decomposing concrete and the heat conduction in the crusts possibly forming in the long term at the melt/concrete interface. The CALTHER code (developed at CEA, France) which models the radiative heat transfer from the upper surface of the corium melt to the surrounding cavity is implemented in the present WECHSL version. The WECHSL code in its present version was validated by the BETA, ACE and SURC experiments. The test samples include a BETA and the SURC2 post test calculations and a WECHSL application to a reactor accident. (orig.) [de

  11. Comprehensive study of the abrasive wear and slurry erosion behavior of an expanded system of high chromium cast iron and microstructural modification for enhanced wear resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Reinaldo Javier

    HCCIs by microstructural modification through addition of strong carbide-forming elements to produce eutectic microstructures reinforced with in-situ formed foreign carbides. Very promising results have been obtained in lab, which demonstrates that the approach is feasible and effective in tailoring HCCIs for improved performance.

  12. Food Habits, Lifestyle Factors, and Risk of Prostate Cancer in Central Argentina: A Case Control Study Involving Self-Motivated Health Behavior Modifications after Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Sandaly O S; Pacheco, Fabio J; Zapata, Gimena M J; Garcia, Julieta M E; Previale, Carlos A; Cura, Héctor E; Craig, Winston J

    2016-07-09

    Cancer is the second most important non-communicable disease worldwide and disproportionately impacts low- to middle-income countries. Diet in combination with other lifestyle habits seems to modify the risk for some cancers but little is known about South Americans. Food habits of Argentinean men pre- and post-diagnosis of prostate cancer (n = 326) were assessed along with other lifestyle factors. We studied whether any of the behaviors and risk factors for prostate cancer were found in men with other cancers (n = 394), compared with control subjects (n = 629). Before diagnosis, both cases reported a greater mean consumption of meats and fats and lower intakes of fruits, green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, legumes, nuts, seeds, and whole grains than the controls (all p habits and other lifestyle factors after cancer diagnosis.

  13. Modification of hippocampal markers of synaptic plasticity by memantine in animal models of acute and repeated restraint stress: implications for memory and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Shaimaa Nasr; El-Aidi, Ahmed Amro; Ali, Mohamed Mostafa; Attia, Yasser Mahmoud; Rashed, Laila Ahmed

    2015-06-01

    Stress is any condition that impairs the balance of the organism physiologically or psychologically. The response to stress involves several neurohormonal consequences. Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and its release is increased by stress that predisposes to excitotoxicity in the brain. Memantine is an uncompetitive N-methyl D-aspartate glutamatergic receptors antagonist and has shown beneficial effect on cognitive function especially in Alzheimer's disease. The aim of the work was to investigate memantine effect on memory and behavior in animal models of acute and repeated restraint stress with the evaluation of serum markers of stress and the expression of hippocampal markers of synaptic plasticity. Forty-two male rats were divided into seven groups (six rats/group): control, acute restraint stress, acute restraint stress with Memantine, repeated restraint stress, repeated restraint stress with Memantine and Memantine groups (two subgroups as positive control). Spatial working memory and behavior were assessed by performance in Y-maze. We evaluated serum cortisol, tumor necrotic factor, interleukin-6 and hippocampal expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, synaptophysin and calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Our results revealed that Memantine improved spatial working memory in repeated stress, decreased serum level of stress markers and modified the hippocampal synaptic plasticity markers in both patterns of stress exposure; in ARS, Memantine upregulated the expression of synaptophysin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor and downregulated the expression of calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and in repeated restraint stress, it upregulated the expression of synaptophysin and downregulated calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II expression.

  14. Edible lipids modification processes: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; Shamma, M Najeeb

    2017-01-02

    Lipid is the general name given to fats and oils, which are the basic components of cooking oils, shortening, ghee, margarine, and other edible fats. The chosen term depends on the physical state at ambient temperature; fats are solids and oils are liquids. The chemical properties of the lipids, including degree of saturation, fatty acid chain length, and acylglycerol molecule composition are the basic determinants of physical characteristics such as melting point, cloud point, solid fat content, and thermal behavior. This review will discuss the major lipid modification strategies, hydrogenation, and chemical and enzymatic interesterification, describing the catalysts used mechanisms, kinetics, and impacts on the health-related properties of the final products. Enzymatic interesterification will be emphasized as method that produces a final product with good taste, zero trans fatty acids, and a low number of calories, requires less contact with chemicals, and is cost efficient.

  15. RNA modifications by oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Henrik E; Specht, Elisabeth; Broedbaek, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    to encompass various classes of novel regulatory RNAs, including, e.g., microRNAs. It is well known that DNA is constantly oxidized and repaired by complex genome maintenance mechanisms. Analogously, RNA also undergoes significant oxidation, and there are now convincing data suggesting that oxidation......, and the consequent loss of integrity of RNA, is a mechanism for disease development. Oxidized RNA is found in a large variety of diseases, and interest has been especially devoted to degenerative brain diseases such as Alzheimer disease, in which up to 50-70% of specific mRNA molecules are reported oxidized, whereas...... other RNA molecules show virtually no oxidation. The iron-storage disease hemochromatosis exhibits the most prominent general increase in RNA oxidation ever observed. Oxidation of RNA primarily leads to strand breaks and to oxidative base modifications. Oxidized mRNA is recognized by the ribosomes...

  16. Chemical biology approaches for studying posttranslational modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Aerin; Cho, Kyukwang; Park, Hee-Sung

    2017-09-13

    Posttranslational modification (PTM) is a key mechanism for regulating diverse protein functions, and thus critically affects many essential biological processes. Critical for systematic study of the effects of PTMs is the ability to obtain recombinant proteins with defined and homogenous modifications. To this end, various synthetic and chemical biology approaches, including genetic code expansion and protein chemical modification methods, have been developed. These methods have proven effective for generating site-specific authentic modifications or structural mimics, and have demonstrated their value for in vitro and in vivo functional studies of diverse PTMs. This review will discuss recent advances in chemical biology strategies and their application to various PTM studies.

  17. Tyrosine Modifications in Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Feeney, Maria B.; Schöneich, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Significance: The understanding of physiological and pathological processes involving protein oxidation, particularly under conditions of aging and oxidative stress, can be aided by proteomic identification of proteins that accumulate oxidative post-translational modifications only if these detected modifications are connected to functional consequences. The modification of tyrosine (Tyr) residues can elicit significant changes in protein structure and function, which, in some cases, may cont...

  18. Effects of Surface Modification and Bulk Geometry on the Biotribological Behavior of Cross-Linked Polyethylene: Wear Testing and Finite Element Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kenichi; Kyomoto, Masayuki; Saiga, Kenichi; Taketomi, Shuji; Inui, Hiroshi; Kadono, Yuho; Takatori, Yoshio; Tanaka, Sakae; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Moro, Toru

    2015-01-01

    The wear and creep deformation resistances of polymeric orthopedic bearing materials are both important for extending their longevity. In this study, we evaluated the wear and creep deformation resistances, including backside damage, of different polyethylene (PE) materials, namely, conventional PE, cross-linked PE (CLPE), and poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine)- (PMPC-) grafted CLPE, through wear tests and finite element analysis. The gravimetric and volumetric degrees of wear of disks (3 or 6 mm in thickness) of these materials against a cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy pin were examined using a multidirectional pin-on-disk tester. Cross-linking and PMPC grafting decreased the gravimetric wear of the PE disks significantly. The volumetric wear at the bearing surface and the volumetric penetration in the backside of the 3-mm thick PE disk were higher than those of the 6-mm thick PE disk, regardless of the bearing material. The geometrical changes induced in the PE disks consisted of creep, because the calculated internal von Mises stress at the bearing side of all disks and that at the backside of the 3-mm thick disks exceeded their actual yield strengths. A highly hydrated bearing surface layer, formed by PMPC grafting, and a cross-linking-strengthened substrate of adequate thickness are essential for increasing the wear and creep deformation resistances.

  19. Effects of controlled school-based multi-component model of nutrition and lifestyle interventions on behavior modification, anthropometry and metabolic risk profile of urban Asian Indian adolescents in North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, N; Misra, A; Shah, P; Gulati, S

    2010-04-01

    To study the effectiveness of a multi-component intervention model of nutrition and lifestyle education on behavior modification, anthropometry and metabolic risk profile of urban Asian-Indian adolescents in North India. Two schools matched for student strength and middle socioeconomic strata were randomly allocated to intervention and control group. Changes in nutrition-related knowledge, attitude, lifestyle practices, food frequency and body image of eleventh-grade students (15-17 years) in both schools were tested using a validated questionnaire. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were made using standard methods. Segmental body composition analysis was carried out using an 8-electrode multifrequency bioelectrical impedance method of body fat estimation. At 6 months follow-up, significant improvement in several domains of knowledge was observed in intervention children (n=99; males=60; females=39) as compared with control school children (n=102; males=61; females=41). In the intervention group, significantly lower proportion of children consumed aerated drinks (15.1%; Peating habits and lifestyle practices, and resulted in beneficial changes in anthropometric and biochemical profiles of the Asian Indian adolescents. This model should be applied on countrywide basis to prevent obesity and diabetes.

  20. Licensing by modification Licensing by modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veneeta Dayal

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper looks at the phenomena of licensing by modification, whereby an unacceptable noun phrase is redeemed by the presence of a modifier or an unavailable reading for a noun phrase is made available with the addition of a modifier. It argues that an optimal account of such phenomena should derive these effects from the interaction of the meanings of individual expressions in the sentence rather than by positing a formal licensing relation between the modifier and the noun it modifies. The general approach is explicated by considering the distribution of bare plurals in Italian and the availability of generic readings for plural definites in English. The overall goal is a modest one. It seeks to draw attention to properties of modification that go beyond set intersection by focusing on phenomena that have not so far been closely scrutinized in the literature. It uses the particular results to draw some conclusions about questions of general interest.Licensing by modification Abstract: This paper looks at the phenomena of licensing by modification, whereby an unacceptable noun phrase is redeemed by the presence of a modifier or an unavailable reading for a noun phrase is made available with the addition of a modifier. It argues that an optimal account of such phenomena should derive these effects from the interaction of the meanings of individual expressions in the sentence rather than by positing a formal licensing relation between the modifier and the noun it modifies. The general approach is explicated by considering the distribution of bare plurals in Italian and the availability of generic readings for plural definites in English. The overall goal is a modest one. It seeks to draw attention to properties of modification that go beyond set intersection by focusing on phenomena that have not so far been closely scrutinized in the literature. It uses the particular results to draw some conclusions about questions of general

  1. Structural dynamic modification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, the direct problem of determing the new response of a system, after some modifications are introduced into the sestem, is analysed using two different databases: the modal database and the frequency response function database. The limitaions of the modal database are discussed. Structural modifications ...

  2. Cytosine modifications in the honey bee (Apis mellifera worker genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Magne Koscielniak Rasmussen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic changes enable genomes to respond to changes in the environment, such as altered nutrition, activity, or social setting. Epigenetic modifications, thereby, provides a source of phenotypic plasticity in many species. The honey bee (Apis mellifera uses nutritionally sensitive epigenetic control mechanisms in the development of the royal caste (queens and the workers. The workers are functionally sterile females that can take on a range of distinct physiological and/or behavioral phenotypes in response to environmental changes. Honey bees have a wide repertoire of epigenetic mechanisms which, as in mammals, includes cytosine methylation, hydroxymethylated cytosines, together with the enzymatic machinery responsible for these cytosine modifications. Current data suggests that honey bees provide an excellent system for studying the social repertoire of the epigenome. In this review, we elucidate what is known so far about the honey bee epigenome and its mechanisms. Our discussion includes what may distinguish honey bees from other model animals, how the epigenome can influence worker behavioral task separation, and how future studies can answer central questions about the role of the epigenome in social behavior.

  3. Detention Operations, Behavior Modification, and Counterinsurgency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    successful counterinsurgency operations. Academics and military professionals, in literature and doctrine, have examined the problems of detention...excessive force and giving the impression of weakness. Of course, Arabic culture respects a certain degree of strict authority. Muslim scholar Bernard...of course a permanent state of war.”12 Lewis also talks of the “general Arab propensity for fighting.”13 Cul- turally, physical force is more

  4. Behavior Modification: A Patient and Physician's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Elizabeth; Primack, Craig

    2017-03-01

    This article, co-authored by a patient affected by obesity and an obesity medicine specialist, discusses the patient's experience of living with the disease and using many different weight loss approaches until finding a lifestyle program that was appropriate for her metabolism. The physician discusses the scientific basis of insulin resistance, and why the chosen lifestyle program worked so well for this individual.

  5. The computational nature of memory modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, Samuel J; Monfils, Marie-H; Norman, Kenneth A; Niv, Yael

    2017-03-15

    Retrieving a memory can modify its influence on subsequent behavior. We develop a computational theory of memory modification, according to which modification of a memory trace occurs through classical associative learning, but which memory trace is eligible for modification depends on a structure learning mechanism that discovers the units of association by segmenting the stream of experience into statistically distinct clusters (latent causes). New memories are formed when the structure learning mechanism infers that a new latent cause underlies current sensory observations. By the same token, old memories are modified when old and new sensory observations are inferred to have been generated by the same latent cause. We derive this framework from probabilistic principles, and present a computational implementation. Simulations demonstrate that our model can reproduce the major experimental findings from studies of memory modification in the Pavlovian conditioning literature.

  6. Behavioral management of the obese patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite countless diets, exercise regimens, drugs, and behavior modification strategies, the prevalence of obesity continues its relentless increase in both developed and developing nations. Although many necessary components to treat obesity have been identified, behavior modification remains the b...

  7. HIV/AIDS Prevention in Zambia: A Preliminary Study of Obstacles to Behavior Change in the Copperbelt

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nyerges, Jana R

    2006-01-01

    .... Yet while research shows a relatively strong link between education and behavior modification in developed countries, that link appears to be much weaker in less developed regions, including Africa...

  8. Implementation of Lifestyle Modification Program Focusing on Physical Activity and Dietary Habits in a Large Group, Community-Based Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoutenberg, Mark; Falcon, Ashley; Arheart, Kris; Stasi, Selina; Portacio, Francia; Stepanenko, Bryan; Lan, Mary L.; Castruccio-Prince, Catarina; Nackenson, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Background: Lifestyle modification programs improve several health-related behaviors, including physical activity (PA) and nutrition. However, few of these programs have been expanded to impact a large number of individuals in one setting at one time. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether a PA- and nutrition-based lifestyle…

  9. Modifications to POISSON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwood, L.H.

    1981-01-01

    At MSU we have used the POISSON family of programs extensively for magnetic field calculations. In the presently super-saturated computer situation, reducing the run time for the program is imperative. Thus, a series of modifications have been made to POISSON to speed up convergence. Two of the modifications aim at having the first guess solution as close as possible to the final solution. The other two aim at increasing the convergence rate. In this discussion, a working knowledge of POISSON is assumed. The amount of new code and expected time saving for each modification is discussed

  10. Post-Polymerization Modifications of Polymeric Monolithic Columns: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinéad Currivan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The vast cache of methods used in polymeric monolithic column modification is presented herein, with specific attention to post-polymerization modification reactions. The modification of polymeric monolithic columns is defined and can include the modification of pre-existing surface groups, the addition of polymeric chains or indeed the addition of structures such as nano-particles and nano-structures. The use of these modifications can result in the specific patterning of monoliths, useful in microfluidic device design or in the investigation of modification optimization.

  11. Modification Semantics in Now-Relative Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Kristian; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Snodgrass, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    Most real-world databases record time-varying information. In such databases, the notion of ??the current time,?? or NOW, occurs naturally and prominently. For example, when capturing the past states of a relation using begin and end time columns, tuples that are part of the current state have some...... past time as their begin time and NOW as their end time. While the semantics of such variable databases has been described in detail and is well understood, the modification of variable databases remains unexplored. This paper defines the semantics of modifications involving the variable NOW. More...... specifically,  the problems with modifications in the presence of NOW are explored, illustrating that the main problems are with modifications of tuples that reach into the future. The paper defines the semantics of modifications?including insertions, deletions, and updates?of databases without NOW, with NOW...

  12. The RNA modification landscape in human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkhout, Nicky; Tran, Julia; Smith, Martin A; Schonrock, Nicole; Mattick, John S; Novoa, Eva Maria

    2017-12-01

    RNA modifications have been historically considered as fine-tuning chemo-structural features of infrastructural RNAs, such as rRNAs, tRNAs, and snoRNAs. This view has changed dramatically in recent years, to a large extent as a result of systematic efforts to map and quantify various RNA modifications in a transcriptome-wide manner, revealing that RNA modifications are reversible, dynamically regulated, far more widespread than originally thought, and involved in major biological processes, including cell differentiation, sex determination, and stress responses. Here we summarize the state of knowledge and provide a catalog of RNA modifications and their links to neurological disorders, cancers, and other diseases. With the advent of direct RNA-sequencing technologies, we expect that this catalog will help prioritize those RNA modifications for transcriptome-wide maps. © 2017 Jonkhout et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  13. Medium Modifications of Hadrons in Photon Induced Reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schadmand, S.

    2004-01-01

    Indications for in-medium modifications of hadron properties are reported from photoabsorption and meson production experiments. Strong medium modifications are observed in inclusive photoabsorption experiments and theoretical models investigate the in-medium dynamics of baryon resonances and their coupling to mesons. Recent experiments study the in-medium behavior of scalar and vector mesons where theoretical models expect in-medium modifications of the meson spectral functions that might be connected to partial restoration of chiral symmetry

  14. End Group Modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahnsen, Rasmus O; Sandberg-Schaal, Anne; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2015-01-01

    modification with hydrophobic moieties led to increased activity towards the Gram-negative Acinetobacter baumannii. Despite increased cytotoxicity against murine fibroblasts and human umbilical vein endothelial cells, the optimized peptide analogues exhibited significantly improved cell selectivity. Overall...

  15. Standard practice for prediction of the long-term behavior of materials, including waste forms, used in engineered barrier systems (EBS) for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes test methods and data analyses used to develop models for the prediction of the long-term behavior of materials, such as engineered barrier system (EBS) materials and waste forms, used in the geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and other high-level nuclear waste in a geologic repository. The alteration behavior of waste form and EBS materials is important because it affects the retention of radionuclides by the disposal system. The waste form and EBS materials provide a barrier to release either directly (as in the case of waste forms in which the radionuclides are initially immobilized), or indirectly (as in the case of containment materials that restrict the ingress of groundwater or the egress of radionuclides that are released as the waste forms and EBS materials degrade). 1.1.1 Steps involved in making such predictions include problem definition, testing, modeling, and model confirmation. 1.1.2 The predictions are based on models derived from theoretical considerat...

  16. Antimicrobial Modifications of Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Sedlarik, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is focused on antimicrobial modifications of polymer materials intended for medical devices production. Firstly, a brief introduction into the field of medical application of polymers is presented. Considering the fact that polymer medical devices are often connected with occurrence of nosocomial infections, the next part refers to this phenomenon and its causes. One of the possibilities of reducing of the infection occurrence is aimed at polymer modification. It is a key topic o...

  17. Structural dynamic modification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    5th Int. Modal Anal. Conf. (London) 2: 1538±1544. Sestieri A, D'Ambrogio W 1988 Why be model: i.e. how to avoid the use of modes in the modification of vibrating systems. Proc. 6th Int. Modal Anal. Conf. (Orlando) 2: 1100±1106. Sestieri A, D'Ambrogio W 1989 A modification method for vibration control of structures. Mech.

  18. Modification of JRR-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyasaka, Yasuhiko

    1978-01-01

    This report gives an outline of some of the main modifications carried out around the Reactor Core on the Research Reactor JRR-2, at the Tokai Research Establishment of JAERI. The JRR-2 was shut down in December 1973, to improve it in heavy water leakage from the metal packing between core tank and support ring, corrosion of the lower shielding plug, and fault in the control-rod mechanism. Main modifications were a standing seal weld at the support ring to stop heavy water leakage, replacement of the reactor top shield and improvement of the helium system. The control-rod assemblies and the refueling devices were replaced by the newly designed ones also. In addition to the modification plan, the irradiated air exhaust system was improved to reduce radioactive argon gas release through the stack. Works were completed successfully in September 1975. But a light water leakage occurred at the stand pipe below the light water tank on November 11, 1975, which was repaired in about 4 months. When considering the operation of above 5,000 hours after the modification, however, the quality of the modification work may be said to be quite satisfactory. The present report in which works to the completion are described may be valuable as a record of reactor modification which is a new experience at JAERI. (auth.)

  19. Tyrosine modifications in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Maria B; Schöneich, Christian

    2012-12-01

    The understanding of physiological and pathological processes involving protein oxidation, particularly under conditions of aging and oxidative stress, can be aided by proteomic identification of proteins that accumulate oxidative post-translational modifications only if these detected modifications are connected to functional consequences. The modification of tyrosine (Tyr) residues can elicit significant changes in protein structure and function, which, in some cases, may contribute to biological aging and age-related pathologies, such as atherosclerosis, neurodegeneration, and cataracts. Studies characterizing proteins in which Tyr has been modified to 3-nitrotyrosine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, 3,3'-dityrosine and other cross-links, or 3-chlorotyrosine are reviewed, with an emphasis on structural and functional consequences. Distinguishing between inconsequential modifications and functionally significant ones requires careful biochemical and biophysical analysis of target proteins, as well as innovative methods for isolating the effects of the multiple modifications that often occur under oxidizing conditions. The labor-intensive task of isolating and characterizing individual modified proteins must continue, especially given the expanding list of known modifications. Emerging approaches, such as genetic and metabolic incorporation of unnatural amino acids, hold promise for additional focused studies of this kind.

  20. Physical modification of polyetheretherketone for orthopedic implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ya-Wei; Zhang, Li-Nan; Hou, Zeng-Tao; Ye, Xin; Gu, Hong-Sheng; Yan, Guo-Ping; Shang, Peng

    2014-12-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is regarded as one of the most potential candidates for replacing current implant applications. To obtain good bone-implant interfaces, many modification methods have been developed to enable PEEK and PEEK-based composites from bio-inert to bioactive. Among them, physical methods have aroused significant attention and been widely used to modify PEEK for orthopedic implants. This review summarizes current physical modification techniques of PEEK for orthopedic applications, which include composite strategies, surface coating methods and irradiation treatments. The positive consequences of those modification methods will encourage continuing investigations and stimulate the wide range of applications of PEEK-based implants in orthopedics.

  1. Modifications of gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skordis, Constantinos

    2011-12-28

    General relativity (GR) is a phenomenologically successful theory that rests on firm foundations, but has not been tested on cosmological scales. The deep mystery of dark energy (and possibly even the requirement of cold dark matter (CDM)) has increased the need for testing modifications to GR, as the inference of such otherwise undetected fluids depends crucially on the theory of gravity. Here, I discuss a general scheme for constructing consistent and covariant modifications to the Einstein equations. This framework is such that there is a clear connection between the modification and the underlying field content that produces it. I argue that this is mandatory for distinguishing modifications of gravity from conventional fluids. I give a non-trivial example, a simple metric-based modification of the fluctuation equations for which the background is exact ΛCDM, but differs from it in the perturbations. I show how this can be generalized and solved in terms of two arbitrary functions. Finally, I discuss future prospects and directions of research.

  2. Ion bombardment modification of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auciello, O.

    1984-01-01

    Ion bombardment-induced modification of surfaces may be considered one of the significant scientific and technological developments of the last two decades. The understanding acquired concerning the underlying mechanisms of several phenomena occurring during ion-surface interactions has led to applications within different modern technologies. These include microelectronics, surface acoustical and optical technologies, solar energy conversion, thin film technology, ion implantation metallurgy, nuclear track technology, thermonuclear fusion, vacuum technology, cold welding technology, biomedicine (implantology). It has become clear that information on many relevant advances, regarding ion bombardment modification of surfaces is dispersed among journals involving fields sometimes not clearly related. This may result, in some cases, in a loss of the type of interdisciplinary exchange of ideas, which has proved to be so fruitful for the advancement of science and technology. This book has been planned in an attempt to collect at least some of today's relevant information about the experimental and theoretical knowledge related to surface modification and its application to technology. (Auth.)

  3. BIOCHAR MODIFICATION, THERMAL STABILITY AND TOXICITY OF PRODUCTS MODIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana FRIEDRICHOVÁ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Biochar is a product obtained from processing of waste biomass. The main application of biochar is in soil and environment remediation. Some new applications of this carbonaceous material take advantage of its adsorption capacity use it as a heterogeneous catalyst for energy storage and conversion etc. This contribution describes thermal stability of the original biochar. It discusses biochar modified by chemical and physical methods including a new compound of biochar-graphene oxide. The purpose of the modifications is to increase its active surface to introduce active functional groups into the carbon structure of biochar in relation to fire safety and toxicity of those products.

  4. Structural dynamic modification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    for are lumped masses, springs, dampers and dynamic absorbers. Keywords. Structural dynamic modification; structural design; dynamic design; SDM using FRF. 1. Introduction. The problem of varying the dynamic behaviour of structures to reduce the vibration response or control the noise radiated by vibrating surfaces is ...

  5. Including Students with Visual Impairments: Softball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian, Ali; Haegele, Justin A.

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that while students with visual impairments are likely to be included in general physical education programs, they may not be as active as their typically developing peers. This article provides ideas for equipment modifications and game-like progressions for one popular physical education unit, softball. The purpose of these…

  6. Modification Semantics in Now-Relative Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Kristian; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Snodgrass, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    specifically,  the problems with modifications in the presence of NOW are explored, illustrating that the main problems are with modifications of tuples that reach into the future. The paper defines the semantics of modifications?including insertions, deletions, and updates?of databases without NOW, with NOW......, and with values of the type NOW + D, where D is a non-variable time duration. To accommodate these semantics, three new timestamp values are introduced. Finally, implementation is explored. We show how to represent the variable NOW with columns of standard SQL data types and give a mapping from SQL on NOW......-relative  data to standard SQL on these columns. The paper thereby completes the semantics, the querying, and the modification of now-relative databases.   Udgivelsesdato: DEC...

  7. Post-Translational Modifications of TRP Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Voolstra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential (TRP channels constitute an ancient family of cation channels that have been found in many eukaryotic organisms from yeast to human. TRP channels exert a multitude of physiological functions ranging from Ca2+ homeostasis in the kidney to pain reception and vision. These channels are activated by a wide range of stimuli and undergo covalent post-translational modifications that affect and modulate their subcellular targeting, their biophysical properties, or channel gating. These modifications include N-linked glycosylation, protein phosphorylation, and covalent attachment of chemicals that reversibly bind to specific cysteine residues. The latter modification represents an unusual activation mechanism of ligand-gated ion channels that is in contrast to the lock-and-key paradigm of receptor activation by its agonists. In this review, we summarize the post-translational modifications identified on TRP channels and, when available, explain their physiological role.

  8. The incidence, attitudes and practices of the removal of pubic hair as a body modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercaw-Pratt, Jennifer L; Santos, Xiomara M; Sanchez, Judith; Ayensu-Coker, Leslie; Nebgen, Denise R; Dietrich, Jennifer E

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the incidence, attitudes, and practices of the removal of pubic hair as a body modification. A voluntary, anonymous survey was conducted among adolescents and young women 12-20 years of age seen in gynecology clinics in Houston, Texas. There were a total of 171 adolescent participants surveyed, of whom 70.4% of reported routinely shaving or waxing their pubic hair. More traditional body modification methods were evaluated, and 3.5% reported tattoos and 57.1% reported piercings. Sexually active participants were more likely to remove pubic hair routinely. The areas of the body where the participants felt there was "too much" hair included the genital area, upper lip, and abdomen. Of total respondents, 14.7% reported feeling "pressure" from friends or family to participate in body modification such as tattooing, piercing, or removal of pubic hair. The decision to participate in body modification was mostly influenced by friends and family. Based on this study, removal of pubic hair as a body modification is common. The results of this study demonstrated that removal of pubic hair was more common in sexually active participants compared to non-sexually active participants. Therefore, providers should additionally be aware that removal of pubic hair may be a warning sign of sexual behaviors or impending sexual activity. Copyright © 2012 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Enzymatic modification of starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    In the food industry approaches for using bioengineering are investigated as alternatives to conventional chemical and physical starch modification techniques in development of starches with specific properties. Enzyme-assisted post-harvest modification is an interesting approach to this, since...... it is considered a clean and energy saving technology. This thesis aimed to investigate the effect of using reaction conditions, simulating an industrial process, for enzymatic treatment of starch with branching enzyme (BE) from Rhodothermus obamensis. Thus treatements were conducted at 70°C using very high...... substrate concentration (30-40% dry matter (DM)) and high enzyme activity (750-2250 BE units (BEU)/g sample). Starches from various botanical sources, representing a broad range of properties, were used as substrates. The effects of the used conditions on the BE-reaction were evaluated by characterization...

  10. Enzymatic modification of starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    In the food industry approaches for using bioengineering are investigated as alternatives to conventional chemical and physical starch modification techniques in development of starches with specific properties. Enzyme-assisted post-harvest modification is an interesting approach to this, since...... it is considered a clean and energy saving technology. This thesis aimed to investigate the effect of using reaction conditions, simulating an industrial process, for enzymatic treatment of starch with branching enzyme (BE) from Rhodothermus obamensis. Thus treatements were conducted at 70°C using very high...... of the obtained products and were correlated to properties of the starch substrates. It was found that the obtained products differed depending on both the conditions used and the properties of the starch. Products of starch from certain origins completely lost their granular structure during the enzyme treatment...

  11. Geometrically Consistent Mesh Modification

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, A.

    2010-01-01

    A new paradigm of adaptivity is to execute refinement, coarsening, and smoothing of meshes on manifolds with incomplete information about their geometry and yet preserve position and curvature accuracy. We refer to this collectively as geometrically consistent (GC) mesh modification. We discuss the concept of discrete GC, show the failure of naive approaches, and propose and analyze a simple algorithm that is GC and accuracy preserving. © 2010 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  12. Development of an Improved Permeability Modification Simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, H.W.; Elphnick, J.

    1999-03-09

    This report describes the development of an improved permeability modification simulator performed jointly by BDM Petroleum Technologies and Schlumberger Dowell under a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) with the US Department of Energy. The improved simulator was developed by modifying NIPER's PC-GEL permeability modification simulator to include a radial model, a thermal energy equation, a wellbore simulator, and a fully implicit time-stepping option. The temperature-dependent gelation kinetics of a delayed gel system (DGS) is also included in the simulator.

  13. Epigenetic modifications and diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marpadga A. Reddy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is a major complication associated with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and a leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Conventional therapeutic strategies are not fully efficacious in the treatment of DN, suggesting an incomplete understanding of the gene regulation mechanisms involved in its pathogenesis. Furthermore, evidence from clinical trials has demonstrated a “metabolic memory” of prior exposure to hyperglycemia that continues to persist despite subsequent glycemic control. This remains a major challenge in the treatment of DN and other vascular complications. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, nucleosomal histone modifications, and noncoding RNAs control gene expression through regulation of chromatin structure and function and post-transcriptional mechanisms without altering the underlying DNA sequence. Emerging evidence indicates that multiple factors involved in the etiology of diabetes can alter epigenetic mechanisms and regulate the susceptibility to diabetes complications. Recent studies have demonstrated the involvement of histone lysine methylation in the regulation of key fibrotic and inflammatory genes related to diabetes complications including DN. Interestingly, histone lysine methylation persisted in vascular cells even after withdrawal from the diabetic milieu, demonstrating a potential role of epigenetic modifications in metabolic memory. Rapid advances in high-throughput technologies in the fields of genomics and epigenomics can lead to the identification of genome-wide alterations in key epigenetic modifications in vascular and renal cells in diabetes. Altogether, these findings can lead to the identification of potential predictive biomarkers and development of novel epigenetic therapies for diabetes and its associated complications.

  14. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  15. Optical modulator including grapene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  16. Modifications to nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA's programme for safety standards for nuclear power plants. It supplements Section 7 of the Safety Requirements publication on Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which establishes the safety requirements for the modification of nuclear power plants. Reasons for carrying out modifications to nuclear power plants may include: (1) maintaining or strengthening existing safety provisions and thus maintaining consistency with or improving on the current design. (2) recovering from plant faults. (3) improving the thermal performance or increasing the power rating of the plant. (4) increasing the maintainability of the plant, reducing the radiation exposure of personnel or reducing the costs of plant maintenance. And (5) extending the design life of the plant. Most modifications, made on the basis of operating experience, are intended to improve on the design or to improve operational performance and flexibility. Some are rendered necessary by new regulatory requirements, ageing of the plant or obsolescence of equipment. However, the benefits of regularly updating the plant design can be jeopardized if modifications are not kept under rigorous control throughout the lifetime of the plant. The need to reduce costs and improve efficiency, in combination with changes to the structure of the electricity generation sector of the economy in many countries, has led many companies to make changes in the structure of the operating organization for nuclear power plants. Whatever the reason for such organizational changes, consideration should be given to the effects of those changes with the aim of ensuring that they would have no impacts that would compromise the safety of the plant. The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance and recommendations on controlling activities relating to modifications at nuclear power plants in order to reduce risk and to ensure that the configuration of the plant is at all times under

  17. Behavioral Exercise Programs in the Management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Catherine J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Compared the effectiveness of behavior modification, cognitive modification, and cognitive-behavior modification in increasing compliance with an exercise prescription for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients (N=96). Although all treatment groups showed improvement, the cognitive-behavior modification strategy produced the most…

  18. Structural dynamic modification using additive damping

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In order to control dynamic response in structures and machines, modofications using additive viscoelastic damping materials are highlighted. The techniques described for analysis include analytical methods for structural elements, FEM and perturbation methods for reanalysis or structural dynamic modifications for ...

  19. Muonic X-ray intensities in phosphorus- and selenium modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaeser, K.; Robert-Tissot, B.; Schaller, L.A.; Schellenberg, L.; Schneuwly, H.

    1979-01-01

    Muonic X-ray intensity measurements have been performed at SIN on allotropic modifications of phosphorus (white, red and black) and of selenium (red and black). Structure effects have been found in the intensity ratios of the K-series between amorphous and crystalline modifications of the same element. The effect in the higher series (Se) is less pronounced. On the other hand, the two crystalline phosphorus modifications (red and black) show the same intensity behavior. The root-mean-square radii 2 >sup(1/2) of phosphorus and (natural) selenium were found to be 3.187(3) fm and 4.138(1) fm respectively. (Auth.)

  20. Safety of modifications at nuclear power plants - the role of minor modifications and human and organisational factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Operating experience repeatedly shows that changes and modifications at nuclear power plants (NPPs) may lead to safety significant events. At the same time, modifications are necessary to ensure a safe and economic functioning of the NPPs. To ensure safety in all plant configurations it is important that modification processes are given proper attention both by the utilities and the regulators. The operability, maintainability and testability of every modification should be thoroughly assessed from different points of view to ensure that no safety problems are introduced. The OECD/NEA Committee on Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) has recently addressed the issue of modifications by organising a 'Workshop on Modifications at Nuclear Power Plants Operating Experience, Safety Significance and Role of Human Factors'. This workshop was undertaken as a joint effort of the Working Group on Operating Experience (WGOE) and the Special Experts Group on Human and Organisational Factors (SEGHOF), and it was held at the OECD Headquarters in Paris on October 6 to 8, 2003. The initiative to organise the workshop was taken by the WGOE and the SEGHOF based on findings from events and incidents due to modifications at nuclear power plants in the world and weaknesses experienced in modification processes. During the workshop, the WGOE focused on the theme of 'Minor Modifications and their Safety Significance', while the SEGHOF focused on the topic 'Human and Organisational Factors in NPP Modifications'. This report is based on material collected before the workshop, the workshop proceedings, discussions of the group of experts responsible for the arrangement of the workshop, and additional material collected by a consultant. The workshop was preceded by extensive preparations, which included collection of national surveys in response to questionnaires on modifications at the NPPs. Not all of these surveys were available at the workshop, but their findings have now been included

  1. Identification and Interrogation of Combinatorial Histone Modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly R Karch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Histone proteins are dynamically modified to mediate a variety of cellular processes including gene transcription, DNA damage repair, and apoptosis. Regulation of these processes occurs through the recruitment of non-histone proteins to chromatin by specific combinations of histone post-translational modifications (PTMs. Mass spectrometry has emerged as an essential tool to discover and quantify histone PTMs both within and between samples in an unbiased manner. Developments in mass spectrometry that allow for characterization of large histone peptides or intact protein has made it possible to determine which modifications occur simultaneously on a single histone polypeptide. A variety of techniques from biochemistry, biophysics, and chemical biology have been employed to determine the biological relevance of discovered combinatorial codes. This review first describes advancements in the field of mass spectrometry that have facilitated histone PTM analysis and then covers notable approaches to probe the biological relevance of these modifications in their nucleosomal context.

  2. Enzymatic Modification of Sphingomyelin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due to its major role in maintaining the water-retaining properties of the epidermis, ceramide is of great commercial potential in cosmetic and pharmaceuticals such as hair and skin care products. Currently, chemical synthesis of ceramide is a costly process, and developments of alternative cost......-efficient, high yield production methods are of great interest. In the present study, the potential of producing ceramide through the enzymatic hydrolysis of sphingomyelin have been studied. sphingomyelin is a ubiquitous membrane-lipid and rich in dairy products or by-products. It has been verified...... that sphingomyelin modification gives a feasible approach to the potential production of ceramide. The reaction system has been improved through system evaluation and the optimization of several important factors, and phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens shows higher activity towards the hydrolysis reaction...

  3. Preparation of RF-(VM-SiO2n-RF/AM-Cellu Nanocomposites, and Use Thereof for the Modification of Glass and Filter Paper Surfaces: Creation of a Glass Thermoresponsive Switching Behavior and an Efficient Separation Paper Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Sawada

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fluoroalkyl end-capped vinyltrimethoxysilane oligomeric silica/alkyl-modified cellulose (AM-Cellu nanocomposites [RF-(CH2-CHSiO2n-RF/AM-Cellu; n = 2, 3; RF = CF(CF3OC3F7] were prepared by the sol-gel reactions of the corresponding oligomer [RF-(CH2-CHSi(OMe3n-RF] in the presence of AM-Cellu. The nanocomposites thus obtained were applied to the surface modification of glass to exhibit a highly oleophobic/superhydrophilic characteristic on the modified surface at 20 °C. Interestingly, a temperature dependence of contact angle values of dodecane and water was observed on the modified surface at 20~70 °C, and the dodecane contact angle values were found to decrease with increasing the temperatures from 20 to 70 °C to provide from highly oleophobic to superoleophilic characteristics on the surface. On the other hand, the increase of the water contact angle values was observed with the increase in the temperatures under similar conditions to supply superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic characteristics on the modified surface. The corresponding nanocomposites were also applied to the surface modification of the filter paper under similar conditions to afford a superoleophilic/superhydrophobic characteristic on the surface. It was demonstrated that the modified filter paper is effective for the separation membrane for W/O emulsion to isolate the transparent colorless oil.

  4. Do multiple body modifications alter pain threshold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamotová, A; Hrabák, P; Hříbek, P; Rokyta, R

    2017-12-30

    In recent years, epidemiological data has shown an increasing number of young people who deliberately self-injure. There have also been parallel increases in the number of people with tattoos and those who voluntarily undergo painful procedures associated with piercing, scarification, and tattooing. People with self-injury behaviors often say that they do not feel the pain. However, there is no information regarding pain perception in those that visit tattoo parlors and piercing studios compared to those who don't. The aim of this study was to compare nociceptive sensitivity in four groups of subjects (n=105, mean age 26 years, 48 women and 57 men) with different motivations to experience pain (i.e., with and without multiple body modifications) in two different situations; (1) in controlled, emotionally neutral conditions, and (2) at a "Hell Party" (HP), an event organized by a piercing and tattoo parlor, with a main event featuring a public demonstration of painful techniques (burn scars, hanging on hooks, etc.). Pain thresholds of the fingers of the hand were measured using a thermal stimulator and mechanical algometer. In HP participants, information about alcohol intake, self-harming behavior, and psychiatric history were used in the analysis as intervening variables. Individuals with body modifications as well as without body modifications had higher thermal pain thresholds at Hell Party, compared to thresholds measured at control neutral conditions. No such differences were found relative to mechanical pain thresholds. Increased pain threshold in all HP participants, irrespectively of body modification, cannot be simply explained by a decrease in the sensory component of pain; instead, we found that the environment significantly influenced the cognitive and affective component of pain.

  5. Jet modification in the next decade: A pedestrian outlook

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-05-07

    May 7, 2015 ... In this review, we recount the current status of the theory of jet modification in dense matter. We commence with an outline of the 'traditional' observables which may be calculated without recourse to event generators. These include single- and double-hadron suppression, nuclear modification factor vs.

  6. Jet modification in the next decade: A pedestrian outlook

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-05-07

    May 7, 2015 ... Abstract. In this review, we recount the current status of the theory of jet modification in dense matter. We commence with an outline of the 'traditional' observables which may be calculated without recourse to event generators. These include single- and double-hadron suppression, nuclear modification ...

  7. A modification of the token economy for nonresponsive youth in family-style residential care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Clinton E; Nash, Heather M; Handwerk, Michael L; Friman, Patrick C

    2004-05-01

    Out-of-home treatment for youth with conduct problems is increasing rapidly in this country. Most programs for these youth deliver treatment in a group format and commonly employ some version of a token economy. Despite widespread evidence of effectiveness, a substantial minority of treated youth fail to respond. Participants for this study were 3 youth who were nonresponsive to treatment provided in a family-style residential care program with a comprehensive token economy. Our approach to the "nonresponse" of these youth involved modifications of the frequency and immediacy of their access to the backup rewards earned with tokens. We evaluated the effects of the modifications with a treatment-withdrawal experimental design. Dependent measures included two indices of youth response to treatment: intense behavioral episodes and backup rewards earned. Results showed substantial improvement among these indices during treatment conditions.

  8. Decrease of Bullying Behavior in Children Age School Based on Cognitive Behaviour Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Indah Iswanti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The violence that occurs in education is known as bullying. Violence can occur in mild degrees such as cheating on exams, to fights or beatings that result in death. Bullying in children often leads to school phobias (ask for school change, reduced learning concentration, decreased learning achievement, and likes to carry certain items. Interventions that can be done include Problem Solving Therapy (PST, Behavior Modification (behavior modification, and Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT. The purpose of this study was to produce CBT modules in school-aged children that were useful for reducing bullying behavior, using a pre-post test with control group design. The subject of this research is 52 elementary school age children in Tembalang District Semarang selected by purposive sampling technique. Data were collected using bullying behavior checklist, CBT module and workbook, then analyzed using T-Test. The results showed a decrease in bullying behavior in the intervention group after CBT Individual therapy was given.

  9. Organic light emitting diode with surface modification layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil, John D.; Bhandari, Abhinav; Buhay, Harry; Arbab, Mehran; Marietti, Gary J.

    2017-09-12

    An organic light emitting diode (10) includes a substrate (12) having a first surface (14) and a second surface (16), a first electrode (32), and a second electrode (38). An emissive layer (36) is located between the first electrode (32) and the second electrode (38). The organic light emitting diode (10) further includes a surface modification layer (18). The surface modification layer (18) includes a non-planar surface (30, 52).

  10. The SEM Risk Behavior (SRB) Model: A New Conceptual Model of how Pornography Influences the Sexual Intentions and HIV Risk Behavior of MSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, J Michael; Iantaffi, Alex; Smolenski, Derek J; Brady, Sonya S; Horvath, Keith J; Grey, Jeremy A; Rosser, B R Simon

    2012-01-01

    While the effects of sexually explicit media (SEM) on heterosexuals' sexual intentions and behaviors have been studied, little is known about the consumption and possible influence of SEM among men who have sex with men (MSM). Importantly, conceptual models of how Internet-based SEM influences behavior are lacking. Seventy-nine MSM participated in online focus groups about their SEM viewing preferences and sexual behavior. Twenty-three participants reported recent exposure to a new behavior via SEM. Whether participants modified their sexual intentions and/or engaged in the new behavior depended on three factors: arousal when imagining the behavior, pleasure when attempting the behavior, and trust between sex partners. Based on MSM's experience, we advance a model of how viewing a new sexual behavior in SEM influences sexual intentions and behaviors. The model includes five paths. Three paths result in the maintenance of sexual intentions and behaviors. One path results in a modification of sexual intentions while maintaining previous sexual behaviors, and one path results in a modification of both sexual intentions and behaviors. With this model, researchers have a framework to test associations between SEM consumption and sexual intentions and behavior, and public health programs have a framework to conceptualize SEM-based HIV/STI prevention programs.

  11. Genetic modification and genetic determinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorhaus Daniel B

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions.

  12. Surface modification of bioceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monkawa, Akira

    Hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, HAp] is a major inorganic component of bone and teeth tissues and has the excellent biocompatibility and high osteoconductivity. The interactions between HAp and protein or cell have been studied. The HAp related bioceramics such as bone substitute, coating substance of metal implants, inorganic-polymer composites, and cell culture. We described two methods; (1) surface modification of HAp using organosilane; (2) fabrication of HAp ultra-thin layer on gold surface for protein adsorption analyzed with QCM-D technique. The interfacial interaction between collagen and HAp in a nano-region was controlled by depositing the organosilane of n-octadecyltrimethoxysilane (ODS: -CH3) or aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS: -NH2) with a chemical vapor deposition method. The morphologies of collagen adsorbed on the surfaces of HAp and HAp deposited with APTS were similar, however that of the surface with ODS was apparently different, due to the hydrophobic interaction between the organic head group of -CH3 and residual groups of collagen. We present a method for coating gold quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) sensor with ultra-thin layer of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals evenly covering and tightly bound to the surface. The hydroxyapatite sensor operated in liquid with high stability and sensitivity. The in-situ adsorption mechanism and conformational change of fibrinogen on gold, titanium and hydroxyapatite surfaces were investigated by QCM-D technique and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The study indicates that the hydroxyapatite sensor is applicable for qualitative and conformational analysis of protein adsorption.

  13. Posttranslational Modification Biology of Glutamate Receptors and Drug Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Min eMao

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Posttranslational covalent modifications of glutamate receptors remain a hot topic. Early studies have established that this family of receptors, including almost all ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes, undergoes active phosphorylation at serine, threonine, or tyrosine residues on their intracellular domains. Recent evidence identifies several glutamate receptor subtypes to be direct substrates for palmitoylation at cysteine residues. Other modifications such as ubiquitination and sumoylation at lysine residues also occur to certain glutamate receptors. These modifications are dynamic and reversible in nature and are regulatable by changing synaptic inputs. The regulated modifications significantly impact the receptor in many ways, including interrelated changes in biochemistry (synthesis, subunit assembling and protein-protein interactions, subcellular redistribution (trafficking, endocytosis, synaptic delivery and clustering, and physiology, usually associated with changes in synaptic plasticity. Glutamate receptors are enriched in the striatum and cooperate closely with dopamine to regulate striatal signaling. Emerging evidence shows that modification processes of striatal glutamate receptors are sensitive to addictive drugs, such as psychostimulants (cocaine and amphetamines. Altered modifications are believed to be directly linked to enduring receptor/synaptic plasticity and drug-seeking. This review summarizes several major types of modifications of glutamate receptors and analyzes the role of these modifications in striatal signaling and in the pathogenesis of psychostimulant addiction.

  14. Ball with hair: modular functionalization of highly stable G-quadruplex DNA nano-scaffolds through N2-guanine modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Christopher Jacques; Phan, Anh Tuân

    2017-06-20

    Functionalized nanoparticles have seen valuable applications, particularly in the delivery of therapeutic and diagnostic agents in biological systems. However, the manufacturing of such nano-scale systems with the consistency required for biological application can be challenging, as variation in size and shape have large influences in nanoparticle behavior in vivo. We report on the development of a versatile nano-scaffold based on the modular functionalization of a DNA G-quadruplex. DNA sequences are functionalized in a modular fashion using well-established phosphoramidite chemical synthesis with nucleotides containing modification of the amino (N2) position of the guanine base. In physiological conditions, these sequences fold into well-defined G-quadruplex structures. The resulting DNA nano-scaffolds are thermally stable, consistent in size, and functionalized in a manner that allows for control over the density and relative orientation of functional chemistries on the nano-scaffold surface. Various chemistries including small modifications (N2-methyl-guanine), bulky aromatic modifications (N2-benzyl-guanine), and long chain-like modifications (N2-6-amino-hexyl-guanine) are tested and are found to be generally compatible with G-quadruplex formation. Furthermore, these modifications stabilize the G-quadruplex scaffold by 2.0-13.3 °C per modification in the melting temperature, with concurrent modifications producing extremely stable nano-scaffolds. We demonstrate the potential of this approach by functionalizing nano-scaffolds for use within the biotin-avidin conjugation approach. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  15. First report of nonpsychotic self-cannibalism (autophagy), tongue splitting, and scar patterns (scarification) as an extreme form of cultural body modification in a western civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benecke, M

    1999-09-01

    As part of her current lifestyle, a 28-year-old Caucasian woman routinely injures and allows subsequent healing of her skin and other tissues. Her body modifications include a "split tongue" (a tongue split to the base), which does not interfere with speaking and eating. Other modifications include large scarification patterns produced by branding and cutting. This woman has been known to eat parts of her skin that were previously cut out of her body. She also performs "needle play" by allowing medical syringe needles to be lodged temporarily under her skin. The patient had a normal childhood, is currently employed full-time as an office manager, and is psychologically stable. Although one other case of self-induced penoscrotal hypospadias is known, this is the only report of extensive, nonpsychotic, autodestructive behavior. However, this may not be the case in the future as an increasing number of young individuals have become interested in body modifications.

  16. Listener Responses According to Stuttering Self-Acknowledgment and Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungjae; Manning, Walter H.

    2010-01-01

    Given the well-documented understanding that stuttering behavior elicits stereotypically negative responses from listeners, two experiments explored the equivocal results of earlier investigations concerning the potential for self-acknowledgment and modification of stuttering to elicit positive responses from naive (unfamiliar with stuttering)…

  17. Effect of growth media modifications on cell biomass and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growth media dependency of S. frigidimarina in terms of its growth behavior in response to modifications made to the media as well as its potential to produce PUFAs was evaluated. S. frigidimarina was cultured in conventional shake-flasks and controlled bioreactors with a batch-type procedure using different media ...

  18. From Behaviorism to Selectionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Ernest A.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses behaviorism and the gradual shift to a theory of selectionism. Highlights include the development of behaviorism as a part of psychology, including Skinner's theories; varieties of behaviorism, including behavioral analysis; behaviorology in other disciplinary settings; effects of contingencies upon behavior; and the prospects for…

  19. Tipping the balance by manipulating posttranslational modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broberg, Christopher A.; Orth, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Summary Bacteria use a variety of mechanisms during infection to ensure their survival including the delivery of virulence factors via a type III secretion system into the infected cell. The factors exhibit diverse activities that in many cases mimic eukaryotic mechanisms used by the host to defend against infection. Herein we describe a class of effectors that use posttranslational modifications, some reversible and others irreversible, to manipulate host signaling systems to subvert the host response. PMID:20071215

  20. Modification of Ti6Al4V implant surfaces by biocompatible TiO2/PCL hybrid layers prepared via sol-gel dip coating: Structural characterization, mechanical and corrosion behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catauro, Michelina; Bollino, Flavia; Giovanardi, Roberto; Veronesi, Paolo

    2017-05-01

    Surface modification of metallic implants is a promising strategy to improve tissue tolerance, osseointegration and corrosion resistance of them. In the present work, bioactive and biocompatible organic-inorganic hybrid coatings were prepared using a sol-gel dip coating route. They consist of an inorganic TiO 2 matrix in which different percentages of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), a biodegradable and biocompatible polymer, were incorporated. The coatings were used to modify the surface of Ti6Al4V substrates in order to improve their wear and corrosion resistance. The chemical structure of the coatings was analyzed by attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Coating microstructure, mechanical properties and ability to inhibit the corrosion of the substrates were evaluated as a function of the PCL amount. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the polymer allows to obtain crack-free coatings, but when high percentages were added uncoated areas appear. Nano-indentation tests revealed that, as expected, surface hardness and elastic modulus decrease as the percentage of polymeric matrix increases, but scratch testing demonstrated that the coatings are effective in preventing scratching of the underlying metallic substrate, at least for PCL contents up to 20wt%. The electrochemical tests (polarization curves acquired in order to evaluate the corrosion resistance) allowed to asses that the coatings have a significant effect in term of corrosion potential (E corr ) but they do not significantly affect the passivation process that titanium undergoes in contact with the test solution used (modified Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline or DPBS). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of enzymatic reactions on the electrochemical behavior of EN X2CrNiMo17-11-2 (AISI 316L) stainless steel in bio-corrosion: role of interfacial processes on the modification of the passive layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landoulsi, J.

    2008-01-01

    The outstanding corrosion behavior of stainless steels (SS) results from the presence of thin oxide layer (some nanometers). In non sterile aqueous media, stainless steels may exhibit a non stable behavior resulting from interactions between microbial species and passive film. In fact, microorganisms can be deeply involved in the corrosion processes usually reported as Microbial Influenced Corrosion (MIC). They can induce the initiation or the acceleration of this phenomenon and they do so when organized in bio-films. From the electrochemical point of view, stainless steels showed an increase of the free corrosion potential (Ecorr) attributed to the bio-film settlement. The Eco' ennoblement was broadly reported in seawater and seems to be confirmed in fresh water according to recent findings. A considerable progress in the comprehension of MIC processes was related to the role of extracellular species, essentially enzymes. Many enzymatic reactions occurring in bio-films consist on using oxygen as electron acceptor to generate hydrogen peroxide and related species. The aim of this work is to understand the mechanisms involved in the electrochemical behavior of stainless steel according to an enzymatic approach in medium simulating fresh water. To this end, glucose oxidase was chosen to globalize aerobic activities of bio-films. Electrochemical measurements in situ and surface analysis allow the comprehension of the role and the nature of interfacial processes. Surface characterization was performed with the help of a new quantitative utilization of XPS analysis and AFM. Results show a significant evolution in term of morphology (surface organization), (ii) chemical composition (passive layer, adsorbed organic species) and (iii) chemical reaction (oxidation, dissolution, effect of enzyme). Finally, a new enzymatic system is proposed to mimic specific physicochemical conditions at the SS / bio-film interface, in particular enzymatic generation of oxidant species in

  2. Modifications to Replacement Costs System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godec, M.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this memorandum is to document the improvements and modifications made to the Replacement Costs of Crude Oil (REPCO) Supply Analysis System. While some of this work was performed under our previous support contract to DOE/ASFE, we are presenting all modifications and improvements are presented here for completeness. The memo primarily documents revisions made to the Lower-48 Onshore Model. Revisions and modifications made to other components and models in the REPCO system which are documented elsewhere are only highlighted in this memo. Generally, the modifications made to the Lower-48 Onshore Model reflect changes that have occurred in domestic drilling, oil field costs, and reserves since 1982, the date of the most recent available data used for the original Replacement Costs report, published in 1985

  3. Effects of Bi(Zn2/3Nb1/3)O3 Modification on the Relaxor Behavior and Piezoelectricity of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zenghui; Wu, Hua; Paterson, Alisa; Ren, Wei; Ye, Zuo-Guang

    2017-10-01

    Relaxor lead magnesium niobate (PMN)-based materials exhibit complex structures and unusual properties that have been puzzling researchers for decades. In this paper, a new ternary solid solution of Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 -PbTiO 3 -Bi(Zn 2/3 Nb 1/3 )O 3 (PMN-PT-BZN) is prepared in the form of ceramics, and the effects of the incorporation of BZN into the PMN-PT binary system are investigated. The crystal structure favors a pseudocubic symmetry and the relaxor properties are enhanced as the concentration of BZN increases. The relaxor behavior and the related phase transformations are studied by dielectric spectroscopy. A phase diagram mapping out the characteristic temperatures and various states is established. Interestingly, the piezoelectricity of the PMN-PT ceramics is significantly enhanced by the BZN substitution, with an optimal value of d 33 reaching 826 pC/N for 0.96[0.7Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 -0.3PbTiO 3 ]-0.04Bi(Zn 2/3 Nb 1/3 )O 3 . This paper provides a better understanding of the relaxor ferroelectric behavior, and unveils a new relaxor-based ternary system as piezoelectric materials potentially useful for electromechanical transducer applications.

  4. The efficacy of attention bias modification therapy in cocaine use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Andrew R; Wilcox, Claire E; Dodd, Andrew B; Klimaj, Stefan D; Dekonenko, Charlene J; Claus, Eric D; Bogenschutz, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Attentional bias (i.e., differences in reaction time between drug and neutral cues) has been associated with a variety of drug-use behaviors (e.g., craving, abstinence). Reduction of bias may ultimately reduce use. The current study examined whether attentional bias modification therapy (ABMT) reduced the frequency of drug use behaviors in individuals with cocaine use disorder (CUD). Participants (n = 37) were randomly assigned to ABMT or control therapy, which systematically varied how frequently probes replaced neutral (ABMT = 100%; control therapy = 50%) relative to drug stimuli. Each intervention included 5 training sessions comprising a total of 2640 trials over 4 weeks. Clinical assessments occurred at baseline, post-intervention, 2 weeks and 3 months posttreatment. There were no baseline differences between groups on drug-use behaviors or other clinical measures. Contrary to predictions, both groups exhibited slower rather than faster reaction times for cocaine stimuli (p = 0.005) at baseline, with no relationship between bias and baseline measures of drug-use behavior. ABMT was not more effective than our control therapy at reducing attentional bias, reducing craving or changing other drug use behaviors. Current results suggest additional replication studies are needed to assess ABMT's efficacy in reducing drug-use behaviors in CUD.

  5. The Necessity of "Behaviorism."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, William N.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the theory of behaviorism from a psychological perspective. Three issues are addressed: (1) the datum, including human verbal behavior; (2) the behavior stream; and (3) reduction, including a scientific viewpoint. (Contains two references.) (LRW)

  6. Plasma polymerization surface modification of Carbon black and its effect in elastomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathew, T.; Datta, Rabin; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Talma, Auke; Ooij, W.J.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Surface modification of carbon black by plasma polymerization was aimed to reduce its surface energy in order to compatibilize the filler with various elastomers. A fullerenic carbon black was used for the modification process. Thermogravimetric analysis, wetting behavior with liquids of known

  7. Modification of dendritic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feria-Velasco, Alfredo; del Angel, Alma Rosa; Gonzalez-Burgos, Ignacio

    2002-01-01

    Since 1890 Ramón y Cajal strongly defended the theory that dendrites and their processes and spines had a function of not just nutrient transport to the cell body, but they had an important conductive role in neural impulse transmission. He extensively discussed and supported this theory in the Volume 1 of his extraordinary book Textura del Sistema Nervioso del Hombre y de los Vertebrados. Also, Don Santiago significantly contributed to a detailed description of the various neural components of the hippocampus and cerebral cortex during development. Extensive investigation has been done in the last Century related to the functional role of these complex brain regions, and their association with learning, memory and some limbic functions. Likewise, the organization and expression of neuropsychological qualities such as memory, exploratory behavior and spatial orientation, among others, depend on the integrity and adequate functional activity of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. It is known that brain serotonin synthesis and release depend directly and proportionally on the availability of its precursor, tryptophan (TRY). By using a chronic TRY restriction model in rats, we studied their place learning ability in correlation with the dendritic spine density of pyramidal neurons in field CA1 of the hippocampus during postnatal development. We have also reported alterations in the maturation pattern of the ability for spontaneous alternation and task performance evaluating short-term memory, as well as adverse effects on the density of dendritic spines of hippocampal CA1 field pyramidal neurons and on the dendritic arborization and the number of dendritic spines of pyramidal neurons from the third layer of the prefrontal cortex using the same model of TRY restriction. The findings obtained in these studies employing a modified Golgi method, can be interpreted as a trans-synaptic plastic response due to understimulation of serotoninergic receptors located in the

  8. Reactive modification of polyesters and their blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chen

    2004-12-01

    As part of a broader research effort to investigate the chemical modification of polyesters by reactive processing a low molecular weight (MW) unsaturated polyester (UP) and a higher MW saturated polyester, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), alone or blended with polypropylene (PP) were melt processed in a batch mixer and continuous twin screw extruders. Modification was monitored by on-line rheology and the products were characterized primarily by off-line rheology, morphology and thermal analysis. Efforts were made to establish processing/property relationships and provide an insight of the accompanying structural changes. The overall response of the reactively modified systems was found to be strongly dependent on the component characteristics, blend composition, type and concentrations of reactive additives and processing conditions. The work concluded that UP can be effectively modified through reactive melt processing. Its melt viscosity and MW can be increased through chemical reactions between organic peroxides (POX) and chain unsaturation or between MgO and carboxyl/hydroxyl end groups. Reactive blending of PP/UP blends through peroxide modification gave finer and more uniform morphology than unreacted blends and at a given PP/UP weight ratio more thermoplastic elastomers-like rheological behavior. This is due to the continuously decreasing viscosity ratio of PP/UP towards unity by the competing reactions between POX and the blend components and formation of PP-UP copolymers which serve as in-situ compatibilizers to promote better interfacial adhesion. Kinetics of the competing reactions were analyzed through a developed model. In addition to POX concentration and mixing efficiency, rheology and morphology of UP/PP bends were significantly affected by the addition of inorganic and organic coagents. Addition of coagents such as a difunctional maleimide, MgO and/or an anhydride functionalized PP during reactive blending offers effective means for tailoring

  9. Nursing researchers' modifications of Ricoeur's hermeneutic phenomenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singsuriya, Pagorn

    2015-12-01

    Paul Ricoeur's hermeneutic phenomenology has proved to be very helpful in guiding nursing researchers' qualitative analysis of interview transcripts. Modifying Ricoeur's philosophy, a number of nursing researchers have developed their own interpretive methods and shared them, along with their experience, with research community. Major contributors who published papers directly presenting their modifications of Ricoeur's theory include Rene Geanellos (2000), Lena Wiklund, Lisbet Lindholm and Unni Å. Lindström (2002), Anders Lindseth and Astrid Norberg (2004) and Pia Sander Dreyer and Birthe D Pedersen (2009). The aim of this article was to delineate differences among these methods. Descriptive presentation of each method side by side makes clear the differences among them. In addition, Ricoeur's hermeneutic theory is portrayed and compared with the modifications. It is believed that differences that are found can stimulate further thoughts on how to apply Ricoeur's theory in qualitative research in nursing. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Tissue modification with feedback: the smart scalpel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebern, Elizabeth L.; Brenan, Colin J. H.; Anderson, R. Rox; Hunter, Ian W.

    1998-10-01

    While feedback control is widespread throughout many engineering fields, there are almost no examples of surgical instruments that utilize a real-time detection and intervention strategy. This concept of closed loop feedback can be applied to the development of autonomous or semi- autonomous minimally invasive robotic surgical systems for efficient excision or modification of diseased tissue. Spatially localized regions of the tissue are first probed to distinguish pathological from healthy tissue based on differences in histochemical and morphological properties. Energy is directed to only the diseased tissue, minimizing collateral damage by leaving the adjacent healthy tissue intact. Continuous monitoring determines treatment effectiveness and, if needed, enables real-time treatment modifications to produce optimal therapeutic outcomes. The present embodiment of this general concept is a microsurgical instrument we call the Smart Scalpel, designed to treat skin angiodysplasias such as port wine stains. Other potential Smart Scalpel applications include psoriasis treatment and early skin cancer detection and intervention.

  11. Including Exceptional Students in Your Instrumental Music Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixon, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the method and adaptations used by the author in including students with special needs in an instrumental music program. To ensure success in the program, the author shares the method he uses to include exceptional students and enumerates some possible adaptations. There are certainly other methods and modifications that…

  12. Modification of ASTM Standard E1681 on Environmental Cracking to Include Bolt-Load Specimen Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Underwood, Jean D. M

    1997-01-01

    Benet Laboratories experience with environmental cracking of cannon components has been combined with the technical expertise of various participants at ASTM technical meetings and symposia to develop...

  13. The continual fuel management modification in Qinshan project II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Guodong; Pan Zefei; Zhang Xingtian

    2010-01-01

    The fuel management strategy is the basis of the nuclear power plants. The performance of the fuel management strategy affects the plants' safety and economy indicators directly. The paper summarizes all the modifications on the fuel management work in Qinshan Project II since the plant was established. It includes the surveillance system of physics tests, fetching in high performance fuel assemblies, reloading pattern optimization, and the modifications of the final safety analysis report. At the same time, it evaluates the benefit of the modifications in the few years. The experience in this paper is much helpful and could be implemented on the same type plants. (authors)

  14. Epigenetic modifications as novel therapeutic targets for Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengli; Fischhaber, Paula L; Guo, Caixia; Tang, Tie-Shan

    2014-06-01

    Huntington's disease is a late-onset, autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor, cognitive and psychiatric symptomatology. The earliest stage of Huntington's disease is marked by alterations in gene expression, which partially results from dysregulated epigenetic modifications. In past decades, altered epigenetic markers including histone modifications (acetylation, methylation, ubiquitylation and phosphorylation) and DNA modifications (cytosine methylation and hydroxymethylation) have been reported as important epigenetic features in patients and multiple animal models of Huntington's disease. Drugs aimed to correct some of those alterations have shown promise in treating Huntington's disease. This article discusses the field of epigenetics for potential Huntington's disease interventions and presents the most recent findings in this area.

  15. Optimizing natural fertility: the role of lifestyle modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Mamie; Wellons, Melissa F

    2012-12-01

    Preconception counseling provides an opportunity for health care providers to promote maternal and neonatal health, and to make recommendations regarding the optimization of natural fertility. While educating patients on the negative impact of maternal obesity on fertility and maternal and neonatal health; many health care providers recommend weight loss to reduce these negative outcomes. The recommendations start with lifestyle modifications, including diet and exercise. This article focuses on the available evidence regarding lifestyle modifications and fertility, and on the type of lifestyle modifications that health care providers should recommend to patients seeking to optimize their natural fertility. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Surface Modification of PDMS and Plastics with Zwitterionic Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Mutsuo; Kurosawa, Shigeru

    2017-07-01

    Surface modification of PDMS, polycarbonate, and acrylic resin was examined using various methacryl polymers bearing sulfobetaine, phosphoryl choline, and oligoethylene glycol units. We have found that zwitterionic polymers are adsorbed on the PDMS surface treated with plasma. The surface of PDMS is stable to keep high hydrophilicity after a month of the modification. On the other hand, one of sulfobetaine polymers showed distinguished adsorption behavior in the case of polycarbonate surface treated with plasma. Suppression effect for nonspecific adsorption of BSA was evaluated using polycarbonate and acrylic resin modified with the polymers. The modified surfaces showed suppression effect for nonspecific adsorption of BSA compared with the surface only treated with plasma.

  17. Epigenetic Modifications and Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu A. Kowluru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy remains one of the most debilitating chronic complications, but despite extensive research in the field, the exact mechanism(s responsible for how retina is damaged in diabetes remains ambiguous. Many metabolic pathways have been implicated in its development, and genes associated with these pathways are altered. Diabetic environment also facilitates epigenetics modifications, which can alter the gene expression without permanent changes in DNA sequence. The role of epigenetics in diabetic retinopathy is now an emerging area, and recent work has shown that genes encoding mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (Sod2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 are epigenetically modified, activates of epigenetic modification enzymes, histone lysine demethylase 1 (LSD1, and DNA methyltransferase are increased, and the micro RNAs responsible for regulating nuclear transcriptional factor and VEGF are upregulated. With the growing evidence of epigenetic modifications in diabetic retinopathy, better understanding of these modifications has potential to identify novel targets to inhibit this devastating disease. Fortunately, the inhibitors and mimics targeted towards histone modification, DNA methylation, and miRNAs are now being tried for cancer and other chronic diseases, and better understanding of the role of epigenetics in diabetic retinopathy will open the door for their possible use in combating this blinding disease.

  18. Plazma modification of threading tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сергій Савелійович Самотугін

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive model of the threading tool hardening on high-speed plasma heating has been presented as well as the mathematical description of the heating process. The reproduction of the model by means of computer simulation, based on the use of the finite elements method, including structural and physical parameters of the tool has been offered. The heat distribution in the heat-affected zone, and the relationship that makes it possible to determine the temperature at any point of the body, bringing the simulation results closer to the actual physical characteristics of the process have been shown. The analysis conducted in this article shows the prospects of using surface hardening methods to improve performance of thread-cutting tools. However, due to the complex profile of the working surface of the tools, application of any hardening method involves difficulties. On the strength of the above-said, with due regard to the established requirements for geometrical parameters of the thread-cutting tools and their loading conditions, as well as well-known recommendations for other types of tools, the technological processes for plasma processing of various types of thread-cutting tools have been developed. In developing the technology of plasma modification it is very important to select the optimum mode of heating, which ensures the formation of the modified zones of required size. This problem is solved by means of the analysis of thermal fields in the tool during plasma heating. The experience of using plasma hardening shows that the thermal cycle of heating and cooling materials can be controlled by varying such parameters as arc current and the speed of the plasma torch movement at a constant optimum level of the other parameters (plasma gas flow and the cooling water, the distance of the nozzle exit to the surface being machined

  19. Modifications to the INSPECT model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickinson, S. [AEA Technology, Winfrith (United Kingdom); Sims, H.E. [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-01

    The prediction of iodine behaviour in the containment of a PWR following a loss of coolant accident requires a reliable model of the chemistry of iodine in aqueous solution. The INSPECT model, which was developed several years ago, contains a large number of the relevant chemical reactions of iodine and water radiation chemistry. Since the reactions set was first assembled, however, new data on rate constants and mechanisms have become available. In addition, the application of the model to various small-scale experiments has revealed problems in the modelling of some reactions, leading to an under-prediction of the iodine volatility at high pH, although the experiments have demonstrated that the high pH volatility remains satisfactory low. This paper describes the modifications which have been made to the INSPECT model to take account of new data and to improve the modelling where appropriate. The main changes which have been made to the reaction set are as follows: - The rate constants and activation energies for the reactions describing the radiolysis of water have been updated in with recent assessments, and the temperature dependence of the G value for the primary species have been accordance taken into account, - The mechanism and rates of I{sub 2} hydrolysis have been modified in accordance with the latest assessments of this reaction, - The mechanism for the reaction of I{sub 2} with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} has been changed to a form which produces a more realistic pH dependence under neutral and alkaline conditions, - An addition mechanism for the disproportionation of the O{sub 2} ion has been included, reflecting experimental observations that this reaction has a significant first-order component under all but the purest conditions, - Atomic I is treated as a volatile species, with a partition coefficient of 1.9 at 298 K. (Abstract Truncated)

  20. A numerical study on the structural behavior of underground rock caverns for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun Hoon; Choi, Kyu Sup; Lee, Kyung Jin; Kim, Dae Hong

    1991-01-01

    In order to design safe and economical underground disposal structures for radioactive wastes, understanding the behavior of discontinuous rock masses is essential. This study includes discussions about the computational model for discontinuous rock masses and the structural analysis method for underground storage structures. Then, based on an engineering judgement a suitable selection and slight modifications on computational models and analysis methods have been made in order to analyze and understand the structural behavior of the rock cavern with discontinuities

  1. Differential effects of cocaine on histone posttranslational modifications in identified populations of striatal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordi, Emmanuelle; Heiman, Myriam; Marion-Poll, Lucile; Guermonprez, Pierre; Cheng, Shuk Kei; Nairn, Angus C; Greengard, Paul; Girault, Jean-Antoine

    2013-06-04

    Drugs of abuse, such as cocaine, induce changes in gene expression and epigenetic marks including alterations in histone posttranslational modifications in striatal neurons. These changes are thought to participate in physiological memory mechanisms and to be critical for long-term behavioral alterations. However, the striatum is composed of multiple cell types, including two distinct populations of medium-sized spiny neurons, and little is known concerning the cell-type specificity of epigenetic modifications. To address this question we used bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mice, which express EGFP fused to the N-terminus of the large subunit ribosomal protein L10a driven by the D1 or D2 dopamine receptor (D1R, D2R) promoter, respectively. Fluorescence in nucleoli was used to sort nuclei from D1R- or D2R-expressing neurons and to quantify by flow cytometry the cocaine-induced changes in histone acetylation and methylation specifically in these two types of nuclei. The two populations of medium-sized spiny neurons displayed different patterns of histone modifications 15 min or 24 h after a single injection of cocaine or 24 h after seven daily injections. In particular, acetylation of histone 3 on Lys 14 and of histone 4 on Lys 5 and 12, and methylation of histone 3 on Lys 9 exhibited distinct and persistent changes in the two cell types. Our data provide insights into the differential epigenetic responses to cocaine in D1R- and D2R-positive neurons and their potential regulation, which may participate in the persistent effects of cocaine in these neurons. The method described should have general utility for studying nuclear modifications in different types of neuronal or nonneuronal cell types.

  2. The Human Factors Engineering in Process Design Modifications CNAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foronda Delgado, A.; Almeida Parra, P.; Bote Moreno, J.

    2013-01-01

    This contribution presents the process followed at the Almaraz and Trillo Nuclear Power Plants in order to integrate Human Factors Engineering (HFE) in the Design Modifications. This includes the applicable rules and regulations, the classification criteria used to categorize the modification, the activities that are to be carried out in each case, as well as recent examples where the full HFE program model was applied at Almaraz (Alternate Shutdown Panel) and Trillo (Primary Bleed and Feed).

  3. Modification and Potential Application of Short-Chain-Length Polyhydroxyalkanoate (SCL-PHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichao Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As the only kind of naturally-occurring biopolyester synthesized by various microorganisms, polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA shows a great market potential in packaging, fiber, biomedical, and other fields due to its biodegradablity, biocompatibility, and renewability. However, the inherent defects of scl-PHA with low 3HV or 4HB content, such as high stereoregularity, slow crystallization rate, and particularly the phenomena of formation of large-size spherulites and secondary crystallization, restrict the processing and stability of scl-PHA, as well as the application of its products. Many efforts have focused on the modification of scl-PHA to improve the mechanical properties and the applicability of obtained scl-PHA products. The modification of structure and property together with the potential applications of scl-PHA are covered in this review to give a comprehensive knowledge on the modification and processing of scl-PHA, including the effects of physical blending, chemical structure design, and processing conditions on the crystallization behaviors, thermal stability, and mechanical properties of scl-PHA.

  4. Particle Distribution Modification by Low Amplitude Modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.B.; Gorelenkov, N.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Van Zeeland, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Modification of a high energy particle distribution by a spectrum of low amplitude modes is investigated using a guiding center code. Only through resonance are modes effective in modifying the distribution. Diagnostics are used to illustrate the mode-particle interaction and to find which effects are relevant in producing significant resonance, including kinetic Poincare plots and plots showing those orbits with time averaged mode-particle energy transfer. Effects of pitch angle scattering and drag are studied, as well as plasma rotation and time dependence of the equilibrium and mode frequencies. A specific example of changes observed in a DIII-D deuterium beam distribution in the presence of low amplitude experimentally validated Toroidal Alfven (TAE) eigenmodes and Reversed Shear Alfven (RSAE) eigenmodes is examined in detail. Comparison with experimental data shows that multiple low amplitude modes can account for significant modification of high energy beam particle distributions. It is found that there is a stochastic threshold for beam profile modification, and that the experimental amplitudes are only slightly above this threshold.

  5. Inorganic Surface Modification of Nonwoven Polymeric Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbur, Jonathan Chandler

    In this study, atomic layer deposition (ALD), a vapor phase inorganic thin film deposition technique, is used to modify the surface of a range of industrially relevant polymers to enhance surface properties or impart additional functionalities. Several unique demonstrations of polymer surface modification are presented including uniform nanomaterial photodeposition to the surface of nonowoven fabrics and the first application of photocatalytic thin film coated nonwovens for advanced filtration of heavy metals from solution. Recent advances in polymer synthesis and processing technologies have resulted in the production of novel polymer systems with unique chemistries and sub-micron scale dimensions. As a result, advanced fiber systems have received much attention for potential use in a wide range of industrially and medically important applications such as advanced and selective filtration, catalysis, flexible electronics, and tissue engineering. However, tailoring the surface properties of the polymer is still needed in order to realize the full range of advanced applications, which can be difficult given the high complexity and non-uniformity of nonwoven polymeric structures. Uniform and controllable inorganic surface modification of nonwovens allows the introduction or modification of many crucial polymer properties with a wide range of application methods.

  6. Heavy flavored jet modification in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2084335

    2015-01-01

    The energy loss of jets in heavy-ion collisions is expected to depend on the flavor of the fragmenting parton. Thus, measurements of jet quenching as a function of flavor place powerful constraints on the thermodynamical and transport properties of the hot and dense medium. Measurements of the nuclear modification factors of the heavy-flavor-tagged jets (from charm and bottom quarks) in both PbPb and pPb collisions can quantify such energy loss effects. Specifically, pPb measurements provide crucial insights into the behavior of the cold nuclear matter effect, which is required to fully understand the hot and dense medium effects on jets in PbPb collisions. In this talk, we present the heavy flavor jet spectra and measurements of the nuclear modification factors in both PbPb and pPb as a function of transverse momentum and pseudorapidity, using the high statistics pp, pPb and PbPb data taken in 2011 and 2013. Finally, we also will present a proposal for c-jet tagging methodology to be used for the upcoming hi...

  7. Genome modification by CRISPR/Cas9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuanwu; Zhang, Lianfeng; Huang, Xingxu

    2014-12-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein (Cas)9-mediated genome modification enables us to edit the genomes of a variety of organisms rapidly and efficiently. The advantages of the CRISPR-Cas9 system have made it an increasingly popular genetic engineering tool for biological and therapeutic applications. Moreover, CRISPR-Cas9 has been employed to recruit functional domains that repress/activate gene expression or label specific genomic loci in living cells or organisms, in order to explore developmental mechanisms, gene expression regulation, and animal behavior. One major concern about this system is its specificity; although CRISPR-Cas9-mediated off-target mutation has been broadly studied, more efforts are required to further improve the specificity of CRISPR-Cas9. We will also discuss the potential applications of CRISPR-Cas9. © 2014 FEBS.

  8. Modification of fluoroelastomer by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovedi, Claudia; Montagna, Lea S.; Leitao Junior, Claudio B.; Pino, Eddy S.; Machado, Luci D.B.

    2005-01-01

    Fluoroelastomer is a polymer usually used as a sealing material due to some excellent properties, comparing to other elastomers, such as good chemical and thermal resistance. The fluoroelastomer used in this paper was a commercial product obtained from two monomers, vinylidene and hexafluoropropylene, containing also carbon black and inorganic fillers. Samples were irradiated with electron beam at doses from 10 to 250 kGy. The results obtained showed that electron beam radiation, in the studied conditions, promotes significant changes in the fluoroelastomer mechanical properties ending up in an increase of hardness, tensile strength and stiffness. The modifications on the mechanical properties can be related to a better adhesion between the fluoro elastomer and the fillers, induced by EB radiation. Micrographs obtained by Scanning Electron Microscopy for non-irradiated and irradiated samples confirmed this behavior. (author)

  9. Spatial and Temporal Effects in Protein Post-translational Modification Distributions in the Developing Mouse Brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Alistair V G; Edwards, Gregory J; Schwämmle, Veit

    2014-01-01

    Protein post-translational modification (PTM) is a powerful way to modify the behavior of cellular proteins and thereby cellular behavior. Multiple recent studies of evolutionary trends have shown that certain pairs of protein post-translational modifications tend to occur closer to each other than...... for observations of increasingly frequent and diverse protein modification in cell biology. In this study, we use mass spectrometry and proteomic strategies to present biological data showing spatiotemporal PTM co-localization across multiple PTM categories, which display changes over development of the brain...

  10. Structural dynamic modifications via models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2nd Int. Modal Analysis Conference (Orlando) 2: 930±936. Natke H G (ed.) 1982 Identification of vibrating structures (New York: Springer Verlag, Wein). Rao S S 1989 Optimum design of structures under shock and vibration environment. Shock Vibr. Dig. 21(7):. Ravi S S A 1994 Structural dynamic modifications and design ...

  11. Superhydrophobic cotton by fluorosilane modification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erasmus, E

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available the treatment with fluorinated or silicon compounds)1-4 and by enhancing the surface roughness with a fractal structure5-8. Cotton, a cellulose-based material, that is greatly hydrophilic, is more benefited when made hydrophobic. Modification of cotton...

  12. Modification of the Argonne tandem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yntema, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    For nuclear structure experiments with heavy ions it is necessary to have ion energies in excess of 5 MeV per nucleon. At the Argonne tandem FN accelerator this was accomplished by the addition of a superconducting linac. Modifications of the FN tandem to improve the performance of the pair is described

  13. A NEW "PROCESSABLE" POLYACETYLENE MODIFICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Hocker, J.; Schneider, G.

    1983-01-01

    Using a special catalyst on the Ziegler-Natta basis and special reaction conditions it is possible to polymerize acetylene for obtaining a new polyacetylene modification with burr- or fibre-shaped particles which can be processed to foils, non-wovens and coatings.

  14. A review of the chemical modification techniques of starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masina, Nonhlanhla; Choonara, Yahya E; Kumar, Pradeep; du Toit, Lisa C; Govender, Mershen; Indermun, Sunaina; Pillay, Viness

    2017-02-10

    Starch is a naturally occurring storage copolymer with unique physicochemical properties. There are, however, some key structural properties of starch that can be modified in order to functionalize the copolymer to meet specific requirements. Specifically, the chemical modification of starch provides a variety of physicochemical benefits, some of which have been used previously to functionalize preformed drug delivery systems. Of the three main chemical modification methods reviewed (namely: oxidation, esterification and etherification), surface chemical oxidation introduces more pertinent physicochemical properties that increase overall drug delivery system efficacy and applicability. Surface oxidation evidently is the more preferable chemical modification method of pre-formed starch particles and has the greatest potential for further development when compared to the other reviewed chemical modification methods. The use of modified starch in clinical trials as well as the potential future implications of these systems is also included in this review. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Role of epigenetic modifications in luminal breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hafiz, Hany A; Horwitz, Kathryn B

    2015-08-01

    Luminal breast cancers represent approximately 75% of cases. Explanations into the causes of endocrine resistance are complex and are generally ascribed to genomic mechanisms. Recently, attention has been drawn to the role of epigenetic modifications in hormone resistance. We review these here. Epigenetic modifications are reversible, heritable and include changes in DNA methylation patterns, modification of histones and altered microRNA expression levels that target the receptors or their signaling pathways. Large-scale analyses indicate distinct epigenomic profiles that distinguish breast cancers from normal and benign tissues. Taking advantage of the reversibility of epigenetic modifications, drugs that target epigenetic modifiers, given in combination with chemotherapies or endocrine therapies, may represent promising approaches to restoration of therapy responsiveness in these cases.

  16. Epigenetic modifications by dietary phytochemicals: implications for personalized nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Sharmila; Kumar, Dhruv; Srivastava, Rakesh K

    2013-04-01

    In the last two decades, the study of epigenetic modification emerged as one of the major areas of cancer treatment targeted by dietary phytochemicals. Recent studies with various types of cancers revealed that the epigenetic modifications are associated with the food source corresponds to dietary phytochemicals. The dietary phytochemicals have been used in Asian countries for thousands of years to cure several diseases including cancer. They have been reported to modulate the several biological processes including histone modification, DNA methylation and non-coding microRNA expression. These events play a vital role in carcinogenesis. Various studies suggest that a number of dietary compounds present in vegetables, spices and other herbal products have epigenetic targets in cancer cells. Dietary phytochemicals have been reported to repair DNA damage by enhancing histone acetylation that helps to restrain cell death, and also alter DNA methylation. These phytochemicals are able to modulate epigenetic modifications and their targets to cure several cancers. Epigenetic aberrations dynamically contribute to cancer pathogenesis. Given the individualized traits of epigenetic biomarkers, the personalized nutrition will help us to prevent various types of cancer. In this review, we will discuss the effect of dietary phytochemicals on genetic and epigenetic modifications and how these modifications help to prevent various types of cancers and improve health outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Teleological behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachlin, H

    1992-11-01

    A psychological science of efficient causes, using internal mechanisms to explain overt behavior, is distinguished from another psychological science, based on Aristotelian final causes, using external objects and goals to explain overt behavior. Efficient-cause psychology is designed to answer the question of how a particular act is emitted; final-cause psychology is designed to answer the question of why a particular act is emitted. Physiological psychology, modern cognitive psychology, and some parts of behaviorism including Skinnerian behaviorism are efficient-cause psychologies; final-cause psychology, a development of Skinnerian behaviorism, is here called teleological behaviorism. Each of these two conceptions of causality in psychology implies a different view of the mind, hence a different meaning of mental terms.

  18. Chemical modification of citrus pectin: Structural, physical and rheologial implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fracasso, Aline Francielle; Perussello, Camila Augusto; Carpiné, Danielle; Petkowicz, Carmen Lúcia de Oliveira; Haminiuk, Charles Windson Isidoro

    2018-04-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the physical, structural and rheological modifications caused by the chemical modification process of citrus pectin. Therefore, three commercial citrus pectins with different degree of esterification were chemically modified by sequential alkali and acidic hydrolytic process to produce modified citrus pectins (MCP) with special properties. The molar mass (M w ), degree of esterification (DE), monosaccharide composition, 13 C NMR spectra, homogeneity, morphology (SEM) and rheological behavior of both native and modified citrus pectins (MCP) were investigated. The chemical modification reduced the acid uronic content (up to 28.3%) and molar mass (up to 29.98%), however, showed little influence on the degree of esterification of native pectins. Modified citrus pectins presented higher amounts of neutral monosaccharides, mainly galactose, arabinose and rhamnose, typical of the Ramnogalacturonana-I (RG-I) region. Rheological tests indicated that the native and modified citrus pectins presented pseudoplastic behavior, however, the MCP samples were less viscous, compared to the native ones. Modified samples presented better dissolution in water and less strong gels, with good stability during oscillatory shearing at 25°C. This study aims to better understand the implications that chemical modifications may impose on the structure of citrus pectins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Implementation of a Computerized Screening Inventory: Improved Usability Through Iterative Testing and Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreaux, Edwin D; Fischer, Andrew Christopher; Haskins, Brianna Lyn; Saeed Zafar, Zubair; Chen, Guanling; Chinai, Sneha A

    2016-03-09

    The administration of health screeners in a hospital setting has traditionally required (1) clinicians to ask questions and log answers, which can be time consuming and susceptible to error, or (2) patients to complete paper-and-pencil surveys, which require third-party entry of information into the electronic health record and can be vulnerable to error and misinterpretation. A highly promising method that avoids these limitations and bypasses third-party interpretation is direct entry via a computerized inventory. To (1) computerize medical and behavioral health screening for use in general medical settings, (2) optimize patient acceptability and feasibility through iterative usability testing and modification cycles, and (3) examine how age relates to usability. A computerized version of 15 screeners, including behavioral health screeners recommended by a National Institutes of Health Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research collaborative workgroup, was subjected to systematic usability testing and iterative modification. Consecutive adult, English-speaking patients seeking treatment in an urban emergency department were enrolled. Acceptability was defined as (1) the percentage of eligible patients who agreed to take the assessment (initiation rate) and (2) average satisfaction with the assessment (satisfaction rate). Feasibility was defined as the percentage of the screening items completed by those who initiated the assessment (completion rate). Chi-square tests, analyses of variance, and Pearson correlations were used to detect whether improvements in initiation, satisfaction, and completion rates were seen over time and to examine the relation between age and outcomes. Of 2157 eligible patients approached, 1280 agreed to complete the screening (initiation rate=59.34%). Statistically significant increases were observed over time in satisfaction (F3,1061=3.35, P=.019) and completion rates (F3,1276=25.44, PUsability testing revealed several critical

  20. Thermal desorption and surface modification of He+ implanted into tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Zhang; Yoshida, N.; Iwakiri, H.; Xu Zengyu

    2004-01-01

    Tungsten divertor plates in fusion reactors will be subject to helium bombardment. Helium retention and thermal desorption is a concerned issue in controlling helium ash. In the present study, fluence dependence of thermal desorption behavior of helium in tungsten was studied at different irradiation temperatures and ion energies. Results showed that helium desorption could start at ∼400 K with increasing fluence, while no noticeable peaks were detected at low fluence. Total helium desorption reached a saturation value at high fluence range, which was not sensitive to irradiation temperature or ion energy for the conditions evaluated. Surface modifications caused by either ion irradiation or thermal desorption were observed by SEM. The relationship of surface modifications and helium desorption behavior was discussed. Some special features of elevated irradiation temperature and lower ion energy were also indicated

  1. Modification of Indirect Solar Dryer for Simplicia Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnomo, C. W.; Indarti, S.

    2018-03-01

    Simplicia is natural ingredient for herbal medicine that has been subjected to drying only. This study aims to develop an appropriate drying equipment to produce dried leaves of sambung nyawa (Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr.) or also called “longevity spinach”. Typical indirect solar drier was modified to be able to process more fresh leaves in order to speed up the production. The modification was done using double solar collector and wind powered ventilation. The double solar collector was applied in order to collect more solar energy for larger dimension of drying chamber, while the wind-ventilator was installed to provide forced convection of hot air flow inside the dryer. The drying kinetic including the drying constants were investigated using three common thin layer drying equations to model the drying behavior of the leaves. The moisture ratio (MR) depletion with respect to the drying time (t) of the leaves can be well represented by equation of MR=1.1732exp(-0.0993.t)-0.1732exp(-17.3871.t).

  2. Long-term stable surface modification of DLC coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotzmann Gaby

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of coatings based on diamond like carbon (DLC for medical applications was established during the last years. Main advantages of these coatings are its high hardness, good wear and friction behavior and its biocompatibility. Using low-energy electron-beam treatment, we addressed the surface modification of DLC coatings. The aim was to generate new biofunctional surface characteristics that are long-term stable.

  3. Modification of nanofibrillated cellulose with stimuli-responsive polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Cobo Sanchez, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Research of new sustainable and low cost materials, such as cellulose, is of high interest. Modifications of the cellulose can be performed in order to create a “smart” material which responds to external stimuli, such as variations in pH and temperature, by changing its properties. This “smart” behavior is observed in some polymers, however, for certain applications they exhibit poor mechanical properties. These polymers can be bound by physical adsorption to cellulose, both in macro and nan...

  4. Internet interventions to support lifestyle modification for diabetes management: a systematic review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Alexander P; Durant, Nefertiti; Agne, April A; Cherrington, Andrea L

    2014-01-01

    The Internet presents a widely accessible, 24-h means to promote chronic disease management. The objective of this review is to identify studies that used Internet based interventions to promote lifestyle modification among adults with type 2 diabetes. We searched PubMed using the terms: [internet, computer, phone, smartphone, mhealth, mobile health, web based, telehealth, social media, text messages] combined with [diabetes management and diabetes control] through January 2013. Studies were included if they described an Internet intervention, targeted adults with type 2 diabetes, focused on lifestyle modification, and included an evaluation component with behavioral outcomes. Of the 2803 papers identified, nine met inclusion criteria. Two studies demonstrated improvements in diet and/or physical activity and two studies demonstrated improvements in glycemic control comparing web-based intervention with control. Successful studies were theory-based, included interactive components with tracking and personalized feedback, and provided opportunities for peer support. Website utilization declined over time in all studies that reported on it. Few studies focused on high risk, underserved populations. Web-based strategies provide a viable option for facilitating diabetes self-management. Future research is needed on the use of web-based interventions in underserved communities and studies examining website utilization patterns and engagement over time. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. On topological modifications of Newton's law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floratos, E.G.; Leontaris, G.K.

    2012-01-01

    Recent cosmological data for very large distances challenge the validity of the standard cosmological model. Motivated by the observed spatial flatness the accelerating expansion and the various anisotropies with preferred axes in the universe we examine the consequences of the simple hypothesis that the three-dimensional space has a global R 2 × S 1 topology. We take the radius of the compactification to be the observed cosmological scale beyond which the accelerated expansion starts. We derive the induced corrections to the Newton's gravitational potential and we find that for distances smaller than the S 1 radius the leading 1/r-term is corrected by convergent power series of multipole form in the polar angle making explicit the induced anisotropy by the compactified third dimension. On the other hand, for distances larger than the compactification scale the asymptotic behavior of the potential exhibits a logarithmic dependence with exponentially small corrections. The change of Newton's force from 1/r 2 to 1/r behavior implies a weakening of the deceleration for the expanding universe. Such topologies can also be created locally by standard Newtonian axially symmetric mass distributions with periodicity along the symmetry axis. In such cases we can use our results to obtain measurable modifications of Newtonian orbits for small distances and flat rotation spectra, for large distances at the galactic level

  6. Ion bombardment modification of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auciello, O.

    1984-01-01

    An historical overview of the main advances in the understanding of bombardment-induced surface topography is presented. The implantation and sputtering mechanisms which are relevant to ion bombardment modification of surfaces and consequent structural, electronic and compositional changes are described. Descriptions of plasma and ion-beam sputtering-induced film formation, primary ion-beam deposition, dual beam techniques, cluster of molecule ion-beam deposition, and modification of thin film properties by ion bombardment during deposition are presented. A detailed account is given of the analytical and computational modelling of topography from the viewpoint of first erosion theory. Finally, an account of the possible application and/or importance of textured surfaces in technologies and/or experimental techniques not considered in previous chapters is presented. refs.; figs.; tabs

  7. Lentiviral modification of enriched populations of bovine male gonocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K-J; Cho, C M; Kim, B-G; Lee, Y-A; Kim, B-J; Kim, Y-H; Kim, C G; Schmidt, J A; Ryu, B-Y

    2014-01-01

    Undifferentiated germ cells have the capacity to develop into sperm capable of fertilizing oocytes and contributing genetic material to subsequent generations. The most primitive prepubertal undifferentiated germ cells include gonocytes and undifferentiated spermatogonia, including spermatogonial stem cells (SSC). Gonocytes, present in the testis at birth, differentiate into SSC, which maintain spermatogenesis for the remainder of the male's life. Because of their capacity to contribute to lifelong spermatogenesis, undifferentiated germ cells are attractive targets for genetic modification to produce transgenic animals, including cattle. To maximize the efficiency of genetic modification of bovine gonocytes and SSC, effective enrichment techniques need to be developed. Selection of bovine gonocytes using differential plating was improved 8-fold (P green fluorescent protein. Transduction efficiency was 17%. Collectively, these data demonstrate effective methods for the selection and genetic modification of bovine undifferentiated germ cells.

  8. Cradle modification for hydraulic ram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koons, B.M.

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of the cradle hydraulic system considers stress, weld strength, and hydraulic forces required to lift and support the cradle/pump assembly. The stress and weld strength of the cradle modifications is evaluated to ensure that they meet the requirements of the American Institute for Steel Construction (AISC 1989). The hydraulic forces are evaluated to ensure that the hydraulic system is capable of rotating the cradle and pump assembly to the vertical position (between 70 degrees and 90 degrees)

  9. Self-Assembled Fluorinated Organogelators for Surface Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anilkumar Raghavanpillai

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A new class of alkyl- and perfluoroalkyl-containing urea and amide derivatives was synthesized from amino acid derivatives. Most of these compounds showed excellent gelation behavior in organic solvents at low concentrations. A few organogelators selected from the initial screening were used for surface modification of fibrous substrates to create hydrophobic and oleophobic composites. The hydrophobic and oleophobic behaviors of these composites were ascribed to a combination of increased surface roughness and the alkyl/fluorinated functionalities present in the gelator backbone.

  10. Excimer laser surface modification: Process and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jervis, T.R.; Nastasi, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hirvonen, J.P. [Technical Research Institute, Espoo (Finland). Metallurgy Lab.

    1992-12-01

    Surface modification can improve materials for structural, tribological, and corrosion applications. Excimer laser light has been shown to provide a rapid means of modifying surfaces through heat treating, surface zone refining, and mixing. Laser pulses at modest power levels can easily melt the surfaces of many materials. Mixing within the molten layer or with the gas ambient may occur, if thermodynamically allowed, followed by rapid solidification. The high temperatures allow the system to overcome kinetic barriers found in some ion mixing experiments. Alternatively, surface zone refinement may result from repeated melting-solidification cycles. Ultraviolet laser light couples energy efficiently to the surface of metallic and ceramic materials. The nature of the modification that follows depends on the properties of the surface and substrate materials. Alloying from both gas and predeposited layer sources has been observed in metals, semiconductors, and ceramics as has surface enrichment of Cr by zone refinement of stainless steel. Rapid solidification after melting often results in the formation of nonequilibrium phases, including amorphous materials. Improved surface properties, including tribology and corrosion resistance, are observed in these materials.

  11. Attention bias modification reduces neural correlates of response monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Brady D; Jackson, Felicia; Amir, Nader; Hajcak, Greg

    2017-10-01

    The error-related negativity (ERN) is an electrophysiological response to errors. Individual differences in the ERN have been posited to reflect sensitivity to threat and linked with risk for anxiety disorders. Attention bias modification is a promising computerized intervention that has been shown to decrease threat biases and anxiety symptoms. In the present study, we examined the impact of a single session of attention bias modification, relative to a control task, on the neural correlates of response monitoring, including the ERN, correct response negativity (CRN), and their difference (i.e., the ERN - CRN or ΔERN). The final sample included 60 participants who first completed a flanker task to elicit the ERN and CRN, and were then randomly assigned to attention bias modification (n=30) or a control task (n=30). After completing the attention bias modification or control task, participants completed the same flanker task to again elicit the ERN and CRN. Among participants who completed attention bias modification training, the ERN, CRN, and ΔERN decreased from the pre- to post-training assessment. In contrast, in participants who completed the control task, the CRN, ERN, and ΔERN did not differ between the pre- and post-training assessment. The presents study suggests that a single session of attention bias modification reduces neural correlates of response monitoring, including error-related brain activity. These results also support attention bias modification as a potential mechanistic-based intervention for the prevention and treatment of anxiety pathology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Trophic interaction modifications: an empirical and theoretical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, J Christopher D; Morris, Rebecca J; Bonsall, Michael B

    2017-10-01

    Consumer-resource interactions are often influenced by other species in the community. At present these 'trophic interaction modifications' are rarely included in ecological models despite demonstrations that they can drive system dynamics. Here, we advocate and extend an approach that has the potential to unite and represent this key group of non-trophic interactions by emphasising the change to trophic interactions induced by modifying species. We highlight the opportunities this approach brings in comparison to frameworks that coerce trophic interaction modifications into pairwise relationships. To establish common frames of reference and explore the value of the approach, we set out a range of metrics for the 'strength' of an interaction modification which incorporate increasing levels of contextual information about the system. Through demonstrations in three-species model systems, we establish that these metrics capture complimentary aspects of interaction modifications. We show how the approach can be used in a range of empirical contexts; we identify as specific gaps in current understanding experiments with multiple levels of modifier species and the distributions of modifications in networks. The trophic interaction modification approach we propose can motivate and unite empirical and theoretical studies of system dynamics, providing a route to confront ecological complexity. © 2017 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Surface modification of materials to encourage beneficial biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amreeta Sarjit

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms are communities of sessile microorganisms that grow and produce extrapolymeric substances on an abiotic or biotic surface. Although biofilms are often associated with negative impacts, the role of beneficial biofilms is wide and include applications in bioremediation, wastewater treatment and microbial fuel cells. Microbial adhesion to a surface, which is highly dependent on the physicochemical properties of the cells and surfaces, is an essential step in biofilm formation. Surface modification therefore represents an important way to modulate microbial attachment and ultimately biofilm formation by microorganisms. In this review different surface modification processes such as organosilane surface modification, plasma treatment, and chemical modification of carbon nanotubes, electro-oxidation and covalent-immobilization with neutral red and methylene blue molecules are outlined. The effectiveness of these modifications and their industrial applications are also discussed. There is inadequate literature on surface modification as a process to enhance beneficial biofilm formation. These methods need to be safe, economically viable, scalable and environmental friendly and their potential to fulfil these criteria for many applications has yet to be determined.

  14. Biosynthesis and functions of sulfur modifications in tRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki eShigi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur is an essential element for a variety of cellular constituents in all living organisms. In tRNA molecules, there are many sulfur-containing nucleosides, such as the derivatives of 2‑thiouridine (s2U, 4-thiouridine (s4U, 2-thiocytidine (s2C, and 2-methylthioadenosine (ms2A. Earlier studies established the functions of these modifications for accurate and efficient translation, including proper recognition of the codons in mRNA or stabilization of tRNA structure. In many cases, the biosynthesis of these sulfur modifications starts with cysteine desulfurases, which catalyze the generation of persulfide (an activated form of sulfur from cysteine. Many sulfur-carrier proteins are responsible for delivering this activated sulfur to each biosynthesis pathway. Finally, specific modification enzymes activate target tRNAs and then incorporate sulfur atoms. Intriguingly, the biosynthesis of 2-thiouridine in all domains of life is functionally and evolutionarily related to the ubiquitin-like post-translational modification system of cellular proteins in eukaryotes. This review summarizes the recent characterization of the biosynthesis of sulfur modifications in tRNA and the novel roles of this modification in cellular functions in various model organisms, with a special emphasis on 2-thiouridine derivatives. Each biosynthesis pathway of sulfur-containing molecules is mutually modulated via sulfur trafficking, and 2-thiouridine and codon usage bias have been proposed to control the translation of specific genes.

  15. Lateral Thinking: How Histone Modifications Regulate Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Moyra; Daujat, Sylvain; Schneider, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The DNA of each cell is wrapped around histone octamers, forming so-called 'nucleosomal core particles'. These histone proteins have tails that project from the nucleosome and many residues in these tails can be post-translationally modified, influencing all DNA-based processes, including chromatin compaction, nucleosome dynamics, and transcription. In contrast to those present in histone tails, modifications in the core regions of the histones had remained largely uncharacterised until recently, when some of these modifications began to be analysed in detail. Overall, recent work has shown that histone core modifications can not only directly regulate transcription, but also influence processes such as DNA repair, replication, stemness, and changes in cell state. In this review, we focus on the most recent developments in our understanding of histone modifications, particularly those on the lateral surface of the nucleosome. This region is in direct contact with the DNA and is formed by the histone cores. We suggest that these lateral surface modifications represent a key insight into chromatin regulation in the cell. Therefore, lateral surface modifications form a key area of interest and a focal point of ongoing study in epigenetics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Proteomic analysis of post-translational modifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Matthias; Jensen, Ole N

    2003-01-01

    Post-translational modifications modulate the activity of most eukaryote proteins. Analysis of these modifications presents formidable challenges but their determination generates indispensable insight into biological function. Strategies developed to characterize individual proteins are now...

  17. Histone modifications: Cycling with chromosomal replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thon, Genevieve

    2008-01-01

    Histone modifications tend to be lost during chromosome duplication. Several recent studies suggest that the RNA interference pathway becomes active during the weakened transcriptional repression occurring at centromeres in S phase, resulting in the re-establishment of histone modifications...

  18. Surface modification agents for lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil; Belharouak, Ilias

    2017-11-21

    An active material for an electrochemical device wherein a surface of the active material is modified by a surface modification agent, wherein the surface modification agent is an organometallic compound.

  19. Effects of Modification of Cognitive Style on Creative Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Vivian

    1970-01-01

    Suggests that training can increase the preference for more complex types of art, that such training will transfer to music, and that verbal originality will also increase. Bibliography and tables. (RW)

  20. Modification of ferromagnetic nanostripe dynamic behavior by edge defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo; Zhao, Chunwang; Li, Yulian

    2018-03-01

    The dynamic spectra of ferromagnetic nanostripes with different edge defects are investigated using the three-dimensional object-oriented micromagnetic framework code. Two main resonance peaks are found in nanostripes due to nonuniformity of the static magnetization patterns. The higher peak can be identified by the precession of magnetization in the middle part of the nanostripes. The lower one can be identified by the sample end part. The values of two precession frequencies and linewidths can be modified using the edge defect to tune the magnetization of different parts of samples, which is important and useful in magnetic storage devices.

  1. Behavior Modification Drugs and the Schools: The Case of Ritalin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, James

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the use of Ritalin to treat hyperactive school children and the proper role of teachers in identifying and dealing with such children. Offers suggestions for developing appropriate school policies and recommends closer cooperation between educators and physicians specializing in treatment of hyperkinesis. (JG)

  2. A community-based behavior modification intervention for childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, David; Brauner, Michal; Granot, Esther

    2007-02-01

    Childhood obesity, caused by reduced physical activity and increased food consumption, has reached epidemic proportions. We hypothesized that a single practitioner could enable a child to reduce BMI by educating towards a healthier lifestyle and then reinforcing the message in a structured manner. In this study, intervention group participants and their parents received a half-hour talk on exercise and diet, repeated after 3 months. They were instructed to fill weekly diaries and were called weekly by telephone. Controls received the initial instruction only. Twenty-seven (14 intervention) obese children were recruited. Anthropometric parameters, fitness and biochemical data were collected before intervention and after 6 months in both groups. Sustained but not statistically significant improvements in attitude, BMI SDS and LDL-cholesterol were noted in the intervention group. These promising results support a need for further work to evaluate the efficacy and applicability of our approach in the population at large.

  3. Targeting post-translational modifications of histones for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Y-C; Hsieh, Y-H; Liao, C-C; Chong, L-W; Lee, C-Y; Yu, Y-L; Chou, R-H

    2015-10-30

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) on histones including acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, citrullination, ubiquitination, ADP ribosylation, and sumoylation, play important roles in different biological events including chromatin dynamics, DNA replication, and transcriptional regulation. Aberrant histones PTMs leads to abnormal gene expression and uncontrolled cell proliferation, followed by development of cancers. Therefore, targeting the enzymes required for specific histone PTMs holds a lot of potential for cancer treatment. In this review article, we retrospect the latest studies in the regulations of acetylation, methylation, and phosphorylation of histones. We also summarize inhibitors/drugs that target these modifications for cancer treatment.

  4. Energy conservation potential of surface modification technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, H.K.; Horne, D.M.; Silberglitt, R.S.

    1985-09-01

    This report assesses the energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries. The energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries is assessed by estimating their friction and wear tribological sinks and the subsequent reduction in these sinks when surface modified tools are used. Ion implantation, coatings, and laser and electron beam surface modifications are considered.

  5. Should Relational Aggression Be Included in DSM-V?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Coyne, Claire; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines whether relational aggression should be included in DSM-V disruptive behavior disorders. The results conclude that some additional information is gathered from assessing relational aggression but not enough to be included in DSM-V.

  6. Effects of behavioral and pharmacological therapies on peer reinforcement of deviancy in children with ADHD-only, ADHD and conduct problems, and controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helseth, Sarah A.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Onyango, Adia N.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Coles, Erika K.; Chacko, Anil; Wymbs, Brian T.; Walker, Kathryn S.; Wymbs, Frances A.; Garefino, Allison; Massetti, Greta M.; Mazzant, Jessica Robb; Hoffman, Martin T.; Waxmonsky, James G.; Nichols-Lopez, Kristin; Pelham, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study compared the unique and combined effects of evidence-based treatments for ADHD —stimulant medication and behavior modification—on children’s rates of reinforcement for deviant peer behavior (RDPB). Method Using a within-subjects design, 222 elementary school-age children attending a summer treatment program, including 151 children with ADHD (127 male), with and without comorbid conduct problems, and 71 control children (57 male), received varying combinations of behavior modification (no, low-intensity, and high-intensity) and methylphenidate (placebo, 0.15 mg/kg, 0.30 mg/kg, and 0.60 mg/kg). RDPB was measured through direct observation and compared across all behavior modification and medication conditions. Results Children with ADHD reinforced the deviant behavior of their peers at a significantly higher rate than control children in the absence of either intervention. However, that difference largely disappeared in the presence of both behavior modification and medication. Both low and high-intensity behavior modification, as well as medium (0.30 mg/kg) and high (0.60 mg/kg) doses of methylphenidate, significantly reduced the rate of ADHD children’s RDPB to levels similar to the control group. Conclusions Results indicate that although untreated children with ADHD do engage in RDPB at a greater rate than their non-ADHD peers, existing evidence-based interventions can substantially decrease the presence of RDPB, thereby limiting potential iatrogenic effects in group-based treatment settings. Public Health Significance Statement This study found that children with behavior disorders reinforced their peers' deviant behaviors much more than typically developing children. However, behavior modification and medication treatments both reduced reinforcement rates, indicating that peer contagion can easily be managed in group-based treatments for children PMID:25495357

  7. Surface Modifications in Adhesion and Wetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longley, Jonathan

    Advances in surface modification are changing the world. Changing surface properties of bulk materials with nanometer scale coatings enables inventions ranging from the familiar non-stick frying pan to advanced composite aircraft. Nanometer or monolayer coatings used to modify a surface affect the macro-scale properties of a system; for example, composite adhesive joints between the fuselage and internal frame of Boeing's 787 Dreamliner play a vital role in the structural stability of the aircraft. This dissertation focuses on a collection of surface modification techniques that are used in the areas of adhesion and wetting. Adhesive joints are rapidly replacing the familiar bolt and rivet assemblies used by the aerospace and automotive industries. This transition is fueled by the incorporation of composite materials into aircraft and high performance road vehicles. Adhesive joints have several advantages over the traditional rivet, including, significant weight reduction and efficient stress transfer between bonded materials. As fuel costs continue to rise, the weight reduction is accelerating this transition. Traditional surface pretreatments designed to improve the adhesion of polymeric materials to metallic surfaces are extremely toxic. Replacement adhesive technologies must be compatible with the environment without sacrificing adhesive performance. Silane-coupling agents have emerged as ideal surface modifications for improving composite joint strength. As these coatings are generally applied as very thin layers (compression of a water drop between two gradient surfaces. This inchworm type motion is studied in detail and offers an alternative method to surface vibration for moving drops in microfluidic devices. The final surface modification considered is the application of a thin layer of rubber to a rigid surface. While this technique has many practical uses, such as easy release coatings in marine environments, it is applied herein to enable spontaneous

  8. Creating a Strategy for Progress: A Contextual Behavioral Science Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilardaga, Roger; Hayes, Steven C.; Levin, Michael E.; Muto, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Behavior analysis is a field dedicated to the development and application of behavioral principles to the understanding and modification of the psychological actions of organisms. As such, behavior analysis was committed from the beginning to a comprehensive account of behavior, stretching from animal learning to complex human behavior. Despite…

  9. Born-Infeld inspired modifications of gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán Jiménez, Jose; Heisenberg, Lavinia; Olmo, Gonzalo J.; Rubiera-Garcia, Diego

    2018-01-01

    General Relativity has shown an outstanding observational success in the scales where it has been directly tested. However, modifications have been intensively explored in the regimes where it seems either incomplete or signals its own limit of validity. In particular, the breakdown of unitarity near the Planck scale strongly suggests that General Relativity needs to be modified at high energies and quantum gravity effects are expected to be important. This is related to the existence of spacetime singularities when the solutions of General Relativity are extrapolated to regimes where curvatures are large. In this sense, Born-Infeld inspired modifications of gravity have shown an extraordinary ability to regularise the gravitational dynamics, leading to non-singular cosmologies and regular black hole spacetimes in a very robust manner and without resorting to quantum gravity effects. This has boosted the interest in these theories in applications to stellar structure, compact objects, inflationary scenarios, cosmological singularities, and black hole and wormhole physics, among others. We review the motivations, various formulations, and main results achieved within these theories, including their observational viability, and provide an overview of current open problems and future research opportunities.

  10. Exploring oxidative modifications of tyrosine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houée-Lévin, C; Bobrowski, K; Horakova, L

    2015-01-01

    residues are oxidised in vivo with impact on cellular homeostasis and redox signalling pathways. A notable example is tyrosine, which can undergo a number of oxidative post-translational modifications to form 3-hydroxy-tyrosine, tyrosine crosslinks, 3-nitrotyrosine and halogenated tyrosine, with different...... effects on cellular functions. Tyrosine oxidation has been studied extensively in vitro, and this has generated detailed information about the molecular mechanisms that may occur in vivo. An important aspect of studying tyrosine oxidation both in vitro and in biological systems is the ability to monitor...... processes are important in vivo and can contribute to cellular pathology....

  11. Polymers modifications induced by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, M.C.R.; Nakahija, H.K.; Araujo, E.P.

    1990-01-01

    The use of gamma and electron radiation on polymers modifications is one of the industrials applications of radiation that presents the most commercial interest. Nowadays, the graft copolymerization, i.e., the addition of monomer onto a polymer, is one of the most exploraded technique. In this present paper the hydrophilization of polyethylene and polypropylene films by grafting of hydrophilic monomers such as acrylic and methacrylic acids were studied. The radiation induced graft copolymerization by simultaneous irradiation and preirradiation method and the reaction parameters were also investigated. (author) [pt

  12. A probabilistic generative model for quantification of DNA modifications enables analysis of demethylation pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Äijö, Tarmo; Huang, Yun; Mannerström, Henrik; Chavez, Lukas; Tsagaratou, Ageliki; Rao, Anjana; Lähdesmäki, Harri

    2016-03-14

    We present a generative model, Lux, to quantify DNA methylation modifications from any combination of bisulfite sequencing approaches, including reduced, oxidative, TET-assisted, chemical-modification assisted, and methylase-assisted bisulfite sequencing data. Lux models all cytosine modifications (C, 5mC, 5hmC, 5fC, and 5caC) simultaneously together with experimental parameters, including bisulfite conversion and oxidation efficiencies, as well as various chemical labeling and protection steps. We show that Lux improves the quantification and comparison of cytosine modification levels and that Lux can process any oxidized methylcytosine sequencing data sets to quantify all cytosine modifications. Analysis of targeted data from Tet2-knockdown embryonic stem cells and T cells during development demonstrates DNA modification quantification at unprecedented detail, quantifies active demethylation pathways and reveals 5hmC localization in putative regulatory regions.

  13. Workplace deviance: strategies for modifying employee behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulich, Marcia; Tourigny, Louise

    2004-01-01

    More than ever, today's health care employees must perform their jobs as efficiently and effectively as possible. Job performance must integrate both technical and necessary soft skills. Workplace deviant behaviors are counterproductive to good job performance. Various deviant behaviors are examined. Areas and strategies of managerial intervention are reviewed which will enable the prevention or modification of undesired employee behaviors.

  14. Disease modification in ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksymowych, Walter P

    2010-02-01

    The concept of disease modification in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) incorporates aspects of inflammation, bone destruction and new bone formation. The degree to which inflammation and new bone formation are linked remains conjectural, but data from MRI studies of spinal inflammation support the concept of such coupling; however, these studies also suggest a role for the involvement of noninflammatory pathways, such as those involving bone morphogenetic proteins, wingless proteins and Dickkopf-1, in the formation of new bone. The main clinical outcome that reflects disease modification is the modified Stoke Ankylosing Spondylitis Spine Score, which assesses abnormalities in the anterior vertebral corners of the cervical and lumbar spine. However, radiographic progression can only be reliably detected using this method after at least 2 years, and this delay precludes the conduct of placebo-controlled trials on ethical grounds. Preliminary data using this scoring tool suggest that cyclooxygenase-2-selective NSAIDs might reduce disease progression if used continuously over 2 years. By contrast, three different anti-tumor necrosis factor therapies have shown no impact on radiographic progression. Therapeutic trials recruiting patients early in their disease course and at high risk of radiographic progression constitute a high priority for clinical research in AS.

  15. Corrosion and surface modification on biocompatible metals: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asri, R I M; Harun, W S W; Samykano, M; Lah, N A C; Ghani, S A C; Tarlochan, F; Raza, M R

    2017-08-01

    Corrosion prevention in biomaterials has become crucial particularly to overcome inflammation and allergic reactions caused by the biomaterials' implants towards the human body. When these metal implants contacted with fluidic environments such as bloodstream and tissue of the body, most of them became mutually highly antagonistic and subsequently promotes corrosion. Biocompatible implants are typically made up of metallic, ceramic, composite and polymers. The present paper specifically focuses on biocompatible metals which favorably used as implants such as 316L stainless steel, cobalt-chromium-molybdenum, pure titanium and titanium-based alloys. This article also takes a close look at the effect of corrosion towards the implant and human body and the mechanism to improve it. Due to this corrosion delinquent, several surface modification techniques have been used to improve the corrosion behavior of biocompatible metals such as deposition of the coating, development of passivation oxide layer and ion beam surface modification. Apart from that, surface texturing methods such as plasma spraying, chemical etching, blasting, electropolishing, and laser treatment which used to improve corrosion behavior are also discussed in detail. Introduction of surface modifications to biocompatible metals is considered as a "best solution" so far to enhanced corrosion resistance performance; besides achieving superior biocompatibility and promoting osseointegration of biocompatible metals and alloys. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Improving the durability of methanol oxidation reaction electro-catalysts through the modification of carbon architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Kevin N.

    Carbon materials represent one of the largest areas of studied research today, having integrated applications stretching from energy production and storage to medical use and far beyond. One of these many intriguing applications is fuel cells, which offers the promise of clean electricity through a direct electrochemical energy conversion process. Unfortunately, at the present time the cost per watt-hour produced by fuel cells is more expensive than conventional methods of energy production/storage (i.e. combustion engines, batteries, etc.). Under the umbrella of fuel cell systems, methanol is a promising fuel source because of its high energy density and convenience of direct liquid fuel operation. In this field, recent advancements are bringing direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) closer to commercial viability. However, just as in other fuel cell systems, further improvements are greatly needed, particularly in the area of catalyst durability. This need for improved durability has led to increased research activity focused on improving catalyst stability and utilization. This thesis explores one of the most promising areas of enhancing catalyst-support interactions; namely, modification of carbon support architectures. Through the use of heteroatom modifiers, such as nitrogen, fuel cell support systems can be enhanced in such a way as to improve metal nucleation and growth, catalyst durability and catalytic activity. To this end, this thesis employs advanced characterization techniques to study the changes in catalyst particle morphology before and after nitrogen modification of the support structure. These results clearly show the beneficial effects of nitrogen moieties on carbon structures and help elucidate the effects of nitrogen on the stability of supported catalytic nanoparticles systems. Similarly, the novel concept of post-modifying commercially available supported catalysts with nitrogen ion implantation gives further insight into the behavior of

  17. Dietary Risk Factors and Their Modification in Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    Provides an overview of dietary risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including diet sodium intake for hypertension and dietary fat and cholesterol for hypercholesterolemia, exacerbation of these conditions by obesity, and intervention strategies for their modification. Describes clinical strategies for modifying diet: education, skills…

  18. Surface modification on PMMA: PVDF polyblend: hardening under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The influence of chemical environment on polymers include the surface alteration as well as other deep modifications in surface layers. The surface hardening, as an effect of organic liquids on poly(methyl methacrylate): poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PMMA: PVDF), which is one of the few known miscible blends, has been ...

  19. 47 CFR 74.1251 - Technical and equipment modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and the terms of the station authorization. (2) A change in the transmitting antenna system, including.... FM translator and booster stations may decrease ERP on a modification of license application provided... application may not propose to eliminate the authorized horizontally polarized ERP, if a horizontally...

  20. 77 FR 65164 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... 2105-AE08 Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications AGENCY: Office of the... the PRA's procedural requirements. Today, the Department is correcting this omission by including discussion of the Uniform Report collection and providing the public with 60 days from today to comment both...

  1. Ammonia modification for flotation separation of polycarbonate and polystyrene waste plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Qing; Wang, Hui; Gu, Guo-Hua; Lin, Qing-Quan; Zhang, Ling-Ling; Huang, Luo-Luo; Zhao, Jun-Yao

    2016-05-01

    A promising method, ammonia modification, was developed for flotation separation of polycarbonate (PC) and polystyrene (PS) waste plastics. Ammonia modification has little effect on flotation behavior of PS, while it changes significantly that of PC. The PC recovery in the floated product drops from 100% to 3.17% when modification time is 13min and then rises to 100% after longer modification. The mechanism of ammonia modification was studied by contact angle, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. Contact angle of PC indicates the decline of PC recovery in the floated product is ascribed to an increase in surface wettability. FT-IR and XPS spectra suggest that ammonia modification causes chemical reactions occurred on PC surface. Flotation behavior of ammonia-modified PC and PS was investigated with respect to flotation time, frother concentration and particle sizes. Flotation separation of PC and PS waste plastics was conducted based on the flotation behavior of single plastic. PC and PS mixtures with different particle sizes are separated efficiently, implying that the technology possesses superior applicability to particle sizes of plastics. The purity of PS and PC is up to 99.53% and 98.21%, respectively, and the recovery of PS and PC is larger than 92.06%. A reliable, cheap and effective process is proposed for separation of PC and PS waste plastics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mitochondrial Modification Techniques and Ethical Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Gómez-Tatay

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Current strategies for preventing the transmission of mitochondrial disease to offspring include techniques known as mitochondrial replacement and mitochondrial gene editing. This technology has already been applied in humans on several occasions, and the first baby with donor mitochondria has already been born. However, these techniques raise several ethical concerns, among which is the fact that they entail genetic modification of the germline, as well as presenting safety problems in relation to a possible mismatch between the nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, maternal mitochondrial DNA carryover, and the “reversion” phenomenon. In this essay, we discuss these questions, highlighting the advantages of some techniques over others from an ethical point of view, and we conclude that none of these are ready to be safely applied in humans.

  3. Fault diagnosis based on controller modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Detection and isolation of parametric faults in closed-loop systems will be considered in this paper. A major problem is that a feedback controller will in general reduce the effects from variations in the systems including parametric faults on the controlled output from the system. Parametric...... faults can be detected and isolated using active methods, where an auxiliary input is applied. Using active methods for the diagnosis of parametric faults in closed-loop systems, the amplitude of the applied auxiliary input need to be increased to be able to detect and isolate the faults in a reasonable......-parameterization (after Youla, Jabr, Bongiorno and Kucera) for the controller, it is possible to modify the feedback controller with a minor effect on the closed-loop performance in the fault-free case and at the same time optimize the detection and isolation in a faulty case. Controller modification in connection...

  4. TEXTILE SURFACE MODIFICATION BY PYHSICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION – (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YUCE Ismail

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Textile products are used in various branches of the industry from automotive to space products. Textiles produced for industrial use are generally referred to as technical textiles. Technical textiles are nowadays applied to several areas including transportation, medicine, agriculture, protection, sports, packaging, civil engineering and industry. There are rapid developments in the types of materials used in technical textiles. Therefore, modification and functionalization of textile surfaces is becoming more crucial. The improvements of the properties such as anti-bacterial properties, fire resistivity, UV radiation resistance, electrical conductivity, self cleaning, and super hydrophobic, is getting more concern with respect to developments in textile engineering. The properties of textile surfaces are closely related to the fiber structure, the differences in the polymer composition, the fiber mixture ratio, and the physical and chemical processes applied. Textile surface modifications can be examined in four groups under the name mechanical, chemical, burning and plasma. Surface modifications are made to improve the functionality of textile products. Textile surface modifications affect the properties of the products such as softness, adhesion and wettability. The purpose of this work is to reveal varieties of vapor deposition modifications to improve functionality. For this purpose, the pyhsical vapor deposition methods, their affects on textile products and their end-uses will be reviewed.

  5. Posttranslational modifications of proopiomelanocortin in vertebrates and their biological significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyoshi eTakahashi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Proopiomelanocortin (POMC is the precursor of several peptide hormones generated in the pituitary gland. After biosynthesis, POMC undergoes several posttranslational modifications, including proteolytic cleavage, acetylation, amidation, phosphorylation, glycosylation, and disulfide linkage formation, which generate mature POMC-derived peptides. Therefore, POMC is a useful model for the investigation of posttranslational modifications. These processes have been extensively investigated in mammals, primarily in rodents. In addition, over the last decade, much information has been obtained about the posttranslational processing of POMC in non-mammalian animals such as fish, amphibians, reptiles, and birds through sequencing and peptide identification by mass spectrometry. One POMC modification, acetylation, is known to modulate the biological activities of POMC-derived alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH having an acetyl group at N-terminal through potentiation or inhibition. This bidirectional regulation depends on its intrinsic roles in the tissue or cell; for example, alpha-MSH, as well as desacety-alpha-MSH, stimulates pigment dispersion in the xanthophores of a flounder. In contrast, alpha-MSH does not stimulate pigment dispersion in the melanophores of the same species, whereas desacetyl-alpha-MSH does. Regulation of pigment-dispersing activities may be associated with the subtle balance in the expression of receptor genes. In this review, we consider the posttranslational modifications of POMC in vertebrates from an evolutionary aspect, with a focus on the relationship between acetylation and the biological activities of alpha-MSH as an important consequence of posttranslational modification.

  6. The superposition strategy for arm trajectory modification in robotic manipulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gat-Falik, T; Flash, T

    1999-01-01

    This work deals with the problem of end-effector trajectory modification for a robot manipulator when it must respond to unexpected changes in target location. Trajectory modification and corrections are particularly important in dealing with dynamic tasks. In this paper, we present and discuss the superposition strategy derived from the study of arm trajectory modification in human subjects. According to this strategy, the motion toward the initial target location continues unmodified as planned from its beginning to its end even after the target location has unexpectedly changed. However, a trajectory leading from the first target to the final one is added vectorially to the initial one to yield the combined modified motion. A method for choosing the temporal parameters of this trajectory modification scheme is suggested so as to minimize the total travelling time under existing kinematic constraints (including both joint and hand space constraints). Then, a variant of this strategy is presented, dealing with trajectory modification in the case that the targets (both the initial and final ones) specify the desired end-point orientation rather than position.

  7. Enzyme Technology of Peroxidases: Immobilization, Chemical and Genetic Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longoria, Adriana; Tinoco, Raunel; Torres, Eduardo

    An overview of enzyme technology applied to peroxidases is made. Immobilization on organic, inorganic, and hybrid supports; chemical modification of amino acids and heme group; and genetic modification by site-directed and random mutagenesis are included. Different strategies that were carried out to improve peroxidase performance in terms of stability, selectivity, and catalytic activity are analyzed. Immobilization of peroxidases on inorganic and organic materials enhances the tolerance of peroxidases toward the conditions normally found in many industrial processes, such as the presence of an organic solvent and high temperature. In addition, it is shown that immobilization helps to increase the Total Turnover Number at levels high enough to justify the use of a peroxidase-based biocatalyst in a synthesis process. Chemical modification of peroxidases produces modified enzymes with higher thermostability and wider substrate variability. Finally, through mutagenesis approaches, it is possible to produce modified peroxidases capable of oxidizing nonnatural substrates with high catalytic activity and affinity.

  8. Macrostructure of IN-713C superalloy after volume modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Binczyk

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The study discusses the results of the preliminary investigations of the process of volume modification of nickel and cobaltsuperalloys. The investigations were carried out on an IN-713C alloy. As an inoculant, cobalt aluminate CoAl2O4 in composition withaluminium powder and zircon flour was used. Experiments included the use of inoculant-coated filters and inoculant placed on andbetween the filters. As a criterion for evaluation of the modification effect, the macrostructure produced in a stepped test casting was used. It has been concluded that the modification effect depends, first of all, on the pouring temperature and on the time of contact between the liquid alloy and inoculant. Compared with the non-modified alloy, which has columnar grains in its structure, the refining treatment gave very fine and equiaxial grains. The higher was the cooling rate (or the smaller was the thickness of the step, the finer were the equiaxial grains.

  9. Y-12 Industrial Landfill V. Permit application modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This report contains the modifications in operations and design to meet the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conversation (TDEC) July 10, 1993, amendments to the regulations for Class 2 landfills. These modifications, though extensive in design and construction cost, are considered minor revisions and should not require a processing fee. Area 1 of ILF V, comprising approximately 20% of the ILF V footprint, was designed and submitted to TDEC prior to the implementation of current regulations. This initial area was constructed with a compacted clay liner and leachate collection system, and became operational in April 1994. The current regulations require landfills to have a composite liner with leachate collection system and closure cap. Modifications to upgrade Areas 2 and 3 of ILF V to meet the current TDEC requirements are included.

  10. Y-12 Industrial Landfill V. Permit application modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This report contains the modifications in operations and design to meet the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conversation (TDEC) July 10, 1993, amendments to the regulations for Class 2 landfills. These modifications, though extensive in design and construction cost, are considered minor revisions and should not require a processing fee. Area 1 of ILF V, comprising approximately 20% of the ILF V footprint, was designed and submitted to TDEC prior to the implementation of current regulations. This initial area was constructed with a compacted clay liner and leachate collection system, and became operational in April 1994. The current regulations require landfills to have a composite liner with leachate collection system and closure cap. Modifications to upgrade Areas 2 and 3 of ILF V to meet the current TDEC requirements are included

  11. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  12. Laser surface modification of boronickelized medium carbon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkowska, Aneta; Pertek, Aleksandra; Kulka, Michał; Klimek, Leszek

    2015-11-01

    A two-step process was applied to produce the multicomponent boride layers. Boronickelizing consisted of nickel plating and diffusion boriding. Two different methods of heat treatment of boronickelized C45 steel were used: a typical through-hardening, and a laser surface modification with remelting. Microstructure and some mechanical properties of these layers were examined. Microstructural characterization was studied using optical microscope, Scanning Electron Microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis, Electron Back-Scatter Diffraction and X-ray diffraction. The laser modification improved wear resistance, cohesion as well as low-cycle fatigue of the boronickelized layer. Compressive stresses, occurring after laser remelting, could be the reason for the advantageous mechanical behavior of the layer.

  13. Soy protein modification: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barać Miroljub B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Soy protein products such as flour, concentrates and isolates are used in food formulation because of their functionality, nutritional value and low cost. To obtain their optimal nutritive and functional properties as well as desirable flavor different treatments are used. Soybean proteins can be modified by physical, chemical and enzymatic treatments. Different thermal treatments are most commonly used, while the most appropriate way of modifying soy proteins from the standpoint of safety is their limited proteolysis. These treatments cause physical and chemical changes that affect their functional properties. This review discusses three principal methods used for modification of soy protein products, their effects on dominant soy protein properties and some biologically active compounds.

  14. Surface Modification for Microreactor Fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladyslaw Torbicz

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, methods of surface modification of different supports, i.e. glass andpolymeric beads for enzyme immobilisation are described. The developed method ofenzyme immobilisation is based on Schiff’s base formation between the amino groups onthe enzyme surface and the aldehyde groups on the chemically modified surface of thesupports. The surface of silicon modified by APTS and GOPS with immobilised enzymewas characterised by atomic force microscopy (AFM, time-of-flight secondary ion massspectroscopy (ToF-SIMS and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The supports withimmobilised enzyme (urease were also tested in combination with microreactors fabricatedin silicon and Perspex, operating in a flow-through system. For microreactors filled withurease immobilised on glass beads (Sigma and on polymeric beads (PAN, a very high andstable signal (pH change was obtained. The developed method of urease immobilisationcan be stated to be very effective.

  15. Ion beam modification of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofield, C.J.; Sugden, S.; Ing, J.; Bridwell, L.B.; Wang, Y.Q.

    1993-01-01

    The implantation of polymers has received considerable attention in recent years, primarily to examine doping of conducting polymers and to increase the surface conductivity (by many orders of magnitude) of highly insulating polymers. The interest in these studies was partly motivated by possible applications to microelectronic device fabrication. More recently it has been observed that ion implantation can under some conditions lead to the formation of a hard (e.g. as hard as steel, ca. 3 MPa) and conducting surface layer. This paper will review the ion beam modification of polymers resulting from ion implantation with reference to fundamental ion-solid interactions. This leads us to examine whether or not implantation of polymers is a contradiction in terms. (Author)

  16. Analysis of Solidification Parameters and Macrostructure of IN-713C Castings after Complex Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binczyk F.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a research results concerning impact of volume modification (ceramic filter containning cobalt aluminate and hafnium powder and simultaneous surface and volume modification on solidification and stereological parameters of macrostructure of castings made from post-production scrap of nickel superalloy IN-713C. Research included investigation of the influence of chemical composition on the temperature Tliq i Tsol and evaluation of following macrostructure parameters: the number of grains per mm2, average grain area and shape coefficient. Results indicate high influence of carbon content on Tliq. Macrostructure of sample castings indicate positive effect of surface and volume modification, however impact of surface modification is more pronounced.

  17. Trafficking and function of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator: a complex network of posttranslational modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Michelle L.; Barnes, Stephen; Brodsky, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Posttranslational modifications add diversity to protein function. Throughout its life cycle, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) undergoes numerous covalent posttranslational modifications (PTMs), including glycosylation, ubiquitination, sumoylation, phosphorylation, and palmitoylation. These modifications regulate key steps during protein biogenesis, such as protein folding, trafficking, stability, function, and association with protein partners and therefore may serve as targets for therapeutic manipulation. More generally, an improved understanding of molecular mechanisms that underlie CFTR PTMs may suggest novel treatment strategies for CF and perhaps other protein conformational diseases. This review provides a comprehensive summary of co- and posttranslational CFTR modifications and their significance with regard to protein biogenesis. PMID:27474090

  18. Polymer surface modification by plasmas and photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, C.-M.; Ko, T.-M.; Hiraoka, H.

    1996-05-01

    Polymers have been applied successfully in fields such as adhesion, biomaterials, protective coatings, friction and wear, composites, microelectronic devices, and thin-film technology. In general, special surface properties with regard to chemical composition, hydrophilicity, roughness, crystallinity, conductivity, lubricity, and cross-linking density are required for the success of these applications. Polymers very often do not possess the surface properties needed for these applications. However, they have excellent bulk physical and chemical properties, are inexpensive, and are easy to process. For these reasons, surface modification techniques which can transform these inexpensive materials into highly valuable finished products have become an important part of the plastics and many other industries. In recent years, many advances have been made in developing surface treatments to alter the chemical and physical properties of polymer surfaces without affecting bulk properties. Common surface modification techniques include treatments by flame, corona, plasmas, photons, electron beams, ion beams, X-rays, and γ-rays. Plasma treatment is probably the most versatile surface treatment technique. Different types of gases such as argon, oxygen, nitrogen, fluorine, carbon dioxide, and water can produce the unique surface properties required by various applications. For example, oxygen-plasma treatment can increase the surface energy of polymers, whereas fluorine-plasma treatment can decrease the surface energy and improve the chemical inertness. Cross-linking at a polymer surface can be introduced by an inert-gas plasma. Modification by plasma treatment is usually confined to the top several hundred ångströms and does not affect the bulk properties. The main disadvantage of this technique is that it requires a vacuum system, which increases the cost of operation. Thin polymer films with unique chemical and physical properties are produced by plasma polymerization

  19. Nanoscale surface modification of Li-rich layered oxides for high-capacity cathodes in Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xiwei; Xin, Yue; Wang, Libin; Hu, Xianluo

    2018-03-01

    Li-rich layered oxides (LLOs) have been developed as a high-capacity cathode material for Li-ion batteries, but the structural complexity and unique initial charging behavior lead to several problems including large initial capacity loss, capacity and voltage fading, poor cyclability, and inferior rate capability. Since the surface conditions are critical to electrochemical performance and the drawbacks, nanoscale surface modification for improving LLO's properties is a general strategy. This review mainly summarizes the surface modification of LLOs and classifies them into three types of surface pre-treatment, surface gradient doping, and surface coating. Surface pre-treatment usually introduces removal of Li2O for lower irreversible capacity while surface doping is aimed to stabilize the structure during electrochemical cycling. Surface coating layers with different properties, protective layers to suppress the interface side reaction, coating layers related to structural transformation, and electronic/ionic conductive layers for better rate capability, can avoid the shortcomings of LLOs. In addition to surface modification for performance enhancement, other strategies can also be investigated to achieve high-performance LLO-based cathode materials.

  20. Malignant lymphomas (including myeloproliferative disorders)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, I.D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter deals with the radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy of the malignant lymphomas. Included within this group are Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, mycosis fungoides, and chronic lymphatic leukaemia. A further section deals with the myeloproliferative disorders, including granulocytic leukaemia, polycythaemia vera, and primary thrombocythaemia. Excluded are myeloma and reticulum cell sarcoma of bone and acute leukaemia. With regard to Hodgkin's disease, the past 25 years have seen general recognition of the curative potential of radiotherapy, at least in the local stages, and, more recently, awareness of the ability to achieve long-term survival after combination chemotherapy in generalised or in recurrent disease. At the same time the importance of staging has become appreciated and the introduction of procedures such as lymphography, staging laparotomy, and computer tomography (CT) has enormously increased its reliability. Advances have not been so dramatic in the complex group of non-Hodgkins's lymphomas, but are still very real

  1. Chemical Modifications of Starch: Microwave Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Lewicka, Kamila; Siemion, Przemysław; Kurcok, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents basic methods of starch chemical modification, the effect of microwave radiation on the modification process, and the physicochemical properties of starch. It has been shown that the modifications contribute to improvement of the material performance and likewise to significant improvement of its mechanical properties. As a result, more and more extensive use of starch is possible in various industries. In addition, methods of oxidized starch and starch esters preparation ...

  2. Chemical Modifications of Starch: Microwave Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Lewicka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents basic methods of starch chemical modification, the effect of microwave radiation on the modification process, and the physicochemical properties of starch. It has been shown that the modifications contribute to improvement of the material performance and likewise to significant improvement of its mechanical properties. As a result, more and more extensive use of starch is possible in various industries. In addition, methods of oxidized starch and starch esters preparation are discussed. Properties of microwave radiation and its impact on starch (with particular regard to modifications described in literature are characterized.

  3. Evaluating the role of behavioral factors and practical constraints in the performance of an agent-based model of farmer decision making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malawska, Anna Katarzyna; Topping, Christopher John

    2016-01-01

    Farmer decision making models often focus on the behavioral assumptions in the representation of the decision making, applying bounded rationality theory to shift away from the generally criticized profit maximizer approach. Although complex on the behavioral side, such representations are usually...... to the real world data and to the results of the previous model stages, and included two model versions differing with assumptions on the farmers' rationality. Thus, we assessed the sensitivity of the model to its behavioral assumptions. The results indicated that contrary to expectations, implementation...... of the practical constraints improved the model performance more than the modifications in the behavioral assumptions....

  4. Biomolecular Modification of Inorganic Crystal Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Yoreo, J J

    2007-04-27

    The fascinating shapes and hierarchical designs of biomineralized structures are an inspiration to materials scientists because of the potential they suggest for biomolecular control over materials synthesis. Conversely, the failure to prevent or limit tissue mineralization in the vascular, skeletal, and urinary systems is a common source of disease. Understanding the mechanisms by which organisms direct or limit crystallization has long been a central challenge to the biomineralization community. One prevailing view is that mineral-associated macromolecules are responsible for either inhibiting crystallization or initiating and stabilizing non-equilibrium crystal polymorphs and morphologies through interactions between anionic moieties and cations in solution or at mineralizing surfaces. In particular, biomolecules that present carboxyl groups to the growing crystal have been implicated as primary modulators of growth. Here we review the results from a combination of in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) and molecular modeling (MM) studies to investigate the effect of specific interactions between carboxylate-rich biomolecules and atomic steps on crystal surfaces during the growth of carbonates, oxalates and phosphates of calcium. Specifically, we how the growth kinetics and morphology depend on the concentration of additives that include citrate, simple amino acids, synthetic Asp-rich polypeptides, and naturally occurring Asp-rich proteins found in both functional and pathological mineral tissues. The results reveal a consistent picture of shape modification in which stereochemical matching of modifiers to specific atomic steps drives shape modification. Inhibition and other changes in growth kinetics are shown to be due to a range of mechanisms that depend on chemistry and molecular size. Some effects are well described by classic crystal growth theories, but others, such as step acceleration due to peptide charge and hydrophylicity, were previously unrealized

  5. Modification of the submandibular gland transfer procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouki, Hani Z; Elkhalidy, Youness; Jha, Naresh; Scrimger, Rufus; Debenham, Brock J; Harris, Jeffrey R; O'Connell, Daniel A; Seikaly, Hadi

    2016-11-01

    The treatment for most advanced head and neck cancers (stage III and IV) usually includes radiation, and the most common side effect of this treatment modality is a permanent decrease in salivary production. Xerostomia is a devastating complication that significantly affects patients' quality of life by interfering with functions of taste, mastication, deglutition, and speech production. Treatment of xerostomia is varied, but one of the strategies developed by our group was to preserve one submandibular gland by surgically transferring it to the submental space and shielding it from the full dose of radiation. This procedure is proven to reduce the rate of radiation-induced xerostomia, but its main disadvantage is that it is contraindicated in oral cavity cancer. This study describes and evaluates a modification of the submandibular gland transfer (SGT) procedure, where the submandibular gland contralateral to the disease process is relocated to the parotid region. This modification has the potential of expanding the benefits of submandibular gland transfer procedures to patients with oral cavity cancers. Prospective feasibility study. This study involved nine patients with a new diagnosis of advanced head and neck cancer undergoing major head and neck cancer resection with postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy. The new modified salivary gland transfer procedure was performed on all nine patients, and the glands total dose received with radiation therapy was assessed. All the modified SGT procedures were successful with no post-operative complications. The radiation oncology team has been able to successfully localize the transferred submandibular glands and shield them from the radiation beam postoperatively. We have successfully demonstrated that surgical transfer of a submandibular salivary gland to the parotid region is feasible, surgically viable, oncologically sound, and does not interfere with radiation therapy. 4 Laryngoscope, 126:2492-2496, 2016.

  6. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of cantilever arms (12) contacting the surface of the test sample when performing the movement....... arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area...

  7. The effects of severe behavior problems in children on the teaching behavior of adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, E G; Taylor, J C; Robinson, S

    1991-01-01

    Applied behavior analysts have focused on how adults can influence the problem behavior of children using a variety of behavior modification strategies. A related question, virtually unexplored, is how the behavior problems of children influence adults. This child-effects concept was explored empirically in a study involving 12 adults who were asked to teach four pairs of children in which one member of the pair exhibited problem behavior and the other typically did not. Results demonstrated ...

  8. The SOFIA Aircraft and its Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Nans

    2002-01-01

    The primary focus of this paper is to describe the challenges involved in creating this highly modified aircraft that carries a twenty ton telescope to the Stratosphere and then loiters at this desired altitude to act as the observatory "dome" or platform. When the aircraft has reached its nominal cruise condition in the stratosphere of Mach 0.84, a large cavity door opens (the dome opens), exposing a large portion of the interior of the fuselage containing the telescope optics, directly to the Universe. The breadth of topics covered in this paper includes; the relevant criteria and the evaluation process that resulted in the selection of a Boeing 747-SP, the evolution of the design concept, a description of the structural modification including the analysis methods and tools, the aerodynamic issues associated with an open port cavity and how they were addressed, the aero-loads/disturbances imparted to the telescope and how they were measured in the wind tunnel and extrapolated to full size. For completeness, this paper also provides a brief overview of the SOFIA project including the joint project arrangement between NASA and DLR, a top level overview of the science objectives and the resulting requirements, and finally the current project status.

  9. Behavioral medicine: treatment and organizational issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKegney, F P; Schwartz, C E

    1986-09-01

    Behavioral medicine is a newly emerging field dating back to the early 1970s. In this short time, a great deal of controversy and confusion has arisen as to even the definition of the term. Similarly, there are now a variety of different operational applications of this concept in patient care, research, and health care system organizations. It is proposed that the title "behavioral medicine" be used in the most general way, consistent with the definition developed by the Institute of Medicine meeting in 1978. In it, behavioral medicine is a term designating a very large field and is not analogous to a profession, medical specialty, or discipline. This term denotes a body of psychologic and social knowledge and a set of techniques applied to research, prevention, and treatment of medical illness, including psychiatric illness. By this definition, behavioral medicine treatment techniques would include psychotherapy, hypnosis, relaxation, behavior therapy, behavior modification, biofeedback, and pharmacotherapy. One of the cardinal principles of behavioral medicine as a field is that well-defined treatment techniques are used for specific target symptoms or signs of illness. It is proposed that individual behavioral medicine treatment programs be called by the name of either the specific treatment utilized or of the target(s) of the intervention. It is important to ensure collaboration between the variety of treatment and research programs that would fall under this general definition of behavioral medicine, which includes consultation-liaison psychiatry. An organizational model is proposed that would combine all such programs within a multidisciplinary division of a department of psychiatry. This division might be entitled with one or both names, e.g., "consultation-liaison psychiatry and behavioral medicine." Perhaps most importantly, this new field should not promise more than it may be able to provide, particularly in trying to achieve the biopsychosocial model

  10. Intervention program for modification the nutrition habits of psychiatric patients

    OpenAIRE

    Statharou A.; Berk A.; Galatou C.

    2011-01-01

    The healthy way of diet of mental patients, as it appears from the international bibliography, occupies the professionals of health for a lot of years. A lot of efforts have become in this sector and mainly in acquire the mental patients the control of natural health and well-being. Each program of intervention that aims in the modification of alimentary habits with the use of cognitive-behavior theories contributes in the improvement of quality of diet, but also in the aid of self-esteem Nev...

  11. Weather and Climate Modifications Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, R. L.; Slinn, W. G.N.; Laulainen, N. S.; Kleckner, E. W.; Thorp, J. M.; Wolf, M. A.

    1976-03-01

    This section is comprised of seven papers. Human activity can change the average atmospheric temperature and humidity values, as well as the chemical composition of the air. These changes affect local and regional weather and climate, and may have a significant influence on global climate. Examples of human activity that produce these changes are the increase of CO/sub 2/ content of the atmosphere from the combustion of fossil fuel; the production of aerosols by industry, automobiles, home heating units and agricultural practices; the releases of large quantities of heat and water vapor from the cooling facilities of large fossil and nuclear power plants; and t modification of the earth's albedo due to urbanization, agricullture, deforestation reservoirs and soil spills. Research activities have resulted in an overview of the important natural and anthropogenic perturbations of weather and climate, and the resulting need for further climatic research; a theoretical study that may contribute to a better understanding of atmospheric electricity; atmospheric turbidity data at the Hanford site and their relationships to changes in the aerosol size distribution; initial efforts in determining the optical properties of aerosols such that we can better understand the radiative properties of the atmosphere; and the characterization of large power plant cooling tower plumes through the use of long exposure photography and instrumented aircraft. (auth)

  12. 76 FR 1063 - Modifications of Debt Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... Modifications of Debt Instruments AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final regulation. SUMMARY: This document contains final regulations relating to the modification of debt instruments. The... into account to determine whether a modified debt instrument will be recharacterized as an instrument...

  13. 75 FR 31736 - Modifications of Debt Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... Modifications of Debt Instruments AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of proposed... modification of debt instruments. The regulations clarify the extent to which the deterioration in the financial condition of the issuer is taken into account to determine whether a modified debt instrument will...

  14. The Modification of Compounds by Attributive Adjectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the modification of nominal compounds by attributive adjectives in English. It draws on a distinction between compound-external (i.e. syntactic) and compound-internal (i.e. morphological) modification. An analysis is presented of more than 1000 pertinent cases, which are roughly equally divided into two-, three- and four-noun…

  15. Attention bias modification: the Emperor's new suit?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2012-01-01

    A series of primarily laboratory-based studies found attention bias modification in socially anxious participants to lead to reduced anxiety. It is argued that the failure to replicate the positive results of attention bias modification in the study of Carlbring et al. may be due to reasons other

  16. Regulatory protein modification: techniques and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hemmings, Hugh C

    1997-01-01

    ... important roles in cellular regulation. The techniques used to analyze various forms of posttranslational protein modification are described, along with current protocols, discussion of the methodological limitations, and relevant examples from recent publications. This collection should be of use to investigators of protein modification who work i...

  17. Methodological guidelines for developing accident modification functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes methodological guidelines for developing accident modification functions. An accident modification function is a mathematical function describing systematic variation in the effects of road safety measures. The paper describes ten guidelines. An example is given of how to use...... limitations in developing accident modification functions are the small number of good evaluation studies and the often huge variation in estimates of effect. It is therefore still not possible to develop accident modification functions for very many road safety measures. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights...... the guidelines. The importance of exploratory analysis and an iterative approach in developing accident modification functions is stressed. The example shows that strict compliance with all the guidelines may be difficult, but represents a level of stringency that should be strived for. Currently the main...

  18. Application of radiation technology in starch modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huiyuan; Peng Zhigang; Ding Zhongmin; Lu Jiajiu

    2007-01-01

    In order to commercialize the radiation modification of starch, corn starch was irradiated with different dose of 60 Co gamma radiations. Some basic physical and chemical properties of the resulted modified starch paste were measured with emphasis on the viscosity stability and tensile strength. The results indicate that irradiation of corn starch with a dose of 4-10 kGy can decrease its viscosity to 5-14 mPa·s, and the tensile strength can meet the standard set up for textile paste. In comparison with chemical modification for starch, radiation modification is simpler in technology, more convenient in operation, more stable in modification quality, and easier to control. The mechanism of radiation modification of starch was also discussed. (authors)

  19. REVIEW OF RULE MODIFICATION IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L. Arias

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this qualitative review was to analyze the state of the bibliography about rule modification in sport. In the literature reviewed, there are few studies of rule modification and related aspects. Most studies omit mentioning the purpose of the modifications, but they do refer to the goals of their analysis (improving players' performance, attracting spectators and athletes, attending to commercial pressure, adapting the sport to children's needs and interests, preventing injuries. Eighty percent of the studies did not report the outcome of the previous modifications they analyzed. More than half of the studies (60% achieved the proposed goals. Nearly two-thirds (63.83% analyzed the effect of rule modification on game actions occurring during the game or through a test. Most of the studies (91.5% did not consult the participants. Three-fourths of the studies (74.46% examined the effect of rule modification without any knowledge of a previous analysis or without any previous analysis, and 74.47% studied rule modification related to internal logic. Modifications to be introduced in a sport should be analyzed through a reflective process before their final introduction. The following points should be considered: establishing goals, respecting the basic rules without modifying them, becoming familiar with players' and coaches' opinions, determining the effect of the modification on a wide spectrum of variables, elaborating useful proposals for the organizations that are responsible for competitions, using more than one type of data, modifying the internal logic and, preferably, the functional rules, and following some basic stages to consolidate rule modification.

  20. Modification of the colony tower for the Rio Blanco detonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blume, J.A.; Freeman, S.A.; Honda, K.K.; Lee, L.A.

    1975-01-01

    Supplemental structural bracing was designed and installed for the 180-ft-tall Colony Tower, an experimental oil shale processing retort structure, in anticipation of its lateral response to the Rio Blanco detonation. The tower is a steel structure with both horizontal and vertical diagonal bracing. Data obtained from the earlier Project Rulison detonation indicated that an evaluation study was necessary. Design criteria that would provide an adequate margin of safety were developed based on predicted Rio Blanco ground motion. The evaluation of the unmodified structure showed that several bracing members would be subjected to forces exceeding their yield strength, and some would reach a level at which failure could occur. Further analyses were made with assumed modified bracing members. A final scheme for modified vertical bracing was established and installed. After modification, the response of the tower during the Rio Blanco detonation was measured by instruments on the ground and at various locations on the tower, and no evidence of damage was discovered. The modification of the Colony Tower and the procedures used to determine these modifications show the usefulness of current ground motion and structural response prediction technology for forecasting dynamic behavior of important structures subjected to ground motion from underground nuclear explosions. (auth)

  1. Parents' obesity-related behavior and confidence to support behavioral change in their obese child: data from the STAR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Lisa N; Xu, Kathleen; Taveras, Elsie M; Hacker, Karen A

    2014-01-01

    Successful childhood obesity interventions frequently focus on behavioral modification and involve parents or family members. Parental confidence in supporting behavior change may be an element of successful family-based prevention efforts. We aimed to determine whether parents' own obesity-related behaviors were related to their confidence in supporting their child's achievement of obesity-related behavioral goals. Cross-sectional analyses of data collected at baseline of a randomized control trial testing a treatment intervention for obese children (n = 787) in primary care settings (n = 14). Five obesity-related behaviors (physical activity, screen time, sugar-sweetened beverage, sleep duration, fast food) were self-reported by parents for themselves and their child. Behaviors were dichotomized on the basis of achievement of behavioral goals. Five confidence questions asked how confident the parent was in helping their child achieve each goal. Logistic regression modeling high confidence was conducted with goal achievement and demographics as independent variables. Parents achieving physical activity or sleep duration goals were significantly more likely to be highly confident in supporting their child's achievement of those goals (physical activity, odds ratio 1.76; 95% confidence interval 1.19-2.60; sleep, odds ratio 1.74; 95% confidence interval 1.09-2.79) independent of sociodemographic variables and child's current behavior. Parental achievements of TV watching and fast food goals were also associated with confidence, but significance was attenuated after child's behavior was included in models. Parents' own obesity-related behaviors are factors that may affect their confidence to support their child's behavior change. Providers seeking to prevent childhood obesity should address parent/family behaviors as part of their obesity prevention strategies. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Modification of transparent materials with ultrashort laser pulses: What is energetically and mechanically meaningful?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulgakova, Nadezhda M., E-mail: nadezhda.bulgakova@hilase.cz [HiLASE Centre, Institute of Physics ASCR, Za Radnicí 828, 25241 Dolní Břežany (Czech Republic); Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS, 1 Lavrentyev Ave., 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Zhukov, Vladimir P. [Institute of Computational Technologies SB RAS, 6 Lavrentyev Ave., 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, 20 Karl Marx Ave., 630073, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Sonina, Svetlana V. [Novosibirsk State University, 1 Koptuga Ave., 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Meshcheryakov, Yuri P. [Design and Technology Branch of Lavrentyev Institute of Hydrodynamics SB RAS, Tereshkovoi street 29, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-21

    A comprehensive analysis of laser-induced modification of bulk glass by single ultrashort laser pulses is presented which is based on combination of optical Maxwell-based modeling with thermoelastoplastic simulations of post-irradiation behavior of matter. A controversial question on free electron density generated inside bulk glass by ultrashort laser pulses in modification regimes is addressed on energy balance grounds. Spatiotemporal dynamics of laser beam propagation in fused silica have been elucidated for the regimes used for direct laser writing in bulk glass. 3D thermoelastoplastic modeling of material relocation dynamics under laser-induced stresses has been performed up to the microsecond timescale when all motions in the material decay. The final modification structure is found to be imprinted into material matrix already at sub-nanosecond timescale. Modeling results agree well with available experimental data on laser light transmission through the sample and the final modification structure.

  3. Characterization and modification of selected bioplastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liqing

    Bioplastics are becoming increasingly prominent mainly due to the growing environmental pollutions caused by non-biodegradable plastics. Polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV), the major copolymer of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) family, was biosynthesized (by mixed microbial culture fed with fermented diary manure) and characterized. The monomeric composition (HV% ~ 40%) was determined by GC-MS and NMR. ESI-MSn and NMR analyses showed these PHBVs had random co-monomeric sequence distribution; meantime, they showed characteristic properties (crystallinity, single melting, and tensile properties) as studied by DSC and DMA. The homopolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), usually shows interesting properties such as high crystallinity and multiple melting behaviors. The effect of thermal history, such as crystallization (isothermal (temepratures = 80 to 140 °C) and nonisothermal (cooling rates = 2 to 50 °C/min)) and melting (heating rates = 5 to 50 °C/min), on the multiple melting behavior of PHB has been studied using conventional and temperature modulated DSC (TMDSC) techniques. Results showed PHB multiple melting was ascribed to the melting-recrystallization-remelting mechanism and its crystallization kinetics varied with crystallization temperatures and cooling rates. The brittleness and poor melt strength properties of the bioplastics PHB and poly L-lactic acid (PLLA) were imporved by two strategies: (i) to modify polymer structures by cross-linking, (ii) to introduce an external component by grafting, which were initiated by dicumyl peroxide (DCP) via reactive extrusion, have been developed. In method (i), rheological measurements showed cross-linked PHB and PLLA (0.25 to 1 wt% DCP) separately had higher melting strength than their linear polymers due to the formation of long chain branching. Their brittleness was reduced because smaller crystal sizes were observed by hot-stage polarized microscope (HS-POM), meanwhile the reduction of crystallinity was

  4. Proteomic Approaches to Quantify Cysteine Reversible Modifications in Aging and Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Liqing; Robinson, Renã A. S.

    2016-01-01

    Cysteine is a highly reactive amino acid and is subject to a variety of reversible post-translational modifications (PTMs), including nitrosylation, glutathionylation, palmitoylation, as well as formation of sulfenic acid and disulfides. These modifications are not only involved in normal biological activities, such as enzymatic catalysis, redox signaling and cellular homeostasis, but can also be the result of oxidative damage. Especially in aging and neurodegenerative diseases, oxidative stress leads to aberrant cysteine oxidations that affect protein structure and function leading to neurodegeneration as well as other detrimental effects. Methods that can identify cysteine modifications by type, including the site of modification, as well as the relative stoichiometry of the modification can be very helpful for understanding the role of the thiol proteome and redox homeostasis in the context of disease. Cysteine reversible modifications however, are challenging to investigate as they are low abundant, diverse, and labile especially under endogenous conditions. Thanks to the development of redox proteomic approaches, large-scale quantification of cysteine reversible modifications is possible. These approaches cover a range of strategies to enrich, identify, and quantify cysteine reversible modifications from biological samples. This review will focus on nongel-based redox proteomics workflows that give quantitative information about cysteine PTMs and highlight how these strategies have been useful for investigating the redox thiol proteome in aging and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27666938

  5. Modifications to standard forms of contract: the impact on readability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raufdeen Rameezdeen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Lack of clarity in contract documents can lead to disputes between contracting parties. Standard form contracts have evolved due to construction business becoming increasingly complex and the difficulty in drafting bespoke conditions of contract for each project. Numerous advantages have been identified in using standard forms of contract. However, clients often modify some clauses in order to include specific requirements for a project. While the consequences of ill-modifications to standard forms have been researched, no study has been done on the impact of these modifications on the clarity and readability of the document. Using 281 modified clauses from large infrastructure projects implemented in Sri Lanka, this study found that on balance modifications generally make the document more difficult to read; 60% of the sample clauses were more difficult to read compared to 40% becoming easier. More than 50% of the original and modified clauses were still at the ‘very difficult’ level of readability, which requires the equivalent of post-graduate level to understand. The study contends that modifications have not resulted in improved readability. The study highlights the necessity of clear and plain language when modifying contract documents.

  6. Fast Multi-blind Modification Search through Tandem Mass Spectrometry*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Seungjin; Bandeira, Nuno; Paek, Eunok

    2012-01-01

    With great biological interest in post-translational modifications (PTMs), various approaches have been introduced to identify PTMs using MS/MS. Recent developments for PTM identification have focused on an unrestrictive approach that searches MS/MS spectra for all known and possibly even unknown types of PTMs at once. However, the resulting expanded search space requires much longer search time and also increases the number of false positives (incorrect identifications) and false negatives (missed true identifications), thus creating a bottleneck in high throughput analysis. Here we introduce MODa, a novel “multi-blind” spectral alignment algorithm that allows for fast unrestrictive PTM searches with no limitation on the number of modifications per peptide while featuring over an order of magnitude speedup in relation to existing approaches. We demonstrate the sensitivity of MODa on human shotgun proteomics data where it reveals multiple mutations, a wide range of modifications (including glycosylation), and evidence for several putative novel modifications. Based on the reported findings, we argue that the efficiency and sensitivity of MODa make it the first unrestrictive search tool with the potential to fully replace conventional restrictive identification of proteomics mass spectrometry data. PMID:22186716

  7. Data-Driven Design: Learning from Student Experiences and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodyskyj, L.; Mead, C.; Buxner, S.; Semken, S. C.; Anbar, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Good instructors know that lessons and courses change over time. Limitations in time and data often prevent instructors from making changes that will most benefit their students. For example, in traditional in-person classrooms an instructor may only have access to the final product of a student's thought processes (such as a term paper, homework assignment, or exam). The thought processes that lead to a given answer are opaque to the instructor, making future modifications to course content an exercise in trial-and-error and instinct. Modern online intelligent tutoring systems can provide insight into a student's behavior, providing transparency to a previously opaque process and providing the instructor with better information for course modification. Habitable Worlds is an introductory level online-only astrobiology lab course that has been offered at Arizona State University since Fall 2011. The course is built and offered through an intelligent tutoring system, Smart Sparrow's Adaptive eLearning Platform, which provides in-depth analytics that allow the instructor to investigate detailed student behavior, from time spent on question to number of attempts to patterns of answers. We will detail the process we employ of informed modification of course content, including time and trial comparisons between semesters, analysis of submitted answers, analysis of alternative learning pathways taken, and A/B testing.

  8. Adaptation of community health worker-delivered behavioral activation for torture survivors in Kurdistan, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magidson, J F; Lejuez, C W; Kamal, T; Blevins, E J; Murray, L K; Bass, J K; Bolton, P; Pagoto, S

    2015-12-01

    Growing evidence supports the use of Western therapies for the treatment of depression, trauma, and stress delivered by community health workers (CHWs) in conflict-affected, resource-limited countries. A recent randomized controlled trial (Bolton et al . 2014 a ) supported the efficacy of two CHW-delivered interventions, cognitive processing therapy (CPT) and brief behavioral activation treatment for depression (BATD), for reducing depressive symptoms and functional impairment among torture survivors in the Kurdish region of Iraq. This study describes the adaptation of the CHW-delivered BATD approach delivered in this trial (Bolton et al .2014 a ), informed by the Assessment-Decision-Administration-Production-Topical experts-Integration-Training-Testing (ADAPT-ITT) framework for intervention adaptation (Wingood & DiClemente, 2008). Cultural modifications, adaptations for low-literacy, and tailored training and supervision for non-specialist CHWs are presented, along with two clinical case examples to illustrate delivery of the adapted intervention in this setting. Eleven CHWs, a study psychiatrist, and the CHW clinical supervisor were trained in BATD. The adaptation process followed the ADAPT-ITT framework and was iterative with significant input from the on-site supervisor and CHWs. Modifications were made to fit Kurdish culture, including culturally relevant analogies, use of stickers for behavior monitoring, cultural modifications to behavioral contracts, and including telephone-delivered sessions to enhance feasibility. BATD was delivered by CHWs in a resource-poor, conflict-affected area in Kurdistan, Iraq, with some important modifications, including low-literacy adaptations, increased cultural relevancy of clinical materials, and tailored training and supervision for CHWs. Barriers to implementation, lessons learned, and recommendations for future efforts to adapt behavioral therapies for resource-limited, conflict-affected areas are discussed.

  9. Epigenetic modifications as regulatory elements of autophagy in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Xinbing; Zhu, Jing; Zhou, Jichun; Wang, Xian; Li, Da; Han, Weidong; Fang, Yong; Pan, Hongming

    2015-05-01

    Epigenetic modifications have been considered as hallmarks of cancer and play an important role in tumor initiation and development. Epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and microRNAs, may regulate cell cycle and apoptosis, as well as macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy). Autophagy, as a crucial cellular homeostatic mechanism, performs a dual role, having pro-survival or pro-death properties. A variety of signaling pathways including epigenetic control have been implicated in the upregulation or downregulation of autophagy. However, the role of epigenetic regulation in autophagy is still less well acknowledged. Recent studies have linked epigenetic control to the autophagic process. Some epigenetic modifiers are also involved in the regulation of autophagy and potentiate the efficacy of traditional therapeutics. Thus, understanding the novel functions of epigenetic control in autophagy may allow us to develop potential therapeutic approaches for cancer treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of environmental stressors on histone modifications and their relevance to carcinogenesis: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dik, S.; Scheepers, P.T.J.; Godderis, L.

    2012-01-01

    Carcinogenesis is a complex process involving both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. The cellular molecular epigenetic machinery, including histone modifications, is associated with changes in gene expression induced by exposure to environmental agents. In this paper, we systematically reviewed

  11. Epigenetic Modifications: Therapeutic Potential in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Sachan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic modifications and alterations in chromatin structure and function contribute to the cumulative changes observed as normal cells undergo malignant transformation. These modifications and enzymes (DNA methyltransferases, histone deacetylases, histone methyltransferases, and demethylases related to them have been deeply studied to develop new drugs, epigenome-targeted therapies and new diagnostic tools. Epigenetic modifiers aim to restore normal epigenetic modification patterns through the inhibition of epigenetic modifier enzymes. Four of them (azacitidine, decitabine, vorinostat and romidepsin are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. This article provides an overview about the known functional roles of epigenetic enzymes in cancer development.

  12. Memory creation and modification: Enhancing the treatment of psychological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kredlow, M Alexandra; Eichenbaum, Howard; Otto, Michael W

    2018-03-01

    Modification of the ongoing influence of maladaptive cognitive, emotional, and behavioral patterns is a fundamental feature of many psychological treatments. Accordingly, a clear understanding of the nature of memory adaptation and accommodation to therapeutic learning becomes an important issue for (1) understanding the impact of clinical interventions, and (2) considering innovations in treatment strategies. In this article, we consider advances in the conceptualization of memory processes and memory modification research relative to clinical treatment. We review basic research on the formation of memories, the way in which new learning is integrated within memory structures, and strategies to influence the nature and degree to which new learning is integrated. We then discuss cognitive/behavioral and pharmacological strategies for influencing memory formation in relation to disorder prevention or treatment. Our goal is to foster awareness of current strategies for enhancing therapeutic learning and to encourage research on potential new avenues for memory enhancement in service of the treatment of mental health disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Clinical effectiveness of attentional bias modification training in abstinent alcoholic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, T.M.; Bruin, de M.; Lux, I.F.M.; Goertz, A.G.; Kerkhof, van D.H.A.T.; Wiers, R.W.

    2010-01-01

    A new training to decrease attentional bias (attentional bias modification training, ABM) was tested in a randomized controlled experimental study with alcohol-dependent patients as an addition to cognitive behavioral therapy. In alcohol dependence, attentional bias has been associated with severity

  14. Modification of thin film properties by ion bombardment during deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, J.M.E.; Cuomo, J.J.; Gambino, R.J.; Kaufman, H.R.

    1984-01-01

    Deposition methods involving ion bombardment are described, and the basic processes with which film properties are modified by ion bombardment are summarized. Examples of thin film property modification by ion bombardment during deposition, including effects which are primarily compositional as well as those which are primarily structural are presented. The examples demonstrate the usefulness of ion beam techniques in identifying and controlling the fundamental deposition parameters. 68 refs.; 15 figs.; 1 table

  15. Protein modification by acrolein: Formation and stability of cysteine adducts

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Jian; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Pierce, William M.

    2009-01-01

    The toxicity of the ubiquitous pollutant and endogenous metabolite, acrolein, is due in part to covalent protein modifications. Acrolein reacts readily with protein nucleophiles via Michael addition and Schiff base formation. Potential acrolein targets in protein include the nucleophilic side chains of cysteine, histidine, and lysine residues as well as the free amino terminus of proteins. Although cysteine is the most acrolein-reactive residue, cysteine-acrolein adducts are difficult to iden...

  16. Modifications to standard forms of contract: the impact on readability

    OpenAIRE

    Raufdeen Rameezdeen; Anushi Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    Lack of clarity in contract documents can lead to disputes between contracting parties. Standard form contracts have evolved due to construction business becoming increasingly complex and the difficulty in drafting bespoke conditions of contract for each project. Numerous advantages have been identified in using standard forms of contract. However, clients often modify some clauses in order to include specific requirements for a project. While the consequences of ill-modifications to standard...

  17. Crisis behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinspoon, L.

    1984-04-01

    The Department of Defense has rules and procedures to minimize the opportunity for error and improper behavior among those with access to strategic weapons, but no psychiatric screening system can predict with assurance who will or will not behave rationally during a crisis. Personal problems and institutional decision-making pressures may destroy nuclear deterrence. Certain features of military life, including drug and alcohol abuse, heavy responsibility, tension, and group decision making, can destreoy rationality. 12 references.

  18. Protein Modifications as Manifestations of Hyperglycemic Glucotoxicity in Diabetes and Its Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes and its complications are hyperglycemic toxicity diseases. Many metabolic pathways in this array of diseases become aberrant, which is accompanied with a variety of posttranslational protein modifications that in turn reflect diabetic glucotoxicity. In this review, we summarize some of the most widely studied protein modifications in diabetes and its complications. These modifications include glycation, carbonylation, nitration, cysteine S-nitrosylation, acetylation, sumoylation, ADP-ribosylation, O-GlcNAcylation, and succination. All these posttranslational modifications can be significantly attributed to oxidative stress and/or carbon stress induced by diabetic redox imbalance that is driven by activation of pathways, such as the polyol pathway and the ADP-ribosylation pathway. Exploring the nature of these modifications should facilitate our understanding of the pathological mechanisms of diabetes and its associated complications.

  19. Perioperative modifications of respiratory function.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duggan, Michelle

    2012-01-31

    Postoperative pulmonary complications contribute considerably to morbidity and mortality, especially after major thoracic or abdominal surgery. Clinically relevant pulmonary complications include the exacerbation of underlying chronic lung disease, bronchospasm, atelectasis, pneumonia and respiratory failure with prolonged mechanical ventilation. Risk factors for postoperative pulmonary complications include patient-related risk factors (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tobacco smoking and increasing age) as well as procedure-related risk factors (e.g., site of surgery, duration of surgery and general vs. regional anaesthesia). Careful history taking and a thorough physical examination may be the most sensitive ways to identify at-risk patients. Pulmonary function tests are not suitable as a general screen to assess risk of postoperative pulmonary complications. Strategies to reduce the risk of postoperative pulmonary complications include smoking cessation, inspiratory muscle training, optimising nutritional status and intra-operative strategies. Postoperative care should include lung expansion manoeuvres and adequate pain control.

  20. One-dimensional map-based neuron model: A logistic modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesbah, Samineh; Moghtadaei, Motahareh; Hashemi Golpayegani, Mohammad Reza; Towhidkhah, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    A one-dimensional map is proposed for modeling some of the neuronal activities, including different spiking and bursting behaviors. The model is obtained by applying some modifications on the well-known Logistic map and is named the Modified and Confined Logistic (MCL) model. Map-based neuron models are known as phenomenological models and recently, they are widely applied in modeling tasks due to their computational efficacy. Most of discrete map-based models involve two variables representing the slow-fast prototype. There are also some one-dimensional maps, which can replicate some of the neuronal activities. However, the existence of four bifurcation parameters in the MCL model gives rise to reproduction of spiking behavior with control over the frequency of the spikes, and imitation of chaotic and regular bursting responses concurrently. It is also shown that the proposed model has the potential to reproduce more realistic bursting activity by adding a second variable. Moreover the MCL model is able to replicate considerable number of experimentally observed neuronal responses introduced in Izhikevich (2004) [23]. Some analytical and numerical analyses of the MCL model dynamics are presented to explain the emersion of complex dynamics from this one-dimensional map

  1. PLMD: An updated data resource of protein lysine modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haodong; Zhou, Jiaqi; Lin, Shaofeng; Deng, Wankun; Zhang, Ying; Xue, Yu

    2017-05-20

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) occurring at protein lysine residues, or protein lysine modifications (PLMs), play critical roles in regulating biological processes. Due to the explosive expansion of the amount of PLM substrates and the discovery of novel PLM types, here we greatly updated our previous studies, and presented a much more integrative resource of protein lysine modification database (PLMD). In PLMD, we totally collected and integrated 284,780 modification events in 53,501 proteins across 176 eukaryotes and prokaryotes for up to 20 types of PLMs, including ubiquitination, acetylation, sumoylation, methylation, succinylation, malonylation, glutarylation, glycation, formylation, hydroxylation, butyrylation, propionylation, crotonylation, pupylation, neddylation, 2-hydroxyisobutyrylation, phosphoglycerylation, carboxylation, lipoylation and biotinylation. Using the data set, a motif-based analysis was performed for each PLM type, and the results demonstrated that different PLM types preferentially recognize distinct sequence motifs for the modifications. Moreover, various PLMs synergistically orchestrate specific cellular biological processes by mutual crosstalks with each other, and we totally found 65,297 PLM events involved in 90 types of PLM co-occurrences on the same lysine residues. Finally, various options were provided for accessing the data, while original references and other annotations were also present for each PLM substrate. Taken together, we anticipated the PLMD database can serve as a useful resource for further researches of PLMs. PLMD 3.0 was implemented in PHP + MySQL and freely available at http://plmd.biocuckoo.org. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Genetics Society of China. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Modification of surfaces and surface layers by non equilibrium processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beamson, G.; Brennan, W.J.; Clark, D.T.; Howard, J.

    1988-01-01

    Plasmas are examples of non-equilibrium phenomena which are being used increasingly for the synthesis and modification of materials impossible by conventional routes. This paper introduces methods available by describing the construction and characteristics of some equipment used for the production of different types of plasmas and other non-equilibrium phenomena. This includes high energy ion beams. The special features, advantages and disadvantages of the techniques will be described. There are a multitude of potential application relevant to electronic, metallic, ceramic, and polymeric materials. However, scale-up from the laboratory to production equipment depends on establishing a better understanding of both the physics and chemistry of plasma as well as plasma-solid interactions. Examples are given of how such an understanding can be gained. The chemical analysis of polymer surfaces undergoing modification by inert gas, hydrogen or oxygen plasmas is shown to give physical information regarding the relative roles of diffusion of active species, and direct and radiative energy transfer from the plasma. Surface modification by plasma depositing a new material onto an existing substrate is discussed with particular reference to the deposition of amorphous carbon films. Applications of the unique properties of these films are outlined together with our current understanding of these properties based on chemical and physical methods of analysis of both the films and the plasmas producing them. Finally, surface modification by ion beams is briefly illustrated using examples from the electronics and metals industries where the modification has had a largely physical rather than chemical effect on the starting material. (orig.)

  3. Phantom-like behavior of a DGP-inspired Scalar-Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozari, Kourosh; Azizi, Tahereh; Setare, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    We study the phantom-like behavior of a DGP-inspired braneworld scenario where curvature correction on the brane is taken into account. We include a possible modification of the induced gravity on the brane by incorporating higher order curvature terms of Gauss-Bonnet type. We investigate the cosmological implications of the model and we show that the normal branch of the scenario self-accelerates in this modified scenario without introducing any dark energy component. Also, a phantom-like behavior can be realized in this model without introducing any phantom field that suffers from serious difficulties such as violation of the null energy condition

  4. Rational decision perspectives on alcohol consumption by youth. Revising the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuther, Tara L

    2002-01-01

    Cognitive and developmental approaches have made great strides in describing and predicting alcohol consumption by youth. The present review examines several theories of decision making with regard to alcohol consumption, including subjective expected utility (SEU) theory, the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior, and alcohol-related outcome expectancy theory. In addition, the developmental literature on the contribution of parents and peers to adolescent alcohol consumption is reviewed. A model is proposed, which integrates the theory of planned behavior and alcohol-related outcome expectancy theory with modifications based on findings from the developmental literature. Implications for further research are discussed.

  5. Modification of chitin as substrates for chitinase

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    2015-05-06

    Illankovan et al., 2007). The swelling of chitin powder process is expected to help the enzymatic reaction between chitinase and chitin. Possible modification of chitin-chitin can cause structural changes to become more open due to ...

  6. Similarity Arguments in the Genetic Modification Debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    In the ethical debate on genetic modification (GM), it is common to encounter the claim that some anti-GM argument would also apply an established, ethically accepted technology, and that the anti-GM argument is therefore unsuccessful. The paper discusses whether this argumentative strategy...... transferability of reasons from one case to another; and (iii) it runs the risk of equivocations, especially in cases where the anti-genetic-modification argument relies on gradable features. The paper then shows how these issues play out in three specific Similarity Arguments that can be found in the literature....... Finally, the paper discusses what conclusions we can draw from the fact that genetic modification and established technologies are similar for the ethical status of genetic modification....

  7. Male genital modification : A sexual selection interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowanchilde, R

    1996-06-01

    By modifying the body in meaningful ways, human beings establish their identity and social status. Lip plugs, ear plugs, penis sheaths, cosmetics, ornaments, scarification, body piercings, and genital modifications encode and transmit messages about age, sex, social status, health, and attractiveness from one individual to another. Through sociocultural sexual selection, male genital modification plays an important role as a sociosexual signal in both male competition and female mate choice. The reliability of the signal correlates with the cost of acquiring the trait. Women use a variety of cues to assess male quality. Male genital modification is one way that some women assess their mates. Extreme male genital modifications not only honestly advertise status, sexual potency, and ability to provide sexual satisfaction, they may provide a reliable index of male-female cooperation through the male's commitment to endure pain and risk.

  8. Formal Design Review Foot Clamp Modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OTEN, T.C.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the Design Review performed for the foot clamp modification. The report documents the acceptability of the design, identifies the documents that were reviewed, the scope of the review and the members of the review team

  9. Chemical modifications and reactions in DNA nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gothelf, Kurt Vesterager

    2017-01-01

    provides rich opportunity to incorporate molecules, biomolecules, and a variety of nanomaterials in specific positions on DNA nanostructures. Several standard modifications for oligonucleotides are available commercially, such as dyes, biotin, and chemical handles, and such modified oligonucleotides can...

  10. Diagonal chromatography to study plant protein modifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walton, Alan; Tsiatsiani, Liana; Jacques, Silke; Stes, Elisabeth; Messens, Joris; Van Breusegem, Frank; Goormachtig, Sofie; Gevaert, Kris

    An interesting asset of diagonal chromatography, which we have introduced for contemporary proteome research, is its high versatility concerning proteomic applications. Indeed, the peptide modification or sorting step that is required between consecutive peptide separations can easily be altered and

  11. Mobile phones as mediators of health behavior change in cardiovascular disease in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Connie V; Kaufman, David R

    2009-01-01

    The global burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is becoming a growing problem in developing countries. Successful self-management of CVD is dependent on a multitude of factors, including social support, communication with health care providers, careful monitoring, and other determinants. The growing market penetration and the communication properties of mobile phones create opportunities for innovation in promoting CVD self-management through support of lifestyle and behavior modification. Mobile phones support various modes of communication and interaction, have fewer adoption barriers, and are more prevalent than other available technologies in developing countries. However, mobile phone interventions are not without many challenges such as mobile infrastructure, electric infrastructure, access to mobile devices, and appropriate user interfaces for interaction. In this paper, we discuss current evidence as well as research opportunities to explore the role of mobile phones in supporting behavior modification in developing countries.

  12. Behavioral Neuroscience Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This lab supports cognitive research using rodent models. Capabilities for behavioral assessments include:Morris water maze and Barnes maze (spatial memory)elevate...

  13. Chemical modification of flax reinforced polypropylene composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available loadings the friction between the fibres may also contribute to the fracture process. This results in lower energy dissipation and hence impact strength decreases. 5. Chemical Modification of Nonwovens 5.1 Zein modification of flax nonwovens Zein... Damping is an important parameter related to the study of dynamic behaviour of fibre reinforced composite material. The major contribution to damping in composite is due to (a) nature of matrix and fibre (b) nature of interphase (c) frictional damping...

  14. Covalent Surface Modifications of Carbon Nanotubes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavia Sanders, Adriana [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); O' Bryan, Greg [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-07-01

    A report meant to document the chemistries investigated by the author for covalent surface modification of CNTs. Oxidation, cycloaddition, and radical reactions were explored to determine their success at covalently altering the CNT surface. Characterization through infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and thermo gravimetric analysis was performed in order to determine the success of the chemistries employed. This report is not exhaustive and was performed for CNT surface modification exploration as it pertains to the "Next Gen" project.

  15. Pseudouridine andN6-methyladenosine modifications weaken PUF protein/RNA interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Pavanapuresan P; AlSadhan, Ishraq; Merriman, Dawn K; Al-Hashimi, Hashim M; Herschlag, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    RNA modifications are ubiquitous in biology, with over 100 distinct modifications. While the vast majority were identified and characterized on abundant noncoding RNA such as tRNA and rRNA, the advent of sensitive sequencing-based approaches has led to the discovery of extensive and regulated modification of eukaryotic messenger RNAs as well. The two most abundant mRNA modifications-pseudouridine (Ψ) and N 6 -methyladenosine (m 6 A)-affect diverse cellular processes including mRNA splicing, localization, translation, and decay and modulate RNA structure. Here, we test the hypothesis that RNA modifications directly affect interactions between RNA-binding proteins and target RNA. We show that Ψ and m 6 A weaken the binding of the human single-stranded RNA binding protein Pumilio 2 (hPUM2) to its consensus motif, with individual modifications having effects up to approximately threefold and multiple modifications giving larger effects. While there are likely to be some cases where RNA modifications essentially fully ablate protein binding, here we see modest responses that may be more common. Such modest effects could nevertheless profoundly alter the complex landscape of RNA:protein interactions, and the quantitative rather than qualitative nature of these effects underscores the need for quantitative, systems-level accounting of RNA:protein interactions to understand post-transcriptional regulation. © 2017 Vaidyanathan et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  16. Surface modification of recording electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iaci Miranda Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Waterborne Polyurethanes (PUs are a family of polymers that contains urethane linkages synthesized in an aqueous environment and are thus free of organic solvents. Recently, waterborne PUs have been extensively studied for biomedical applications because of their biocompatibility. The present work investigates the following: (1 the impact on electrical performance of electrode materials (platinum and silicon modified chemically by a layer of waterborne PU, and (2 the behavior of rat cardiac fibroblasts and rat cardiomyocytes when in contact with an electrode surface. Diisocyanate and poly(caprolactone diol were the main reagents for producing PUs. The electrochemical impedance of the electrode/electrolyte interface was accessed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The cellular viability, proliferation, and morphology changes were investigated using an MTT assay. Cardiomyocyte adherence was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The obtained surface was uniform, flat, and transparent. The film showed good adhesion, and no peeling was detected. The electrochemical impedance decreased over time and was influenced by the ionic permeability of the PU layer. The five samples did not show cytotoxicity when in contact with neonatal rat cells.

  17. A pilot study evaluating a one-session attention modification training to decrease overeating in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutelle, Kerri N; Kuckertz, Jennie M; Carlson, Jordan; Amir, Nader

    2014-05-01

    There are a number of neurocognitive and behavioral mechanisms that contribute to overeating and obesity, including an attentional bias to food cues. Attention modification programs, which implicitly train attention away from specific cues, have been used in anxiety and substance abuse, and could logically be applied to food cues. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the initial efficacy of a single session attention modification training for food cues (AMP) on overeating in overweight and obese children. Twenty-four obese children who eat in the absence of hunger participated in two visits and were assigned to an attention modification program (AMP) or attentional control program (ACC). The AMP program trained attention away 100% of the time from food words to neutral words. The ACC program trained attention 50% of the time to neutral and 50% of the time to food. Outcome measures included the eating in the absence of hunger free access session, and measures of craving, liking and salivation. Results revealed significant treatment effects for EAH percent and EAH kcal (group by time interactions pover time in the number of calories consumed in the free access session (within group t=3.09, p=.009) as well as the percent of daily caloric needs consumed in free access (within group t=3.37, p=.006), whereas children in the AMP group demonstrated slight decreases in these variables (within group t=-0.75 and -0.63, respectively). There was a trend suggesting a beneficial effect of AMP as compared to ACC for attentional bias (group by time interaction p=.073). Changes in craving, liking and saliva were not significantly different between groups (ps=.178-.527). This is the first study to demonstrate that an AMP program can influence eating in obese children. Larger studies are needed to replicate and extend these results. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Modification of a CAM Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    systams came from the large automotive and aerospace industries . Only those companies possessed sutficient capital for 1 the investment in large-scale...DATE OF PVBLICATION fmnwth and year of pulication of 6& NO. OF PAGES hotal 6b. NO. OF REFS (total citee in document) containing ,nf ormtation., Include

  19. Field Expedient Armor Modifications to US Armored Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boal, Matthew A

    2006-01-01

    .... Some of the specific types of modifications analyzed are hedgerow cutters, sand bagging, addition or modification of ancillary weapons, communications improvements, camouflage, rocket propelled...

  20. Implication of Posttranslational Histone Modifications in Nucleotide Excision Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shisheng Li

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Histones are highly alkaline proteins that package and order the DNA into chromatin in eukaryotic cells. Nucleotide excision repair (NER is a conserved multistep reaction that removes a wide range of generally bulky and/or helix-distorting DNA lesions. Although the core biochemical mechanism of NER is relatively well known, how cells detect and repair lesions in diverse chromatin environments is still under intensive research. As with all DNA-related processes, the NER machinery must deal with the presence of organized chromatin and the physical obstacles it presents. A huge catalogue of posttranslational histone modifications has been documented. Although a comprehensive understanding of most of these modifications is still lacking, they are believed to be important regulatory elements for many biological processes, including DNA replication and repair, transcription and cell cycle control. Some of these modifications, including acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation and ubiquitination on the four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 or the histone H2A variant H2AX, have been found to be implicated in different stages of the NER process. This review will summarize our recent understanding in this area.

  1. "Quadrangular-construct" modification of Sauve-Kapandji procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi K Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Subluxation of ulna in distal radioulnar joint disorders causes pain on motion, loss of grip strength, and a restriction of forearm rotation. Several procedures have been described to salvage DRUJ disorders including the Darrach procedure, the matched distal ulnar resection, the hemiresection interposition arthroplasty (Bowers procedure and the Sauve-Kapandji (S-K procedure. All these procedures are associated with either loss of grip, pain over proximal ulnar stump or instability. We describe our modification of S-K procedure with good functional outcome. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients, 12 male and 8 female, underwent S-K procedure, with our modification, were included in this study. Patients were evaluated preoperatively, postoperatively, and on followup visits using Modified Mayo Wrist Score and wrist radiographs. Average followup period was 34.55 months (range 24-64 months. Results: Excellent results were found in one patient, good in 15 patients, and fair in four patients. Mean Modified Mayo Wrist Score improved from 32 to 79.75, which was statistically significant. Conclusions: Our modification of S-K procedure provides good functional outcome with stable ulnar stump and without significant procedure-related complications.

  2. Modification of species-based differential evolution for multimodal optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, Said Iskandar Al; Syahputra, Hermawan; Firdaus, Muliawan

    2015-12-01

    At this time optimization has an important role in various fields as well as between other operational research, industry, finance and management. Optimization problem is the problem of maximizing or minimizing a function of one variable or many variables, which include unimodal and multimodal functions. Differential Evolution (DE), is a random search technique using vectors as an alternative solution in the search for the optimum. To localize all local maximum and minimum on multimodal function, this function can be divided into several domain of fitness using niching method. Species-based niching method is one of method that build sub-populations or species in the domain functions. This paper describes the modification of species-based previously to reduce the computational complexity and run more efficiently. The results of the test functions show species-based modifications able to locate all the local optima in once run the program.

  3. Post isolation modification of exosomes for nanomedicine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Joshua L

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are extracellular nanovesicles. They innately possess ideal structural and biocompatible nanocarrier properties. Exosome components can be engineered at the cellular level. Alternatively, when exosome source cells are unavailable for customized exosome production, exosomes derived from a variety of biological origins can be modified post isolation which is the focus of this article. Modification of exosome surface structures allows for exosome imaging and tracking in vivo. Exosome membranes can be loaded with hydrophobic therapeutics to increase drug stability and efficacy. Hydrophilic therapeutics such as RNA can be encapsulated in exosomes to improve cellular delivery. Despite advances in post isolation exosome modification strategies, many challenges to effectively harnessing their therapeutic potential remain. Future topics of exploration include: matching exosome subtypes with nanomedicine applications, optimizing exosomal nanocarrier formulation and investigating how modified exosomes interface with the immune system. Research into these areas will greatly facilitate personalized exosome-based nanomedicine endeavors. PMID:27348448

  4. A status report on weather modification research in the Dakotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul L.; Orville, Harold D.; Boe, Bruce A.; Stith, Jeffrey L.

    An overview of the status of weather modification research in North and South Dakota (USA) is presented. The operational North Dakota Cloud Modification Projects has, since 1976, been seeding summer convective clouds for the dual objectives of hail suppression and rainfall enhancement. Research being carried out as part of a Federal/State cooperative program, in coordination with the operational activities, has included physical and statistical evaluation studies as well as numerical cloud modeling investigations. The statistical analyses provide some indications that the intended seeding effects are being obtained. The physical studies involve aircraft and radar observations and emphasize tracer experiments to study the transport and dispersion of seeding agents and the activation of ice nuclei. The modeling studies simulate the experiments and aid in investigation of the process involved and the effects of seeding. The 1989 North Dakota Thunderstorm Project, a major field study emphasizing physical and numerical modeling studies, is described briefly.

  5. Chiral reagents in glycosylation and modification of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao-Yuan; Blaszczyk, Stephanie A; Xiao, Guozhi; Tang, Weiping

    2018-02-05

    Carbohydrates play a significant role in numerous biological events, and the chemical synthesis of carbohydrates is vital for further studies to understand their various biological functions. Due to the structural complexity of carbohydrates, the stereoselective formation of glycosidic linkages and the site-selective modification of hydroxyl groups are very challenging and at the same time extremely important. In recent years, the rapid development of chiral reagents including both chiral auxiliaries and chiral catalysts has significantly improved the stereoselectivity for glycosylation reactions and the site-selectivity for the modification of carbohydrates. These new tools will greatly facilitate the efficient synthesis of oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, and glycoconjugates. In this tutorial review, we will summarize these advances and highlight the most recent examples.

  6. Post isolation modification of exosomes for nanomedicine applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Joshua L

    2016-07-01

    Exosomes are extracellular nanovesicles. They innately possess ideal structural and biocompatible nanocarrier properties. Exosome components can be engineered at the cellular level. Alternatively, when exosome source cells are unavailable for customized exosome production, exosomes derived from a variety of biological origins can be modified post isolation which is the focus of this article. Modification of exosome surface structures allows for exosome imaging and tracking in vivo. Exosome membranes can be loaded with hydrophobic therapeutics to increase drug stability and efficacy. Hydrophilic therapeutics such as RNA can be encapsulated in exosomes to improve cellular delivery. Despite advances in post isolation exosome modification strategies, many challenges to effectively harnessing their therapeutic potential remain. Future topics of exploration include: matching exosome subtypes with nanomedicine applications, optimizing exosomal nanocarrier formulation and investigating how modified exosomes interface with the immune system. Research into these areas will greatly facilitate personalized exosome-based nanomedicine endeavors.

  7. Lost in Translation: Defects in Transfer RNA Modifications and Neurological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bednářová

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Transfer RNAs (tRNAs are key molecules participating in protein synthesis. To augment their functionality they undergo extensive post-transcriptional modifications and, as such, are subject to regulation at multiple levels including transcription, transcript processing, localization and ribonucleoside base modification. Post-transcriptional enzyme-catalyzed modification of tRNA occurs at a number of base and sugar positions and influences specific anticodon–codon interactions and regulates translation, its efficiency and fidelity. This phenomenon of nucleoside modification is most remarkable and results in a rich structural diversity of tRNA of which over 100 modified nucleosides have been characterized. Most often these hypermodified nucleosides are found in the wobble position of tRNAs, where they play a direct role in codon recognition as well as in maintaining translational efficiency and fidelity, etc. Several recent studies have pointed to a link between defects in tRNA modifications and human diseases including neurological disorders. Therefore, defects in tRNA modifications in humans need intensive characterization at the enzymatic and mechanistic level in order to pave the way to understand how lack of such modifications are associated with neurological disorders with the ultimate goal of gaining insights into therapeutic interventions.

  8. The Human Thioredoxin System: Modifications and Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Isaac Hashemy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The thioredoxin system, comprising thioredoxin (Trx, thioredoxin reductase (TrxR and NADPH, is one of the major cellular antioxidant systems, implicated in a large and growing number of biological functions. Trx acts as an oxidoreductase via a highly conserved dithiol/disulfide motif located in the active site (-Trp-Cys-Gly-Pro-Cys-Lys-. Different factors are involved in the regulation of Trx activity, including its expression level, localization, protein-protein interactions, post-translational modifications and some chemical inhibitors. Mammalian TrxRs are selenoproteins which have a –Cys-Val-Asn-Val-Gly-Cys- N-terminal active site, as well as a C-terminal selenium-containing active site. Besides two Cys-residues in the redox-regulatory domain of cytosolic Trx (Trx1, human Trx1 has three additional Cys-residues. Post-translational modifications of human Trx1 which are involved in the regulation of its activity can happen via modification of Cys-residues including thiol oxidation, glutathionylation and S-nitrosylation or via modification of other amino acid residues such as nitration of Tyr-49. Because of the numerous functions of the thioredoxin system, its inhibition (mainly happens via the targeting TrxR can result in major cellular consequences, which are potentially pro-oxidant in nature, leading to cell death via necrosis or apoptosis if overexpression of Trx and other antioxidative enzymes can not recuperate cell response. Considering this feature, several anticancer drugs have been used which can inhibit TrxR. Elevated levels of Trx and/or TrxR have been reported in many different human malignancies, positively correlated with aggressive tumor growth and poor prognosis. Moreover, anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic effects of Trx are reasons to study its clinical application as a drug.

  9. Impact of Lifestyle Modification on Diabetic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyenwenyi, Chijoke

    2016-01-01

    Kidney disease is common in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus and is associated with adverse health outcomes, including progression to end-stage renal disease. In the general population, adherence to a healthy lifestyle is known to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events and death. Among individuals with diabetic kidney disease, modifications in lifestyle factors, including diet, physical activity, smoking habits and body mass index, represent a promising cost-effective therapeutic adjunct to pharmacologic treatment of kidney disease incidence and progression. PMID:26194155

  10. REBASE--enzymes and genes for DNA restriction and modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Richard J; Vincze, Tamas; Posfai, Janos; Macelis, Dana

    2007-01-01

    REBASE is a comprehensive database of information about restriction enzymes, DNA methyltransferases and related proteins involved in the biological process of restriction-modification. It contains fully referenced information about recognition and cleavage sites, isoschizomers, neoschizomers, commercial availability, methylation sensitivity, crystal and sequence data. Experimentally characterized homing endonucleases are also included. All newly sequenced genomes are analyzed for the presence of putative restriction systems and these data are included within the REBASE. The contents or REBASE may be browsed from the web (http://rebase.neb.com/rebase/rebase.ftp.html) and selected compilations can be downloaded by ftp (ftp.neb.com). Additionally, monthly updates can be requested via email.

  11. A study of laser surface modification of polymers: A comparison in air and water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marla, Deepak; Andersen, Sebastian A.; Zhang, Yang

    2018-01-01

    Laser surface modification is a technique to modify polymer surfaces for various applications. In our earlier work [Physics Procedia, 83:211–217, 2016], we showed that when the laser surface modification process was carried out in water instead of air, the obtained surface characteristics were...... research. The observed images of laser modified surfaces suggest that a hemispherical hump is formed in the case of water at lower laser fluences that breakup with an increase in fluence. Such a behavior was not observed when the process was carried out in air. We explain this phenomenon by simulating...

  12. Modifications at operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, T.J.; Gazda, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    Modifications at operating nuclear power plants offer the structural engineer many challenges in the areas of scheduling of work, field adjustments, and engineering staff planning. The scheduling of structural modification work for operating nuclear power plants is normally closely tied to planned or unplanned outages of the plant. Coordination between the structural engineering effort, the operating plant staff, and the contractor who will be performing the modifications is essential to ensure that all work can be completed within the allotted time. Due to the inaccessibility of some areas in operating nuclear power plants or the short time available to perform the structural engineering in the case of an unscheduled outrage, field verification of a design is not always possible prior to initiating the construction of the modification. This requires the structural engineer to work closely with the contractor to promptly resolve problems due to unanticipated interferences or material procurement problems that may arise during the course of construction. The engineering staff planning for structural modifications at an operating nuclear power plant must be flexible enough to permit rapid response to the common ''fire drills,'' but controlled enough to ensure technically correct designs and to minimize the expenditure of man-hours and the resulting engineering cost

  13. Modification of the TSI 3081 differential mobility analyzer to include three monodisperse outlets : Comparison between experimental and theoretical performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezantakos, S; Giamarelou, M; Huang, L.; Olfert, J.; Biskos, G.

    2016-01-01

    Differential mobility analyzers (DMAs) are widely used to determine the size of aerosol particles, and to probe their size-dependent physicochemical properties when two are employed in tandem. A limitation of tandem DMA (TDMA) systems is their long measuring cycle when the properties of more than

  14. ENDF/B-5 Standards Data Library (including modifications made in 1986). Summary of contents and documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DayDay, N.; Lemmel, H.D.

    1986-01-01

    This document summarizes the contents and documentation of the ENDF/B-5 Standards Data Library (EN5-ST) released in September 1979. The library contains complete evaluations for all significant neutron reactions in the energy range 10 -5 eV to 20 MeV for H-1, He-3, Li-6, B-10, C-12, Au-197 and U-235 isotopes. In 1986 the files for C-12, Au-197 and U-235 were slightly modified. The entire library or selective retrievals from it can be obtained free of charge from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. (author)

  15. 78 FR 20345 - Modification and Expansion of CBP Centers of Excellence and Expertise Test To Include Six...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... & Textiles CEE; the Base Metals CEE; the Consumer Products & Mass Merchandising CEE; the Industrial... & Prepared Products CEE; the Apparel, Footwear & Textiles CEE; and the Consumer Products & Mass Merchandising..., Florida; the Apparel, Footwear & Textiles CEE in San Francisco, California; the Base Metals CEE in Chicago...

  16. Quantitative proteomic analysis of post-translational modifications of human histones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Hans Christian; Nielsen, Eva C; Matthiesen, Rune

    2006-01-01

    Histone proteins are subject to a range of post-transcriptional modifications in living cells. The combinatorial nature of these modifications constitutes the "histone code" that dictates chromatin structure and function during development, growth, differentiation, and homeostasis of cells....... Deciphering of the histone code is hampered by the lack of analytical methods for monitoring the combinatorial complexity of reversible multisite modifications of histones, including acetylation and methylation. To address this problem, we used LC-MSMS technology and Virtual Expert Mass Spectrometrist...... software for qualitative and quantitative proteomic analysis of histones extracted from human small cell lung cancer cells. A total of 32 acetylations, methylations, and ubiquitinations were located in the human histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4, including seven novel modifications. An LC-MSMS-based method...

  17. Induction of surface modification of polytetrafluoroethylene with proton ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, I. S.; Kim, H. R.; Choi, Y. J.; Park, H. S. [Seoul National Univ. of Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of the death in the USA and developed countries. More than 570,000 artery bypass graft surgeries per USA are performed each year, though percutaneous devices have abounded in extreme cases. Based on the surgery follow-ups, large diameter expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) (>5 mm) are clinically employed with good results but its clinical applications in smaller vessels is still problematic due to thrombosis and neointima formation. Achievement of high patency grafts has been to some extent achieved by numerous methods of surface modification techniques, but its results are less than its initial hopes. As examples, endothelial cells coated on the luminal surface of ePTFE has demonstrated limited success after recirculation. Surface modifications of PTFE film with either argon ion beam or UV light from Xe-excimer lamp were reported to increase its interaction with vascular endothelial cell. Surface modification of poly(lactide-co-glycolide)[PLGA] is also very important in tissue engineering, in where induction of its initial high cellular adhesion and spreading is a critical step for development of tissue engineering medical products. We previously reported tissue engineering of the hybrid ePTFE scaffold by seeding smooth muscle cells and subsequently evaluation of its tissue regeneration behaviors and stabilities with circulation of pulsatile flow. To improve its tissue engineering more quickly, we here performed surface modification of ePTFE and porous PLGA scaffold and evaluated its subsequent chemical and biological properties after treating its surface with low energy ion beams. The porous ePTFE was prepared in a round shape (diameter = 1 cm) and dried after organic solvent extraction for ion beam treatment. Another porous PLGA layers (d = 1 cm, t = 1 cm with approximately 92% porosity) were fabricated and treated its surface by irradiating low energy either nitrogen or argon ion beams (1 keV, 1x1015 ions

  18. Induction of surface modification of polytetrafluoroethylene with proton ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, I. S.; Kim, H. R.; Choi, Y. J.; Park, H. S.

    2007-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of the death in the USA and developed countries. More than 570,000 artery bypass graft surgeries per USA are performed each year, though percutaneous devices have abounded in extreme cases. Based on the surgery follow-ups, large diameter expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) (>5 mm) are clinically employed with good results but its clinical applications in smaller vessels is still problematic due to thrombosis and neointima formation. Achievement of high patency grafts has been to some extent achieved by numerous methods of surface modification techniques, but its results are less than its initial hopes. As examples, endothelial cells coated on the luminal surface of ePTFE has demonstrated limited success after recirculation. Surface modifications of PTFE film with either argon ion beam or UV light from Xe-excimer lamp were reported to increase its interaction with vascular endothelial cell. Surface modification of poly(lactide-co-glycolide)[PLGA] is also very important in tissue engineering, in where induction of its initial high cellular adhesion and spreading is a critical step for development of tissue engineering medical products. We previously reported tissue engineering of the hybrid ePTFE scaffold by seeding smooth muscle cells and subsequently evaluation of its tissue regeneration behaviors and stabilities with circulation of pulsatile flow. To improve its tissue engineering more quickly, we here performed surface modification of ePTFE and porous PLGA scaffold and evaluated its subsequent chemical and biological properties after treating its surface with low energy ion beams. The porous ePTFE was prepared in a round shape (diameter = 1 cm) and dried after organic solvent extraction for ion beam treatment. Another porous PLGA layers (d = 1 cm, t = 1 cm with approximately 92% porosity) were fabricated and treated its surface by irradiating low energy either nitrogen or argon ion beams (1 keV, 1x1015 ions

  19. Socioeconomic differences in adolescent health-related behavior differ by gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitel, Lukas y; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    BACKGROUND: Many studies of adolescent health-related behaviors have assessed the effects of gender and parental socioeconomic position (SEP) but not their mutual modification. We investigated socioeconomic differences in health-related behaviors among Slovak adolescents and the potential

  20. Characteristic measurements of JRR-2 after modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-03-01

    JRR-2 was shut down in December 1973, to improve it in heavy water leakage from the metal packing between core tank and support ring, corrosion of the lower shielding plug, and fault in the control-rod mechanism. Modification was on a standing seal to stop heavy water leakage at the support ring, replacement of the reactor top shield, replacement of the control-rod mechanism, improvement of the helium system, improvement of the irradiated air system to reduce radioactive argon gas release from the stack. Works were completed in September 1975. Functional tests and characteristic measurements then followed, to show good results of the modification. Described are; modification, critical experiments, calibration of the control rods, reactor thermal power, measurements of the neutron flux distribution, core heavy water flow distribution, heavy water decomposition rate, helium leak rate and tritium concentration in the thermal shielding light water, radioactive argon gas release from the stack, and effect of the reactor top shield. (auth.)