Sample records for include bayhead delta

  1. Constraining Holocene Evolution of Shelf Bayhead Delta Deposits Offshore Mississippi, USA (United States)

    Hollis, R. J.; Wallace, D. J.; Miner, M. D.


    The slowly subsiding inner shelf of Mississippi-Alabama (MS-AL) has a complex network of Late Quaternary paleofluvial and deltaic deposits driven by fluctuating sea levels. Since the Last Glacial Maximum, sea-level rise (SLR) has lead to transgressive reworking of these lithosomes. In rare instances, typically when the rate of relative sea-level rise was particularly rapid or sediment supply was high, these deposits are preserved. Results from studies in Texas and Alabama suggest bayhead deltas (or upper-estuarine units) backstepped kilometers landward in response to periods of rapid sea-level rise (i.e. 9.8-9.5 ka, 8.9-8.5 ka, 8.4-8.0 ka, 7.9-7.5 ka, and 7.4-6.8 ka). Bayhead delta backstepping depends on relative SLR rates, accommodation space, shelf slope, wave climate and sediment supply. While at least one preserved bayhead delta deposit has been identified on the inner shelf of MS-AL, the flooding and abandonment chronology is currently unknown. The previously quantified sandy bayhead delta deposit (>100.4 x106 m3) is roughly twice the combined volume of the subaerial Petit Bois barrier island, located two miles to the north, and the three western offshore shelf sand shoals (55.9 x106 m3). The sediment supply needed for the shoal's genesis requires further exploration and likely has many contributors, but transgressive ravinement of the sandy bayhead delta seems like a logical source. This study builds on previous work that has extensively mapped the stratigraphy of the eastern MS-AL inner shelf using geophysical and core data by adding a robust number of radiocarbon ages and macro-/micro- faunal analysis from new cores as a proxy for depositional environments. This source-to-sink approach helps to detail the evolution of ancient Pascagoula/Escatawpa, La Batre and Fowl paleo rivers, and their roles in the formation of the large inner shelf, shore-oblique shoals as well as Petit Bois Island. Correlating the new ages with previously published high-resolution sea

  2. Natural and Human-Induced Variations in Accretion of the Roanoke Bay-head Delta (United States)

    Jalowska, A.; McKee, B. A.; Rodriguez, A. B.


    Bay-head deltas (BHD), along with their adjacent floodplains serve as storage sites for lithogenic and organic material on millennial time scales and are biogeochemically active sites on daily to decadal time scales, contributing to global nutrient and carbon cycles. BHD host unique, highly diverse ecosystems such as the pristine swamp forest and hardwood bottomlands, of the Lower Roanoke River, NC. The global value of ecosystem services provided by wetlands within natural BHD is 2.5 to 2.8 mln 2007$/km2/year. BHD are very sensitive to changes in sedimentation and to changes in the rate of sea-level rise. Core descriptions, 14C geo-chronologies and grain-size analyses show that the Roanoke BHD in North Carolina, USA experienced two episodes of retreat in late Holocene. The first event occurred around ca 3500 cal. yr. BC and is recognized as a prominent flooding surface separating the delta plain environment, below, from interdistributary bay, above. Across the flooding surface rates of sediment accumulation decreased from 1.8-3.3 mm/year to 0.5-0.6 mm/year. That change was associated with increased sediment accommodation. Sedimentation rates were keeping up with the low rates of sea-level rise until 1600-1700 AD. During that time, the delta started to rapidly accrete and the interdistributary bay was buried with delta plain and prodelta sediment. This occurred in response to the low rates of sea-level rise at that time (-0.1 to 0.47 mm/year) and the release of large quantities of sediments associated with the initiation of agriculture by European settlers in the drainage basin. The second episode of retreat was initiated during the 19th century when the rate of sea-level rose to 2.1 mm/year. During that time, agricultural practices improved, decreasing the amount of sediments delivered to the mouth of the Roanoke River. Under these conditions, the delta started backstepping. Analyses of historical maps, aerial photography, and side-scan sonar data show that between

  3. Bayhead delta interpretation of an Upper Pennsylvanian sheetlike sandbody and the broader understanding of transgressive deposits in cyclothems (United States)

    Joeckel, R. M.; Korus, J. T.


    The Rakes Creek Shale is noteworthy as a non-incised sheetlike sandstone body in the Shawnee Group of the Midcontinent, USA, succession of Upper Pennsylvanian cyclothems. Relative to contemporaneous settings in North America, there are comparatively few major sandy lithosomes on the low-accommodation northern high shelf of the Midcontinent, and those that have been described in detail are incised valley fills. In our study area, the Rakes Creek Shale is characterized by a consistent internal succession of eight dominant lithofacies ranging from largely nonrhythmic heterolithic strata at the base, to large-scale cross-stratified and massive sandstones, to carbonaceous and heterolithic sandstones at the top. Eight other lithofacies of minor volumetric importance also appear in the Rakes Creek Shale in our study area. At the base of the succession is a widespread well-drained paleosol that shows no evidence for incision across a transect of 30 km. Sandstones in the upper part of the Rakes Creek Shale contain abundant root casts and carbonaceous root traces, indicating colonization by land plants after accommodation space had been filled. The Rakes Creek Shale is comparatively unique in the enclosing regional Pennsylvanian succession because it provides evidence for: (1) the filling of accommodation space in the early stages of a marine transgression by comparatively coarse clastic sediments (with minimal influence by tides and waves), and (2) higher rates of sediment supply and/or slower rates of relative sea level rise compared to most other transgressive intervals in cyclothems of the Midcontinent. The regional lithofacies succession of the Rakes Creek Shale, as well as changes in that succession that appear at the eastern edge of our study area, lead us to interpret it as a series of landward-stepping, bayhead delta parasequences deposited rapidly in an embayment with minimal wave and tide energy. The Rakes Creek Shale represents a rare, and perhaps previously

  4. Preliminary reference intervals and the impact of citrate storage time for thrombelastography in cats including delta and the velocity curve. (United States)

    Engelen, Carolin; Moritz, Andreas; Barthel, Franziska; Bauer, Natali


    Thrombelastography is a useful tool in assessment of hemostasis. Beside the traditional variables, the velocity curve and the variable delta have lately earned attention. The velocity curve provides knowledge about the speed of clot formation including information about thrombin generation. Delta, which only reflects enzymatic coagulation, allows the determination of the origin of hypercoagulability when compared to clot rigidity, a variable that reflects both platelet and enzymatic activity. The aim was to establish preliminary reference intervals for feline thrombelastography including the velocity curve variables and delta obtained after 60 min of storage including the assessment of coefficients of variation. Furthermore, the effect of citrate storage time (30 versus 60 min) on feline thrombelastography will be determined. Prolonged storage times significantly reduced reaction (R) (P = 0.019) and clotting (K) (P = 0.008) times, split point (SP) (P = 0.019) and time to maximum rate of thrombus generation (TMRTG) (P = 0.023) values whereas maximum rate of thrombus generation (MRTG) significantly increased (P = 0.040). Preliminary reference intervals: R (min): 2.7-18.1; K (min): 0.8-3.9; alpha (°): 27.6-75.2; maximum amplitude (mm): 18.5-62.5; clot rigidity (dyn/cm 2 ): 1.2-8.2; coagulation index: -4.6 - 2.6; SP (min): 2.4-15.4; delta (min): 0.3-3.1; thrombus generation (mm/min): 255.3-751.2; MRTG (mm/min): 4.0-19.3; TMRTG (min): 3.5-22.0; maximum rate of lysis (mm/min): 0.0-4.7 and time to maximum rate of lysis (min): 0.4-55.8. Storage for 60 versus 30 min induces hypercoagulable tracings including the velocity curve, some of which variables (MRTG, TMRTG) might function as sensitive markers for changes in the coagulation activity. Because of the impact of citrate storage time on thrombelastography, reference intervals have to be established using a specific and constant storage time in each laboratory.

  5. Myxobolus species (Myxozoa), parasites of fishes in the Okavango River and Delta, Botswana, including descriptions of two new species. (United States)

    Reed, Cecilé C; Basson, Linda; Van As, Liesl L


    Fieldwork was conducted in 1998 and 1999 in the Okavango River and Delta and a total of 275 fishes representing 31 species were examined for the presence of myxosporean parasites. A total of seven myxosporeans of the genus Myxobolus Bütschli, 1882 were found infecting the fishes. Two new species namely Myxobolus etsatsaensis sp. n. from Barbus thamalakanensis Fowler, 1935 and M. paludinosus sp. n. from Barbus paludinosus Peters, 1852 are described. Myxobolus africanus Fomena, Bouix et Birgi, 1985, M. camerounensis Fomena, Marqués et Bouix, 1993, M. hydrocyni Kostoïngue et Toguebaye, 1994, M. nyongana (Fomena, Bouix et Birgi, 1985) and M. tilapiae Abolarin, 1974 are recorded for the first time in Botswana and descriptions of these species are provided.

  6. Long-Distance Delivery of Fine Sediment to Wetlands from a Bay-Head Delta: A Possible Analog for Large River-Sediment Diversions and Coastal Wetland Restoration. (United States)

    Restreppo, G. A.; Bentley, S. J.; Xu, K.; Wang, J.


    Large river-sediment diversions are being proposed as primary tools for wetland restoration and land building in the Mississippi River Deltaic Plain. To date, much emphasis in the study of diversion performance has focused on proximal sand-rich deposition. To better understand far-field dispersal and deposition of fine sediments, which account for the majority of sediment supply, sediment cores from Fourleague Bay, Louisiana and adjacent marshes are being analyzed for 7Be, a naturally occurring radioisotope, as well as mineral and water content. The bay, which receives about 2% of total sediment discharge from the Atchafalaya River, is 20 km long and extends southeastward from the river's outlets. During 2015, time-series cores have been collected from ten sites, five located in the bay and five from the marshes, and have been analyzed for 7Be using gamma spectrometry. All sites fall within a distance of 9 km to 25 km from the outlet of the Atchafalaya River. Preliminary results show that cores sampled during the summer season, collected July 2015, contain higher activity of 7Be in the marsh cores, with no detectable 7Be contained in bay cores. The highest activity of 7Be, 3.2 ± 0.79 dpm/g, was found in the top two centimeters of the marsh core closest to the river mouth, site FLM-1. No activity was detectable beyond a depth of 4-6 cm. Surficial activity declined in samples further from the river mouth, with the lowest detectable value being 1.8 ± 0.72 dpm/g in the top two centimeters of site FLM-5. Results show that the range of influence for fine sediment delivery to wetlands is > 10 km, suggesting that the area that may be nourished sediment from a large diversion extends far beyond the footprint of proximal sandy deltaic deposits.

  7. Electronic structure of YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7-//sub delta/ including strong correlation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa-Quintana, J.; Lopez-Aguilar, F.; Balle, S.; Salvador, R.


    The occupied and unoccupied valence-band density of states of YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7-//sub delta/ is determined considering a coherent potential which includes the Coulomb intrasite d-d correlation. The p states tend to be all occupied and, as a consequence, the most localized d states with the XZ symmetry tend to be unoccupied giving rise to an upper Hubbard band. This picture is in good agreement with the direct and inverse photoemission spectroscopies.

  8. Evaluation of the Repeatability of the Delta Q Duct Leakage Testing TechniqueIncluding Investigation of Robust Analysis Techniques and Estimates of Weather Induced Uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickerhoff, Darryl; Walker, Iain


    found in for the pressure station approach. Walker and Dickerhoff also included estimates of DeltaQ test repeatability based on the results of field tests where two houses were tested multiple times. The two houses were quite leaky (20-25 Air Changes per Hour at 50Pa (0.2 in. water) (ACH50)) and were located in the San Francisco Bay area. One house was tested on a calm day and the other on a very windy day. Results were also presented for two additional houses that were tested by other researchers in Minneapolis, MN and Madison, WI, that had very tight envelopes (1.8 and 2.5 ACH50). These tight houses had internal duct systems and were tested without operating the central blower--sometimes referred to as control tests. The standard deviations between the multiple tests for all four houses were found to be about 1% of the envelope air flow at 50 Pa (0.2 in. water) (Q50) that led to the suggestion of this as a rule of thumb for estimating DeltaQ uncertainty. Because DeltaQ is based on measuring envelope air flows it makes sense for uncertainty to scale with envelope leakage. However, these tests were on a limited data set and one of the objectives of the current study is to increase the number of tested houses. This study focuses on answering two questions: (1) What is the uncertainty associated with changes in weather (primarily wind) conditions during DeltaQ testing? (2) How can these uncertainties be reduced? The first question is addressing issues of repeatability. To study this five houses were tested as many times as possible over a day. Weather data was recorded on-site--including the local windspeed. The result from these five houses were combined with the two Bay Area homes from the previous studies. The variability of the tests (represented by the standard deviation) is the repeatability of the test method for that house under the prevailing weather conditions. Because the testing was performed over a day a wide range of wind speeds was achieved following

  9. Comparing Multiple Evapotranspiration-calculating Methods, Including Eddy Covariance and Surface Renewal, Using Empirical Measurements from Alfalfa Fields in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (United States)

    Clay, J.; Kent, E. R.; Leinfelder-Miles, M.; Lambert, J. J.; Little, C.; Paw U, K. T.; Snyder, R. L.


    Eddy covariance and surface renewal measurements were used to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) over a variety of crop fields in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta during the 2016 growing season. However, comparing and evaluating multiple measurement systems and methods for determining ET was focused upon at a single alfalfa site. The eddy covariance systems included two systems for direct measurement of latent heat flux: one using a separate sonic anemometer and an open path infrared gas analyzer and another using a combined system (Campbell Scientific IRGASON). For these methods, eddy covariance was used with measurements from the Campbell Scientific CSAT3, the LI-COR 7500a, the Campbell Scientific IRGASON, and an additional R.M. Young sonic anemometer. In addition to those direct measures, the surface renewal approach included several energy balance residual methods in which net radiation, ground heat flux, and sensible heat flux (H) were measured. H was measured using several systems and different methods, including using multiple fast-response thermocouple measurements and using the temperatures measured by the sonic anemometers. The energy available for ET was then calculated as the residual of the surface energy balance equation. Differences in ET values were analyzed between the eddy covariance and surface renewal methods, using the IRGASON-derived values of ET as the standard for accuracy.

  10. Delta growth and river valleys: the influence of climate and sea level changes on the South Adriatic shelf (Mediterranean Sea) (United States)

    Maselli, V.; Trincardi, F.; Asioli, A.; Ceregato, A.; Rizzetto, F.; Taviani, M.


    Incised valleys across continental margins represent the response of fluvial systems to changes in their equilibrium dynamics, mainly driven by base level fall forced by glacial-eustatic cycles. The Manfredonia Incised Valley formed during the last glacial sea level lowstand, when most of the southern Adriatic shelf was sub-aerially exposed but the outer shelf remained under water. The pronounced upstream deepening of the valley is ascribed to river incision of the MIS5e highstand coastal prism and related subaqueous clinoform under the influence of MIS5-4 sea level fluctuations, while the downstream shallowing and narrowing mainly reflects the impact of increased rates of sea level fall at the MIS3-2 transition on a flatter mid-outer shelf. Until 15 ka BP, the valley fed an asymmetric delta confined to the mid-outer shelf, testifying that continental and deep marine systems remained disconnected during the lowstand. Sea level rise reached the inner shelf during the Early Holocene, drowning the valley and leading to the formation of a sheltered embayment confined toward the land: at this time part of the incision remained underfilled with a marked bathymetric expression. This mini-basin was rapidly filled by sandy bayhead deltas, prograding from both the northern and southern sides of the valley. In this environment, protected by marine reworking and where sediment dispersal was less effective, the accommodation space was reduced and autogenic processes forced the formation of multiple and coalescing delta lobes. Bayhead delta progradations occurred in few centuries, between 8 and 7.2 ka cal BP, confirming the recent hypothesis that in this area the valley was filled during the formation of sapropel S1. This proximal valley fill, representing the very shallow-water equivalent of the cm-thick sapropel layers accumulated offshore in the deeper southern Adriatic basin, is of key importance in following the signature of the sapropel in a facies-tract ideally from the

  11. about the Dirac Delta Function(?)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    we enter "delta function" in quotes. This produces a less stupendous 58,600 references. As even this is too much, we try Dirac delta function, to get ... this down to 872, while "the delta function of Dirac" yields a comfortable (but not uniformly helpful) 19 ref- erences. Motivated by a desire to include some interesting histor-.

  12. Hepatitis D (Delta agent) (United States)

    Complications may include: Chronic active hepatitis Acute liver failure ... Landaverde C, Perrillo R. Hepatitis D. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, ... 81. Thio CL, Hawkins C. Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis delta ...

  13. Delta Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Mette

    A warming climate affects the entire planet, but the Arctic experience a warming that is faster than elsewhere in the world. This influences several processes affecting the evolution of the Arctic coast, and increasing erosion rates are detected throughout large parts of these high-latitude coasts...... to sandy beaches, marshes and deltas. This PhD thesis investigates coastal evolution with a special focus on changes in deltaic environments both during the Holocene and in a modern changing climate. The first part of the thesis (Paper 1 and 2) focus on detailed processes affecting delta evolution...... of a fjord and the second type is a wider fan-shaped open delta. Most deltas are directly coupled to the Greenland Ice Sheet or local icecaps and are highly influenced by the dynamics in the catchments. It is demonstrated how a modern changing climate directly affects delta dynamics, and that Greenlandic...

  14. DELTAS: A new Global Delta Sustainability Initiative (Invited) (United States)

    Foufoula-Georgiou, E.


    Deltas are economic and environmental hotspots, food baskets for many nations, home to a large part of the world population, and hosts of exceptional biodiversity and rich ecosystems. Deltas, being at the land-water interface, are international, regional, and local transport hubs, thus providing the basis for intense economic activities. Yet, deltas are deteriorating at an alarming rate as 'victims' of human actions (e.g. water and sediment reduction due to upstream basin development), climatic impacts (e.g. sea level rise and flooding from rivers and intense tropical storms), and local exploration (e.g. sand or aggregates, groundwater and hydrocarbon extraction). Although many efforts exist on individual deltas around the world, a comprehensive global delta sustainability initiative that promotes awareness, science integration, data and knowledge sharing, and development of decision support tools for an effective dialogue between scientists, managers and policy makers is lacking. Recently, the international scientific community proposed to establish the International Year of Deltas (IYD) to serve as the beginning of such a Global Delta Sustainability Initiative. The IYD was proposed as a year to: (1) increase awareness and attention to the value and vulnerability of deltas worldwide; (2) promote and enhance international and regional cooperation at the scientific, policy, and stakeholder level; and (3) serve as a launching pad for a 10-year committed effort to understand deltas as complex socio-ecological systems and ensure preparedness in protecting and restoring them in a rapidly changing environment. In this talk, the vision for such an international coordinated effort on delta sustainability will be presented as developed by a large number of international experts and recently funded through the Belmont Forum International Opportunities Fund. Participating countries include: U.S., France, Germany, U.K., India, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Brazil, Bangladesh

  15. Delta Robot


    Herder, Justus Laurens; van der Wijk, V.


    The invention relates to a delta robot comprising a stationary base (2) and a movable platform (3) that is connected to the base with three chains of links (4,5,6), and comprising a balancing system incorporating at least one pantograph (7) for balancing the robot's center of mass, wherein the at least one pantograph has a first free extremity (10) at which it supports a countermass (13) which is arranged to balance the center of mass of the robot.

  16. delta 9-THC metabolites in meconium: identification of 11-OH-delta 9-THC, 8 beta,11-diOH-delta 9-THC, and 11-nor-delta 9-THC-9-COOH as major metabolites of delta 9-THC. (United States)

    ElSohly, M A; Feng, S


    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of meconium specimens screening positive for cannabinoids by the EMIT 20 Assay showed a low confirmation rate for 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH). A study was designed to investigate the possible contribution of other delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) metabolites, including glucuronides, to the overall response of the EIA. delta 9-THC-glucuronide was synthesized in order to develop the most efficient procedure for hydrolysis of glucuronides in meconium. Procedures were developed for the extraction and GC-MS analysis of delta 9-THC, 11-OH-delta 9-THC, 8 alpha- and 8 beta-OH-delta 9-THC, 8 beta,11-diOH-delta 9-THC, and THCCOOH, after enzymatic hydrolysis of meconium extracts. It is concluded that enzymatic hydrolysis of meconium extracts is necessary for efficient recovery of delta 9-THC metabolites; delta 9-THC and its 8-OH metabolite(s) are basically absent in meconium specimens; and 11-OH-delta 9-THC and 8 beta,11-diOH-delta 9-THC contribute significantly to the immunoassay response of meconium extracts. Analysis of several meconium specimens that screened positive for cannabinoids but failed to confirm for THCCOOH showed significant amounts of 11-OH-delta 9-THC and 8 beta,11-diOH-delta 9-THC. Therefore, GC-MS confirmation of cannabinoids in meconium should include analysis for these two metabolites in addition to THCCOOH.

  17. Migration in Deltas: An Integrated Analysis (United States)

    Nicholls, Robert J.; Hutton, Craig W.; Lazar, Attila; Adger, W. Neil; Allan, Andrew; Arto, Inaki; Vincent, Katharine; Rahman, Munsur; Salehin, Mashfiqus; Sugata, Hazra; Ghosh, Tuhin; Codjoe, Sam; Appeaning-Addo, Kwasi


    Deltas and low-lying coastal regions have long been perceived as vulnerable to global sea-level rise, with the potential for mass displacement of exposed populations. The assumption of mass displacement of populations in deltas requires a comprehensive reassessment in the light of present and future migration in deltas, including the potential role of adaptation to influence these decisions. At present, deltas are subject to multiple drivers of environmental change and often have high population densities as they are accessible and productive ecosystems. Climate change, catchment management, subsidence and land cover change drive environmental change across all deltas. Populations in deltas are also highly mobile, with significant urbanization trends and the growth of large cities and mega-cities within or adjacent to deltas across Asia and Africa. Such migration is driven primarily by economic opportunity, yet environmental change in general, and climate change in particular, are likely to play an increasing direct and indirect role in future migration trends. The policy challenges centre on the role of migration within regional adaptation strategies to climate change; the protection of vulnerable populations; and the future of urban settlements within deltas. This paper reviews current knowledge on migration and adaptation to environmental change to discern specific issues pertinent to delta regions. It develops a new integrated methodology to assess present and future migration in deltas using the Volta delta in Ghana, Mahanadi delta in India and Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta across India and Bangladesh. The integrated method focuses on: biophysical changes and spatial distribution of vulnerability; demographic changes and migration decision-making using multiple methods and data; macro-economic trends and scenarios in the deltas; and the policies and governance structures that constrain and enable adaptation. The analysis is facilitated by a range of

  18. Delta Plaza kohvik = Delta Plaza cafe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Tallinnas Pärnu mnt 141 asuva kohviku Delta Plaza sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid Tiiu Truus ja Marja Viltrop (Stuudio Truus OÜ). Tiiu Truusi tähtsamate tööde loetelu. Büroohoone Delta Plaza arhitektid Marika Lõoke ja Jüri Okas (AB J. Okas & M. Lõoke)

  19. Statistical Delta-V Tool for Pre-proposal Studies (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For any space mission proposal it is essential to provide an accurate, defensible estimate of the total propellant ("Delta-V") budget, including the Delta-V required...

  20. DELTA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbero, Jose A.; Florido, Pablo C.; Mendieta, Horacio; Pasquevich, Daniel M.; Manzano, F.


    In this paper we outline a new concept for final treatment of radioactive waste. The process includes the first steps of the reprocessing of burnt fuels up to the final transmutation of the separated long-half-life actinides. (author)

  1. Evolving deltas: Conceptualising coevolution with engineered interventions (United States)

    Welch, Amy; Nicholls, Robert; Lazar, Attila


    Mid to low latitude deltas have been populated for thousands of years due to their fertile soil and coastal location. This has led to an alteration in the land cover of deltas to primary agriculture and dense rural settlements and more recently, major cities and megacities have developed on or adjacent to many deltas. Deltas may be prosperous in terms of their outputs and services; however, they are also susceptible to many hazards due to their location and low-lying nature. Hazards include storm surges, fluvial flooding and erosion of both coastal and riverine areas, as well as subsidence, relative sea-level rise and pollution. This can have severe impacts on the delta, its population and its services. Therefore engineered interventions have been used for some time to protect the population and the valuable land from the consequences of hazards. Coevolution can be described as a feedback loop between nature and humans: each has an effect on how the other behaves and hence this inter-dependence interaction continues. Therefore the natural evolution of the delta interacts with engineered interventions, such as promoting accelerated subsidence over time, necessitating further adaptation. The deltaic landscape and associated livelihoods are thus the result of this co-evolution process between natural delta processes and engineered interventions. This presentation will identify and discuss various drivers and consequences of large scale engineered interventions, comparing and contrasting the management approaches taken in five populated deltas (Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna, Yangtze, Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt, Mekong and Nile). The type of engineered intervention and management approaches had a direct effect on the coevolution of deltas, with each of the deltas being at different stages in terms of extent of coevolution. A qualitative timeline of the typical steps of coevolution between the human system and the delta system of the studied deltas was produced. The major

  2. Myxozoans infecting the sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus in the Okavango River and Delta, Botswana, including descriptions of two new species, Henneguya samochimensis sp. n. and Myxobolus gariepinus sp. n. (United States)

    Reed, Cecilé C; Basson, Linda; Van As, Liesl L


    During a recent investigation of parasites infecting fishes from the Okavango River and Delta, Botswana (southern Africa) fourteen sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) (Siluriformes: Clariidae) were examined for the presence of myxozoan infections. Results revealed the presence of two species of the genus Henneguya Thélohan, 1895 and one species of the genus Myxobolus Bütschli, 1882 infecting this fish host. Two of the sampled fish exhibited large plasmodia of Henneguya suprabranchiae Landsberg, 1987 in the cartilage of the accessory breathing organ, another two individuals were infected with H. samochimensis sp. n. plasmodia in the gills and another three individuals revealed an infection with Myxobolus gariepinus sp. n. plasmodia in the ovaries.

  3. A proto-Okavango Delta? (United States)

    Podgorski, J. E.; Kgotlhang, L.; Ngwisanyi, T.; Ploug, C.; Auken, E.; Kinzelbach, W. K.; Green, A. G.


    The Okavango Delta within the Kalahari Desert of northwestern Botswana is one of the world's largest inland deltas and the largest wetland in southern Africa. An annual flood originating from the Okavango River in the northwest passes through the upper panhandle region of the delta before inundating the 150 km x 150 km fan where most water is lost to evapotranspiration. The fan occupies an active graben at the southwestern end of the East Africa rift zone. The focus of faulting is along the fan’s southeastern end where the Kunyere-Thamalakane faults show 200-300 m of dip-slip offset, forming a backstop to the movement of water and sediments. An airborne TEM survey was flown over the entire delta in 2007 with 2 km line spacing. A preliminary inversion of the entire data set has been undertaken using a quasi-2D inversion scheme that includes resistivity, layer thickness, and transmitter height as parameters. Tests with a many-layer model indicate that a four-layer model explains the data. Inversion results are corroborated by limited borehole data. The TEM model includes significant lateral and vertical variations in electrical resistivity. In the central region of the fan, a near-surface high resistivity layer is underlain sequentially by a more conductive layer (about 100 m depth) and a more resistive half-space (about 160 m depth), the latter of which could be a fresh water aquifer. This resistive feature has a fan-like form. A plausible evolutionary scenario that explains the TEM data includes a proto-Okavango Delta (highly resistive half-space ) and a lake (intermediate-depth conductive layer). During a climatic episode similar to today’s, a proto-Okavango Delta sequence would have been deposited against a fault, much as the Kunyere-Thamalakane faults today delineate the southeastern margin of the present Okavango Delta. This region would have then been flooded by a Pleistocene lake system that inundated much of northern Botswana and was the source of

  4. Surface water quality in the Okavango Delta panhandle, Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Okavango Delta, a Ramsar and a World Heritage Site, is an important source of food and water in the Kalahari Desert of southern Africa. Although the eastern delta fan is a protected area, the rest, including the upstream panhandle, is unprotected. Water quality in the Okavango Delta panhandle from Popa Falls, ...

  5. Delta 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skott, Jeppe; Skott, Charlotte Krog; Jess, Kristine

    DELTA 2.0 er en ny og helt opdateret udgave af Delta, der i ti år været brugt i matematiklærernes grund-, efter- og videreuddannelse. DELTA 2.0 er seriens almene fagdidaktik. Der er også fagdidaktiske overvejelser i de øvrige bøger i serien, men de er knyttet til specifikt matematisk indhold. DEL...

  6. Delta hedging strategies comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Giovanni, Domenico; Ortobelli, S.; Rachev, S.T.


    In this paper we implement dynamic delta hedging strategies based on several option pricing models. We analyze different subordinated option pricing models and we examine delta hedging costs using ex-post daily prices of S&P 500. Furthermore, we compare the performance of each subordinated model...

  7. Growth laws for sub-delta crevasses in the Mississippi River Delta (United States)

    Yocum, T. A.; Georgiou, I. Y.; Straub, K. M.


    River deltas are threatened by environmental change, including subsidence, global sea level rise, reduced sediment inputs and other local factors. In the Mississippi River Delta (MRD) these impacts are exemplified, and have led to proposed solutions to build land that include sediment diversions to reinitiate the delta cycle. Deltas were studied extensively using numerical models, theoretical and conceptual frameworks, empirical scaling relationships, laboratory models and field observations. But predicting the future of deltas relies on field observations where for most deltas data are still lacking. Moreover, empirical and theoretical scaling laws may be influenced by the data used to develop them, while laboratory deltas may be influenced by scaling issues. Anthropogenic crevasses in the MRD are large enough to overcome limitations of laboratory deltas, and small enough to allow for rapid channel and wetland development, providing an ideal setting to investigate delta development mechanics. Here we assessed growth laws of sub-delta crevasses (SDC) in the MRD, in two experimental laboratory deltas (LD - weakly and strongly cohesive) and compared them to river dominated deltas worldwide. Channel and delta geometry metrics for each system were obtained using geospatial tools, bathymetric datasets, sediment size, and hydrodynamic observations. Results show that SDC follow growth laws similar to large river dominated deltas, with the exception of some that exhibit anomalous behavior with respect to the frequency and distance to a bifurcation and the fraction of wetted delta shoreline (allometry metrics). Most SDC exhibit a systematic decrease of non-dimensional channel geometries with increased bifurcation order, indicating that channels are adjusting to decreased flow after bifurcations occur, and exhibit linear trends for land allometry and width-depth ratio, although geometries decrease more rapidly per bifurcation order. Measured distance to bifurcations in SDC

  8. Tidal controls on river delta morphology (United States)

    Hoitink, A. J. F.; Wang, Z. B.; Vermeulen, B.; Huismans, Y.; Kästner, K.


    River delta degradation has been caused by extraction of natural resources, sediment retention by reservoirs, and sea-level rise. Despite global concerns about these issues, human activity in the world’s largest deltas intensifies. Harbour development, construction of flood defences, sand mining and land reclamation emerge as key contemporary factors that exert an impact on delta morphology. Tides interacting with river discharge can play a crucial role in the morphodynamic development of deltas under pressure. Emerging insights into tidal controls on river delta morphology suggest that--despite the active morphodynamics in tidal channels and mouth bar regions--tidal motion acts to stabilize delta morphology at the landscape scale under the condition that sediment import during low flows largely balances sediment export during high flows. Distributary channels subject to tides show lower migration rates and are less easily flooded by the river because of opposing non-linear interactions between river discharge and the tide. These interactions lead to flow changes within channels, and a more uniform distribution of discharge across channels. Sediment depletion and rigorous human interventions in deltas, including storm surge defence works, disrupt the dynamic morphological equilibrium and can lead to erosion and severe scour at the channel bed, even decades after an intervention.

  9. Reduced complexity modeling of Arctic delta dynamics (United States)

    Piliouras, A.; Lauzon, R.; Rowland, J. C.


    How water and sediment are routed through deltas has important implications for our understanding of nutrient and sediment fluxes to the coastal ocean. These fluxes may be especially important in Arctic environments, because the Arctic ocean receives a disproportionately large amount of river discharge and high latitude regions are expected to be particularly vulnerable to climate change. The Arctic has some of the world's largest but least studied deltas. This lack of data is due to remote and hazardous conditions, sparse human populations, and limited remote sensing resources. In the absence of data, complex models may be of limited scientific utility in understanding Arctic delta dynamics. To overcome this challenge, we adapt the reduced complexity delta-building model DeltaRCM for Arctic environments to explore the influence of sea ice and permafrost on delta morphology and dynamics. We represent permafrost by increasing the threshold for sediment erosion, as permafrost has been found to increase cohesion and reduce channel migration rates. The presence of permafrost in the model results in the creation of more elongate channels, fewer active channels, and a rougher shoreline. We consider several effects of sea ice, including introducing friction which increases flow resistance, constriction of flow by landfast ice, and changes in effective water surface elevation. Flow constriction and increased friction from ice results in a rougher shoreline, more frequent channel switching, decreased channel migration rates, and enhanced deposition offshore of channel mouths. The reduced complexity nature of the model is ideal for generating a basic understanding of which processes unique to Arctic environments may have important effects on delta evolution, and it allows us to explore a variety of rules for incorporating those processes into the model to inform future Arctic delta modelling efforts. Finally, we plan to use the modeling results to determine how the presence

  10. Man made deltas (United States)

    Maselli, Vittorio; Trincardi, Fabio


    The review of geochronological and historical data documents that the largest southern European deltas formed almost synchronously during two short intervals of enhanced anthropic pressure on landscapes, respectively during the Roman Empire and the Little Ice Age. These growth phases, that occurred under contrasting climatic regimes, were both followed by generalized delta retreat, driven by two markedly different reasons: after the Romans, the fall of the population and new afforestation let soil erosion in river catchments return to natural background levels; since the industrial revolution, instead, flow regulation through river dams overkill a still increasing sediment production in catchment basins. In this second case, furthermore, the effect of a reduced sediment flux to the coasts is amplified by the sinking of modern deltas, due to land subsidence and sea level rise, that hampers delta outbuilding and increases the vulnerability of coastal zone to marine erosion and flooding. PMID:23722597

  11. Migration in Vulnerable Deltas: A Research Strategy (United States)

    Hutton, C.; Nicholls, R. J.; Allan, A.


    C. Hutton1, & R. J. Nicholls1, , 1 University of Southampton, University Road, Southampton, Hampshire, United Kingdom, SO17 1BJ. cwh@geodata., deltas contain 500 million people and with rising sea levels often linked to large number of forced migrants are expected in the coming century. However, migration is already a major process in deltas, such as the growth of major cities such as Dhaka and Kolkata. Climate and environmental change interacts with a range of catchment and delta level drivers, which encompass a nexus of sea-level rise, storms, freshwater and sediment supply from the catchment, land degradation, subsidence, agricultural loss and socio-economic stresses. DECCMA (Deltas, Vulnerability and Climate Change: Migration and Adaptation/CARRIA) is investigating migration in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM), Mahanadi and Volta Deltas, including the influence of climate change. The research will explore migration from a range of perspectives including governance and stakeholder analysis, demographic analysis, household surveys of sending and receiving areas, macro-economic analysis, and hazards and hotspot analysis both historically and into the future. Migration under climate change will depend on other adaptation in the deltas and this will be examined. Collectively, integrated analysis will be developed to examine migration, other adaptation and development pathways with a particular focus on the implications for the poorest. This will require the development of input scenarios, including expert-derived exogenous scenarios (e.g., climate change) and endogenous scenarios of the delta developed in a participatory manner. This applied research will facilitate decision support methods for the development of deltas under climate change, with a focus on migration and other adaptation strategies.

  12. Man made deltas? (United States)

    Maselli, V.; Trincardi, F.


    During the last few millennia, southern European fluvio-deltaic systems have evolved in response to changes in the hydrological cycle, mostly driven by high-frequency climate oscillations and increasing anthropic pressure on natural landscapes. The review of geochronological and historical data documents that the bulk of the four largest northern Mediterranean and Black Sea deltas (Ebro, Rhone, Po and Danube) formed during two short and synchronous intervals during which anthropogenic land cover change was the main driver for enhanced sediment production. These two major growth phases occurred under contrasting climatic regimes and were both followed by generalized delta retreat, supporting the hypothesis of human-driven delta progradation. Delta retreat, in particular, was the consequence of reduced soil erosion for renewed afforestation after the fall of the Roman Empire, and of river dams construction that overkilled the still increasing sediment production in catchment basins since the Industrial Era. In this second case, in particular, the effect of a reduced sediment flux to the coasts is amplified by the sinking of modern deltas, due to land subsidence and sea level rise, that hampers delta outbuilding and increases the vulnerability of coastal zone to marine erosion and flooding.

  13. Viral strategies for studying the brain, including a replication-restricted self-amplifying delta-G vesicular stomatis virus that rapidly expresses transgenes in brain and can generate a multicolor golgi-like expression. (United States)

    van den Pol, Anthony N; Ozduman, Koray; Wollmann, Guido; Ho, Winson S C; Simon, Ian; Yao, Yang; Rose, John K; Ghosh, Prabhat


    Viruses have substantial value as vehicles for transporting transgenes into neurons. Each virus has its own set of attributes for addressing neuroscience-related questions. Here we review some of the advantages and limitations of herpes, pseudorabies, rabies, adeno-associated, lentivirus, and others to study the brain. We then explore a novel recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (dG-VSV) with the G-gene deleted and transgenes engineered into the first position of the RNA genome, which replicates only in the first brain cell infected, as corroborated with ultrastructural analysis, eliminating spread of virus. Because of its ability to replicate rapidly and to express multiple mRNA copies and additional templates for more copies, reporter gene expression is amplified substantially, over 500-fold in 6 hours, allowing detailed imaging of dendrites, dendritic spines, axons, and axon terminal fields within a few hours to a few days after inoculation. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression is first detected within 1 hour of inoculation. The virus generates a Golgi-like appearance in all neurons or glia of regions of the brain tested. Whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology, calcium digital imaging with fura-2, and time-lapse digital imaging showed that neurons appeared physiologically normal after expressing viral transgenes. The virus has a wide range of species applicability, including mouse, rat, hamster, human, and Drosophila cells. By using dG-VSV, we show efferent projections from the suprachiasmatic nucleus terminating in the periventricular region immediately dorsal to the nucleus. DG-VSVs with genes coding for different color reporters allow multicolor visualization of neurons wherever applied.

  14. Delta robots – robots for high speed manipulation


    Poppeová, Viera; Uríček, Juraj; Bulej, Vladimír; Šindler, Peter


    This paper is oriented to parallel kinematic robots definition, description of their specific application, comparison of robots made by different producers and determination of velocity and acceleration parameters, kinematic analysis – inverse and forward kinematic. It brings information about development of Delta robots at Academia, including the University of Žilina and Delta robots in the market. Two models of Delta robots called M-1iA and M-3iA have been developed by FANUC Robotics during...

  15. Ganges River Delta (United States)


    The Ganges River forms an extensive delta where it empties into the Bay of Bengal. The delta is largely covered with a swamp forest known as the Sunderbans, which is home to the Royal Bengal Tiger. It is also home to most of Bangladesh, one of the world's most densely populated countries. Roughly 120 million people live on the Ganges Delta under threat of repeated catastrophic floods due to heavy runoff of meltwater from the Himalayas, and due to the intense rainfall during the monsoon season. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on February 28, 2000. This is a false-color composite image made using green, infrared, and blue wavelengths. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  16. The Okavango: Whose Delta is it? (United States)

    Magole, Lapologang; Magole, Lefatshe Innocent

    The Okavango Delta is amongst the largest Ramsar sites ( in the world and an important wetland for community livelihoods, conservation and tourism in Botswana. Over the years, the utilization of the delta has shifted from communal use to state control, with an increased use for conservation and tourism. This increased use for conservation and tourism has manifested in the physical expansion of the conservation area - Moremi Game Reserve and the formation of Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) around the reserve, whose primary land use is wildlife utilization. The expansion of the conservation area has translated into several practical matters, including expansion of the area for non-hunting activities or photographic areas. The livelihoods of local communities of the Okavango delta who depended on fishing, hunter-gathering, livestock rearing, rain-fed agriculture and flood recession farming have been negatively affected by the expansion of conservation and tourism in the delta. The livelihoods alternatives in the form of Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) and tourism have not provided substitutes for the people as the communities are still reliant on the same old livelihood sources as in the past, albeit within smaller and restricted areas. This paper explores the ownership of the natural resources within the Okavango Delta. It asks and attempts to answer the following questions: Who owns and controls the use of the land? Who has access to other resources there in? Who makes the decisions on how the delta resources should be managed and used? Who benefits from the delta resources? We argue firstly that ownership of the delta as defined by legal parameters and demonstrated in natural resource management practice is vested on government. Secondly, government, after assuming ownership of the delta continues to sell its stake to the international community, at the expense of local ownership and access to resources. We

  17. Upper-division student difficulties with the Dirac delta function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany R. Wilcox


    Full Text Available The Dirac delta function is a standard mathematical tool that appears repeatedly in the undergraduate physics curriculum in multiple topical areas including electrostatics, and quantum mechanics. While Dirac delta functions are often introduced in order to simplify a problem mathematically, students still struggle to manipulate and interpret them. To characterize student difficulties with the delta function at the upper-division level, we examined students’ responses to traditional exam questions and a standardized conceptual assessment, and conducted think-aloud interviews. Our analysis was guided by an analytical framework that focuses on how students activate, construct, execute, and reflect on the Dirac delta function in the context of problem solving in physics. Here, we focus on student difficulties using the delta function to express charge distributions in the context of junior-level electrostatics. Common challenges included invoking the delta function spontaneously, translating a description of a charge distribution into a mathematical expression using delta functions, integrating 3D or non-Cartesian delta function expressions, and recognizing that the delta function can have units. We also briefly discuss implications of these difficulties for instruction.

  18. The Niger Delta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    May 26, 2009 ... which Britain won her Nigerian empire--based its activities in the Delta and the Niger valley. British ascendancy in this important trading area justified her claim to supremacy in the Niger territories during the Berlin West African Conference of 1885.” Clearly, petroleum mining is only the latest in a long series ...

  19. Women of Niger Delta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religion Dept

    Nigeria as a member of the Africa Union (AU),. NEPAD. and ECOWAS, plays a prominent role as a peace keeper in West. African sub-region. Ironically, in the Niger Delta, Nigeria has not been able to maintain peace. The area has not known peace but chaos, abduction, killing, armed robbery, prostitution and kidnapping.

  20. western niger delta, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 21, 2015 ... Palynomorph species comprising 53 pollen, 7 spores, 2 algae and 6 dinoflagellate cysts were recovered from a section of well 'Y' located in the offshore western Niger Delta and were used for paleoclimatic deductions of the sediments. There was a dominance of the fresh water swamp species over the ...

  1. Climate Change and the Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Dettinger


    Full Text Available doi: climate change amounts to a rapidly approaching, “new” stressor in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta system. In response to California’s extreme natural hydroclimatic variability, complex water-management systems have been developed, even as the Delta’s natural ecosystems have been largely devastated. Climate change is projected to challenge these management and ecological systems in different ways that are characterized by different levels of uncertainty. For example, there is high certainty that climate will warm by about 2°C more (than late-20th-century averages by mid-century and about 4°C by end of century, if greenhouse-gas emissions continue their current rates of acceleration. Future precipitation changes are much less certain, with as many climate models projecting wetter conditions as drier. However, the same projections agree that precipitation will be more intense when storms do arrive, even as more dry days will separate storms. Warmer temperatures will likely enhance evaporative demands and raise water temperatures. Consequently, climate change is projected to yield both more extreme flood risks and greater drought risks. Sea level rise (SLR during the 20th century was about 22 cm, and is projected to increase by at least 3-fold this century. SLR together with land subsidence threatens the Delta with greater vulnerabilities to inundation and salinity intrusion. Effects on the Delta ecosystem that are traceable to warming include SLR, reduced snowpack, earlier snowmelt and larger storm-driven streamflows, warmer and longer summers, warmer summer water temperatures, and water-quality changes. These changes and their uncertainties will challenge the operations of water projects and uses throughout the Delta’s watershed and delivery areas. Although the effects of of climate change on Delta ecosystems may be profound, the end results are difficult to predict

  2. Climate change and the Delta (United States)

    Dettinger, Michael; Anderson, Jamie; Anderson, Michael L.; Brown, Larry R.; Cayan, Daniel; Maurer, Edwin P.


    Anthropogenic climate change amounts to a rapidly approaching, “new” stressor in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta system. In response to California’s extreme natural hydroclimatic variability, complex water-management systems have been developed, even as the Delta’s natural ecosystems have been largely devastated. Climate change is projected to challenge these management and ecological systems in different ways that are characterized by different levels of uncertainty. For example, there is high certainty that climate will warm by about 2°C more (than late-20th-century averages) by mid-century and about 4°C by end of century, if greenhouse-gas emissions continue their current rates of acceleration. Future precipitation changes are much less certain, with as many climate models projecting wetter conditions as drier. However, the same projections agree that precipitation will be more intense when storms do arrive, even as more dry days will separate storms. Warmer temperatures will likely enhance evaporative demands and raise water temperatures. Consequently, climate change is projected to yield both more extreme flood risks and greater drought risks. Sea level rise (SLR) during the 20th century was about 22cm, and is projected to increase by at least 3-fold this century. SLR together with land subsidence threatens the Delta with greater vulnerabilities to inundation and salinity intrusion. Effects on the Delta ecosystem that are traceable to warming include SLR, reduced snowpack, earlier snowmelt and larger storm-driven streamflows, warmer and longer summers, warmer summer water temperatures, and water-quality changes. These changes and their uncertainties will challenge the operations of water projects and uses throughout the Delta’s watershed and delivery areas. Although the effects of climate change on Delta ecosystems may be profound, the end results are difficult to predict, except that native species will fare worse than invaders. Successful

  3. Sediment and Vegetation Controls on Delta Channel Networks (United States)

    Lauzon, R.; Murray, A. B.; Piliouras, A.; Kim, W.


    Numerous factors control the patterns of distributary channels formed on a delta, including water and sediment discharge, grain size, sea level rise rates, and vegetation type. In turn, these channel networks influence the shape and evolution of a delta, including what types of plant and animal life - such as humans - it can support. Previous fluvial modeling and flume experiments, outside of the delta context, have addressed how interactions between sediment and vegetation, through their influence on lateral transport of sediment, determine what type of channel networks develops. Similar interactions likely also shape delta flow patterns. Vegetation introduces cohesion, tending to reduce channel migration rates and strengthen existing channel banks, reinforcing existing channels and resulting in localized, relatively stable flow patterns. On the other hand, sediment transport processes can result in lateral migration and frequent switching of active channels, resulting in flow resembling that of a braided stream. While previous studies of deltas have indirectly explored the effects of vegetation through the introduction of cohesive sediment, we directly incorporate key effects of vegetation on flow and sediment transport into the delta-building model DeltaRCM to explore how these effects influence delta channel network formation. Model development is informed by laboratory flume experiments at UT Austin. Here we present initial results of experiments exploring the effects of sea level rise rate, sediment grain size, vegetation type, and vegetation growth rate on delta channel network morphology. These results support the hypothesis that the ability for lateral transport of sediment to occur plays a key role in determining the evolution of delta channel networks and delta morphology.

  4. Losing ground in mega-deltas: basin-scale response to existential threats to the Mekong Delta (United States)

    Arias, M. E.; Kondolf, G. M.; Schmitt, R. J. P.; Carling, P. A.; Darby, S. E.; Bizzi, S.; Castelletti, A.; Cochrane, T. A.; Gibson, S.; Kummu, M.; Oeurng, C.; Rubin, Z.; Wild, T. B.


    The Mekong Delta is, in terms of the number of livelihoods it supports, its economic importance, and in its vulnerability to climate change and sinking lands, one of the world's critically threatened mega-deltas. Livelihoods depend on the mere existence of the delta, but also on ecosystem services provided by the delta's drainage basin spanning 795,000 km2 in six abutting countries. These ecosystem services include delivery of sand required to build delta land in the face of rising sea-levels and sediment bound nutrients, provision of spawning habitat for fish that are ultimately harvested in the delta, and hydrologic regulation driving the delta's unique flood-pulse regime. However, while the delta is mainly located in Vietnam, the basin of the Mekong River is shared among China, Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam. In the context of the region's dynamic growth, individual countries are pushing their own development agendas, which include extensive dam building, in-channel sand mining, construction of dykes and canals, and groundwater pumping, all of which contribute to subsidence and erosion of the Delta. Our synthesis of recent research indicates that most of the Mekong's delta land will likely fall below sea-level by 2100 as result of these drivers, exacerbating the impacts of global climatic changes. In this context, local infrastructural projects and changes in land- and water-management may temporarily mitigate some negative effects, but do not address the existential threat to the delta as a whole. To prevent, or at least substantially postpone, the drowning of the Mekong Delta requires identification of the key drivers and immediate concerted management actions on the basin-scale to change the trajectory of subsidence and sediment deficit. A specific challenge is to find the institutional arrangements in this transnational context that could support the needed management changes and equitably distribute costs and impacts. The Mekong Delta is

  5. The evolution of a subaqueous delta in the Anthropocene: A stratigraphic investigation of the Brazos River delta, TX USA (United States)

    Carlin, Joseph A.; Dellapenna, Timothy M.


    Globally, deltas are increasingly threatened by anthropogenic activities. As a result, deltas now evolve through the combined effects of natural and human-induced processes occurring throughout the fluvial-deltaic system. The Brazos River delta, located along the Texas coast in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, and its watershed have been impacted by direct and indirect human activities since the late 19th century. This provides an opportunity to investigate how such alterations have shaped the evolution of a delta in the Anthropocene, a time when humans are drivers of geological change. Historic alteration to the delta and watershed include extensive agricultural activity, jetty construction at the mouth in the late 1890s, mouth diversion ~10 km to the southwest in 1929, and reservoir construction throughout the early and mid 20th Century. Three subaerial deltaic geometries provided the framework to connect subaerial deltaic responses, to the anthropogenic alterations, to the resulting stratigraphic characteristics observed in the subaqueous delta. This study utilized high-resolution geophysical data (swath bathymetry, side scan sonar, CHIRP subbottom profiling) on the subaqueous delta to investigate the subaqueous delta stratigraphy and infer the processes that shaped the deltaic record over time. The results showed distinct areas across the subaqueous delta that were dominated by erosion and deposition. Erosional areas corresponded to earlier growth phase depocenters being exposed at the surface, while the depositional areas corresponded to areas with the most recent growth phase depocenter overlying the earlier depocenters. These results highlight that the subaqueous depocenter has migrated westward over time, consistent with the observed changes to the subaerial delta. Additionally, the data showed that evidence for these past growth phases and depocenters may be preserved within the subaqueous delta, even after subaerial portions of the delta returned to pre

  6. Phenotypic expressions of CCR5-Delta 32/Delta 32 homozygosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, GT; Carrington, M; Beeler, JA; Dean, M; Aledort, LM; Blatt, PM; Cohen, AR; DiMichele, D; Eyster, ME; Kessler, CM; Konkle, B; Leissinger, C; Luban, N; O'Brien, SJ; Goedert, JJ; O'Brien, TR


    Objective: As blockade of CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) has been proposed as therapy for HIV-1, we examined whether the CCR5-Delta 32/Delta 32 homozygous genotype has phenotypic expressions other than those related to HIV-1. Design: Study subjects were white homosexual men or men with hemophilia

  7. Thermostatted delta f

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krommes, J.A.


    The delta f simulation method is revisited. Statistical coarse-graining is used to rigorously derive the equation for the fluctuation delta f in the particle distribution. It is argued that completely collisionless simulation is incompatible with the achievement of true statistically steady states with nonzero turbulent fluxes because the variance of the particle weights w grows with time. To ensure such steady states, it is shown that for dynamically collisionless situations a generalized thermostat or W-stat may be used in lieu of a full collision operator to absorb the flow of entropy to unresolved fine scales in velocity space. The simplest W-stat can be implemented as a self-consistently determined, time-dependent damping applied to w. A precise kinematic analogy to thermostatted nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) is pointed out, and the justification of W-stats for simulations of turbulence is discussed. An extrapolation procedure is proposed such that the long-time, steady-state, collisionless flux can be deduced from several short W-statted runs with large effective collisionality, and a numerical demonstration is given

  8. Perspectives on bay-delta science and policy (United States)

    Healey, Michael; Dettinger, Michael; Norgaard, Richard


    The State of Bay–Delta Science 2008 highlighted seven emerging perspectives on science and management of the Delta. These perspectives had important effects on policy and legislation concerning management of the Delta ecosystem and water exports. From the collection of papers that make up the State of Bay–Delta Science 2016, we derive another seven perspectives that augment those published in 2008. The new perspectives address nutrient and contaminant concentrations in Delta waters, the failure of the Delta food web to support native species, the role of multiple stressors in driving species toward extinction, and the emerging importance of extreme events in driving change in the ecosystem and the water supply. The scientific advances that underpin these new perspectives were made possible by new measurement and analytic tools. We briefly discuss some of these, including miniaturized acoustic fish tags, sensors for monitoring of water quality, analytic techniques for disaggregating complex contaminant mixtures, remote sensing to assess levee vulnerability, and multidimensional hydrodynamic modeling. Despite these new tools and scientific insights, species conservation objectives for the Delta are not being met. We believe that this lack of progress stems in part from the fact that science and policy do not incorporate sufficiently long-term perspectives. Looking forward half a century was central to the Delta Visioning process, but science and policy have not embraced this conceptual breadth. We are also concerned that protection and enhancement of the unique cultural, recreational, natural resource, and agricultural values of the Delta as an evolving place, as required by the Delta Reform Act, has received no critical study and analysis. Adopting wider and longer science and policy perspectives immediately encourages recognition of the need for evaluation, analysis, and public discourse on novel conservation approaches. These longer and wider perspectives

  9. Sediment Transport and Vegetative Controls on Delta Channel Networks (United States)

    Lauzon, R.; Murray, A. B.; Piliouras, A.; Kim, W.


    As they are governed by complex interactions between coastal, wetland, and fluvial processes, many of the controls on delta evolution are not well understood. The interactions between sediment transport processes and vegetative controls which shape the flow of water on a delta is one such poorly understood process. On deltas dominated by sediment transport, flow is characterized by rapid lateral migration and frequent switching of active channels and resembles a braided stream system. On the other hand, vegetation can reduce channel migration rates and strengthen existing channel banks, resulting in well-developed, localized flow patterns like dendritic or distributary channel networks. Previous work has shown through modeling (i.e. Murray and Paola 1994, 1997) and flume experiments (i.e. Gran and Paola 2001) that interactions between vegetation and sediment which allow or prohibit lateral transport of sediment is fundamental in explaining the morphology of fluvial systems, but many delta modeling efforts assume conditions like those of a vegetated delta. In fact, deltas introduce additional variables like sea level rise, subsidence, the creation of new land, and variable deposition rates, all of which will influence vegetation growth and sediment transport. Here we present a new numerical model designed to generate basic understanding of the processes controlling delta channel formation by examining the factors influencing whether sediment transport or vegetative controls dominate. Model development is informed by laboratory flume experiment at U T Austin. A novel synthesis building on past approaches to modeling braided-stream systems (the Murray and Paola model) and vegetated deltas (DeltaRCM; Liang et al 2015), the new model explores the effects of sea level rise, subsidence, sediment and water discharge, vegetation growth, and sediment properties (including here effects of vegetation) on delta channel morphology.

  10. Mida pakub Delta? / Teele Kurm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kurm, Teele


    Politsei- ja Piirivalveamet võtab kasutusele ühise Siseministeeriumi infotehnoloogia- ja arenduskeskuse ning Webmedia AS koostööna loodud dokumendihaldussüsteemi Delta. Kust sai Delta oma nime? Projekti "Dokumendihaldussüsteemi juurutamine Siseministeeriumi haldusalas" eesmärgid

  11. Challenges from the Niger Delta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 24, 2012 ... diverse ethnic groups under what came to be known as Nigeria. The ethnic communities that ... Bolade and Adelemo. National Security and Sustainable Development in Nigeria: Challenges from the Niger Delta ... recommended the creation of the Niger Delta Development Board. Azaiki. (2003:48) states ...

  12. DELTA beam position monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinker, S.; Heisterhagen, R.; Wille, K.


    For the electron storage ring DELTA (Dortmund ELectron Test Accelerator) a beam-position-monitor system based on button pickups has been designed. Two different concepts for the monitor electronics have been developed obtaining a long-term stability better than ± 150 μm and a short-term resolution below ± 10 μm. There are no hybrids integrated in the electronic circuits as all four button signals should be amplified and digitized to provide redundancy. First, a concept using four separated electronic branches, one for each button, was tested. Then a concept with a multiplexer in front followed by only one amplifier was designed. This concept, the electronic circuits and the measurements are presented


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ȘOVĂILĂ Florin


    Full Text Available 3D printing is a very used process in industry, the generic name being “rapid prototyping”. The essential advantage of a 3D printer is that it allows the designers to produce a prototype in a very short time, which is tested and quickly remodeled, considerably reducing the required time to get from the prototype phase to the final product. At the same time, through this technique we can achieve components with very precise forms, complex pieces that, through classical methods, could have been accomplished only in a large amount of time. In this paper, there are presented the stages of a 3D model execution, also the physical achievement after of a Delta 3D printer after the model.

  14. The subaqueous delta of the modern Huanghe (Yellow River) (United States)

    Prior, D. B.; Yang, Z.-S.; Bornhold, B. D.; Keller, G. H.; Lin, Z. H.; Wiseman, W. J.; Wright, L. D.; Lin, T. C.


    The subaqueous delta of the Huanghe (Yellow River) has been studied using high-resolution acoustic systems. There are many subtle variations in sea floor morphology and sediment geometries; smooth, featureless areas are rare. The main components of the subaqueous delta include broad, shallow channels; moderately disturbed areas with near-surface cut and fill structures; heavily disturbed areas with sea floor depressions, pits, and gullies; and a smooth, gently sloping distal delta apron or “rise.” These features are not directly related to sediment settling from dilute surface plumes but are due to gravity-driven hyperpycnal underflows, submarine mass movements, and silt flows.

  15. How Rapid Change Affects Deltas in the Arctic Region (United States)

    Overeem, I.; Bendixen, M.


    Deltas form where the river drains into the ocean. Consequently, delta depositional processes are impacted by either changes in the respective river drainage basin or by changes in the regional marine environment. In a warming Arctic region rapid change has occurred over the last few decades in both the terrestrial domain as well as in the marine domain. Important terrestrial controls include 1) change in permafrost possibly destabilizing river banks, 2) strong seasonality of river discharge due to a short melting season, 3) high sediment supply if basins are extensively glaciated, 4) lake outbursts and ice jams favoring river flooding. Whereas in the Arctic marine domain sea ice loss promotes wave and storm surge impact, and increased longshore transport. We here ask which of these factors dominate any morphological change in Arctic deltas. First, we analyze hydrological data to assess change in Arctic-wide river discharge characteristics and timing, and sea ice concentration data to map changes in sea ice regime. Based on this observational analysis we set up a number of scenarios of change. We then model hypothetical small-scale delta formation considering change in these primary controls by setting up a numerical delta model, and combining it dynamically with a permafrost model. We find that for typical Greenlandic deltas changes in river forcing due to ice sheet melt dominate the morphological change, which is corroborated by mapping of delta progradation from aerial photos and satellite imagery. Whereas in other areas, along the North Slope and the Canadian Arctic small deltas are more stable or experienced retreat. Our preliminary coupled model allows us to further disentangle the impact of major forcing factors on delta evolution in high-latitude systems.

  16. in the Niger-Delta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Disciplinary Journal, Ethiopia. Vol. ... Asagba, R. B. - Department of Psychology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Abstract. The Niger Delta Region of Nigeria has ..... Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 101, 234-. 245. Arnold, A; Cooper,C and Robertson, ...

  17. Research on Adaptive Delta Modulators (United States)


    practical, and instead, other techni- ques are employed such as Transform Coding, Delta PCM ( DPCM ) or Adaptive Deltamodulation (ADM). One transform coding... DPCM system proposed for use on the space shuttle is contained in the IEEE Transactions on Communica- tions, Nov., 1978, p.1671. It is seen that modu- lator achieves comparable quality at a much lower cost, size, power consumption and at a much improved error sensi- tivity. 65) A DPCM system

  18. Effect of environmental change on the morphology of tidally influenced deltas over multi-decadal timescale (United States)

    Angamuthu, Balaji; Darby, Stephen; Nicholls, Robert


    results to the contemporary GBM delta implies that cross-dams and polders have been a key control on the morphodynamic evolution of the GBM delta over the last 60 years. However, with increased fluvial water discharge and rates of RSLR likely under greenhouse gas (GHG) -driven warming, the continuing use of sediment starved polders will only increase the vulnerability of poldered areas from regular flooding, and eventually may lead to catastrophic, permanent, inundation of the land. Hence, the future trend of morphological evolution of the GBM delta depends on local human intervention, including measures to raise the elevation of the land to cope with the continuing trend of RSLR and varying fluvial discharges. The model findings provide a basis to establish guidelines for planned future management interventions to prevent the delta from destruction.

  19. Understanding delta-sigma data converters

    CERN Document Server

    Pavan, Shanti; Temes, Gabor C


    This new edition introduces novel analysis and design techniques for delta-sigma (ΔΣ) converters in physical and conceptual terms, and includes new chapters that explore developments in the field over the last decade. This book explains the principles and operation of delta-sigma analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) in physical and conceptual terms in accordance with the most recent developments in the field. The interest of ΔΣ converter designers has shifted significantly over the past decade, due to many new applications for data converters at the far ends of the frequency spectrum. Continuous-time delta-sigma A/D converters with GHz clocks, of both lowpass and bandpass types, are required for wireless applications. At the other extreme, multiplexed ADCs with very narrow (sometimes 10 Hz wide) signal bandwidths, but very high accuracy are needed in the interfaces of biomedical and environmental sensors. To reflect the changing eeds of designers, the second edition includes significant new material on bo...

  20. Pteridophytes of the Okavango Delta, Botswana (Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vega Hernández, Efrén


    Full Text Available The Okavango Delta in Botswana constitutes one of the larger inland deltas in the world. Fifteen species of fern were found in this ecological system integrated into 10 genera and 9 families. Included in this report are descriptions of each family, genus and species. Also given are artificial keys to the genera, as well as keys for genera and species within the family when necessary. A documented distribution and ecological notes for each species also appears.Se estudian los pterid6fitos del delta del Okavango, uno de los deltas interiores ma's grandes del mundo. Se citan 15 especies, incluidas en 10 generos y 9 familias. Se aportan descripciones, claves de identification, datos sobre la distribucitin y ecologia. y mapas de distribuci6n detallada de cada una de las especies.

  1. Delta Morphodynamics Matters! Ecosystem Services, Poverty and Morphodynamic Change in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Mega-Delta (United States)

    Nicholls, R. J.; Adger, N.; Allan, A.; Darby, S. E.; Hutton, C.; Matthews, Z.; Rahman, M.; Whitehead, P. G.; Wolf, J.


    The world's deltas are probably the most vulnerable type of coastal environment, and they face multiple stresses in the coming decades. These stresses include, amongst others, local drivers due to land subsidence, population growth and urbanisation within the deltas, regional drivers due to changes in catchment management (e.g. upstream land use and dam construction), as well as global climate change impacts such as sea-level rise. At the same time, the ecosystem services of river deltas support high population densities, with around 14% of the global population inhabiting deltas. A large proportion of these people experience extremes of poverty and they are therefore severely exposed to vulnerability from environmental and ecological stress and degradation. In areas close to or below the poverty boundary, both subsistence and cash elements of the economy tend to rely disproportionately heavily on ecosystem services which underpin livelihoods. Therefore, to sustainably manage delta environments they must be viewed as complex social-environmental systems where change is only partially driven by physical drivers such as sea level rise and climate change, and human-induced development activities are also critical. Here we outline a new conceptual framework for the development of methods to understand and characterise the key drivers of change in ecosystem services that affect the environment and economic status of populous deltas, focusing specifically on the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) mega-delta. The GBM delta is characterised by densely populated coastal lowlands with significant poverty, with livelihoods supported to a large extent by natural ecosystems such as the Sunderbahns (the largest mangrove forest in the world). However, the GBM delta is under severe development pressure due to many growing cities. At present the importance of ecosystems services to poverty and livelihoods is poorly understood. This is due to due to the complexity of interactions


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina-Florina TĂTAR


    Full Text Available The Danube delta is a wetland of primordial importance for wildlife and humans alike. The former resources trigger a specific form of leisure for the latter, namely ecotourism whose manifestation is featured in the current research paper through an analysis of the foreign and domestic arrivals as well as a succinct presentation of its fauna resources. This primitive location, its seclusion and its unique resources invite the tourist to authenticity, immersion and self discovery, in other words a responsible type of tourism. The total tourist arrivals for the Danube delta amounted to 88000 in 2012, thus indicating its remoteness from mass tourism.

  3. Delta Vegetation and Land Use [ds292 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vegetation and land use are mapped for the approximately 725,000 acres constituting the Legal Delta portion of the Sacramento and San Joaquin River Delta area....

  4. Delta Vegetation and Land Use [ds292 (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vegetation and land use are mapped for the approximately 725,000 acres constituting the Legal Delta portion of the Sacramento and San Joaquin River Delta area....

  5. DEltas, vulnerability and Climate Change: Migration and Adaptation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Hutton C.W.


    Jun 19, 2014 ... SUMMARY OF DELTA ISSUES. • Complex systems with large vulnerable populations. • Multiple drivers at multiple scales. • Rapid resultant change, including significant migration. • Climate change needs to be analysed in this dynamic context, including established and emerging migration. • As climate ...

  6. Perspectives on Bay–Delta Science and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Healey


    Full Text Available doi: State of Bay–Delta Science 2008 highlighted seven emerging perspectives on science and management of the Delta. These perspectives had important effects on policy and legislation concerning management of the Delta ecosystem and water exports. From the collection of papers that make up the State of Bay–Delta Science 2016, we derive another seven perspectives that augment those published in 2008. The new perspectives address nutrient and contaminant concentrations in Delta waters, the failure of the Delta food web to support native species, the role of multiple stressors in driving species toward extinction, and the emerging importance of extreme events in driving change in the ecosystem and the water supply. The scientific advances that underpin these new perspectives were made possible by new measurement and analytic tools. We briefly discuss some of these, including miniaturized acoustic fish tags, sensors for monitoring of water quality, analytic techniques for disaggregating complex contaminant mixtures, remote sensing to assess levee vulnerability, and multidimensional hydrodynamic modeling. Despite these new tools and scientific insights, species conservation objectives for the Delta are not being met. We believe that this lack of progress stems in part from the fact that science and policy do not incorporate sufficiently long-term perspectives. Looking forward half a century was central to the Delta Visioning process, but science and policy have not embraced this conceptual breadth. We are also concerned that protection and enhancement of the unique cultural, recreational, natural resource, and agricultural values of the Delta as an evolving place, as required by the Delta Reform Act, has received no critical study and analysis. Adopting wider and longer science and policy perspectives immediately encourages recognition of the need for evaluation, analysis, and public discourse on

  7. Delta Scuti variables. Lecture 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, A.N.


    The class of variables near or on the upper main sequence, the delta Scuti variables, are not only the usual ones about the masses, radii, and luminosities, but also the age, rotation, element diffusion to change the surface layer composition, the occurance of convection and the presence of radial and nonradial pulsation modes

  8. about the Dirac Delta Function(?)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mouse Games. As any child of ten will tell you, to write an article on the Dirac delta function (or on anything else, for that matter), one must first log into 'Google' or 'Yahoo' or a similar search engine. A judicious combination of click- ing, cutting and pasting - and voila, an article of any desired length is ready in an ...

  9. The Potential of Time Series Based Earth Observation for the Monitoring of Large River Deltas (United States)

    Kuenzer, C.; Leinenkugel, P.; Huth, J.; Ottinger, M.; Renaud, F.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Vo Khac, T.; Trinh Thi, L.; Dech, S.; Koch, P.; Le Tissier, M.


    Although river deltas only contribute 5% to the overall land surface, nearly six hundred million people live in these complex social-ecological environments, which combine a variety of appealing locational advantages. In many countries deltas provide the major national contribution to agricultural and industrial production. At the same time these already very dynamic environments are exposed to a variety of threats, including the disturbance and replacement of valuable ecosystems, increasing water, soil, and air pollution, human induced land subsidence, sea level rise, as well upstream developments impacting water and sediment supplies. A constant monitoring of delta systems is thus of utmost relevance for understanding past and current land surface change and anticipating possible future developments. We present the potential of Earth Observation based analyses and derived novel information products that can play a key role in this context. Along with the current trend of opening up numerous satellite data archives go increasing capabilities to explore big data. Whereas in past decades remote sensing data were analysed based on the spectral-reflectance-defined 'finger print' of individual surfaces, we mainly exploit the 'temporal fingerprints' of our land surface in novel pathways of data analyses at differing spatial-, and temporally-dense scales. Following our results on an Earth Observation based characterization of large deltas globally, we present in depth results from the Mekong Delta in Vietnam, the Yellow River Delta in China, the Niger Delta in Nigeria, as well as additional deltas, focussing on the assessment of river delta flood and inundation dynamics, river delta coastline dynamics, delta morphology dynamics including the quantification of erosion and accretion processes, river delta land use change and trends, as well as the monitoring of compliance to environmental regulations.

  10. Variation in leaf water delta D and delta 18O values during the evapotranspiration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leopoldo, P.R.; Foloni, L.L.


    A theoretical model was developed to evaluate leaf water delta D and delta 18 O variation in relation to: leaf temperature, relative humidity converted to leaf temperature and delta D and delta 18 O values of atmospheric water vapour and soil water. (M.A.C.) [pt

  11. Niger Delta Development Commission and Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study is on Niger Delta Development Commission and sustainable development of Niger Delta region of Nigeria, the case of Rivers State. The main objective of the study is to examine the impact of the activities of Niger Delta Development Commission on sustainable development of Rivers State in particular, and Niger ...

  12. Delta Semantics Defined By Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    and the possibility of using predicates to specify state changes. In this paper a formal semantics for Delta is defined and analysed using Petri nets. Petri nets was chosen because the ideas behind Petri nets and Delta concide on several points. A number of proposals for changes in Delta, which resulted from...

  13. Nutrient Dynamics of the Delta: Effects on Primary Producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford N. Dahm


    Full Text Available doi: clarity of Delta waters, the emergence of harmful algal blooms, the proliferation of aquatic water weeds, and the altered food web of the Delta have brought nutrient dynamics to the forefront. This paper focuses on the sources of nutrients, the transformation and uptake of nutrients, and the links of nutrients to primary producers. The largest loads of nutrients to the Delta come from the Sacramento River with the San Joaquin River seasonally important, especially in the summer. Nutrient concentrations reflect riverine inputs in winter and internal biological processes during periods of lower flow with internal nitrogen losses within the Delta estimated at approximately 30% annually. Light regime, grazing pressure, and nutrient availability influence rates of primary production at different times and locations within the Delta. The roles of the chemical form of dissolved inorganic nitrogen in growth rates of primary producers in the Delta and the structure of the open-water algal community are currently topics of much interest and considerable debate. Harmful algal blooms have been noted since the late 1990s, and the extent of invasive aquatic macrophytes (both submerged and free-floating forms has increased especially during years of drought. Elevated nutrient loads must be considered in terms of their ability to support this excess biomass. Modern sensor technology and networks are now deployed that make high-frequency measurements of nitrate, ammonium, and phosphate. Data from such instruments allow a much more detailed assessment of the spatial and temporal dynamics of nutrients. Four fruitful directions for future research include utilizing continuous sensor data to estimate rates of primary production and ecosystem respiration, linking hydrodynamic models of the Delta with the transport and fate of dissolved nutrients, studying nutrient dynamics in various habitat types, and

  14. Multi-isotopic composition ({delta}{sup 7}Li-{delta}{sup 11}B-{delta}D-{delta}{sup 18}O) of rainwaters in France: Origin and spatio-temporal characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millot, Romain, E-mail: [BRGM, Metrology Monitoring Analysis Department, Orleans (France); Petelet-Giraud, Emmanuelle [BRGM, Water Department, Orleans (France); Guerrot, Catherine; Negrel, Philippe [BRGM, Metrology Monitoring Analysis Department, Orleans (France)


    Research highlights: {yields} A contour map of France for {delta}{sup 18}O was drawn after compiling data that included more than 400 values from all of France. {yields} The seasonal effect (i.e. the month or rainfall amount) is not the main controlling factor for the Li and B isotopic variations. {yields} Most Li and B in rainwaters does not have a marine origin. {yields} Finally, this work also adds to the potential for use of Li and B isotopes as environmental tracers. - Abstract: In the present work, the first results are reported for both Li and B isotope ratios in rainwater samples collected over a long time period (i.e. monthly rainfall events over 1 a) at a national scale (from coastal and inland locations). In addition, the stable isotopes of the water molecule ({delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O) are also reported here for the same locations so that the Li and B isotope data can be discussed in the same context. The range of Li and B isotopic variations in these rainwaters were measured to enable the determination of the origin of these elements in rainwaters and the characterization of both the seasonal and spatio-temporal effects for {delta}{sup 7}Li and {delta}{sup 11}B signatures in rainwaters. Lithium and B concentrations are low in rainwater samples, ranging from 0.004 to 0.292 {mu}mol/L and from 0.029 to 6.184 {mu}mol/L, respectively. {delta}{sup 7}Li and {delta}{sup 11}B values in rainwaters also show a great range of variation between +3.2 per mille and +95.6 per mille and between -3.3 per mille and +40.6 per mille over a period of 1 a, respectively, clearly different from the signature of seawater. Seasonal effects (i.e. rainfall amount and month) are not the main factors controlling element concentrations and isotopic variations. {delta}{sup 7}Li and {delta}{sup 11}B values in rainwaters are clearly different from one site to another, indicating the variable contribution of sea salts in the rainwater depending on the sampling site (coastal vs

  15. The case for selection at CCR5-Delta32.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available The C-C chemokine receptor 5, 32 base-pair deletion (CCR5-Delta32 allele confers strong resistance to infection by the AIDS virus HIV. Previous studies have suggested that CCR5-Delta32 arose within the past 1,000 y and rose to its present high frequency (5%-14% in Europe as a result of strong positive selection, perhaps by such selective agents as the bubonic plague or smallpox during the Middle Ages. This hypothesis was based on several lines of evidence, including the absence of the allele outside of Europe and long-range linkage disequilibrium at the locus. We reevaluated this evidence with the benefit of much denser genetic maps and extensive control data. We find that the pattern of genetic variation at CCR5-Delta32 does not stand out as exceptional relative to other loci across the genome. Moreover using newer genetic maps, we estimated that the CCR5-Delta32 allele is likely to have arisen more than 5,000 y ago. While such results can not rule out the possibility that some selection may have occurred at C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5, they imply that the pattern of genetic variation seen atCCR5-Delta32 is consistent with neutral evolution. More broadly, the results have general implications for the design of future studies to detect the signs of positive selection in the human genome.

  16. The case for selection at CCR5-Delta32.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardis C Sabeti


    Full Text Available The C-C chemokine receptor 5, 32 base-pair deletion (CCR5-Delta32 allele confers strong resistance to infection by the AIDS virus HIV. Previous studies have suggested that CCR5-Delta32 arose within the past 1,000 y and rose to its present high frequency (5%-14% in Europe as a result of strong positive selection, perhaps by such selective agents as the bubonic plague or smallpox during the Middle Ages. This hypothesis was based on several lines of evidence, including the absence of the allele outside of Europe and long-range linkage disequilibrium at the locus. We reevaluated this evidence with the benefit of much denser genetic maps and extensive control data. We find that the pattern of genetic variation at CCR5-Delta32 does not stand out as exceptional relative to other loci across the genome. Moreover using newer genetic maps, we estimated that the CCR5-Delta32 allele is likely to have arisen more than 5,000 y ago. While such results can not rule out the possibility that some selection may have occurred at C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5, they imply that the pattern of genetic variation seen at CCR5-Delta32 is consistent with neutral evolution. More broadly, the results have general implications for the design of future studies to detect the signs of positive selection in the human genome.

  17. Effects of external influences in subsonic delta wing vortices (United States)

    Washburn, Anthony E.


    An experimental investigation was conducted to examine inconsistencies in reported studies for the vortical flow over highly-swept delta wings. A 76-deg swept delta wing was tested in three facilities with open and closed test sections and different model-support systems. The results obtained include surface oil-flow patterns, off-body laser-light-sheet flow visualization, and aerodynamic load measurements. Parameters such as the wall boundaries and model-support systems can drastically alter the loads. The effect of a high level of free-stream turbulence on the delta-wing flowfield was also examined and found to be significant. The increase in free-stream turbulence caused boundary-layer transition, unsteadiness in the vortex core positions, and altered the loads and moments.

  18. Astrometric Observation of Delta Cepheus (United States)

    Warren, Naomi; Wilson, Betsie; Estrada, Chris; Crisafi, Kim; King, Jackie; Jones, Stephany; Salam, Akash; Warren, Glenn; Collins, S. Jananne; Genet, Russell


    Members of a Cuesta College astronomy research seminar used a manually-controlled 10-inch Newtonian Reflector telescope to determine the separation and position angle of the binary star Delta Cepheus. It was observed on the night of Saturday, October 29, 2011, at Star Hill in Santa Margarita, California. Their values of 40.2 arc seconds and 192.4 degrees were similar to those reported in the WDS (1910).

  19. Stable isotope deltas: tiny, yet robust signatures in nature. (United States)

    Brand, Willi A; Coplen, Tyler B


    Although most of them are relatively small, stable isotope deltas of naturally occurring substances are robust and enable workers in anthropology, atmospheric sciences, biology, chemistry, environmental sciences, food and drug authentication, forensic science, geochemistry, geology, oceanography, and paleoclimatology to study a variety of topics. Two fundamental processes explain the stable isotope deltas measured in most terrestrial systems: isotopic fractionation and isotope mixing. Isotopic fractionation is the result of equilibrium or kinetic physicochemical processes that fractionate isotopes because of small differences in physical or chemical properties of molecular species having different isotopes. It is shown that the mixing of radioactive and stable isotope end members can be modelled to provide information on many natural processes, including (14)C abundances in the modern atmosphere and the stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of the oceans during glacial and interglacial times. The calculation of mixing fractions using isotope balance equations with isotope deltas can be substantially in error when substances with high concentrations of heavy isotopes (e.g. (13)C, (2)H, and (18)O ) are mixed. In such cases, calculations using mole fractions are preferred as they produce accurate mixing fractions. Isotope deltas are dimensionless quantities. In the International System of Units (SI), these quantities have the unit 1 and the usual list of prefixes is not applicable. To overcome traditional limitations with expressing orders of magnitude differences in isotope deltas, we propose the term urey (symbol Ur), after Harold C. Urey, for the unit 1. In such a manner, an isotope delta value expressed traditionally as-25 per mil can be written as-25 mUr (or-2.5 cUr or-0.25 dUr; the use of any SI prefix is possible). Likewise, very small isotopic differences often expressed in per meg 'units' are easily included (e.g. either+0.015 ‰ or+15 per meg

  20. Stable isotope deltas: Tiny, yet robust signatures in nature (United States)

    Brand, Willi A.; Coplen, Tyler B.


    Although most of them are relatively small, stable isotope deltas of naturally occurring substances are robust and enable workers in anthropology, atmospheric sciences, biology, chemistry, environmental sciences, food and drug authentication, forensic science, geochemistry, geology, oceanography, and paleoclimatology to study a variety of topics. Two fundamental processes explain the stable isotope deltas measured in most terrestrial systems: isotopic fractionation and isotope mixing. Isotopic fractionation is the result of equilibrium or kinetic physicochemical processes that fractionate isotopes because of small differences in physical or chemical properties of molecular species having different isotopes. It is shown that the mixing of radioactive and stable isotope end members can be modelled to provide information on many natural processes, including 14C abundances in the modern atmosphere and the stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of the oceans during glacial and interglacial times. The calculation of mixing fractions using isotope balance equations with isotope deltas can be substantially in error when substances with high concentrations of heavy isotopes (e.g. 13C, 2H, and 18O ) are mixed. In such cases, calculations using mole fractions are preferred as they produce accurate mixing fractions. Isotope deltas are dimensionless quantities. In the International System of Units (SI), these quantities have the unit 1 and the usual list of prefixes is not applicable. To overcome traditional limitations with expressing orders of magnitude differences in isotope deltas, we propose the term urey (symbol Ur), after Harold C. Urey, for the unit 1. In such a manner, an isotope delta value expressed traditionally as−25 per mil can be written as−25 mUr (or−2.5 cUr or−0.25 dUr; the use of any SI prefix is possible). Likewise, very small isotopic differences often expressed in per meg ‘units’ are easily included (e.g. either+0.015 ‰ or+15 per meg

  1. Watershed-Scale Modeling of Land-Use and Altered Environment Impacts on Aquatic Weed Growth in the Delta (United States)

    Bubenheim, David; Potter, Christopher; Zhang, Minghua


    The California Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta is the hub for California's water supply, conveying water from Northern to Southern California agriculture and communities while supporting important ecosystem services, agriculture, and communities in the Delta. Changes in climate, long-term drought, and water quality have all been suspected as playing role in the dramatic expansion of invasive aquatic plants and their impact on ecosystems of the San Francisco Bay / California Delta complex. NASA Ames Research Center, USDA-Agricultural Research Service, the State of California, UC Davis, and local governments have partnered under a USDA sponsored project (DRAAWP) to develop science-based, adaptive-management strategies for invasive aquatic plants in Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Critical to developing management strategies is to understand how the Delta is affected by both the magnitude of fluctuations in land-use and climate / drought induced altered environments and how the plants respond to these altered environments. We utilize the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a watershed-scale model developed to quantify the impact of land management practices in large and complex watersheds on water quality, as the backbone for a customized Delta model - Delta-SWAT. The model uses land-use, soils, elevation, and hydrologic routing to characterize pesticide and nutrient transport from the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers watersheds and loading into the Delta. Land-use within the Delta, as well as water extraction to supply those functions, and the resulting return of water to Delta waterways are included in Delta-SWAT. Hydrologic transport within the Delta has required significant attention to address the lack of elevation driven transport processes. Delta-SWAT water quality trend estimates are compared with water quality monitoring conducted throughout the Delta. Aquatic plant response to water quality and other environmental factors is carried out using a customized

  2. Delta Interventions : Design and Engineering in Urban Water Landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Besten, N.; Brink, T.; Broekhans, B.; Calis, J.; Cao, Q.; Chen, F.; Deshmukh, A.; Fierinck, E.; Guschl, L.; Hamoen, J.; Heimensen, C.; Ho, T.H.; Huang, S.; Janssen, M.; Jonkman, S.N.; Khosravi, H.; Van der Klauw, J.; Kokhuis, K.; Konings, V.; De Kort, R.; De Korte, N.; Le, T.; Li, Y.; Liu, F.; Osmanoglou, D.; Ovink, H.; Postel, R.; Putseys, I.; Ragaišyte, J.; Raymond, D.; Rijsewijk, C.; Sebastian, A.; Siverd, C.; Sun, X.; Takeshita, N.; Verhaar, S.; Voorendt, M.; Warmerdam, M.; Willemse, B.; Yam, D.; Van der Ziel, F.; Zhan, S.; Zhao, N.; Nillesen, A.L.; Kothuis, B.L.M.; Meyer, V.J.; Palmboom, F.J.


    This book presents a selection of research-by-design projects developed in the Delta Interventions Studio at the Delft University of Technology, including a short overview of all graduation projects from 2009-2015, and reflections by senior scholars. We hope this book will inspire others working on

  3. Tides Stabilize Deltas until Humans Interfere (United States)

    Hoitink, T.; Zheng Bing, W.; Vermeulen, B.; Huismans, Y.; Kastner, K.


    Despite global concerns about river delta degradation caused by extraction of natural resources, sediment retention by reservoirs and sea-level rise, human activity in the world's largest deltas intensifies. In this review, we argue that tides tend to stabilize deltas until humans interfere. Under natural circumstances, delta channels subject to tides are more stable than their fluvial-dominated counterparts. The oscillatory tidal flow counteracts the processes responsible for bank erosion, which explains why unprotected tidal channels migrate only slowly. Peak river discharges attenuate the tides, which creates storage space to accommodate the extra river discharge during extreme events and as a consequence, reduce flood risk. With stronger tides, the river discharge is being distributed more evenly over the various branches in a delta, preventing silting up of smaller channels. Human interference in deltas is massive. Storm surge barriers are constructed, new land is being reclaimed and large-scale sand excavation takes place, to collect building material. Evidence from deltas around the globe shows that in human-controlled deltas the tidal motion often plays a destabilizing role. In channels of the Rhine-Meuse Delta, some 100 scour holes are identified, which relates to the altered tidal motion after completion of a storm surge barrier. Sand mining has led to widespread river bank failures in the tidally-influenced Mekong Delta. The catastrophic flood event in the Gauges-Brahmaputra Delta by Cyclone Aila, which caused the inundation of an embanked polder area for over two years, was preceded by river bank erosion at the mouths of formal tidal channels that were blocked by the embankment. Efforts to predict the developments of degrading deltas are few. Existing delta models are capable of reproducing expanding deltas, which is essentially a matter of simulating the transport of sediment from source in a catchment to the sink in a delta. Processes of soil

  4. Morphodynamics of the Pacific and Caribbean deltas of Colombia, South America (United States)

    Restrepo, Juan D.; López, Sergio A.


    This paper analyzes the physical factors controlling the recent morphology of major deltas along the Pacific and Caribbean coasts of Colombia. The study considers the fluvial, coastal, and oceanographic contributions to changes in delta morphology and uses different approaches, including (1) remote sensing techniques; (2) time series analysis of river discharge, sea level, wave climate and tidal variability; (3) analysis of the relationship between monthly mean sea level anomalies near the deltas related to the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO); (4) development of a database of key physical variables; (5) series of correlation calculations to examine which environmental factors control delta morphology; (6) analysis of shoreline changes for the 1986-2000 yr-period; and (7) classification of each delta system based on the relationship between water and sediment discharges and wave and tidal energies. Overall, Colombian deltas are built under destructive physical conditions. The Pacific deltas, San Juan, Mira, and Patía, are tide-influenced deltas although they exhibit definite characteristics of wave-dominated systems such as the presence of barriers and beach ridges. Also, these deltas exhibit the highest marine energy conditions of all Colombian deltas (marine power values between 9.1 and 11.6) due to the interplay of (1) moderate wave conditions as a result of the effect of swells from the SW with a significant height varying from 1.7 in the San Juan delta to 3.0 m and 3.1 m in the Mira and Patía deltas, respectively; (2) meso-tidal ranges; (3) steep subaqueous profiles; (4) low attenuation indexes of deep-water waves; and (5) strong oceanographic manifestations associated with the ENSO, causing regional sea level rises of 20-44 cm during El Niño events. The Caribbean deltas, Magdalena, Sinú and to a lesser extent, the Atrato, are wave-influenced deltas. The Magdalena, with deep and nearshore wave power values of 45 × 10 6 erg s -1 and 35 × 10 6 erg s -1

  5. Future Deltas Utrecht University research focus area: towards sustainable management of sinking deltas (United States)

    Stouthamer, E.; van Asselen, S.


    Deltas are increasingly under pressure from human impact and climate change. To deal with these pressures that threat future delta functioning, we need to understand interactions between physical, biological, chemical and social processes in deltas. This requires an integrated approach, in which knowledge on natural system functioning is combined with knowledge on spatial planning, land and water governance and legislative frameworks. In the research focus area Future Deltas of Utrecht University an interdisciplinary team from different research groups therefore works together. This allows developing integrated sustainable and resilient delta management strategies, which is urgently needed to prevent loss of vital delta services.

  6. Nigeria. Petroleum, pollution and poverty in the Niger Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The oil industry has operated in the Niger Delta in Nigeria for more than half a century - bringing almost no benefit to the people living there. Instead, widespread and unchecked human rights violations have pushed many people deeper into poverty and deprivation, fuelled conflict and led to a pervasive sense of powerlessness and frustration. This multidimensional crisis is driven by many factors - abuses committed by the security forces and militant groups, extensive pollution of land and water, corruption, serious corporate bad practice and government neglect. Nigeria: Petroleum, pollution and poverty in the Niger Delta focuses on one dimension of the crisis: the impact of pollution and environmental damage caused by the oil industry on the human rights of those living in the Niger Delta. Many people in the oil-producing areas of the delta rely on fisheries, subsistence agriculture and associated processing industries for their livelihood. Decades of pollution and environmental damage have resulted in violations of the right to an adequate standard of living - including food and water - violations of the right to gain a living through work, and violations of the right to health. The report examines who is responsible for this situation in a context where multinational oil companies have been operating for decades. It highlights how companies take advantage of the weak regulatory systems that characterize many poor countries, and how the poorest people are often the most vulnerable to exploitation. The people of the Niger Delta have seen their human rights undermined by oil companies that their government can not - or will not - hold to account. They have been systematically denied access to information about how oil exploration and production will affect them, and are repeatedly denied access to justice. The Niger Delta provides a stark case study of the lack of accountability of a government to the people, and of multinational companies' almost total lack of

  7. Delta FosB regulates wheel running. (United States)

    Werme, Martin; Messer, Chad; Olson, Lars; Gilden, Lauren; Thorén, Peter; Nestler, Eric J; Brené, Stefan


    DeltaFosB is a transcription factor that accumulates in a region-specific manner in the brain after chronic perturbations. For example, repeated administration of drugs of abuse increases levels of DeltaFosB in the striatum. In the present study, we analyzed the effect of spontaneous wheel running, as a model for a natural rewarding behavior, on levels of DeltaFosB in striatal regions. Moreover, mice that inducibly overexpress DeltaFosB in specific subpopulations of striatal neurons were used to study the possible role of DeltaFosB on running behavior. Lewis rats given ad libitum access to running wheels for 30 d covered what would correspond to approximately 10 km/d and showed increased levels of DeltaFosB in the nucleus accumbens compared with rats exposed to locked running wheels. Mice that overexpress DeltaFosB selectively in striatal dynorphin-containing neurons increased their daily running compared with control littermates, whereas mice that overexpress DeltaFosB predominantly in striatal enkephalin-containing neurons ran considerably less than controls. Data from the present study demonstrate that like drugs of abuse, voluntary running increases levels of DeltaFosB in brain reward pathways. Furthermore, overexpression of DeltaFosB in a distinct striatal output neuronal population increases running behavior. Because previous work has shown that DeltaFosB overexpression within this same neuronal population increases the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse, results of the present study suggest that DeltaFosB may play a key role in controlling both natural and drug-induced reward.

  8. The Niger Delta Amnesty Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A. Okonofua


    Full Text Available The armed conflict between militias and government forces in Nigeria’s Niger Delta region has spanned for more than two decades, defying all solutions. A disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR program was established in August 2015 in effort to end the violence and has remained in place. It is a radically different approach from past approaches that displayed zero tolerance to all political challenges to oil production or the allocation of oil profits. The approach appeared to be immediately successful in that it forced a ceasefire, engaged militants in planned programs to rehabilitate and reintegrate them into civilian society, and opened up the oil wells (many of which had been shut due to the crisis with the effect of increasing government revenue, which depends 85% on oil exports. Yet, few studies have attempted to understand the dynamics within the country that are responsible for the design and implementation of this broad policy shift or to understand whether and how the current initiative is able to end the conflict and institute peace beyond the short term. This study, therefore, is important because it provides a critical perspective that anticipates and explains emerging issues with the Niger Delta Amnesty Program, which have implications for DDR adaptation and implementation all over the world. Ultimately, the research demonstrates how the DDR program both transforms the Niger Delta conflict and becomes embroiled in intense contestations not only about the mechanism for transforming the targeted population but also whether and how the program incorporates women who are being deprioritized by the program.

  9. Ecogeomorphic Feedbacks that Grow Deltas (United States)

    Ma, H.; Larsen, L.; Wagner, W.


    Coastal river deltas are complex and dynamic ecosystems where vegetation plays an essential role in influencing (as well as being influenced by) physical processes, creating a strong potential for ecogeomorphic feedbacks. However, understanding of the relative strenghts of feedback between vegetation species and topography along different portions of the marsh elevation/zonation gradient is poorly developed, particularly for freshwater, deltaic marshes. In part, this knowledge gap is due to difficulties associated with adequate sampling within heterogeneous vegetation communities to delineate bi-directional feedback applicable at the delta scale.. Emerging technology (high resolution remote sensing and high resolution LiDAR) and data analysis techniques like transfer entropy have made it possible to overcome these difficulties. Here, results of the transfer entropy analysis were consistent with widespread understanding of marsh zonation, yet produced additional insight into which vegetation communities specifically had a dominant impact on topographic change. Ecogeomorphic feedback that has a substantial short-term impact on evolving topography was resolvable only within native vegetation communities (Nelumbo lutea and Polygonum spp.) that occur over low to moderate elevations within the Wax Lake Delta tidal prism. In contrast, nonnative vegetation communities (Colocasia esculenta and Eichhonia crasspies) are not as functional at accreting sediment as native communities. The transfer entropy analysis suggests that different vegetation communities play functionally different roles in landscape evolution that should be differentiated in a model. Within such a model, it would be most critical to resolve detailed flow characteristics at low to low-middle island elevations, where submerged aquatic vegetation and Nelumbo are abundant, as these communities exert the strongest influence on topographic change. Furthermore, within elevation zones, it is likely important to

  10. Carbon storage in the Mississippi River delta enhanced by environmental engineering (United States)

    Shields, Michael R.; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Mohrig, David; Hutchings, Jack A.; Kenney, William F.; Kolker, Alexander S.; Curtis, Jason H.


    River deltas have contributed to atmospheric carbon regulation throughout Earth history, but functioning in the modern era has been impaired by reduced sediment loads, altered hydrologic regimes, increased global sea-level rise and accelerated subsidence. Delta restoration involves environmental engineering via river diversions, which utilize self-organizing processes to create prograding deltas. Here we analyse sediment cores from Wax Lake delta, a product of environmental engineering, to quantify the burial of organic carbon. We find that, despite relatively low concentrations of organic carbon measured in the cores (about 0.4%), the accumulation of about 3 T m-2 of sediment over the approximate 60 years of delta building resulted in the burial of a significant amount of organic carbon (16 kg m-2). This equates to an apparent organic carbon accumulation rate of 250 +/- 23 g m-2 yr-1, which implicitly includes losses by carbon emissions and erosion. Our estimated accumulation rate for Wax Lake delta is substantially greater than previous estimates based on the top metre of delta sediments and comparable to those of coastal mangrove and marsh habitats. The sedimentation of carbon at the Wax Lake delta demonstrates the capacity of engineered river diversions to enhance both coastal accretion and carbon burial.

  11. Investigation of asymmetry of vortex flow over slender delta wings (United States)

    Atashbaz, Ghasem

    Vortex flow, a major area of interest in fluid mechanics, is widespread in nature and in many man-made fluid mechanical devices. It can create havoc as cyclones or tornadoes or have significant implications in the performance of turbo-fluid machines or supersonic vehicles and so forth. Asymmetric vortices can cause a loss of lift and increase in rolling moment which can significantly affect wing stability and control. Up until the early nineties, it was generally believed that vortex asymmetry was the result of vortex interactions due to the close proximity of vortices over slender delta wings. However, some recent studies have thrown considerable doubt on the validity of this hypothesis. As a result, wind tunnel investigations were conducted on a series of nine delta wing planforms with sharp and round leading edges to examine the occurrence of vortex asymmetry at different angles of attack and sideslip. The study included surface oil and laser light sheet flow visualization in addition to surface pressure and hot-wire velocity measurements under static conditions. The effects of incidence, sideslip and sweep angles as well as Reynolds number variations were investigated. In this study, it was found that the effect of apex and leading edge shape played an important role in vortex asymmetry generation at high angle of attack. Vortex asymmetry was not observed over slender sharp leading edge delta wings due to the separation point being fixed at the sharp leading edge. Experimental results for these wings showed that the vortices do not impinge on one another because they do not get any closer beyond a certain value of angle of attack. Thus vortex asymmetry was not generated. However, significant vortex asymmetry was observed for round leading-edged delta wings. Asymmetric separation positions over the round leading edge was the result of laminar/turbulent transition which caused vortex asymmetry on these delta wing configurations. Sideslip angle and vortex

  12. Deformed nucleon and double-delta coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Afsar (Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar (India))


    Although the coupling constant (f{sub {pi}{Delta}{Delta}} /f{sub {pi}NN}) {sup 2} is of much importance in the context of current research in the role of the double-delta in hadron physics, so far the naive quark model value has been used, which is shown to be poor. Here we obtain a better value for this coupling constant in a deformed nucleon model which would help us to rectify this defect and enable us to conduct a proper study of the exotic double-delta channel. (author).

  13. Protoneutron star formation with delta-resonance matter and trapped neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Jose Carlos Teixeira de; Souza, Ana Graice de; Duarte, Sergio Barbosa; Rodrigues, Hilario


    Full text: We discuss the proto-neutron star structure including delta-matter in its composition, and comparing the result with the same mass post-cooling compact object formed. The maximum mass values and corresponding configurations to pre and post-cooling situation are calculated and discussed face to variations in the coupling constants of delta-resonance with the mesons sigma, omega and rho in the context of the Relativistic Mean Field Theory (RMFT). The complete spin-1/2 sector is included solved consistently with the presence of the 3/2-spin delta-resonance quartet. (author)

  14. Protoneutron star formation with delta-resonance matter and trapped neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Jose Carlos Teixeira de [Universidade Federal de Roraima (UFRR), Boa Vista (Brazil); Souza, Ana Graice de; Duarte, Sergio Barbosa [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rodrigues, Hilario [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Rio de Janeiro (CEFET/RJ), RJ (Brazil)


    Full text: We discuss the proto-neutron star structure including delta-matter in its composition, and comparing the result with the same mass post-cooling compact object formed. The maximum mass values and corresponding configurations to pre and post-cooling situation are calculated and discussed face to variations in the coupling constants of delta-resonance with the mesons sigma, omega and rho in the context of the Relativistic Mean Field Theory (RMFT). The complete spin-1/2 sector is included solved consistently with the presence of the 3/2-spin delta-resonance quartet. (author)

  15. $\\delta N$ formalism from superpotential and holography

    CERN Document Server

    Garriga, Jaume; Vernizzi, Filippo


    We consider the superpotential formalism to describe the evolution of scalar fields during inflation, generalizing it to include the case with non-canonical kinetic terms. We provide a characterization of the attractor behaviour of the background evolution in terms of first and second slow-roll parameters (which need not be small). We find that the superpotential is useful in justifying the separate universe approximation from the gradient expansion, and also in computing the spectra of primordial perturbations around attractor solutions in the $\\delta N$ formalism. As an application, we consider a class of models where the background trajectories for the inflaton fields are derived from a product separable superpotential. In the perspective of the holographic inflation scenario, such models are dual to a deformed CFT boundary theory, with $D$ mutually uncorrelated deformation operators. We compute the bulk power spectra of primordial adiabatic and entropy cosmological perturbations, and show that the results...

  16. El plan del delta - Holanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo


    Full Text Available Holland is very poor in land resources. Hence its development has been directed towards intensive industrialization and maximum agricultural exploitation. The western part of the country is below sea level and is occupied by 65 percent of the population. Originally the coast consisted of a number of islands, estuaries and slight elevations. Man has transformed this coastline, first making a number of artificial lakes, or polders, and then converting these into fertile districts. These projects protect the soil by means of dykes, which require careful conservation, but even so violent floods are not infrequent. One of the difficult problems involved in this vast enterprise is the complex system of water supply, lines of communication and flow of the rivers into the sea along the estuary zone. This zone is on the south west, and to protect it a National Commission has been set up. After careful study, it was decided that the best defense against the violence of the sea would consist in closing off the inroads of the sea into the continental coastline. The set of hydraulic projects which constitutes this plan for the improvement of the sea defences will take 25 years to fulfil. The general project is highly ambitious and includes both maritime, road and structural works, in which there is a variety of stonework constructions. This paper describes, in brief outline, the main contents of the 11 headings into which the general construction project has been subdivided. In addition, this is supplemented with information on the projects which are already initiated and on the constructional procedure that is being adopted. Of these latter projects, the Nabla bridge is of particular interest. It is situated on the delta. It is made in prestressed concrete, and consists of 17 spans, of 60 length each. This enormous structure, in addition to its great length, and supporting a 22.8 ms wide roadway, is subjected to the tremendous forces 11» of the sea on one

  17. Biological Observations on the Mudskipper Pseudapocryptes elongatus in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucholtz, R. H.; Meilvang, A. S.; Cedhagen, Tomas


    Aspects of the population biology of the mudskipper, Pseudapocryptes elongatus, (Cuvier, 1816) were studied in Bac Lieu Province in the Lower Mekong Delta, Vietnam, including sex ratio, length–frequency distribution, sexual dimorphism, hepatosomatic index (HSI), female gonadosomatic index (GSI...

  18. Modern sedimentation and morphology of the subaqueous Mekong Delta, Southern Vietnam (United States)

    Unverricht, Daniel; Szczuciński, Witold; Stattegger, Karl; Jagodziński, Robert; Le, Xuan Thuyen; Kwong, Laval Liong Wee


    The Mekong River Delta is among the Asian mega-deltas and is influenced by various factors including tides (meso-tidal system), waves, coastal currents, monsoon-driven river discharge and human impact (agriculture, fishing, sand dredging, tourism). The present study aims to document the seafloor relief, sediment distribution and sediment accumulation rates to interpret modern sediment transport directions and main sedimentation processes in the subaqueous Mekong Delta. The major results of this investigation include the detection of two delta fronts 200 km apart, one at the mouth of the Bassac River (the biggest branch of the Mekong Delta) and the other around Cape Ca Mau (most south-western end of the Mekong Delta). Additionally, a large channel system runs in the subaqueous delta platform parallel to the shore and between the two fronts. The sediment accumulation rates vary greatly according to the location in the subaqueous delta and have reached up to 10 cm/yr for the last century. A cluster analysis of surface sediment samples revealed two different sediment types within the delta including a well-sorted sandy sediment and a poorly sorted, silty sediment. In addition, a third end member with medium to coarse sand characterised the distant parts of the delta at the transition to the open shelf. The increase of organic matter and carbonate content to the bottom set area and other sedimentary features such as shell fragments, foraminiferas and concretions of palaeo-soils that do not occur in delta sediments, supported grain size-based classification. Beginning in front of the Bassac River mouth, sedimentary pattern indicates clockwise sediment transport alongshore in the western direction to a broad topset area and the delta front around Cape Ca Mau. Our results clearly show the large lateral variability of the subaqueous Mekong Delta that is further complicated by strong monsoon-driven seasonality. River, tidal and wave forcing vary at local and seasonal scales

  19. Haematological and genetic features of delta beta-thalassaemia in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.; Anwar, M.


    Objective: To describe the hematological and genetic features of delta beta-thalassaemia in Pakistani patients. Design: Descriptive case series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pathology, PNS Shifa, Karachi and Department of Hematology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from January 1994 to April 2004. Patients and Methods: Thirteen individuals from six unrelated Pakistani families with a hematological diagnosis of delta beta-thalassaemia were studied. A brief clinical history, and the results of blood counts, absolute values, Hb-F, Hb-A/sub 2/, and hemoglobin electrophoresis were recorded. The DNA from each subject was first screened for the delta beta-thalassaemia mutations found in the Pakistani population. The samples were then screened for the Invl Del sup G/gamma(sup A/gamma delta beta). Results: The subjects included six heterozygote, six homozygotes and one compound heterozygote of delta beta and delta beta-thalassaemia. All heterozygote and 4/6 homozygotes were asymptomatic. One homo zygote had thalassaemia intermedia while another had transfusion dependent anemia. The mean Hb, TRBC, MCV, MCH, Hb-F and Hb-A/sub 2/ in delta beta-thalassaemia heterozygote were 11.6 g/dl, 5.37 x 1012/L, 70.9 fl, and 21.7 pg, 14% and 2.6% respectively. The same values in the four un transfused homo zygote were 10.6 g/dl, 5.34x1012/L, 69.211, and 20.8pg, 100% and 0% respectively. The mutation analysis revealed that all 13 individuals had the same Invl Del sup G/gamma(sup A/gamma delta beta). Conclusion: delta beta-thalassaemia is a rare disorder in Pakistan. Although the clinical picture is very mild its combination with delta beta-thalassaemia trait can produce a sever transfusion dependent thalassaemia. The DNA based diagnosis is possible in the prenatal as well as the postnatal period. (author)

  20. Losing ground - scenarios of land loss as consequence of shifting sediment budgets in the Mekong Delta (United States)

    Schmitt, R. J. P.; Rubin, Z.; Kondolf, G. M.


    With changing climate and rising seas, proliferation of hydroelectric dams, instream sand mining, dyking of floodplains, accelerated subsidence from groundwater pumping, accelerated sea-level rise, and other anthropic impacts, it is certain that the Mekong Delta will undergo large changes in the coming decades. These changes will threaten the very existence of the landform itself. The multiplicity of compounding drivers and lack of reliable data lead to large uncertainties in forecasting changes in the sediment budget of the Mekong Delta, its morphology, and the ecosystems and human livelihoods it supports. We compile information on key drivers affecting the sediment budget of the Mekong Delta and compare them to quantify the magnitude of effects from different drivers. We develop a set of likely scenarios for the future development of these drivers and quantify implications for the future of the Mekong Delta using a simplified model of the delta's geometry. If sediment supply to the delta is nearly completely cut off, as would be the case with full buildout of planned dams and current rates of sediment mining, and with continued groundwater pumping at current rates, our model forecasts that the delta will almost completely disappear by the end of this century due to increased rates of delta subsidence and rising sea levels. While local management cannot prevent global sea level rise, model results suggest that there are important management steps that could prolong the persistence of the delta ecosystem and the livelihoods it supports, including a reduction in ground water pumping and maintaining sediment connectivity between the basin and the delta.

  1. Linking Hydrodynamic Complexity to Delta Smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus Distribution in the San Francisco Estuary, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron J. Bever


    Full Text Available doi: fish sampling data from the San Francisco Estuary were combined with detailed three-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling to investigate the relationship between historical fish catch and hydrodynamic complexity. Delta Smelt catch data at 45 stations from the Fall Midwater Trawl (FMWT survey in the vicinity of Suisun Bay were used to develop a quantitative catch-based station index. This index was used to rank stations based on historical Delta Smelt catch. The correlations between historical Delta Smelt catch and 35 quantitative metrics of environmental complexity were evaluated at each station. Eight metrics of environmental conditions were derived from FMWT data and 27 metrics were derived from model predictions at each FMWT station. To relate the station index to conceptual models of Delta Smelt habitat, the metrics were used to predict the station ranking based on the quantified environmental conditions. Salinity, current speed, and turbidity metrics were used to predict the relative ranking of each station for Delta Smelt catch. Including a measure of the current speed at each station improved predictions of the historical ranking for Delta Smelt catch relative to similar predictions made using only salinity and turbidity. Current speed was also found to be a better predictor of historical Delta Smelt catch than water depth. The quantitative approach developed using the FMWT data was validated using the Delta Smelt catch data from the San Francisco Bay Study. Complexity metrics in Suisun Bay were evaluated during 2010 and 2011. This analysis indicated that a key to historical Delta Smelt catch is the overlap of low salinity, low maximum velocity, and low Secchi depth regions. This overlap occurred in Suisun Bay during 2011, and may have contributed to higher Delta Smelt abundance in 2011 than in 2010 when the favorable ranges of the metrics did not overlap in Suisun Bay.

  2. Entropy and optimality in river deltas (United States)

    Tejedor, Alejandro; Longjas, Anthony; Edmonds, Douglas A.; Zaliapin, Ilya; Georgiou, Tryphon T.; Rinaldo, Andrea; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi


    The form and function of river deltas is intricately linked to the evolving structure of their channel networks, which controls how effectively deltas are nourished with sediments and nutrients. Understanding the coevolution of deltaic channels and their flux organization is crucial for guiding maintenance strategies of these highly stressed systems from a range of anthropogenic activities. To date, however, a unified theory explaining how deltas self-organize to distribute water and sediment up to the shoreline remains elusive. Here, we provide evidence for an optimality principle underlying the self-organized partition of fluxes in delta channel networks. By introducing a suitable nonlocal entropy rate (nER) and by analyzing field and simulated deltas, we suggest that delta networks achieve configurations that maximize the diversity of water and sediment flux delivery to the shoreline. We thus suggest that prograding deltas attain dynamically accessible optima of flux distributions on their channel network topologies, thus effectively decoupling evolutionary time scales of geomorphology and hydrology. When interpreted in terms of delta resilience, high nER configurations reflect an increased ability to withstand perturbations. However, the distributive mechanism responsible for both diversifying flux delivery to the shoreline and dampening possible perturbations might lead to catastrophic events when those perturbations exceed certain intensity thresholds.

  3. Morphodynamics of ebb-tidal deltas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridderinkhof, W.


    Ebb-tidal deltas are bodies of sand that are located seaward of tidal inlets. The latter connect the open sea with a back-barrier basin and separate barrier islands. The morphology (e.g., sand volume, geometry, shoal formation) of ebb-tidal deltas evolves continuously, both due to natural processes

  4. Floating City IJmeer : Accelerator for Delta Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Graaf, R.; Fremouw, M.; Van Bueren, B.; Czapiewska, K.; Kuijper, M.


    Climate change, sea level rise, population growth and ongoing urbanization result in higher vulnerability of the Rhine delta because it will result in increased flooding frequency, increasing investments and increased use of water, energy and other resources. The Rhine Delta also faces strong

  5. Electromagnetic excitation of the Delta(1232) resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. Pascalutsa; M. Vanderhaeghen; Shin Nan Yang


    We review the description of the lowest-energy nucleon excitation--the Delta(1232)-resonance. Much of the recent effort has been focused on the precision measurements of the nucleon to Delta transition by means of electromagnetic probes. We review the results of those measurements and confront them with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, and QCD-inspired models. Some of the theoretical approaches are reviewed in detail. In particular, we describe the chiral EFT of QCD in the energy domain of the Delta-resonance, and its applications to the electromagnetic nucleon-to-Delta transition (gamma N Delta). We also describe the recent dynamical and unitary-isobar models of pion electroproduction which are extensively used in the extraction of the gamma* N Delta form factors from experiment. Furthermore, we discuss the link of the gamma* N Delta form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs), as well as the predictions of perturbative QCD for these transition form factors. The present status of understanding the Delta-resonance properties and the nature of its excitation is summarized.

  6. [Establishment of delta block matching technique]. (United States)

    Lü, Qin-Feng; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Fa-Ming; Yan, Li-Xing


    To establish delta block HLA-matching technique, DNA was extracted from whole blood by salting-out method, delta block was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and PCR product was detected by GeneScan. The results showed that delta block had polymorphism in 104 samples without sibship of the Han people from Zhejiang province. The range of DNA fragment length was 81-393 bp and could be divided into 4 groups: 81-118 bp, 140-175 bp, 217-301 bp, 340-393 bp. The numbers of DNA fragments were 6-32. It is concluded that the method of delta block matching is reliable and can be applied to select donors for the patients to be transplanted. It is the first time to get delta block data of the Han people in China.

  7. Integrated assessment of social and environmental sustainability dynamics in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta, Bangladesh (United States)

    Nicholls, R. J.; Hutton, C. W.; Lázár, A. N.; Allan, A.; Adger, W. N.; Adams, H.; Wolf, J.; Rahman, M.; Salehin, M.


    Deltas provide diverse ecosystem services and benefits for their populations. At the same time, deltas are also recognised as one of the most vulnerable coastal environments, with a range of drivers operating at multiple scales, from global climate change and sea-level rise to deltaic-scale subsidence and land cover change. These drivers threaten these ecosystem services, which often provide livelihoods for the poorest communities in these regions. The imperative to maintain ecosystem services presents a development challenge: how to develop deltaic areas in ways that are sustainable and benefit all residents including the most vulnerable. Here we present an integrated framework to analyse changing ecosystem services in deltas and the implications for human well-being, focussing in particular on the provisioning ecosystem services of agriculture, inland and offshore capture fisheries, aquaculture and mangroves that directly support livelihoods. The framework is applied to the world's most populated delta, the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta within Bangladesh. The framework adopts a systemic perspective to represent the principal biophysical and socio-ecological components and their interaction. A range of methods are integrated within a quantitative framework, including biophysical and socio-economic modelling and analyses of governance through scenario development. The approach is iterative, with learning both within the project team and with national policy-making stakeholders. The analysis is used to explore physical and social outcomes for the delta under different scenarios and policy choices. We consider how the approach is transferable to other deltas and potentially other coastal areas.

  8. Delta connected resonant snubber circuit (United States)

    Lai, J.S.; Peng, F.Z.; Young, R.W. Sr.; Ott, G.W. Jr.


    A delta connected, resonant snubber-based, soft switching, inverter circuit achieves lossless switching during dc-to-ac power conversion and power conditioning with minimum component count and size. Current is supplied to the resonant snubber branches solely by the dc supply voltage through the main inverter switches and the auxiliary switches. Component count and size are reduced by use of a single semiconductor switch in the resonant snubber branches. Component count is also reduced by maximizing the use of stray capacitances of the main switches as parallel resonant capacitors. Resonance charging and discharging of the parallel capacitances allows lossless, zero voltage switching. In one embodiment, circuit component size and count are minimized while achieving lossless, zero voltage switching within a three-phase inverter. 36 figs.

  9. Delta connected resonant snubber circuit (United States)

    Lai, Jih-Sheng; Peng, Fang Zheng; Young, Sr., Robert W.; Ott, Jr., George W.


    A delta connected, resonant snubber-based, soft switching, inverter circuit achieves lossless switching during dc-to-ac power conversion and power conditioning with minimum component count and size. Current is supplied to the resonant snubber branches solely by the dc supply voltage through the main inverter switches and the auxiliary switches. Component count and size are reduced by use of a single semiconductor switch in the resonant snubber branches. Component count is also reduced by maximizing the use of stray capacitances of the main switches as parallel resonant capacitors. Resonance charging and discharging of the parallel capacitances allows lossless, zero voltage switching. In one embodiment, circuit component size and count are minimized while achieving lossless, zero voltage switching within a three-phase inverter.

  10. Differentiation of Boc-protected alpha,delta-/delta,alpha- and beta,delta-/delta,beta-hybrid peptide positional isomers by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Raju, G; Ramesh, V; Srinivas, R; Sharma, G V M; Shoban Babu, B


    Two new series of Boc-N-alpha,delta-/delta,alpha- and beta,delta-/delta,beta-hybrid peptides containing repeats of L-Ala-delta(5)-Caa/delta(5)-Caa-L-Ala and beta(3)-Caa-delta(5)-Caa/delta(5)-Caa-beta(3)-Caa (L-Ala = L-alanine, Caa = C-linked carbo amino acid derived from D-xylose) have been differentiated by both positive and negative ion electrospray ionization (ESI) ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). MS(n) spectra of protonated isomeric peptides produce characteristic fragmentation involving the peptide backbone, the Boc-group, and the side chain. The dipeptide positional isomers are differentiated by the collision-induced dissociation (CID) of the protonated peptides. The loss of 2-methylprop-1-ene is more pronounced for Boc-NH-L-Ala-delta-Caa-OCH(3) (1), whereas it is totally absent for its positional isomer Boc-NH-delta-Caa-L-Ala-OCH(3) (7), instead it shows significant loss of t-butanol. On the other hand, second isomeric pair shows significant loss of t-butanol and loss of acetone for Boc-NH-delta-Caa-beta-Caa-OCH(3) (18), whereas these are insignificant for its positional isomer Boc-NH-beta-Caa-delta-Caa-OCH(3) (13). The tetra- and hexapeptide positional isomers also show significant differences in MS(2) and MS(3) CID spectra. It is observed that 'b' ions are abundant when oxazolone structures are formed through five-membered cyclic transition state and cyclization process for larger 'b' ions led to its insignificant abundance. However, b(1)(+) ion is formed in case of delta,alpha-dipeptide that may have a six-membered substituted piperidone ion structure. Furthermore, ESI negative ion MS/MS has also been found to be useful for differentiating these isomeric peptide acids. Thus, the results of MS/MS of pairs of di-, tetra-, and hexapeptide positional isomers provide peptide sequencing information and distinguish the positional isomers. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Rise and Fall of one of World's largest deltas; the Mekong delta in Vietnam (United States)

    Minderhoud, P. S. J.; Eslami Arab, S.; Pham, H. V.; Erkens, G.; van der Vegt, M.; Oude Essink, G.; Stouthamer, E.; Hoekstra, P.


    The Mekong delta is the third's largest delta in the world. It is home to almost 20 million people and an important region for the food security in South East Asia. As most deltas, the Mekong delta is the dynamic result of a balance of sediment supply, sea level rise and subsidence, hosting a system of fresh and salt water dynamics. Ongoing urbanization, industrialization and intensification of agricultural practices in the delta, during the past decades, resulted in growing domestic, agricultural and industrial demands, and have led to a dramatic increase of fresh water use. Since the year 2000, the amount of fresh groundwater extracted from the subsurface increased by 500%. This accelerated delta subsidence as the groundwater system compacts, with current sinking rates exceeding global sea level rise up to an order of magnitude. These high sinking rates have greatly altered the sediment budget of the delta and, with over 50% of the Mekong delta surface elevated less than 1 meter above sea level, greatly increase vulnerability to flooding and storm surges and ultimately, permanent inundation. Furthermore, as the increasingly larger extractions rapidly reduce the fresh groundwater reserves, groundwater salinization subsequently increases. On top of that, dry season low-flows by the Mekong river cause record salt water intrusion in the delta's estuarine system, creating major problems for rice irrigation. We present the work of three years research by the Dutch-Vietnamese `Rise and Fall' project on land subsidence and salinization in both groundwater and surface water in the Vietnamese Mekong delta.

  12. Influence of interstitial Mn on magnetism in room-temperature ferromagnet Mn(1+delta)Sb


    Taylor, A. E.; Berlijn, T.; Hahn, S. E.; May, A. F.; Williams, T. J.; Poudel, L.; Calder, S.; Fishman, R. S.; Stone, M. B.; Aczel, A. A.; Cao, H. B.; Lumsden, M. D.; Christianson, A. D.


    We report elastic and inelastic neutron scattering measurements of the high-TC ferromagnet Mn(1+delta)Sb. Measurements were performed on a large, TC=434 K, single crystal with interstitial Mn content of delta~0.13. The neutron diffraction results reveal that the interstitial Mn has a magnetic moment, and that it is aligned antiparallel to the main Mn moment. We perform density functional theory calculations including the interstitial Mn, and find the interstitial to be magnetic in agreement w...

  13. The dynamic pathways of agrarian change in the Red River Delta of Vietnam


    Nguyen Thi Minh Khué; Nguyen Thi, Dien; Lebailly, Philippe


    Even though agricultural production has not been the main source of income for rural households in Red River Delta, yet farming remains an important livelihood and security for many rural people. The empirical findings from fieldwork in a village in the Red River Delta of Vietnam show how dependence on agriculture is determined by family context, including land, education and job of household members, their gender and age. Most educated young people have successfully found employment opportun...

  14. Delta Relaxation Enhanced Magnetic Resonance (United States)

    Alford, Jamu K.

    Generally speaking, targeted molecular imaging has always been difficult to perform with magnetic resonance. The difficulty does not arise with the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique or equipment itself, but rather with the targeted contrast agents, which the method requires. Also referred to as activatable contrast agents, or MRI probes, targeted contrast agents are pharmaceuticals that will selectively bind to a particular biological (target) molecule. They are used to highlight a certain tissue or the difference between healthy and diseased tissue. Unfortunately, nearly all MRI probes are non-specific, causing localized increases in MR image intensity in both the unbound and target-bound states. Therefore, brightening in a conventional MRI image, following probe injection, does not positively indicate the presence of the target molecule. Herein, a novel method known as delta relaxation enhanced magnetic resonance (dreMR, pronounced "dreamer") is presented that utilizes variable magnetic field technology to produce image contrast related to the dependence of the sample's longitudinal relaxation rates upon the strength of the main magnetic field of the MRI scanner. Since only bound contrast agent shows significant magnetic field dependence, it is an indicator of the bound probe, which is in turn a marker for the target molecule. This work details the development of the dreMR method, focusing on the specialized hardware necessary to provide a clinical, static-field MRI the ability to modulate its main magnetic field throughout an MRI sequence. All modifications were performed in such a manner that the host MRI system was not degraded or permanently modified in any way. The three parts of this technology are: the insertable electromagnet, the power supply system and the control system. The insertable electromagnet modifies the magnetic field, the power system drives the electromagnet, and the control system generates the magnetic field waveform envelope and

  15. Economic Costs and Adaptations for Alternative Regulations of California's Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy K. Tanaka


    Full Text Available Stacy K. Tanaka, Christina R. Connell–Buck, Kaveh Madani, Josue Medellín-Azuara, Jay R. Lund, and Ellen Hanakdoi: exports from California’s Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta are an environmental concern because they reduce net outflows of fresh water from the Delta, and can entrain fish and disrupt flows within the Delta. If exports were no longer pumped from within the Delta, the regulatory issue becomes one of maintaining appropriate flows into and out of the Delta. This paper presents the results of two sets of hydro-economic optimization modeling runs, which were developed to represent a range of modified Delta operations and their economic and operational effects on California’s water supply system. The first set of runs represents decreasing export capacity from the Delta. The second set increases minimum net Delta outflow (MNDO requirements. The hydro-economic model seeks the least–cost statewide water management scheme for water supply, including a wide range of resources and water management options. Results show that reducing exports or increasing MNDO requirements increase annual average statewide water scarcity, scarcity costs, and operating costs (from greater use of desalination, wastewater recycling, water treatment, and pumping. Effects of reduced exports are especially concentrated in agricultural communities in the southern Central Valley because of their loss of access to overall water supply exports and their ability to transfer remaining water to southern California. Increased outflow requirements increase water scarcity and associated costs throughout California. For an equivalent amount of average Delta outflows, statewide costs increase more rapidly when exports alone are reduced than when minimum outflow requirements are increased and effects are more widely distributed statewide.

  16. Building a delta: Interactions between water, sediment, and vegetation in an experimental system (United States)

    Piliouras, A.; Kim, W.; Carlson, B.


    Vegetation is an important part of morphodynamics in river deltas, but it has not been thoroughly investigated in physical delta models. We conducted a set of experiments in the Sediment Transport and Earth-surface Processes (STEP) Basin at the University of Texas at Austin to examine the effects of vegetation on delta growth and dynamics. One experiment was conducted without vegetation (Run 1), and four (Runs 2-5) were conducted using alfalfa (Medicago sativa) as a proxy for riparian vegetation, one of which included cycles between flood and normal flow discharges (Run 5). Results indicate that vegetation increased sediment trapping on the delta topset, increasing delta slope and decreasing progradation rate as compared to the unvegetated experiment. Vegetation also caused a lack of channelization when the topset reached 20% plant cover, after which progradational delta lobes were no longer evident. Discharge fluctuations in Run 5, however, led to more topset reworking, resulting in lower vegetation density (< 20%) and the persistence of highly incisional channels. Experiments run only at flood stage resulted in consistently net depositional deltas with very little channel incision, regardless of the amount of vegetation. The addition of water and sediment discharge fluctuations in Run 5, however, created a cyclic pattern between periods of topset aggradation and periods of channel incision that were net erosional. We conclude that there is a two-way interaction between the vegetation and the channels through discharge fluctuations that aid in delta growth. (1) During floods, vegetation acts an efficient sediment trapper on the floodplain to aid in topset aggradation and maintain channel relief. During normal flow, vegetation also stabilizes channel banks, allowing channels to focus their flow and erode sediment from the bed. (2) During floods, channels transport sediment to the shoreline to create new deposits that can be colonized by vegetation and deliver

  17. Inhabiting the Delta: A Landscape Approach to Transformative Socio-Ecological Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Milligan


    Full Text Available doi: legislation and plans for the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta (Delta call for large-scale restoration of aquatic and terrestrial habitats, which will require significant changes in waterways, land uses, and cultural patterns. These re-made landscapes will be subject to a variety of new human uses, which Delta planning and adaptive management literature has yet to adequately consider. Failing to account for human uses and evolving place values can lead to diminished performance and public support for Delta restoration efforts. Our empirical study examined restored and naturalized Delta landscapes using an integrative landscape approach that seeks to reconcile multiple goals and land-use agendas that span ecological, social, economic, and political domains. The research design consisted of six overlapping methods that included a planning, policy, and law review specific to the Delta; surveys and interviews with approximately 100 land managers, scientists, land-owners, law-enforcement personnel, agency representatives, and Delta residents; nine case studies of restored and naturalized delta landscapes; GIS mapping; and extensive field work. Findings derived from the synthesis of these methods show that human uses of the Delta’s re-wilded landscapes are diverse and pervasive. Given the infrastructural and urbanized context of the region, these environments are subject to multiple and sometimes conflicting uses, perceptions, and place values. Though these myriad uses cannot be fully predicted or controlled (nor should they be, findings showed that more proactive and inclusive planning for human uses can encourage or discourage particular uses while also building constituency, support, and active engagement in ecological restoration efforts. We conclude that reconciling human uses with ecological recovery in the Delta will require a more localized, multi-functional, and creative approach to

  18. Delta Electroproduction in 12-C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLauchlan, Steven [Univ. of Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)


    The Δ-nucleus potential is a crucial element in the understanding of the nuclear system. Previous electroexcitation measurements in the delta region reported a Q2 dependence of the Δ mass indicating that this potential is dependent on the momentum of the Δ. Such a dependence is not observed for protons and neutrons in the nuclear medium. This thesis presents the experimental study of the electroexcitation of the Δ resonance in 12C, performed using the high energy electron beam at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, and the near 4π acceptance detector CLAS that enables the detection of the full reaction final state. Inclusive, semi inclusive, and exclusive cross sections were measured with an incident electron beam energy of 1.162GeV over the Q2 range 0.175-0.475 (GeV/c)2. A Q2 dependence of the Δ mass was only observed in the exclusive measurements indicating that the Δ-nucleus potential is affected by the momentum of the Δ.

  19. On the origin of delta spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, F.


    Mount Wilson sunspot drawings from 1966 through 1980 were used in conjunction with Hα filtergrams from Big Bear Solar Observatory to examine the origin of delta spots, spots with bipolar umbrae within one penumbra. Of the six cases we studied, five were formed by the union of non-paired spots. They are either shoved into one another by two neighboring growing bipoles or by a new spot born piggy-back style on an existing spot of opposite polarity. Proper motions of the growing spots take on curvilinear paths around one another to avoid a collision. This is the shear motion observed in delta spots (Tanaka, 1979). In the remaining case, the delta spot was formed by spots that emerged as a pair. Our findings indicate no intrinsic differences in the formation or the behavior between delta spots of normal magnetic configuration. (orig.)

  20. Astrobee Periodic Technical Review (PTR) Delta 3 (United States)

    Provencher, Christopher; Smith, Marion F.; Smith, Ernest Everett; Bualat, Maria Gabriele; Barlow, Jonathan Spencer


    Astrobee is a free flying robot for the inside of the International Space Station (ISS). The Periodic Technical Review (PTR) delta 3 is the final design review of the system presented to stakeholders.

  1. Damped Oscillator with Delta-Kicked Frequency (United States)

    Manko, O. V.


    Exact solutions of the Schrodinger equation for quantum damped oscillator subject to frequency delta-kick describing squeezed states are obtained. The cases of strong, intermediate, and weak damping are investigated.

  2. Delta-nucleus dynamics: proceedings of symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T.S.H.; Geesaman, D.F.; Schiffer, J.P. (eds.)


    The appreciation of the role in nuclear physics of the first excited state of the nucleon, the delta, has grown rapidly in the past decade. The delta resonance dominates nuclear reactions induced by intermediate energy pions, nucleons, and electromagnetic probes. It is also the most important non-nucleonic degree of freedom needed to resolve many fundamental problems encountered in the study of low-energy nuclear phenomena. Clearly, a new phase of nuclear physics has emerged and conventional thinking must be extended to account for this new dimension of nuclear dynamics. The most challenging problem we are facing is how a unified theory can be developed to describe dynamics at all energies. In exploring this new direction, it is important to have direct discussions among researchers with different viewpoints. Separate entries were prepared for the 49 papers presented. (WHK)

  3. Propagator for the double delta potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacciari, Ilaria; Moretti, Paolo


    The propagator for the double delta potential is calculated starting from the integral form of the Schroedinger equation. A compact expression of its Laplace transform is found, that can be explicitly inverted in some limiting cases

  4. California Black Rail - Central Delta [ds17 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Results of taped-call black rail surveys of in-stream habitat within certain waterways in the central Sacramento / San Joaquin Delta during 1992 and 1993. TIME...

  5. Stellar delta matter with delta-meson coupling constants constrained by QCD sum rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Antonio Ferreira da [Secretaria de Educacao, Cultura e Desportos do Estado de Roraima (SECD/RR), Boa Vista, RR (Brazil); Oliveira, Jose Carlos Teixeira de [Universidade Federal de Roraima (UFRR), Boa Vista, RR (Brazil); Rodrigues, Hilario [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica (CEFET-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Duarte, Sergio Barbosa [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Chiapparini, Marcelo [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil)


    The considerable presence of delta-resonances (30% of baryonic population) in the dense phase of relativistic heavy ion collisions leads to a great interest in the study of the delta matter formation in the deep interior of compact stars. In the present work we determine the equation of state and the population of baryons and leptons and discuss the effects of the baryon-meson coupling constants to the formation of delta matter in the stellar medium. We use the non-linear Walecka model consisting of the octet of baryons of spin 1=2 (n, p, {Lambda}{sup 0}, {Sigma}{sup -}, {Sigma}{sup 0}, {Sigma}{sup +}, {Xi}{sup -}, {Xi}{sup 0}) and baryonic resonances of spin 3=2, represented by the delta resonances ({Delta}{sup -}, ({Delta}{sup 0}, ({Delta}{sup +}, ({Delta}{sup ++}) and {Omega}{sup -}, in the baryonic sector. In the leptonic sector we consider the electrons and muons. The coupling constants between the hyperons {Lambda}, {Sigma}, and {Xi} and the mesons {omega} and {rho} are fixed by using SU(6) symmetry, while the hyperons-{sigma} coupling constants are constrained by the consistence of the hypernuclear potential in the nuclear matter with hypernuclear data. In addition, we use the finite density QCD sum rule to determine the possible values of delta-meson coupling constants. (author)

  6. Beteigeuze (Alpha Orionis) und Mintaka (Delta Orionis) (United States)

    Vollmann, Wolfgang


    Magnitude measures transformed to Johnson V of Alpha Orionis (Betelgeuse) and Delta Orionis with a wide-angle lens and DSLR are presented and discussed. Alpha Orionis light changes are shown clearly. The primary and secondary eclipses of Delta Orionis with amplitudes of 0.12 and 0.05 mag respectively are clearly recorded. They occur near phase 0.00 and 0.50 respectively of current elements from VSX (2).

  7. Tracking Nile Delta Vulnerability to Holocene Change


    Marriner, Nick; Flaux, Cl?ment; Morhange, Christophe; Stanley, Jean-Daniel


    Understanding deltaic resilience in the face of Holocene climate change and human impacts is an important challenge for the earth sciences in characterizing the full range of present and future wetland responses to global warming. Here, we report an 8000-year mass balance record from the Nile Delta to reconstruct when and how this sedimentary basin has responded to past hydrological shifts. In a global Holocene context, the long-term decrease in Nile Delta accretion rates is consistent with i...

  8. The Okavango delta: The value of tourism


    G Mopelwa; J Blignaut


    In Botswana, tourism is the second most important economic activity after diamond mining and trading. The Okavango Delta in northern Botswana is the largest single tourist centre in the country. This study estimates the total economic value of tourism in the Okavango Delta and compares this value to that of other sectors in the economy of Botswana. The results are compared to results of similar studies for tourist destinations elsewhere in the world, and the policy implications of the finding...

  9. Community structure of spiders in coastal habitats of a Mediterranean delta region (Nestos Delta, NE Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Buchholz


    Full Text Available (pp 101-115Habitat zonation and ecology of spider assemblages have been poorly studied in Mediterranean ecosystems. A first analysis of spider assemblages in coastal habitats in the east Mediterranean area is presented. The study area is the 250 km² Nestos Delta, located in East Macedonia in the North-East of Greece. Spiders were caught in pitfall traps at 17 sites from the beginning of April to the end of June 2004. Nonparametric estimators were used to determine species richness and alpha diversity. Ordination analysis (redundancy analysis indicated four clearly separable spider species groups (salt meadows, dunes, mea-dows and floodplain forests, along a soil salinity and moisture gradient. Based on these results we discuss the habitat preferences of these spiders and include the first ecological data on several species.

  10. 78 FR 75939 - Bay Delta Habitat Conservation Plan and Natural Community Conservation Plan, Sacramento, CA... (United States)


    ... patterns, including breeding, feeding, and sheltering (50 CFR 17.3(c)). NMFS defines ``harm'' to include... impairing essential behavioral patterns, including breeding, spawning, rearing, migrating, feeding, or... conservation strategy includes measures that will be implemented outside of the statutory Delta to complement...

  11. Delta FosB overexpression in the nucleus accumbens enhances sexual reward in female Syrian hamsters. (United States)

    Hedges, V L; Chakravarty, S; Nestler, E J; Meisel, R L


    Repeated activation of the mesolimbic dopamine system results in persistent behavioral alterations accompanied by a pattern of neural plasticity in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). As the accumulation of the transcription factor Delta FosB may be an important component of this plasticity, the question addressed in our research is whether Delta FosB is regulated by sexual experience in females. We have shown that female Syrian hamsters, given sexual experience, exhibit several behavioral alterations including increased sexual efficiency with naïve male hamsters, sexual reward and enhanced responsiveness to psychomotor stimulants (e.g. amphetamine). We recently demonstrated that sexual experience increased the levels of Delta FosB in the NAc of female Syrian hamsters. The focus of this study was to explore the functional consequences of this induction by determining if the constitutive overexpression of Delta FosB by adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors in the NAc could mimic the behavioral effects of sexual experience. Animals with AAV-mediated overexpression of Delta FosB in the NAc showed evidence of sexual reward in a conditioned place preference paradigm under conditions in which control animals receiving an injection of AAV-green fluorescent protein (GFP) into the NAc did not. Sexual behavior tests further showed that males paired with the AAV-Delta FosB females had increased copulatory efficiency as measured by the proportion of mounts that included intromission compared to males mated with the AAV-GFP females. These results support a role for Delta FosB in mediating natural motivated behaviors, in this case female sexual behavior, and provide new insight into the possible endogenous actions of Delta FosB.

  12. Challenges Facing the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta: Complex, Chaotic, or Simply Cantankerous?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel N. Luoma


    Full Text Available doi: is a scarce and precious resource in California; its overall value is being made clear by the current severe drought. The Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta is a critical node in a complex water supply system that extends throughout much of the western U.S. wherein demand is exceeding supply. The Delta also underpins a major component of the U.S. economy, helps feed a substantial part of the country, is a unique and valuable ecological resource, and is a place with a rich cultural heritage. Sustaining the Delta is a problem that manifests itself in many dimensions including the physical structure of the Delta, the conflicting demands for water, changing water quality, rapidly evolving ecological character, and high institutional complexity. The problems of the California Delta are increasingly complex, sometimes chaotic, and always contentious. There is general agreement that current management will sustain neither the Delta ecosystem nor high-quality water exports, as required under the Delta Reform Act, so there is a renewed urgency to address all dimensions of the problem aggressively. Sustainable management of the Delta ecosystem and California’s highly variable water supply, in the face of global climate change, will require bold political decisions that include adjustments to the infrastructure but give equal emphasis to chronic overuse and misuse of water, promote enhanced efficiency of water use, and facilitate new initiatives for ecosystem recovery. This new approach will need to be underpinned by collaborative science that supports ongoing evaluation and re-adjustment of actions. Problems like the Delta are formally “wicked" problems that cannot be “solved” in the traditional sense, but they can be managed with appropriate knowledge and flexible institutions. Where possible, it is advisable to approach major actions incrementally, with an eye toward avoiding

  13. Interdisciplinary and Distance Education in the Delta: The Delta Health Education Partnership. (United States)

    Skorga, Phyllis


    Describes the Delta Health Education Partnership, an interdisciplinary distance education program intended to recruit, educate, and retain interdisciplinary groups of primary care health practitioners to increase access to health care in medically underserved and health professional shortage areas of the lower Mississippi Delta. It spans six…

  14. Houtman Abrolhos Isotope (delta 18O, delta 13C) Data for 1795 to 1994 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — DESCRIPTION: VARIABLES AND UNITS: Column #1: core depth in mm Column #2: delta C-13 vs V-PDB Column #3: delta O-18 vs V-PDB Column #4: assigned date in years A.D....

  15. The Enabling Delta Life Initiative - Global Programme of Action on Deltas - Programme description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, van W.F.; Skyllerstedt, S.; Wosten, J.H.M.


    Being ‘hotspots’ of human activity with generally high population densities, deltas are vulnerable to changes induced by a range of driving forces, both natural and anthropogenic. In addition to already existing challenges, uncertainty of the possible impacts of climate change, low lying deltas

  16. Holocene evolution of a wave-dominated fan-delta: Godavari delta, India (United States)

    Saito, Y.; Nageswara Rao, K.; Nagakumar, K.; Demudu, G.; Rajawat, A.; Kubo, S.; Li, Z.


    The Godavari delta is one of the world's largest wave-dominated deltas. The Godavari River arises in the Western Ghats near the west coast of India and drains an area of about 3.1x10^5 km^2, flowing about 1465 km southeast across the Indian peninsula to the Bay of Bengal. The Godavari delta consists of a gentle seaward slope from its apex (12 m elevation) at Rajahmundry and a coastal beach-ridge plain over a distance of about 75 km and covers ~5200 km^2 as a delta plain. The river splits into two major distributary channels, the Gautami and the Vasishta, at a barrage constructed in the mid-1800s. The coastal environment of the deltaic coast is microtidal (~1 m mean tidal range) and wave-dominated (~1.5 m mean wave height in the June-September SW monsoon season, ~0.8 m in the NE monsoon season). Models of the Holocene evolution of the Godavari delta have changed from a zonal progradation model (e.g. Nageswara Rao & Sadakata, 1993) to a truncated cuspate delta model (Nageswara Rao et al., 2005, 2012). Twelve borehole cores (340 m total length), taken in the coastal delta plain during 2010-2013, yielded more than 100 C-14 dates. Sediment facies and C-14 dates from these and previous cores and remote-sensing data support a new delta evolution model. The Holocene coastal delta plain is divided into two parts by a set of linear beach ridges 12-14 km landward from the present shoreline in the central part of the delta. The location of the main depocenter (lobe) has shifted during the Holocene from 1) the center to 2) the west, 3) east, 4) center, 5) west, and 6) east. The linear beach ridges separate the first three from the last three stages. These lobe shifts are controlled by river channel shifts near the apex. Just as the current linear shoreline of the central part of the delta and the concave-up nearshore topography are the result of coastal erosion of a cuspate delta, the linear beach ridges indicate a former eroded shoreline. An unconformity within the deltaic

  17. Urinary excretion profiles of 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol: a Delta9-THC-COOH to creatinine ratio study #2. (United States)

    Fraser, Albert D; Worth, David


    Subjects with a history of chronic marijuana use were screened for cannabinoids in urine specimens with the EMIT((R)) II Plus cannabinoids assay with a cut-off value of 50 ng/ml. All presumptively positive specimens were submitted for confirmatory analysis for the major urinary cannabinoid metabolite (Delta(9)-THC-COOH) by GC-MS with a cut-off value of 15 ng/ml. Creatinine was analyzed in each specimen as an index of dilution. Huestis and Cone [J. Anal. Toxicol. 22 (1998) 445] reported that serial monitoring of Delta(9)-THC-COOH to creatinine ratios in paired urine specimens collected at least 24h apart could differentiate new drug use from residual Delta(9)-THC-COOH excretion. The best accuracy (85.4%) for predicting new marijuana use was a Delta(9)-THC-COOH/creatinine ratio > or =0.5 (dividing the Delta(9)-THC-COOH to creatinine ratio of specimen 2 by the specimen 1 ratio). In a previous study in this laboratory [J. Anal. Toxicol. 23 (1999) 531], urine specimens were collected from chronic marijuana users at least 24h apart and dilute urine specimens (creatinine values THC-COOH in chronic users of marijuana based on the Huestis 0.5 ratio. Urine specimens (N=946) were collected from 37 individuals with at least 48h between collections. All urine specimens were included in the data review irrespective of creatinine concentration. The mean urinary Delta(9)-THC-COOH concentration was 302.4 ng/ml, mean Delta(9)-THC-COOH/creatinine ratio (ng/ml Delta(9)-THC-COOH/(mmol/l) creatinine) was 29.3 and the Huestis ratio calculation indicated new drug use in 83% of all sequentially paired urine specimens. The data were sub-divided into three groups (A-C) based on the mean Delta(9)-THC-COOH/creatinine values. Interindividual Delta(9)-THC-COOH/creatinine mean values ranged from 2.2 to 13.8 in group A (264 specimens, N=15 subjects) where 80.7% of paired specimens indicated new drug use. In group B, mean Delta(9)-THC-COOH/creatinine values ranged from 15.3 to 37.8 in 444 specimens

  18. Accessing the Elastic Form-Factors of the $Delta(1232)$ Using the Beam-Normal Asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, Mark M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)


    The beam-normal single-spin asymmetry, $B_n$, exists in the scattering of high energy electrons, polarized transverse to their direction of motion, from nuclear targets. To first order, this asymmetry is caused by the interference of the one-photon exchange amplitude with the imaginary part of the two-photon exchange amplitude. Measurements of $B_n$, for the production of a $\\Delta(1232)$ resonance from a proton target, will soon become available from the Qweak experiment at Jefferson Lab and the A4 experiment at Mainz. The imaginary part of two-photon exchange allows only intermediate states that are on-shell, including the $\\Delta$ itself. Therefore such data is sensitive to $\\gamma\\Delta\\Delta$, the elastic form-factors of the $\\Delta$. This article will introduce the form-factors of the $\\Delta$, discuss what might be learned about the elastic form-factors from these new data, describe ongoing efforts in calculation and measurement, and outline the possibility of future measurements.

  19. TAF6delta controls apoptosis and gene expression in the absence of p53.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Wilhelm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Life and death decisions of metazoan cells hinge on the balance between the expression of pro- versus anti-apoptotic gene products. The general RNA polymerase II transcription factor, TFIID, plays a central role in the regulation of gene expression through its core promoter recognition and co-activator functions. The core TFIID subunit TAF6 acts in vitro as an essential co-activator of transcription for the p53 tumor suppressor protein. We previously identified a splice variant of TAF6, termed TAF6delta that can be induced during apoptosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To elucidate the impact of TAF6delta on cell death and gene expression, we have employed modified antisense oligonucleotides to enforce expression of endogenous TAF6delta. The induction of endogenous TAF6delta triggered apoptosis in tumor cell lines, including cells devoid of p53. Microarray experiments revealed that TAF6delta activates gene expression independently of cellular p53 status. CONCLUSIONS: Our data define TAF6delta as a pivotal node in a signaling pathway that controls gene expression programs and apoptosis in the absence of p53.

  20. Proto-neutron stars with delta-resonances using the Zimanyi-Moszkowski model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Luzinete Vilanova da Silva [Secretaria de Educacao, Cultura e Desportos do Estado de Roraima (SECD), RR (Brazil); Oliveira, Jose Carlos Teixeira de [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica (CEFET-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Duarte, Sergio Barbosa [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Full text: In the present work we obtained the equation of state to be used to study the structure of proto-neutron stars. To this end, we adopted the model of Zimanyi-Moszkowski in the mean field approximation. In this model the equation of state consists of the octet of baryons of spin 1/2 (n, p, {Lambda}{sup 0}, {Sigma}{sup -}, {Sigma}{sup 0}, {Sigma}{sup +}, {Xi}{sup -}, {Xi}{sup 0}) and of the baryonic resonances of spin 3/2, represented by the delta matter ({Delta}{sup -}, {Delta}{sup 0}, {Delta}{sup +}, {Delta}{sup +}+ and by {Omega}{sup -}, in the baryonic sector. In the leptonic sector we consider the electrons, the muons and the trapped neutrinos. Thus, we studied the effects of the corresponding neutrinos on the equation of state during the initial formation of a neutron star. We discuss the structure of the proto-neutron stars including the delta resonances in their composition, and compared the results at the cooling phase induced by escape of neutrinos. From the equation of state obtained with this model we solve numerically the equation TOV (Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff) and so we obtained the values of the maximum mass, before and after cooling. (author)

  1. Recent morphological changes in the Mekong and Bassac river channels, Mekong delta: The marked impact of river-bed mining and implications for delta destabilisation (United States)

    Brunier, Guillaume; Anthony, Edward J.; Goichot, Marc; Provansal, Mireille; Dussouillez, Philippe


    The Mekong delta, in Vietnam, is the world's third largest delta. Densely populated, the delta has been significantly armoured with engineering works and dykes to protect populations and infrastructure from storms, and shrimp farms from saltwater intrusion. Considerable development pressures in Vietnam and in the upstream countries have resulted in the construction of several dams in China and in important channel-bed aggregate extractions especially in Cambodia. The effects of these developments impact the delta dynamics in various ways. In this study, changes in the channel morphology of the Mekong proper and the Bassac, the two main distributaries in the 250 km-long deltaic reach from the Cambodian border to the coast, were analysed using channel depth data for 1998 and 2008. The channels display important and irregular bed changes over the 10-year comparison period, including significant incision and expansion and deepening of numerous pools. The mean depth of both channels increased by more than 1.3 m. Both channels also showed correlative significant bed material losses: respectively 90 million m3 in the Mekong and 110 million m3 in the Bassac over the 10-year period. These important losses over a relatively short period, and weak correlations between bed incision and hydraulic parameters suggest that the marked morphological changes are not in equilibrium with flow and sediment entrainment conditions, and are therefore not related to changes in river hydrology. We claim that aggregate extraction, currently practised on a very large scale in the Mekong delta channels and upstream of the delta, is the main cause of these recent morphological changes. These changes are deemed to contribute actively to rampant bank erosion in the delta as well as to erosion of the Mekong delta shoreline. Other contributory activities include the numerous dykes and embankments. The role of existing dams in bed losses remains unclear in the absence of reliable data on the Mekong

  2. Tracking Nile Delta vulnerability to Holocene change. (United States)

    Marriner, Nick; Flaux, Clément; Morhange, Christophe; Stanley, Jean-Daniel


    Understanding deltaic resilience in the face of Holocene climate change and human impacts is an important challenge for the earth sciences in characterizing the full range of present and future wetland responses to global warming. Here, we report an 8000-year mass balance record from the Nile Delta to reconstruct when and how this sedimentary basin has responded to past hydrological shifts. In a global Holocene context, the long-term decrease in Nile Delta accretion rates is consistent with insolation-driven changes in the 'monsoon pacemaker', attested throughout the mid-latitude tropics. Following the early to mid-Holocene growth of the Nile's deltaic plain, sediment losses and pronounced erosion are first recorded after ~4000 years ago, the corollaries of falling sediment supply and an intensification of anthropogenic impacts from the Pharaonic period onwards. Against the backcloth of the Saharan 'depeopling', reduced river flow underpinned by a weakening of monsoonal precipitation appears to have been particularly conducive to the expansion of human activities on the delta by exposing productive floodplain lands for occupation and irrigation agriculture. The reconstruction suggests that the Nile Delta has a particularly long history of vulnerability to extreme events (e.g. floods and storms) and sea-level rise, although the present sediment-starved system does not have a direct Holocene analogue. This study highlights the importance of the world's deltas as sensitive archives to investigate Holocene geosystem responses to climate change, risks and hazards, and societal interaction.

  3. Tracking Nile Delta vulnerability to Holocene change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Marriner

    Full Text Available Understanding deltaic resilience in the face of Holocene climate change and human impacts is an important challenge for the earth sciences in characterizing the full range of present and future wetland responses to global warming. Here, we report an 8000-year mass balance record from the Nile Delta to reconstruct when and how this sedimentary basin has responded to past hydrological shifts. In a global Holocene context, the long-term decrease in Nile Delta accretion rates is consistent with insolation-driven changes in the 'monsoon pacemaker', attested throughout the mid-latitude tropics. Following the early to mid-Holocene growth of the Nile's deltaic plain, sediment losses and pronounced erosion are first recorded after ~4000 years ago, the corollaries of falling sediment supply and an intensification of anthropogenic impacts from the Pharaonic period onwards. Against the backcloth of the Saharan 'depeopling', reduced river flow underpinned by a weakening of monsoonal precipitation appears to have been particularly conducive to the expansion of human activities on the delta by exposing productive floodplain lands for occupation and irrigation agriculture. The reconstruction suggests that the Nile Delta has a particularly long history of vulnerability to extreme events (e.g. floods and storms and sea-level rise, although the present sediment-starved system does not have a direct Holocene analogue. This study highlights the importance of the world's deltas as sensitive archives to investigate Holocene geosystem responses to climate change, risks and hazards, and societal interaction.

  4. The Okavango delta: The value of tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Mopelwa


    Full Text Available In Botswana, tourism is the second most important economic activity after diamond mining and trading. The Okavango Delta in northern Botswana is the largest single tourist centre in the country. This study estimates the total economic value of tourism in the Okavango Delta and compares this value to that of other sectors in the economy of Botswana. The results are compared to results of similar studies for tourist destinations elsewhere in the world, and the policy implications of the findings are highlighted. The study uses secondary data to estimate the direct consumptive and non-consumptive use value, and a survey among tourists to determine the existence value of the Okavango Delta.

  5. Liquefaction potential of Nile delta, Egypt (United States)

    Fergany, Elsayed; Omar, Khaled


    Understanding how sedimentary basins respond to seismic-wave energy generated by earthquake events is a significant concern for seismic-hazard estimation and risk analysis. The main goal of this study is assessing the vulnerability index, Kg, as an indicator for liquefaction potential sites in the Nile delta basin based on the microtremor measurements. Horizontal to Vertical spectral ratio analyses (HVSR) of ambient noise data, which was conducted in 2006 at 120 sites covering the Nile delta from south to north were reprocessed using Geopsy software. HVSR factors of amplification, A, and fundamental frequency, F, were calculated and Kg was estimated for each measurement. The Kg value varies widely from south toward north delta and the potential liquefaction places were estimated. The higher vulnerability indices are associated with sites located in southern part of the Nile delta and close to the branches of Nile River. The HVSR factors were correlated with geologic setting of the Nile delta and show good correlations with the sediment thickness and subsurface stratigraphic boundaries. However, we note that sites located in areas that have greatest percentage of sand also yielded relatively high Kg values with respect to sites in areas where clay is abundant. We concluded that any earthquake with ground acceleration more than 50 gal at hard rock can cause a perceived deformation of sandy sediments and liquefaction can take place in the weak zones of Kg ≥ 20. The worst potential liquefaction zones (Kg > 30) are frequently joined to the Damietta and Rosetta Nile River branches and south Delta where relatively coarser sand exists. The HVSR technique is a very sensitive tool for lithological stratigraphy variations in two dimensions and varying liquefaction susceptibility.

  6. DeltaProt: a software toolbox for comparative genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willassen Nils P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Statistical bioinformatics is the study of biological data sets obtained by new micro-technologies by means of proper statistical methods. For a better understanding of environmental adaptations of proteins, orthologous sequences from different habitats may be explored and compared. The main goal of the DeltaProt Toolbox is to provide users with important functionality that is needed for comparative screening and studies of extremophile proteins and protein classes. Visualization of the data sets is also the focus of this article, since visualizations can play a key role in making the various relationships transparent. This application paper is intended to inform the reader of the existence, functionality, and applicability of the toolbox. Results We present the DeltaProt Toolbox, a software toolbox that may be useful in importing, analyzing and visualizing data from multiple alignments of proteins. The toolbox has been written in MATLAB™ to provide an easy and user-friendly platform, including a graphical user interface, while ensuring good numerical performance. Problems in genome biology may be easily stated thanks to a compact input format. The toolbox also offers the possibility of utilizing structural information from the SABLE or other structure predictors. Different sequence plots can then be viewed and compared in order to find their similarities and differences. Detailed statistics are also calculated during the procedure. Conclusions The DeltaProt package is open source and freely available for academic, non-commercial use. The latest version of DeltaProt can be obtained from The website also contains documentation, and the toolbox comes with real data sets that are intended for training in applying the models to carry out bioinformatical and statistical analyses of protein sequences. Equipped with the new algorithms proposed here, DeltaProt serves as an auxiliary

  7. Sandy River Delta Habitat Restoration Project, Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Virginia; Dobson, Robin L.


    The Sandy River Delta is located at the confluence of the Sandy and Columbia Rivers, just east of Troutdale, Oregon. It comprises about 1,400 land acres north of Interstate 84, managed by the USDA Forest Service, and associated river banks managed by the Oregon Division of State Lands. Three islands, Gary, Flag and Catham, managed by Metro Greenspaces and the State of Oregon lie to the east, the Columbia River lies to the north and east, and the urbanized Portland metropolitan area lies to the west across the Sandy River. Sandy River Delta was historically a wooded, riparian wetland with components of ponds, sloughs, bottomland woodland, oak woodland, prairie, and low and high elevation floodplain. It has been greatly altered by past agricultural practices and the Columbia River hydropower system. Restoration of historic landscape components is a primary goal for this land. The Forest Service is currently focusing on restoration of riparian forest and wetlands. Restoration of open upland areas (meadow/prairie) would follow substantial completion of the riparian and wetland restoration. The Sandy River Delta is a former pasture infested with reed canary grass, blackberry and thistle. The limited over story is native riparian species such as cottonwood and ash. The shrub and herbaceous layers are almost entirely non-native, invasive species. Native species have a difficult time naturally regenerating in the thick, competing reed canary grass, Himalayan blackberry and thistle. A system of drainage ditches installed by past owners drains water from historic wetlands. The original channel of the Sandy River was diked in the 1930's, and the river diverted into the ''Little Sandy River''. The original Sandy River channel has subsequently filled in and largely become a slough. The FS acquired approximately 1,400 acres Sandy River Delta (SRD) in 1991 from Reynolds Aluminum (via the Trust for Public Lands). The Delta had been grazed for many years

  8. Agricultural Losses from Salinity in California’s Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué Medellín-Azuara


    Full Text Available Sea level rise, large-scale flooding, and new conveyance arrangements for water exports may increase future water salinity for local agricultural production in California’s Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta. Increasing salinity in crop root zones often decreases crop yields and crop revenues. Salinity effects are nonlinear, and vary with crop choice and other factors including drainage and residence time of irrigation water. Here, we explore changes in agricultural production in the Delta under various combinations of water management, large-scale flooding, and future sea level rise. Water management alternatives include through-Delta water exports (current conditions, dual conveyance (through-Delta and a 6,700 Mm3 yr‑1 [or 7500 cfs] capacity peripheral canal or tunnel and the flooding of five western islands with and without peripheral exports. We employ results from previous hydrodynamic simulations of likely changes in salinity for irrigation water at points in the Delta. We connect these irrigation water salinity values into a detailed agro-economic model of Delta agriculture to estimate local crop yield and farm revenue losses. Previous hydrodynamic modeling work shows that sea level rise is likely to increase salinity from 4% to 130% in this century, depending on the increase in sea level and location. Changes in water management under dual conveyance increase salinity mostly in the western Delta, and to a lesser extent in the north, where current salinity levels are now quite low. Because locations likely to experience the largest salinity increases already have a lower-value crop mix, the worst-case losses are less than 1% of total Delta crop revenues. This result also holds for salinity increases from permanent flooding of western islands that serve as a salinity barrier. Our results suggest that salinity increases could have much smaller economic effects on Delta farming than other likely changes in the Delta such as retirement of

  9. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew


    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  10. Abraham Reef Stable Isotope Data (delta 13C, delta 18O, delta 14C) for 1635-1957 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Site: Abraham Reef, 22ó 06'S, 153ó 00'E, Porites australiensus, Radiocarbon (delta 14C) and Stable Isotope (del 18O and del 13C) results from bi-annual samples from...

  11. Modeling Anthropogenic Impact on Sediment Balance and Relative Sea-Level Rise in Contemporary and Future Deltas (United States)

    Tessler, Z. D.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Overeem, I.; Syvitski, J. P.


    Modern deltas are dependent on human-mediated freshwater and sediment fluxes. Changes to these fluxes impact delta biogeophysical functioning, and affect the long-term sustainability of these landscapes for both human and natural systems. Here we present contemporary estimates of long-term mean sediment balance and relative sea-level rise across 46 global deltas. We model ongoing development and scenarios of future water resource management and hydropower infrastructure in upstream river basins to explore how changing sediment fluxes impact relative sea-level in coastal delta systems. Model results show that contemporary sediment fluxes, anthropogenic drivers of land subsidence, and sea-level rise result in relative sea-level rise rates in deltas that average 6.8 mm/year. Currently planned or under-construction dams can be expected to increase rates of relative sea-level rise on the order of 1 mm/year. Some deltas systems, including the Magdalena, Orinoco, and Indus, are highly sensitive to future impoundment of river basins, with RSLR rates increasing up to 4 mm/year in a high-hydropower-utilization scenario. Sediment fluxes may be reduced by up to 60% in the Danube and 21% in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Megnha if all currently planned dams are constructed. Reduced sediment retention on deltas due to increased river channelization and local flood controls increases RSLR on average by nearly 2 mm/year. Long-term delta sustainability requires a more complete understanding of how geophysical and anthropogenic change impact delta geomorphology. Strategies for sustainable delta management that focus on local and regional drivers of change, especially groundwater and hydrocarbon extraction and upstream dam construction, can be highly impactful even in the context of global climate-induced sea-level rise.

  12. Deltas on the move. Making deltas cope with the effects of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reker, J.; Van Winden, A.; Braakhekke, W.; Vermaat, J.; Eleveld, M.; Janssen, R.; De Reus, N.; Omzigt, N.


    This scoping study is the first phase of a study aimed at: (a) providing knowledge on the potential of a system-based approach to deal with the effects of climate change as an alternative for the more traditional technical measures such as dams, dikes and surge barriers. This should be shown for both rich and poor countries and should address hydrological, ecological as well as socio-economic aspects; and (b) identifying the potential to market these results worldwide. To reach these objectives four research steps are defined: (1) to make an inventory of deltas: their vulnerability to the effects of climate change; (2) development of indicators for successful use of a system-based approach; (3) to provide an overview of the potential of soft measures for these deltas; (4) to select a number of deltas with potential for marketing system-based measures and the development of strategies to link economic and ecological objectives. This scoping study addresses step 1 only. The results from step 1 will be used as a starting point for steps 2 and 3. The outputs of this scoping study are threefold: a background report (this report); a flyer with a brief description of the findings; a website with information on delta's and how these may be affected by climate change. The scoping study will roughly outline which deltas are still functioning in a more or less natural manner - or could be (re)developed in that direction - and thus would be good candidates for a system-based approach. Chapter 2 gives a description of the geomorphological and ecological processes in a delta. In addition, those aspects of climate change that can have an effect on deltas are described. The third chapter deals with human interventions in deltas and whether or not they fit within a system-based approach. In a system-based approach, as presented in Chapter 4, natural processes are given free reign where possible. Chapter 5 shows how available data on deltas could be used in such a system

  13. Optical modulator including grapene (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang


    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  14. Holocene Flexural Deformation over the Nile Delta: Evidence from Radar Interferometry (United States)

    Gebremichael, E.; Sultan, M.; Becker, R.


    Isostatic adjustment and subsequent subsidence and uplift due to sediment and water loading and unloading mechanisms is one of the major factors that produce regional deformational patterns across river deltas. Using 84 Envisat ASAR scenes that were acquired (2004 - 2010) along three tracks and applying Persistent scatterer (PS) radar interferometric techniques, we documented flexural deformational patterns over the entire Nile Delta (length: 186 km; width: 240 km) of Egypt. The passive continental margin of Africa subsided from Jurassic time onwards due to isostatic loading creating an accommodation space and consequently, the deposition of relatively younger sediments on the oceanic crust. In river deltas, the flexural isostasy model dictates that a subsidence in the oceanic crust side should be balanced by a bulge (uplift) in the flanking regions. Using radar interferometry, we were able to identify the flexural deformation pattern and map its spatial extent over the northern and central Nile Delta region. Findings include: (1) the northern Nile Delta region (block) is separated from the southern delta region by an east-west trending, extensively faulted, hinge line that signifies the boundary between two deformational patterns (subsidence and uplift). It separates the highly subsiding (up to 9.8 mm/yr) northern delta block (up to 85 km long) from the nearly stable (0.4 mm/yr; averaged) southern delta block (up to 91 km long). The hinge line marks the end of the passive continental margin of Africa and the beginning of the oceanic crust of the Mediterranean. (2) We mapped the extent of a 20-40 km wide flexural uplift zone to the south of the hinge line. Within the flexural uplift zone (2.5 mm/yr; averaged), there is a gradual increase in uplift rate reaching peak value (up to 7 mm/yr) near the midpoint of the zone. (3) The uplift rate gradually decreases south of the flexure boundary reaching 0.3 mm/yr at the southern periphery of the delta. (4) The flexural

  15. Contaminant Effects on California Bay–Delta Species and Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Fong


    Full Text Available doi: contaminants in the California Bay–Delta (Bay–Delta exceed regulatory standards, affect aquatic species, and potentially affect human health. Recent studies provide multiple lines of evidence that contaminants affect species of concern in the Bay–Delta (e.g., the decline of several important fish species referred to as the “Pelagic Organism Decline” or POD. Contaminants occur as dynamic complex mixtures and exert effects at multiple levels of biological organization. Multiple chemicals impair processes at cellular and physiological levels (measured as growth, development, and behavior abnormalities, and when viability and reproductive output are affected, populations are affected. As an important example, the population decline of the endangered Delta Smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus is significantly associated with multiple stressors, including insecticide use. New analyses presented in this paper show significant correlations between pyrethroid use and declining abundance of POD fish species. Water sampled from the Bay–Delta causes multiple deleterious effects in fish, and Delta Smelt collected from the Bay–Delta exhibit contaminant effects. Fish prey items are also affected by contaminants; this may have an indirect effect on their populations. Co-occurrence with thermal changes or disease can exacerbate contaminant effects. Contaminants also pose threats to human health via consumption of fish and shellfish, drinking water, and contact recreation, in particular, mercury, cyanobacteria toxins, disinfection byproducts, pathogens, pesticides, and pharmaceuticals and personal care products. The role of contaminants in the decline of Bay–Delta species is difficult to accurately assess in a complex, dynamic system. However, tools and approaches are available to evaluate contaminant effects on Bay–Delta species, and separate the effects of multiple stressors. Integrated

  16. The Delta Team: Empowering Adolescent Girls. (United States)

    Hood, Marian White


    In response to adolescent girls' concerns about teen violence, rumors, grooming, careers, and equity, four women teachers and a woman administrator at a Maryland middle school developed the Delta Program. The program provides positive learning experiences, teaches social skills and conflict management techniques, empowers girls through mentoring…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research aimed to appraise the Niger Delta forest ecosystem services. The. Millennium Ecosystem ... Despite the good knowledge of ecosystem services by the urban respondents, only 42.5% were aware of fresh .... and in planning for government and other interventions such as conservation actions (Isoun, 2006).

  18. Bioluminescent hydrocarbonclastic bacteria of the Niger Delta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 19, 2007 ... Utilization of three petroleum hydrocarbons (Mobil SAE 40 Engine Oil, Diesel and Bonny light Crude. Oil) by four ... growth of hydrocarbonoclastic bioluminescent bacteria which could serve as a potential tool for the remediation of petroleum ... lized TNT. In the Niger Delta, increasing petroleum exploration.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    opportunities, promises of infrastructure development in the region and direct payments of oil revenues ..... 38 See generally, the Petroleum Act, P10 Laws of the Federation of Nigeria (LFN), 2004; Territorial. Waters Act, Chapter T4 LFN ..... Grant amnesty to all Niger Delta militants willing and ready to participate in the DDR ...

  20. Solubility of hydrogen in delta iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapovalov, V.I.; Trofimenko, V.V.


    The solubility of hydrogen in iron (less than 0.002 % impurities) at temperatures of 800-1510 deg C and a pressure of 100 atm was measured. The heat of solution of hydrogen in delta-Fe, equal to 73 kJ/g-atom, is by far greater than the corresponding values for α- and γ-Fe

  1. Kinematic Analysis 6dof Delta Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid PIETRALA


    Full Text Available In the paper the solid and kinematic model of delta type parallel manipulator with six degrees of freedom is proposed. Method of determining the manipulator kinematics equations using the notation of Denavitt – Hartenberg is presented. For given movements of manipulator platform the trajectory of drives are illustrated. Also working space for various platform orientations are showed.

  2. Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol produced discrimination in pigeons. (United States)

    Henriksson, B G; Johansson, J O; Järbe, T U


    In an operant situation pigeons learned to peck one response key 90 min after an injection of 0.25mg/kg delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC) and another key when trained nondrugged. When tested with doses of delta9-THC lwer than the training dose the birds disciminated 0.20 mg/kg of the drug from the nondrugged state but not 0.15 mg/kg or lower doses. The animals were able to discriminate the drug state from the nondrugged 180 min but not 360 min after the injection At a shorter interval (45 min) both drug and nondrug responding appeared. Cannabinol and cannabidiol (4.0 - 8.0 mg/kg) did not elicit any drug responses, nor did pentobarbital, ditran or amphetamine. Tests with LSD resulted in both drug and nondrug responding. When administering noncannabinoid drugs in combination with delta9-THC 0.15 mg/kg the birds responded at the key associated with the drug state, suggesting interactional effects.

  3. 2016 Rose Ojowhoh Delta State Polytechnic, Ozoro

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Staff training and development are reoccurring. Staff development and library services in academic libraries in Bayelsa and Delta States. Information Impact: ... managers. A culture of group and individual learning is created through the use of critique, feedback and teaching at all levels of the training and development.

  4. Bioluminescent hydrocarbonclastic bacteria of the Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of three petroleum hydrocarbons (Mobil SAE 40 Engine Oil, Diesel and Bonny light Crude Oil) by four bioluminescent bacteria (Vibrio harveyi, V. fisheri, Photobacterium leiognathi and P. Phosphoreum isolated from the Bonny estuary in the Niger Delta, Nigeria was investigated. Microbial utilization was monitored ...

  5. Error Minimization of Polynomial Approximation of Delta

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 27, 2016 ... The difference between Universal time (UT) and Dynamical time (TD), known as Delta ( ) is tabulated for the first day of each year in the Astronomical Almanac. During the last four centuries it is found that there are large differences between its values for two consecutive years. Polynomial ...

  6. Strong decays of nucleon and delta resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijker, R.; Leviatan, A.


    We study the strong couplings of the nucleon and delta resonances in a collective model. In the ensuing algebraic treatment we derive closed expressions for decay widths which are used to analyze the experimental data for strong decays into the pion and eta channels. (Author)

  7. Water quality in the Okavango Delta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mar 12, 2010 ... The Okavango Delta ecosystem sustains a large number of plant and animal species as well as providing resources for the livelihood of the riparian human population. Despite changes in flow patterns, rainfall and other climatic conditions over the past decades, the system has responded well to maintain ...

  8. Ethnic Minority Problems in the Niger Delta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a conceptual background typical types of minorities and typical sources of minority conflict are outlined. A historical overview is given of the problems. Niger Delta minorities have been experiencing. Their grievances and demands are highlighted, and the responses of different Nigerian governments are discussed.

  9. Experimental Investigations on Leading-Edge Vortex Structures for Flow over Non-Slender Delta Wings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin-Jun, Wang; Wang, Zhang


    The dye injection and hydrogen bubble visualization techniques are used to investigate the dual-vortex structure including its development, breakdown and the spatial location of vortex core over nonslender delta wings. It is concluded that the dual-vortex structure can be affected significantly by sweep angle and Reynolds number, and generated only at small angle of attack. The angle between the projection of outer vortex core on delta wing surface and the root chord line has nothing to do with the Reynolds Number and angle of attack, but has simple linear relation with the sweep angle of the model tested. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  10. River delta shoreline reworking and erosion in the Mediterranean and Black Seas: the potential roles of fluvial sediment starvation and other factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manon Besset


    Full Text Available The Mediterranean basin (including the Black Sea is characterized by a plethora of deltas that have developed in a wave-influenced setting. Many of these deltas are sourced in sediments by river catchments that have been variably dammed. The vulnerability status of a selection of ten deltas subject to different levels of reduction in fluvial sediment supply following damming was analysed by quantifying changes in delta protrusion area and protrusion angle over the last 30 years. The rationale for choosing these two metrics, which do not require tricky calculations of longshore bedload transport volumes and river ‘influence’, is that as sediment supply wanes, increasing relative efficiency of waves leads to longshore redistribution of reworked sediments and progressive ‘flattening’ of the delta protrusion. The results show that eight of the ten deltas (Nile, Rhône, Ebro, Ceyhan, Arno, Ombrone, Moulouya, Medjerda are in erosion, whereas two (Danube, Po show stability, but the statistical relationship between change in delta protrusion area and sediment flux reduction is poor, thus suggesting that the role of dams in causing delta shoreline erosion may have been over-estimated. But this poor relationship could also be due to a long temporal lag between dam construction and bedload removal and transport to the coast downstream of dams, and, where the delta protrusion is being eroded, to bedload trapping by shoreline engineering structures and by elongating delta-flank spits. Other potential influential factors in shoreline change include subsidence, sea-level rise, storminess, exceptional river floods, and managed sediment releases downstream of dams. A longer observation period and high-resolution sediment-budget studies will be necessary to determine more definitively to which extent continued trapping of sediment behind dams will impact overall delta stability in the Mediterranean and Black Seas. Mitigation of delta erosion is likely to

  11. Regional controls on geomorphology, hydrology, and ecosystem integrity in the Orinoco Delta, Venezuela (United States)

    Warne, A.G.; Meade, R.H.; White, W.A.; Guevara, E.H.; Gibeaut, J.; Smyth, R.C.; Aslan, A.; Tremblay, T.


    Interacting river discharge, tidal oscillation, and tropical rainfall across the 22,000 km2 Orinoco delta plain support diverse fresh and brackish water ecosystems. To develop environmental baseline information for this largely unpopulated region, we evaluate major coastal plain, shallow marine, and river systems of northeastern South America, which serves to identify principal sources and controls of water and sediment flow into, through, and out of the Orinoco Delta. The regional analysis includes a summary of the geology, hydrodynamics, sediment dynamics, and geomorphic characteristics of the Orinoco drainage basin, river, and delta system. Because the Amazon River is a major source of sediment deposited along the Orinoco coast, we summarize Amazon water and sediment input to the northeastern South American littoral zone. We investigate sediment dynamics and geomorphology of the Guiana coast, where marine processes and Holocene history are similar to the Orinoco coast. Major factors controlling Orinoco Delta water and sediment dynamics include the pronounced annual flood discharge; the uneven distribution of water and sediment discharge across the delta plain; discharge of large volumes of water with low sediment concentrations through the Rio Grande and Araguao distributaries; water and sediment dynamics associated with the Guayana littoral current along the northeastern South American coast; inflow of large volumes of Amazon sediment to the Orinoco coast; development of a fresh water plume seaward of Boca Grande; disruption of the Guayana Current by Trinidad, Boca de Serpientes, and Gulf of Paria; and the constriction at Boca de Serpientes. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Morphodynamics of a cyclic prograding delta: the Red River, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maren, D.S. van


    River deltas are inhabited by over 60% of the world population, and are, consequently, of paramount agricultural and economical importance. They constitute unique wetland envi ronments which gives river deltas ecological importance as well. Additionally, many deltas contain large accumulations of

  13. Wastewater disposal at safari lodges in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 1, 2004 ... their wastewater via soak-aways, creating a potential risk of contamination of their water supply. Most islands in the Delta ... in the Okavango Delta. Key words: Okavango Delta; wastewater disposal; field bacteriological screening ... groundwater 183 m from a wastewater point source. Viruses in particular ...

  14. Amnesty to Niger Delta Militants: Challenges and Opportunities for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Niger Delta militants' disposition against the Federal government of Nigeria and the oil firms coupled with international pressures, compelled the Federal Government to grant amnesty to the Niger Delta Militants. The amnesty deal is a desperate effort by the Nigeria State to end the Niger Delta crisis, and thereby restore ...

  15. enhancing stakeholder participation in the niger delta region

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Nigeria's indigenous people, found in the Niger Delta area, have for many years experienced developmental challenges associated with oil exploration. The region has been .... Delta Petroleum System: Niger Delta Province, Nigeria, Cameroon, and. Equatorial .... grant injunctions or provisional measures. Therefore, to ...

  16. Farmers' perception of extension services of the Delta Stat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper investigated farmers' perception of Extension Services Provided by Delta State Agricultural Development Programme (DTADP) in Delta North Agricultural Zone, Delta State, Nigeria. Data for the study was obtained with the aid of an interview schedule from 90 respondents in the study area. Findings from the study ...

  17. Environmental challenges in Nigeria's Delta Region and Agriculture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discussed the environmental challenges in the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria with emphasis on the impacts on agricultural production. It thus discussed the concepts of Niger-Delta, Environmental pollution, Niger-Delta crises and Agriculture. The paper posits that there are positive relationships between these ...

  18. Vulnerability and Resilience of the Niger Delta Coastal Communities to Pollution and Environmental Degradation (United States)

    Ndimele, P. E.; Whenu, O. O.; Anwan, H. R.; Anetekhai, M. A.


    The Niger Delta is Africa's largest delta consisting of the third largest mangrove forest in the world and covering 70,000km2 of Nigeria land mass. This delta is the largest wetland in Africa and among the ten most important wetland and marine ecosystems in the world. The delta is home to all of Nigeria's endemic or near-endemic mammal species and to six IUCN Red List mammals. The Niger Delta harbours globally outstanding fish fauna and displays exceptional evolutionary phenomena with its higher taxonomic endemism and distinct species assemblages. The Niger delta is blessed with abundance of natural and human resources, including the majority of Nigeria's oil and gas deposits, good agricultural land, extensive forests, excellent fisheries as well as a well-developed industrial base, a large labour force and a vibrant private sector. However, this fragile but rich ecosystem is seriously threatened by increased industrial pollution, resource over-exploitation and environmental degradation caused by over six decades of oil exploitation. Aquatic life has been destroyed with the pollution of traditional fishing grounds, exacerbating hunger and poverty in fishing communities. The multifarious use of the delta has led to human-induced changes in biota, habitats and landscapes necessitating the development of a holistic policy that considers all the interacting factors in the ecosystem. Taking a systems approach incorporating an understanding of The Ecosystem Approach, vulnerability, resilience, the DPSIR framework, ecosystem services and societal benefits are integrated in order to evolve a management tool that will result in sustainable resource exploitation, improvement in living standards of locals and restoration of the ecosystem.

  19. What fish and how many there are in Danube Delta?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The real figure of fish fauna and fishery of the Danube delta is difficult to be estimated due to the limitation in fish sampling and underreporting of catch. This paper proposes to compare output of fish sampling with commercial catch statistics. Fish fauna from Danube delta complex lakes was sampled in 2006-2008 period and catchstatistics represent a long time series data recording. For fish sampling was used two complementary methods: electric fishing for shallow border zone and Nordic gillnet fishing for deep open water. The frequency of occurrence and the dominance in abundance analysis was based on 267 samples including 57158 individuals from both sampling methods since the dominance in biomass was based on 640 kg of fish only from gillnet sampling. In total was sampled 40 fish species, while catch statistics recorded 10 commercial species plus more 3 categories that include more other different species. In the sampling analysis, the most frequent species (very frequent were perch, bleak, roach, rudd and white bream. The most abundant(eudominant and dominant species were bleak, roach, rudd, perch, and white bream. In biomass dominate (eudominant and dominant roach, rudd, perch, white bream, bleak, gibel carp and pike. This analysis shows that Danube delta lakes are dominate by small eurytopic and opportunistic species, favoured by eutrophication of lakes. However, this figure is expression of sampling methods that are limited in estimation of real fish population status. Nevertheless, when this structure is compared to commercial statistics, it is noticed completely other figure. The difference in fish structure may be explained by targeting fishing to large size and high market value fish species. It is not neglected that commercial statistics is deformed by unreported catch sold on black market. According with recorded statistics from 1920 until 2010 the catch trend continuously decrease and species composition was well balanced before

  20. BSA Delta Qualification 2, volume 3, book 1 (United States)


    This report, presented in three volumes, provides the results of a two-motor Delta Qualification 2 program conducted in 1993 to certify the following enhancements for incorporation into booster separation motor (BSM) flight hardware: vulcanized-in-place nozzle aft closure insulation; new iso-static ATJ bulk graphite throat insert material; adhesive EA 9394 for bonding the nozzle throat, igniter grain rod/centering insert/igniter case; deletion of the igniter adapter insulator ring; deletion of the igniter adapter/igniter case interface RTV; and deletion of Loctite from igniter retainer plate threads. The enhancements above directly resulted from (1) the BSM total quality management (TQM) team initiatives to enhance the BSM producibility, and (2) the necessity to qualify new throat insert and adhesive systems to replace existing materials that will not be available. Testing was completed at both the component and motor levels. Component testing was accomplished to screen candidate materials (e.g., throat materials, adhesive systems) and to optimize processes (e.g., aft closure insulator vulcanization approach) prior to their incorporation into the test motors. Motor tests -- consisting of two motors, randomly selected by USBI's on-site quality personnel from production lot AAY, which were modified to accept the enhancements -- were completed to provide the final qualification of the enhancements for incorporation into flight hardware. Volume 3 book 1 provides supporting documentation to the analyses and plans of testing the two Delta Qualification units including thermal cycling planning/data acceptance records, environmental test procedures and pretest temperature conditioning history, Delta Qualification test plan, and specification SE0837 -- mix acceptance test specification.

  1. Triangulation, Emotional Reactivity, and Violence in the Niger Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Aigbe Okonofua


    Full Text Available The Niger Delta conflict, for many years, was blamed on myriad forces, including greed, economic exploitation, pollution and ecological damage, resource appropriation and distribution disputes, ethno-religious antagonisms, poverty, unemployment, large-scale infrastructural deficits, corruption, militarization of oil producing communities and election processes, sociopolitical marginalization, cultism, and weapons proliferation. While all of these issues are important, they are not nearly as important as the deliberate roles played by high-level social, economic, and political interests who activated violence as a means to secure economic advantage from the delta’s oil industry. This study shines the light on this small, exclusive, and very powerful group whose actions triggered off the violence and yet are at the center of efforts to institute peace including the current disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR program. I argue that unless the contributions of these powerful interests are carefully teased out and the structures they have built to advantage themselves from the conflict are dismantled, peace will remain elusive in the Niger Delta.

  2. An updated conceptual model of Delta Smelt biology: Our evolving understanding of an estuarine fish (United States)

    Baxter, Randy; Brown, Larry R.; Castillo, Gonzalo; Conrad, Louise; Culberson, Steven D.; Dekar, Matthew P.; Dekar, Melissa; Feyrer, Frederick; Hunt, Thaddeus; Jones, Kristopher; Kirsch, Joseph; Mueller-Solger, Anke; Nobriga, Matthew; Slater, Steven B.; Sommer, Ted; Souza, Kelly; Erickson, Gregg; Fong, Stephanie; Gehrts, Karen; Grimaldo, Lenny; Herbold, Bruce


    The main purpose of this report is to provide an up-to-date assessment and conceptual model of factors affecting Delta Smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus) throughout its primarily annual life cycle and to demonstrate how this conceptual model can be used for scientific and management purposes. The Delta Smelt is a small estuarine fish that only occurs in the San Francisco Estuary. Once abundant, it is now rare and has been protected under the federal and California Endangered Species Acts since 1993. The Delta Smelt listing was related to a step decline in the early 1980s; however, population abundance decreased even further with the onset of the “pelagic organism decline” (POD) around 2002. A substantial, albeit short-lived, increase in abundance of all life stages in 2011 showed that the Delta Smelt population can still rebound when conditions are favorable for spawning, growth, and survival. In this report, we update previous conceptual models for Delta Smelt to reflect new data and information since the release of the last synthesis report about the POD by the Interagency Ecological Program for the San Francisco Estuary (IEP) in 2010. Specific objectives include:

  3. Conceptual model of sedimentation in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (United States)

    Schoellhamer, David H.; Wright, Scott A.; Drexler, Judith Z.


    Sedimentation in the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta builds the Delta landscape, creates benthic and pelagic habitat, and transports sediment-associated contaminants. Here we present a conceptual model of sedimentation that includes submodels for river supply from the watershed to the Delta, regional transport within the Delta and seaward exchange, and local sedimentation in open water and marsh habitats. The model demonstrates feedback loops that affect the Delta ecosystem. Submerged and emergent marsh vegetation act as ecosystem engineers that can create a positive feedback loop by decreasing suspended sediment, increasing water column light, which in turn enables more vegetation. Sea-level rise in open water is partially countered by a negative feedback loop that increases deposition if there is a net decrease in hydrodynamic energy. Manipulation of regional sediment transport is probably the most feasible method to control suspended sediment and thus turbidity. The conceptual model is used to identify information gaps that need to be filled to develop an accurate sediment transport model.

  4. Hyperon-meson and delta-meson coupling to protoneutron stars structure using the nonlinear Walecka model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souto, W A; Oliveira, J C T; Rodrigues, H; Duarte, S B; Chiapparini, M


    In this work we determine the equation of state and the population of baryons and leptons and discuss the effects of the hyperon-meson coupling constants to the formation of delta resonances in the stellar medium. We also discuss the structure of the protoneutron stars including the delta matter in their composition, and compared the results of a cooled neutron star, after escape of neutrinos. For protoneutron stars structure and composition, the neutrinos are considered trapped. (paper)

  5. An advanced method for flood risk analysis in river deltas, applied to societal flood fatality risk in the Netherlands


    K. M. de Bruijn; F. L. M. Diermanse; J. V. L. Beckers


    This paper discusses a new method for flood risk assessment in river deltas. Flood risk analysis of river deltas is complex, because both storm surges and river discharges may cause flooding and the effect of upstream breaches on downstream water levels and flood risk must be taken into account. This paper presents a Monte Carlo-based flood risk analysis framework for policy making, which considers both storm surges and river flood waves and includes effects from hydrodynami...

  6. Isomerization of delta-9-THC to delta-8-THC when tested as trifluoroacetyl-, pentafluoropropionyl-, or heptafluorobutyryl- derivatives. (United States)

    Holler, Justin M; Smith, Michael L; Paul, Shom N; Past, Marilyn R; Paul, Buddha D


    For GC-MS analysis of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC), perfluoroacid anhydrides in combination with perfluoroalcohols are commonly used for derivatization. This reagent mixture is preferred because it allows simultaneous derivatization of delta-9-THC and its acid metabolite, 11-nor-delta-9-THC-9-carboxylic acid present in biological samples. When delta-9-THC was derivatized by trifluoroacetic anhydride/hexafluoroisopropanol (TFAA/HFIPOH) and analyzed by GC-MS using full scan mode (50-550 amu), two peaks (P1 and P2) with an identical molecular mass of 410 amu were observed. On the basis of the total ion chromatogram (TIC), P1 with a shorter retention time (RT) was the major peak (TIC 84%). To identify the peaks, delta-8-THC was also tested under the same conditions. The RT and spectra of the major peak (TIC 95%) were identical with that of P1 for delta-9-THC. A minor peak (5%) present also correlated well with the latter peak (P2) for the delta-9-THC derivative. The fragmentation pathway of P1 was primarily demethylation followed by retro Diels-Alder fragmentation (M - 15-68, base peak 100%) indicating P1 as a delta-8-THC-trifluoroacetyl compound. This indicated that delta-9-THC isomerized to delta-8-THC during derivatization with TFAA/HFIPOH. Similar results were also observed when delta-9-THC was derivatized with pentafluoropropionic anhydride/pentafluoropropanol or heptafluorobutyric anhydride/heptafluorobutanol. No isomerization was observed when chloroform was used in derivatization with TFAA. In this reaction, the peaks of delta-8-THC-TFA and delta-9-THC-TFA had retention times and mass spectra matching with P1 and P2, respectively. Because of isomerization, perfluoroacid anhydrides/perfluoroalcohols are not suitable derivatizing agents for analysis of delta-9-THC; whereas the TFAA in chloroform is suitable for the analysis.

  7. Topography of inland deltas: Observations, modeling, and experiments (United States)

    Seybold, H. J.; Molnar, P.; Akca, D.; Doumi, M.; Cavalcanti Tavares, M.; Shinbrot, T.; Andrade, J. S.; Kinzelbach, W.; Herrmann, H. J.


    The topography of inland deltas is influenced by the water-sediment balance in distributary channels and local evaporation and seepage rates. In this letter a reduced complexity model is applied to simulate inland delta formation, and results are compared with the Okavango Delta, Botswana and with a laboratory experiment. We show that water loss in inland deltas produces fundamentally different dynamics of water and sediment transport than coastal deltas, especially deposition associated with expansion-contraction dynamics at the channel head. These dynamics lead to a systematic decrease in the mean topographic slope of the inland delta with distance from the apex following a power law with exponent α = -0.69 ± 0.02 where the data for both simulation and experiment can be collapsed onto a single curve. In coastal deltas, on the contrary, the slope increases toward the end of the deposition zone.

  8. Resistance of a gamma/gamma prime - delta directionally solidified eutectic alloy to recrystallization (United States)

    Tewari, S. N.; Scheuermann, C. M.; Andrews, C. W.


    The lamellar directionally solidified nickel-base eutectic alloy gamma/gamma prime-delta has potential as an advanced turbine blade material. The microstructural stability of this alloy was investigated. Specimens were plastically deformed by uniform compression or Brinell indentation, then annealed between 705 and 1120 C. Microstructural changes observed after annealing included gamma prime coarsening, pinch-off and spheroidization of delta lamellae, and the appearance of an unidentified blocky phase in surface layers. All but the first of these was localized in severely deformed regions, suggesting that microstructural instability is not a serious problem in the use of this alloy.

  9. Exosat/Delta - Demonstrated short-term backup launcher capability through international cooperation (United States)

    Ganoung, J. K.; Altmann, G.; Eaton, P.; Kraft, J. D.


    The instrumentation, performance parameters, Delta launch implementation, and development program of the Exosat, launched in February 1983 are described. The X ray satellite was integrated into the Delta vehicle over a three month period, and will survey mainly previously observed X ray objects by directing its detectors at them just before they are occulted by the moon. The 120 kg science package, powered by 260 W of power from solar panels, include low- and medium-energy imaging devices. The spacecraft was originally intended for Ariane launch, but scheduling conflicts, plus the need for a polar-type orbit, dictated the use of the Western Space and Missile Center. Maintenance of Delta compatibility throughout the development of the Exosat facilitated the transfer of launch vehicles, as did full existing documentation of the spacecraft and familiarity between the ESA and NASA managers of the development and launch programs, respectively.

  10. Delta-nucleus dynamics: proceedings of symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.S.H.; Geesaman, D.F.; Schiffer, J.P.


    The appreciation of the role in nuclear physics of the first excited state of the nucleon, the delta Δ(1232), has grown rapidly in the past decade. The delta resonance dominates nuclear reactions induced by intermediate energy pions, nucleons, and electromagnetic probes. It is also the most important non-nucleonic degree of freedom needed to resolve many fundamental problems encountered in the study of low-energy nuclear phenomena. Clearly, a new phase of nuclear physics has emerged and conventional thinking must be extended to account for this new dimension of nuclear dynamics. The most challenging problem we are facing is how a unified theory can be developed to describe Δ-nucleus dynamics at all energies. In exploring this new direction, it is important to have direct discussions among researchers with different viewpoints. Separate entries were prepared for the 49 papers presented

  11. Adaptive Delta Management: cultural aspects of dealing with uncertainty (United States)

    Timmermans, Jos; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Hermans, Leon; Kwakkel, Jan


    Deltas are generally recognized as vulnerable to climate change and therefore a salient topic in adaptation science. Deltas are also highly dynamic systems viewed from physical (erosion, sedimentation, subsidence), social (demographic), economic (trade), infrastructures (transport, energy, metropolization) and cultural (multi-ethnic) perspectives. This multi-faceted dynamic character of delta areas warrants the emergence of a branch of applied adaptation science, Adaptive Delta Management, which explicitly focuses on climate adaptation of such highly dynamic and deeply uncertain systems. The application of Adaptive Delta Management in the Dutch Delta Program and its active international dissemination by Dutch professionals results in the rapid dissemination of Adaptive Delta Management to deltas worldwide. This global dissemination raises concerns among professionals in delta management on its applicability in deltas with cultural conditions and historical developments quite different from those found in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom where the practices now labelled as Adaptive Delta Management first emerged. This research develops an approach and gives a first analysis of the interaction between the characteristics of different approaches in Adaptive Delta Management and their alignment with the cultural conditions encountered in various delta's globally. In this analysis, first different management theories underlying approaches to Adaptive Delta Management as encountered in both scientific and professional publications are identified and characterized on three dimensions: The characteristics dimensions used are: orientation on today, orientation on the future, and decision making (Timmermans, 2015). The different underlying management theories encountered are policy analysis, strategic management, transition management, and adaptive management. These four management theories underlying different approaches in Adaptive Delta Management are connected to

  12. Changes in Ecosystem Services and related Livelihoods in the Mekong Delta: vulnerabilities and adaptation strategies (United States)

    Sebesvari, Z.; Renaud, F. G.


    The Mekong Delta (Vietnam) is highly vulnerable to the many impacts of global environmental change as well as to the accelerating anthropogenic changes in the catchment and in the delta itself. Today the delta is an agricultural landscape controlled by engineering structures such as channels, dykes, embankments, and sluice gates. These structures have been constructed gradually over the last 200 years mainly for irrigation and flood control in the upper part of the delta and to control saline intrusion in the coastal areas. Recent changes in the hydrology mainly driven by upstream hydropower development on the mainstream and the tributaries of the Mekong will likely have far reaching impacts on the delta´s social-ecological systems through changes in e.g. sedimentation processes, nutrient transport as well as the health of aquatic ecosystems. Further threats to the delta include sea level rise and an increase in seasonal rainfall variability leading to an increase in flood variability. These changes affect the lives of millions of low-income inhabitants who depend on the ecosystem services provided by the Mekong for their livelihoods and sustenance. Since the changes in ecosystem service provision are occurring relatively fast while the resource dependency of the delta population is very high, adaptation becomes a challenge. An assessment of livelihood dependencies on ecosystem services requires an understanding of ecosystem services affected by different drivers of change, as well as of the types of livelihoods likely to be jeopardized as a result of these changes. We will present main ecosystem services supporting specific livelihoods, discuss how they are threatened, and analyse the merits of potential solutions. Options based solely on grey infrastructure might be problematic on the long term while an integration of ecosystem based solution such as a (re)adaptation of agricultural production systems to floods in the upper delta might be a more sustainable

  13. Central Delta languages: An overview1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    The Central. Delta languages on or about which linguistic research materials were available for this study are Abuan, Oḍual (Sạkạ), Ọgbi ̣ạ (Ọgbi ̣nyạ), Ogbrọnụagum (Ḅukuma), Obulom (Abuloma), and Ogbogolo (Obogolo). Due to a lack of research materials or adequate research materials at the time of writing this paper, ...

  14. Delta: Data Reduction for Integrated Application Workflows.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lofstead, Gerald Fredrick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jean-Baptiste, Gregory [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Oldfield, Ron A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Integrated Application Workflows (IAWs) run multiple simulation workflow components con- currently on an HPC resource connecting these components using compute area resources and compensating for any performance or data processing rate mismatches. These IAWs require high frequency and high volume data transfers between compute nodes and staging area nodes during the lifetime of a large parallel computation. The available network band- width between the two areas may not be enough to efficiently support the data movement. As the processing power available to compute resources increases, the requirements for this data transfer will become more difficult to satisfy and perhaps will not be satisfiable at all since network capabilities are not expanding at a comparable rate. Furthermore, energy consumption in HPC environments is expected to grow by an order of magnitude as exas- cale systems become a reality. The energy cost of moving large amounts of data frequently will contribute to this issue. It is necessary to reduce the volume of data without reducing the quality of data when it is being processed and analyzed. Delta resolves the issue by addressing the lifetime data transfer operations. Delta removes subsequent identical copies of already transmitted data during transfers and restores those copies once the data has reached the destination. Delta is able to identify duplicated information and determine the most space efficient way to represent it. Initial tests show about 50% reduction in data movement while maintaining the same data quality and transmission frequency.

  15. Delta count-rate monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Etten, D.; Olsen, W.A.


    A need for a more effective way to rapidly search for gamma-ray contamination over large areas led to the design and construction of a very sensitive gamma detection system. The delta count-rate monitoring system was installed in a four-wheel-drive van instrumented for environmental surveillance and accident response. The system consists of four main sections: (1) two scintillation detectors, (2) high-voltage power supply amplifier and single-channel analyzer, (3) delta count-rate monitor, and (4) count-rate meter and recorder. The van's 6.5-kW generator powers the standard nuclear instrument modular design system. The two detectors are mounted in the rear corners of the van and can be run singly or jointly. A solid-state bar-graph count-rate meter mounted on the dashboard can be read easily by both the driver and passenger. A solid-state strip chart recorder shows trends and provides a permanent record of the data. An audible alarm is sounded at the delta monitor and at the dashboard count-rate meter if a detected radiation level exceeds the set background level by a predetermined amount

  16. Expression and evolution of delta9 and delta11 desaturase genes in the moth Spodoptera littoralis. (United States)

    Rodríguez, Sergio; Hao, Guixia; Liu, Weitian; Piña, Benjamín; Rooney, Alejandro P; Camps, Francisco; Roelofs, Wendell L; Fabriàs, Gemma


    Desaturation of fatty acids is a key reaction in the biosynthesis of moth sex pheromones. The main component of Spodoptera littoralis sex pheromone blend is produced by the action of Delta11 and Delta9 desaturases. In this article, we report on the cloning of four desaturase-like genes in this species: one from the fat body (Sls-FL1) and three (Sls-FL2, Sls-FL3 and Sls-FL4) from the pheromone gland. By means of a computational/phylogenetic method, as well as functional assays, the desaturase gene products have been characterized. The fat body gene expressed a Delta9 desaturase that produced (Z)-9-hexadecenoic and (Z)-9-octadecenoic acids in a (1:4.5) ratio, whereas the pheromone gland Sls-FL2 expressed a Delta9 desaturase that produced (Z)-9-hexadecenoic and (Z)-9-octadecenoic acids in a (1.5:1) ratio. Although both Delta9 desaturases produced (Z)-9-tetradecenoic acid from myristic acid, transformed yeast grown in the presence of a mixture of myristic and (E)-11-tetradecenoic acids produced (Z,E)-9,11-tetradecadienoic acid, but not (Z)-9-tetradecenoic acid. The Sls-FL3 gene expressed a protein that produced a mixture of (E)-11-tetradecenoic, (Z)-11-tetradecenoic, (Z)-11-hexadecenoic and (Z)-11-octadecenoic acids in a 5:4:60:31 ratio. Despite having all the characteristics of a desaturase gene, no function could be found for Sls-FL4.

  17. The Development of E-Library at Delta State University Library, Abraka

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study is on the automation of Delta University Library Abraka. The processes involved in the acquisition of information communication technology equipments to complement the traditional Library Services were stated. Major issues discussed include acquisition of computers hardware and library software, telephone ...

  18. Living with wildfire in Delta County, Colorado: cross-community comparisons (United States)

    James R. Meldrum; Christopher Barth; Lilia Colter Falk; Hannah Brenkert-Smith; Travis Warziniack; Patricia A. Champ


    This research note summarizes two linked datasets for four WUI communities in Delta County, Colorado. These data include a general population survey of residents in the community and an assessment of the physical characteristics of all residential properties in the community. This report summarizes the study design and focuses on the extent to which collected data vary...

  19. Soil properties of mangroves in contrasting geomorphic settings within the Zambezi River Delta, Mozambique (United States)

    Christina E. Stringer; Carl C. Trettin; Stan Zarnoch


    Mangroves are well-known for their numerous ecosystem services, including sequestering a significant carbon stock, with soils accounting for the largest pool. The soil carbon pool is dependent on the carbon content and bulk density. Our objective was to assess the spatial variability of mangrove soil physical and chemical properties within the Zambezi River Delta and...

  20. A Short Biography of Paul A. M. Dirac and Historical Development of Dirac Delta Function (United States)

    Debnath, Lokenath


    This paper deals with a short biography of Paul Dirac, his first celebrated work on quantum mechanics, his first formal systematic use of the Dirac delta function and his famous work on quantum electrodynamics and quantum statistics. Included are his first discovery of the Dirac relativistic wave equation, existence of positron and the intrinsic…

  1. Building stones from a muddy delta: Native natural stone from The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, T.G.; Dubelaar, C.W.; Tolboom, H.J.; Hees, R.P.J. van


    Most of the Netherlands a Quaternary delta, local supplies of natural stone suitable for building are rare. These include: Quaternary bog iron ores used in early medieval times (until c. 1200); erratics, deposited in boulder clay during the Saalian ice age in the northern Netherlands and gravel from

  2. Identifying the Minimum Model Features to Replicate Historic Morphodynamics of a Juvenile Delta (United States)

    Czapiga, M. J.; Parker, G.


    We introduce a quasi-2D morphodynamic delta model that improves on past models that require many simplifying assumptions, e.g. a single channel representative of a channel network, fixed channel width, and spatially uniform deposition. Our model is useful for studying long-term progradation rates of any generic micro-tidal delta system with specification of: characteristic grain size, input water and sediment discharges and basin morphology. In particular, we relax the assumption of a single, implicit channel sweeping across the delta topset in favor of an implicit channel network. This network, coupled with recent research on channel-forming Shields number, quantitative assessments of the lateral depositional length of sand (corresponding loosely to levees) and length between bifurcations create a spatial web of deposition within the receiving basin. The depositional web includes spatial boundaries for areas infilling with sands carried as bed material load, as well as those filling via passive deposition of washload mud. Our main goal is to identify the minimum features necessary to accurately model the morphodynamics of channel number, width, depth, and overall delta progradation rate in a juvenile delta. We use the Wax Lake Delta in Louisiana as a test site due to its rapid growth in the last 40 years. Field data including topset/island bathymetry, channel bathymetry, topset/island width, channel width, number of channels, and radial topset length are compiled from US Army Corps of Engineers data for 1989, 1998, and 2006. Additional data is extracted from a DEM from 2015. These data are used as benchmarks for the hindcast model runs. The morphology of Wax Lake Delta is also strongly affected by a pre-delta substrate that acts as a lower "bedrock" boundary. Therefore, we also include closures for a bedrock-alluvial transition and an excess shear rate-law incision model to estimate bedrock incision. The model's framework is generic, but inclusion of individual

  3. On the QCD corrections to {Delta}F=2 FCNC in the supersymmetric SM with hierarchical squark masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertuzzo, Enrico; Farina, Marco [Scuola Normale Superiore and INFN, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Lodone, Paolo, E-mail: p.lodone@sns.i [Scuola Normale Superiore and INFN, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy)


    In the context of the Supersymmetric Standard Model with hierarchical sfermion masses, we re-analyze the QCD corrections to {Delta}F=2 effective Hamiltonian properly including effects which have been neglected so far. The point is that some {Delta}F=2 diagrams, involving both the heavy and the light sparticles, exhibit a logarithmic dependence on the ratio between the two masses, signalling a sensitivity to all the momenta between the two scales. In order to properly deal with these terms one has to take into account the mixing between {Delta}F=1 and {Delta}F=2 operators. In typical situations this treatment can affect the result at the level of 30% or even more.

  4. A Study of Image Classification of Remote Sensing Based on Back-Propagation Neural Network with Extended Delta Bar Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Liang Zhang


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model to extract feature information quickly and accurately identifying what cannot be achieved through traditional methods of remote sensing image classification. First, process the selected Landsat-8 remote sensing data, including radiometric calibration, geometric correction, optimal band combination, and image cropping. Add the processed remote sensing image to the normalized geographic auxiliary information, digital elevation model (DEM, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, working together to build a neural network that consists of three levels based on the structure of back-propagation neural and extended delta bar delta (BPN-EDBD algorithm, determining the parameters of the neural network to constitute a good classification model. Then determine classification and standards via field surveys and related geographic information; select training samples BPN-EDBD for algorithm learning and training and, if necessary, revise and improve its parameters using the BPN-EDBD classification algorithm to classify the remote sensing image after pretreatment and DEM data and NDVI as input parameters and output classification results, and run accuracy assessment. Finally, compare with traditional supervised classification algorithms, while adding different auxiliary geographic information to compare classification results to study the advantages and disadvantages of BPN-EDBD classification algorithm.

  5. Refining the link between the Holocene development of the Mississippi River Delta and the geologic evolution of Cat Island, MS: implications for delta-associated barrier islands (United States)

    Miselis, Jennifer L.; Buster, Noreen A.; Kindinger, Jack G.


    The geologic evolution of barrier islands is profoundly influenced by the nature of the deposits underlying them. Many researchers have speculated on the origin and evolution of Cat Island in Mississippi, but uncertainty remains about whether or not the island is underlain completely or in part by deposits associated with the past growth of the Mississippi River delta. In part, this is due to a lack of comprehensive geological information offshore of the island that could augment previous stratigraphic interpretations based on terrestrial borings. An extensive survey of Cat Island and its surrounding waters was conducted, including shallow-water geophysics (e.g., high-resolution chirp seismic, side-scan sonar, and swath and single-beam bathymetry) and both terrestrial and marine vibracoring. High-resolution seismic data and vibracores from south and east of the island show two horizontally laminated silt units; marine radiocarbon dates indicate that they are St. Bernard delta complex (SBDC) deposits. Furthermore, seismic data reveal that the SBDC deposits taper off toward the southern shoreline of Cat Island and to the west, morphology consistent with the distal edge of a delta complex. The sedimentology and extent of each unit suggest that the lower unit may have been deposited during an earlier period of continuous river flow while the upper unit may represent reduced or sporadic river flow. OSL dates from the island platform (beneath beach ridge complexes) indicate three stages of terrestrial evolution: island emergence resulting from relative sea-level rise (~ 5400 ybp) island aggradation via littoral transport (~ 2500–4000 ybp) and island degradation due to delta-mediated changes in wave direction (present– ~ 3600 ybp). Finally, the combination of terrestrial and marine data shows that portions of Cat Island that are lower in elevation than the central part of the island are younger and are likely underlain by a thin layer of deltaic sediments. This


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica SOARE


    Full Text Available Purpose - the purpose of this paper is to evaluate the rural areas has market size and forecast its development as an economic activity. The present paper aims at analyzing the rural areas has in Danube Delta. In an enviable BAs which have responsibility for their particular isolated, such as the Danube Delta and the Danube that used, fishing and rural areas has the main activities that provide jobs and income sources for local populations. Design/methodology/approach - A survey was administered to customers’ rural hostel accommodation in Danube Delta. Descriptive statistics method was mainly adopted to calculate the mean with standard deviation of entry assumes variable, and to examine the different levels of consumers' awareness. The index values of product familiarity, the ratio between entries assumes product's familiarity value and the average value. Findings - the research results show hash has rural consumers have different perception and accomplished through behaviour. The information channels of brand hash mainly from friends, relatives and neighbours, so word of mouth spreading is very important for a brand. Women show a higher sensitivity in health and are currently operating the propensity than referred to follow the recommendations for nutrition. Research limitations/implications - This item is intended to synthesize developments and challenges," on June 13th rural market growth has. The results of this paper should be considered tentatively until has also features replicated by larger has rural consumers. Originality/value - members of rural areas has consumer's behavior would improve marketing and the development of rural areas has products, in order to reduce consumer confusion.

  7. Using ground-based geophysics to constrain the interpretation of airborne TEM data recorded across the Okavango Delta, Botswana (United States)

    Podgorski, J. E.; Kalscheuer, T.; Doetsch, J.; Rabenstein, L.; Tshoso, G.; Meier, P.; Horstmeyer, H.; Kgotlhang, L.; Ploug, C.; Auken, E.; Kinzelbach, W. K.; Green, A. G.


    The Okavango Delta in northern Botswana is a near endorheic inland delta that has developed over the past ~2 MA in an active graben at the southwestern end of the East Africa Rift System. An annual flood from the north causes a slowly flowing surface water regime in the delta, but previous wetter climatic periods were responsible for intermittent lacustrine environments. The Okavango Delta is the largest permanent water body in the Kalahari Desert and, as such, represents an important resource for wildlife and humans alike. An airborne time-domain electromagnetic (TEM) survey, commissioned by the Botswana government, was undertaken in 2007 for the purpose of better understanding the hydrogeology of the delta. Initial processing and inversion of these data show within the main fan of the delta a resistive 20-50 m thick surface layer underlain by a 30-200 m thick conductive layer. In the upper fan, the conductive layer is underlain by a resistive unit beginning at about 150 m depth. This unit exhibits a dendritic pattern implying a fluvial origin. To help interpret this and other structures, geophysical field work was initiated in early 2011 at various locations in the delta. Seismic reflection and refraction, electrical resistive tomography (ERT), and ground TEM methods were employed. The seismic methods are useful for delineating the boundaries of the weathering and basement layers, whereas ERT provides an independent estimate of the resistivity structure, particularly at shallow depths. Ground TEM allows for a direct comparison with the airborne TEM soundings, helping to estimate the accuracy of the latter. Though still evolving, the current large-scale hydrogeological interpretation of the airborne data set includes a fresh water-saturated surface layer underlain by a saline aquifer and clay aquitard. In the upper fan of the delta, a fresh water aquifer appears to lie between the aquitard and the basement rock.

  8. Uncertainties in future-proof decision-making: the Dutch Delta Model (United States)

    IJmker, Janneke; Snippen, Edwin; Ruijgh, Erik


    In 1953, a number of European countries experienced flooding after a major storm event coming from the northwest. Over 2100 people died of the resulting floods, 1800 of them being Dutch. This gave rise to the development of the so-called Delta Works and Zuiderzee Works that strongly reduced the flood risk in the Netherlands. These measures were a response to a large flooding event. As boundary conditions have changed (increasing population, increasing urban development, etc.) , the flood risk should be evaluated continuously, and measures should be taken if necessary. The Delta Programme was designed to be prepared for future changes and to limit the flood risk, taking into account economics, nature, landscape, residence and recreation . To support decisions in the Delta Programme, the Delta Model was developed. By using four different input scenarios (extremes in climate and economics) and variations in system setup, the outcomes of the Delta Model represent a range of possible outcomes for the hydrological situation in 2050 and 2100. These results flow into effect models that give insight in the integrated effects on freshwater supply (including navigation, industry and ecology) and flood risk. As the long-term water management policy of the Netherlands for the next decades will be based on these results, they have to be reliable. Therefore, a study was carried out to investigate the impact of uncertainties on the model outcomes. The study focused on "known unknowns": uncertainties in the boundary conditions, in the parameterization and in the model itself. This showed that for different parts of the Netherlands, the total uncertainty is in the order of meters! Nevertheless, (1) the total uncertainty is dominated by uncertainties in boundary conditions. Internal model uncertainties are subordinate to that. Furthermore, (2) the model responses develop in a logical way, such that the exact model outcomes might be uncertain, but the outcomes of different model runs

  9. More than 100 Years of Background-Level Sedimentary Metals, Nisqually River Delta, South Puget Sound, Washington (United States)

    Takesue, Renee K.; Swarzenski, Peter W.


    The Nisqually River Delta is located about 25 km south of the Tacoma Narrows in the southern reach of Puget Sound. Delta evolution is controlled by sedimentation from the Nisqually River and erosion by strong tidal currents that may reach 0.95 m/s in the Nisqually Reach. The Nisqually River flows 116 km from the Cascade Range, including the slopes of Mount Rainier, through glacially carved valleys to Puget Sound. Extensive tidal flats on the delta consist of late-Holocene silty and sandy strata from normal river streamflow and seasonal floods and possibly from distal sediment-rich debris flows associated with volcanic and seismic events. In the early 1900s, dikes and levees were constructed around Nisqually Delta salt marshes, and the reclaimed land was used for agriculture and pasture. In 1974, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service established the Nisqually National Wildlife Refuge on the reclaimed land to protect migratory birds; its creation has prevented further human alteration of the Delta and estuary. In October 2009, original dikes and levees were removed to restore tidal exchange to almost 3 km2 of man-made freshwater marsh on the Nisqually Delta.

  10. A new seamless, high-resolution digital elevation model of the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary, California (United States)

    Fregoso, Theresa A.; Wang, Rueen-Fang; Ateljevich, Eli; Jaffe, Bruce E.


    Climate change, sea-level rise, and human development have contributed to the changing geomorphology of the San Francisco Bay - Delta (Bay-Delta) Estuary system. The need to predict scenarios of change led to the development of a new seamless, high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the Bay – Delta that can be used by modelers attempting to understand potential future changes to the estuary system. This report details the three phases of the creation of this DEM. The first phase took a bathymetric-only DEM created in 2005 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), refined it with additional data, and identified areas that would benefit from new surveys. The second phase began a USGS collaboration with the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) that updated a 2012 DWR seamless bathymetric/topographic DEM of the Bay-Delta with input from the USGS and modifications to fit the specific needs of USGS modelers. The third phase took the work from phase 2 and expanded the coverage area in the north to include the Yolo Bypass up to the Fremont Weir, the Sacramento River up to Knights Landing, and the American River up to the Nimbus Dam, and added back in the elevations for interior islands. The constant evolution of the Bay-Delta will require continuous updates to the DEM of the Delta, and there still are areas with older data that would benefit from modern surveys. As a result, DWR plans to continue updating the DEM.

  11. Tracks, spurs, blobs and delta-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, J.L.; Chatterjee, A.


    The track of a high-energy particle is the collection of all transient species created by the particle in the total degradation of its energy. Visible electron tracks are called delta rays. A microscopic description of the track with all its knocked-out electrons leads to spurs, blobs, and short tracks. Energy deposition criteria for these three track entities are 6 to 100 eV, 100 to 500 eV, and 500 eV to 5 keV, respectively

  12. The situation in the Niger Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitalis, E.


    An energy issue for the United States and a political challenge for Europe, Nigeria is experiencing growing instability and is on the verge of civil war; the ecosystem and the population of the Niger Delta are the main victims. The State, corrupt, is powerless to contain the rising violence and redistribute the proceeds of oil sales. It is high time for oil-consuming countries, starting with the United States, to concern themselves with stabilizing the region. Europe must contribute to the lasting development of this country. (author)

  13. Subsurface Miocene sequence stratigraphic framework in the Nile Delta, Egypt (United States)

    Farouk, Sherif; Ziko, Abdelmohsen; Eweda, Shehtta A.; Said, Ali E.


    The Miocene depositional history of the Nile Delta is dominated by fluvial-deltaic, marginal marine and marine shelf sedimentation. It exhibits radical lateral facies changes due to its tectonic setting. Different attributions in age assignments characterise the Miocene Nile Delta due to the lack of large vertical facies changes, which consists mainly of siliciclastic with different environments. This study uses integrating lithologic, biostratigraphic, gamma-ray log and benthic foraminiferal biofacies, at four boreholes (Tanta-1, Rommana-1X, El-Fayrouz and Rosetta-7) in the Nile Delta, Egypt. Planktonic foraminifera allow subdivision of the Miocene Nile Delta succession into 12 planktonic biozones and benthic species are used in paleobathymetic estimates.

  14. Optimality and self-organization in river deltas (United States)

    Tejedor, A.; Longjas, A.; Edmonds, D. A.; Zaliapin, I. V.; Georgiou, T. T.; Rinaldo, A.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.


    Deltas are nourished by channel networks, whose connectivity constrains, if not drives, the evolution, functionality and resilience of these systems. Understanding the coevolution of deltaic channels and their flux organization is crucial for guiding maintenance strategies of these highly stressed systems from a range of anthropogenic activities. However, in contrast to tributary channel networks, to date, no theory has been proposed to explain how deltas self-organize to distribute water and sediment to the delta top and the shoreline. Here, we hypothesize the existence of an optimality principle underlying the self-organized partition of fluxes in delta channel networks. Specifically, we hypothesize that deltas distribute water and sediment fluxes on a given delta topology such as to maximize the diversity of flux delivery to the shoreline. By introducing the concept of nonlocal Entropy Rate (nER) and analyzing ten field deltas in diverse environments, we present evidence that supports our hypothesis, suggesting that delta networks achieve dynamically accessible maxima of their nER. Furthermore, by analyzing six simulated deltas using the Delf3D model and following their topologic and flux re-organization before and after major avulsions, we further study the evolution of nER and confirm our hypothesis. We discuss how optimal flux distributions in terms of nER, when interpreted in terms of resilience, are configurations that reflect an increased ability to withstand perturbations.

  15. CMS: Aboveground Biomass for Mangrove Forest, Zambezi River Delta, Mozambique (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset provides several estimates of aboveground biomass from various regressions and allometries for mangrove forest in the Zambezi River Delta, Mozambique....

  16. Delta Alliance Young Professionals Award: Innovative solutions for delta challenges worldwide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krueger, I.; Miguel Ayala, L.; Driel, van W.F.


    Deltas are fragile, dynamic landforms at the boundary of land and ocean. They belong to the most valuable, but at the same time also to the most vulnerable areas in the world. With increasing pressure from population growth, industrialization and changing climate, it is more important than ever that

  17. Adaptive delta management: a comparison between the Netherlands and Bangladesh Delta Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zevenbergen, Chris; Khan, Shah Alam; Alphen, van Jos; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Catharien; Veerbeek, William


    In the Netherlands, the central government, water authorities, provinces and municipalities are working together on a new Delta Program on Flood Risk Management and Fresh Water Supply (DP). Its primary goal is to protect the Netherlands against floods and ensure the availability of fresh water, now

  18. Delta Plaza kohvik = The Delta Plaza Café / Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mutso, Margit, 1966-


    Tallinnas Pärnu mnt. 141 asuva kohviku Delta Plaza sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid Tiiu Truus ja Marja Viltrop (Stuudio Truus OÜ). Hoone arhitektid Jüri Okas ja Marika Lõoke (AB J. Okas & M. Lõoke). Žürii liikme Mait Summataveti arvamus kohvikust

  19. Experimental delta formation in crater lakes and implications for interpretation of martian deltas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villiers, G. de; Kleinhans, M.G.; Postma, G.


    The morphology of delta deposits in crater lakes on Mars is indicative of upstream (e.g., flow discharge and sediment properties) and downstream (e.g., basin characteristics) parameters, from which the hydrological conditions at the time of formation can be inferred. To investigate the influences of

  20. Vortex Breakdown over Slender Delta Wings (Eclatement tourbillonnaire sur les ailes delta effil es) (United States)


    taps See Fig. 1. Pressure taps Number of pressure taps and thermocouple 57 taps on 65° delta wing, 3 taps on canter body of 55° diamond and...Sedra Walton, Scott Thompson, Paul Olsen, Andrew Arena, Todd Graves, Thomas Quast, Kenneth Cheung, Deborah Grismer, David Williams, Alain Pelletier

  1. Tidal modulated flow and sediment flux through Wax Lake Delta distributary channels: Implications for delta development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hanegan


    Full Text Available In this study, a Delft3D model of the Wax Lake Delta was developed to simulate flow and sediment flux through delta distributary channels. The model was calibrated for tidal constituents as well as velocity and sediment concentration across channel transects. The calibrated model was then used to simulate full spring–neap tidal cycles under constant low flow upstream boundary conditions, with grain size variation in suspended load represented using two sediment fractions. Flow and sediment flux results through distributary channel cross-sections were examined for spatial and temporal variability with the goal of characterizing the role of tides in sediment reworking and delta development. The Wax Lake Delta has prograded through channel extension, river mouth bar deposition, and channel bifurcation. Here we show that tidal modulation of currents influences suspended sand transport, and spatial acceleration through distributary channels at low tides is sufficient to suspend sand in distal reaches during lower flows. The basinward-increasing transport capacity in distributary channels indicates that erosive channel extension could be an important process, even during non-flood events.

  2. Catalyzing action towards the sustainability of deltas: deltas as integrated socio-ecological systems and sentinels of regional and global change (United States)

    Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Tessler, Z. D.; Brondizio, E.; Overeem, I.; Renaud, F.; Sebesvari, Z.; Nicholls, R. J.; Anthony, E.


    Deltas are highly dynamic and productive environments: they are food baskets of the world, home to biodiverse and rich ecosystems, and they play a central role in food and water security. However, they are becoming increasingly vulnerable to risks arising from human activities, land subsidence, regional water management, global sea-level rise, and climate extremes. Our Belmont Forum DELTAS project (BF-DELTAS: Catalyzing actions towards delta sustainability) encompasses an international network of interdisciplinary research collaborators with focal areas in the Mekong, Ganges Brahmaputra, and the Amazon deltas. The project is organized around five main modules: (1) developing an analytical framework for assessing delta vulnerability and scenarios of change (Delta-SRES), (2) developing an open-acess, science-based integrative modeling framework for risk assessment and decision support (Delta-RADS), (3) developing tools to support quantitative mapping of the bio-physical and socio-economic environments of deltas and consolidate bio-physical and social data within shared data repositories (Delta-DAT), (4) developing Global Delta Vulnerability Indices (Delta-GDVI) that capture current and projected scenarios for major deltas around the world , and (5) collaborating with regional stakeholders to put the science, modeling, and data into action (Delta-ACT). In this talk, a research summary will be presented on three research domains around which significant collaborative work was developed: advancing biophysical classification of deltas, understanding deltas as coupled socio-ecological systems, and analyzing and informing social and environmental vulnerabilities in delta regions.

  3. The political economy of oil and the Niger Delta crisis (United States)

    Ighodaro, Osaro O.

    This study is about the burgeoning crisis in Nigeria's Oil Producing Niger Delta region. Discerning the intersecting contributive factors to the crisis, this dissertation suggests that the Niger Delta crisis is symptomatic of challenges to development in Nigeria. Due to the insidious colonial/neo-colonial practices of subjugation, and exploitation of the host communities, it is suggested that the extractive, super-profit motive of Shell, the concomitant environmental degradation, corruption of a bellicose state, ethnic conflict and suffering of the masses are outcomes of a long historically debilitating relationship with international capital which causes irreparable retardation to the host communities. From cash crop economy to a mono-oil economy resources are removed from the communities and used to enhance the colonial state and their post-colonial harbingers of misery. Hence, the indigenous people claim that the Niger Delta is in a crisis, and they are willing to confront the triple alliance of multinational oil companies like Shell, the Nigerian State and the local elite so long as these allies of subjugation continue to neglect the goose that lays the proverbial golden egg (oil that is). Theoretically, a hybrid Political Economy approach was adopted as the over-aching framework for the study, while Dependency theory, modified by what I have called African Transformative scholarly perspective, served as the conceptual tool. Primary and secondary sources of data, including personal observation, interviews, official government documents and other publications were utilized for this analysis. In view of recommendations, it is suggested that first, the Nigerian state should assume decisive and unflinching leadership in holding oil companies responsible for their activities in the host communities; second, oil companies (like Shell) should see themselves as an integral part of the host communities; invest in their development by providing employment opportunities

  4. Source and composition of sediments and organic carbon delivered to the Mackenzie River delta (United States)

    Vonk, J. E.; Blusztajn, J.; Giosan, L.; Montlucon, D. B.; Graf-Pannatier, E.; Eglinton, T. I.


    The Mackenzie River is believed to represent the largest fluvial sediment flux to the Arctic Ocean (124 Mt/yr), delivering as much sediment as all other major Arctic Rivers combined. This flux is based on river inflow prior to its entry into the delta, and consists of Mackenzie River mainstem sediments (103 Mt/yr; including Arctic Red River) entering the delta from the southeast, and Peel River sediments (21 Mt/yr) entering from the southwest. The Mackenzie River delta, the second largest river delta in the world, is covered with thousands of small, shallow lakes. In-lake sedimentation, in addition to overbank and point bar sedimentation, is substantial and estimated to be around 102 Mt/yr. Erosion of banks and channels may account for approximately half of this flux, so the "true" offshore sediment flux might be lower than is typically reported. Improved estimates are required for the flux and provenance of fluvial sediment delivered to the delta, and to the adjacent Beaufort Sea, to be able to increase our understanding of Arctic deltas, particularly in the light of ongoing and future climatic change. Here we investigate the source and composition of sediments in the Mackenzie delta and near-coastal zone, based on a blend of sedimentological (grain size, mineral surface area), organic (%TOC, %TN, δ13C, δ15N, Δ14C) and inorganic (major/trace elements, Nd/Sr isotopes) properties of suspended river particulates (n=6), bank sediments (n=8), lake sediments (n=21), and shelf sediments (n=9). Bank and shelf sediments showed fairly constant bulk %TOC contents and δ13C values (1.0±0.3%, and -26.7±0.3‰; 1.3±0.3%, and -25.5±0.7‰, respectively) whereas lake sediments revealed greater spatial variability (2.2±1.2%, and -26.8±1.3‰). The variability in Nd isotopes of the detrital sediment component is significant (ɛNd of suspended matter -12.7 to -13.9; banks -12.4 to -14.5; lakes -11.4 to -14.5; and shelf -12.5 to -13.0). This suggests strong variations in

  5. Delta-Domain Predictive Control and Identification for Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Morten Bach


    -time and continuous-time theory. In addition these parametrizations possess certain numerical advantages compared to shift-operator representations. A new prediction method is developed. It is based on ideas from continuous-time but derived from discrete-time delta-operator models. It is shown to include the optimal...... minimum-variance predictor as a special case and to have a well-defined continuous-time limit. By means of this new prediction method a unified framework for discrete-time and continuous-time predictive control algorithms is developed. This contains a continuous-time like discrete-time predictive...... controller which is insensitive to the choice of sampling period and has a well-defined limit in the continuous-time case. Also more conventional discrete-time predictive control methods may be described within the unified approach. The predictive control algorithms are extended to frequency weighted...

  6. Land Resources Evaluation Of The Paleodarainage Delta In Western Desert Of Egypt Using Remote Sensing Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afify, A.A.


    The study area was selected to represent the sediments of paleodrainage delta in the Western Desert of Egypt, covering about 15615653 feddans (6561199 hectares). The data of Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) 2002 were used for delineating the physiographic units to be a base for the soil taxonomic units (all are hyperthermic). These taxonomic units were potentially evaluated for barley and wheat (grain crops), alfalfa (fodder crop), maize, sun flower and olives (oil seed crops). The illustrated flow of the paleodrainage delta starts from the south as undulating delta apex, which most probably was deposited by the paleodrainage from Eastern Desert through the different rock structures. This apex includes soils of Calcic Petrogypsids loamy skeletal, gypsic; Typic Clacigypsids, loamy skeletal, gypsic and Typic Calcigypsids, sandy skeletal, mixed. The unit is profitable for drip irrigated olives as moderately to marginally suitable and for quarrying Oligocene gravel. Gently undulating inter delta includes sediments that was most probably received by reworking and out washing the slopes of delta apex in relatively more recent fluvial eras. The soils are Typic Calcigypsids, fine loamy, mixed; Typic Calcigypsids, loamy skeletal, mixed and Typic Calcigypsids, sandy, mixed. This unit is profitable for drip irrigated olives as highly suitable and sprinkly irrigated alfalfa, maize and sun flower as marginally suitable. Gently undulating to almost flat inter delta is most probably received its sediments from the southern physiographic units by the paleodrainage erosion. The soils are Leptic Haplogypsids, fine loamy, mixed and Leptic Haplogypsid, sandy, mixed. This unit is profitable for drip irrigated olives as moderately suitable. In the middle front of this unit, a township is proposed to be constructed A I Qattara Town . Flat depressed pro delta includes interfered sediments of different paleodrainage eras being received medium soil matrix over relatively old sediments

  7. In vivo metabolism of the methyl homologues of delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and abn-delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol in the mouse. (United States)

    Brown, N K; Harvey, D J


    Methyl-delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol (methyl-delta-8-THC), methyl-delta-9-THC and abn-methyl-delta-8-THC were synthesized by condensation of orcinol and (1S)-cis-verbenol and were administered to male Charles River CD-1 mice. Extracted hepatic metabolites were isolated by chromatography on Sephadex LH-20 and examined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as trimethylsilyl (TMS), (2H9)TMS and methyl ester/TMS derivatives. In addition, metabolic fractions were reduced with lithium aluminium deuteride to convert carboxylic acids to alcohols for structural correlation. Metabolites from methyl-delta-8-THC were similar with respect to the positions substituted to those produced by higher homologues; the major metabolite was methyl-delta-8-THC-11-oic acid. abn-Methyl-delta-8-THC was metabolized in a different manner. The location of the aromatic methyl group at the position adjacent to ring fusion appeared to inhibit metabolism at C(11) to a considerable extent and also to reduce the amount of the resulting alcohol from being oxidized to a carboxylic acid. This caused other metabolic pathways to become dominant, with the result that a compound containing a hydroxy group at the gem-methyl position was the major metabolite. Hydroxylation at this position has not been confirmed with any other cannabinoid, although it is thought to result in trace concentrations of hydroxy metabolites from some compounds. Metabolism of methyl-delta-9-THC was also similar to that of the higher homologues, with the exception that less metabolism occurred at C(8) and a higher percentage of the total metabolic fraction was accounted for by the 11-oic acid metabolite. Minor metabolites were mainly dihydroxy compounds and hydroxylated derivatives of delta-9-THC-11-oic acid.

  8. Research on vulnerability assessments of the Huanghe (Yellow River) delta (United States)

    qiao, shuqing; shi, xuefa


    Coastal zone located at the juncture of the sea, river and land, and under the influence of both land and ocean (including atmosphere), especially the sea-level rise and human activities, are vulnerable to environment and ecology. At highest risk are coastal zone of South, Southeast and East Asia with dense populations, low elevations and inadequate adaptive capacity. In China, more than 40% of the population live on the 15% of the land in coastal area and more than 70% cities located around the coastal area. The Chinese coastal region, especially river delta area has been experienced erosion, seawater intrusion and decrease in biodiversity under the combined influence of sea-level rise, tectonic subsidence and flooding. Furthermore, some kinds of human activity, such as land use, building, dam construction, reclamation from the sea and waste dumping strengthen the vulnerability of environment and ecosystem in coastal region. The coastal hazards (e.g. coastal erosion, seawater intrusion, land subsidence) and vulnerability of the Huanghe (Yelllow River) delta area are studied during the past several years. A systematic coastal assessment index is built and an evaluation model is developed using the development platform of Visual studio.Net 2005. The assessment index system includes two parts, inherent (sea level rise rate, elevation, morphology, water and sediment discharge, mean tidal range, mean wave height etc) and specific vulnerability index (population density, GDP, land utilization, protection structures etc). The assessment index are determined the weight using Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method. Based on the research results, we better understand the current status and future change of coastal vulnerability and hazards, discuss the impact of the natural possess and human activities. Furthermore, we provide defending strategies for coastal zone vulnerability and typical coastal hazards.

  9. Spectral factorization using the delta operator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Morten; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Ravn, Ole


    In recent years many papers have been published abouth the gamma-operator, mostly caused by the better numerical properties and the rapprochement between continuous and discrete time. A major problem within the LQG-design of a delta-based input-output relation has been how to spectral-factorize i......In recent years many papers have been published abouth the gamma-operator, mostly caused by the better numerical properties and the rapprochement between continuous and discrete time. A major problem within the LQG-design of a delta-based input-output relation has been how to spectral......-factorize in an efficient way. The discrete-time method of Kuccera will not be applied since numerical word-length characteristics will be poor for fast sampling rates. In this paper a new approach is considered. A new gamma-operator (Tustin operator) is introduced, in order to make an iterative and numerical stable...... solution to the spectral factorization problem. The key idea is to use the gamma-operator resembled by its behavior to the differential operator....

  10. Nitrogen content and delta N-15 of marine algae and associated waters of Maui, Hawaii, from 2012-07-28 to 2014-04-01 (NCEI Accession 0156294) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes nutrient data related to algal and water samples collected between 2012 and 2014 on Maui, Hawaii. Algal tissue N%, C:N ratios, and delta N-15...

  11. Complex rearrangements within the human J delta-C delta/J alpha-C alpha locus and aberrant recombination between J alpha segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baer, R.; Boehm, T.; Yssel, H.; Spits, H.; Rabbitts, T. H.


    We have examined DNA rearrangements within a 120 kb cloned region of the human T cell receptor J delta-C delta/J alpha-C alpha locus. Three types of pattern emerge from an analysis of T cell lines and clones. Firstly, cells with two rearrangements within J delta-C delta; secondly, cells with one

  12. Spatio-temporal distributions of delta18O, delta D and salinity in the Arabian Sea: Identifying processes and controls

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshpande, R.D; Muraleedharan, P.M.; Singh, R.L.; Kumar, B; Rao, M.S.; Dave, M.; Sivakumar, K.U.; Gupta, S.K.

    of these parameters. From the distributions of delta18O and salinity (S), and the relationships between delta18OdeltaD and delta18O–S, the following inferences have been drawn: (1) there is a broad correspondence between...

  13. The Concentration Dependence of the (Delta)s Term in the Gibbs Free Energy Function: Application to Reversible Reactions in Biochemistry (United States)

    Gary, Ronald K.


    The concentration dependence of (delta)S term in the Gibbs free energy function is described in relation to its application to reversible reactions in biochemistry. An intuitive and non-mathematical argument for the concentration dependence of the (delta)S term in the Gibbs free energy equation is derived and the applicability of the equation to…

  14. Numerical simulation of incidence and sweep effects on delta wing vortex breakdown (United States)

    Ekaterinaris, J. A.; Schiff, Lewis B.


    The structure of the vortical flowfield over delta wings at high angles of attack was investigated. Three-dimensional Navier-Stokes numerical simulations were carried out to predict the complex leeward-side flowfield characteristics, including leading-edge separation, secondary separation, and vortex breakdown. Flows over a 75- and a 63-deg sweep delta wing with sharp leading edges were investigated and compared with available experimental data. The effect of variation of circumferential grid resolution grid resolution in the vicinity of the wing leading edge on the accuracy of the solutions was addressed. Furthermore, the effect of turbulence modeling on the solutions was investigated. The effects of variation of angle of attack on the computed vortical flow structure for the 75-deg sweep delta wing were examined. At moderate angles of attack no vortex breakdown was observed. When a critical angle of attack was reached, bubble-type vortex breakdown was found. With further increase in angle of attack, a change from bubble-type breakdown to spiral-type vortex breakdown was predicted by the numerical solution. The effects of variation of sweep angle and freestream Mach number were addressed with the solutions on a 63-deg sweep delta wing.

  15. Delta: An object-oriented finite element code architecture for massively parallel computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weatherby, J.R.; Schutt, J.A.; Peery, J.S.; Hogan, R.E.


    Delta is an object-oriented code architecture based on the finite element method which enables simulation of a wide range of engineering mechanics problems in a parallel processing environment. Written in C{sup ++}, Delta is a natural framework for algorithm development and for research involving coupling of mechanics from different Engineering Science disciplines. To enhance flexibility and encourage code reuse, the architecture provides a clean separation of the major aspects of finite element programming. Spatial discretization, temporal discretization, and the solution of linear and nonlinear systems of equations are each implemented separately, independent from the governing field equations. Other attractive features of the Delta architecture include support for constitutive models with internal variables, reusable ``matrix-free`` equation solvers, and support for region-to-region variations in the governing equations and the active degrees of freedom. A demonstration code built from the Delta architecture has been used in two-dimensional and three-dimensional simulations involving dynamic and quasi-static solid mechanics, transient and steady heat transport, and flow in porous media.

  16. The Morphological Evolution and Sustainability of Deltas in the 21st Century (United States)

    Spinney, Sarah; Darby, Stephen; Dearing, John


    Compared to terrestrial systems, there have been relatively few studies that focus on the successful simulation of long-term emergent phenomena in coastal catchments, especially in the specific context of deltas. To address this gap, this research aims to enhance our understanding of how emergent processes influence the multidecadal evolution of deltaic environments, and how they may lead to the crossing of critical morphodynamic thresholds under increasing conditions of climatic stress. Utilising the cellular automata model CAESAR-Lisflood, we develop a methodology to explore the nature of multidecadal morphological change in delta systems (with a specific focus on the Mahanadi delta in India) under a range of climatic and environmental change scenarios. These scenarios are designed in such a way so as to encapsulate stressors that are common to a broad range of deltaic environments; including sediment starvation, accelerated subsidence, eustatic sea-level rise, and increased exposure to meteorological extremes. We then seek to identify important connections between the emergent morphological system and ecosystem services that influence the habitability of the delta, such as water quality, nutrient distribution and habitat cover. The model therefore provides a platform to investigate the viability of potential engineering strategies that could enhance the habitability of a given location, with a particular focus on re-naturalising the channel network.

  17. CFD analysis of fin tube heat exchanger with a pair of delta winglet vortex generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Seong Won; Kim, Dong Hwan; Min, June Kee; Jeong, Ji Hwan


    Among tubular heat exchangers, fin tube types are the most widely used in refrigeration and air-conditioning equipment. Efforts to enhance the performance of these heat exchangers included variations in the fin shape from a plain fin to a slit and louver type. In the context of heat transfer augmentation, the performance of vortex generators has also been investigated. Delta winglet vortex generators have recently attracted research interest, partly due to experimental data showing that their addition to fin-tube heat exchangers considerably reduces pressure loss at heat transfer capacity of nearly the same level. The efficiency of the delta winglet vortex generators widely varies depending on their size and shape, as well as the locations where they are implemented. In this paper, the flow field around delta winglet vortex generators in a common flow up arrangement was analyzed in terms of flow characteristics and heat transfer using computational fluid dynamics methods. Flow mixing due to vortices and delayed separation due to acceleration influence the overall fin performance. The fin with delta winglet vortex generators exhibited a pressure loss lower than that of a plain fin, and the heat transfer performance was enhanced at high air velocity or Reynolds number

  18. Modeling multi-source flooding disaster and developing simulation framework in Delta (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Cui, X.; Zhang, W.


    Most Delta regions of the world are densely populated and with advanced economies. However, due to impact of the multi-source flooding (upstream flood, rainstorm waterlogging, storm surge flood), the Delta regions is very vulnerable. The academic circles attach great importance to the multi-source flooding disaster in these areas. The Pearl River Delta urban agglomeration in south China is selected as the research area. Based on analysis of natural and environmental characteristics data of the Delta urban agglomeration(remote sensing data, land use data, topographic map, etc.), hydrological monitoring data, research of the uneven distribution and process of regional rainfall, the relationship between the underlying surface and the parameters of runoff, effect of flood storage pattern, we use an automatic or semi-automatic method for dividing spatial units to reflect the runoff characteristics in urban agglomeration, and develop an Multi-model Ensemble System in changing environment, including urban hydrologic model, parallel computational 1D&2D hydrodynamic model, storm surge forecast model and other professional models, the system will have the abilities like real-time setting a variety of boundary conditions, fast and real-time calculation, dynamic presentation of results, powerful statistical analysis function. The model could be optimized and improved by a variety of verification methods. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41471427); Special Basic Research Key Fund for Central Public Scientific Research Institutes.

  19. The role of analytical chemistry in Niger Delta petroleum exploration: a review. (United States)

    Akinlua, Akinsehinwa


    Petroleum and organic matter from which the petroleum is derived are composed of organic compounds with some trace elements. These compounds give an insight into the origin, thermal maturity and paleoenvironmental history of petroleum, which are essential elements in petroleum exploration. The main tool to acquire the geochemical data is analytical techniques. Due to progress in the development of new analytical techniques, many hitherto petroleum exploration problems have been resolved. Analytical chemistry has played a significant role in the development of petroleum resources of Niger Delta. Various analytical techniques that have aided the success of petroleum exploration in the Niger Delta are discussed. The analytical techniques that have helped to understand the petroleum system of the basin are also described. Recent and emerging analytical methodologies including green analytical methods as applicable to petroleum exploration particularly Niger Delta petroleum province are discussed in this paper. Analytical chemistry is an invaluable tool in finding the Niger Delta oils. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Simultaneous analysis of delta9-THC and its major metabolites in urine, plasma, and meconium by GC-MS using an immunoaffinity extraction procedure. (United States)

    Feng, S; ElSohly, M A; Salamone, S; Salem, M Y


    A simple extraction procedure for delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC) and its metabolites from various biological specimens was developed based on immunoaffinity chromatography. Using the affinity resin prepared by immobilization of THC antibody onto cyanogen bromide-activated Sepharose 4B, delta9-THC and its major metabolites including 11-nor-delta9-THC-9-carboxylic acid (delta9-THCCOOH), 11-hydroxy-delta9-THC (11-OH-delta9-THC), and 8beta,11-dihydroxy-delta9-THC (8beta,11-diOH-delta9-THC) were extracted simultaneously from plasma or urine after enzyme hydrolysis. The samples were derivatized as TMS derivatives and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in EI mode with SIM monitoring. Greater than 87% extraction recovery of the four analytes was obtained from both plasma and urine at 5 and 50 ng/mL concentration levels. The method was also used for meconium analysis with some modification. The extraction recovery from meconium, however, was lower than that of plasma and urine, ranging from 52 to 72% at the 10-ng/g level. All compounds showed good linearity within the tested ranges up to 100 ng/mL (g). The limits of detection ranged from 0.5 to 2.5 ng/mL in plasma and urine, and from 1.0 to 2.5 ng/g in meconium. Analysis of 24 meconium specimens showed that 11-OH-delta9-THC is indeed an important metabolite in meconium.

  1. Caribbean piracy and youth restiveness in Niger delta: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our aim in this paper is to make a comparative analysis of Caribbean piracy and youth restiveness in Niger Delta of Nigeria. It will not be out of place to carry out such an analysis having seen, heard or read of the ongoing chaos, insecurity in the. Niger Delta Zone in Nigeria. We have to look at the past to find out such similar

  2. Population changes and food insecurity in the Niger Delta | Ajake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines the population trend and the prices of staple food in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria from 1991 to 2002. The survey reveals that population increase is the major factor for unsustainable production, unavailability and inaccessibility of vital food resources required by the people of the Niger Delta.

  3. NESG BOOK REVIEW: A Review of Niger Delta Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this thought-provoking review of the 2006 UNDP Niger Delta Human Development Report, the author examines the multidimensional nature of the problems of the Niger Delta and its effect on income, education, life expectancy of the host communities, and environmental sustainability, which has undermined the ...

  4. Oil politics and violence in postcolonial Niger Delta drama | Otu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However contributory issues of ethnicity and marginalization may be to the crises rocking the Niger Delta, the crux of the matter, this paper argues, is that by polluting Niger Delta communities (youth groups, chiefs, economic and political elite) with the viruses of greed, corruption and violence, the collective aspirations and ...

  5. Downstream hydraulic geometry of a tidally influenced river delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sassi, M.G.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Brye, de B.; Deleersnijder, E.


    Channel geometry in tidally influenced river deltas can show a mixed scaling behavior between that of river and tidal channel networks, as the channel forming discharge is both of river and tidal origin. We present a method of analysis to quantify the tidal signature on delta morphology, by

  6. Delta's paradise: a challenge for lan[d]scape architects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhorst, te J.K.M.; Toorn, van den M.W.M.


    Paradise as a metaphor has always played an important role in art. This is definitely true for the art of garden design, but paradise is also a metaphor that can be used for the landscape. Some of the most interesting landscapes are found in deltas. Deltas are rich in natural and economic potential.

  7. Wastewater disposal at safari lodges in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wastewater disposal at safari lodges in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. TS McCarthy, T Gumbricht, RG Stewart, D Brandt, PJ Hancox, J McCarthy, AG Duse. Abstract. Many safari lodges in the Okavango Delta obtain their water supply from boreholes in near-surface aquifers while disposing of their wastewater via ...

  8. Occurrence of elevated nitrate in groundwaters of Krishna delta, India

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nitrate concentrations were measured in the groundwater samples of Krishna delta, India. The results indicate a large variation of nitrate from 10 - 135 mg/l. In 79 groundwater samples, about 39% shows high nitrate contents (>50 mg/l), which is more than the permissible limits in drinking water. In north Krishna delta 49% ...

  9. Pattern of Complicated Unsafe Abortions in Niger Delta University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    developing world. This study aims to determine the pattern of complicated unsafe abortions in Niger delta. University Teaching Hospital (NDUTH) Okolobiri. Methods: The study is a four-year retrospective analysis of cases of complicated unsafe abortion managed at the. Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital Okolobiri,.

  10. Central Delta languages: An overview | Kari | Stellenbosch Papers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents an overview of the phonology, morphology and syntax of Central Delta languages. It also provides information on the geo-linguistic, demographic and sociolinguistic situation of these languages. It notes that Central Delta languages have a 20-vowel system, which divides into two sets of 10 vowels ...

  11. West Indian Ocean Deltas Exchange and Research Network | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The West Indian Ocean Deltas Exchange and Research Network (WIoDER) aims to support research, training, and pilot interventions in up to four Western Indian Ocean river deltas under pressure from human activity. Research will examine in particular the links between population mobility, agriculture, climate change, ...

  12. 78 FR 45592 - DeltaPoint Capital IV, LP; (United States)


    ..., Suite 160, Pittsford, NY 14534. The financing was contemplated for working capital. The financing is... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [License No. 02/02-0662] DeltaPoint Capital IV, LP; Notice Seeking... given that DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., 45 East Avenue, 6th Floor, Rochester, NY 14604, Federal...

  13. An annotated list of Fishes from the Niger Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeseman, M.


    At the end of November 1960, the Leiden Museum received an interesting collection of animals, mostly fishes, from the Niger delta. All specimens were collected by Mr. H. J. G. Beets, at the time employed by Shell B.P. — Delta Investigations, during the period May to August 1960, and in the region

  14. Remote stereocontrol by sulfinyl groups: reduction of delta-ketosulfoxides. (United States)

    García Ruano, José L; Fernández-Ibáñez, M Angeles; Maestro, M Carmen; Rodríguez-Fernández, M Mercedes


    The reduction of delta-ketosulfoxides constitutes the first evidence of the efficiency of the sulfinyl group to control the stereoselectivity of 1,5-asymmetric induction processes. The use of DIBAL/Yb(OTf)3 or L-Selectride as the reducing agents provides delta-hydroxysulfoxides with the opposite configuration at the hydroxylic carbon in a highly stereoselective way.

  15. How to deal with subsidence in the Dutch delta?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stouthamer, E.; Erkens, G.


    In many deltas worldwide subsidence still is an underestimated problem, while the threat posed by land subsidence low-lying urbanizing and urbanized deltas exceeds the threat of sea-level rise induced by climate change. Human-induced subsidence is driven by the extraction of hydrocarbons and

  16. Dousing the tension in the Niger delta through administrative agency

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dousing the tension in the Niger delta through administrative agency: A programme evaluation of Niger delta development commission as an intervention regime. ... the study concludes that because of systemic constraints arising from the hegemonic interests of the dominant coalitions in the Nigerian Social formation, ...

  17. Estimation of Thermal Conductivity in the North- Western Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermal conductivity estimates are computed from nineteen petroleum wells in the north-western Niger Delta, Nigeria, using a geometric mean model. Sonic and gamma-ray logs were digitised and used in the estimation of in situ conductivity. The Niger Delta is composed of three major diachronous lithostratigraphic units of ...

  18. Terahertz radiation from delta-doped GaAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Dan; Hansen, Ole; Sørensen, Claus Birger


    Terahertz pulse emission from four different delta-doped molecular beam epitaxially grown GaAs samples is studied. We observe a decrease of the emitted THz pulse amplitude as the distance of the delta-doped layer from the surface is increased, and a change in polarity of the THz pulses as compare...

  19. Gamma/delta T lymphocytes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. (United States)

    Balikó, Z; Szereday, L; Szekeres-Bartho, J


    Data on the percentage of gamma/delta T lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of patients infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis are few and contradictory. The percentage of gamma/delta T lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of tuberculin positive and tuberculin negative patients with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and healthy controls was compared. Thirty six patients infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 11 healthy controls were studied. Lymphocytes were separated, cytocentrifuged onto glass microscope slides, and reacted with anti-gamma/delta monoclonal antibody. The percentage of gamma/delta positive cells was determined by microscopic counting of 300 lymphocytes. No difference was found in the percentage of gamma/delta T lymphocytes between patients and controls. However, when the patients were divided into two groups according to reactivity or non-reactivity in the Mantoux skin reaction a higher percentage of gamma/delta T lymphocytes was found in the peripheral blood of patients with tuberculin anergy than in tuberculin positive patients or controls. Higher gamma/delta T cell counts are found in tuberculin negative patients with tuberculosis than in tuberculin positive patients or tuberculin positive controls. The high gamma/delta T cell counts in tuberculin anergic patients may reflect a shift in the immune response in a Th2 direction characterised by increased antibody production and decreased cell mediated responses.

  20. Ecosystem services of the Niger Delta Forests, Nigeria | Ezenwaka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research aimed to appraise the Niger Delta forest ecosystem services. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment framework was used to categorize the potential benefits from the Niger Delta forests. Data was collected from 90 respondents drawn from selected rural and urban communities. While the urban respondents ...

  1. Niger Delta Crisis and Security Implications for the Nation State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Niger Delta is the nation's treasure base, the Niger Delta provides over 80 percent of government revenue, 95 percent of export receipts, and 90 percent of ... The government should tackle the fundamental issue of basic necessities – provision of good motorable roads, pipe borne water, electricity, good hospitals, good ...

  2. Conflict resolution among Niger delta communities: A historical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conflict related issues have assumed endemic proportion in the Niger Delta. A proper assessment of the critical factors in motion must take cognizance of their historical underpinnings. Peaceful co-existence, the hallmark of conflict resolution, can be feasible in the Niger Delta, through sustainable dialogue. These, among

  3. Deltas, Vulnerability, and Climate Change: Migration as an Adaptation

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Deltas in Africa and South Asia have some of the highest population densities in the world. Many residents along the deltas live in poverty and depend on livelihoods that are sensitive to a changing climate. This research project will examine the issue. Specifically, it will assess migration as a climate change adaptation ...

  4. Delta: the first pion nucleon resonance - its discovery and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagle, D.E.


    It is attempted to recapture some of the fun and excitement of the pion-scattering work that led to the discovery of what is now called the delta particle. How significant this discovery was became apparent only gradually. That the delta is alive today and thriving at Los Alamos (as well as other places) is described

  5. Drones on the delta | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    25 nov. 2016 ... Waves wash ashore at Fuvemeh, a town in Ghana's Volta River delta that's threatened by coastal erosion and flooding. Brian Owens, Canadian Geographic. Ghana's Volta River delta is an area vulnerable to climate change, with rising seas and increasingly powerful storms driving flooding and erosion, ...

  6. Towards a Comprehensive Framework for Adaptive Delta Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchand, M.; Ludwig, F.


    Deltas are dynamic landforms at the boundary of land and sea, involving intricate mazes of rivers and small waterways, wetlands, estuaries and coastal barrier islands. They are home to over half a billion people. Deltas are also home to rich ecosystems, such as mangroves and marshes. They are

  7. Utilization Of Yam Minisett Technology Among Farmers In Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the utilization of minisett technology among farmers in Delta North Agricultural Zone of Delta State, Nigeria. Two local government areas were purposively sampled based on their outstanding involvement in yam production. Two communities were also purposively selected from the area from where 50 ...

  8. The Economic Dimensions of the Niger Delta Ethnic Conflicts (Pp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Niger Delta in the sharing of the economic and political benefits of the oil and gas .... however a sense of shared deprivation have strengthened identification with .... economy. Another strategy to diffuse the ethnic tension in the Niger Delta is to grant the area limited autonomy. This is what some leaders called “resource.

  9. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta activation leads to increased transintestinal cholesterol efflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrins, Carlos L. J.; van der Velde, Astrid E.; van den Oever, Karin; Levels, Johannes H. M.; Huet, Stephane; Elferink, Ronald P. J. Oude; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.


    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPAR delta) is involved in regulation of energy homeostasis. Activation of PPAR delta markedly increases fecal neutral sterol secretion, the last step in reverse cholesterol transport. This phenomenon can neither be explained by increased

  10. Changes to subaqueous delta bathymetry following a high river flow event, Wax Lake Delta, LA, USA (United States)

    Whaling, A. R.; Shaw, J.


    Sediment transport capacity is increased during high river flow (flood) events which are characterized by discharges that exceed the 15 year median daily statistic. The Wax Lake Delta (WLD) in coastal Louisiana has experienced 19 of these high flow events in the past 20 years, yet the depositional patterns of single floods are rarely measured in a field-scale deltaic setting. We characterize flood deposition and erosion patterns on the subaqueous portion of the WLD by differencing two Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) constructed from bathymetric surveys before and after the third largest flood in the WLD's recorded history. The total suspended sediment discharge for the 496 day inter-survey period was 2.14x107 cubic meters measured 21 km upstream of the delta apex. The difference map showed 1.06x107 cubic meters of sediment was deposited and 8.2x106 cubic meters was eroded, yielding 2.40x106 cubic meters of net deposition in the survey area ( 79.7 km2 ). Therefore the average deposition rate was 0.061 mm/day. Channel planform remained relatively unchanged for five out of six distributary passes however Gadwall Pass experienced a maximum channel displacement of 166 m ( 1 channel width) measured from the thalweg centerline. Channel tip extension was negligible. In addition, channel displacement was not concentrated at any portion along the channel centerline. Maximum erosion occurred within channel margins and increased upstream whereas maximum deposition occurred immediately outside the channel margins. Sediment eroded from the survey area was either subsequently re-deposited or transported out of the system. Our results show that up to 77.4% of deposition in the survey area originated from sediment eroded during the flood. Surprisingly, only 11.2% of the total suspended sediment discharge was retained in the subaqueous portion of the delta after the flood. We conclude that a high flow event does not produce channel progradation. Rather, high flow causes delta

  11. A Place to Call Home: A Synthesis of Delta Smelt Habitat in the Upper San Francisco Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted Sommer


    Full Text Available We used a combination of published literature and field survey data to synthesize the available information about habitat use by delta smelt Hypomesus transpacificus, a declining native species in the San Francisco Estuary. Delta smelt habitat ranges from San Pablo and Suisun bays to their freshwater tributaries, including the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. In recent years, substantial numbers of delta smelt have colonized habitat in Liberty Island, a north Delta area that flooded in 1997. The species has a more upstream distribution during spawning as opposed to juvenile rearing periods. Post-larvae and juveniles tend to have a more downstream distribution during wetter years. Delta smelt are most common in low-salinity habitat (<6 psu with high turbidities (>12 NTU and moderate temperatures (7 °C to 25 °C. They do not appear to have strong substrate preferences, but sandy shoals are important for spawning in other osmerids. The evidence to date suggests that they generally require at least some tidal flow in their habitats. Delta smelt also occur in a wide range of channel sizes, although they seem to be rarer in small channels (<15 m wide. Nonetheless, there is some evidence that open water adjacent to habitats with long water-residence times (e.g. tidal marsh, shoal, low-order channels may be favorable. Other desirable features of delta smelt habitat include high calanoid copepod densities and low levels of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV and the toxic algae Microcystis. Although enough is known to plan for large-scale pilot habitat projects, these efforts are vulnerable to several factors, most notably climate change, which will change salinity regimes and increase the occurrence of lethal temperatures. We recommend restoration of multiple geographical regions and habitats coupled with extensive monitoring and adaptive management. An overall emphasis on ecosystem processes rather than specific habitat features is also likely to be

  12. Studies on the metabolism of the Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol precursor Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (Delta9-THCA-A) in rat using LC-MS/MS, LC-QTOF MS and GC-MS techniques. (United States)

    Jung, Julia; Meyer, Markus R; Maurer, Hans H; Neusüss, Christian; Weinmann, Wolfgang; Auwärter, Volker


    In Cannabis sativa, Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A (Delta9-THCA-A) is the non-psychoactive precursor of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9-THC). In fresh plant material, about 90% of the total Delta9-THC is available as Delta9-THCA-A. When heated (smoked or baked), Delta9-THCA-A is only partially converted to Delta9-THC and therefore, Delta9-THCA-A can be detected in serum and urine of cannabis consumers. The aim of the presented study was to identify the metabolites of Delta9-THCA-A and to examine particularly whether oral intake of Delta9-THCA-A leads to in vivo formation of Delta9-THC in a rat model. After oral application of pure Delta9-THCA-A to rats (15 mg/kg body mass), urine samples were collected and metabolites were isolated and identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and high resolution LC-MS using time of flight-mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) for accurate mass measurement. For detection of Delta9-THC and its metabolites, urine extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The identified metabolites show that Delta9-THCA-A undergoes a hydroxylation in position 11 to 11-hydroxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A (11-OH-Delta9-THCA-A), which is further oxidized via the intermediate aldehyde 11-oxo-Delta9-THCA-A to 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A (Delta9-THCA-A-COOH). Glucuronides of the parent compound and both main metabolites were identified in the rat urine as well. Furthermore, Delta9-THCA-A undergoes hydroxylation in position 8 to 8-alpha- and 8-beta-hydroxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A, respectively, (8alpha-Hydroxy-Delta9-THCA-A and 8beta-Hydroxy-Delta9-THCA-A, respectively) followed by dehydration. Both monohydroxylated metabolites were further oxidized to their bishydroxylated forms. Several glucuronidation conjugates of these metabolites were identified. In vivo conversion of Delta9-THCA-A to Delta9-THC was

  13. Cystic fibrosis Delta F508 heterozygotes, smoking, and reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A; Wittrup, H H


    Cystic fibrosis is the most common fatal autosomal recessive disease affecting Caucasian populations. It remains a puzzle how this disease is maintained at such a remarkably high incidence, however, it could be due to a reproductive advantage in cystic fibrosis heterozygotes. We tested...... this hypothesis. An adult Danish general population sample of 9141 individuals was screened for cystic fibrosis DeltaF508 heterozygotes; 250 carriers of this mutation were identified (2.7%). In the total sample DeltaF508 heterozygotes did not have more children than noncarriers; however, smoking interacted.......001). In conclusion, overall these results do not support a reproductive advantage for cystic fibrosis DeltaF508 heterozygotes. However, the data cannot totally exclude the possibility that nonsmoking DeltaF508 heterozygotes experience a reproductive advantage while smoking DeltaF508 heterozygotes experience...

  14. Generalized delta functions and their use in quantum optics (United States)

    Brewster, R. A.; Franson, J. D.


    The Dirac delta function δ(x) is widely used in many areas of physics and mathematics. Here we consider the generalization of a Dirac delta function to allow the use of complex arguments. We show that the properties of a generalized delta function are very different from those of a Dirac delta function and that they behave more like a pole in the complex plane. We use the generalized delta function to derive the Glauber-Sudarshan P-function, P(α), for a Schrödinger cat state in a surprisingly simple form. Aside from their potential applications in classical electromagnetism and quantum optics, these results provide insight into the ability of the diagonal P-function to describe density operators with off-diagonal elements.

  15. Refactoring Delta-Oriented Product Lines to achieve Monotonicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferruccio Damiani


    Full Text Available Delta-oriented programming (DOP is a flexible transformational approach to implement software product lines. In delta-oriented product lines, variants are generated by applying operations contained in delta modules to a (possibly empty base program. These operations can add, remove or modify named elements in a program (e.g., classes, methods and fields in a Java program. This paper presents algorithms for refactoring a delta-oriented product line into monotonic form, i.e., either to contain add and modify operations only (monotonic increasing or to contain remove and modify operations only (monotonic decreasing. Because of their simpler structure, monotonic delta-oriented product lines are easier to analyze. The algorithms are formalized by means of a core calculus for DOP of product lines of Java programs and their correctness and complexity are given.

  16. What Controls Sediment Retention in an Emerging Delta? (United States)

    Keogh, M.; Kolker, A.


    What controls sediment retention in an emerging delta? Here, we examine the effects of river discharge and flow velocity on sediment retention rate, using a developing crevasse splay in the Lower Mississippi Delta as a study location. With a controlled discharge that ranges from 28 to 280 m3/s, Davis Pond Freshwater Diversion connects the Mississippi River to the adjacent wetland, allowing river water, sediment, and nutrients to flow into the marsh. Although Davis Pond was primarily designed to regulate salinity within Barataria Basin rather than to build land, a new crevasse splay has recently emerged at the mouth of the diversion's outfall channel. Short (5 cm) sediment cores were collected at 22 locations around the Davis Pond receiving basin in spring 2015, fall 2015, and spring 2016. All cores were analyzed for sediment geotechnical parameters including organic content, bulk density, and grain size. Sediment input into the receiving basin was calculated using a ratings curve. Activity of the radioisotope beryllium-7 was used to calculate rates of sediment accumulation and retention. We find that while sediment input is greater during high flow, rate of retention is greater during low flow. This is likely due to the increase in flow velocity that accompanies high discharge, which retains sediment in suspension and leads to more throughput of material. Furthermore, the diversion operation regime of sustained low flow punctuated by short-duration high discharge events has increased soil bulk density, mineral sediment accumulation, and marsh platform elevation. River diversions such as Davis Pond mimic the land-building processes of natural crevasse splays and provide a promising method to restore deltaic wetlands worldwide.

  17. Development of fluoroimmunoassay methods for delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, A.P.


    Heterogeneous, competitive, labelled-ligand solid-phase primary antibody fluoroimmunoassay methods for the detection of THC in blood and plasma were proposed, and the required assay components were produced and characterized. These components included polyclonal rabbit antisera and monoclonal antibodies reactive with tetrahydrocannabinols, solid-phase immunoglobin reagents, a fluoroligand, and protein conjugates of THC for immunization and immunoassay response amplification. The stereoselective rabbit anti-THC antiserum F-444-12 was found to have a high binding titer, a high affinity (K/sub D/ = 3.4 x 10/sup -/exclamation/sup 1/ M for 5'-iodo/sup -125/ 2/-THC), and high specificity versus a large number of cannabinoid compounds. Immobilization of the immunoglobulin fraction of the antiserum on hydrophilic polyacrylamide microspheres resulted in only a four fold increase in K/sub D/, and a two fold increase in the concentration of binding sites required for the production of equivalent binding titers. Specificity for small ligands was not affected, but the binding of THC-protein conjugates was reduced in potency. Two monoclonal hybridoma cell lines were produced that secrete monoclonal antibodies which bind the radioligand. The fluoroligand was synthesized from 5' 2/-THC and FITC using a diamimoethane linkage structure. While the compound had the fluorescence properties of FTIC, it was bound to the antiserum F-144-12 with a cross-reactive potency 1.4x greater than the radioligand, and 10x greater than THC.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salahuddin, Chafid Fandeli, dan Eko Sugiharto


    Full Text Available well-managed, it will contribute to the improvement of both regional and national economy. However, MahakamRiver gets liquid waste pollution that has significant impact on water quality and results in conflicts betweenthe local societies, especially the shrimp pond farmers and the fishermen and the oil and gas industrial company.This research uses descriptive-comparative analysis with ANOVA test to compare samples (water, soil/sediment,shrimp, and mangrove of the shrimp fishpond (many mangrove, moderate mangrove, few mangrove, and withoutany mangrove. The pollution load which is analyzed includes: cadmium content (Cd, lead (Pb, oil and grease (O& G, mercury (Hg, and arsenic (As. The significance level is 90% with error of 5% (0.05.The water of Mahakam Delta is still in the normality limit as seen from the maximum pollution load in the Decreeof the Minister of Living Environment No. 51 of 2004 on Ocean Water Standard seen from chemical, physical,and biological parameters. The presence of mangrove contributes positive value to the balance of the quality of thewaters and to the neutralizing of heavy metals contents of Mahakam Delta as shown in the average difference inthe Pb, Cd, O & G, As and Hg of the samples of water, soils/sediment, shrimp and mangrove which are drawnfrom the of shrimp pond with many mangrove, moderate mangrove, few mangrove and without any mangrove,which is significantly different (p < 0.05. Shrimp pond with many mangrove has less average levels of Pb, Cd, M& L, As and Hg compared with the pond with less and without mangrove. The shrimp pond with many mangrovescontributes significantly and positively to the prevention of the pollution of Pb, Cd, O and G, As and Hg at low level

  19. Synthesis of gamma,delta-unsaturated and delta,epsilon-unsaturated alpha-amino acids from fragmentation of gamma- and delta-lactones. (United States)

    Tarver, James E; Joullié, Madeleine M


    A noncoded amino acid of cyclomarin A (1) was synthesized in a racemic fashion. The method employs a six-membered ring template to control the relative stereochemistry and introduction of the functional groups. Ultimately, Pd-catalyzed fragmentation of the lactone provided gamma,delta-unsaturated and delta,epsilon-unsaturated alpha-amino acids. A Pd-catalyzed ring opening of a gamma-lactone is also reported.

  20. Potency of Mahakam Delta in East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zairin Zain


    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Mahakam Delta is not only utilized for fishery activities but also for several industrial purposes such as coal and oil mining, shipping and timber. The objective of this paper is to provide information in term of the potency of Mahakam Delta located in East Kalimantan province, Indonesia. The study was conducted in Mahakam Delta, East Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. Participatory rural appraisal is a group of methods to collect information in a participatory fashion from rural communities. The method employed in this research was descriptive analysis describing the environmental potency found in Mahakam Delta. Massive conversion of mangrove forest particularly Nypa (Nypa fruticans area into pond has driven conflict among related stakeholders on the utilization of natural resource and land which subsequently impacts on the fish and shrimp source regeneration, loss of ecological functions of mangrove forest for feeding, nursery and spawning ground of fish and other organisms. Besides of fisheries, oil and gas activity also exists in Mahakam Delta. Mahakam Delta is regarded as important area due to the largest producer of oil and gas mining. Thus, oil and gas industry is the most reliable sector that contributes to the economic development of Kutai Kartanegara district. As a resource provider, Mahakam Delta ecosystem provides various resources for livelihoods. As a life-support service provider, Mahakam Delta ecosystem provides habitat and ideal environment to support variety of living kinds. As a convenience provider, Mahakam Delta ecosystem provides unique and interesting recreation site. As a protector from natural disaster, Mahakam Delta ecosystem is able to protect human kinds from natural disaster threatening coastal area.

  1. Small-scale stratigraphy in a large ramp delta: recent and Holocene sedimentation in de the Volga delta, Caspian Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overeem, I.; Kroonenberg, S.B.; Veldkamp, A.; Groenesteijn, K.; Rusakov, G.V.; Svitoch, A.A.


    The Volga delta differs from all other major deltas in the world by its extremely gentle onshore and offshore gradient (similar to 5 cm/km) and by being affected by the rapid sea-level changes of the Caspian Sea, at rates up to a hundred times the global sea-level rise. This paper reports (1) the

  2. Sustainable Growth in Urbanised Delta Areas : The Opportunities of a Geographical Approach to the Pearl River Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rens, G.; Nillisen, A.L.; Schamhart, C.; Lugt, N.


    The attractions of delta areas have boomed economies and founded major cities, but the threats of the adjacent water have persisted and natural resources have declined. The objective to facilitate sustainable urban growth in delta areas can only be met by a simultaneous approach of all the

  3. Fish trypanosomes from the Okavango Delta, Botswana. (United States)

    Smit, Nico J; Van As, Jo G; Davies, Angela J


    During 2001 and 2002, blood smears from 37 of 120 fishes belonging to 10 species captured in the Okavango Delta region of Botswana, were found to harbour trypanosomes. These trypanosomes displayed differing staining properties, were morphometrically variable, and ranged in total length from 29.5 to 80.8 microm. Mixed populations of the smaller and larger trypanosomes were found in most fish examined. Despite variations in size and appearance, these specimens are tentatively identified as Trypanosoma mukasai Hoare, 1932, likely adding another 9 new hosts to those known for this parasite. It is possible that Trypanosoma clariense Pienaar, 1962, described from Clarias gariepinus in South Africa, is also a junior synonym of T. mukasai.

  4. Landscape scale controls on the vascular plant component of dissolved organic carbon across a freshwater delta (United States)

    Eckard, Robert S.; Hernes, Peter J.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Kendall, Carol


    Lignin phenol concentrations and compositions were determined on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) extracts (XAD resins) within the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (the Delta), the tidal freshwater portion of the San Francisco Bay Estuary, located in central California, USA. Fourteen stations were sampled, including the following habitats and land-use types: wetland, riverine, channelized waterway, open water, and island drains. Stations were sampled approximately seasonally from December, 1999 through May, 2001. DOC concentrations ranged from 1.3 mg L -1 within the Sacramento River to 39.9 mg L -1 at the outfall from an island drain (median 3.0 mg L -1), while lignin concentrations ranged from 3.0 μg L -1 within the Sacramento River to 111 μg L -1 at the outfall from an island drain (median 11.6 μg L -1). Both DOC and lignin concentrations varied significantly among habitat/land-use types and among sampling stations. Carbon-normalized lignin yields ranged from 0.07 mg (100 mg OC) -1 at an island drain to 0.84 mg (100 mg OC) -1 for a wetland (median 0.36 mg (100 mg OC) -1), and also varied significantly among habitat/land-use types. A simple mass balance model indicated that the Delta acted as a source of lignin during late autumn through spring (10-83% increase) and a sink for lignin during summer and autumn (13-39% decrease). Endmember mixing models using S:V and C:V signatures of landscape scale features indicated strong temporal variation in sources of DOC export from the Delta, with riverine source signatures responsible for 50% of DOC in summer and winter, wetland signatures responsible for 40% of DOC in summer, winter, and late autumn, and island drains responsible for 40% of exported DOC in late autumn. A significant negative correlation was observed between carbon-normalized lignin yields and DOC bioavailability in two of the 14 sampling stations. This study is, to our knowledge, the first to describe organic vascular plant DOC sources at the level of

  5. Food and Nutrition Security Trends, Determinants and Challenges in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (United States)

    Nilsen, K.; van Soesbergen, A.; Matthews, Z.; Burgess, N.


    In the last 20 years many developing countries have made considerable progress towards improving food security and nutrition. However, progress across countries and dimensions of food security have been uneven. While challenges to food security in the context of environmental and climate changes have been studied widely, limited evidence exists for their implications for food and nutrition security in tropical deltaic regions. Delta areas are particularly vulnerable to food insecurity and malnutrition due the specific environmental, climatic and human development factors affecting agricultural production and fisheries. These include coastal flooding and storm surges, deforestation, changes to river flow patterns and water tables, increased soil salinity and water quality degradation. Due to the large number of people living in deltaic regions and their importance in regional food production, there is a pressing need for a better understanding on how environmental factors affect food security and malnutrition. This study explores the potential impacts and challenges posed by environmental and climate change on food and nutrition security in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta. This delta is one of the world's largest delta's draining land from Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India and Nepal. The delta makes up around two thirds of the country of Bangladesh, a country facing high levels of child undernutrition, child mortality and a high number of people living under extreme poverty. By combining spatially explicit data from the 2007 and 2011 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) for Bangladesh with satellite remote sensing data (Normalised Difference Vegetation Index) for relevant growing seasons of rice, the strength of association between this climate related environmental variable and indicators of child nutrition (wasting and stunting) in the delta were evaluated. Our results show that NDVI for the growing season of rice can be used to determine trends in rice production

  6. Natural disturbance shapes benthic intertidal macroinvertebrate communities of high latitude river deltas (United States)

    Churchwell, Roy T.; Kendall, Steve J.; Blanchard, Amy L.; Dunton, Kenneth H.; Powell, Abby N.


    Unlike lower latitude coastlines, the estuarine nearshore zones of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea are icebound and frozen up to 9 months annually. This annual freezing event represents a dramatic physical disturbance to fauna living within intertidal sediments. The main objectives of this study were to describe the benthic communities of Beaufort Sea deltas, including temporal changes and trophic structure. Understanding benthic invertebrate communities provided a baseline for concurrent research on shorebird foraging ecology at these sites. We found that despite continuous year-to-year episodes of annual freezing, these estuarine deltas are populated by a range of invertebrates that represent both marine and freshwater assemblages. Freshwater organisms like Diptera and Oligochaeta not only survive this extreme event, but a marine invasion of infaunal organisms such as Amphipoda and Polychaeta rapidly recolonizes the delta mudflats following ice ablation. These delta sediments of sand, silt, and clay are fine in structure compared to sediments of other Beaufort Sea coastal intertidal habitats. The relatively depauperate invertebrate community that ultimately develops is composed of marine and freshwater benthic invertebrates. The composition of the infauna also reflects two strategies that make life on Beaufort Sea deltas possible: a migration of marine organisms from deeper lagoons to the intertidal and freshwater biota that survive the 9-month ice-covered period in frozen sediments. Stable isotopic analyses reveal that both infaunal assemblages assimilate marine and terrestrial sources of organic carbon. These results provide some of the first quantitative information on the infaunal food resources of shallow arctic estuarine systems and the long-term persistence of these invertebrate assemblages. Our data help explain the presence of large numbers of shorebirds in these habitats during the brief summer open-water period and their trophic importance to migrating

  7. Vulnerability of the Nile Delta coastal areas to inundation by sea level rise. (United States)

    Hassaan, M A; Abdrabo, M A


    Sea level changes are typically caused by several natural phenomena, including ocean thermal expansion, glacial melt from Greenland and Antarctica. Global average sea level is expected to rise, through the twenty-first century, according to the IPCC projections by between 0.18 and 0.59 cm. Such a rise in sea level will significantly impact coastal area of the Nile Delta, consisting generally of lowland and is densely populated areas and accommodates significant proportion of Egypt's economic activities and built-up areas. The Nile Delta has been examined in several previous studies, which worked under various hypothetical sea level rise (SLR) scenarios and provided different estimates of areas susceptible to inundation due to SLR. The paper intends, in this respect, to identify areas, as well as land use/land cover, susceptible to inundation by SLR based upon most recent scenarios of SLR, by the year 2100 using GIS. The results indicate that about 22.49, 42.18, and 49.22 % of the total area of coastal governorates of the Nile Delta would be susceptible to inundation under different scenarios of SLR. Also, it was found that 15.56 % of the total areas of the Nile Delta that would be vulnerable to inundation due to land subsidence only, even in the absence of any rise in sea level. Moreover, it was found that a considerable proportion of these areas (ranging between 32.32 and 53.66 %) are currently either wetland or undeveloped areas. Furthermore, natural and/or man-made structures, such as the banks of the International Coastal Highway, were found to provide unintended protection to some of these areas. This suggests that the inundation impact of SLR on the Nile Delta is less than previously reported.

  8. Measuring and predicting Delta(vap)H298 values of ionic liquids. (United States)

    Deyko, Alexey; Lovelock, Kevin R J; Corfield, Jo-Anne; Taylor, Alasdair W; Gooden, Peter N; Villar-Garcia, Ignacio J; Licence, Peter; Jones, Robert G; Krasovskiy, Vladimir G; Chernikova, Elena A; Kustov, Leonid M


    We report the enthalpies of vaporisation (measured using temperature programmed desorption by mass spectrometry) of twelve ionic liquids (ILs), covering four imidazolium, [C(m)C(n)Im]+, five pyrrolidinium, [C(n)C(m)Pyrr]+, two pyridinium, [C(n)Py]+, and a dication, [C3(C1Im)2]2+ based IL. These cations were paired with a range of anions: [BF4]-, [FeCl4]-, [N(CN)2]-, [PF3(C2F5)3]- ([FAP]-), [(CF3SO2)2N]- ([Tf2N]-) and [SCN]-. Using these results, plus those for a further eight imidazolium based ILs published earlier (which include the anions [CF3SO3]- ([TfO]-), [PF6]- and [EtSO4]-), we show that the enthalpies of vaporisation can be decomposed into three components. The first component is the Coulombic interaction between the ions, DeltaU(Cou,R), which is a function of the IL molar volume, V(m), and a parameter R(r) which quantifies the relative change in anion-cation distance on evaporation from the liquid phase to the ion pair in the gas phase. The second and third components are the van der Waals contributions from the anion, DeltaH(vdw,A), and the cation, DeltaH(vdw,C). We derive a universal value for R(r), and individual values of DeltaH(vdw,A) and DeltaH(vdw,C) for each of the anions and cations considered in this study. Given the molar volume, it is possible to estimate the enthalpies of vaporisation of ILs composed of any combination of the ions considered here; values for fourteen ILs which have not yet been studied experimentally are given.

  9. Comparing and contrasting observed adaptations in three deltas: the Ganges-Meghna-Brahmaputra, Mahanadi and Volta (United States)

    Nicholls, R. J.; Suckall, N.; Mensah, A.; Mondal, S.; Dey, S.; Hazra, S.


    In low and middle-income countries, many deltaic communities directly depend on the natural environment for income and well-being. Current environmental concerns that threaten deltaic communities, such as increasing salinity, sedimentation, erosion and subsidence are likely to be exacerbated by climate change and variability, for example sea-level rise, increased storminess and rising temperatures. Such changes, along with other social and environmental stressors, mean that communities must adapt. This paper outlines findings of a systematic review of the peer-reviewed and grey literature that examines observed adaptations in three deltas of differing sizes in various geographical contexts: the Ganges-Meghna-Brahmaputra in India and Bangladesh, the Mahanadi in India, and the Volta in Ghana. It compares and contrasts various elements of observed adaptations, including who is driving the adaptation, the beneficiaries, barriers to participation and evidence for maladaptation. The predominant drivers of adaptation vary from government (at state level in India and national level in Bangladesh) and NGOs (in Ghana). Autonomous adaptations are not widely reported in the literature from any of the deltas. In all three deltas there is a focus on supporting adaptation in farming rather than fishing; despite the fact that fisheries contribute to local food security as well as national economies. Lack of access to financial, natural, physical and human capital are common barriers to adaptation in all three deltas. Additionally the Indian literature in particular highlights the lack of coordination between different government departments, coupled with an excessively top-down (state-driven) approach to adaptation. Maladaptation is most commonly reported in the literature from Bangladesh, for example, loss of employment of inland fishermen in embanked areas. The paper concludes by highlighting some of the implications of these findings for adaptation policy in deltas.

  10. Potential exposure of larval and juvenile delta smelt to dissolved pesticides in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California (United States)

    Kuivila, K.M.; Moon, G.E.


    The San Francisco Estuary is critical habitat for delta smelt Hypomesus transpacificus, a fish whose abundance has declined greatly since 1983 and is now listed as threatened. In addition, the estuary receives drainage from the Central Valley, an urban and agricultural region with intense and diverse pesticide usage. One possible factor of the delta smelt population decline is pesticide toxicity during vulnerable larval and juvenile stages, but pesticide concentrations are not well characterized in delta smelt spawning and nursery habitat. The objective of this study was to estimate the potential exposure of delta smelt during their early life stages to dissolved pesticides. For 3 years (1998-2000), water samples from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta were collected during April-June in coordination with the California Department of Fish and Game's delta smelt early life stage monitoring program. Samples were analyzed for pesticides using solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Water samples contained multiple pesticides, ranging from 2 to 14 pesticides in each sample. In both 1999 and 2000, elevated concentrations of pesticides overlapped in time and space with peak densities of larval and juvenile delta smelt. In contrast, high spring outflows in 1998 transported delta smelt away from the pesticide sampling sites so that exposure could not be estimated. During 2 years, larval and juvenile delta smelt were potentially exposed to a complex mixture of pesticides for a minimum of 2-3 weeks. Although the measured concentrations were well below short-term (96-h) LC50 values for individual pesticides, the combination of multiple pesticides and lengthy exposure duration could potentially have lethal or sublethal effects on delta smelt, especially during early larval development.

  11. Deprivation and Resistance: Environmental Crisis, Political Action, and Conflict Resolution in the Niger Delta since the 1980s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Aworawo


    Full Text Available The interlocking relationship between environmental degradation, poverty,and violent conflict has been a prominent theme contained within the literature on sustainable development and conflict resolution since the midtwentieth century. While some analysts have argued that violence has not been limited to the poor and deprived, many have concluded from various studies that the devastation of the environment, poverty, and conflict are inextricably intertwined. This article examines this theme by analyzing the pattern of violence and nature of conflict resolution in the oil-producing enclave of the Niger Delta in the past three decades. A report of the United Nations Environment Programme on parts of the Niger Delta published in August 2011 reveals that the area is one of the most intensely polluted in the world. The report confirms the conclusion of several other earlier reports on the Niger Delta, which state that activities relating to the exploitation of oil and gas have led to intense environmental pollution and extreme poverty and that those conditions have spawned violence. The article is exploratory and analytical. It draws from diverse sources, including government records and reports of intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations as well as oral information gathered by the author from fieldwork conducted across the Niger Delta between 2007 and 2012, to explore the nature of the Niger Delta crisis from the 1980s until the present. The article argues that environmental degradation is central to the Niger Delta crisis, as it has hampered rural economic activities and posed a threat to human security. The article concludes that the effective tackling of the environmental crisis in the Niger Delta would surely reduce poverty and violence in the area.

  12. Formation Conditions and Sedimentary Characteristics of a Triassic Shallow Water Braided Delta in the Yanchang Formation, Southwest Ordos Basin, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziliang Liu

    Full Text Available A large, shallow braided river delta sedimentary system developed in the Yanchang Formation during the Triassic in the southwest of the Ordos basin. In this braided delta system, abundant oil and gas resources have been observed, and the area is a hotspot for oil and gas resource exploration. Through extensive field work on outcrops and cores and analyses of geophysical data, it was determined that developments in the Late Triassic produced favorable geological conditions for the development of shallow water braided river deltas. Such conditions included a large basin, flat terrain, and wide and shallow water areas; wet and dry cyclical climate changes; ancient water turbulence; dramatic depth cycle changes; ancient uplift development; strong weathering of parent rock; and abundant supply. The shallow water braided river delta showed grain sediment granularity, plastic debris, and sediment with mature composition and structure that reflected the strong hydrodynamic environment of large tabular cross-bedding, wedge cross-bedding, and multiple positive rhythms superimposed to form a thick sand body layer. The branch river bifurcation developed underwater, and the thickness of the sand body increased further, indicating that the slope was slow and located in shallow water. The seismic responses of the braided river delta reflected strong shallow water performance, indicated by a progradation seismic reflection phase axis that was relatively flat; in addition, the seismic reflection amplitude was strong and continuous with a low angle and extended over considerable distances (up to 50 km. The sedimentary center was close to the provenance, the width of the river was large, and a shallow sedimentary structure and a sedimentary rhythm were developed. The development of the delta was primarily controlled by tectonic activity and changes in the lake level; as a result, the river delta sedimentary system eventually presented a "small plain, big front

  13. Formation Conditions and Sedimentary Characteristics of a Triassic Shallow Water Braided Delta in the Yanchang Formation, Southwest Ordos Basin, China (United States)

    Liu, Ziliang; Shen, Fang; Zhu, Xiaomin; Li, Fengjie; Tan, Mengqi


    A large, shallow braided river delta sedimentary system developed in the Yanchang Formation during the Triassic in the southwest of the Ordos basin. In this braided delta system, abundant oil and gas resources have been observed, and the area is a hotspot for oil and gas resource exploration. Through extensive field work on outcrops and cores and analyses of geophysical data, it was determined that developments in the Late Triassic produced favorable geological conditions for the development of shallow water braided river deltas. Such conditions included a large basin, flat terrain, and wide and shallow water areas; wet and dry cyclical climate changes; ancient water turbulence; dramatic depth cycle changes; ancient uplift development; strong weathering of parent rock; and abundant supply. The shallow water braided river delta showed grain sediment granularity, plastic debris, and sediment with mature composition and structure that reflected the strong hydrodynamic environment of large tabular cross-bedding, wedge cross-bedding, and multiple positive rhythms superimposed to form a thick sand body layer. The branch river bifurcation developed underwater, and the thickness of the sand body increased further, indicating that the slope was slow and located in shallow water. The seismic responses of the braided river delta reflected strong shallow water performance, indicated by a progradation seismic reflection phase axis that was relatively flat; in addition, the seismic reflection amplitude was strong and continuous with a low angle and extended over considerable distances (up to 50 km). The sedimentary center was close to the provenance, the width of the river was large, and a shallow sedimentary structure and a sedimentary rhythm were developed. The development of the delta was primarily controlled by tectonic activity and changes in the lake level; as a result, the river delta sedimentary system eventually presented a “small plain, big front” character. PMID

  14. Navier-Stokes prediction of a delta wing in roll with vortex breakdown (United States)

    Chaderjian, Neal M.; Schiff, Lewis B.


    The three-dimensional, Reynolds-averaged, Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations are used to numerically simulate vortical flow about a 65 degree sweep delta wing. Subsonic turbulent flow computations are presented for this delta wing at 30 degrees angle of attack and static roll angles up to 42 degrees. This work is part of an on going effort to validate the RANS approach for predicting high-incidence vortical flows, with the eventual application to wing rock. The flow is unsteady and includes spiral-type vortex breakdown. The breakdown positions, mean surface pressures, rolling moments, normal forces, and streamwise center-of-pressure locations compare reasonably well with experiment. In some cases, the primary vortex suction peaks are significantly underpredicted due to grid coarseness. Nevertheless, the computations are able to predict the same nonlinear variation of rolling moment with roll angle that appeared in the experiment. This nonlinearity includes regions of local static roll instability, which is attributed to vortex breakdown.

  15. The fluvial evolution of the Holocene Nile Delta (United States)

    Pennington, B. T.; Sturt, F.; Wilson, P.; Rowland, J.; Brown, A. G.


    The evolution of the Nile Delta, the largest delta system in the Mediterranean Sea, has both high palaeoenvironmental and archaeological significance. A dynamic model of the landscape evolution of this delta system is presented for the period c.8000-4500 cal BP. Analysis of sedimentary data and chronostratigraphic information contained within 1640 borehole records has allowed for a redefinition of the internal stratigraphy of the Holocene delta, and the construction of a four-dimensional landscape model for the delta's evolution through time. The mid-Holocene environmental evolution is characterised by a transition from an earlier set of spatially varied landscapes dominated by swampy marshland, to better-drained, more uniform floodplain environments. Archaeologically important Pleistocene inliers in the form of sandy hills protruding above the delta plain surface (known as "turtlebacks"), also became smaller as the delta plain continued to aggrade, while the shoreline and coastal zone prograded north. These changes were forced by a decrease in the rate of relative sea-level rise under high rates of sediment-supply. This dynamic environmental evolution needs to be integrated within any discussion of the contemporary developments in the social sphere, which culminated in the emergence of the Ancient Egyptian State c.5050 cal BP.

  16. Tracing the Anthropocene in the Rhine-Meuse delta (United States)

    Middelkoop, Hans; van der Perk, Marcel; Cohen, Kim M.; Stouthamer, Esther; Hoek, Wim Z.; Kleinhans, Maarten G.; Erkens, Gilles; Jansma, Esther


    The Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta developed during the past ~8000 yr under a first rapid and later decreasing sea level rise in a back-barrier area along the North Sea. After about 3500 yr BP, natural delta evolution became increasingly influenced by humans, with different types of imprints: increased discharge and sediment load associated with deforestation in the hinterland affecting channel geometry and deposition; artificial avulsion; large-scale peat excavation; reclamation and drainage of flood basins resulting in compaction and oxidation of peat; river embankment preventing delta-wide overbank deposition and finalizing avulsion; channelization, changing channel belt geometry and causing shifts in sediment deposition within the delta. After the onset of the industrial revolution, contaminants have been deposited along with the river sediment on the embanked floodplains and in the estuary. The extremely well-documented human-affected evolution of the delta provides a unique opportunity to demonstrate how the Anthropocene can manifest itself in such an environment. We give an overview of human-affected processes in the Rhine-Meuse delta and discuss their effect on fluvial architecture, morphology and sediment composition, and how these may remain preserved within the delta sedimentary record.

  17. Changes in sediment and organic carbon accumulation in a highly-disturbed ecosystem: The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (California, USA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canuel, Elizabeth A.; Lerberg, Elizabeth J.; Dickhut, Rebecca M.; Kuehl, Steven A.; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Wakeham, Stuart G.


    We used the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta CA (Delta, hereafter) as a model system for understanding how human activities influence the delivery of sediment and total organic carbon (TOC) over the past 50-60 years. Sediment cores were collected from sites within the Delta representing the Sacramento River (SAC), the San Joaquin River (SJR), and Franks Tract (FT), a flooded agricultural tract. A variety of anthropogenic tracers including 137 Cs, total DDE (ΣDDE) and brominated diphenyl ether (BDE) congeners were used to quantify sediment accumulation rates. This information was combined with total organic carbon (TOC) profiles to quantify rates of TOC accumulation. Across the three sites, sediment and TOC accumulation rates were four to eight-fold higher prior to 1972. Changes in sediment and TOC accumulation were coincident with completion of several large reservoirs and increased agriculture and urbanization in the Delta watershed. Radiocarbon content of TOC indicated that much of the carbon delivered to the Delta is 'pre-aged' reflecting processing in the Delta watershed or during transport to the sites rather than an input of predominantly contemporary carbon (e.g., 900-1400 years BP in surface sediments and 2200 yrs BP and 3610 yrs BP at the base of the SJR and FT cores, respectively). Together, these data suggest that human activities have altered the amount and age of TOC accumulating in the Delta since the 1940s.

  18. Molecular mechanisms of differentiation of murine pro-inflammatory gamma-delta T cell subsets


    Bruno eSilva-Santos; Karine eSerre


    Gamma-delta (gd) T cells are unconventional innate-like lymphocytes that actively participate in protective immunity against tumors and infectious organisms including bacteria, viruses and parasites. However, gd T cells are also involved in the development of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. gd T cells are functionally characterized by very rapid production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, while also impacting on (slower but long-lasting) adaptive immune responses. This makes it crucial to...

  19. Analysis of a radio frequency class D amplifier architecture with bandpass sigma-delta modulation


    Johnson, Thomas Edward


    This thesis analyzes an amplifier architecture that combines a RF class D amplifier with a bandpass sigma-delta modulator, broadening the utility of class D amplification to include signals with envelope variation. An integrated design methodology is presented that incorporates the coding efficiency and average pulse transition frequency of the encoded pulse train into classical RF class D amplifier design equations. The equations are used to predict the power efficiency of a complementary vo...

  20. Primary Production in the Delta: Then and Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Cloern


    Full Text Available doi: evaluate the role of restoration in the recovery of the Delta ecosystem, we need to have clear targets and performance measures that directly assess ecosystem function. Primary production is a crucial ecosystem process, which directly limits the quality and quantity of food available for secondary consumers such as invertebrates and fish. The Delta has a low rate of primary production, but it is unclear whether this was always the case. Recent analyses from the Historical Ecology Team and Delta Landscapes Project provide quantitative comparisons of the areal extent of 14 habitat types in the modern Delta versus the historical Delta (pre-1850. Here we describe an approach for using these metrics of land use change to: (1 produce the first quantitative estimates of how Delta primary production and the relative contributions from five different producer groups have been altered by large-scale drainage and conversion to agriculture; (2 convert these production estimates into a common currency so the contributions of each producer group reflect their food quality and efficiency of transfer to consumers; and (3 use simple models to discover how tidal exchange between marshes and open water influences primary production and its consumption. Application of this approach could inform Delta management in two ways. First, it would provide a quantitative estimate of how large-scale conversion to agriculture has altered the Delta's capacity to produce food for native biota. Second, it would provide restoration practitioners with a new approach—based on ecosystem function—to evaluate the success of restoration projects and gauge the trajectory of ecological recovery in the Delta region.

  1. Primary production in the Delta: Then and now (United States)

    Cloern, James E.; Robinson, April; Richey, Amy; Grenier, Letitia; Grossinger, Robin; Boyer, Katharyn E.; Burau, Jon; Canuel, Elizabeth A.; DeGeorge, John F.; Drexler, Judith Z.; Enright, Chris; Howe, Emily R.; Kneib, Ronald; Mueller-Solger, Anke; Naiman, Robert J.; Pinckney, James L.; Safran, Samuel M.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Simenstad, Charles A.


    To evaluate the role of restoration in the recovery of the Delta ecosystem, we need to have clear targets and performance measures that directly assess ecosystem function. Primary production is a crucial ecosystem process, which directly limits the quality and quantity of food available for secondary consumers such as invertebrates and fish. The Delta has a low rate of primary production, but it is unclear whether this was always the case. Recent analyses from the Historical Ecology Team and Delta Landscapes Project provide quantitative comparisons of the areal extent of 14 habitat types in the modern Delta versus the historical Delta (pre-1850). Here we describe an approach for using these metrics of land use change to: (1) produce the first quantitative estimates of how Delta primary production and the relative contributions from five different producer groups have been altered by large-scale drainage and conversion to agriculture; (2) convert these production estimates into a common currency so the contributions of each producer group reflect their food quality and efficiency of transfer to consumers; and (3) use simple models to discover how tidal exchange between marshes and open water influences primary production and its consumption. Application of this approach could inform Delta management in two ways. First, it would provide a quantitative estimate of how large-scale conversion to agriculture has altered the Delta's capacity to produce food for native biota. Second, it would provide restoration practitioners with a new approach—based on ecosystem function—to evaluate the success of restoration projects and gauge the trajectory of ecological recovery in the Delta region.

  2. Hepatitis B virus and delta infection in male homosexuals. (United States)

    Hess, G; Bienzle, U; Slusarczyk, J; Hansson, B G; Meyer zum Büschenfelde, K H


    Six hundred and sixty-six homosexuals were analysed in respect of hepatitis B virus and delta infections. Evidence of ongoing or recent hepatitis B virus infection was found in 450/666 (67.6%) homosexuals; 44 were HBsAg positive. Anti-delta was found in two HBsAg-positive homosexuals. Both individuals had a non-replicative form of HBV infection and biochemical evidence of liver disease. The study confirms that HBV infection is frequent in homosexuals and indicates that delta-infection is rare in male homosexuals.

  3. Late quaternary evolution of the Orinoco Delta, Venezuela (United States)

    Warne, A.G.; Guevara, E.H.; Aslan, A.


    The modern Orinoco Delta is the latest of a series of stacked deltas that have infilled the Eastern Venezuelan Basin (EVB) since the Oligocene. During the late Pleistocene sea-level lowstand (20,000 to 16,000 yrs BP), bedrock control points at the position of the present delta apex prevented the river channel from incising as deeply as many other major river systems. Shallow seismic data indicate that the late Pleistocene Orinoco incised into the present continental shelf, where it formed a braided-river complex that transported sediment to a series of shelf-edge deltas. As sea level rose from 16,000 to 9,500 yrs BP, the Orinoco shoreline shifted rapidly landward, causing shallow-marine waves and currents to form a widespread transgressive sand unit. Decelerating sea-level rise and a warmer, wetter climate during the early Holocene (9,500 to 6,000 yrs BP) induced delta development within the relatively quiet-water environment of the EVB embayment. Sea level approached its present stand in the middle Holocene (6,000 to 3,000 yrs BP), and the Orinoco coast prograded, broadening the delta plain and infilling the EVB embayment. Significant quantities of Amazon sediment began to be transported to the Orinoco coast by littoral currents. Continued progradation in the late Holocene caused the constriction at Boca de Serpientes to alter nearshore and shelf hydrodynamics and subdivide the submarine delta into two distinct areas: the Atlantic shelf and the Gulf of Paria. The increased influence of littoral currents along the coast promoted mudcape development. Because most of the water and sediment were transported across the delta plain through the Rio Grande distributary in the southern delta, much of the central and northwestern delta plain became sediment starved, promoting widespread accumulation of peat deposits. Human impacts on the delta are mostly associated with the Volca??n Dam on Can??o Manamo. However, human activities have had relatively little effect on the

  4. Holocene evolution of the western Orinoco Delta, Venezuela (United States)

    Aslan, A.; White, W.A.; Warne, A.G.; Guevara, E.H.


    The pristine nature of the Orinoco Delta of eastern Venezuela provides unique opportunities to study the geologic processes and environments of a major tropical delta. Remote-sensing images, shallow cores, and radiocarbon-dating of organic remains form the basis for describing deltaic environments and interpreting the Holocene history of the delta. The Orinoco Delta can be subdivided into two major sectors. The southeast sector is dominated by the Rio Grande-the principal distributary-and complex networks of anastomosing fluvial and tidal channels. The abundance of siliciclastic deposits suggests that fluvial processes such as over-bank flooding strongly influence this part of the delta. In contrast, the northwest sector is represented by few major distributaries, and overbank sedimentation is less widespread relative to the southeast sector. Peat is abundant and occurs in herbaceous and forested swamps that are individually up to 200 km2 in area. Northwest-directed littoral currents transport large volumes of suspended sediment and produce prominent mudcapes along the northwest coast. Mapping of surface sediments, vegetation, and major landforms identified four principal geomorphic systems within the western delta plain: (1) distributary channels, (2) interdistributary flood basins, (3) fluvial-marine transitional environments, and (4) marine-influenced coastal environments. Coring and radiocarbon dating of deltaic deposits show that the northern delta shoreline has prograded 20-30 km during the late Holocene sea-level highstand. Progradation has been accomplished by a combination of distributary avulsion and mudcape progradation. This style of deltaic progradation differs markedly from other deltas such as the Mississippi where distributary avulsion leads to coastal land loss, rather than shoreline progradation. The key difference is that the Orinoco Delta coastal zone receives prodigious amounts of sediment from northwest-moving littoral currents that transport

  5. Delta Evolution at Røde Elv, Disko Island, Greenland (United States)

    Kroon, A.; Arngrimson, J.; Bendixen, M.; Sigsgaard, C.


    Ice, snow and freezing temperatures have a large impact on coastal morphodynamics in Arctic polar environments. A recent warming of the Arctic climate induces many changes along the arctic shorelines. Sea-levels are rising due to thermal expansion and due to an increased fresh water flux from the glaciers and land ice masses. At the same time, the ice coverage of the coastal waters reduces and the open water periods in summer extend. There is a strong seasonal variation with open waters and active rivers in summer and ice-covered coastal waters and inactive rivers in winter. Coastal processes by waves and tides are thus limited to the summer and early fall. Besides, there is also a strong daily variation in fluvial discharges due to the daily variations in glacier melt with maximum melt in the afternoon and minimum values at night. At the same time, the actual flux of the river to the coastal bay is influenced by the tidal phase. Low tides will enhance the transport to the delta front, while high tides will create stagnant waters over the delta plain. The delta of the Røde Elv is located in southwestern Disko Island in west Greenland. It has a relatively small (ca. 101 km2) and partly glaciated drainage basin (ca. 20%) and its sediments consist of a mixture of basaltic sands and gravels. The Røde Elv delta is located at the end of a pro-glacial and fluvial valley at about 20 km from the glacier. The shores of the delta are reworked by waves, predominantly from southwestern, southern (largest fetch, over 50 km), and southeastern directions. The environment has a micro- to meso- tidal range with a spring tidal range of 2.7 m. The morphologic changes on the delta over the last decades clearly showed a seaward extension of the delta and a periodic shift in the location of the main delta channel. In this presentation, we focus on quantification of water discharges and suspended sediment fluxes to the Røde Elv delta in western Greenland, and on the morphological

  6. Verification of Software Product Lines with Delta-Oriented Slicing (United States)

    Bruns, Daniel; Klebanov, Vladimir; Schaefer, Ina

    Software product line (SPL) engineering is a well-known approach to develop industry-size adaptable software systems. SPL are often used in domains where high-quality software is desirable; the overwhelming product diversity, however, remains a challenge for assuring correctness. In this paper, we present delta-oriented slicing, an approach to reduce the deductive verification effort across an SPL where individual products are Java programs and their relations are described by deltas. On the specification side, we extend the delta language to deal with formal specifications. On the verification side, we combine proof slicing and similarity-guided proof reuse to ease the verification process.

  7. A scenario framework to explore the future migration and adaptation in deltas: A multi-scale and participatory approach (United States)

    Kebede, Abiy S.; Nicholls, Robert J.; Allan, Andrew; Arto, Inaki; Cazcarro, Ignacio; Fernandes, Jose A.; Hill, Chris T.; Hutton, Craig W.; Kay, Susan; Lawn, Jon; Lazar, Attila N.; Whitehead, Paul W.


    Coastal deltas are home for over 500 million people globally, and they have been identified as one of the most vulnerable coastal environments during the 21st century. They are susceptible to multiple climatic (e.g., sea-level rise, storm surges, change in temperature and precipitation) and socio-economic (e.g., human-induced subsidence, population and urbanisation changes, GDP growth) drivers of change. These drivers also operate at multiple scales, ranging from local to global and short- to long-term. This highlights the complex challenges deltas face in terms of both their long-term sustainability as well as the well-being of their residents and the health of ecosystems that support the livelihood of large (often very poor) population under uncertain changing conditions. A holistic understanding of these challenges and the potential impacts of future climate and socio-economic changes is central for devising robust adaptation policies. Scenario analysis has long been identified as a strategic management tool to explore future climate change and its impacts for supporting robust decision-making under uncertainty. This work presents the overall scenario framework, methodology, and processes adopted for the development of scenarios in the DECCMA* project. DECCMA is analysing the future of three deltas in South Asia and West Africa: (i) the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) delta (Bangladesh/India), (ii) the Mahanadi delta (India), and (iii) the Volta delta (Ghana). This includes comparisons between these three deltas. Hence, the scenario framework comprises a multi-scale hybrid approach, with six levels of scenario considerations: (i) global (climate change, e.g., sea-level rise, temperature change; and socio-economic assumptions, e.g., population and urbanisation changes, GDP growth); (ii) regional catchments (e.g., river flow modelling), (iii) regional seas (e.g., fisheries modelling), (iv) regional politics (e.g., transboundary disputes), (v) national (e.g., socio

  8. Novel /sup 125/I radioimmunoassay for the analysis of. delta. /sup 9/-tetrahydrocannabinol and its metabolites in human body fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, B.; Mason, P.A.; Moffat, A.C.; King, L.J.

    A cannabinoid radioimmunoassay (RIA) that detects some of the major 9/-THC metabolites is developed and evaluated for use in forensic science. It incorporates a novel /sup 125/I radiotracer, is sensitive, reliable, relatively quick, and simple to use. The RIA uses a commercially available antiserum and detects a number of cannabinoid metabolites, including 9/-THC-11-oic acid and its glucuronide conjugate in biological fluids. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of blood and urine samples submitted for forensic analysis.

  9. Effective Lagrangians, Watson's theorem and the E2/M1 mixing ratio in the excitation of the Delta resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, R.M.


    The author investigates theoretical uncertainties and model dependence in the extraction of the nucleon-delta(1232) electromagnetic transition amplitudes from the multipole data base. The starting point is an effective Lagrangian incorporating chiral symmetry, which includes at the tree level the pseudovector Born terms, leading t-channel vector meson exchanges, and s and u channel delta exchanges. The nucleon-delta magnetic dipole (M1) and electric quadrupole (E2) transition amplitudes are expressed in terms of two independent gauge couplings at the γNΔ vertex. After unitarizing the tree level amplitude, the gauge couplings are fitted to various multipole data sets, thus determining E2 and M1. Although there is much sensitivity to the method used to unitarize the amplitude, the author extracts the E2/M1 ratio to be negative, with a magnitude around 1.5%. 11 refs., 3 figs

  10. The DELTA 181 lithium thionyl chloride battery (United States)

    Sullivan, Ralph M.; Brown, Lawrence E.; Leigh, A. P.

    In 1986, the Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) undertook the development of a sensor module for the DELTA 181 spacecraft, a low earth orbit (LEO) mission of less than two months duration. A large lithium thionyl chloride battery was developed as the spacecraft's primary power source, the first known such use for this technology. The exceptionally high energy density of the lithium thionyl chloride cell was the primary driver for its use, resulting in a completed battery with a specific energy density of 120 Wh/lb. Safety requirements became the primary driver shaping all aspects of the power system design and development due to concerns about the potential hazards of this relatively new, high-energy technology. However, the program was completed without incident. The spacecraft was launched on February 8, 1988, from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) with over 60,000 Wh of battery energy. It reentered on April 2, 1988, still operating after 55 days, providing a successful, practical, and visible demonstration of the use of this technology for spacecraft applications.

  11. Environmental Risk Profiling of the Volta Delta, Ghana (United States)

    Nyarko, B. K.; Appeaning-Addo, K.; Amisigo, B.


    Volta Delta communities find it difficult to absorb or bear risk at different levels, because of the physical and economic impacts of environmental hazards. In this regards various agencies and organizations have in recent years launched initiatives to measure and identify risk areas with a set of indicators and indices. The theory underpinning this study is concepts of Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT). The Cox proportional hazards regression model will be used as the model for the risk profile. Finding the optimal level of environmental risk for activities in the Volta Delta considering the risk required, risk capacity and risk tolerance. Using data from different sources, an environmental risk profile was developed for the Volta Delta. The result indicates that risks are distributed across the Delta. However, areas that have government interventions, such as sea defense system and irrigation facilities have less threat. In addition wealthy areas do effectively reduce the threat of any form of disaster.

  12. New research centre supports adaptation efforts in Egypt's Nile Delta

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Jun 20, 2014 ... Dr Mohamed Abdrabo is the Executive Director of the Alexandria Research Centre for Adaptation to Climate Change, a new research centre that supports Egypt´s adaptation policies for the Nile Delta.

  13. Delta progradation in Greenland driven by increasing glacial mass loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Mette; Iversen, Lars Lonsmann; Bjork, Anders Anker


    Climate changes are pronounced in Arctic regions and increase the vulnerability of the Arctic coastal zone(1). For example, increases in melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet and reductions in sea ice and permafrost distribution are likely to alter coastal morphodynamics. The deltas of Greenland...... of erosion and accretion along the large deltas of the main rivers in the Arctic5-7. Our results improve the understanding of Arctic coastal evolution in a changing climate, and reveal the impacts on coastal areas of increasing ice mass loss and the associated freshwater runoff and lengthening of open...... are largely unaffected by human activity, but increased freshwater runoff and sediment fluxes may increase the size of the deltas, whereas increased wave activity in ice-free periods could reduce their size, with the net impact being unclear until now. Here we show that southwestern Greenland deltas were...

  14. LiDAR data for the Delta Area of California (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — LiDAR data for the Delta Area of California from the California Department of Water Resources. Bare earth grids from LiDAR.This data is in ESRI Grid format with 2...

  15. LiDAR data for the Delta Area of California (United States)

    California Department of Resources — LiDAR data for the Delta Area of California from the California Department of Water Resources. Bare earth grids from LiDAR.This data is in ESRI Grid format with 2...

  16. Analysis and design for delta operator systems with actuator saturation (United States)

    Yang, Hongjiu; Shi, Peng; Li, Zhiwei; Hua, Changchun


    This paper studies the problem of estimating the domain of attraction for delta operator systems under a pre-designed saturated linear feedback. Ellipsoids are used as the estimates of domain of attraction for delta operator systems. A condition is derived in terms of an auxiliary feedback matrix for determining if a given ellipsoid is contractive invariant. Moreover, some necessary and sufficient conditions are given for single input delta operator systems. The results are also further extended to determine the invariant sets for delta operator systems with persistent disturbances. Linear matrix inequalities based on the methods are developed for constructing feedback laws that achieve disturbance rejection with guaranteed stability requirements. Some numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the developed techniques.

  17. Nucleon and delta masses in twisted mass chiral perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker-Loud, Andre; Wu, Jackson M.S.


    We calculate the masses of the nucleons and deltas in twisted mass heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. We work to quadratic order in a power counting scheme in which we treat the lattice spacing, a, and the quark masses, m q , to be of the same order. We give expressions for the mass and the mass splitting of the nucleons and deltas both in and away from the isospin limit. We give an argument using the chiral Lagrangian treatment that, in the strong isospin limit, the nucleons remain degenerate and the delta multiplet breaks into two degenerate pairs to all orders in chiral perturbation theory. We show that the mass splitting between the degenerate pairs of the deltas first appears at quadratic order in the lattice spacing. We discuss the subtleties in the effective chiral theory that arise from the inclusion of isospin breaking

  18. Rarotonga Radiocarbon (delta 14C) for 1950 to 1997 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Rarotonga coral radiocarbon (14C) timeseries. Coral radiocarbon (Delta-14C) on untreated, low-speed drilled samples. Precision is +/- 4 per mil as documented by an...

  19. Natural levee evolution in the Rhine-Meuse delta, the Netherlands, during the first millennium CE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, H.J.; Stouthamer, E.; Cohen, K.M.


    This paper presents reconstructions on natural levee development in the Rhine-Meuse delta, the Netherlands, during the first millennium CE, covering the full delta plain. It is the first study that performs this on a delta scale, which allows seeing the delta-wide trends on levee-forming controls

  20. Cloning and characterization of a delta-6 desaturase encoding gene from Nannochloropsis oculata (United States)

    Ma, Xiaolei; Yu, Jianzhong; Zhu, Baohua; Pan, Kehou; Pan, Jin; Yang, Guanpin


    A gene ( NANOC-D6D) encoding a desaturase that removes two hydrogen atoms from fatty acids at delta 6 position was isolated from a cDNA library of Nannochloropsis oculata (Droop) D. J. Hibberd (Eustigmatophyceae). The unicellular marine microalga N. oculata synthesizes rich long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), including eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA). The deduced protein contains 474 amino acids that fold into 4 trans-membrane domains. The neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree indicates that NANOC-D6D is phylogenetically close to the delta-6 fatty acid desaturase of marine microalgae such as Glossomastix chrysoplasta, Thalassiosira pseudonana, and Phaeodactylum tricornutum. The gene was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae INVScl to verify the substrate specificity of NANOC-D6D. Our results suggest that the recombinant NANOC-D6D simultaneously desaturates linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA).

  1. Hydraulic Bureaucracy in a Modern Hydraulic Society – Strategic Group Formation in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Dieter Evers


    Among these strategic groups, the hydraulic bureaucracy and hydraulic construction business are the most crucial in terms of the specific role they play in the hydraulic landscape of the Mekong delta. Both groups exert considerable influence on water resources management and strive for the same resources, namely public funds (including Overseas Development Aid that is directed to hydraulic infrastructure development. This paper illustrates how both groups have emerged due to the growing need for water resources management in the delta and how they have set up alliances for mutually sharing resources in the long run. Furthermore, it is shown how both groups have adapted their resource-oriented strategies and actions to respond to the changes in the economic and political environment in Vietnam’s recent history.

  2. The role of remote sensing in hydrological modelling of the Okavango Delta, Botswana. (United States)

    Milzow, Christian; Kgotlhang, Lesego; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang; Meier, Philipp; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter


    A coupled surface water-groundwater model of the Okavango Delta has been built based on the United States Geological Survey software MODFLOW 2000 including the SFR2 package for stream-flow routing. It will provide a new tool for evaluating water management and climate change scenarios. The delta's size and limited accessibility make direct, on the ground data acquisition difficult. Remote sensing methods are the most promising source of acquiring spatially distributed data for both model input parameters and calibration. Topography, aquifer thickness, channel positions, evapotranspiration and precipitation data are all based on remote sensing. Simulated flooding patterns are compared to patterns derived from visible to thermal NOAA-AVHRR data and microwave radar ENVISAT-ASAR data.

  3. Design and Implementation of a New DELTA Parallel Robot in Robotics Competitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonqlan Lin


    Full Text Available This investigation concerns the design and implementation of the DELTA parallel robot, covering the entire mechatronic process, involving kinematics, control design and optimizing methods. To accelerate the construction of the robot, 3D printing is used to fabricate end-effector parts. The parts are modular, low-cost, reconfigurable and can be assembled in less time than is required for conventionally fabricated parts. The controller, including the control algorithm and human-machine interface (HMI, is coded using the Borland C++ Builder 6 Personal software environment. The integration of the motion controller with image recognition into an opto-mechatronics system is presented. The robot system has been entered into robotic competitions in Taiwan. The experimental results reveal that the proposed DELTA robot completed the tasks in those competitions successfully.

  4. Optimal location of dry ports in the Pan-Pearl River Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Qitao


    Full Text Available Dry ports have become a very important part of globalization and a cornerstone in port competitiveness. Based on the analytic hierarchy process, this paper established the dry port index system to evaluate the potential location of dry ports linked to the port system in the Pearl River Delta, in a case study covering 115 cities in the Pan - Pearl River Delta. The results show that it is optimal to locate 21 dry ports in the research region, and each dry port serves different areas. There are 4 optimal transport corridors for the dry port logistic network, including Guangzhou- Kunming transport corridor, Guangzhou-Chengdu transport corridor, Guangzhou-Changsha transport corridor and Shenzhen-Nanchang transport corridor.

  5. The Future of the Mississippi Delta: Shifting Baselines, Diminishing Resilience, and Growing Non-Sustainability (United States)

    Day, J.


    Ecosystems and human communities of the Mississippi delta developed with predictable basin inputs, stable sea level, and as an open system with a high degree of interaction among drainage basin inputs, deltaic plain, and the coastal sea. Human activity changed altered the coast and lowered predictability. Management has become very energy intensive and dependent on cheap resources with more hard engineering and less ecological engineering. Pervasive alteration of the basin and delta and global change have altered the baseline and change is accelerating. Climate change projections include not only sea-level rise, but also more stronger hurricanes, increased large river floods, and more intense rainfall events and droughts. A sustainable Mississippi is outside of the boundaries of the current CMP.

  6. Designing a high-frequency nutrient and biogeochemical monitoring network for the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, northern California (United States)

    Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Downing, Bryan D.; Kraus, Tamara E.C.; Pellerin, Brian A.


    Executive SummaryThis report is the third in a series of three reports that provide information about how high-frequency (HF) nutrient monitoring may be used to assess nutrient inputs and dynamics in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, California (Delta). The purpose of this report is to provide the background, principles, and considerations for designing an HF nutrient-monitoring network for the Delta to address high-priority, nutrient-management questions. The report starts with discussion of the high-priority management questions to be addressed, continues through discussion of the questions and considerations that place demands and constraints on network design, discusses the principles applicable to network design, and concludes with the presentation of three example nutrient-monitoring network designs for the Delta. For three example network designs, we assess how they would address high-priority questions that have been identified by the Delta Regional Monitoring Program (Delta Regional Monitoring Program Technical Advisory Committee, 2015).This report, along with the other two reports of this series (Kraus and others, 2017; Downing and others, 2017), was drafted in cooperation with the Delta Regional Monitoring Program to help scientists, managers, and planners understand how HF data improve our understanding of nutrient sources and sinks, drivers, and effects in the Delta. The first report in the series (Kraus and others, 2017) provides an introduction to the reasons for and fundamental concepts behind using HF monitoring measurements, including a brief summary of nutrient status and trends in the Delta and an extensive literature review showing how and where other research and monitoring programs have used HF monitoring to improve our understanding of nutrient cycling. The report covers the various technologies available for HF nutrient monitoring and presents the different ways HF monitoring instrumentation may be used for both fixed station and spatial

  7. Studies of Louisiana's Deltas and Wetlands using SAR (United States)

    Jones, C. E.


    Sustainable coastal environments exist in delicate balance between subsidence, erosion, and sea level rise on one hand and accretion of sediment and retention of decomposing organic matter on the other. In this talk we present results from a series of studies using an airborne L-band SAR (UAVSAR) to measure changing conditions in the Mississippi River Delta and coastal wetlands of Louisiana. Change within the Mississippi River delta (MRD), which is a highly engineered environment, is contrasted to those in the Wax Lake Delta, a small, naturally evolving delta located to the west of the current-day lobe of the MRD. The UAVSAR studies provide evidence that in the MRD subsidence and erosion related to human activities are increasing risk of flooding, submergence, and land loss. These are not seen in the Wax Lake Delta, where new land is forming. We evaluate geomorphic and hydrologic changes In the Wax Lake Delta and wetlands hydrologically connected to the Wax Lake Outlet canal that are apparent on the timescales of the UAVSAR data set, which consists of both near-yearly acquisitions (2009-2016) and several series of repeat acquisitions in 2015 and 2016 capturing conditions across a tidal cycle. Using the yearly data, we observe the evolution of subaqueous channels and crevasses in the delta and changes in distributary channels within the wetlands. We use water level change derived from InSAR applied to the rapid repeat data acquired during different stages of a tidal cycle to study the natural pattern of water flux within the delta and the coastal wetlands. The studies, results, and plans for future work will be presented. This work was carried out in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contracts with the California Dept. of Water Resources and with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  8. Automatisierte VHDL-Code-Generierung eines Delta-Sigma Modulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Spilka


    Full Text Available Im vorliegenden Beitrag wird eine automatische Generierung des VHDL-Codes eines Delta-Sigma Modulators präsentiert. Die Koeffizientenmultiplikation wird hierbei durch Bit-Serielle-Addition durchgeführt. Mit Hilfe zweier neuer Matlab Funktionen wird der Systementwurf durch die bekannte Delta-Sigma Toolbox von R. Schreier erweitert und direkt synthesefähiger VHDL Code erzeugt.

  9. The Great Diversion: Danube Delta under Human Control (Invited) (United States)

    Giosan, L.


    Many deltas around the world are suffering from sediment deficits that render them unstable to current and predicted rates of sea level rise. One solution proposed to alleviate the complete or partial drowning of such deltas is the use of river diversions to increase the quantity of sediment supplied to the delta plain to support marsh accretion. We examine the results of a half century old program of diversion in the Danube delta that led to the creation of an extensive diversion channel network akin in scope and size to a natural deltaic network. Danube’s importance as a shipping route increased after the Crimean War in the 1850s; the European Danube Commission was charged with maintaining the Sulina distributary as a shipping channel until 1940s. In the same period, several canals were dug to aid fishing in lakes and bring freshwater to brackish lagoons. After World War II, Communist authorities dramatically increased the number of canals for fishing, fish-farming and reed harvesting. New data on sedimentation rates and estimates of sediment fluxes suggest that the intensive canalization in the second half of the 20th Century led to increased sediment deposition that compensated the decreasing sediment discharge linked to damming within the internal fluvial part of the delta; however, the external marine delta has become increasingly sediment starved during the same interval. We emphasize the similarities and contrasts between the “human-controlled” and natural deltaic channel networks of the Danube delta and discuss the sustainability of the delta as a sediment budget problem within a sea level rise context.

  10. Gamma/delta T lymphocytes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection


    Baliko, Z.; Szereday, L.; Szekeres-Bartho, J.


    BACKGROUND: Data on the percentage of gamma/delta T lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of patients infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis are few and contradictory. The percentage of gamma/delta T lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of tuberculin positive and tuberculin negative patients with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and healthy controls was compared. METHODS: Thirty six patients infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 11 healthy controls were studied. Lymphocytes we...

  11. Integrated freshwater aquaculture, crop and livestock production in the Mekong delta, Vietnam: Determinants and the role of the pond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nhan, D.K.; Phong, L.T.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Duong, L.T.; Bosma, R.H.; Little, D.C.


    Promotion of integrated aquaculture with agriculture, including crops and livestock (IAA-farming), requires consideration of both bio-physical and socio-economic contexts. The major factors influencing the adoption of IAA-farming by households at three sites in the Mekong delta were identified.

  12. Lowstand Turbidites and Delta Systems of the Itararé Group in the Vidal Ramos region (SC, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Gimena Puigdomenech

    Full Text Available Turbidites have captioned the attention of sedimentologists during the last decades due their importance as hydrocarbon reservoirs. However, their relationship to delta systems still deserves further studies. This paper presents examples from a late deglacial to early post-glacial deltaic and turbidite strata exposed in the surroundings of Vidal Ramos (Santa Catarina State, Brazil, southern portion of the Paraná Basin. There, the uppermost part of the Mafra Formation and the Rio do Sul Formation onlap the Proterozoic basement and comprises an up to 360 m thick package. It includes (base to top black shales, mass transport deposits (MTD and sandy turbidites (Mafra Formation as well as thin bedded turbidites (tbt, including one interval of black shales and sandy turbidites, overlain by proximal delta front sandstones (Rio do Sul Formation. The analysis of the succession shows two more than 150 m thick coarsening-upwards deltaic successions composed of turbidite sand sheets at their base (prodelta, followed by partially collapsed thin bedded turbidites (delta slope wedge and delta front sandstones. Both turbidite sand-sheets abruptly overlay black shale intervals related to maximum flooding surfaces and therefore record correlative conformities. A detailed stratigraphic section elaborated from the correlation of four logs (1/100 suggests that distal delta front sands includes both thin bedded turbidites and wave reworked sands whereas the proximal delta front was dominated by long-lived underflows (hyperpycnal flows. The succession suggests that the most expressive turbidite beds (base of the delta systems have resulted from relative sea-level falls (early lowstand whereas the thin-bedded turbidites were related to the development of the late lowstand wedge. Black shales represent the transgressive systems tract and HST were not deposited or preserved in the area. High sediment supply associated with lowstand tracts could explain the occasional

  13. Angoff's delta method revisited: improving DIF detection under small samples. (United States)

    Magis, David; Facon, Bruno


    Most methods for detecting differential item functioning (DIF) are suitable when the sample sizes are sufficiently large to validate the null statistical distributions. There is no guarantee, however, that they will still perform adequately when there are few respondents in the focal group or in both the reference and the focal group. Angoff's delta plot is a potentially useful alternative for small-sample DIF investigation, but it suffers from an improper DIF flagging criterion. The purpose of this paper is to improve this classification rule under mild statistical assumptions. This improvement yields a modified delta plot with an adjusted DIF flagging criterion for small samples. A simulation study was conducted to compare the modified delta plot with both the classical delta plot approach and the Mantel-Haenszel method. It is concluded that the modified delta plot is consistently less conservative and more powerful than the usual delta plot, and is also less conservative and more powerful than the Mantel-Haenszel method as long as at least one group of respondents is small. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  14. An integrated assessment framework for land subsidence in delta cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. M. Bucx


    Full Text Available In many delta cities land subsidence exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten by excessive groundwater extraction related to rapid urbanization and population growth. Without change, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other delta (and coastal cities will sink below sea level. Increased flooding and also other widespread impacts of land subsidence result already in damage of billions of dollars per year. In order to gain insight in the complex, multi-sectoral aspects of subsidence, to raise awareness and to support decision making on appropriate adaptation strategies and measures, an Integrated Assessment Framework (IAF for subsidence is introduced, illustrated by several (delta case studies. Based on that a list of 10 generic key issues and possible solutions is presented in order to further develop and support a (generic approach how to deal with subsidence in current and future subsidence-prone areas. For exchange of experiences and knowledge development.on subsidence in deltas the Delta Alliance, a knowledge network of deltas worldwide, can be supportive.

  15. Sigma-delta cellular neural network for 2D modulation. (United States)

    Aomori, Hisashi; Otake, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Nobuaki; Tanaka, Mamoru


    Although sigma-delta modulation is widely used for analog-to-digital (A/D) converters, sigma-delta concepts are only for 1D signals. Signal processing in the digital domain is extremely useful for 2D signals such as used in image processing, medical imaging, ultrasound imaging, and so on. The intricate task that provides true 2D sigma-delta modulation is feasible in the spatial domain sigma-delta modulation using the discrete-time cellular neural network (DT-CNN) with a C-template. In the proposed architecture, the A-template is used for a digital-to-analog converter (DAC), the C-template works as an integrator, and the nonlinear output function is used for the bilevel output. In addition, due to the cellular neural network (CNN) characteristics, each pixel of an image corresponds to a cell of a CNN, and each cell is connected spatially by the A-template. Therefore, the proposed system can be thought of as a very large-scale and super-parallel sigma-delta modulator. Moreover, the spatio-temporal dynamics is designed to obtain an optimal reconstruction signal. The experimental results show the excellent reconstruction performance and capabilities of the CNN as a sigma-delta modulator.

  16. Integrated Socio-Environmental Assessment of Deltas to Support Strategic Planning and Management (United States)

    Nicholls, R. J.; Lázár, A. N.; Hutton, C.; Adams, H.; Salehin, M.; Rahman, M. M.


    Deltas are some of the most densely populated areas in the world, as exemplified by the coastal zone of Bangladesh which has a rural population densities of >1,000 people/km2. These people's livelihoods and food security are strongly dependent on natural resources which are influenced by multiple drivers. These include climate variability and change, subsidence, upstream river flow modifications, and land use changes such as polderisation and conversion of rice to shrimp production. Hydro-environmental changes, such as saline water intrusion and natural disasters (e.g. river flooding, cyclones and storm surges) have negative impacts that severely affect land use and livelihood opportunities of the coastal population. These changes can be especially detrimental for the well-being of the poorest households that are highly dependent on natural resources. These multiple drivers raise fundamental policy questions about how we might develop the delta over the coming decades. The Delta Dynamic Integrated Emulator (ΔDIEM) model has been developed to examine these interactions between the coupled bio-physical environment and the livelihoods of these poor populations in coastal Bangladesh. ΔDIEM allows the long-term analysis of the possible changes in this system by linking projected changes in physical processes (e.g. river flows, nutrients), with productivity (e.g. fish, rice), social processes (e.g. access, property rights, migration) and governance/management (e.g. fisheries, agriculture, water and land use management). A range of proposed interventions can be simulated. This integrated approach is designed to provide Bangladeshi policy makers with science-based evidence of possible development trajectories within the coastal delta plain over timescales up to 50 years, including comprehensive analysis of their different choices in terms of natural resource conservation, poverty, etc. This presentation will focus on key results and insights from the analysis.

  17. Morphodynamics and Sediment Transport on the Huanghe (Yellow River) Delta: Work in Progress (United States)

    Kineke, G. C.; Calson, B.; Chadwick, A. J.; Chen, L.; Hobbs, B. F.; Kumpf, L. L.; Lamb, M. P.; Ma, H.; Moodie, A. J.; Mullane, M.; Naito, K.; Nittrouer, J. A.; Parker, G.


    Deltas are perhaps the most dynamic of coastal landforms with competing processes that deliver and disperse sediment. As part of the NSF Coastal SEES program, an interdisciplinary team of scientists from the US and China are investigating processes that link river and coastal sediment transport responsible for morphodynamic change of the Huanghe delta- an excellent study site due to its high sediment load and long history of natural and engineered avulsions, that is, abrupt shifts in the river course. A fundamental component of the study is a better understanding of sediment transport physics in a river system that transports mostly silt. Through theory and data analysis, we find that fine-grained rivers fail to develop full scale dunes, which results in faster water flow and substantially larger sediment fluxes as compared to sandy rivers (e.g. the Mississippi River). We also have developed new models for sediment-size dependent entrainment that are needed to make longer term predictions of river sedimentation patterns. On the delta front, we are monitoring the high sediment flux to the coast, which results in steep foresets and ideal conditions for off-shore sediment delivery via gravity flows. These constraints on sediment transport are being used to develop new theory for where and when rivers avulse - including the effects of variable flood discharge, sediment supply, and sea level rise -and how deltas ultimately grow through repeated cycles of lobe development. Flume experiments and field observations are being used to test these models, both in the main channel of the Huanghe and in channels abandoned after historic avulsions. Abandoned channels and floodplains are now dominated by coastal sediment transport through a combination of wave resuspension and tidal transport, settling lag and reverse estuarine circulation. Finally, the field and laboratory tested numerical models are being used as inputs to define a cost curve for efficient avulsion management of

  18. Recent coarsening of sediments on the southern Yangtze subaqueous delta front: A response to river damming (United States)

    Yang, H. F.; Yang, S. L.; Meng, Y.; Xu, K. H.; Luo, X. X.; Wu, C. S.; Shi, B. W.


    After more than 50,000 dams were built in the Yangtze basin, especially the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) in 2003, the sediment discharge to the East China Sea decreased from 470 Mt/yr before dams to the current level of 140 Mt/yr. The delta sediment's response to this decline has interested many researchers. Based on a dataset of repeated samplings at 44 stations in this study, we compared the surficial sediment grain sizes in the southern Yangtze subaqueous delta front for two periods: pre-TGD (1982) and post-TGD (2012). External factors of the Yangtze River, including water discharge, sediment discharge and suspended sediment grain size, were analysed, as well as wind speed, tidal range and wave height of the coastal ocean. We found that the average median size of the sediments in the delta front coarsened from 8.0 μm in 1982 to 15.4 μm in 2012. This coarsening was accompanied by a decrease of clay components, better sorting and more positive skewness. Moreover, the delta morphology in the study area changed from an overall accretion of 1.0 cm/yr to an erosion of - 0.6 cm/yr. At the same time, the riverine sediment discharge decreased by 70%, and the riverine suspended sediment grain size increased from 8.4 μm to 10.5 μm. The annual wind speed and wave height slightly increased by 2% and 3%, respectively, and the tidal range showed no change trend. Considering the increased wind speed and wave height, there was no evidence that the capability of the China Coastal Current to transport sediment southward has declined in recent years. The sediment coarsening in the Yangtze delta front was thus mainly attributed to the delta's transition from accumulation to erosion which was originally generated by river damming. These findings have important implications for sediment change in many large deltaic systems due to worldwide human impacts.

  19. GUTs with exclusively $\\Delta$B=1, $\\Delta$L=0 R-parity violation

    CERN Document Server

    Tamvakis, Kyriakos


    We study R-parity violation in the framework of GUTs, focusing on the case that R-parity is broken exclusively through \\Delta B=1, \\Delta L=0 effective interactions. We construct two such models, an SU(5) and an SU(5)\\times U(1)_{X} model, in which R-parity breaking is induced through interactions with extra supermassive fields. The presence of only the Baryon Number violating operators {d^c}{d^c}{u^c} requires an asymmetry between quarks and leptons, which is achieved either by virtue of the Higgs representations used or by modifications in the matter multiplets. The latter possibility is realized in the second of the above models, where the left-handed leptons have been removed from the representation in which they normaly cohabit with the right-handed up quarks and enter as a combination of the isodoublets in (\\bf {{\\overline{5}},-3}) and (\\bf {5,-2}) representations. In both models the particle content below the GUT scale is unaffected by the introduced R-parity breaking sector.

  20. How yield relates to ash content, Delta 13C and Delta 18O in maize grown under different water regimes. (United States)

    Cabrera-Bosquet, Llorenç; Sánchez, Ciro; Araus, José Luis


    Stable isotopes have proved a valuable phenotyping tool when breeding for yield potential and drought adaptation; however, the cost and technical skills involved in isotope analysis limit its large-scale application in breeding programmes. This is particularly so for Delta(18)O despite the potential relevance of this trait in C(4) crops. The accumulation of minerals (measured as ash content) has been proposed as an inexpensive way to evaluate drought adaptation and yield in C(3) cereals, but little is known of the usefulness of this measure in C(4) cereals such as maize (Zea mays). The present study investigates how yield relates to ash content, Delta(13)C and Delta(18)O, and evaluates the use of ash content as an alternative or complementary criterion to stable isotopes in assessing yield potential and drought resistance in maize. A set of tropical maize hybrids developed by CIMMYT were subjected to different water availabilities, in order to induce water stress during the reproductive stages under field conditions. Ash content and Delta(13)C were determined in leaves and kernels. In addition, Delta(18)O was measured in kernels. Water regime significantly affected yield, ash content and stable isotopes. The results revealed a close relationship between ash content in leaves and the traits informing about plant water status. Ash content in kernels appeared to reflect differences in sink-source balance. Genotypic variation in grain yield was mainly explained by the combination of ash content and Delta(18)O, whilst Delta(13)C did not explain a significant percentage of such variation. Ash content in leaves and kernels proved a useful alternative or complementary criterion to Delta(18)O in kernels for assessing yield performance in maize grown under drought conditions.

  1. A Conceptual Framework for Analyzing Deltas as Coupled Social-Ecological Systems: An example from the Amazon Delta (United States)

    Brondizio, E.; Vogt, N. D.; Hetrick, S.; da Costa, S. M. F.; Anthony, E.


    At the nexus of watersheds, land, coastal areas, oceans, and human settlements, river delta regions pose specific challenges to environmental governance and sustainability. Using the Amazon Delta (AD) as our focus we reflect on the challenges created by the high degree of functional interdependencies shaping social-ecological dynamics of delta regions. The article introduces the initial design of an integrated conceptual framework to analyze delta regions as coupled social-ecological systems (SES). The first component of the framework is used to provide integrated definitions of delta regions according to a problem and/or collective action dilemma. Five different systematic components are suggested: social-economic systems, governance systems, ecosystems-resource systems, topographic-hydrological systems, and oceanic-climate systems. The second component of the framework presents a strategy for nested social ecological analysis to examine collective action situations in delta regions from local to regional and basin levels. The article provides illustrative applications of the framework to the Amazon Delta. First, it is used to define the AD region as a coupled, multi-level SES. We further proposed a definition of what we call the core SES of the AD. We then utilize the framework to diagnose an example collective action problem related to the impacts of urban growth and pollution on small-scale fishing resources. We argue that the functional interdependencies characteristic of delta regions require new approaches to understand, diagnose, and evaluate the current and future impact of social and environmental changes and potential solutions to the sustainability dilemmas characteristic of these regions.

  2. Mean proloculus size, delta super(13) C and delta super(18) O variations in recent benthic foraminifera from the west coast of India and their climatic implications

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Sarkar, A.

    The interrelationship between mean proloculus size (MPS), delta super(18) O and delta super(13) C vatiations in benthic foraminiferal species Rotalidium annectens and their relation with temperature (T) and salinity (S) have been studied in samples...

  3. Thermoelectric material including a multiple transition metal-doped type I clathrate crystal structure (United States)

    Yang, Jihui [Lakeshore, CA; Shi, Xun [Troy, MI; Bai, Shengqiang [Shanghai, CN; Zhang, Wenqing [Shanghai, CN; Chen, Lidong [Shanghai, CN; Yang, Jiong [Shanghai, CN


    A thermoelectric material includes a multiple transition metal-doped type I clathrate crystal structure having the formula A.sub.8TM.sub.y.sub.1.sup.1TM.sub.y.sub.2.sup.2 . . . TM.sub.y.sub.n.sup.nM.sub.zX.sub.46-y.sub.1.sub.-y.sub.2.sub.- . . . -y.sub.n.sub.-z. In the formula, A is selected from the group consisting of barium, strontium, and europium; X is selected from the group consisting of silicon, germanium, and tin; M is selected from the group consisting of aluminum, gallium, and indium; TM.sup.1, TM.sup.2, and TM.sup.n are independently selected from the group consisting of 3d, 4d, and 5d transition metals; and y.sub.1, y.sub.2, y.sub.n and Z are actual compositions of TM.sup.1, TM.sup.2, TM.sup.n, and M, respectively. The actual compositions are based upon nominal compositions derived from the following equation: z=8q.sub.A-|.DELTA.q.sub.1|y.sub.1-|.DELTA.q.sub.2|y.sub.2- . . . -|.DELTA.q.sub.n|y.sub.n, wherein q.sub.A is a charge state of A, and wherein .DELTA.q.sub.1, .DELTA.q.sub.2, .DELTA.q.sub.n are, respectively, the nominal charge state of the first, second, and n-th TM.

  4. Rapid evolution of water resources in the Senegal delta (United States)

    Ngom, F. D.; Tweed, S.; Bader, J.-C.; Saos, J.-L.; Malou, R.; Leduc, C.; Leblanc, M.


    In recent decades major water developments have led to an agricultural transformation of the Senegal delta both in Senegal and Mauritania. This otherwise, semi-arid region of the Sahel band now has an abundant supply of freshwater all year round mostly used for irrigation and urban water supply, including for the capital cities of the two countries. Archives from the Landsat satellites and in-situ hydrographs were used in this paper to retrace and analyse the hydrological changes that have taken place in the region since the middle of the 20th century. The satellite archives indicate that the area covered by irrigation increased by one order of magnitude from 73 km2 in 1973 to 770 km2 in 2010. The observed hydrological changes are complex, multi-faceted and often of great magnitude. If the water cycle was representative of natural conditions in the early 1980s, it is now representative of a heavily modified system controlled and impacted by human activities. The first hydraulic infrastructure was installed in 1947 to enable the Lake of Guiers to become the main water supply for Dakar. Two large dams were built on the Senegal River in the mid-1980s that modified the hydrological regime of the river by 1) preventing seawater intrusion, 2) raising the stage of the river and of Lake of Guiers and 3) moderating floods. Another recent hydrological change in the delta was the opening of river mouth in 2003, which has led to a reduction of the average water level while increasing the semi-diurnal tidal wave between the river mouth and Diama. Each phase of these river regime changes and each step of the irrigation expansion are expressed in localised changes in the physical groundwater system. Increasingly, the retroaction from the shallow aquifer systems is observed as a rise of the saline water table. This poses a threat to the environmental and agricultural value of the region, and the salinization of the soils. Mitigating actions for this threat are currently being

  5. Excretion of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in sweat. (United States)

    Huestis, Marilyn A; Scheidweiler, Karl B; Saito, Takeshi; Fortner, Neil; Abraham, Tsadik; Gustafson, Richard A; Smith, Michael L


    Sweat testing is a noninvasive technique for monitoring drug exposure over a 7-day period in treatment, criminal justice, and employment settings. We evaluated Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) excretion in 11 daily cannabis users after cessation of drug use. PharmChek sweat patches worn for 7 days were analyzed for THC by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The limit of quantification (LOQ) for the method was 0.4 ng THC/patch. Sweat patches worn the first week of continuously monitored abstinence had THC above the United States Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration's proposed cutoff concentration for federal workplace testing of 1 ng THC/patch. Mean+/-S.E.M. THC concentrations were 3.85+/-0.86 ng THC/patch. Eight of 11 subjects had negative patches the second week and one produced THC positive patches for 4 weeks of monitored abstinence. We also tested daily and weekly sweat patches from seven subjects who were administered oral doses of up to 14.8 mg THC/day for five consecutive days. In this oral THC administration study, no daily or weekly patches had THC above the LOQ; concurrent plasma THC concentrations were all less than 6.1 microg/L. In conclusion, using proposed federal cutoff concentrations, most daily cannabis users will have a positive sweat patch in the first week after ceasing drug use and a negative patch after subsequent weeks, although patches may remain positive for 4 weeks or more. Oral ingestion of up to 14.8 mg THC daily does not produce a THC positive sweat patch test.

  6. A CAFE Delta Building Model With Channel Networks (United States)

    Liang, M.; Voller, V. R.; Paola, C.; Edmonds, D.


    Mass balance sediment transport models based on the Exner equation are excellent at predicting the overall growth of river deltas, such as the position of the shoreline or the total area of delta as a function of time. The detailed evolution of delta growth, however, is dependent on the structure of the channel network which distributes the sediments. For example, vegetation dynamics along channel edges plays an important role in land building process. Therefore, to fully resolve the key delta growth processes, models must be able to evolve and track the channels on its surface. Current attempts to resolve channel networks in delta building models cover a wide range of scales. At small scales, solvers that resolve the three-dimensional flow field successfully simulate the formation of river mouth bar and channel bifurcation, but due to their computational demand they cannot be used to model a whole delta. At large scales, two-dimensional cellular models can crudely incorporate self-channelization but do not resolve the full channel network. In the middle, the coupling of Cellular Automata rules for channel evolution with Finite Element models of sediment transport (CAFE models) shows promise of providing physically and computationally feasible models. Here we borrow recent ideas from diffusion models of dendritic crystal structures, to develop a CAFE delta building model. We use an unstructured mesh of Delaunay triangulation with vertex nodes and two sets of rules are introduced as “building” and “aging” rules. Building rules describe the diffusional flux between adjacent nodes, essentially equivalent to a discrete solution of the PDE system describing diffusion of sediment in a fluvial delta. Channels are developed by selecting nodes in which sediment flux exceeds a given threshold. Interestingly bifurcations emerge at the shoreline, even though no rules specify their creation. Aging rules are applied to the cellular structure of channel networks to

  7. Differences in delta13C and delta15N stable isotopes in the pearly razorfish Xyrichtys novacula related to the sex, location and spawning period. (United States)

    Box, A; Deudero, S; Blanco, A; Grau, A M; Riera, F


    In the present study, Xyrichtys novacula (Labridae) were sampled at five locations around the islands of Ibiza and Formentera (western Mediterranean Sea). Isotopic signatures of delta13C, delta15N and the C:N ratio were analysed in relation to locality, sex and size differences. delta13C and delta15N partitioning was also studied in the reproductive spawning period. There were significant differences in the delta13C signature between localities for both sexes, but not for delta15N. Sex differences were also found with a mean +/-s.e. value of -17.38 +/- 0.06 per thousand delta13C and 8.36 +/- 0.05 per thousand delta(15)N for females and -17.17 +/- 0.07 per thousand delta13C and 8.80 +/- 0.06 per thousand delta15N for males. Increasing total length in both sexes was positively correlated with delta15N enrichment and a significant positive linear regression was established for both variables. During the reproductive spawning period, there were changes in delta13C fractioning with enrichment in postspawning females and males (with respect to prespawning and spawning periods) and delta(15)N impoverishment in postspawning females (with respect to prespawning and spawning periods). Xyrichtys novacula uses local food sources, as confirmed by delta(13)C and delta(15)N, and females and males use different food sources, thus avoiding intraspecific competition. This was confirmed by delta15N enrichment as size increased. Spawning leads to special requirements for gonad maturation, which is reflected in the isotopic signatures for both sexes.

  8. Four-Wire Delta Service Sinusoidal Operation and Compensation Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente León-Martínez


    Full Text Available An off-line simulator based on Excel used to evaluate the operation of four-wire delta (4WD services as well as the effects of reactive and imbalance compensators in sinusoidal steady-state conditions is described in this paper. Voltages, currents and powers in the primary and secondary windings of the transformer as well as in the high voltage (HV and low voltage (LV lines and in the loads are calculated through that simulator. The apparent powers in the mains, transformer and loads are determined applying Buchholz’s and unified power measurement (UPM formulations in both scalar and vector notations. The effects of the neutral current are especially examined, in order to minimize them, and the optimal wye load distribution is determined by the simulator. The simulator provides the necessary elements of passive reactive and unbalanced compensators that optimize the 4WD transformer operation too. Those compensators are determined for each load, and they can be separately selected and included in the simulation process or not. An application example is finally used to step by step explain how the simulator runs.

  9. Parapapillary atrophy: histological gamma zone and delta zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jost B Jonas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To examine histomorphometrically the parapapillary region in human eyes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The histomorphometric study included 65 human globes (axial length:21-37 mm. On anterior-posterior histological sections, we measured the distance Bruch's membrane end (BME-optic nerve margin ("Gamma zone", BME-retinal pigment epithelium (RPE ("Beta zone", BME-beginning of non-occluded choriocapillaris, and BME-beginning of photoreceptor layer. "Delta zone" was defined as part of gamma zone in which blood vessels of at least 50 µm diameter were not present over a length of >300 µm. Beta zone (mean length:0.35±0.52 mm was significantly (P = 0.01 larger in the glaucoma group than in the non-glaucomatous group. It was not significantly (P = 0.28 associated with axial length. Beta zone was significantly (P = 0.004 larger than the region with occluded choriocapillaris. Gamma zone (mean length:0.63±1.25 mm was associated with axial length (P50 µm diameter within gamma zone was present only in highly axially elongated globes and was not related with glaucoma. Beta zone (Bruch's membrane without RPE was correlated with glaucoma but not with globe elongation. Since the region with occluded choriocapillaris was smaller than beta zone, complete loss of RPE may have occurred before complete choriocapillaris closure.

  10. Integration of Data From Meteosat Second Generation in a Coupled Hydrological SVAT Model of the Okavango Delta (United States)

    Rasmussen, M. O.; Stisen, S.; Sandholt, I.


    Obtaining adequate input data for distributed hydrological models is a major callenge to the use of such models. This is especially true in areas where conventionel data sources like synoptic stations are few and far apart. This is true for the Okavango Delta in Botswana, where no operational synoptic stations are present within the delta, and where access to the delta is difficult due to annual floods. Furthermore the complex hydrology of the delta requires spatially distributed, high quality data to adequately model the distribution of water and the evapotranspiration from the surface. Conventional outflow validation is not viable due to the low percentage of water leaving the delta in streams (approximately 3%). In this study methods for estimating some of the key driving variables for the model based on data from the SEVIRI sensor onboard the Meteosat Second Generation satellites have been applied. The SEVIRI sensor provides imagery every 15 minutes in 12 spectral channels at a spatial resolution of approximately 4 × 4 kilometer for the Okavango delta. The model used is a version of the MikeSHE code which include a `Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer'-module. Hourly values of global radiation, 3-hourly air temperatures and a daily value of the albedo have been estimated and used as input to the model. These input are a signigicant improvement both temporally and spatially compared to previously applied data. The results are compared to results from model runs using data from other satellite systems (e.g. albedo from MODIS) and from conventional data sources. The results show better model performance in terms of spatial distribution of evapotranspiration due to the spatially distributed nature of the input data. Improvements due to higher effective temporal resolution of the input data have also been identified.

  11. Initial isotopic geochemistry ({delta} 18 O, {delta} D) of fluids from wells of the Los Humeros, Pue., geothermal field; Geoquimica isotopica ({delta} 18 O, {delta} D) inicial de fluidos de pozos del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Pue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan Reyes, Rosa Maria; Arellano Gomez, Victor Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail:; Ramirez Montes, Miguel; Tovar Aguado, Rigoberto [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)


    Isotopic data ({delta} 18 O, {delta} D) from fluids from production wells at the Los Humeros, Pue., geothermal field were analyzed to investigate the possible origin of these fluids and the dominant processes of the reservoir at its initial state. According to pre-exploitation data, it is suggested the Los Humeros reservoir fluids are made of a mixture of meteoric water of very light isotopic composition (paleo-fluids) and andesitic water. The relationship {delta} D vs {delta} 18 O from pre-exploitation data indicates the produced fluids are composed of a mixture of (at least) two fluids with distinct isotopic compositions. At the more enriched end of the mixing relationship are the isotopic compositions of the wells H-23 and H-18 (located in the southern area of the field), while the lighter fluids were found in well H-16 (originally) and then in well H-16 (repaired). It was found that the liquid phases of deep wells are more enriched in {delta} 18 O while the shallow wells present lower values, suggesting a convection process at the initial state. Based on this isotopic profile, it is considered that even the production depths of the wells H-1, H-12 and H-16 (repaired) are just about the same, but their respective isotopic compositions are quite different. The {delta} 18 O value for well H-16 (repaired) seems to be that of condensate steam, while the corresponding values for wells H-1 and H-12 fall within the value interval of the deep wells (H-23). This suggests wells H-1 and H-12 are collecting very deep fluids enriched in {delta} 18 O. These results could be useful in creating a conceptual model of the reservoir. [Spanish] Se analizaron datos isotopicos ({delta}18 O, {delta}D) de los fluidos de pozos productores del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Pue., para investigar el posible origen de los fluidos asi como los procesos dominantes del yacimiento en su estado inicial. De acuerdo con datos previos a la explotacion, se plantea que los fluidos del yacimiento

  12. Lava delta deformation as a proxy for submarine slope instability (United States)

    Di Traglia, Federico; Nolesini, Teresa; Solari, Lorenzo; Ciampalini, Andrea; Frodella, William; Steri, Damiano; Allotta, Benedetto; Rindi, Andrea; Marini, Lorenzo; Monni, Niccolò; Galardi, Emanuele; Casagli, Nicola


    The instability of lava deltas is a recurrent phenomenon affecting volcanic islands, which can potentially cause secondary events such as littoral explosions (due to interactions between hot lava and seawater) and tsunamis. It has been shown that Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is a powerful technique to forecast the collapse of newly emplaced lava deltas. This work goes further, demonstrating that the monitoring of lava deltas is a successful strategy by which to observe the long-term deformation of subaerial-submarine landslide systems on unstable volcanic flanks. In this paper, displacement measurements derived from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery were used to detect lava delta instability at Stromboli volcano (Italy). Recent flank eruptions (2002-2003, 2007 and 2014) affected the Sciara del Fuoco (SdF) depression, created a "stacked" lava delta, which overlies a pre-existing scar produced by a submarine-subaerial tsunamigenic landslide that occurred on 30 December 2002. Space-borne X-band COSMO-SkyMED (CSK) and C-band SENTINEL-1A (SNT) SAR data collected between February 2010 and October 2016 were processed using the SqueeSAR algorithm. The obtained ground displacement maps revealed the differential ground motion of the lava delta in both CSK and SNT datasets, identifying a stable area (characterized by less than 2 mm/y in both datasets) within the northern sector of the SdF and an unstable area (characterized by velocity fields on the order of 30 mm/y and 160 mm/y in the CSK and SNT datasets, respectively) in the central sector of the SdF. The slope stability of the offshore part of the SdF, as reconstructed based on a recently performed multibeam bathymetric survey, was evaluated using a 3D Limit Equilibrium Method (LEM). In all the simulations, Factor of Safety (F) values between 0.9 and 1.1 always characterized the submarine slope between the coastline and -250 m a.s.l. The critical surfaces for all the search volumes corresponded to

  13. A large-scale environmental flow experiment for riparian restoration in the Colorado River delta (United States)

    Shafroth, Patrick B.; Schlatter, Karen; Gomez-Sapiens, Martha; Lundgren, Erick; Grabau, Matthew R.; Ramirez-Hernandez, Jorge; Rodriguez-Burgeueno, J. Eliana; Flessa, Karl W.


    Managing streamflow is a widely-advocated approach to provide conditions necessary for seed germination and seedling establishment of trees in the willow family (Salicaceae). Experimental flow releases to the Colorado River delta in 2014 had a primary objective of promoting seedling establishment of Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii) and Goodding's willow (Salix gooddingii). We assessed seed germination and seedling establishment of these taxa as well as the non-native tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) and native seepwillow shrubs (Baccharis spp.) in the context of seedling requirements and active land management (land grading, vegetation removal) at 23 study sites along 87 river km. In the absence of associated active land management, experimental flows to the Colorado River delta were minimally successful at promoting establishment of new woody riparian seedlings, except for non-native Tamarix. Our results suggest that the primary factors contributing to low seedling establishment varied across space, but included low or no seed availability in some locations for some taxa, insufficient soil moisture availability during the growing season indicated by deep groundwater tables, and competition from adjacent vegetation (and, conversely, availability of bare ground). Active land management to create bare ground and favorable land grades contributed to significantly higher rates of Salicaceae seedling establishment in a river reach with high groundwater tables. Our results provide insights that can inform future environmental flow deliveries to the Colorado River delta and its ecosystems and other similar efforts to restore Salicaceae taxa around the world.

  14. Economic and financial analysis of harvesting and utilization of river reed in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. (United States)

    Mmopelwa, G


    The Okavango Delta, the largest Ramsar wetland site, is one of the most resource-rich ecosystems in Botswana. A range of resources, including reeds, contribute in various ways to the well-being of many of the communities through subsistence and income generation. The economic value of reeds and other resources found in wetlands has been poorly understood, leading to the perception that wetlands are wastelands, and have little or no economic values. Such resources are therefore likely to receive lower priority in conservation when evaluated against other alternative activities. The aim of this research was to determine the benefit and financial and economic viability of harvesting river reed in the Okavango Delta. Primary data were collected through a structured questionnaire administered at three villages in the Okavango Delta. Secondary data were collected from existing literature. Financial and economic analysis was undertaken using static and financial models. Market prices were used to calculate the net income generated from the sale of harvested reed. The measurement criteria for static models were the annual net cash income, net annual economic benefit, and return on investment (ROI), while those under the dynamic models were the net present value (NPV), benefit cost ratio (BCR), and the net benefit investment (N/K) ratio. It was more financially profitable and economically viable to harvest and sell reeds at Shorobe village (a village relatively close to the District economic centre, Maun), than Shakawe or Etsha-13.

  15. Fingerprinting analysis and characterization of hydrocarbons in sediments of the Pearl River Delta in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.; Wang, Z.; Hollebone, B.; Yang, Z.; Brown, C.; Landriault, M.; Peng, X.


    This paper reported on a study that used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography flame ionization detection (GC-FID) to investigate and characterize the contamination in southern China's Pearl River Delta, with particular reference to contamination from petroleum,n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), biomarkers and diamondoid compounds. Forensic analysis of sediments was necessary in order to decode the contamination history and evaluate the contamination level of the aquatic ecosystem. The contamination of the Pearl River Delta sediment was derived from various inputs, including petrogenic, biogenic and pyrogenic sources. However, in addition to identifying PAHs and biomarker terpanes and steranes, the detection of trace diamondoid compounds in the sediments demonstrated that the pollution in the river was derived partially from petroleum sources. Diamondoids are a class of saturated hydrocarbons that consist of three-dimensionally fused cyclohexane rings. They occur naturally in source rocks, crude oils, intermediate petroleum distillates, and finished petroleum products. They are more resistant to biodegradation than most other petroleum compounds such as n-alkanes. As such, they can play an important role in identifying and characterizing petroleum contamination in the environment. It was concluded that the petroleum contamination in the Pearl River Delta is attributed to the mixture of medium to heavy petroleum residues. 31 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs

  16. Valence band states in Si-based p-type delta-doped field effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Orozco, J C; Vlaev, Stoyan J, E-mail: jcmover@correo.unam.m [Unidad Academica de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad esquina con Paseo la Bufa S/N, C.P. 98060, Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)


    We present tight-binding calculations of the hole level structure of delta-doped Field Effect Transistor in a Si matrix within the first neighbors sp{sup 3}s* semi-empirical tight-binding model including spin. We employ analytical expressions for Schottky barrier potential and the p-type delta-doped well based on a Thomas-Fermi approximation, we consider these potentials as external ones, so in the computations they are added to the diagonal terms of the tight-binding Hamiltonian, by this way we have the possibility to study the energy levels behavior as we vary the backbone parameters in the system: the two-dimensional impurity density (p{sub 2d}) of the p-type delta-doped well and the contact voltage (V{sub c}). The aim of this calculation is to demonstrate that the tight-binding approximation is suitable for device characterization that permits us to propose optimal values for the input parameters involved in the device design.

  17. Population decline in the Delta caribou herd with reference to other Alaskan herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Valkenburg et al.


    Full Text Available After growing continuously for nearly 15 years, the Delta caribou herd began to decline in 1989. Most other Interior Alaskan herds also began declining. In the Delta herd, and in other herds, the declines were caused primarily by high summer mortality of calves and increased natural mortality of adult females. Other minor causes included increased winter mortality of calves, and reduced parturition rates of 3-year-old and older females. The decline in the Delta herd also coincided with increased wolf (Canis lupus numbers, winters with deeper than normal snow, and warm summers. Mean body weight of annual samples of 10-month-old female calves was consistently low during the decline. Except in some of the smallest Interior Alaskan herds, we conclude that evidence for population regulation in Alaskan caribou is weak, and that herds are likely to fluctuate within a wide range of densities due to complex interactions of predation and weather. Unless wolf numbers are influenced by man, the size of a caribou herd in a given year is likely to be largely a function of its size during the previous population low and the number of years of favorable weather in the interim.

  18. Gamma/delta T cell subsets in patients with active Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and tuberculin anergy. (United States)

    Szereday, L; Baliko, Z; Szekeres-Bartho, J


    Earlier data suggest that gamma/delta T cells may play an important role in the immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The aim of this study was to determine the percentage of different gamma/delta subsets in peripheral blood of active tuberculosis patients with a positive or negative tuberculin reaction. Thirty-eight patients infected with M. tuberculosis and 22 healthy controls were included in the study. Venous blood was taken before starting antimycobacterial treatment. Lymphocytes were reacted with monoclonal antibodies specific for different gamma/delta V chains (Vdelta1, Vdelta2, Vgamma9 and Vgamma4). The results were analysed in the context of tuberculin reactivity and X-ray findings. Our results revealed a selective loss of Vgamma9/Vdelta2 T cells in the peripheral blood of tuberculin-negative patients with active tuberculosis compared to healthy controls, while the ratio of Vgamma9/Vdelta2 T cells in the peripheral blood of patients with a positive skin test did not differ from that of healthy controls. These findings demonstrate a relationship between the loss of the major M. tuberculosis-reactive subset of gammadelta T cells and the absence of tuberculin reactivity. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that gammadelta T cells play a role in the protective immune response to M. tuberculosis infection.

  19. [Construction of plant expression plasmid of chimera SBR-CT delta A1]. (United States)

    Mai, Sui; Ling, Junqi


    The purpose of this study is to construct plant expression plasmid containing the gene encoding chimera SBR-CT delta A1. The target gene fragment P2, including the gene-encoded chimera SBR-CT delta A1 (3,498-5,378 bp), was obtained by standard PCR amplification. The PCR products were ligated with pGEM-easy vector through TA clone to form plasmid pTSC. The plasmid pTSC and plasmid pPOKII were digested by restricted endonuclease BamHI and KpnI, and the digested products were extracted and purified for recombination. Then the purified P2 and plasmid pPOKII were recombined by T4 DNA ligase to form recombinant plasmid pROSC; inserting bar gene into the plasmid and form pROSB plasmid. The recombined plasmids were isolated and identified by restricted endonuclease cutting and Sanger dideoxy DNA sequencing. P2 gene was linked to pPOKII plasmid and formed recombinant plasmid pROSC. The DNA sequence and orientation were corrected. And bar gene was inserted into pPOSC and form recombinant plasmid pROSB. Plant expression vector pROSC and pROSB containing the gene encoding chimera SBR-CT delta A1, which may provide useful experiment foundation for further study on edible vaccine against caries have been successfully constructed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enwere Chidimma Loveline


    Full Text Available  Wetlands perform a wide variety of functions that include flood control, ground water recharge, shore line stabilization, storm protection and climate moderation. However, despite these huge wetland functions, it has witnessed poor appreciation and dreadful conditions. Niger Delta has witnessed constant coastal erosion and rising sea level, this has led to large portions of the landmass being eroded. This paper aims to review some environmental effects of flooding in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria to provide the desired knowledge of role that wetlands play in reducing flood impacts. However, having witnessed the flood, the experience opened my eyes to the environmental challenges facing Niger Delta with respect to Wetlands degradation, poor perception of wetland values and functions, poor environmental practices and non-implementation of environmental regulations. This memorable experience rekindled the desire and motivation to seek a solution to wetland degradation with the aim of recognizing significance of wetlands at the centre of achieving both livelihood and biodiversity improvements to address coastal flooding problem.The study therefore concludes that wetlands are very significant in flood control and thus the conservation and restoration of wetlands, should put in place measures to reduce wetland destruction.International Journal of EnvironmentVolume-4, Issue-3, June-August 2015Page: 177-184

  1. Stratigraphy and paleohydrology of delta channel deposits, Jezero crater, Mars (United States)

    Goudge, Timothy A.; Mohrig, David; Cardenas, Benjamin T.; Hughes, Cory M.; Fassett, Caleb I.


    The Jezero crater open-basin lake contains two well-exposed fluvial sedimentary deposits formed early in martian history. Here, we examine the geometry and architecture of the Jezero western delta fluvial stratigraphy using high-resolution orbital images and digital elevation models (DEMs). The goal of this analysis is to reconstruct the evolution of the delta and associated shoreline position. The delta outcrop contains three distinct classes of fluvial stratigraphy that we interpret, from oldest to youngest, as: (1) point bar strata deposited by repeated flood events in meandering channels; (2) inverted channel-filling deposits formed by avulsive distributary channels; and (3) a valley that incises the deposit. We use DEMs to quantify the geometry of the channel deposits and estimate flow depths of ∼7 m for the meandering channels and ∼2 m for the avulsive distributary channels. Using these estimates, we employ a novel approach for assessing paleohydrology of the formative channels in relative terms. This analysis indicates that the shift from meandering to avulsive distributary channels was associated with an approximately four-fold decrease in the water to sediment discharge ratio. We use observations of the fluvial stratigraphy and channel paleohydrology to propose a model for the evolution of the Jezero western delta. The delta stratigraphy records lake level rise and shoreline transgression associated with approximately continuous filling of the basin, followed by outlet breaching, and eventual erosion of the delta. Our results imply a martian surface environment during the period of delta formation that supplied sufficient surface runoff to fill the Jezero basin without major drops in lake level, but also with discrete flooding events at non-orbital (e.g., annual to decadal) timescales.

  2. Structural Insights into Clostridium perfringens Delta Toxin Pore Formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Huyet

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens Delta toxin is one of the three hemolysin-like proteins produced by C. perfringens type C and possibly type B strains. One of the others, NetB, has been shown to be the major cause of Avian Nectrotic Enteritis, which following the reduction in use of antibiotics as growth promoters, has become an emerging disease of industrial poultry. Delta toxin itself is cytotoxic to the wide range of human and animal macrophages and platelets that present GM2 ganglioside on their membranes. It has sequence similarity with Staphylococcus aureus β-pore forming toxins and is expected to heptamerize and form pores in the lipid bilayer of host cell membranes. Nevertheless, its exact mode of action remains undetermined. Here we report the 2.4 Å crystal structure of monomeric Delta toxin. The superposition of this structure with the structure of the phospholipid-bound F component of S. aureus leucocidin (LukF revealed that the glycerol molecules bound to Delta toxin and the phospholipids in LukF are accommodated in the same hydrophobic clefts, corresponding to where the toxin is expected to latch onto the membrane, though the binding sites show significant differences. From structure-based sequence alignment with the known structure of staphylococcal α-hemolysin, a model of the Delta toxin pore form has been built. Using electron microscopy, we have validated our model and characterized the Delta toxin pore on liposomes. These results highlight both similarities and differences in the mechanism of Delta toxin (and by extension NetB cytotoxicity from that of the staphylococcal pore-forming toxins.

  3. Anadromous salmonids in the Delta: New science 2006–2016 (United States)

    Perry, Russell W.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Brandes, Patricia L.; Burau, Jon R.; Israel, Joshua A


    As juvenile salmon enter the Sacramento–SanJoaquin River Delta (“the Delta”) they disperse among its complex channel network where they are subject to channel-specific processes that affect their rate of migration, vulnerability to predation, feeding success, growth rates, and ultimately, survival. In the decades before 2006, tools available to quantify growth, dispersal, and survival of juvenile salmon in this complex channel network were limited.Fortunately, thanks to technological advances such as acoustic telemetry and chemical and structural otolith analysis, much has been learned over the past decade about the role of the Delta in the life cycle of juvenile salmon. Here, we review new science between 2006and 2016 that sheds light on how different life stages and runs of juvenile salmon grow, move, and survive in the complex channel network of the Delta. One of the most important advances during the past decade has been the widespread adoption of acoustic telemetry techniques. Use of telemetry has shed light on how survival varies among alternative migration routes and the proportion of fish that use each migration route. Chemical and structural analysis of otoliths has provided insights about when juveniles left their natal river and provided evidence of extended rearing in the brackish or saltwater regions of the Delta. New advancements in genetics now allow individuals captured by trawls to be assigned to specific runs. Detailed information about movement and survival in the Delta has spurred development of agent-based models of juvenile salmon that are coupled to hydrodynamic models. Although much has been learned, knowledge gaps remain about how very small juvenile salmon (fry and parr) use the Delta. Understanding how all life stages of juvenile salmon grow, rear, and survive in the Delta is critical for devising management strategies that support a diversity of life history strategies.

  4. Clinical applications of gamma delta T cells with multivalent immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew C Deniger


    Full Text Available Gamma delta T cells hold promise for adoptive immunotherapy because of their reactivity to bacteria, viruses, and tumors. However, these cells represent a small fraction (1-5% of the peripheral T-cell pool and require activation and propagation to achieve clinical benefit. Aminobisphosphonates specifically expand the Vgamma9Vdelta2 subset of gamma delta T cells and have been used in clinical trials of cancer where objective responses were detected. The Vgamma9Vdelta2 TCR heterodimer binds multiple ligands and results in a multivalent attack by a monoclonal T cell population. Alternatively, populations of gamma delta T cells with oligoclonal or polyclonal TCR repertoire could be infused for broad-range specificity. However, this goal has been restricted by a lack of applicable expansion protocols for non-Vgamma9Vdelta2 cells. Recent advances using immobilized antigens, agonistic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs, tumor-derived artificial antigen presenting cells (aAPC, or combinations of activating mAbs and aAPC have been successful in expanding gamma delta T cells with oligoclonal or polyclonal TCR repertoires. Immobilized MHC Class-I chain-related A was a stimulus for gamma delta T cells expressing TCRdelta1 isotypes, and plate-bound activating antibodies have expanded Vdelta1 and Vdelta2 cells ex vivo. Clinically-sufficient quantities of TCRdelta1, TCRdelta2, and TCRdelta1negTCRdelta2neg have been produced following co-culture on aAPC, and these subsets displayed differences in memory phenotype and reactivity to tumors in vitro and in vivo. Gamma delta T cells are also amenable to genetic modification as evidenced by introduction of alpha beta TCRs, chimeric antigen receptors (CARs, and drug-resistance genes. This represents a promising future for the clinical application of oligoclonal or polyclonal gamma delta T cells in autologous and allogeneic settings that builds on current trials testing the safety and efficacy of Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells.

  5. Water Management Strategy in Assessing the Water Scarcity in Northern Western Region of Nile Delta, Egypt (United States)

    Mabrouk, Badr; Arafa, Salah; Gemajl, Khaled


    Sustainable development in the Nile Delta of Egypt is retarded by serious environmental problems, where land-use and land-cover of the region are subjected to continuous changes; including shoreline changes either by erosion or accretion, subsidence of the delta, as well as by sea level rise due to climate change. The current research attempts to; (1) study the vulnerability of the northern western region of the Nile Delta coastal zone to climate change/sea level rise while setting basic challenges, review adaptation strategies based on adaptation policy framework, and highlight recommended programs for preparedness to climate change, (2) study the scarcity of water resources in the area of study with review of the socioeconomic impacts and the critical need of establishing desalination plants with new standards assessing the environmental situation and population clusters, and (3) monitor of the brine water extracted from the desalination plants and injected to subsurface strata. This monitoring process is divided into 3 main directions: 1) studying the chemical characteristics of water extracted from the water desalinations plants qualitatively and quantitatively. 2) mapping the subsurface of which that brine water will be injected to it and the flow directions and effects using resistivity data, and 3) using GIS and suitable numerical models in order to study the effect, volume, flow of the brine water and its long term environmental impacts on the area. The results indicate that the area is particularly vulnerable to the impact of SLR, salt water intrusion, the deterioration of coastal tourism and the impact of extreme dust storms. This in turn will directly affect the agricultural productivity and human settlements in coastal zones. The paper presents different scenarios for water management and recommends the most suitable scenarios in order to establish a core for water management strategy in the region according to existing socio-economic and environmental

  6. Dispersion Mechanisms of a Tidal River Junction in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla T. Gleichauf


    Full Text Available doi: branching channel networks, such as in the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, junction flow dynamics contribute to dispersion of ecologically important entities such as fish, pollutants, nutrients, salt, sediment, and phytoplankton. Flow transport through a junction largely arises from velocity phasing in the form of divergent flow between junction channels for a portion of the tidal cycle. Field observations in the Georgiana Slough junction, which is composed of the North and South Mokelumne rivers, Georgiana Slough, and the Mokelumne River, show that flow phasing differences between these rivers arise from operational, riverine, and tidal forcing. A combination of Acoustic Doppler Current Profile (ADCP boat transecting and moored ADCPs over a spring–neap tidal cycle (May to  June 2012 monitored the variability of spatial and temporal velocity, respectively. Two complementary drifter studies enabled assessment of local transport through the junction to identify small-scale intrajunction dynamics. We supplemented field results with numerical simulations using the SUNTANS model to demonstrate the importance of phasing offsets for junction transport and dispersion. Different phasing of inflows to the junction resulted in scalar patchiness that is characteristic of MacVean and Stacey’s (2011 advective tidal trapping. Furthermore, we observed small-scale junction flow features including a recirculation zone and shear layer, which play an important role in intra-junction mixing over time scales shorter than the tidal cycle (i.e., super-tidal time scales. The study period spanned open- and closed-gate operations at the Delta Cross Channel. Synthesis of field observations and modeling efforts suggest that management operations related to the Delta Cross Channel can strongly affect transport in the Delta by modifying the relative contributions of tidal and riverine flows, thereby

  7. Human induced discharge diversion in a tropical delta and its environmental implications: The Patía River, Colombia (United States)

    Restrepo, Juan D.; Kettner, Albert


    SummaryThe Patía River, the number one in terms of sediment yield ˜1500 t km-2 yr-1 draining the western South America, has the most extensive and well developed delta on the Pacific coast, measuring 1700 km2. During the Holocene, nature forced the Patía delta to the south; however, a major water diversion, starting in 1972, diverted the Patía flow to the Sanguianga River, the latter, a small stream draining internal lakes from the Pacific lowlands. This human induced discharge diversion shifted the active delta plain back to the north and changed the northern estuarine system into an active delta plain. Overall, major environmental consequences of this discharge diversion in terms of morphological changes along the delta coast and distributary channels, are evidenced by: (1) coastal retreat along the abandoned delta lobe; 63% of the southern shoreline is retreating at maximum rates of 7 m yr-1, with a corresponding coastal land loss of 106 m yr-1; (2) transgressive barrier islands with exposed peat soils in the surf zone; (3) abandonment of former active distributaries in the southern delta plain with associated closing of inlets and formation of ebb tidal deltas; (4) breaching events on barrier islands; and (5) distributary channel accretion in the northern delta plain by morphological processes such as sedimentation (also in crevasses), overbank flow, increasing width of levees, interdistributary channel fill, and colonization of pioneer mangrove. The Sanguianga Mangrove National Park (SMNP), the largest mangrove reserve in Colombia, measuring 800 km2, lies in this former estuary, where major hydrologic and sedimentation changes are occurring. Observed environmental changes in the SMNP, include (1) seaward advance of the sub-aqueous delta front at the Sanquianga inlet evidenced by an increase in tidal flat area from 5.4 Mm2 in 1986 to 14 Mm2 in 2001; (2) freshening conditions in the Sanguianga distributary channel, a hydrologic change that has shifted the

  8. Challenges and Approaches in Delta Planning and Management - Sharing experiences from SE Asian Deltas and the Rhine-Meuse Delta -Report on Regional Training Workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long Phi, H.; Fida Abdullah Khan, M.; Wosten, J.H.M.; Douven, W.


    The training workshop consisted of a balanced mix of lectures on specific delta topics, work on group assignments, group and plenary discussions, and group presentations. Due to high professional level of the participants the discussions often reached the level of a policy dialogue among equals

  9. Soil Organic Carbon Stocks in Arctic Deltaic Sediments: Investigations in the Lena River Delta. (United States)

    Zubrzycki, S.; Kutzbach, L.; Desyatkin, A.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.


    The soil organic carbon stock (SSOC) of deltaic sediments in arctic permafrost regions is known to be significant but is insufficiently investigated so far. Previous SSOC studies were conducted mainly in the comparatively well studied Mackenzie River Delta (area: 13,000 km2) in Canada. The few studies from other arctic delta regions report only the gravimetric carbon (C) contents and are limited to the active layer depth at the time of sampling. Since C deposits in permafrost regions are likely to become a future C source, more detailed investigations of the presently frozen likely carbon-rich sediment and soil layers in other arctic delta regions are of importance. Our investigations were performed on Samoylov Island in the southern-central part of the Lena River Delta (32,000 km2) which is the largest arctic delta and the fifth largest delta worldwide. Samoylov Island is representative for the Lena River Delta's first terrace and the active floodplains. Within this study a new portable Snow-Ice-Permafrost-Research-Establishment (SIPRE) auger was used during a spring field session to obtain 1 m deep frozen soil cores (n = 37) distributed over all known soil and vegetation units. These cores are analyzed for bulk contents of nitrogen (N) and C, ice content and bulk density (BD) and to determine the SSOC including the rarely investigated currently permanently frozen layers up to 1 m depth on Samoylov Island. Our study provides evidence for high SSOC for a depth of 1 m for the investigated area ranging between 6 kg m2 and 54 kg m2. Considering the spatial extent of different soil units on the two geomorphological units of Samoylov Island, the area-weighted average SSOC were 31 kg m2 (n = 31) for the first terrace and 15 kg m2 (n = 6) for the active floodplain. For the correspondent soil units of Turbels and Orthels in circumpolar permafrost regions, Tarnocai et al. 2009 reported a mean SSOC of 27 kg m2 (min: 0.1 kg m2, max: 126 kg m2) for a depth of 1 m. For up

  10. Delta activity independent of its activity as a ligand of Notch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahimou Francois


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delta, Notch, and Scabrous often function together to make different cell types and refine tissue patterns during Drosophila development. Delta is known as the ligand that triggers Notch receptor activity. Scabrous is known to bind Notch and promote Notch activity in response to Delta. It is not known if Scabrous binds Delta or Delta has activity other than its activity as a ligand of Notch. It is very difficult to clearly determine this binding or activity in vivo as all Notch, Delta, and Scabrous activities are required simultaneously or successively in an inter-dependent manner. Results Using Drosophila cultured cells we show that the full length Delta promotes accumulation of Daughterless protein, fringe RNA, and pangolin RNA in the absence of Scabrous or Notch. Scabrous binds Delta and suppresses this activity even though it increases the level of the Delta intracellular domain. We also show that Scabrous can promote Notch receptor activity, in the absence of Delta. Conclusion Delta has activity that is independent of its activity as a ligand of Notch. Scabrous suppresses this Delta activity. Scabrous also promotes Notch activity that is dependent on Delta's ligand activity. Thus, Notch, Delta, and Scabrous might function in complex combinatorial or mutually exclusive interactions during development. The data reported here will be of significant help in understanding these interactions in vivo.

  11. Hydrology and morphology of two river mouth regions (temperate Vistula Delta and subtropical Red River Delta

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    Zbigniew Pruszak


    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative analysis of two different river mouths from two different geographical zones (subtropical and temperate climatic regions. One is the multi-branch and multi-spit mouth of the Red River on the Gulf of Tonkin (Vietnam, the other is the smaller delta of the river Vistula on a bay of the Baltic Sea (Poland. The analysis focuses on the similarities and differences in the hydrodynamics between these estuaries and the adjacent coastal zones, the features of sediment transport, and the long-term morphodynamics of the river outlets. Salinity and water level are also discussed, the latter also in the context of the anticipated global effect of accelerated sea level rise. The analysis shows that the climatic and environmental conditions associated with geographical zones give rise to fundamental differences in the generation and dynamic evolution of the river mouths.

  12. ThemeDelta: Dynamic Segmentations over Temporal Topic Models. (United States)

    Gad, Samah; Javed, Waqas; Ghani, Sohaib; Elmqvist, Niklas; Ewing, Tom; Hampton, Keith N; Ramakrishnan, Naren


    We present ThemeDelta, a visual analytics system for extracting and visualizing temporal trends, clustering, and reorganization in time-indexed textual datasets. ThemeDelta is supported by a dynamic temporal segmentation algorithm that integrates with topic modeling algorithms to identify change points where significant shifts in topics occur. This algorithm detects not only the clustering and associations of keywords in a time period, but also their convergence into topics (groups of keywords) that may later diverge into new groups. The visual representation of ThemeDelta uses sinuous, variable-width lines to show this evolution on a timeline, utilizing color for categories, and line width for keyword strength. We demonstrate how interaction with ThemeDelta helps capture the rise and fall of topics by analyzing archives of historical newspapers, of U.S. presidential campaign speeches, and of social messages collected through iNeighbors, a web-based social website. ThemeDelta is evaluated using a qualitative expert user study involving three researchers from rhetoric and history using the historical newspapers corpus.

  13. HIV/AIDS, artisanal fishing and food security in the Okavango Delta, Botswana (United States)

    Ngwenya, B. N.; Mosepele, K.

    Generally, rural households pursue all year round natural and non-natural resource-based livelihood systems to diversify these options in order to cope with risks emanating from a range of shocks and stressors. Artisanal fishing in the Delta is not only a major livelihood option but also a source of food security. This paper is based on analysis of primary data collected from a survey of 248 subsistence fishers’ households through simple random sampling in 22 villages in the Delta. The overall objectives of the survey were to assess the general prevalence of HIV/AIDS in the Ngamiland district of Botswana, to investigate potential effects of AIDS-related stressors, particularly chronic illness on artisanal fishing activities, and to assess implications towards food security. Results from this study indicate that HIV prevalence rates for pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in the Delta are approximately 30% and are related to factors such as marriage, education, and employment. Despite this relatively high prevalence percentage, most of the affected households do not have adequate access to HIV/AIDS support facilities. Support services are provided on the basis of population size and/or status of the settlement (i.e. urban, urban village, rural or remote). Therefore, since about 50% of the Delta’s population lives in settlements of less than 500 people, they receive health services indirectly through major population centres whose capacity to deliver timely HIV/AIDS services is limited. This disproportionate access to HIV/AIDS services disadvantages the majority of fishing communities in the Delta, and may affect their ability to fish. Moreover, about 53% of sampled households had cared for a continuously ill person/s (CIP’s) in the last 5 years, out of which approximately 29% felt that this seriously impacted fishing activities. These serious impacts included sale of family assets, depletion of savings, and switching or abandoning fishing activities

  14. Corrected mu_delta for Stars of Hipparcos Catalogue from Independent Latitude Observations over Many Decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damljanovic, G.


    Full Text Available During the last century, there were many so-calledindependent latitude (IL stations with the observations whichwere included into data of a few international organizations(like Bureau International de l'Heure -- BIH, International PolarMotion Service -- IPMS and the Earth rotation programmes fordetermining the Earth Orientation Parameters -- EOP. Because ofthis, nowadays, there are numerous astrometric ground--basedobservations (made over many decades of some stars included inthe Hipparcos Catalogue (ESA 1997. We used these latitude datafor the inverse investigations -- to improve the proper motions indeclination $mu_{delta}$ of the mentioned Hipparcos stars. Wedetermined the corrections $Deltamu_{delta}$ and investigatedagreement of our $mu_{delta}$ and those from the cataloguesHipparcos and new Hi-ppar-cos (van Leeuwen 2007. To do this weused the latitude variations of 7 stations (Belgrade,Blagoveschtschensk, Irkutsk, Poltava, Pulkovo, Warsaw andMizusawa, covering different intervals in the period 1904.7 --1992.0, obtained with 6 visual and 1 floating zenith telescopes(Mizusawa. On the other hand, with regard that about two decadeshave elapsed since the Hi-ppar-cos ESA mission observations (theepoch of Hi-ppar-cos catalogue is 1991.25, the error ofappa-rent places of Hipparcos stars has increased by nearly 20mas because of proper motion errors. Also, the mission lasted lessthan four years which was not enough for a sufficient accuracy ofproper motions of some stars (such as double or multiple ones.Our method of calculation, and the calculated $mu_{delta}$ forthe common IL/Hipparcos stars are presented here. We constructedan IL catalogue of 1200 stars: there are 707 stars in the firstpart (with at least 20 years of IL observations and 493 stars inthe second one (less than 20 years. In the case of $mu_{delta}$of IL stars observed at some stations (Blagoveschtschensk,Irkutsk, Mizusawa, Poltava and Pulkovo we find the formal errorsless than the

  15. Critical Assessment of the Delta Smelt Population in the San Francisco Estuary, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A Bennett


    growth, survival, and reproductive success on an annual basis despite an array of limiting factors that can occur at specific times and locations. Variability in spawning success and larval survival is induced by climate and other environmental and anthropogenic factors that operate between winter and mid-summer. However, spawning microhabitats with egg deposition have not been discovered. Spawning success appears to be timed to lunar periods within a water temperature range of about 15 to 20°C. Longer spawning seasons in cooler years can produce more cohorts and on average higher numbers of adult delta smelt. Cohorts spaced in time have different probabilities of encountering various sources of mortality, including entrainment in freshwater export operations, pulses of toxic pesticides, food shortages and predation by exotic species. Density dependence may provide an upper limit on the numbers of juvenile delta smelt surviving to the adult stage. This may occur during late summer in years when juvenile abundance is high relative to habitat carrying capacity. Factors defining the carrying capacity for juvenile delta smelt are unknown, but may include a shrinking volume of physically suitable habitat combined with a high density of competing planktivorous fishes during late summer and fall. Understanding the relative importance of anthropogenic effects on the population can be improved through better estimates of abundance and measurements of potentially limiting processes. There is little information on losses of larval delta smelt (less than 20 mm fork length, FL to the export facilities. Use of a population model suggests that water export operations can impact the abundance of post-larval (about 20 mm FL delta smelt, but these effects may not reflect on adult abundance due to other processes operating in the intervening period. Effects from changes to the estuarine food web by exotic species and toxic chemicals occur but measuring their influence on population

  16. Simultaneous analysis of the Delta9-THC metabolites 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta9-THC and 11-hydroxy-Delta9-THC in meconium by GC-MS. (United States)

    Coles, Rebecka; Clements, Thomas T; Nelson, Gordon J; McMillin, Gwendolyn A; Urry, Francis M


    Neonates that are exposed to cannabinoids in utero may have characteristic physical and mental developmental problems throughout their lives. The early identification of exposed neonates allows early intervention and anticipation of potential problems. Testing meconium detects maternal marijuana use over the last four months of gestation, providing a better drug exposure marker than urine. However, the distribution of metabolites in meconium is not identical to urine and analytical methods must be adapted. Both the major urine metabolite, 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (9-carboxy-THC), and a minor urine metabolite, 11-hydroxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-hydroxy-THC), are common in meconium. Currently published methods to extract these two metabolites for instrumental analysis are time-consuming and laborious, often involving the preparation of two fractions. This study describes a simple solid-phase extraction method and an optimized hydrolysis method that allow the preparation and analysis of both metabolites in a single extract. The limit of detection by this extraction method was 5 ng/g for both metabolites with an analytical measurement range from 10 to 500 ng/g. The recovery at 100 ng/g was greater than 62% for both analytes. The analysis of 246 cannabinoid screen positive specimens illustrated the importance of including the 11-hydroxy-THC in a meconium marijuana confirmation: 16 specimens confirmed positive for 11-hydroxy-THC only, resulting in a 6.5% increase in the positivity rate compared to 9-carboxy-THC alone.

  17. Fracture Analyses of Cracked Delta Eye Plates in Ship Towing (United States)

    Huang, Xiangbing; Huang, Xingling; Sun, Jizheng


    Based on fracture mechanics, a safety analysis approach is proposed for cracked delta eye plates in ship towing. The static analysis model is presented when the delta eye plate is in service, and the fracture criterion is introduced on basis of stress intensity factor, which is estimated with domain integral method. Subsequently, three-dimensional finite element analyses are carried out to obtain the effective stress intensity factors, and a case is studied to demonstrate the reasonability of the approach. The results show that the classical strength theory is not applicable to evaluate the cracked plate while fracture mechanics can solve the problem very well, and the load level, which a delta eye plate can carry on, decreases evidently when it is damaged.

  18. Implementation of an ESA delta-DOR capability (United States)

    James, Nick; Abello, Ricard; Lanucara, Marco; Mercolino, Mattia; Maddè, Roberto


    This paper describes the implementation of delta-DOR (delta-differential one-way ranging) receivers within the ESA Deep Space ground station network. Delta-DOR provides very accurate plane-of-sky measurements of spacecraft position which complement existing line-of-sight ranging and Doppler measurements. We discuss how this technique has been adapted and implemented at the two ESA deep-space ground stations using existing equipment and infrastructure. These new capabilities were added by writing new software modules for the standard ESA digital receiver (the intermediate frequency modem system—IFMS). With these upgrades the receiver has the ability to record accurately timetagged signals from up to eight IF sub-channels. These sub-channels can have bandwidths of 50 kHz-2 MHz with a sample quantization of 1-16 bits per component. The IF samples are stored locally for subsequent retrieval over a WAN by the correlator facility at ESOC.

  19. Sliding mode control the delta-sigma modulation approach

    CERN Document Server

    Sira-Ramírez, Hebertt


    This monograph presents a novel method of sliding mode control for switch-regulated nonlinear systems. The Delta Sigma modulation approach allows one to implement a continuous control scheme using one or multiple, independent switches, thus effectively merging the available linear and nonlinear controller design techniques with sliding mode control.   Sliding Mode Control: The Delta-Sigma Modulation Approach, combines rigorous mathematical derivation of the unique features of Sliding Mode Control and Delta-Sigma modulation with numerous illustrative examples from diverse areas of engineering. In addition, engineering case studies demonstrate the applicability of the technique and the ease with which one can implement the exposed results. This book will appeal to researchers in control engineering and can be used as graduate-level textbook for a first course on sliding mode control.

  20. [Transport characteristics of air pollutants over the Yangtze Delta]. (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Chai, Fa-He; Wang, Yong-Hong; Liu, Ming


    Meteorological field of January, April, July and October in 2004 was obtained by running MM5 with NCEP datasets. Then we used HYSPLIT 4.8 model to calculate the backward and forward trajectories of representative cities. Distributions of trajectories and the affected areas vary with seasons. Transport current affecting Yangtze River Delta is mainly from Mongolia, North China or Northeast region, via Yellow Sea area, Shandong, Jiangsu province or Shanghai. Another important transport path is current from southwest because of the Southwest monsoon. A movement of East Asia monsoon plays an important part in the mesoscale transport of pollutants in Yangtze Delta. Winter monsoon is a main mechanism which moves the air pollutants in Yangtze Delta to South China and West Pacific ocean. Another important transport system is the subtropical anticyclone over the western Pacific Ocean which controls the east coast of our country in spring and summer. This circulation system mainly affects the inland area of our country.

  1. DNA repair synthesis in human fibroblasts requires DNA polymerase delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, C.; Reinhard, P.; Linn, S.


    When UV-irradiated cultured diploid human fibroblasts were permeabilized with Brij-58 then separated from soluble material by centrifugation, conservative DNA repair synthesis could be restored by a soluble factor obtained from the supernatant of similarly treated HeLa cells. Extensive purification of this factor yielded a 10.2 S, 220,000-dalton polypeptide with the DNA polymerase and 3'- to 5'-exonuclease activities reported for DNA polymerase delta II. Monoclonal antibody to KB cell DNA polymerase alpha, while binding to HeLa DNA polymerase alpha, did not bind to the HeLa DNA polymerase delta. Moreover, at micromolar concentrations N2-(p-n-butylphenyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine 5'-triphosphate (BuPdGTP) and 2-(p-n-butylanilino)-2'-deoxyadenosine 5'-triphosphate (BuAdATP) were potent inhibitors of DNA polymerase alpha, but did not inhibit the DNA polymerase delta. Neither purified DNA polymerase alpha nor beta could promote repair DNA synthesis in the permeabilized cells. Furthermore, under conditions which inhibited purified DNA polymerase alpha by greater than 90%, neither monoclonal antibodies to DNA polymerase alpha, BuPdGTP, nor BuAdATP was able to inhibit significantly the DNA repair synthesis mediated by the DNA polymerase delta. Thus, it appears that a major portion of DNA repair synthesis induced by UV irradiation might be catalyzed by DNA polymerase delta. When xeroderma pigmentosum human diploid fibroblasts were utilized, DNA repair synthesis dependent upon ultraviolet light could be restored by addition of both T4 endonuclease V and DNA polymerase delta, but not by addition of either one alone

  2. Structure of the [delta]-opioid receptor bound to naltrindole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granier, Sébastien; Manglik, Aashish; Kruse, Andrew C.; Kobilka, Tong Sun; Thian, Foon Sun; Weis, William I.; Kobilka, Brian K. (Stanford-MED)


    The opioid receptor family comprises three members, the {mu}-, {delta}- and {kappa}-opioid receptors, which respond to classical opioid alkaloids such as morphine and heroin as well as to endogenous peptide ligands like endorphins. They belong to the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, and are excellent therapeutic targets for pain control. The {delta}-opioid receptor ({delta}-OR) has a role in analgesia, as well as in other neurological functions that remain poorly understood. The structures of the {mu}-OR and {kappa}-OR have recently been solved. Here we report the crystal structure of the mouse {delta}-OR, bound to the subtype-selective antagonist naltrindole. Together with the structures of the {mu}-OR and {kappa}-OR, the {delta}-OR structure provides insights into conserved elements of opioid ligand recognition while also revealing structural features associated with ligand-subtype selectivity. The binding pocket of opioid receptors can be divided into two distinct regions. Whereas the lower part of this pocket is highly conserved among opioid receptors, the upper part contains divergent residues that confer subtype selectivity. This provides a structural explanation and validation for the 'message-address' model of opioid receptor pharmacology, in which distinct 'message' (efficacy) and 'address' (selectivity) determinants are contained within a single ligand. Comparison of the address region of the {delta}-OR with other GPCRs reveals that this structural organization may be a more general phenomenon, extending to other GPCR families as well.

  3. Dynamic controls on shallow clinoform geometry: Mekong Delta, Vietnam (United States)

    Eidam, E. F.; Nittrouer, C. A.; Ogston, A. S.; DeMaster, D. J.; Liu, J. P.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nguyen, T. N.


    Compound deltas, composed of a subaerial delta plain and subaqueous clinoform, are common termini of large rivers. The transition between clinoform topset and foreset, or subaqueous rollover point, is located at 25-40-m water depth for many large tide-dominated deltas; this depth is controlled by removal of sediment from the topset by waves, currents, and gravity flows. However, the Mekong Delta, which has been classified as a mixed-energy system, has a relatively shallow subaqueous rollover at 4-6-m depth. This study evaluates dynamical measurements and seabed cores collected in Sep 2014 and Mar 2015 to understand processes of sediment transfer across the subaqueous delta, and evaluate possible linkages to geometry. During the southwest rainy monsoon (Sep 2014), high river discharge, landward return flow under the river plume, and regional circulation patterns facilitated limited sediment flux to the topset and foreset, and promoted alongshore flux to the northeast. Net observed sediment fluxes in Sep 2014 were landward, however, consistent with hypotheses about seasonal storage on the topset. During the northeast rainy monsoon, low river discharge and wind-driven currents facilitated intense landward and southwestward fluxes of sediment. In both seasons, bed shear velocities frequently exceeded the 0.01-0.02 m/s threshold of motion for sand, even in the absence of strong wave energy. Most sediment transport occurred at water depths 4 cm/yr at <10 m depth, and 3-8 cm/yr at 10-20 m depth) and lowest on the bottomset beds. Physically laminated sediments transitioned into mottled sediments between the upper foreset and bottomset regions. Application of a simple wave-stress model to the Mekong and several other clinoforms illustrates that shallow systems are not necessarily energy-limited, and thus rollover depths cannot be predicted solely by bed-stress distributions. In systems like the subaqueous Mekong Delta, direction of transport may have a key impact on

  4. Estimating Natural Flows into the California's Sacramento - San Joaquin Delta (United States)

    Huang, G.; Kadir, T.; Chung, F. I.


    Natural flows into the California's Sacramento - San Joaquin Delta under predevelopment vegetative conditions, if and when reconstructed, can serve as a useful guide to establish minimum stream flows, restoration targets, and a basis for assessing impacts of global warming in the Bay-Delta System. Daily simulations of natural Delta flows for the period 1922-2009 were obtained using precipitation-snowmelt-runoff models for the upper watersheds that are tributaries to the California's Central Valley, and then routing the water through the Central Valley floor area using a modified version of the California Central Valley Groundwater-Surface Water Simulation Model (C2VSIM) for water years 1922 through 2009. Daily stream inflows from all major upper watersheds were simulated using 23 Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) models. Historical precipitation and reference evapotranspiration data were extracted from the SIMETAW2 with the 4km gridded meteorological data. The Historical natural and riparian vegetation distributions were compiled from several pre-1900 historical vegetation maps of the Central Valley. Wetlands were dynamically simulated using interconnected lakes. Flows overtopping natural levees were simulated using flow rating curves. New estimates of potential evapotranspiration from different vegetative classes under natural conditions were also used. Sensitivity simulations demonstrate that evapotranspiration estimates, native vegetation distribution, surface-groundwater interaction parameters, extinction depth for groundwater uptake, and other physical processes play a key role in the magnitude and timing of upstream flows arriving at the Delta. Findings contradict a common misconception that the magnitude of inflows to the Delta under natural vegetative conditions is greater than those under the historical agricultural and urban land use development. The developed models also enable to study the impacts of global warming by modifying meteorological and

  5. Salinity Impacts on Agriculture and Groundwater in Delta Regions (United States)

    Clarke, D.; Salehin, M.; Jairuddin, M.; Saleh, A. F. M.; Rahman, M. M.; Parks, K. E.; Haque, M. A.; Lázár, A. N.; Payo, A.


    Delta regions are attractive for high intensity agriculture due to the availability of rich sedimentary soils and of fresh water. Many of the world's tropical deltas support high population densities which are reliant on irrigated agriculture. However environmental changes such as sea level rise, tidal inundation and reduced river flows have reduced the quantity and quality of water available for successful agriculture. Additionally, anthropogenic influences such as the over abstraction of ground water and the increased use of low quality water from river inlets has resulted in the accumulation of salts in the soils which diminishes crop productivity. Communities based in these regions are usually reliant on the same water for drinking and cooking because surface water is frequently contaminated by commercial and urban pollution. The expansion of shallow tube well systems for drinking water and agricultural use over the last few decades has resulted in mobilisation of salinity in the coastal and estuarine fringes. Sustainable development in delta regions is becoming constrained by water salinity. However salinity is often studied as an independent issue by specialists working in the fields of agriculture, community water supply and groundwater. The lack of interaction between these disciplines often results in corrective actions being applied to one sector without fully assessing the effects of these actions on other sectors. This paper describes a framework for indentifying the causes and impacts of salinity in delta regions based on the source-pathway-receptor framework. It uses examples and scenarios from the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta in Bangladesh together with field measurements and observations made in vulnerable coastal communities. The paper demonstrates the importance of creating an holistic understanding of the development and management of water resources to reduce the impact of salinity in fresh water in delta regions.

  6. Stimulation of accumbal GABAAreceptors inhibits delta2-, but not delta1-, opioid receptor-mediated dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens of freely moving rats. (United States)

    Aono, Yuri; Kiguchi, Yuri; Watanabe, Yuriko; Waddington, John L; Saigusa, Tadashi


    The nucleus accumbens contains delta-opioid receptors that may reduce inhibitory neurotransmission. Reduction in GABA A receptor-mediated inhibition of accumbal dopamine release due to delta-opioid receptor activation should be suppressed by stimulating accumbal GABA A receptors. As delta-opioid receptors are divided into delta2- and delta1-opioid receptors, we analysed the effects of the GABA A receptor agonist muscimol on delta2- and delta1-opioid receptor-mediated accumbal dopamine efflux in freely moving rats using in vivo microdialysis. Drugs were administered intracerebrally through the dialysis probe. Doses of compounds indicate total amount administered (mol) during 25-50min infusions. The delta2-opioid receptor agonist deltorphin II (25.0nmol)- and delta1-opioid receptor agonist DPDPE (5.0nmol)-induced increases in dopamine efflux were inhibited by the delta2-opioid receptor antagonist naltriben (1.5nmol) and the delta1-opioid receptor antagonist BNTX (150.0pmol), respectively. Muscimol (250.0pmol) inhibited deltorphin II (25.0nmol)-induced dopamine efflux. The GABA A receptor antagonist bicuculline (50.0pmol), which failed to affect deltorphin II (25.0nmol)-induced dopamine efflux, counteracted the inhibitory effect of muscimol on deltorphin II-induced dopamine efflux. Neither muscimol (250.0pmol) nor bicuculline (50.0 and 500.0pmol) altered DPDPE (5.0nmol)-induced dopamine efflux. The present results show that reduction in accumbal GABA A receptor-mediated inhibition of dopaminergic activity is necessary to produce delta2-opioid receptor-induced increase in accumbal dopamine efflux. This study indicates that activation of delta2- but not delta1-opioid receptors on the cell bodies and/or terminals of accumbal GABAergic interneurons inhibits GABA release and, accordingly, decreases GABA A receptor-mediated inhibition of dopaminergic terminals, resulting in enhanced accumbal dopamine efflux. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  8. CMOS sigma-delta converters practical design guide

    CERN Document Server

    De la Rosa, Jose M


    A comprehensive overview of Sigma-Delta Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADCs) and a practical guide to their design in nano-scale CMOS for optimal performance. This book presents a systematic and comprehensive compilation of sigma-delta converter operating principles, the new advances in architectures and circuits, design methodologies and practical considerations - going from system-level specifications to silicon integration, packaging and measurements, with emphasis on nanometer CMOS implementation. The book emphasizes practical design issues - from high-level behavioural modelling i

  9. A divergent synthesis of the delta(13)-9-isofurans. (United States)

    Taber, Douglass F; Gu, Peiming; Li, Rui


    A stereodivergent total synthesis of the Delta(13)-9-isofurans has been developed. The four core substituted tetrahydrofurans were prepared by the Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation and Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation followed by cascade cyclization. The relative configuration at C-8 was inverted by oxidation followed by immediate L-Selectride reduction. The relative configuration of the C-15 diastereomers was assigned by (S)-Binol/LAH/EtOH reduction of the corresponding enone. This synthesis of the Delta(13)-9-isofurans will provide sufficient material for further investigation of their biological activity.

  10. Measurement of $\\Delta^{++}$(1232) production in hadronic Z decays

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Agasi, E; Ajinenko, I; Aleksan, Roy; Alekseev, G D; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Alvsvaag, S J; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andreazza, A; Andrieux, M L; Antilogus, P; Anykeyev, V B; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barate, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G J; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Barrio, J A; Bartl, Walter; Bates, M J; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Baudot, J; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Berggren, M; Bertrand, D; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Billoir, P; Bloch, D; Blume, M; Blyth, S; Bocci, V; Bolognese, T; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Bosworth, S; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Bricman, C; Brillault, L; Brown, R C A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Buys, A; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Cankocak, K; Cao, F; Carena, F; Carrilho, P; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Cerrito, L; Chabaud, V; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Chauveau, J; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Cindro, V; Collins, P; Contreras, J L; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Dahl-Jensen, Erik; Dahm, J; D'Almagne, B; Dam, M; Damgaard, G; Daum, A; Dauncey, P D; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Defoix, C; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; De Boeck, H; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; La Vaissière, C de; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; De Saint-Jean, C; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Djama, F; Dolbeau, J; Dönszelmann, M; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Dufour, Y; Dupont, F; Edsall, D M; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Ershaidat, N; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Ferrer, A; Filippas-Tassos, A; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frenkiel, P; Fries, D E C; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gibbs, M; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Gunnarsson, P; Günther, M; Guy, J; Haedinger, U; Hahn, F; Hahn, M; Hahn, S; Hajduk, Z; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hao, W; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Higón, E; Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Hill, T S; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Ioannou, P; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, Christian; Juillot, P; Kaiser, M; Kapusta, F; Karlsson, M; Karvelas, E; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klein, H; Klovning, A; Kluit, P M; Köhne, J H; Köne, B; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Kramer, P H; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Królikowski, J; Kronkvist, I J; Krumshtein, Z; Krupinski, W; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lacasta, C; Laktineh, I; Lamblot, S; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Last, I; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Legan, C K; Leitner, R; Lemoigne, Y; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liko, D; Lindner, R; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Lokajícek, M; Loken, J G; López, J M; López-Fernandez, A; López-Aguera, M A; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; Maehlum, G; Maio, A; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Maron, T; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; Medbo, J; Meroni, C; Meyer, W T; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Morettini, P; Müller, H; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Negri, P; Némécek, S; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Pagès, P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Pindo, M; Plaszczynski, S; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Prest, M; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Rames, J; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Reale, M; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Richardson, J; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Ripp, I; Romero, A; Roncagliolo, I; Ronchese, P; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rosso, E; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Rückstuhl, W; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Rybicki, K; Rybin, A; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sánchez, J; Sannino, M; Schneider, H; Schyns, M A E; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seitz, A; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Siccama, I; Siegrist, P; Simonetti, S; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Sitár, B; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sosnowski, R; Souza-Santos, D; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stepaniak, K; Stichelbaut, F; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tavernet, J P; Chikilev, O G; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Trischuk, W; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; Van der Velde, C; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Vilanova, D; Vincent, P; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Waldner, F; Weierstall, M; Weilhammer, Peter; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wielers, M; Wilkinson, G R; Williams, W S C; Winter, M; Witek, M; Woschnagg, K; Yip, K; Yushchenko, O P; Zach, F; Zacharatou-Jarlskog, C; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zhigunov, V P; Zimin, N I; Zito, M; Zontar, D; Zuberi, R; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G


    A measurement of the \\Delta^{++}(1232) inclusive production in hadronic decays of the Z at LEP is presented, based on 1.3 million hadronic events collected~ by the DELPHI~ detector in the 1994 LEP running~ period. The DELPHI ring imaging Cherenkov counters are used for identifying hadrons. The average \\Delta^{++}(1232) multiplicity per hadronic event is 0.079 \\pm 0.015 which is more than a factor of two below the JETSET, HERWIG and UCLA model predictions. It agrees with a recently proposed universal mass dependence of particle production rates in e^{+}e^- annihilations.

  11. Delta-Sigma Digital Current Sensor Based On GMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhili; Qian Zhenghong; Huang Xiaowei, E-mail: [Center for Integrated Spintronic Devices, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)


    This paper presents an integrated delta-sigma digital current sensor. With high sensitivity and good linearity, GMR sensor is a good choice for current measurement application. In this design, a GMR sensor which is configured as a Wheatstone bridge of four spin-valve sensing elements is integrated with CMOS signal processing circuit together, and the output signal is converted to digital domain by an on-chip 10-bit delta-sigma ADC. The whole circuit is designed and simulated using CSMC standard 0.5 {mu}m process.

  12. Shallow stratigraphy of the Skagit River Delta, Washington, derived from sediment cores (United States)

    Grossman, Eric E.; George, Douglas A.; Lam, Angela


    Sedimentologic analyses of 21 sediment cores, ranging from 0.4 to 9.6 m in length, reveal that the shallow geologic framework of the Skagit River Delta, western Washington, United States, has changed significantly since 1850. The cores collected from elevations of 3.94 to -2.41 m (relative to mean lower low water) along four cross-shore transects between the emergent marsh and delta front show relatively similar environmental changes across an area spanning ~75 km2. Offshore of the present North Fork Skagit River and South Fork Skagit River mouths where river discharge is focused by diked channels through the delta, the entire 5–7-km-wide tidal flats are covered with 1–2 m of cross-bedded medium-to-coarse sands. The bottoms of cores, collected in these areas are composed of mud. A sharp transition from mud to a cross-bedded sand unit indicates that the tidal flats changed abruptly from a calm environment to an energetic one. This is in stark contrast to the Martha's Bay tidal flats north of the Skagit Bay jetty that was completed in the 1940s to protect the newly constructed Swinomish Channel from flooding and sedimentation. North of the jetty, mud ranging from 1 to 2 m thick drapes a previously silt- and sand-rich tidal flat. The silty sand is a sediment facies that would be expected there where North Fork Skagit River sedimentation occurred prior to jetty emplacement. This report describes the compositional and textural properties of the sediment cores by using geophysical, photographic, x-radiography, and standard sediment grain-size and carbon-analytical methods. The findings help to characterize benthic habitat structure and sediment transport processes and the environmental changes that have occurred across the nearshore of the Skagit River Delta. The findings will be useful for quantifying changes to nearshore marine resources, including impacts resulting from diking, river-delta channelization, shoreline development, and natural variations in fluvial

  13. Multiple linear regression and artificial neural networks for delta-endotoxin and protease yields modelling of Bacillus thuringiensis. (United States)

    Ennouri, Karim; Ben Ayed, Rayda; Triki, Mohamed Ali; Ottaviani, Ennio; Mazzarello, Maura; Hertelli, Fathi; Zouari, Nabil


    The aim of the present work was to develop a model that supplies accurate predictions of the yields of delta-endotoxins and proteases produced by B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki HD-1. Using available medium ingredients as variables, a mathematical method, based on Plackett-Burman design (PB), was employed to analyze and compare data generated by the Bootstrap method and processed by multiple linear regressions (MLR) and artificial neural networks (ANN) including multilayer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function (RBF) models. The predictive ability of these models was evaluated by comparison of output data through the determination of coefficient (R 2 ) and mean square error (MSE) values. The results demonstrate that the prediction of the yields of delta-endotoxin and protease was more accurate by ANN technique (87 and 89% for delta-endotoxin and protease determination coefficients, respectively) when compared with MLR method (73.1 and 77.2% for delta-endotoxin and protease determination coefficients, respectively), suggesting that the proposed ANNs, especially MLP, is a suitable new approach for determining yields of bacterial products that allow us to make more appropriate predictions in a shorter time and with less engineering effort.

  14. Outbreaks of the Brown Planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) in the Yangtze River Delta: Immigration or Local Reproduction? (United States)

    Zhai, Bao-Ping; Lu, Ming-Hong; Liu, Wan-Cai; Zhu, Feng; Wu, Xiang-Wen; Chen, Gui-Hua; Zhang, Xiao-Xi


    An effective control strategy for migratory pests is difficult to implement because the cause of infestation (i.e., immigration or local reproduction) is often not established. In particular, the outbreak mechanisms of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), an insect causing massive losses in rice fields in the Yangtze River Delta in China, are frequently unclear. Field surveys of N. lugens were performed in Jiangsu and Zhejiang Provinces in 2008 to 2010 and related historical data from 2003 onwards were collected and analyzed to clarify the cause of these infestations. Results showed that outbreaks of N. lugens in the Yangtze River Delta were mostly associated with an extremely high increase in population. Thus, reproduction rather than immigration from distant sources were the cause of the infestations. Although mass migration occurred late in the season (late August and early September), the source areas of N. lugens catches in the Yangtze River Delta were mainly located in nearby areas, including the Yangtze River Delta itself, Anhui and northern Jiangxi Provinces. These regions collectively form the lower-middle reaches of the Yangtze River, and the late migration can thus be considered as an internal bioflow within one population. PMID:24558459

  15. Large-scale time-series InSAR analysis of the Sacramento-San Joaquin delta subsidence using UAVSAR (United States)

    Bekaert, D. P.; Jones, C. E.; An, K.; Huang, M. H.


    The Sacramento-San Joaquin delta (Delta) contains more than 1700 km of levees that protect various reclaimed lands from flooding. Most of the delta is experiencing subsidence at rates that can exceed 5 cm/yr locally, and which can affect the structural integrity of the levees. In-situ and airborne LIDAR monitoring of this extensive levee network is expensive, making Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) an attractive, cost-effective alternative that can provide uniform and consistent monitoring. InSAR has proven to be a powerful technique to study surface displacements at high accuracy (few mm/year), over large regions (up to 250 km wide swaths), and at a high spatial resolution (up to a meter). However widespread usage of InSAR, particularly within the application community, is challenged by several technical issues, the most significant of which are decorrelation noise introduced by a change of scattering properties (e.g., moisture and vegetation), and noise due to variation in atmospheric properties between different SAR acquisitions (i.e., tropospheric delay). These effects are particularly limiting in the rural/agricultural setting of the Delta. We demonstrate the usage of InSAR for spatially comprehensive subsidence monitoring both at the scale of the levees and at a scale that captures the intra-island variability. The study uses data collected over a period of six years (2009-2015) with NASA's Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) instrument, which is the prototype airborne instrument for the NISAR mission. We mitigate atmospheric noise by estimating a correction from state-of-the-art weather models, and reduce decorrelation noise by utilizing L-band SAR and using advanced time-series InSAR processing methods. Our analysis includes nine UAVSAR flight lines that cover altogether an area of approximately 8500 km2, including the Delta and the surrounding areas.

  16. 2010-2015 Juvenile fish ecology in the Nisqually River Delta and Nisqually Reach Aquatic Reserve (United States)

    Hodgson, Sayre; Ellings, Christopher S.; Rubin, Steve P.; Hayes, Michael C.; Duval, Walker; Grossman, Eric E.


    The return of tidal inundation to over 750 acres of the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service Billy Frank Jr. Nisqually National Wildlife Refuge (NNWR) in fall of 2009 was the crowning moment in the effort to protect and restore the Nisqually Delta. The Nisqually NWR project complemented three earlier restoration projects completed by the Nisqually Indian Tribe (Tribe) on tribal property to restore over 900 acres of the estuary, representing the largest estuary restoration project in the Pacific Northwest and one of the most significant advances to date towards the recovery of Puget Sound (USFWS 2005). In 2011 the Washington Department of Natural Resources (WADNR established the over 14000 acre Nisqually Reach Aquatic Reserve (Reserve), complementing the protection and restoration successes in the Nisqually Delta. The Reserve includes all state-owned aquatic lands around Anderson, Ketron and Eagle islands and part of McNeil Island (Figure 1, WDNR 2011). The Reserve also includes a diverse assemblage of nearshore and offshore habitats important to resident and migratory fish including federal endangered species act listed fish like Chinook salmon (Oncorynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss). Studies in the Nisqually Estuary (Ellings and Hodgson 2007, David et al. 2014, Ellings et al. 2016) and South Puget Sound (Duffy 2003) have summarized fish use of the area. However, the fish ecology of the reserve had not been systematically surveyed. The Tribe, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), NNWR, Nisqually River Foundation (NRF), and others are currently conducting a multi-year, interdisciplinary, hypothesis-based research and monitoring study investigating the impact of delta restoration on estuarine processes, habitat structures, and functions. Our interdisciplinary monitoring framework enables us to link key estuarine processes with habitat development and biological response at multiple scales across the restored footprint, reference marshes, and throughout the Nisqually

  17. Frequency of the CCR5-delta32 allele in Brazilian populations: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis. (United States)

    Silva-Carvalho, Wlisses Henrique Veloso; de Moura, Ronald Rodrigues; Coelho, Antonio Victor Campos; Crovella, Sergio; Guimarães, Rafael Lima


    The CCR5 is a chemokine receptor widely expressed by several immune cells that are engaged in inflammatory responses. Some populations have individuals exhibiting a 32bp deletion in the CCR5 gene (CCR5-delta32) that produces a truncated non-functional protein not expressed on the cell surface. This polymorphism, known to be associated with susceptibility to infectious and inflammatory diseases, such as osteomyelitis, pre-eclampsia, systemic lupus erythematous, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and HIV/AIDS, is more commonly found in European populations with average frequency of 10%. However, it is also possible to observe a significant frequency in other world populations, such as the Brazilian one. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of CCR5-delta32 genetic association studies in Brazilian populations throughout the country to estimate the frequency of this polymorphism. We also compared CCR5-delta32 frequencies across Brazilian regions. The systematic literature reviewed studies involving delta32 allele in Brazilian populations published from 1995 to 2015. Among the reviewed literature, 25 studies including 30 Brazilian populations distributed between the North, Northeast, South and Southeast regions were included in our meta-analysis. We observed an overall allelic frequency of 4% (95%-CI, 0.03-0.05), that was considered moderate and, notably, higher than some European populations, such as Cyprus (2.8%), Italy (3%) and Greece (2.4%). Regarding the regional frequency comparisons between North-Northeast (N-NE) and South-Southeast (S-SE) regions, we observed an allelic frequency of 3% (95%-CI, 0.02-0.04) and 4% (95%-CI, 0.03-0.05), respectively. The populations from S-SE regions had a slightly higher CCR5-delta32 frequency than N-NE regions (OR=1.41, p=0.002). Although there are several studies about the CCR5-delta32 polymorphism and its effect on the immune response of some infectious diseases, this report is the first meta

  18. Malignant lymphomas (including myeloproliferative disorders)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, I.D.H.


    This chapter deals with the radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy of the malignant lymphomas. Included within this group are Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, mycosis fungoides, and chronic lymphatic leukaemia. A further section deals with the myeloproliferative disorders, including granulocytic leukaemia, polycythaemia vera, and primary thrombocythaemia. Excluded are myeloma and reticulum cell sarcoma of bone and acute leukaemia. With regard to Hodgkin's disease, the past 25 years have seen general recognition of the curative potential of radiotherapy, at least in the local stages, and, more recently, awareness of the ability to achieve long-term survival after combination chemotherapy in generalised or in recurrent disease. At the same time the importance of staging has become appreciated and the introduction of procedures such as lymphography, staging laparotomy, and computer tomography (CT) has enormously increased its reliability. Advances have not been so dramatic in the complex group of non-Hodgkins's lymphomas, but are still very real

  19. How to deal with subsidence in the Dutch delta? (United States)

    Stouthamer, Esther; Erkens, Gilles


    In many deltas worldwide subsidence still is an underestimated problem, while the threat posed by land subsidence to low-lying urbanizing and urbanized deltas exceeds the threat of sea-level rise induced by climate change. Human-induced subsidence is driven by the extraction of hydrocarbons and groundwater, drainage of phreatic groundwater, and loading by buildings and infrastructure. The consequences of subsidence are increased flood risk and flood water depth, rising groundwater levels relative to the land surface, land loss, damage to buildings and infrastructure, and salinization of ground and surface water.. The Netherlands has a long history of subsidence. Large-scale drainage of the extensive peatlands in the western and northern parts of the Netherlands started approximately 1000 years ago as a result of rapid population growth. Subsidence is still ongoing due to (1) continuous drainage of the former peatland, which is now mainly in use as agricultural land and built-up area, (2) expansion of the built-up area and the infrastructural network, (3) salt mining and the extraction of gas in the northern Netherlands. Mitigating subsidence and its negative impacts requires understanding of the relative contribution of the drivers contributing to total subsidence, accurate predictions of land subsidence under different management scenarios, and its impacts. Such understanding enables the development of effective and sustainable management strategies. In the Netherlands, a lot of effort is put into water management aiming at amongst others the protection against floods and the ensuring agricultural activities, but a specific policy focusing on subsidence is lacking. The development of strategies to cope with subsidence is very challenging, because (1) the exact contribution of different drivers of subsidence to total subsidence is spatially different within the Netherlands, (2) there is no single problem owner, which makes it difficult to recognize this a common

  20. Nigeria National Petroleum Reserves Asset: Looking Beyond the Niger Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obaje, P. N.


    Nigeria's current national petroleum reserves asset (proven) put at 28 billion barrels of oil and 150 trillion standard cubic feet of gas derives mainly from the Niger Delta onshore and offshore.However, there are opportunities to tremendously add to this asset from the inland basins. These inland basins have continued to frustrate the efforts of many explorers, principally because of their virginity and far distance from existing infrastructure, and for these reasons, many international companies have turned their focus away from frontier onshore to frontier deep-water and ultra deep-water offshore.Petroleum exploration, particularly in the Sudan and Chad Republics has shown that commercial success can be achieved in our own sector, even if it may take some time to put all the elements together. Some pointers have been found from the successes in the other rifted inland basins and the strategies adopted there have been examined in this paper. Congnizance has also been taken of the relative success of Shell's Kolmani River-1 well (33 billion cubit feet of gas) in the Gongola Basin. The paper went ahead to highlight potential petroleum systems in the different sectors of Nigeria's inland basins.Recommendations have also been put forward, which include amongst others (i) the introduction of a JV arrangement that allows State Governments on the inland basins to participate in the exploration for hydrocarbons in their domains (ii) tie future allocation of offshore blocks to acquisition of at least a block in any of the inland basins (iii) initiate a programme of deep drilling and coring of at least one research well to penetrate the entire sedimentary rock successions in each of the inland basins to facilitate a better understanding of their petroleum geology and benefit future exploration campaigns; to be funded and supervised by the Petroleum Technology Development Fund (PTDF)

  1. Preformulation studies of a prodrug of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol. (United States)

    Thumma, Sridhar; Majumdar, Soumyajit; Elsohly, Mahmoud A; Gul, Waseem; Repka, Michael A


    Preformulation studies were performed on a hemiglutarate ester prodrug of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-HG), to facilitate the development of stable formulations by hot-melt methods. The various studies performed included solid-state thermal characterization, pKa, logP, aqueous and pH dependent solubility, pH stability and effect of moisture, temperature and oxygen on solid-state stability. A hot-melt method was utilized to fabricate THC-HG incorporated poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) matrices and the bioadhesive properties, release profiles and post-processing stability of these matrices were assessed as a function of the polymer molecular weight. The prodrug exhibited a T (g) close to 0 degrees C, indicating its amorphous nature. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed a rapid weight loss after 170 degrees C. The prodrug exhibited a seven-fold higher aqueous solubility as compared to the parent drug (THC). Also, the solubility of the compound increased with increasing pH, being maximum at pH 8. The prodrug exhibited a v-shaped pH-rate profile, with the degradation rate minimum between pH 3 and 4. The moisture uptake and drug degradation increased with an increase in relative humidity. Solid-state stability indicated that the prodrug was stable at -18 degrees C but demonstrated higher degradation at 4 degrees C, 25 degrees C and 40 degrees C (51.6%, 74.5% and 90.1%, respectively) at the end of 3-months. THC-HG was found to be sensitive to the presence of oxygen. The release of the active from the polymeric matrices decreased, while bioadhesion increased, with an increase in molecular weight of PEO.

  2. Contaminated fish consumption in California's Central Valley Delta. (United States)

    Shilling, Fraser; White, Aubrey; Lippert, Lucas; Lubell, Mark


    Extensive mercury contamination and angler selection of the most contaminated fish species coincide in California's Central Valley. This has led to a policy conundrum: how to balance the economic and cultural impact of advising subsistence anglers to eat less fish with the economic cost of reducing the mercury concentrations in fish? State agencies with regulatory and other jurisdictional authority lack sufficient data and have no consistent approach to this problem. The present study focused on a critical and contentious region in California's Central Valley (the Sacramento-San Joaquin Rivers Delta) where mercury concentrations in fish and subsistence fishing rates are both high. Anglers and community members were surveyed for their fish preferences, rates of consumption, the ways that they receive health information, and basic demographic information. The rates of fish consumption for certain ethnicities were higher than the rates used by state agencies for planning pollution remediation. A broad range of ethnic groups were involved in catching and eating fish. The majority of anglers reported catching fish in order to feed to their families, including children and women of child-bearing age. There were varied preferences for receiving health information and no correlation between knowledge of fish contamination and rates of consumption. Calculated rates of mercury intake by subsistence anglers were well above the EPA reference dose. The findings here support a comprehensive policy strategy of involvement of the diverse communities in decision-making about education and clean-up and an official recognition of subsistence fishers in the region. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Proteoglycans act as cellular hepatitis delta virus attachment receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Lamas Longarela

    Full Text Available The hepatitis delta virus (HDV is a small, defective RNA virus that requires the presence of the hepatitis B virus (HBV for its life cycle. Worldwide more than 15 million people are co-infected with HBV and HDV. Although much effort has been made, the early steps of the HBV/HDV entry process, including hepatocyte attachment and receptor interaction are still not fully understood. Numerous possible cellular HBV/HDV binding partners have been described over the last years; however, so far only heparan sulfate proteoglycans have been functionally confirmed as cell-associated HBV attachment factors. Recently, it has been suggested that ionotrophic purinergic receptors (P2XR participate as receptors in HBV/HDV entry. Using the HBV/HDV susceptible HepaRG cell line and primary human hepatocytes (PHH, we here demonstrate that HDV entry into hepatocytes depends on the interaction with the glycosaminoglycan (GAG side chains of cellular heparan sulfate proteoglycans. We furthermore provide evidence that P2XR are not involved in HBV/HDV entry and that effects observed with inhibitors for these receptors are a consequence of their negative charge. HDV infection was abrogated by soluble GAGs and other highly sulfated compounds. Enzymatic removal of defined carbohydrate structures from the cell surface using heparinase III or the obstruction of GAG synthesis by sodium chlorate inhibited HDV infection of HepaRG cells. Highly sulfated P2XR antagonists blocked HBV/HDV infection of HepaRG cells and PHH. In contrast, no effect on HBV/HDV infection was found when uncharged P2XR antagonists or agonists were applied. In summary, HDV infection, comparable to HBV infection, requires binding to the carbohydrate side chains of hepatocyte-associated heparan sulfate proteoglycans as attachment receptors, while P2XR are not actively involved.

  4. Integrating Delta Building Physics & Economics: Optimizing the Scale of Engineered Avulsions in the Mississippi River Delta (United States)

    Kenney, M. A.; Mohrig, D.; Hobbs, B. F.; Parker, G.


    Land loss in the Mississippi River Delta caused by subsidence and erosion has resulted in habitat loss, interference with human activities, and increased exposure of New Orleans and other settled areas to storm surge risks. Prior to dam and levee building and oil and gas production in the 20th century, the long term rates of land building roughly balanced land loss through subsidence. Now, however, sediment is being deposited at dramatically lower rates in shallow areas in and adjacent to the Delta, with much of the remaining sediment borne by the Mississippi being lost to the deep areas of the Gulf of Mexico. A few projects have been built in order to divert sediment from the river to areas where land can be built, and many more are under consideration as part of State of Louisiana and Federal planning processes. Most are small scale, although there have been some proposals for large engineered avulsions that would divert a significant fraction of the remaining available sediment (W. Kim, et al. 2009, EOS). However, there is debate over whether small or large diversions are the economically optimally and socially most acceptable size of such land building projects. From an economic point of view, the optimal size involves tradeoffs between scale economies in civil work construction, the relationship between depth of diversion and sediment concentration in river water, effects on navigation, and possible diminishing returns to land building at a single location as the edge of built land progresses into deeper waters. Because land building efforts could potentially involve billions of dollars of investment, it is important to gain as much benefit as possible from those expenditures. We present the result of a general analysis of scale economies in land building from engineered avulsions. The analysis addresses the question: how many projects of what size should be built at what time in order to maximize the amount of land built by a particular time? The analysis

  5. Polarized antiquark flavor asymmetry DELTA anti u(x)-DELTA anti d(x) and the pion cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Fries, R J; Weiss, C


    The flavor asymmetry of the unpolarized antiquark distributions in the proton, anti u(x)- anti d(x)0. Using a simple chiral linear sigma model as an example, we demonstrate that in the meson cloud picture a large positive DELTA anti u(x)-DELTA anti d(x) can be obtained from pi-sigma interference contributions. This calls into question previous estimates based on rho-meson contributions alone, and indicates how the results of the meson cloud picture may be reconciled with those of quark-based models. (orig.)

  6. Prenatal development of the porcine TCR Delta repertoire: dominant expression of an invariant T cell receptor V Delta 3-J Delta 3 chain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holtmeler, W.; Geisel, W.; Bernert, K.; Butler, J. E.; Šinkora, Marek; Řeháková, Zuzana; Caspary, W. F.


    Roč. 34, - (2004), s. 1941-1949 ISSN 0014-2980 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/01/0919; GA AV ČR IAA5020303 Grant - others:DFG(DE) HO1521; GA NSF-MCB(XX) 77237 Keywords : gamma delta t cell * junctional diversity * ontogeny Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 5.005, year: 2004

  7. A one-dimensional model of resonances with a delta barrier and mass jump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, J.J.; Gadella, M.; Heras, F.J.H.; Nieto, L.M.


    In this Letter, we present a one-dimensional model that includes a hard core at the origin, a Dirac delta barrier at a point in the positive semiaxis and a mass jump at the same point. We study the effect of this mass jump in the behavior of the resonances of the model. We obtain an infinite number of resonances for this situation, showing that for the case of a mass jump the imaginary part of the resonance poles tend to a fixed value depending on the quotient of masses, and demonstrate that none of these resonances is degenerated.

  8. A Delta Operator Approach for the Discrete-Time Active Disturbance Rejection Control on Induction Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cortés-Romero


    Full Text Available The problem of active disturbance rejection control of induction motors is tackled by means of a generalized PI observer based discrete-time control, using the delta operator approach as the methodology of analyzing the sampled time process. In this scheme, model uncertainties and external disturbances are included in a general additive disturbance input which is to be online estimated and subsequently rejected via the controller actions. The observer carries out the disturbance estimation, thus reducing the complexity of the controller design. The controller efficiency is tested via some experimental results, performing a trajectory tracking task under load variations.

  9. Remote sensing analysis of water quality in the San Francisco Bay-delta (United States)

    Khorram, S.


    Water quality parameters in the San Francisco Bay-delta area using remotely sensed data combined with in situ data are investigated. The parameters included suspended solids, chlorophyll, turbidity, and electrical conductivity; the ocean color scanner (OCS) data were acquired from a NASA U-2 aircraft, and water quality samples were obtained from boats. It was concluded that areas with high biological activity were clearly discernible on enhanced imagery from OCS data, and it was impossible to locate such areas on aerial photography taken with conventional or infrared sensitive color films.

  10. SEDSAT-1 is attached to Delta II rocket launching Deep Space 1 (United States)


    Attached to the second stage of a Boeing Delta II at Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, is the Students for the Exploration and Development of Space Satellite-1 (SEDSat-1). An international project, SEDSat-1 is a secondary payload on the Deep Space 1 mission and will be deployed 88 minutes after launch over Hawaii. The satellite includes cameras for imaging Earth, a unique attitude determination system, and amateur radio communication capabilities. Deep Space 1, targeted for launch on Oct. 24, is the first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program and is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century.

  11. Biological observations on the mudskipper Pseudapocryptes elongatus in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucholtz, Rikke Hagstrøm; Meilvang, A. S.; Cedhagen, T.


    Aspects of the population biology of the mudskipper, Pseudapocryptes elongatus, (Cuvier, 1816) were studied in Bac Lieu Province in the Lower Mekong Delta, Vietnam, including sex ratio, length-frequency distribution, sexual dimorphism, hepatosomatic index (HSI), female gonadosomatic index (GSI......), gonad histology, fecundity and some observations on post-larvae and juveniles. In the population studied the sex ratio was skewed toward males. Females had a shorter mean length and a lower mean growth rate than males. No mature males or females were observed among mudskippers sampled in estuarine...

  12. Water Quality and Spectral Reflectance, Peace-Athabasca Delta, Canada, 2010-2011 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The Peace-Athabasca Delta (PAD) is a hydrologically complex and ecologically diverse freshwater delta formed by the confluence of the Peace, Athabasca, and...

  13. Water Quality and Spectral Reflectance, Peace-Athabasca Delta, Canada, 2010-2011 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Peace-Athabasca Delta (PAD) is a hydrologically complex and ecologically diverse freshwater delta formed by the confluence of the Peace, Athabasca, and Birch...

  14. 77 FR 61592 - Arkansas Electric Cooperative Corporation; Mississippi Delta Energy Agency; Clarksdale Public... (United States)


    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Arkansas Electric Cooperative Corporation; Mississippi Delta Energy Agency; Clarksdale Public Utilities Commission; Public Service Commission of Yazoo City; South Mississippi Electric... (FPA), 16 USC 824(e) and Sec. 825(h), Arkansas Electric Cooperative Corporation, Mississippi Delta...

  15. Impacts of 25 years of groundwater extraction on subsidence in the Mekong delta, Vietnam (United States)

    Many major river deltas in the world are subsiding and consequently become increasingly vulnerable to flooding and storm surges, salinization and permanent inundation. For the Mekong Delta, annual subsidence rates up to several centimetres have been reported. Excessive groundwate...

  16. San Joaquin Bay Delta Legal Boundary, California, 2007, US EPA Region 9 (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (the Delta) and Suisun Marsh are at the confluence of the Sacramento River and San Joaquin River basins, which drain about 40...

  17. Carbon Stocks in Permafrost-Affected Soils of the Lena River Delta (United States)

    Zubrzycki, S.; Kutzbach, L.; Grosse, G.; Desyatkin, A.; Pfeiffer, E.


    The soil organic carbon stock (SSOC) of soils in arctic permafrost regions is known to be significant but is insufficiently investigated so far. Previous SSOC studies report mainly the gravimetric carbon (C) contents and are limited to the active layer depth at the time of sampling. Since C deposits in permafrost regions are likely to become a future C source, more detailed investigations of the presently frozen likely carbon-rich sediment and soil layers are of importance. Our investigations were performed on Samoylov Island in the southern-central part of the Lena River Delta (32,000 km2) which is the largest arctic delta and the fifth largest delta worldwide. Samoylov Island is representative for the Lena River Delta's first terrace and the active floodplains. Within this study a new portable Snow-Ice-Permafrost-Research-Establishment (SIPRE) auger was used during a spring field session to obtain 1 m deep frozen soil cores (n = 29) distributed over all known soil and vegetation units. These cores are analyzed for bulk contents of nitrogen (N) and C, ice content and bulk density (BD) and to determine the SSOC including the rarely investigated currently permanently frozen layers up to 1 m depth on Samoylov Island. Our study provides evidence for high SSOC for a depth of 1 m for the investigated area ranging between 7 kg m-2 and 48 kg m-2. Considering the spatial extent of different soil units on the two geomorphological units of Samoylov Island, the area-weighted average SSOC were 29 kg m-2 (n = 22) for the first terrace and 14 kg m-2 (n = 7) for the active floodplain. For the correspondent soil units of Turbels and Orthels in circumpolar permafrost regions a mean SSOC of 27 kg m-2 (min: 0.1 kg m-2, max: 126 kg m-2) for a depth of 1 m was reported [1]. For up-scaling solely over the soil-covered areas of the Lena River Delta, we excluded all water bodies >3,600 m2 from the geomorphological units studied (first river terrace and the active floodplains) and

  18. Controls of sedimentary supply and gravity driven deformation on the eastern Niger delta (Plio-Pleistocene) from the shoreline to the deep sea plain (United States)

    Robin, Cécile; Guillocheau, François; Rouby, Delphine; Nalpas, Thierry; Jermannaud, Paul; Raillard, Stéphane


    We studied the evolution of the gravity flow sedimentary within a large shelf-edge delta (Eastern Niger delta) over the last 2,5Myr taking into account the influence of the contemporaneous gravity driven deformation and sedimentary supply. To do this, we mapped (i) the shoreline geometry and (ii) the associated turbiditic systems for 9 intervals using a classification based on three morphological end-members: erosive, constructive and depositional modes. We characterized the depositional profile of the passive margin delta from the littoral domain to the abyssal plain and its spatial and temporal variability. We showed that, at the scale of the delta, the depositional profile varied from (i) a shelf edge delta profile with a slope break at the location of the shoreline during progradation to (ii) a ramp profile characteristic of a mid-shelf delta during retrogradation. Thus, during a stratigraphic cycle, the delta front evolved from a prograding slope break during the development of the HST, to steepening clinoforms during the development of the LST that progressively flattened out during the TST to reach a ramp profile at the MFS. The turbiditic systems (including MTC) initiate near the shoreline, at the toe of the delta front. Also, they form preferentially down slope synthetic faults or within antithetic fault relays. They are initially erosive, becoming constructive further down slope and eventually depositional. They may become erosive again as they cut through the compressional structures. We showed that the stratigraphic state (progradation/retrogradation) controls the amount of sediment reaching the platform and strongly impacts the density of gravity flow sedimentary systems (low density during progradation and high density during progradation). On the other hand, the gravity driven deformation controls the slope of the sea-floor and, in doing so, their morphology (erosive/constructive/depositional). Within this framework, lateral migrations of the delta

  19. Patients' Satisfaction With Surgical Out Patient Services At The Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    management of hospitals to make necessary changes that will once again bring back the confidence of our patients and help to sustain it. The aim of this study is to assess the level of satisfaction of patients attending the surgical out-patient department of the Delta State. University Teaching Hospital, Oghara and.

  20. Drones on the delta | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Nov 25, 2016 ... Ghana's Volta River delta is an area vulnerable to climate change, with rising seas and increasingly powerful storms driving flooding and erosion, leaving authorities there questioning whether the best response involves solutions such as sea walls or migration. A group of researchers is using drones to ...

  1. Evolution of the Niger Delta, present dynamics and the future ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evolution of the Niger Delta is closely linked to the geodynamics related to the separation of the African and South American continents and the tectonics of the formation of the Benue Trough. Tectonic activities, climate and eustasy are the major factors responsible for transgression and regression through the entrant point ...

  2. The Economic Dimensions of the Niger Delta Ethnic Conflicts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a descriptive analysis of the remote and immediate causes of the armed ethnic conflicts in the Niger Delta in Nigeria and attempts to proffer a strategic approach rather than the use of brute force in managing the conflicts. The study revealed that the underlying cause of the conflict is the prolonged ...

  3. Calculation of the N to $\\Delta$ electromagnetic transition matrix element

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrou, C; Lippert, T; Neff, H; Negele, J W; Schilling, K; Tsapalis, A; Forcrand, Ph. de; Lippert, Th.


    We present results on the ratio of electric quadrupole to magnetic dipole amplitudes, $R_{EM}={\\cal G}_{E2}/{\\cal G}_{M1}$, for the transition $\\gamma N\\to \\Delta$ from lattice QCD. We consider both the quenched and the 2-flavor theory.

  4. Environmental Disaster of the Niger-Delta: Rapprochement through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the socio-political problems emanating from the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria. The paper identifies the genesis of the problems, which are connected to oil prospecting and the attendant environmental degradation in the region. Various violent protests have been staged in the process of seeking for ...

  5. Fundraising processes in Nigerian Academic Libraries: The Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines fundraising processes in academic libraries in Delta State. The aim is to find out the extent to which fund raising processes can help in solving funding problems in academic libraries. The descriptive research method was employed. Eleven academic libraries in Delt a State were used in this study, that ...

  6. Practical Design of Delta-Sigma Multiple Description Audio Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leegaard, Jack Højholt; Østergaard, Jan; Jensen, Søren Holdt


    It was recently shown that delta-sigma quantization (DSQ) can be used for optimal multiple description (MD) coding of Gaussian sources. The DSQ scheme combined oversampling, prediction, and noise-shaping in order to trade off side distortion for central distortion in MD coding. It was shown that ...

  7. Environmental Degradation in Oil Producing Areas of Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to oil exploration and other human activities in the Niger Delta region, there is evidence of environmental degradation all over the area (Oronto, 1998). Environmental degradation is occasioned by consistent flow of industrial waste, oil spills, gas flares, fire disaster, acid rain, flooding erosion, etc., which has led to the ...

  8. Evaluation Of Delta State E-Government Website | Chete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluates Delta state government website by adopting the method used since 2001 in evaluating national government websites. The questionnaire and web survey techniques were adopted for this study. The data from the questionnaire was analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) and the ...

  9. Application in Down-hole Milling Operations In Niger Delta.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Abstract. The effects of soil on vegetation structural attributes (tree density, tree height, tree diameter, basal area and estimated aboveground biomass) of a secondary forest following the abandonment of a degraded rubber plantation in Orogun area of Delta state Nigeria was studied using the multiple linear regression ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This underscores the importance of environmental sustainability in order to reduce the negative effects of man's activities on ... to N150 (Magnus, 2010). This is regarded as absolute poverty living .... the Niger Delta region for developmental purposes and to cushion the effect of oil exploration and exploitation activities and to ...

  11. Delta-gamma-theta Hedging of Crude Oil Asian Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Hruška


    Full Text Available Since Black-Scholes formula was derived, many methods have been suggested for vanilla as well as exotic options pricing. More of investing and hedging strategies have been developed based on these pricing models. Goal of this paper is to derive delta-gamma-theta hedging strategy for Asian options and compere its efficiency with gamma-delta-theta hedging combined with predictive model. Fixed strike Asian options are type of exotic options, whose special feature is that payoff is calculated from the difference of average market price and strike price for call options and vice versa for the put options. Methods of stochastic analysis are used to determine deltas, gammas and thetas of Asian options. Asian options are cheaper than vanilla options and therefore they are more suitable for precise portfolio creation. On the other hand their deltas are also smaller as well as profits. That means that they are also less risky and more suitable for hedging. Results, conducted on chosen commodity, confirm better feasibility of Asian options compering with vanilla options in sense of gamma hedging.

  12. Pattern of refractive anomalies in Warri Metropolis, Delta State of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional prevalent study of refractive errors conducted in Warri, a metropolitan town in delta state of Nigeria revealed peculiar prevalent rates. One thousand and eighteen eyes of 6 to 64 year olds were screened for refractive anomalies and 752 (73.9%) eyes (369 male and 383 female eyes) were found with ...

  13. Ethnic Militias and Criminality in the Niger-Delta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    its structure, which is usually “based on very small groups which build up into pyramids to form larger and larger .... platform for social interaction and unity contin ued to elude us. So we looked inward, like is .... The illegal oil business further underpins communal and ethnic conflicts in the Niger Delta region. The weapon ...

  14. Petroleum Potentials and Well Log Evaluation from Niger Delta Basin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has being shown that the Niger Delta Basin has spectacularly maintained a thick sedimentary apron and certain petroleum geological features favourable for petroleum generation. This study reports the petroleum potential and well log evaluation of logs in three wells to characterize the reservoir sand bodies. The well log ...

  15. Distribution of cyanotoxins in aquatic environments in the Niger Delta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence and types of cyanotoxins in some aquatic environments in the Niger Delta were investigated. Water samples surveyed in the study were surface water of Sombreiro, Nun and New Calabar Rivers. Others were groundwater from Abonnema and Kiama and pond water from Ogboro. Sampling locations of ...

  16. Soil Transmitted Helminthiasis in Sapele Local Government, Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on neglected tropical common infections human parasites, Soil Transmitted Helminths (STHs) were carried out in Sapele Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria. Faecal samples from 600 subjects were examined, using standard parasitological methods.Three helminth parasites were identified in the faecal ...

  17. Water quality in the Okavango Delta | Mmualefe | Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Okavango Delta ecosystem sustains a large number of plant and animal species as well as providing resources for the livelihood of the riparian human population. Despite changes in flow patterns, rainfall and other climatic conditions over the past decades, the system has responded well to maintain low salt-water ...

  18. On the Stability of a Double Integration Delta Modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Palle Tolstrup


    A delta modulator with a second-order network in the feedback path is considered. For zero input signal the possible modes of oscillation are determined as a function of the zero of the linear network. The method could be employed with other types of feedback networks. A comparison is made...

  19. (ICT) in Agricultural and Rural Transformation in Delta State.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... development, there is the need now, to bridge the gap in the digital divide in information technology aimed at building capacity of rural dwellers to enhance Agricultural and rural transformation. The study examined the use of information and communication technology in. Agricultural and rural transformation in Delta State.

  20. Concentration of heavy metals in a Niger Delta Mangrove Creek ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentration of some heavy metals, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Hg, and total hydrocarbon content (THC) were assessed in the surface waters of a Niger Delta mangrove creek (Buguma Creek). Samples were collected between November 2004 and October 2006 from five stations. The minimum and maximum ...

  1. Spoils politics and environmental struggle in the Niger Delta region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The protracted conflict in the Niger Delta communities is currently being diagnosed with a view to understanding the nature of the resource struggle. From the 1980s, the region's cry of marginalization and exclusion from oil revenue allocation was couched in a wave of environmentalism. Environmental activism had ...

  2. Prevalence of Neonatal Jaundice on Central Hospital, Warri, Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: 272 babies (aged 1 – 30 days) the Neonatal Clinic of the Department of Child Health, Central Hospital, Warri, Delta State between June 2009 and June 2010 were examined daily for evidence of jaundice. Those with serum bilirubin ³15mg/100ml were subjected to additional clinical and laboratory investigations to ...

  3. Assessing School Facilities in Public Secondary Schools in Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated school facilitates in public secondary schools in Delta State, Nigeria. The purpose of the study was to find out the state of the facilities, the types of maintenance carried out on the facilities by school administrators, the factors encouraging school facilities depreciation and the roles of school ...

  4. Spatial dynamics of fuel wood exploitation in Delta State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the spatial and temporal changes in fuel wood exploitation as a result of environmental degradation, between 2008 and 2013 in Delta State, Nigeria. It utilised data from both primary and secondary sources. Primary data were obtained from a survey of selected settlements using a questionnaire.

  5. Mantle electrical conductivity profile of Niger delta region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The mantle electrical conductivity-depth profile of the Niger delta region in Nigeria has been determined using solar quiet day ionospheric current (Sq).The magnetometer data obtained in 2010 from geomagnetic stations installed in Lagos by magnetic dataset (MAGDAS) in 2008 and data from magnetometers installed in ...

  6. Atlantic humpback dolphins Sousa teuszii in the Saloum Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During October and November 2015, the first systematic survey of Sousa teuszii was carried out in the Saloum Delta (Senegal, West Africa), comprising 1 617.5 km of boat-based survey coverage. Thirty sightings were recorded in the Saloum and Diomboss rivers, and along the southern coastline. Dolphins were also ...

  7. Comparative demand analysis for rice in Edo, delta and Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the comparative demand analysis for rice types in Edo, Delta and Lagos states of Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling procedure, involving four stages, was used to select eight hundred and twelve (812) households. Data collected were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The results of ...

  8. Nematode Parasitemia in School aged Children in Sapele, Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred (200) faecal samples were collected from school aged children in four randomly selected primary schools in Sapele metropolis of Delta State, Nigeria, to determine gastrointestinal nematode parasitemia. The formal-ether concentration technique was used to analyse the specimens and data obtained revealed ...

  9. Schrodinger operators with delta-interactions supported on conical surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Behrndt, J.; Exner, Pavel; Lotoreichik, V.


    Roč. 47, č. 35 (2014), s. 355202 ISSN 1751-8113 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06818S; GA MŠk 7AMB13AT010 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Schrödinger operator * delta potential * infinite discrete spectrum Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.583, year: 2014

  10. Amnesty in the Niger Delta: vertical movement towards self ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... promises of infrastructure development in the region and direct payments of oil revenues to host-communities. This paper seeks to examine the recent developments vis-à-vis the government's amnesty initiative to determine if this policy has bridged the gap in the longstanding selfdetermination demands of the Niger Delta ...

  11. Perceptions, Attitudes and Practices on Schistosomiasis in Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of the study reported here was to assess the knowledge, attitude/perception and practices of the people in Oshimili South and Ndokwa Northeast Local Government Areas of Delta State in Nigeria. A cross-sectional study of 400 randomly selected persons aged ≥15 years was undertaken using a uniform ...

  12. Monte Carlo simulations of the stability of delta-Pu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landa, A.; Soderlind, P.; Ruban, Andrei


    The transition temperature (T-c) for delta-Pu has been calculated for the first time. A Monte Carlo method is employed for this purpose and the effective cluster interactions are obtained from first-principles calculations incorporated with the Connolly-Williams and generalized perturbation methods...

  13. Experience on tangent delta norms adopted for repaired generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, N.N.; Sood, D.K.


    The repair techniques of the generators are very crucial for avoiding prolonged forced outages. The crucial decisions based on sound knowledge and judgement becomes essential in many cases. The unit under discussions had failed on account of flash over in the Exciter end overhang windings. The failure resulted in damaged to the stator bars as well as generator core. The damaged end packets of the stator core were replaced at site. The total winding bars were removed from stator core and damaged bars were replaced with new bars. The rest of the bars were tested for tangent delta tests for reuse. Acceptance norms of 0.6% tip up from 0.2pu to 0.6pu of rated stator voltage were adopted. Some of the bars outside the acceptable limits of tangent delta were shifted close to neutral so that the standard norms of tan delta are met. This was felt necessary because lead-time for procurement of new bars was more than six months. The above-adopted norms for tangent delta will be of much use for the operating utilities. The unit under discussions was of 67.5 MW operating at 50 Hz, 0.85 pf lag and had logged 66160.46 operating hours before failure. (author)

  14. 2009-2010 USACE Vicksburg District Lidar: Mississippi River Delta (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LiDAR collected at 1.0 points per square meter (1.0m GSD) for the entire portion of the Mississippi River Delta in the Vicksburg District. This area was flown during...

  15. Use of Cybercafe's Services by Households in Delta State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cyber cafés' provide important public services. They provide access to wide range of information through the internet via the computer. The study is centered on the use of cyber cafés by households in Delta State. Services provided by the cyber café's were identified. The study revealed that Household with children under ...

  16. Outcome of Teenage Pregnancy in the Niger Delta of Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Teenage pregnancy in the Niger Delta is concentrated among women with less formal education, who are unemployed, unmarried and with inadequate antenatal care and obstetric risks for poor pregnancy outcome. The provision an appropriate contraceptive method and to look with priority after any pregnancy ...

  17. Assessment Of Information Literacy Skills Among Librarians In Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper surveys the information literacy skills among librarians in Delta State University, Abraka. The study is intended to explore the information literacy skills of the librarians in this era of electronic librarianship. Questionnaire and observation techniques were used to gather data. A total of 30 librarians made up of ...

  18. Rating of Stress Factors in Delta State Secondary Schools, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on principals and teachers' opinion on the rating of stress factors on human resources development in Delta state secondary schools. The population consists of 320 school principals and 9608 teachers in the area. A sample of 30 (9.4%) principals and 960 (10%), teachers were selected through the ...

  19. Ethnic Militias and Criminality in the Niger-Delta | Okumagba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proliferation of ethnic militia and their activities in Nigeria, particularly in the Niger Delta region has moved from the closing of flow stations to kidnapping for ransom. The aim of these militia groups have changed from asking for fairness and equity in the distribution of the wealth of the Nigerian state into a serious form of ...

  20. Leena delta rännujutud / Riho Västrik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Västrik, Riho, 1965-


    Reisikiri Leena jõest filmi tegeva filmimeeskonna matkast Leena jõe delta tundras, kus satuti ka 1879. aastal purjelaeval "Jeannette" põhjapoolust vallutama tulnud ameerika polaaruurija DeLongi matmispaiga ja mälestusmärgi juurde

  1. delta-Opioid-induced pharmacologic myocardial hibernation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. (United States)

    Fang, Xiangshao; Tang, Wanchun; Sun, Shijie; Weil, Max Harry


    Cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation is an event of global myocardial ischemia and reperfusion, which is associated with severe postresuscitation myocardial dysfunction and fatal outcome. Evidence has demonstrated that mammalian hibernation is triggered by cyclic variation of a delta-opiate-like compound in endogenous serum, during which the myocardial metabolism is dramatically reduced and the myocardium tolerates the stress of ischemia and reperfusion without overt ischemic and reperfusion injury. Previous investigations also proved that the delta-opioid agonist elicited the cardioprotection in a model of regional ischemic intact heart or myocyte. Accordingly, we were prompted to search for an alternative intervention of pharmacologically induced myocardial hibernation that would result in rapid reductions of myocardial metabolism and therefore minimize the myocardial ischemic and reperfusion injury during cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Prospective, controlled laboratory study. University-affiliated research laboratory. In the series of studies performed in the established rat and pig model of cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the delta-opioid receptor agonist, pentazocine, was administered during ventricular fibrillation. : The myocardial metabolism reflected by the concentration of lactate, or myocardial tissue PCO2 and PO2, is dramatically reduced during cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. These are associated with less severe postresuscitation myocardial dysfunction and longer duration of postresuscitation survival. delta-Opioid-induced pharmacologic myocardial hibernation is an option to minimize the myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury during cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

  2. Environmental Law and Underdevelopment in the Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    reassert the enforcement of environmental laws in Nigeria in order to curb .... incessant problem of oil spillage, gas flaring and environmental pollution and .... Transport. According to the UNDP (2006:29), the Niger Delta roads are mostly bad. Efforts by local government authorities to repair the roads have worsened. Vol.

  3. inventory management in delta allied wire industries limited asaba

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    Optimum management of inventory in the Delta – Allied Wire Industries Limited was studied in this research. The information needed was obtained through questionnaire and interviews of key staff of the company. Data collated were recorded for the operational 5 years period (1997 – 2001) under review and customers' ...

  4. Final Narrative Report on Nursing Ethics at Delta College. (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Raymond S.

    This four-part report describes a project undertaken by Delta College to implement two required bioethics courses for nursing students: an introductory course in ethical theories and an advanced course in applications of these theories in nursing. After Part I relates how funding for the project was secured and used, Part II delineates the…

  5. What are Pregnant Women in a Rural Niger Delta Community's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Abstract. At present there is under utilization of maternity service provision in Nigeria, with only a third of childbearing women electing to deliver in ... exploratory qualitative study was carried out to identify pregnant women in a rural Niger Delta community's perceptions of .... community leader distributed an information sheet.

  6. Paleoecology of the Neogene Agbada formation, Niger Delta, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abundant and well preserved assemblages of pollen, spores, dinoflagellates, freshwater algae and fungal remains had been encountered and documented from three selected wells within the onshore Central II and Coastal I and II depobelts in the Niger Delta. The encountered assemblages indicated a preponderance of ...

  7. What are pregnant women in a rural Niger Delta community's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To date, studies have sought cause and effect and have neglected the opinion of the people about what they perceive to be problematic and what they believe constitutes satisfactory maternity service provision. An exploratory qualitative study was carried out to identify pregnant women in a rural Niger Delta community's ...

  8. Inventory Management in Delta Allied Wire Industries Limited Asaba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A good inventory system reduces production cost and consequently increases profit. Optimum management of inventory in the Delta – Allied Wire Industries Limited was studied in this research. The information needed was obtained through questionnaire and interviews of key staff of the company. Data collated were ...

  9. Climbing Walls and Climbing Tuitions. A Delta Perspective (United States)

    Kirshstein, Rita J.; Kadamus, James A.


    High-end amenities like rock climbing walls on college campuses have become an easy target for those attempting to explain rising tuitions. This Delta Perspective looks beyond the media attention surrounding these "frills" to examine more serious questions about spending on campus facilities, college spending in general, and the real drivers of…

  10. The Niger Delta wetland ecosystem: What threatens it and why ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Niger Delta wetland ecosystem is of high economic importance to the local dwellers and the nation in general. The region is rich in both aquatic and terrestrial biodiversity and serves as a main source of livelihood for rural dwellers as well as stabilizing the ecosystem. Tremendous changes have occurred recently in the ...

  11. Religion and Sustainable Environment in the Niger Delta: The Ogoni ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    What relates religion and environment, whether social or physical is ethics. This study examines major African ethical principles and methods towards sustainable environment in the Niger Delta, using the Ogoni case as example. The paper adopts both the sociological and anthropological approaches. Findings of the study ...

  12. The search for environmental justice in the Niger Delta and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Right from the beginning Man has been given the privilege by his Creator to tender the earth and take dominion over his environment. But for the impoverished people of the Niger Delta region, the mainstay of Nigeria's oil wealth, the situation is ironically abysmal. The region has been the scene of protest, sometimes ...

  13. Validity and reliability of the Delta Healthy Eating Attitudes Scale (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate psychometric properties of an instrument developed to measure psychosocial factors related to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans for a nutrition intervention in the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD). Social Cognitive Theory constructs social support (SS), s...

  14. The Localizing Value Of Focal Delta Slowing In Temporal Lobe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Slow wave EEG had a higher marginal probability than neuropsychological assessment of predicting the focus, and was equally effective as other investigative methods. Conclusion These results suggest that focal temporal delta slowing is useful in the localization of epileptogenic foci. There was no discordance with the ...

  15. Tetanus from Intramuscular Quinine Injection InWarri Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To evaluate the development of tetanus from intramuscular injection in children inWarri, Niger Delta of Nigeria Materials and Methods; Retrieval and analysis of case notes of all children with tetanus seen between 1999 and 2008 at Central Hospital Warri with referrals from surrounding General Hospitals and GN ...

  16. Training needs of school inspectors for quality instruction in Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ex-post facto research design was adopted in the study and the population consisted of 565 School inspectors in the Delta State Central Senatorial District. The findings revealed that inspectors had strong desire to be trained in education law, school communication and school inspection. Recommendation among ...

  17. Characterization of middle Eocene tide-influenced delta: a study ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    12) has been interpreted as prograding deltaic depositional systems with development of tidal flats near the .... architecture bears signatures of deposition in a tide affected delta with profound bioturbation. (Abbasi et al ..... spring–neap tidal cycle (Figure 6D) (e.g. Kvale 2006; also see, Bhattacharya and Banerjee. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

  18. Morphodynamics of the Manyema tidal delta 1 LIST OF TABLES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kheira Kortenbout

    Morphodynamics of the Manyema tidal delta. 1. LIST OF TABLES. Table 1: Calcium carbonate content and grain size measures (graphic mean and sorting) of the grab samples taken from the channel off Kunduchi Beach Hotel (Fig. 4). Table 1. Sample No. Carbonate (%) Mean (phi) Sorting (phi). 1. 4.51. 0.684. 0.735. 2.

  19. Obesity and Health Risk of Children in the Mississippi Delta (United States)

    Gamble, Abigail; Waddell, Dwight; Ford, M. Allison; Bentley, John P.; Woodyard, Catherine D.; Hallam, Jeffrey S.


    Background: Mississippi (MS) Delta adults and youth report obesity rates far exceeding those of the state and nation. State law requires in-school physical activity and nutrition practices to address childhood obesity but does not require evaluation of outcomes, specifically the impact on weight-related outcomes. This paper offers 3 things: (1)…

  20. Gambiense Sleeping Sickness In The Abraka Region Of Delta State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gambiense Sleeping Sickness In The Abraka Region Of Delta State, Nigeria: Passive Case Detection (Pcd) At The Baptist Medical Centre (BMC) Eku 1999 – 2004. ... The highest prevalence of infection was among patients aged between 26-35 years with 35.6% infection rate, 23.3 percent was recorded among those aged ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) has carried out the most comprehensive analysis of the extent of pollution in the Niger. Delta in 2011. Both local and international experts who surveyed 122km of pipelines, 4,000 samples of soil and water from different areas and sources, 5000 medical records and held ...

  2. Morphodynamics of the Manyema Tidal Delta at Kunduchi, Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and on the delta platform at Kunduchi. Green dot. = current meter site; Red triangles = sand sampling sites (1-6, Table 1). Table 1. Calcium carbonate content and grain size. (graphic mean and sorting) of sediment in grab samples taken from the channel off Kunduchi. Beach Hotel (Fig. 4). Sample. Carbonate. Mean. Sorting.

  3. Youth Restiveness and Industrial Disruption in the Niger Delta Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This theoretical discourse examined the incidence of youth restiveness in the Niger Delta and how this restiveness has affected industrial productivity. It is our opinion that the high index of unemployment, environmental degradation, dislocation of the traditional economy and unfair revenue allocation are some of the factors ...

  4. Mantle electrical conductivity profile of Niger delta region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The mantle electrical conductivity-depth profile of the Niger delta region in Nigeria has been determined using solar quiet day ionospheric current (Sq). The magnetometer data obtained in 2010 from geomag- netic stations installed in Lagos by magnetic dataset (MAGDAS) in 2008 and data from magnetometers installed in ...

  5. Error Minimization of Polynomial Approximation of Delta T Islam ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The difference between Universal time (UT) and Dynamical time (TD), known as Delta T ( T ) is tabulated for the first day of each year in the Astronomical Almanac. During the last four centuries it is found that there are large differences between its values for two consecutive years. Polynomial approximations have ...

  6. The E2/M1 ratio in {Delta} photoproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandorfi, A.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Physics Dept.; Blanpied, G. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Physics; Blecher, M. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Physics Dept.] [and others; LEGS Collaboration


    The properties of the transition from the nucleon to the {Delta}(1232) serve as a benchmark for models of nucleon structure. To first order, N {r_arrow} {Delta} photo-excitation is dominated by a simple M1 quark spin-flip transition. At higher order, small L = 2 components in the N and {Delta} wavefunctions allow this excitation to proceed via an electric quadrupole transition. Since Nucleon models differ greatly on the mechanisms used to generate these L = 2 components,, the ratio of E2/M1 transitions (EMR) provides a sensitive test for structure models. Here, new high-precision measurements of p({rvec {gamma}}, {pi}) and p({rvec {gamma}}, {gamma}) cross sections and beam asymmetries have been combined with other polarization ratios in a simultaneous analysis of both reactions. Compton scattering has provided two important new constraints on the photo-pion amplitude. The E2/M1 mixing ratio for the N {r_arrow} {Delta} transition extracted from this analysis is EMR = {minus}3.0% {+-} 0.3 (stat+sys) {+-} 0.2 (model).

  7. Anirban Mukhopadhyay: Examining migration and adaptation in deltas

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Mar 10, 2015 ... Anirban Mukhopadhyay is a researcher with a consortium on Deltas, Vulnerability and Climate Change: Migration and Adaptation (DECCMA). DECCMA is one of four consortia that the Collaborative Adaptation Research Initiative in Africa and Asia (CARIAA) is supporting to conduct research and policy ...

  8. Anirban Mukhopadhyay : Migration et adaptation dans les deltas ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    20 mars 2015 ... Anirban Mukhopadhyay est un chercheur qui fait partie du consortium Deltas, vulnérabilité et changements climatiques : migration et adaptation (DECCMA). DECCMA est l'un des quatre consortiums que l'Initiative de recherche concertée sur l'adaptation en Afrique et en Asie(IRCAAA) appuie de sorte qu'il ...

  9. A Signal-Interleaving Complex Bandpass Sigma-Delta Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wad, Paul Emmanuel


    Complex or quadrature Sigma-Delta converters operate on complex signals, i.e. signals consisting of a real and an imaginary component, whereas conventional converters operate only on real signals. The advantage of complex signal processing in the discrete-time domain is that the entire sampling...

  10. Acid Rain in Niger Delta Region: Implication on Water Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research focused on the effect of acid rain on the water quality of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Three hundred water samples were collected: 100 water samples from rain, 100 from open wells and 100 from rivers. The water samples were analysed using the paired t-test and multiple correlation analysis to ascertain ...

  11. Enhancing stakeholder participation in the Niger Delta region: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria's indigenous people, found in the Niger Delta area, have for many years experienced developmental challenges associated with oil exploration. The region has been perennially engulfed in various forms of agitation pertaining to self-government and resource control. Over the years, attempts to solve these ...

  12. Comparative Noise Pollution Study Of Some Major Towns In Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative noise pollution studies have been carried out in some major towns in Delta State, Nigeria using a PIONneer 65 noise dosimeter. The noise measurements were taken at ten points within each of the towns at an interval of 30 minutes during the peak period of the day and at the cool of the night. The results ...

  13. Human security in the Niger Delta: exploring the interplay of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prior to August 2009, the Niger Delta region of Nigeria witnessed widespread violent conflicts between the government, multinational oil corporations (MNCs) and militant groups. This conflict was widely attributed to deplorable human security, which deprived the indigenes of the region access to their sources of livelihoods ...

  14. The Niger Delta Environmental Crisis in Nigeria: A Perspective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 26, 2012 ... Abstract. This study gives a perspective analysis of the Niger Delta Environmental. Crisis in Nigeria. Right from the time the first oil well was struck in 1956 in. Oloibiri, an Ijaw town in the present day Bayelsa State, till now, oil has become the mainstay of the Nigerian economy accounting for about 98% of.

  15. The Niger Delta wetland ecosystem: What threatens it and why ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Apr 20, 2015 ... Technology. Review. The Niger Delta wetland ecosystem: What threatens it and why should we protect it? Chidumeje Ndidi Patience Okonkwo*, Lalit Kumar and Subhashni Taylor. School of ... such as GIS and remote sensing in the conservation and management of this important ecosystem. Key words: ...

  16. The Problem with the Delta Cost Project Database (United States)

    Jaquette, Ozan; Parra, Edna


    The Integrated Postsecondary Education System (IPEDS) collects data on Title IV institutions. The Delta Cost Project (DCP) integrated data from multiple IPEDS survey components into a public-use longitudinal dataset. The DCP Database was the basis for dozens of journal articles and a series of influential policy reports. Unfortunately, a flaw in…

  17. Stochastic models for some meteorological outcomes in Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, stochastic models based on autoregressive integrated moving average models of various orders and its seasonalized versions are presented, with a view to identifying the optimal model for some meteorological outcomes in some cities in Niger Delta region of Nigeria, using Normalized Bayesian Information ...

  18. Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health in the Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There has been an increasing awareness of the need to pay special focus on the adolescent and their sexual and reproductive health. This article reviews the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents in the Niger Delta region (NDR) of Nigeria. The objective is to bring to focus these important issues in the region.

  19. Selective expansion of human gamma delta T cells by monocytes infected with live Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


    Havlir, D V; Ellner, J J; Chervenak, K A; Boom, W H


    Gamma delta (gamma delta) T cell receptor (TCR) expressing T cells comprise 3% of human peripheral blood lymphocytes, yet their role in the immune response remains largely unknown. There is evidence both in humans and in animal models that these cells participate in the immune response to mycobacterial antigens. In mice, exposure to mycobacterial antigens leads to the expansion of gamma delta T cells in draining lymph nodes and lungs. In humans, gamma delta T cell lines with reactivity to myc...

  20. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of cantilever arms (12) contacting the surface of the test sample when performing the movement....... arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area...