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Sample records for include bangladesh cambodia

  1. Cambodia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    sensing early the institutional politics at play during transition. Officers closely involved in Cambodia programming recall the early IDRC decision to situate projects mainly in Cambodia's Environment Ministry — and wonder still if that was a strategic mistake. As the transition unfolded, it became clear that control over natural.

  2. Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    The population of Cambodia stood at 6.25 million in 1986, with an average annual growth rate of 2.1%. Life expectancy is presently 42 years for men and 44.9 years for women. The government is currently disputed between resistance groups and Vietnamese-installed authorities in Phnom Penh. No single authority controls the entire country. The urban population increased sharply during the 1970-75 war, but after seizing power the Khmer Rouge forced most urban residents to return to rural areas as peasants. Massive numbers of people were executed for political reasons or died of starvation and disease during the Khmer Rouge period and after the dislocations caused by the Vietnamese invasion: an estimated 1.5-3 million people are estimated to have died out of a 1975 population of 7.3 million. The resistance forces have grown in size and effectiveness since 1985 and now challenge Vietnam's position in Cambodia. The Cambodian economy, badly damaged by the war and the Khmer Rouge regime, has only slowly begun to recover. Per capita gross national product (GNP) is estimated at less than US$100. The food situation remains precarious, with shortages of rice, meat, vegetables, sugar, flour, and dairy products. Extensive damage to the country's irrigation system, on which rice production depends, has only begun to be repaired. Basic services such as electricity and water are erratic. Although literacy and primary education campaigns have achieved success, health conditions remain poor.

  3. FY1998 survey report on the site surveys on regional situations in improvement in energy consumption (Cambodia and Bangladesh); 1998 nendo energy shohi koritsuka nado chiiki josei genchi chosa hokokusho (Cambodia, Bangladesh) chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In order to promote technical cooperation of Japan with Asia in the energy aspect, site surveys were carried out on improvement in energy consumption efficiency. Electric power supply in Cambodia is made mostly from EDC, whose power generation amount in 1997 was 310 million kwh, while the power sold was 230 million kwh, with 26.1% of the total generation amount, or 80 million kwh being wasted as the loss. Existing power generation facilities are old and small in scale, made by the former Soviet Union making the repair difficult. The loss is enormous because of aging in power distribution facilities, overload operation, and power stealing. The efficiency is extremely poor, whereas improvement in efficiency of the existing facilities is indispensable to cope with the anticipated increase in the demand. In Bangladesh, 90% of the power is generated by using natural gas produced in the eastern part of the country. Many power plants are experiencing decreased efficiency due to the facility aging and insufficient and improper maintenance. The power transmission and distribution departments have had a large loss in power, which has become one of the most important issues. The loss exceeds 30%. The government is trying to achieve efficiency improvement in the electric power business through introducing the principle of competition by establishing new private companies. However, this approach is facing severe objection from the governmental and public labor unions, making the future development opaque. (NEDO)

  4. Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Bangladesh is a country of 143,998 sq.km with 116 million inhabitants, of whom 47-22% for males and females, respectively, are literate. Independence was gained on 1971. The terrain consists of mainly flat, alluvial plain, with hills in the Southeast, with a climate which is semi-tropical with monsoons. Bangla and English are spoken by Bengali, nonBengali Muslims, and other ethnic groups who are of mainly Muslim and Hindu faiths. Life expectancy ranges over 52-54 years. GDP is $23 billion, growing at a rate of 3.6%. Per capita income is $198. The country's natural resources include natural gas and water. Rice, jute, tea, sugar, wheat, jute goods, garments, frozen shrimp, textiles, fertilizer, leather, metal reprocessing, pharmaceutical, and newspring are areas of economic production. Capital goods, foodgrains, petroleum, consumer goods, fertilizer, chemicals, vegetable oils, and textiles are imported, and ready-made garments, jute goods, leather, frozen fish, shrimp, raw jute, and tea are exported. In-depth information is also given on the people and history, government and principal officials, political conditions, the economy, defense, foreign relations with the U.S., and names of principal U.S. officials in the country.

  5. Strongyloides stercoralis is associated with significant morbidity in rural Cambodia, including stunting in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrer, Armelle; Khieu, Virak; Schär, Fabian; Hattendorf, Jan; Marti, Hanspeter; Neumayr, Andreas; Char, Meng Chuor; Hatz, Christoph; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2017-10-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is a soil-transmitted nematode that can replicate within its host, leading to long-lasting and potentially fatal infections. It is ubiquitous and highly prevalent in Cambodia. The extent of morbidity associated with S. stercoralis infection is difficult to assess due to the broad spectrum of symptoms and, thus, remains uncertain. Clinical signs were compared among S. stercoralis infected vs. non-infected participants in a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2012 in eight villages of Northern Cambodia, and before and after treatment with a single oral dose of ivermectin (200μg/kg BW) among participants harboring S. stercoralis. Growth retardation among schoolchildren and adolescents was assessed using height-for-age and thinness using body mass index-for-age. S. stercoralis prevalence was 31.1% among 2,744 participants. Urticaria (55% vs. 47%, OR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.6) and itching (52% vs. 48%, OR: 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0-1.4) were more frequently reported by infected participants. Gastrointestinal, dermatological, and respiratory symptoms were less prevalent in 103 mono-infected participants after treatment. Urticaria (66% vs. 11%, OR: 0.03, 95% CI: 0.01-0.1) and abdominal pain (81 vs. 27%, OR: 0.07, 95% CI: 0.02-0.2) mostly resolved by treatment. S. stercoralis infection was associated with stunting, with 2.5-fold higher odds in case of heavy infection. The morbidity associated with S. stercoralis confirmed the importance of gastrointestinal and dermatological symptoms unrelated to parasite load, and long-term chronic effects when associated with malnutrition. The combination of high prevalence and morbidity calls for the integration of S. stercoralis into ongoing STH control measures in Cambodia.

  6. Cambodia; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2000-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper for Cambodia explores the implications for long-term sustainable growth from cross-country analysis of the sources of growth. Cambodia’s low labor productivity, inadequate and expensive infrastructure, and a cumbersome regulatory environment do not bode well for future sustainable growth. Favorable external conditions, including foreign aid flows and trade agreements, have helped propel growth. As with other transition economies, Cambodia lags in institutional and m...

  7. All projects related to Bangladesh | Page 6 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2007-04-30

    ... English language and North American culture. Start Date: April 30, 2007. End Date: June 26, 2012. Topic: Internet, LANGUAGE BARRIER, ASIAN LANGUAGES, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, INFORMATION SOCIETY. Region: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, Far East Asia, Cambodia, ...

  8. All projects related to cambodia | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A number of studies in recent years have reported disturbingly high levels of violence against women in the workplace. Topic: Gender. Region: Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Indonesia. Program: Governance and Justice. Total Funding: CA$ 675,900.00. Understanding digital access and use in the Global South. Project.

  9. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine failure associated with a triple mutant including kelch13 C580Y in Cambodia: an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Michele D; Lin, Jessica T; Manning, Jessica E; Vanachayangkul, Pattaraporn; Somethy, Sok; Bun, Rathvicheth; Se, Youry; Chann, Soklyda; Ittiverakul, Mali; Sia-ngam, Piyaporn; Kuntawunginn, Worachet; Arsanok, Montri; Buathong, Nillawan; Chaorattanakawee, Suwanna; Gosi, Panita; Ta-aksorn, Winita; Chanarat, Nitima; Sundrakes, Siratchana; Kong, Nareth; Heng, Thay Kheang; Nou, Samon; Teja-isavadharm, Paktiya; Pichyangkul, Sathit; Phann, Sut Thang; Balasubramanian, Sujata; Juliano, Jonathan J; Meshnick, Steven R; Chour, Char Meng; Prom, Satharath; Lanteri, Charlotte A; Lon, Chanthap; Saunders, David L

    2015-06-01

    Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine has been adopted as first-line artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) for multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Cambodia because of few remaining alternatives. We aimed to assess the efficacy of standard 3 day dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine treatment of uncomplicated P falciparum malaria, with and without the addition of primaquine, focusing on the factors involved in drug resistance. In this observational cohort study, we assessed 107 adults aged 18-65 years presenting to Anlong Veng District Hospital, Oddar Meanchey Province, Cambodia, with uncomplicated P falciparum or mixed P falciparum/Plasmodium vivax infection of between 1000 and 200,000 parasites per μL of blood, and participating in a randomised clinical trial in which all had received dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for 3 days, after which they had been randomly allocated to receive either primaquine or no primaquine. The trial was halted early due to poor dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine efficacy, and we assessed day 42 PCR-corrected therapeutic efficacy (proportion of patients with recurrence at 42 days) and evidence of drug resistance from the initial cohort. We did analyses on both the intention to treat (ITT), modified ITT (withdrawals, losses to follow-up, and those with secondary outcomes [eg, new non-recrudescent malaria infection] were censored on the last day of follow-up), and per-protocol populations of the original trial. The original trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01280162. Between Dec 10, 2012, and Feb 18, 2014, we had enrolled 107 patients in the original trial. Enrolment was voluntarily halted on Feb 16, 2014, before reaching planned enrolment (n=150) because of poor efficacy. We had randomly allocated 50 patients to primaquine and 51 patients to no primaquine groups. PCR-adjusted Kaplan-Meier risk of P falciparum 42 day recrudescence was 54% (95% CI 45-63) in the modified ITT analysis population. We found two kelch13

  10. Angkor, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This is an image of the area around the city of Angkor, Cambodia. The city houses an ancient complex of more than 60 temples dating back to the 9th century. The principal complex, Angkor Wat, is the bright square just left of the center of the image. It is surrounded by a reservoir that appears in this image as a thick black line. The larger bright square above Angkor Wat is another temple complex called Angkor Thom. Archeologists studying this image believe the blue-purple area slightly north of Angkor Thom may be previously undiscovered structures. In the lower right is a bright rectangle surrounded by a dark reservoir, which houses the temple complex Chau Srei Vibol. In its heyday, Angkor had a population of 1 million residents and was the spiritual center for the Khmer people until it was abandoned in the 15th century. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on the 15th orbit of the space shuttle Endeavour on September 30, 1994. The image shows an area approximately 55 kilometers by 85 kilometers (34 miles by 53 miles) that is centered at 13.43 degrees north latitude and 103.9 degrees east longitude. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). The body of water in the south-southwest corner is Tonle Sap, Cambodia's great central lake. The urban area at the lower left of the image is the present-day town of Siem Reap. The adjoining lines are both modern and ancient roads and the remains of Angkor's vast canal system that was used for both irrigation and transportation. The large black rectangles are ancient reservoirs. Today the Angkor complex is hidden beneath a dense rainforest canopy, making it difficult for researchers on the ground to study

  11. Country watch: Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, J

    1998-01-01

    Based on the results of a study on sexuality among young people in Cambodia, a series of interactive teaching video packages that model real-life situations are being developed by the UN International Children's Emergency Fund. It is noted that the videos can be used to facilitate group discussions on issues such as problem identification, problem solving, assessment of personal risk for HIV infection, and how to reduce HIV infection risks in situations similar to those in the videos. Each video package tells the story of problem situations and model behavior options, and provides a facilitator guide that includes suggested discussion questions. These videos include ¿Snooker Game¿, ¿At the Brothel¿, ¿The Quiet Place¿, ¿The Vulnerable Housewife¿, and ¿The Drinking Scene¿. Meanwhile, the field-tested interactive teaching videos have been indicated as extremely popular among Cambodian young people, teachers, teacher trainers, school administrators, community leaders, and nongovernmental organization community workers. However, important concerns have also been raised about the risks of focusing on real-life social norms and attitudes in Cambodia.

  12. Consumer Loans in Cambodia: Implications on Banking Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Channarith

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the fast development of consumer loans including housing loans in Cambodia to check whether or not such a development posts any stability risk to banking system in Cambodia. Using stress-testing method, the paper finds that current level of consumer loans provided by banks does yet creates a big threat to the banking stability in Cambodia. Rather, the surge reflects consequences of positive development in the banking system and economy as a whole, including the rise of mid...

  13. IDRC in Cambodia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Post-war Cambodia faced many chal- lenges — among them, isolation. In 1998 an IDRC grant led to the establishment of Cambodia's first Internet service ... the Ministry of Education, Youth, and. Sports, and the National Information. Communications Technology Develop- ment Authority are participating. Community- ...

  14. Bangladesh : tous les projets | Page 4 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: Internet, LANGUAGE BARRIER, ASIAN LANGUAGES, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, INFORMATION SOCIETY. Région: Afghanistan, Asia, South and Central Asia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, Far East Asia, Cambodia, Laos, Sri Lanka, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan. Programme: Économies en ...

  15. Rabies situation in Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowath Ly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rabies, a fatal but preventable zoonosis, is a major public health problem in developing countries. In Cambodia the disease burden is largely underestimated because patients with encephalitis following dog bites are rarely hospitalized and die at home. Since 1998 Institut Pasteur in Cambodia (IPC, Phnom Penh has been the only source of free post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP and post-mortem diagnosis. METHODS: The 1998-2007 data compiled by IPC was analyzed to describe all treated patients for PEP, results of human testing and confirmed rabies cases, and results of animal testing. From dog bites' characteristics, we defined a suspected rabid dog bite injury (SRDBI in humans as a bite that was unprovoked, from a dog that died spontaneously, or from a dog that was reported sick. We applied a deterministic probability model to estimate 2007 rabies human mortality nationwide from the estimated incidence of rabid dog bites, the body distribution of bite wounds, and the probability of PEP access. RESULTS: During 1998-2007, 124,749 patients received PEP at IPC (average 12,470; range 8,907-14,475, and 63 fatal human cases presenting with encephalitis following a dog bite were reported, in which 73% were confirmed positive for rabies by direct immunofluorescence assay or by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. During 1998-2007, IPC tested 1,255 animal brain samples; 1,214 (97% were from dogs including 610 (49% positive samples. In 2007, 14,475 patients received PEP (100 PEP/100,000 people in Cambodia including 95% who resided in Phnom Penh (615 PEP/100,000 or five neighboring provinces. The predictive model estimated 810 human rabies deaths would occur in 2007 (95%confidence interval [CI] 394-1,607, an incidence of 5.8/100,000 (95% CI 2.8-11.5. CONCLUSIONS: Access to PEP is only sufficient for Phnom Penh residents. In 2007, the estimated rabies related mortality exceeded that of malaria and that of dengue. A national rabies control

  16. Fatigue in Cambodia veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, M; Soetekouw, P M; Van Der Meer, J W; Bleijenberg, G

    2000-05-01

    In 1992 and 1993, Dutch military personnel were deployed in the peace operation UNTAC in Cambodia. Since returning, Cambodia veterans have reported health complaints which they perceive to be related to their service. Their symptoms strikingly resemble health problems reported by Gulf War veterans. Four years post-return, a cross-sectional survey on health symptoms in Cambodia veterans was initiated. Questionnaires were sent to all Cambodia veterans and four comparison groups. Forgetfulness, difficulty concentrating and fatigue were the symptoms most commonly endorsed. An operational case definition was constructed using a validated fatigue severity questionnaire. Cases were not uniquely found in Cambodia veterans (17%). In Rwanda and Bosnia veterans, respectively, 28% and 11% also met our case definition. Fatigue severity level was predicted by pre-mission, during-mission and post-mission variables, of which retrospective recollection of side-effects of vaccines and causal attributions also have been shown to be relevant in studies on Gulf-related illness.

  17. Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siv, Sovannaroth; Roca-Feltrer, Arantxa; Vinjamuri, Seshu Babu; Bouth, Denis Mey; Lek, Dysoley; Rashid, Mohammad Abdur; By, Ngau Peng; Popovici, Jean; Huy, Rekol; Menard, Didier

    2016-12-28

    The Cambodian National Strategic Plan for Elimination of Malaria aims to move step by step toward elimination of malaria across Cambodia with an initial focus on Plasmodium falciparum malaria before achieving elimination of all forms of malaria, including Plasmodium vivax in 2025. The emergence of artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum in western Cambodia over the last decade has drawn global attention to support the ultimate goal of P. falciparum elimination, whereas the control of P. vivax lags much behind, making the 2025 target gradually less achievable unless greater attention is given to P. vivax elimination in the country. The following review presents in detail the past and current situation regarding P. vivax malaria, activities of the National Malaria Control Program, and interventional measures applied. Constraints and obstacles that can jeopardize our efforts to eliminate this parasite species are discussed. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  18. Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siv, Sovannaroth; Roca-Feltrer, Arantxa; Vinjamuri, Seshu Babu; Bouth, Denis Mey; Lek, Dysoley; Rashid, Mohammad Abdur; By, Ngau Peng; Popovici, Jean; Huy, Rekol; Menard, Didier

    2016-01-01

    The Cambodian National Strategic Plan for Elimination of Malaria aims to move step by step toward elimination of malaria across Cambodia with an initial focus on Plasmodium falciparum malaria before achieving elimination of all forms of malaria, including Plasmodium vivax in 2025. The emergence of artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum in western Cambodia over the last decade has drawn global attention to support the ultimate goal of P. falciparum elimination, whereas the control of P. vivax lags much behind, making the 2025 target gradually less achievable unless greater attention is given to P. vivax elimination in the country. The following review presents in detail the past and current situation regarding P. vivax malaria, activities of the National Malaria Control Program, and interventional measures applied. Constraints and obstacles that can jeopardize our efforts to eliminate this parasite species are discussed. PMID:27708187

  19. Health Care Costs Attributable to Tobacco in Cambodia | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    There is strong evidence from other countries that smoking increases the TB infection rate and reduces tuberculosis survival rates. Cambodia has high TB and smoking rates, so the cost of tobacco use will also include the cost of excess tuberculosis-related deaths. Cambodia's health information systems are weak and ...

  20. A Multimedia Approach to ODL for Agricultural Training in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunfeld, Helena; Ng, Maria Lee Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Open distance learning (ODL) has long been an important option for formal and non-formal education (NFE) in most developed and developing countries, but less so in post-conflict countries, including Cambodia. However, in Cambodia there is now greater awareness that ODL can complement traditional face-to-face educational approaches, particularly as…

  1. Health care clinics in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollschlaeger, K

    1995-04-01

    Under the Pol Pot Khmer Rouge regime, most physicians with clinical experience were either killed or fled the country. The few practitioners who managed to survive were forced to hide their knowledge; much of that knowledge and experience is now lost. As part of a general process of national rehabilitation, Cambodia has trained since the 1980s hundreds of physicians and physician assistants. There were 700 physicians, 1300 physician assistants, and 4000 nurses in the country by 1992. Problems do, however, remain with medical education in Cambodia. In particular, the medical texts and lectures are in French, a language which very few of the younger generation speak; instructional texts are designed to meet the needs of developing nations, not a rehabilitating one like Cambodia; emphasis is upon curative health care, hospitals, and vertical programs instead of primary and preventive health care; Cambodian physicians are used to a system based upon the division of patients by ability to pay instead of by age, disease, or need; corruption has grown as the cost of living has outstripped the level of official salaries; and there is neither professional contact, feedback, nor program evaluation within health care programs. The authors is a resident in obstetrics and gynecology at the University of Chicago who worked at two clinics during a stay in Phnom Penh. She recommends that instead of simply training more doctors, these training-related problems should be addressed, including a revision of the curriculum to include both primary health care medicine and psychiatry. Moreover, people in Cambodia need to be taught the importance of preventive health care, which should then reduce the number of visits to physicians. This process will be accomplished more effectively with the cooperation of physicians, the government, nongovernmental organizations, and international organizations associated with health care.

  2. Characterization of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Biotype Variant Clinical Isolates from Bangladesh and Haiti, Including a Molecular Genetic Analysis of Virulence Genes ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Mike S.; Megli, Christina J.; Kovacikova, Gabriela; Qadri, Firdausi; Taylor, Ronald K.

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, the causative agent of the diarrheal disease cholera, is divided into two biotypes: classical and El Tor. Both biotypes produce the major virulence factors toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) and cholera toxin (CT). Although possessing genotypic and phenotypic differences, El Tor biotype strains displaying classical biotype traits have been reported and subsequently were dubbed El Tor variants. Of particular interest are reports of El Tor variants that produce various levels of CT, including levels typical of classical biotype strains. Here, we report the characterization of 10 clinical isolates from the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, and a representative strain from the 2010 Haiti cholera outbreak. We observed that all 11 strains produced increased CT (2- to 10-fold) compared to that of wild-type El Tor strains under in vitro inducing conditions, but they possessed various TcpA and ToxT expression profiles. Particularly, El Tor variant MQ1795, which produced the highest level of CT and very high levels of TcpA and ToxT, demonstrated hypervirulence compared to the virulence of El Tor wild-type strains in the infant mouse cholera model. Additional genotypic and phenotypic tests were conducted to characterize the variants, including an assessment of biotype-distinguishing characteristics. Notably, the sequencing of ctxB in some El Tor variants revealed two copies of classical ctxB, one per chromosome, contrary to previous reports that located ctxAB only on the large chromosome of El Tor biotype strains. PMID:21880975

  3. Digital Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Masudul Alam Choudhury

    2013-01-01

    The present fever to launch an extensive digitalization program is sweeping the Bangladesh political, business, and elitist minds. In the face of an overarching outlook of sustainable development the Bangladesh digitalization program runs into some grave questions. The paper points out that ethics as a strongly endogenous force in development is indispensable to keep in view the simultaneity of attaining growth and social justice. These targets are variously manifested in different sectors an...

  4. Design of a rural water provision system to decrease arsenic exposure in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu, Johanna [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-01-09

    Researchers at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have invented ARUBA (Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash) a material that effectively and affordably removes high concentrations of arsenic from contaminated groundwater. The technology is cost-effective because the substrate-bottom ash from coal fired power plants-is a waste material readily available in South Asia. During fieldwork in four sub-districts of Bangladesh, ARUBA reduced groundwater arsenic concentrations as high as 680 ppb to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb. Key results from three trips in Bangladesh and one trip to Cambodia include (1) ARUBA removes more than half of the arsenic from contaminated water within the first five minutes of contact, and continues removing arsenic for 2-3 days; (2) ARUBA's arsenic removal efficiency can be improved through fractionated dosing (adding a given amount of ARUBA in fractions versus all at once); (3) allowing water to first stand for two to three days followed by treatment with ARUBA produced final arsenic concentrations ten times lower than treating water directly out of the well; and (4) the amount of arsenic removed per gram of ARUBA is linearly related to the initial arsenic concentration of the water. Through analysis of existing studies, observations, and informal interviews in Bangladesh, eight design strategies have been developed and used in the design of a low-cost, community-scale water treatment system that uses ARUBA to remove arsenic from drinking water. We have constructed, tested, and analyzed a scale version of the system. Experiments have shown that the system is capable of reducing high levels of arsenic (nearly 600 ppb) to below 50 ppb, while remaining affordable to people living on less than $2 per day. The system could be sustainably implemented as a public-private partnership in rural Bangladesh.

  5. Global update: Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Between 1991 and 1993 in Cambodia, the number of blood donors who tested seropositive for HIV multiplied by 10. During March-December 1993, 30 of 4000 (0.75%) blood donors were HIV positive. These same 30 were among 91 HIV-positive cases reported to the World Health Organization [WHO] office in Phnom Penh in the last 9 months of 1992. As Cambodia attempts to recover from many years of political and social upheaval, the recent repatriation of 370,000 Khmer refugees from Thailand intensifies the increasing AIDS threat. Thailand already has a relatively high HIV prevalence. The number of tourists and visiting business professionals is increasing, and 22,000 people from the UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia have been assigned to positions countrywide. In 1991, WHO officials designed a 1-year short-term AIDS prevention program aimed at people practicing high-risk behavior and the health, education, and media sectors. It targeted mainly Phnom Penh residents, WHO and the UN Development Programme (UNDP) are helping the National AIDS Committee in designing a more comprehensive national plan. UNDP plans to give US$ 1 million to AIDS prevention efforts in Cambodia. 20-30% of people in Cambodia are not familiar with condoms. Government AIDS prevention efforts are intended for the general public, but they also are going to target high-risk areas, especially the provinces bordering Thailand and the pot of Kompong Som. The government is working on ways to work with the many health-centered nongovernmental organizations in Cambodia. Even though it is inundated with many other problems, the government recognizes the need to combat AIDS.

  6. Cambodia Development Research Forum II | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cambodia's research community is still rebuilding from decades of turmoil that included civil war and a period of ethnic and intellectual cleansing under the Khmer Rouge. Its development research community remains dispersed and unconnected, though there are pockets of strong capacity. IDRC was one of the first ...

  7. Interim Feed The Future Population Based Assessment of Cambodia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This is the interim population based survey of Feed the Future in Cambodia for 2015. The data is split into survey modules. Modules A through C includes location...

  8. [The HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Cambodia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soda, K; Morio, S; Tajima, K; Kitamura, K; Toba, M; Ito, A; Kihara, M; Ichikawa, S; Imai, M; Mizushima, S; Ohshige, K

    1997-05-01

    In December 1995 and March 1996, we visited institutes which were conducting epidemiological studied of HIV/AIDS in Cambodia, and obtained data for further collaborative study between Japan and Cambodia. Data included information on AIDS patients and HIV infected persons, and behavioral epidemiology of CSWs (Commercial Sex Workers). The cumulative reported number of AIDS patients and HIV infected persons in Cambodia was 86 and 2,536 cases respectively in 1995. The cause of infection was mostly heterosexual contact with very few cases from injecting drug use (IDU) and other causes. The seroprevalence rate of HIV antibody among donated blood rapidly increased from 0.08% in 1991 to 4.47% in 1995, and those among CSWs and pregnant women were 37.9% and 2.6%, respectively, in 1995. The average rate of condom use among CSWs was 66%, but the rate of usual usage was only 14%. These results indicate that the HIV/AIDS epidemic had spread rapidly through CSWs, that it had been spread among peoples in communities, and that usage of condoms among CSWs was insufficient in Cambodia. Without strong countermeasures against HIV/AIDS in this country, HIV/AIDS epidemic may spread significantly to not only peoples in this country but also those in neighbouring countries in the future.

  9. Cambodia and the "Washington Consensus"

    OpenAIRE

    Ear, Sophal

    1997-01-01

    Cambodia's economic progress from 1993 to the end of 1995, though limited and short-lived, was encouraging. By employing an analytical framework adapted from John Williamson's discussion of the "Washington Consensus," I examine the aspects of Cambodia's domestic economic reform policies during the 1993-95 period. I also consider the country's politico-economic position at that time relative to the ASEAN member nations. It is argued that the Consensus reforms, combined with Cambodia's then-p...

  10. PC Penetration in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Madhurjya Kumar Dutta; Sokros Chann; Tyler Marcus; Sarong Vit-Kory; Sopiseth Lim

    2009-01-01

    Information, Communications and Technologies (ICTs) play a crucial role in improving the quality of lives by facilitating the promotion of economic, social and human development. ICTs enable trade in other sectors by enhancing market access and broadening the customer base, facilitating customs, transport and logistics. Computer and internet usage is generally recognized for its significant contribution to a broad variety of activities and economic growth. However, Cambodia is lacking behind ...

  11. Freshwater bryozoa of Tonle Sap, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Masato; Mawatari, Shunsuke F

    2007-06-01

    We identified a collection of freshwater bryozoans from Tonle Sap (meaning Tonle Lake), Cambodia, a body of water fed by the Mekong River and characterized by extreme fluctuations in water level between the wet and dry seasons. The collection also included specimens from the moat of Angkor Wat, located at the north end of the lake. We found four phylactolaemate species (Plumatella bombayensis, Plumatella casmiana, Plumatella vorstmani, Hyalinella lendenfeldi) and one ctenostome species (Hislopia cambodgiensis) from the lake, and only a single, additional phylactolaemate species (Plumatella javanica) from the moat. We provide brief descriptions of these species, photographs of colonies for some, and photomicrographs by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of statoblasts. None of the species encountered in this study is endemic to Cambodia, and the wide distributions of the species are possibly related to the dispersability of floatoblasts by birds. We briefly discuss some of the taxonomic problems surrounding Hislopia cambodgiensis.

  12. Motivating women. Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The Integrated Family Development Program (IFDP) in Bangladesh is expanding from the original project areas in Panchdona Union and Dhalian Union into four neighboring unions under the initiative of the Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB). The JOICFP-executed project entered its second cycle this year as part of the UNFPA-supported regional Capacity Building for Sustainable Community-based Reproductive Health/Family Planning (FP) Project Emphasizing Quality of Care. The community-based project has won wide acceptance from people at the grass roots who have helped fuel its expansion into other villages. In particular, villagers have welcomed the comprehensive approach of the project which integrates a range of components such as reproductive health including FP/maternal and child health (MCH), income-generating activities, skills and literacy education for women and children and primary health care including parasite control. The success of the project also convinced the Japanese Embassy in Bangladesh to extend funding under the Japanese government's Grant Assistance for Grass Roots Cooperation Projects. With the funds, FPAB will establish a Women's Multipurpose Training Center in Panchdona Union. The sum of US$68,157 was officially handed over to FPAB on March 29 by Japanese Ambassador Yoshikazu Kaneko. The center, which is to open within this year, will contribute to improving reproductive health and promoting the empowerment of women. Once completed, it will be used for such activities as training in health care, literacy and skills for income generation for women's empowerment. full text

  13. Cambodia: Buildings for People?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waibel, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Although Cambodia has a long tradition of vernacular architecture where initial building practices took climate conditions into account, currently there is only limited knowledge and awareness about the subject of sustainable buildings among stakeholders of the real estate sector. The Cambodian city of Phnom Penh is witnessing a construction boom and the lack of attention given to sustainability issues threatens dire consequences in the not so distant future. This research note discusses various approaches and measures to promote sustainable buildings in Cambodia. It will be concluded that successful policies towards increasing sustainability need to be less technocratic, less top-down, more inclusive thereby taking into account the behavioural dimension and aspirations of the urban citizens. To achieve a viable implementation with a sustained impact a trans-disciplinary and holistic approach incorporating innovative methods and expertise from various fields should be pursued. Thereby, the vision of “buildings for people” may serve as impetus to enhance the quality of life of Cambodia’s urban citizens.

  14. in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juwel Rana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background . About 8,900 people are living with HIV/AIDS, and 1,000 AIDS-related deaths had been reported in Bangladesh by the end of 2014. Objectives . The study investigates the social determinants of awareness and behavior regarding STDs and HIV/AIDS among ever married women in Bangladesh. Material and methods. This cross-sectional research extracted data concerning 17,828 ever married women from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS in 2014. The chi-square (χ2 and multinomial logistic regression model were used to identify the factors associated with knowledge, awareness and behavior concerning STDs and HIV/AIDS. Results . Overall, 28.6% of examined ever married women have never heard of STDs or HIV/AIDS nor any of their prevention methods. Also, only 15.6% of reported women were the decision makers regarding the use of contraception during sexual intercourse, and 91.3% of women had the capacity to refuse sexual contact with their STD-infected husband/partner. Women who belong to households classified as lower class (OR = 0.525, 95% CI = 0.461–0.598 or middle class (OR = 0.643, 95% CI = 0.564–0.733 had less comprehensive knowledge and awareness of STDs and HIV/AIDS than those categorized as upper class. Women at a level of education below secondary (OR = 0.200, 95% CI = 0.179–0.223 also had less comprehensive knowledge and awareness than highly educated women. Moreover, women living in an urban residence (OR = 1.141, 95% CI = 1.003–1.297 were more likely to make the decision of using contraception and (OR = 1.546, 95% CI = 1.351–1.770 more likely to refuse sexual contact with an STD-infected husband/partner than their rural counterparts. Formally unemployed women (OR = 0.894, 95% CI = 0.793–1.010 were less likely to refuse sexual intercourse with an STD-infected husband than employed women. Conclusions . Social determinants such as education, wealth and media exposure determine the level of knowledge and awareness

  15. Strengthening health professions regulation in Cambodia: a rapid assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, David; Duke, Jan; Wuliji, Tana; Smith, Alyson; Phuong, Keat; San, Un

    2016-03-10

    This paper describes a rapid assessment of Cambodia's current system for regulating its health professions. The assessment forms part of a co-design process to set strategic priorities for strengthening health profession regulation to improve the quality and safety of health services. A health system approach for strengthening health professions' regulation is underway and aims to support the Government of Cambodia's plans for scaling up its health workforce, improving health services' safety and quality, and meeting its Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) obligations to facilitate trade in health care services. The assessment used a mixed methods approach including: A desktop review of key laws, plans, reports and other documents relating to the regulation of the health professions in Cambodia (medicine, dentistry, midwifery, nursing and pharmacy); Key informant interviews with stakeholders in Cambodia (The term "stakeholders" refers to government officials, people working on health professional regulation, people working for the various health worker training institutions and health workers at the national and provincial level); Surveys and questionnaires to assess Cambodian stakeholder knowledge of regulation; Self-assessments by members of the five Cambodian regulatory councils regarding key capacities and activities of high-performing regulatory bodies; and A rapid literature review to identify: The key functions of health professional regulation; The key issues affecting the Cambodian health sector (including relevant developments in the wider ASEAN region); and "Smart" health profession regulation practices of possible relevance to Cambodia. We found that the current regulatory system only partially meets Cambodia's needs. A number of key regulatory functions are being performed, but overall, the current system was not designed with Cambodia's specific needs in mind. The existing system is also overly complex, with considerable duplication and

  16. Malaria in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, M B; Meek, S R

    1992-09-01

    There are around half a million cases of malaria with 5-10,000 deaths per year in Cambodia. Incidence rates vary in different parts of the country. Malaria control is hampered by multiple drug resistance of Plasmodium falciparum, inaccessibility to the major vector, poor security in most malarious areas, and lack of resources. The control strategy emphasises improvement of clinical management and provision of prompt and accurate diagnosis in order to reduce morbidity and to prevent mortality. In addition health information and drug distribution systems are being improved. The use of pyrethroid-treated mosquito nets and health education are being promoted. Particular attention is given to returning refugees as they settle into the country.

  17. Cambodia: From Dependency to Sovereignty - Emerging National Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Mcnamara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the millennium leading up to its days of glory and regional leadership under the iconic Angkor empire, and even in the centuries of dependence since, Cambodia has often benefited significantly from the influence of its patrons, starting with traders from India who sailed up the Mekong at the beginning of a magnificent water transport system including an inland sea. Most recently such benefits have been from global and multilateral sources. Equally, due to its pivotal strategic location at the centre of the South-East corner of Asia, Cambodia has also suffered, at times enormously, from the competing influences of a plethora of well-intentioned but radically different influences: religious, cultural, linguistic, imperial, political, ideological and educational. This article will review the educational system of Cambodia and the issues that come with achieving political and now psychological freedom from dependence on foreign dominance and tutelage.

  18. Periodontal status of rural inhabitants in Prek Russey, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasena, Najith; Ikeda, Noriaki; Win, Kyu Kyu Swe; Yamaguchi, Yoshiko; Takehara, Tadamichi; Miyazaki, Hideo

    2002-01-01

    There is a paucity of information pertaining to oral disease patterns including periodontal disease in Cambodia, which is just emerging from a 20-year ruin. A house-to-house survey was conducted to assess the periodontal status of 1948 subjects aged 15-74 years in a rural commune in Cambodia using Community Periodontal Index (CPI) and measuring Attachment Loss (LA). The periodontal status of Cambodians increased with age as indicated by both CPI and LA. Calculus was the most common finding among Cambodians pointing to overall poor oral hygiene levels. Notwithstanding the poor oral hygiene, however, the severe periodontitis as denoted by > or = 6mm periodontal pockets was rare even in the elderly while edentulousness was not frequently observed until 65 years. Preventive programmes targeting periodontal disease in Cambodia should focus on oral health education and simple oral hygiene instructions while the ubiquitous calculus could be dealt with oral prophylaxis.

  19. Fires in Thailand and Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Many fires (red pixels) were seen burning across Thailand and Southern Cambodia on January 8, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. Almost the entire countries of Thailand (center) and Cambodia (lower right) were remarkably cloud-free in this true-color scene. Thailand is bordered by the countries of Myanmar to the west, Laos to the north and east, and Cambodia to the southeast. Thailand's capital city of Bangkok sits on its southern shore, where the Chao Phraya River flows into the large bay in the northern Gulf of Thailand. Moving eastward from Bangkok, one can see the Tonle Sap-Cambodia's largest inland body of water. Waters from the Tonle Sap flow southeastward and converge with the mighty Mekong River, just east of Phnom Penh, Cambodia's capital. The Mekong River defines much of the border between Thailand and Laos. The captal of Laos-Viangchan-is situated just across the Mekong from Thailand's northern border. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  20. Burden of stroke in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Keat Wei; Gan, Siew Hua

    2013-08-01

    In Cambodia, stroke is not ranked among the top 10 leading causes of death, but infectious disease are among the top three leading causes of death. This finding could be attributed to a lack of awareness among Cambodians of the signs and symptoms of stroke or to poor reporting, incomplete data, lack of neurologists and neurosurgeons, or low accessibility to the hospitals. The only study of stroke in Cambodia is the Prevalence of Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factors in Cambodia survey, which identified several stroke-related risk factors in the population. Tobacco chewing or smoking is the main risk factor for stroke in Cambodia. Traditional therapies, such as oyt pleung (moxibustion) and jup (cupping), are widely practiced for stroke rehabilitation. In Cambodia, there are few neurologists and few important equipment, such as magnetic resonance imaging machines and computed tomography scanners. The Cambodian government should cooperate with the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund to attract foreign expertise and technologies to treat stroke patients. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2012 World Stroke Organization.

  1. Oncology in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eav, S; Schraub, S; Dufour, P; Taisant, D; Ra, C; Bunda, P

    2012-01-01

    Cambodia, a country of 14 million inhabitants, was devastated during the Khmer Rouge period and thereafter. The resources of treatment are rare: only one radiotherapy department, renovated in 2003, with an old cobalt machine; few surgeons trained to operate on cancer patients; no hematology; no facilities to use intensive chemotherapy; no nuclear medicine department and no palliative care unit. Cervical cancer incidence is one of the highest in the world, while in men liver cancer ranks first (20% of all male cancers). Cancers are seen at stage 3 or 4 for 70% of patients. There is no prevention program - only a vaccination program against hepatitis B for newborns - and no screening program for cervical cancer or breast cancer. In 2010, oncology, recognized as a full specialty, was created to train the future oncologists on site at the University of Phnom Penh. A new National Cancer Center will be built in 2013 with modern facilities for radiotherapy, medical oncology, hematology and nuclear medicine. Cooperation with foreign countries, especially France, and international organizations has been established and is ongoing. Progress is occurring slowly due to the shortage of money for Cambodian institutions and the lay public. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Focus on women in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Dr. Mam Bunheng, Undersecretary of State for Health, Cambodia, provided an overview of the health situation of women and children in Cambodia during a visit to JOICFP on December 8. He also expressed his country's desire to seek collaboration with JOICFP in the future. Providing background on the maternal and child health (MCH) system in Cambodia, Mam explained that the birth-spacing program is an integral part of the MCH activities and is primarily aimed at ensuring the health of women. Cambodia, which has a population of about 10 million people, presently has a high maternal mortality rate of 500/100,000 deliveries. Noting that the country also has a high total fertility rate of about 5.1, Mam emphasized that the government's birth spacing program is not aimed at controlling the population, but rather to ensure balanced development and population growth with the ultimate goal of guaranteeing the health of women. Cambodia also has a high infant mortality rate of 113/1000 live births. Mam explained that lack of access to services, supplies, and trained personnel hamper efforts to promote birth spacing. To overcome these obstacles, Cambodia needs support to develop human resources and to ensure supplies of basic medical equipment and essential drugs. Specifically, Mam stressed the need to train and retrain health staff to ensure adequate staffing at the community level. At present, the total number is insufficient, he said. While in Japan, Mam visited many health facilities as part of JICA's technical cooperation program and was impressed most with the quality services and facilities of the public health center. full text

  3. THE LIFESPAN OF NURSING EDUCATION IN CAMBODIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virya Koy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explain the lifespan of nursing education in Cambodia, which has been up and down for over 66 years. The journey of Cambodian nursing education is fulfilled by many challenges faced by nursing leaders in the country, including the challenges caused by the decades of civil war devastated Cambodian society. It takes high responsibility and needs more powers, skills, and commitments to produce competent professional nurses to fulfill the tasks in the clinical settings through nursing education, and it is characterized by the progress in responding societal needs of the society.

  4. Surveillance for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Battambang, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbain, Joel T; Viscount, Helen B

    2002-10-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and humanitarian missions are increasing worldwide. The prevalence of MRSA in the populations served may be unknown. A BRAVA (Blast Resuscitlation and Victim Assistance) mission was conducted at Battambang, Cambodia that included microbiology support. No MRSA was detected in our patients despite the reported increase in MRSA in Asia. Continued investigation is warranted for future missions.

  5. All projects related to cambodia | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2007-11-30

    Women in Cambodia are subject to widespread discrimination, including in access to education, employment and politics. Start Date: November 30, 2007. End Date: August 16, 2010. Topic: WOMEN'S ... Program: Food, Environment, and Health. Total Funding: CA$ 874,349.00. Avian Influenza Risk : Characterization and ...

  6. Women and the Justice System in Cambodia | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Women in Cambodia are subject to widespread discrimination, including in access to education, employment and politics. Although laws have been promulgated to protect the rights of women, enforcement remains a concern. This project hypothesizes that weak governance and lack of transparency in the legal system ...

  7. Developing a sustainable hip service in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Jacquelyn A; Aird, James J; Gollogly, James G; Ngiep, Ou C; Gollogly, Sohrab

    2014-01-01

    Initial report on establishment of a hip service in Phnom Penh, Cambodia at Children's Surgical Centre. We describe indications for total hip replacement (THR) and initial results. A database was established to collect data and track patients for follow up. Initial data collected included; diagnosis, implant used, post-operative complications. As the service developed, pre- and postoperative Harris hip scores were included. High rate of avascular necrosis (AVN) as the initial diagnosis. Five years post initiation of the hip service, 95 patients have received 116 THRs; including 10 revisions, 12 bilateral procedures. Complications/failures requiring revision involved four prosthetic femoral neck fractures, two aseptic acetabular component, two late infections, one instability. One failure, a periprosthetic acetabular fracture, required removal of all prosthetics. Complications not requiring revision, included three post-op foot drops, three superficial wound infections, one Vancouver B1 periprosthetic femur fracture. Average age was 41. Overall implant survival is 85% at three years. AVN was the most common indication for THR: many patients had a history of hip trauma, and/or prolonged steroids from traditional healers for pain. Problems with specific implants were addressed by the company. A different stem is now routinely used, no further fractures have been reported. Acetabular loosening, thought to be due to poor technique, has been addressed by focused training. Infection rate is monitored, and microbiology resources are improving. Developing an affordable hip arthroplasty service in a country like Cambodia is challenging. Developing a local registry has helped to identify complications and modify techniques.

  8. Targeted Killings in Bangladesh: Diversity at Stake

    OpenAIRE

    Syed, Jawad

    2016-01-01

    Since 2013, Bangladesh has repeatedly been in headline news across the world due to systematic and incessant targeted killings. In the mainstream media, both in South Asia and the West, the focus has been generally on high profile murders of secular and progressive bloggers. This includes the recent worldwide broad coverage on the tragic murder of Xulhaz Mannan, editor of Bangladesh's first LGBT rights magazine. However, not many know that these killings are only one part of the story. Secula...

  9. Malaria Prevalence in Endemic Districts of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, Ubydul; Ahmed, Syed Masud; Hossain, Shahed; Huda, Mamun; Hossain, Awlad; Alam, Mohammad Shafiul; Mondal, Dinesh; Khan, Wasif Ali; Khalequzzaman, Mohammod; Haque, Rashidul

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Following the 1971 ban of DDT in Bangladesh, malaria cases have increased steadily. Malaria persists as a major health problem in the thirteen south-eastern and north-eastern districts of Bangladesh. At present the national malaria control program, largely supported by the Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM), provides interventions including advocacy at community level, Insecticide Treated Net (ITN) distribution, introduction of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT) and ...

  10. Mental health care in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasundaram, D J; van de Put, W A

    1999-01-01

    An effort is being made in Cambodia to involve grass-roots personnel in the integration of the care of the mentally ill into a broad framework of health services. This undertaking is examined with particular reference to the work of the Transcultural Psychosocial Organization.

  11. The demographic situation in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, J W

    1991-12-01

    The demographic situation in Cambodia is described. Various estimates made by official bodies are used, since very little statistical data exists for the country. Estimates are provided for age and sex distribution, spatial distribution, the disabled population, widowed and separated women, numbers of displaced persons by province, and number of returnees expected from camps in neighboring Thailand.

  12. Myths about AIDS in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nariddh, M C

    1994-08-01

    HIV has been reported in the capital city of Cambodia, Phnom Penh, as well as in the northwestern provinces of Banteay Meanchey, Battambang, Pursat, and Kompong Chhnang. Unofficial reports indicate the presence of HIV in three northeastern provinces. According to World Health Organization data, 382 people were infected with HIV in Cambodia as of March 1994, but the national AIDS program estimates that 2000-4000 Cambodians may be HIV-seropositive. Small surveys in 1992 identified HIV infection rates to be 4.5% among patients of sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics and 9.2% among prostitutes. A seroprevalence rate of 4.3% was found in 1993 among clients of STD clinics and others requesting HIV testing. These rather marked levels of infection exist in Cambodia even though HIV was first identified in the country as recently as 1991 among screened blood from volunteer donors. By December 1993, the rate of positive results from blood donors had increased to 1.97%.; the rate of infection among blood donors is expected to double to approximately 4% in 1994. People in Cambodia variously believe that AIDS is nonexistent, AIDS is a problem of other countries, can be transmitted by mosquitoes, healthy people do not have AIDS, a cure exists for AIDS, AIDS can be contracted only from prostitutes, AIDS is the most severe state of syphilis, and AIDS is only a propaganda ploy of condom producers to market their products. It is therefore proving extremely difficult to convince people that AIDS is a truly threatening disease against which they should protect themselves, especially when symptoms are rarely present during the early stage of infection. Health education campaigns, videos, posters, and accurate reporting in the media will, however, help change minds and hopefully induce HIV-preventive behaviors. Of interest, the article notes that virtually every prostitute in Cambodia has at least two-three STDs.

  13. Bangladesh becomes "success story".

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The State Minister for Health and Family of Bangladesh, Dr. Mohammed Amanullah, highlighted some of the successes being achieved by his country in lowering fertility and improving the lives of the people since the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. Some of these successes include practical measures to eliminate violence against women; introduction of a quota for women in public sector employment; and launching of the Health and Population Sector Program to provide a one-stop, full range of essential reproductive health, family planning and child health services through an integrated delivery mechanism. Moreover, the Minister informed the Forum participants that their success is attributable to many factors which include support from the government, from non-governmental organizations, civil society, mass media, religious and other community leaders, intersectoral collaboration, microcredit and income-generation activities.

  14. Enhancing benefits from polycultures including tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) within integrated pond-dike systems: A participatory trial with households of varying socio-economic level in rural and peri-urban areas of Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karim, M.; Little, D.C.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Telfer, T.; Wahab, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Linkages between the fish ponds and surrounding land for horticulture are a distinctive feature of farming households in Bangladesh. It was hypothesised that integration of fish ponds in integrated farming system enhances livelihoods and reduces poverty. The effects of introducing tilapia into

  15. Expansion of syndromic vaccine preventable disease surveillance to include bacterial meningitis and Japanese encephalitis: evaluation of adapting polio and measles laboratory networks in Bangladesh, China and India, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallaro, Kathleen F; Sandhu, Hardeep S; Hyde, Terri B; Johnson, Barbara W; Fischer, Marc; Mayer, Leonard W; Clark, Thomas A; Pallansch, Mark A; Yin, Zundong; Zuo, Shuyan; Hadler, Stephen C; Diorditsa, Serguey; Hasan, A S M Mainul; Bose, Anindya S; Dietz, Vance

    2015-02-25

    Surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis with laboratory confirmation has been a key strategy in the global polio eradication initiative, and the laboratory platform established for polio testing has been expanded in many countries to include surveillance for cases of febrile rash illness to identify measles and rubella cases. Vaccine-preventable disease surveillance is essential to detect outbreaks, define disease burden, guide vaccination strategies and assess immunization impact. Vaccines now exist to prevent Japanese encephalitis (JE) and some etiologies of bacterial meningitis. We evaluated the feasibility of expanding polio-measles surveillance and laboratory networks to detect bacterial meningitis and JE, using surveillance for acute meningitis-encephalitis syndrome in Bangladesh and China and acute encephalitis syndrome in India. We developed nine syndromic surveillance performance indicators based on international surveillance guidelines and calculated scores using supervisory visit reports, annual reports, and case-based surveillance data. Scores, variable by country and targeted disease, were highest for the presence of national guidelines, sustainability, training, availability of JE laboratory resources, and effectiveness of using polio-measles networks for JE surveillance. Scores for effectiveness of building on polio-measles networks for bacterial meningitis surveillance and specimen referral were the lowest, because of differences in specimens and techniques. Polio-measles surveillance and laboratory networks provided useful infrastructure for establishing syndromic surveillance and building capacity for JE diagnosis, but were less applicable for bacterial meningitis. Laboratory-supported surveillance for vaccine-preventable bacterial diseases will require substantial technical and financial support to enhance local diagnostic capacity. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Forecasting inbound tourists in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Kiyoyasu

    2016-01-01

    Forecasting tourism demand is crucial for management decisions in the tourism sector. Estimating a vector autoregressive (VAR) model for monthly visitor arrivals disaggregated by three entry points in Cambodia for the years 2006–2015, I forecast the number of arrivals for years 2016 and 2017. The results show that the VAR model fits well with the data on visitor arrivals for each entry point. Ex post forecasting shows that the forecasts closely match the observed data for visitor arrivals, th...

  17. Schistosomiasis in Cambodia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C R

    1976-06-01

    Human schistosomiasis has been known in Cambodia only since 1968. In 1968-1970, many cases were detected in the provincial capital of Kratié. Infection seemed to be confined to the ethnic Vietnamese fishermen who inhabited raft houses (= floating villages) on the Mekong River at Kratié. Overall prevalence in fishermen of all ages was between 7 and 10%. In the children of fishermen between the ages of 1 to 14, the prevalence was between 14 and 22%. Transmission was apparently limited to floating houses stationed more or less permanently near shore and connected to each other in a chain. It is believed that transmission occurred only in the areas of still water which were created between raft and shore. The principal focus of schistosomiasis in Cambodia appears to be Kratié. Only a few cases have been detected elsewhere in the country. The parasite is undoubtedly identical with the Schistosoma reported from humans and dogs at Khong Island, Laos. However, the transmitting snail in Laos, Lithoglyphopsis aperta, has thus far not been reported from the Mekong River in Cambodia.

  18. Cambodia Development Research Forum II | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Changing Labour Markets in Bangladesh: The Dynamics Between Growth and Inclusion in a Low-Income Economy. With its growing economy and population, Bangladesh's job creation success has primarily taken place in the garment and textiles industry. View moreChanging Labour Markets in Bangladesh: The ...

  19. Revisiting Primary School Dropout in Rural Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    No, Fata; Sam, Chanphirun; Hirakawa, Yukiko

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies on school dropout in Cambodia often used data from subjects after they already dropped out or statistics from education-related institutions. Using data from children in two rural provinces before they dropped out, this study examines four main factors in order to identify their influence on primary school dropout in Cambodia.…

  20. Critical Literacy in Elementary Education in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Vichea

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on a quest for insights into the introduction and negotiation of critical literacy in elementary education in Cambodia, whose recent past was scarred by devastating conflicts and wars. In this study, critical education is seen as a key to avoiding the reproduction of an unwanted past and minimizing social injustice in Cambodia.…

  1. Staking a Claim in Cambodia's Highlands

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ratanakiri's population, they are a minority group in Cambodia as a whole. They had never spoken up for their rights in ... Management (CBNRM) project supported by IDRC in collaboration with the Cambodia Area Rehabilitation and ... work as a CBNRM team had given them the will, and the government contacts, to help.

  2. Burkholderia pseudomallei Antibodies in Children, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheaktra, Ngoun; Putchhat, Hor; Sin, Lina; Sen, Bun; Kumar, Varun; Langla, Sayan; Peacock, Sharon J.; Day, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01

    Antibodies to Burkholderia pseudomallei were detected in 16% of children in Siem Reap, Cambodia. This organism was isolated from 30% of rice paddies in the surrounding vicinity. Despite the lack of reported indigenous cases, melioidosis is likely to occur in Cambodia. PMID:18258125

  3. Silent kidney disease and hypertension in Cambodia--a pilot study in Mercy Medical Center Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Paul Kin-shing

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has been increasing in most developed countries. In developing countries, however, there has been a lack of reliable data. To assess the frequency of unsuspected urine abnormality and hypertension in Cambodia. From April to December 2012, 1,013 new patient records of the Mercy Medical Center (MMC) in Cambodia were reviewed. 915 patients aged ≥ 18 years were included for analysis. Patients with history of hypertension (HT) were excluded for blood pressure (BP) analysis. Patients with history of diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HT), chronic kidney disease (CKD), or with symptoms of renal disease were excluded for urinalysis study. 820 patients had no history of HT. Among this group, 73 (8.9%) had abnormal BP with 60 (7.3%) having BP ≥ 140/90 mmHg and 13 (1.6%) having isolated systolic HT (BP ≥ 140/ 5/high power field (HPF)), 156 (30.6%) having either significant proteinuria or hematuria; and 199 (39.0%) had urine white blood cell count (WBC) ≥ 1+. Overall, 275 patients (53.9%) had 1 or more urinary abnormalities on urinalysis. Abnormal urinalysis (53.9%) and abnormal BP measurement (8.9%) were common findings among asymptomatic patients referred to the MMC. Unlike findings in other countries, no association of family history of DM, HT, or CKD and the risk of kidney disease or abnormal BP was found. A comprehensive community screening program for HT and kidney disease is urgently needed to prevent ESRD in Cambodia.

  4. Application of radiation in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naiyyum Choudhury; Najmul Alam Chowdhury; Feroza Akhtar [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2001-03-01

    Radiation technology offers a very wide scope for utilisation and commercial exploitation in various field. All over the world, this technology is being favourably considered for different applications like radiation sterilisation of medical products, preservation of food by controlling the physiological processes for extending shelf-life and eradication of microbial and insect pests, radiation processing of polymeric materials and treatment of sewage sludge. Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission has taken radiation processing programmes in a big way right from its inception. This paper describes the studies carried out by various research groups in Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission mainly using Cobalt-60 gamma radiation. The investigation covers medical sterilisation, food preservation and development and modification of polymeric materials by gamma radiation. Both food preservation and radiation sterilisation of medical products are now being commercially carried out in the Gammatech facility as a joint venture company of BAEC and a private entrepreneur. Bangladesh is soon going to establish a full-fledged Tissue Bank to cater the needs of various tissue allografts for surgical replacement. Recently Government of Bangladesh has allocated US$ 1.00 million for strengthening of the Tissue Banking Laboratory. BAEC has made quite a good research contribution on vulcanization of natural rubber latex, wood plastic composites, surface coating curing, polymer modification etc. As a result of successful achievement of R and D activities in all these projects, a pilot plant project involving about US$ 4.00 million is under implementation at the Atomic energy Research Establishment campus of BAEC. In addition a project on 'National Polymer Centre' at a cost of US$ 2.00 million has already been approved. It is expected that work on radiation processing including commercialization will be accelerated with the implementation of these projects. The impact of radiation

  5. Application of radiation in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naiyyum Choudhury; Najmul Alam Chowdhury; Feroza Akhtar

    2001-01-01

    Radiation technology offers a very wide scope for utilisation and commercial exploitation in various field. All over the world, this technology is being favourably considered for different applications like radiation sterilisation of medical products, preservation of food by controlling the physiological processes for extending shelf-life and eradication of microbial and insect pests, radiation processing of polymeric materials and treatment of sewage sludge. Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission has taken radiation processing programmes in a big way right from its inception. This paper describes the studies carried out by various research groups in Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission mainly using Cobalt-60 gamma radiation. The investigation covers medical sterilisation, food preservation and development and modification of polymeric materials by gamma radiation. Both food preservation and radiation sterilisation of medical products are now being commercially carried out in the Gammatech facility as a joint venture company of BAEC and a private entrepreneur. Bangladesh is soon going to establish a full-fledged Tissue Bank to cater the needs of various tissue allografts for surgical replacement. Recently Government of Bangladesh has allocated US$ 1.00 million for strengthening of the Tissue Banking Laboratory. BAEC has made quite a good research contribution on vulcanization of natural rubber latex, wood plastic composites, surface coating curing, polymer modification etc. As a result of successful achievement of R and D activities in all these projects, a pilot plant project involving about US$ 4.00 million is under implementation at the Atomic energy Research Establishment campus of BAEC. In addition a project on 'National Polymer Centre' at a cost of US$ 2.00 million has already been approved. It is expected that work on radiation processing including commercialization will be accelerated with the implementation of these projects. The impact of radiation processing

  6. Inequality in disability in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Ismail Tareque

    Full Text Available To investigate inequality in disability in Bangladesh.The study used both household level and individual level data from a large nationally representative data set, Bangladesh's Household Income and Expenditure Survey-2010. Principal component analysis was used to construct a wealth index based on household assets from household level data. Then, using data from 49,809 individuals aged 5 years and over, chi-square tests and logistic regression were performed to test the association between wealth level and disability.Women and older people are significantly more likely to report having disabilities than men and younger people. For middle and rich families, respectively, there is a 14 percent lower likelihood of reporting disabilities than for poor families. Changes in the probability of having disabilities are linear with increasing wealth. In addition, the study identifies some significant factors affecting disability, namely, age, sex, education, marital status, and place of residence including divisional differences.In Bangladesh, worse health among the poor argues for policies prioritizing this group while at the same time giving special attention to women and the elderly.

  7. Analysis of Radar Images of Angkor, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Anthony; Hensley, Scott; Moore, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    During the 1996 AIRSAR Pacific Rim Deployment, data were collected over Angkor in Cambodia. The temples of Angkor date the succession of cities to the 9th-13th century AD, but little is known of its prehistoric habitation. A related area of archaeological debate has been the origin, spiritual meaning and use of the hydraulic constructions in the urban zone. The high resolution, multi-channel capability of AIRSAR, together with the unprecedentedly accurate topography provided by TOPSAR, offer identification and delineation of these features. Examples include previously unrecorded circular earthworks around circular village sites, detection of unrecorded earthwork dykes, reservoirs and canal features, and of temple sites located some distance from the main temple complex at Angkor.

  8. Cancer control in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Syed Akram; Sullivan, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Cancer is predicted to be an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh in the next few decades. The estimated incidence of 12.7 million new cancer cases will rise to 21.4 million by 2030. More than two-thirds of the total expenditure on health is through out-of-pocket payments. According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, cancer is the sixth leading cause of death. International Agency for Research on Cancer has estimated cancer-related death rates in Bangladesh to be 7.5% in 2005 and 13% in 2030. The two leading causes are in males are lung and oral cancer and in females are breast cancer and cervical cancer. Bangladesh is now in severe shortage of radiation therapy machines, hospital bed, trained oncologists, medical radiation physicists and technologists. Bangladesh having different cancers associated with smoking and smokeless tobacco use, Human papilloma virus infection, Hepatitis B and C infection, Helicobacter Pylori infection, arsenic contaminated groundwater, availability of chemical carcinogens mainly formalin treated fruits, fish and vegetables at open market, tannery waste contaminated with chromium (which is used for poultry feed and fish feed preparation). A World Health Organization study revealed the annual cost of illnesses in Bangladesh attributable to tobacco usage is US$ 500 million and the total annual benefit from the tobacco sector is US$ 305 million as tax revenue. Bangladesh has developed a National Cancer Control Strategy and Action Plan with the aim of delivering a universal, quality-based and timely service. Cancer prevention through tobacco control, health promotion and vaccination program, cancer early detection program for oral cavity, breast and cervix has initiated. Cancer detection and diagnostic facilities will be made available at medical colleges and district- hospitals and establish a referral chain. National capacity development, more cancer research will allow Bangladesh to deal effectively

  9. Estimating Money Demand Function in Cambodia: ARDL Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Samreth, Sovannroeun

    2008-01-01

    This paper empirically estimates the money demand function in Cambodia. We adopt the money demand model that includes exchange rate. For the analysis, Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach to cointegration is employed. Our results indicate that there is cointegration among variables in money demand function. CUSUM and CUSUMSQ tests roughly support the stability of estimated model. However, in the long-run, even the sign of estimated coefficient of exchange rate support the currency s...

  10. Working Conditions and Factory Survival: Evidence from Better Factories Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, Raymond; Brown, Drusilla; Dehejia, Rajeev

    2016-01-01

    A large and growing literature has identified several conditions, including exporting, that contribute to plant survival. A prevailing sentiment suggests that anti-sweatshop activity against plants in developing countries adds the risk of making survival more difficult by imposing external constraints that may interfere with optimizing behavior. Using a relatively new plant-level panel dataset from Cambodia, this paper applies survival analysis to estimate the relationship between changes in ...

  11. Prevalence of smoking in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M; Umenai, T; Radford, C

    1998-06-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of cigarette smoking in Cambodia and identify prevailing knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP). Information on tobacco smoking and KAP was collected using the 30-cluster survey design wherein 10-15 males (age over 15 years) were interviewed from each of 30 randomly-selected population clusters in Phnom Penh (herein referred to as 'urban') and Siem Reap (herein referred to as 'rural') for a total of 601 interviews. Findings show that 65% of urban respondents and 86% of rural respondents smoke. Rural men start smoking at an earlier age, but the average urban smoker spends more. 17% of an urban smoker's personal cash income is spent on tobacco, whereas his rural counterpart spends 8%. This discrepancy is partly due to extensive tobacco brandname promotion in urban areas which has resulted in the average price of a pack of cigarettes being four times higher than that of rural. Other findings show an inverse correlation between incidence of smoking and levels of education/income. Concerning smoking cessation, 66% of urban smokers and 86% of rural smokers interviewed indicated they would attend a program in their area to stop smoking if such a program were available. The high prevalence of smoking in Cambodia, and the health impact it has and will increasingly have on its people is significant. The high cash expenditure for tobacco, especially in urban, is an important factor contributing to Cambodia's impoverished economy. Education, regulatory policies, and smoking cessation are important measures to be considered for effective tobacco control planning and implementation.

  12. First National Workshop on Antibiotic Resistance in Cambodia: Phnom Penh, Cambodia, 16-18 November 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlieghe, E; Sary, S; Lim, K; Sivuthy, C; Phe, T; Parry, C; De Smet, B; Monidarin, C; Baron, E; Moore, C E; Mfuko, W; Asgari, N; Chhorvoin, O; Steenkeste, N; Leyer, C; van Griensven, J; Thai, S; Jacobs, J

    2013-03-01

    The First National Workshop on Antibiotic Resistance in Cambodia was organised by the Cambodian Ministry of Health with support from several national and international partner institutions. It brought together policy-makers, clinicians, pharmacists, laboratory technicians and other professionals dealing with the problems of bacterial infection and antibiotic resistance across the country. Antibiotic resistance data from starting up and experienced laboratories were presented, showing high rates of resistance in key pathogens to most antibiotics currently available in Cambodia, e.g. 70-90% multidrug resistance and 70-80% decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, 20-40% meticillin resistance rates in Staphylococcus aureus and 30-50% extended-spectrum β-lactamase production in Escherichia coli. A five-point plan was discussed, which included initiatives from government and non-governmental partners, focusing on rational prescribing, clinical practice guidelines, improved laboratory services, infection prevention and enhanced education at all levels. Implementation, however challenging, is a priority given the high levels of resistance seen in key pathogens and the overall health needs in the country. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Anemia in Cambodia: prevalence, etiology and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Christopher V; Summerlee, Alastair J S; Dewey, Cate E

    2012-01-01

    Anemia is a severe global public health problem with serious consequences for both the human and socio-economic health. This paper presents a situation analysis of the burden of anemia in Cambodia, including a discussion of the country-specific etiologies and future research needs. All available literature on the prevalence and etiology of anemia in Cambodia was collected using standard search protocols. Prevalence data was readily identified for pre-school aged children and women of reproductive age, but there is a dearth of information for school-aged children, men and the elderly. Despite progress in nation-wide programming over the past decade, anemia remains a significant public health problem in Cambodia, especially for women and children. Anemia is a multifaceted disease and both nutritional and non-nutritional etiologies were identified, with iron deficiency accounting for the majority of the burden of disease. The current study highlights the need for a national nutrition survey, including collection of data on the iron status and prevalence of anemia in all population groups. It is impossible to develop effective intervention programs without a clear picture of the burden and cause of disease in the country.

  14. Women helping women in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff-rousselle, M

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Ouk Vong Vathiny is the first director of the Reproductive Health Association of Cambodia (RHAC), the International Planned Parenthood's newest affiliate. Dr. Vathiny's interest in reproductive health began with her first position in a clinic serving women working in Phnom Penh's commercial sex district. Today, she works with RHAC staff to provide a full range of reproductive health services to a wide variety of rural and urban women. Under the direction of Dr. Ping Chutema, the RHAC clinic provides a standard package of safe motherhood services and highlights provision of birth spacing counseling and methods. Although it operates in only three of 22 provinces, the RHAC now distributes between a fourth and a third of all contraceptives dispensed by government services. Dr. Vathiny and Dr. Chutema note that the biggest problem they face is the fact that most women in Cambodia have very little education and that rumors spread faster than real information. Efforts to insure safe motherhood are challenged by high rates of sexually transmitted diseases and by a high prevalence and rate of increase of HIV infection, both of which are exacerbated by the popularity of commercial sex among married men. Domestic violence and women's low nutritional status are also problems. RHAC considers education and counseling essential elements of its safe motherhood package and even trains community-based contraceptive distributors to counsel women on ways to negotiate with their husbands.

  15. Influence of Climate Factors on Rice Yields in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dek Vimean Pheakdey

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Temperature and precipitation have been known as the key determinant factors to affect rice production in climate change. In this study, the relationship between climate variables and rice yields during 1993–2012 in Cambodia was analyzed and evaluated. The Ordinary Least Squares analysis was applied to examine the relationship of three climate variables (TCV including maximum temperature, minimum temperature and rainfall against seasonal rice yields. By this period, a remarkable increasing trend of annual temperature was observed whilst rainfall was not significantly changed. The TCV explains approximately 63% and 56% of the variability of rice yields in wet and dry seasons, respectively. It is found that in Cambodia, non-climate factors such as fertilizers, water, cultivars, and soil fertility cause 40% variation to rice yields, whereas the remaining 60% can be influenced by climate variability. The levels of temperature difference (LTD between maximum and minimum temperatures of the wet season (WS and dry season (DS were 7.0 and 8.6 oC, respectively. The lower value of LTD may cause the reduction of rice in WS (2.2 tons/ha as compared to that of DS (3.0 tons/ha. Rice yield has increased 50.5% and 33.8% in DS and WS, respectively, may due to the improvement of rice cultivation practices in Cambodia such as the better use of fertilizers, pest and weed control, and irrigation, and more effective rice cultivated protocol, as the increased trend of temperature may detrimentally affect rice yield. The breeding of heat and drought tolerance rice varieties and development of irrigation system are effective to reduce the negative influence from climate change to rice production in Cambodia.

  16. Dental nurse training in Cambodia--a new approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallow, P K; Klaipo, M; Durward, C S

    1997-06-01

    In 1993 a 4-5 month programme to train rural dental nurses in Cambodia was introduced. Courses have now been conducted in 12 of Cambodia's 22 provinces. The dental nurses are trained to provide simple treatment, including local anaesthetic, extractions, ART restorations, and scaling, for all age groups, and also learn how to introduce prevention and oral health promotion activities within their communities. On completion of training nurses are supplied with a set of basic instruments and some materials. Evaluation has shown the programme to be meeting the oral health needs of the rural people where there are no dentists and a number of unique strengths were identified. A recent planning workshop on oral health care in Cambodia to 2005 decided to set up a dental nurses training school in two provincial capitals, and to increase the number of nurses in training. At the same time the annual number of new dentists being trained will be limited to ten. The expansion of the dental nurses training programme will ensure that increasingly more of the population have access to basic preventive and curative dental care, and at a cost which the country can afford.

  17. Epidemiology of Viral Hepatitis and Liver Diseases in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreng, Bun; Kimcheng, Hok; Sovann, L Y; Huot, Eng

    2015-01-01

    In Cambodia, the true burden of viral hepatitis has not been revealed, but many surveys were carried out focusing on specific population or on small scales. Different markers of viral hepatitis were found between 27 and 97% in children and almost 100% in adults. Viral hepatitis B in children was 3.5% in 2006 and dropped in 2011; and in adults, it ranged from 4.5 to 10.8%. Viral hepatitis C was between 0.87 and 14.7%. No data are available for hepatitis D in the country. Viral hepatitis E (anti-HEV IgG) went from 7.2 to 12.7%. The complications due to viral hepatitis including chronic liver diseases and hepatocellular carcinoma were reported in the health information system. Around 79% of the patients with high transaminase had at least one viral marker and about 45% of the adults with chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis were positive for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Hepatocellular carcinoma accounted for 19.1% of all reported cancer cases. Hepatitis B surface antigen was found in between 55 and 90% in adults with hepatocellular carcinoma and anti-HCV in one-fourth. The only intervention implemented in Cambodia is vaccination against viral hepatitis B (HepB vaccine). Sreng B, Kimcheng HOK, Sovann LY, Huot ENG. Epidemiology of Viral Hepatitis and Liver Diseases in Cambodia. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2015;5(1):30-33.

  18. The commercialization of traditional medicine in modern Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Bandeth; Lê, Gillian; McPake, Barbara; Fustukian, Suzanne

    2018-01-01

    Globally, traditional medicine has long been used to address relatively common illness, mental ill health and during childbirth and post-natal care. However, traditional medicine is primarily provided by the private sector and it is unclear how far expenditures on traditional medicine contribute to household impoverishment. A life history method was used to understand the health seeking experience of 24 households over the last 60 years in Cambodia, a country with high out-of-pocket expenditures for health. The life histories suggest that traditional medicine in Cambodia has been undergoing a process of commercialization, with significant impacts on poor households. In the earlier lives of respondents, payments for traditional medicine were reported to have been flexible, voluntary or appropriate to patients' financial means. In contrast, contemporary practitioners appear to seek immediate cash payments that have frequently led to considerable debt and asset sales by traditional medicine users. Given traditional medicine's popularity as a source of treatment in Cambodia and its potential to contribute to household impoverishment, we suggest that it needs to be included in a national conversation about achieving Universal Health Coverage in the country. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

  19. Indicators for sustainable tourism: The case of Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhep Tinat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Most research on tourism in Cambodia so far has focused on growth. There is very limited research on indicators for sustainability. A failure to create indicators for sustainable tourism may lead to short-term growth but the country will suffer in the long run. Sustainability really matters in tourism especially in a new destination like Cambodia. Cambodia has no clear indicators determining tourism sustainability. Cambodia’s tourism is remarkably flourishing, but behind this growth some challenges exist: Cultural and environmental impacts, economic leakage, sex tourism, drug trafficking and disease transmission. These concern tourism sustainability. This research intends to fill a significant gap regarding challenges hampering sustainable tourism, particularly creating indicators, by studying the activities of Cambodia’s tourism. The aim is to contribute to developing more comprehensive policies and measures that address problems by drawing on the activities and perspectives of the country’s tourism stakeholders: These include public and private actors, NGOs, local people and tourists.

  20. A Multimedia Approach to ODL for Agricultural Training in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Grunfeld

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Open distance learning (ODL has long been an important option for formal and non-formal education (NFE in most developed and developing countries, but less so in post-conflict countries, including Cambodia. However, in Cambodia there is now greater awareness that ODL can complement traditional face-to-face educational approaches, particularly as there is a shortage of teachers in the country. Thus, understanding how ODL can achieve learning and other objectives has important implications for both formal education and NFE. If it can be found to be effective, ODL has the potential of reaching a large number of people at comparatively lower average costs. This paper reports on a project where the same content was taught to farmers in Cambodia via traditional face-to-face and via ODL and compares outcomes between the different training methods. Exploring the extent to which farmers had adopted new farm practices taught in the course, our results indicate that the outcomes did not vary considerably between those trained using the different approaches.

  1. Child abuse in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Islam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, a large number of children are deprived of their basic human rights due to unacceptable health, nutrition, education as well as social conditions. In addition, children are exposed to severe forms of sexual, physical and mental abuses at home, in the work place, in institutions and other public places. The nature and extent of violence against children irrespective of age, sex and class has been increasing day by day. These include physical torture, rape, homicide and sometimes heinous attacks with acid. Children are also victims of child labor and trafficking, both of which are treated as the most severe form of child exploitation and child abuse in the world today. This review article is aimed to focus on the present situation of various forms of child abuses in our country. Data collection is based on secondary sources of information from Dhaka Medical College Hospital, One Stop Crisis Center (OCC,UNICEF, Ministry of Home Affairs, Ministry of Women and Children Affairs, several Dhaka based organizations and news paper clipping. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2015; 9(1: 18-21

  2. Malaria prevalence in endemic districts of Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubydul Haque

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Following the 1971 ban of DDT in Bangladesh, malaria cases have increased steadily. Malaria persists as a major health problem in the thirteen south-eastern and north-eastern districts of Bangladesh. At present the national malaria control program, largely supported by the Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM, provides interventions including advocacy at community level, Insecticide Treated Net (ITN distribution, introduction of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT and combination therapy with Coartem. It is imperative, therefore, that baseline data on malaria prevalence and other malaria indicators are collected to assess the effectiveness of the interventions and rationalize the prevention and control efforts. The objective of this study was to obtain this baseline on the prevalence of malaria and bed net use in the thirteen malaria endemic districts of Bangladesh. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In 2007, BRAC and ICDDR,B carried out a malaria prevalence survey in thirteen malaria endemic districts of Bangladesh. A multi-stage cluster sampling technique was used and 9750 blood samples were collected. Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT were used for the diagnosis of malaria. The weighted average malaria prevalence in the thirteen endemic districts was 3.97%. In five south-eastern districts weighted average malaria prevalence rate was 6.00% and in the eight north-eastern districts weighted average malaria prevalence rate was (0.40%. The highest malaria prevalence was observed in Khagrachari district. The majority of the cases (90.18% were P. falciparum infections. Malaria morbidity rates in five south-eastern districts was 2.94%. In eight north-eastern districts, morbidity was 0.07%. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Bangladesh has hypoendemic malaria with P. falciparum the dominant parasite species. The malaria situation in the five north-eastern districts of Bangladesh in particular warrants urgent attention. Detailed maps of the

  3. Telecentre Network Startup : Bangladesh - Mission 2011 | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The second generation of telecentres has seen the emergence of national-level networks in various parts of the word including the Ugandan Telecentre Network, Mission 2007 in India and Mission Swaabhimaan in Nepal. Telecentre stakeholders in Bangladesh would like to replicate the methodology used in Mission 2007, ...

  4. Description of a new species and new country distribution records of Bactrocera (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) from Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Luc; San Jose, Michael; Rubinoff, Daniel

    2015-09-04

    Bactrocera (Bactrocera) kohkongiae Leblanc (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae), from the Koh Kong Province of Cambodia, is described as new. This species belongs to the Oriental fruit fly (B. dorsalis) complex. Genetic sequences (mitochondrial COI and nuclear EF1α and Period) are deposited in GenBank. A haplotype network, based on the COI sequences for 21 specimens, shows high genetic diversity. New country records from Cambodia are included for 22 species.

  5. [Memisa: surgical help in Cambodia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swierstra, J C

    1999-02-27

    In 1995 the activities of Médecins sans Frontières in the Province of Kampot, Cambodia, were handed to Memisa Medicus Mundi. This happened as a part of the co-operation between the two relief agencies. Following a request from the Cambodian Ministry of Health, Memisa sent a Dutch surgeon to Kampot in order to make an inventory of the surgical care in this province and to make recommendations for improvement. Two visits of two months each were made with an intermission of one year. Special attention was given to the most adequate treatment of a few common fractures in developing countries. By asking a fixed amount of money for a treatment all in, and by providing good service the confidence of the people in the health care facilities is increased.

  6. All projects related to Cambodia | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Singapore. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ ... Topic: WOMEN'S RIGHTS, GENDER DISCRIMINATION, GENDER EQUALITY, GENDER ANALYSIS. Region: Cambodia, Far East Asia, Central Asia, ...

  7. Recognizing child maltreatment in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N Z; Lynch, M A

    1997-08-01

    Concern is increasing in Bangladesh over child abuse, neglect, and exploitation. Children from all walks of life are being treated at the Child Development Center (CDC) Dhaka Shishu Hospital for neurodevelopmental problems resulting from abuse and neglect. Efforts to protect children from sexual harassment result in girls being isolated at home or married at an early age. Some young brides are eventually abandoned and forced into prostitution. Early marriage reflects the lack of acknowledgement of a period of adolescence and the belief that puberty is a marker of adulthood. Many girls aged 8-16 are employed as live-in domestic servants, and many suffer sexual as well as emotional abuse. Garment factories, on the other hand, offer girls an escape from extreme poverty, domestic service, and early marriage but are threatened by forces that condemn child labor. Rather than ending such opportunities, employers should be encouraged to provide employees with educational and welfare facilities. The CDC seeks to explore the extent and depth of the problem of child abuse while recognizing the special circumstances at work in Bangladesh. It is also necessary to raise awareness of these issues and of the discrepancies between the law and cultural practices. For example, the legal marriage age of 18 years for a woman and 21 years for a man is often ignored. Additional forms of abuse receiving the attention of women's organizations and human rights groups include the trafficking of children. A network of concerned organizations should be created to work against the child abuse, neglect, and exploitation that Bangladesh has pledged to overcome by signing the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.

  8. The unfinished health agenda: Neonatal mortality in Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathmony Hong

    Full Text Available Reduction of neonatal and under-five mortality rates remains a primary target in the achievement of universal health goals, as evident in renewed investments of Sustainable Development Goals. Various studies attribute declines in mortality to the combined effects of improvements in health care practices and changes in socio-economic factors. Since the early nineties, Cambodia has managed to evolve from a country devastated by war to a nation soon to enter the group of middle income countries. Cambodia's development efforts are reflected in some remarkable health outcomes such as a significant decline in child mortality rates and the early achievement of related Millennium Development Goals. An achievement acknowledged through the inclusion of Cambodia as one of the ten fast-track countries in the Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health. This study aims to highlight findings from the field so to provide evidence for future programming and policy efforts. It will be argued that to foster further advances in health, Cambodia will need to keep neonatal survival and health high on the agenda and tackle exacerbating inequities that arise from a pluralistic health system with considerable regional differences and socio-economic disparities.Data was drawn from Demographic Health Surveys (2000, 2005, 2010, 2014. Information on a series of demographic and socio-economic household characteristics and on child anthropometry, feeding practices and child health were collected from nationally representative samples. To reach the required sample size, live-births that occurred over the past 10 years before the date of the interview were included. Demographic variables included: gender of the child, living area (urban or rural; four ecological regions (constructed by merging provinces and the capital, mother's age at birth (<20, 20-35, 35+, birth interval (long, short and birth order (1st, 2-3, 4-6, 7+. Socio-economic variables included: mother

  9. The unfinished health agenda: Neonatal mortality in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Rathmony; Ahn, Pauline Yongeun; Wieringa, Frank; Rathavy, Tung; Gauthier, Ludovic; Hong, Rathavuth; Laillou, Arnaud; Van Geystelen, Judit; Berger, Jacques; Poirot, Etienne

    2017-01-01

    Reduction of neonatal and under-five mortality rates remains a primary target in the achievement of universal health goals, as evident in renewed investments of Sustainable Development Goals. Various studies attribute declines in mortality to the combined effects of improvements in health care practices and changes in socio-economic factors. Since the early nineties, Cambodia has managed to evolve from a country devastated by war to a nation soon to enter the group of middle income countries. Cambodia's development efforts are reflected in some remarkable health outcomes such as a significant decline in child mortality rates and the early achievement of related Millennium Development Goals. An achievement acknowledged through the inclusion of Cambodia as one of the ten fast-track countries in the Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health. This study aims to highlight findings from the field so to provide evidence for future programming and policy efforts. It will be argued that to foster further advances in health, Cambodia will need to keep neonatal survival and health high on the agenda and tackle exacerbating inequities that arise from a pluralistic health system with considerable regional differences and socio-economic disparities. Data was drawn from Demographic Health Surveys (2000, 2005, 2010, 2014). Information on a series of demographic and socio-economic household characteristics and on child anthropometry, feeding practices and child health were collected from nationally representative samples. To reach the required sample size, live-births that occurred over the past 10 years before the date of the interview were included. Demographic variables included: gender of the child, living area (urban or rural; four ecological regions (constructed by merging provinces and the capital), mother's age at birth (Cambodia achieved a considerable reduction in neonatal mortality (46% reduction rate). By 2014, gender inequities became almost non-existent (for

  10. Bangladesh Jobs Diagnostic

    OpenAIRE

    Farole, Thomas; Cho, Yoonyoung

    2017-01-01

    This Jobs Diagnostic presents the characteristics and constraints of the labor market in Bangladesh, identifies the objectives of the jobs agenda, and proposes a policy framework to progress toward them. This multisectoral diagnostic assesses the relationships between supply- and demand-side factors that interact to determine job creation, quality, and inclusion outcomes. Understanding the...

  11. Magnitude of arsenic pollution in the Mekong and Red River Deltas - Cambodia and Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Michael; Stengel, Caroline; Trang, Pham Thi Kim; Hung Viet, Pham; Sampson, Mickey L.; Leng, Moniphea; Samreth, Sopheap; Fredericks, David

    2007-01-01

    Large alluvial deltas of the Mekong River in southern Vietnam and Cambodia and the Red River in northern Vietnam have groundwaters that are exploited for drinking water by private tube-wells, which are of increasing demand since the mid-1990s. This paper presents an overview of groundwater arsenic pollution in the Mekong delta: arsenic concentrations ranged from 1-1610 μg/L in Cambodia (average 217 μg/L) and 1-845 μg/L in southern Vietnam (average 39 μg/L), respectively. It also evaluates the situation in Red River delta where groundwater arsenic concentrations vary from 1-3050 μg/L (average 159 μg/L). In addition to rural areas, the drinking water supply of the city of Hanoi has elevated arsenic concentrations. The sediments of 12-40 m deep cores from the Red River delta contain arsenic levels of 2-33 μg/g (average 7 μg/g, dry weight) and show a remarkable correlation with sediment-bound iron. In all three areas, the groundwater arsenic pollution seem to be of natural origin and caused by reductive dissolution of arsenic-bearing iron phases buried in aquifers. The population at risk of chronic arsenic poisoning is estimated to be 10 million in the Red River delta and 0.5-1 million in the Mekong delta. A subset of hair samples collected in Vietnam and Cambodia from residents drinking groundwater with arsenic levels > 50 μg/L have a significantly higher arsenic content than control groups (< 50 μg/L). Few cases of arsenic related health problems are recognized in the study areas compared to Bangladesh and West Bengal. This difference probably relates to arsenic contaminated tube-well water only being used substantially over the past 7 to 10 years in Vietnam and Cambodia. Because symptoms of chronic arsenic poisoning usually take more than 10 years to develop, the number of future arsenic related ailments in Cambodia and Vietnam is likely to increase. Early mitigation measures should be a high priority

  12. Imaging in the Khmer’s Land: Cambodia Country Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha\tG. Harrington

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cambodia is located in Southeast Asia on the Indochina Peninsula and borders Vietnam, Laos, Thailand and the Gulf of Thailand (Figure 1. With a total area of 69,898 square miles and population of 15,458,332, Cambodia’s population density has steadily increased since 1980. The country’s annual rate of urbanization is 2.65 %. As of 2014, 20.5% of the population lives in an urban setting. The estimated population growth rate is 1.63% (1. The capital of Cambodia is Phnom Penh, which is located in the southern part of the country. Other major cities include Battambang and Siem Reap, both of which have populations over 150,000. There are officially 24 provinces and one municipality (Phnom Penh. However, many consider Phnom Penh to be its own province. As a result, some research puts the number of Cambodian provinces at 25. The climate is tropical with two seasons: monsoon season (May to November and dry season (December to April. Temperatures range from approximately 70 to 95°F. Cambodia’s economy largely depends on the garment industry, tourism, construction, real estate and agriculture. Cambodia gained independence from France in 1953 and was first ruled by a constitutional monarchy under King Norodom Sihanouk. After a five-year struggle starting in 1970, the Khmer Rouge captured Phnom Penh in 1975. Pol Pot, the leader of the Khmer Rouge, oversaw a brutal regime that, through executions and forced labor, was responsible for the deaths of at least 1.5 million Cambodians. The Vietnamese drove out the Khmer Rouge in 1979. After years of Vietnamese occupation, the 1991 Paris Peace Accords established a ceasefire and a democratic framework for the country. By 1993 elections established a new coalition government; yet, political instability and violence persisted throughout the 1990s. Cambodia most recently held elections in 2013, as a multiparty democracy under a constitutional monarchy.The devastation caused by the Khmer Rouge has had long

  13. Prevalence of counterfeit anthelminthic medicines: a cross-sectional survey in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohiuddin Hussain; Okumura, Junko; Sovannarith, Tey; Nivanna, Nam; Akazawa, Manabu; Kimura, Kazuko

    2010-05-01

    To assess the prevalence of counterfeit anthelminthic medicines in Cambodia, and to determine influential factors. Commonly used anthelminthic medicines were collected from private drug outlets. Medicines were carefully observed including their registration labelling, and their authenticity was investigated with the manufacturers and the Medicines Regulatory Authorities. Samples were analysed by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography at the National Health Product Quality Control Centre, Cambodia. Two hundred and three samples of anthelminthics were collected from 137 drug stores. Domestic products constituted 36.9%. Of 196 samples which were verified for registration, 15.8% were not registered. Of 165 samples successfully investigated for their authenticity, 7 (4.2%) were identified as counterfeit. All of these medicines were purchased in open packs or containers, and most of them were foreign manufactured and/or without registration. The results of our survey urge strict implementation of drug registration and vigilance on the availability of unregistered medicines to combat counterfeit medicines in Cambodia.

  14. Water cycle observations in forest watersheds of Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, A.; Tamai, K.; Kabeya, N.; Shimizu, T.; Iida, S. I.

    2015-12-01

    The Lower Mekong River flows through Cambodia, where forests cover ~60% of the country and are believed to have a marked effect on the water cycle. These tropical seasonal forests in the Cambodian flat lands are very precious in the Indochinese Peninsula as few forests of this type remain. However, few hydrological observations have been conducted in these areas. In Cambodia, deciduous and evergreen forests make up 42% and 33% of the total forest area, respectively. We established experimental watersheds both in deciduous and evergreen forests containing meteorological observation towers in Cambodia and collected various observational data since 2003 (O'Krieng, deciduous forest watershed including a 30-m-high observation tower, 2,245 km2; Stung Chinit, evergreen forest watershed including a 60-m-high observation tower, 3,700 km2 including three small watersheds). The basic data from these sites included various kinds of information related to the composition of vegetation, soil characteristics, etc. Hydrologic data was collected and linked to the above data; the main hydrologic research results follow. The water budget for each watershed was determined using an observational rainfall and runoff dataset. The evapotranspiration rate in an evergreen forest was obtained using various observational methods including the Bowen energy-balance ratio and the bandpass eddy covariance method. The annual evapotranspiration of evergreen forests, estimated using the Bowen energy-balance ratio method and water balance, was about 1100-1200 mm, corresponding to 70-80% of annual rainfall. While considering the importance of the presence of evergreen forest, we conducted sap flow measurements to analyze the transpiration process that maintains water uptake through root systems that reach to depths exceeding 8 m. Characteristics of the evaporation from the forest floor that form an important element of the evaporation system were estimated in both evergreen and deciduous forests.

  15. Climate Change Risks – Methodological Framework and Case Study of Damages from Extreme Events in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Kaspersen, Per Skougaard; Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte

    2016-01-01

    damage costs associated with the events in the case of Cambodia, we are using the past storm events as proxy data in a sensitivity analysis. It is here demonstrated how key assumptions on future climate change, income levels of victims, and income distribution over time, reflected in discount rates...... framework is applied to a case study of severe storms in Cambodia based on statistical information on past storm events including information about buildings damaged and victims. Despite there is limited data available on the probability of severe storm events under climate change as well on the actual...

  16. Climate Change Risks – Methodological Framework and Case Study of Damages from Extreme Events in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Kaspersen, Per Skougaard; Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte

    2016-01-01

    framework is applied to a case study of severe storms in Cambodia based on statistical information on past storm events including information about buildings damaged and victims. Despite there is limited data available on the probability of severe storm events under climate change as well on the actual...... damage costs associated with the events in the case of Cambodia, we are using the past storm events as proxy data in a sensitivity analysis. It is here demonstrated how key assumptions on future climate change, income levels of victims, and income distribution over time, reflected in discount rates...

  17. Epidemiology of brucellosis in humans and domestic ruminants in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, AKM Anisur

    2015-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is an ancient and one of the world’s most widespread zoonotic diseases affecting both, public health and animal production. It is endemic in many developing countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America including Bangladesh. Since the first report in 1970, a lot of brucellosis seroprevalence reports are available in cattle, goats, sheep and humans in Bangladesh. Most of the previously reported prevalence studies were based on non-random samples, which may not give a tr...

  18. Determinants of Food Consumption During Pregnancy in Rural Bangladesh: Examination of Evaluative Data from the Bangladesh Integrated Nutrition Project

    OpenAIRE

    Rezaul Karim; Deepa Bhat; Lisa Troy; Sascha Lamstein; F. James Levinson

    2002-01-01

    The common practice of reducing food consumption during pregnancy is recognized as a primary cause of poor pregnancy outcomes and, in turn, malnutrition among young children in many developing countries including Bangladesh. This paper analyzes data from the 1998 Mid-Term Evaluation of the Bangladesh Integrated Nutrition Project (BINP) to identify the determinants of pregnancy food consumption. The analysis found that information available to the mother (through project-based counseling) was ...

  19. Comprehensive update on cancer scenario of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Md Akram Hussain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh, at 142 million people, is the ninth most populous country in the world. There are 13 to 15 lakh cancer patients in Bangladesh, with about two lakh patients newly diagnosed with cancer each year. As an overview, lung cancer and mouth-oropharynx cancer rank as the top two prevalent cancers in males. Other types of cancers are esophagus cancer and stomach cancer. In women, cancer cervix uteri and breast cancer are most prevalent. Other cancer types, which affect women, are mouth and oropharynx cancer, lung cancer, and esophagus cancer. There are around 150 qualified clinical oncologists and 16 pediatric oncologists working in the different parts of the country. Regular cancer treatment is available in 19 hospitals and 465 hospital beds are attached as indoor or day care facilities for chemotherapy in the oncology/radiotherapy departments. There are about 15 linear accelerators, 12 Co-60 teletherapy and 12 brachytherapy units currently available. Approximately, 56 cancer chemotherapeutic agents are obtainable in Bangladesh. Research facilities are available at tertiary care centers and a few multi country collaborative research activities are ongoing. Bangladesh has a unique National Cancer Control Strategy and Plan of Action 2009-2015 formulated with the assistance of WHO with an objective to develop and implement continuum of cancer care through a comprehensive cancer control programe. Preventive measures taken to reduce the incidence of cancer include reduced tobacco smoking, change of dietary habit and reduced food adulteration, ensuring reproductive hygiene, increased physical activity, and reduced occupational hazard. Awareness buildup and media campaign are going on by organizing the general people, opinion leaders of the society, and boy and girl scout. Training of general physicians on cancer warning signs and setup of early cancer detection centers at each medical college and district levels are ongoing. Beside these, some

  20. Comprehensive update on cancer scenario of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Syed Md Akram

    2013-10-01

    Bangladesh, at 142 million people, is the ninth most populous country in the world. There are 13 to 15 lakh cancer patients in Bangladesh, with about two lakh patients newly diagnosed with cancer each year. As an overview, lung cancer and mouth-oropharynx cancer rank as the top two prevalent cancers in males. Other types of cancers are esophagus cancer and stomach cancer. In women, cancer cervix uteri and breast cancer are most prevalent. Other cancer types, which affect women, are mouth and oropharynx cancer, lung cancer, and esophagus cancer. There are around 150 qualified clinical oncologists and 16 pediatric oncologists working in the different parts of the country. Regular cancer treatment is available in 19 hospitals and 465 hospital beds are attached as indoor or day care facilities for chemotherapy in the oncology/radiotherapy departments. There are about 15 linear accelerators, 12 Co-60 teletherapy and 12 brachytherapy units currently available. Approximately, 56 cancer chemotherapeutic agents are obtainable in Bangladesh. Research facilities are available at tertiary care centers and a few multi country collaborative research activities are ongoing. Bangladesh has a unique National Cancer Control Strategy and Plan of Action 2009-2015 formulated with the assistance of WHO with an objective to develop and implement continuum of cancer care through a comprehensive cancer control programe. Preventive measures taken to reduce the incidence of cancer include reduced tobacco smoking, change of dietary habit and reduced food adulteration, ensuring reproductive hygiene, increased physical activity, and reduced occupational hazard. Awareness buildup and media campaign are going on by organizing the general people, opinion leaders of the society, and boy and girl scout. Training of general physicians on cancer warning signs and setup of early cancer detection centers at each medical college and district levels are ongoing. Beside these, some other major cancer

  1. National news. Cambodia. The future of ARH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The escalating HIV/AIDS crisis in Cambodia underscores the importance of reproductive health programs aimed at adolescents. Although the Cambodian Government has not developed a strategy specifically aimed at reaching youth, it has initiated several related health promotion and HIV/AIDS prevention programs. Such programming is especially urgent in light of rapid economic changes in Cambodia and the growing influence of the mass media on urban youth. An in-country paper prepared by a staff member of the Youth Department of Cambodia's Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports stressed the importance of four factors: 1) designation of young couples as a target for birth spacing campaigns and services, 2) realistic HIV/AIDS educational messages in the mass media, 3) incorporation of traditional practices in adolescent reproductive health campaigns, and 4) greater sensitivity to youth culture and habits.

  2. Abortion incidence in Cambodia, 2005 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetters, Tamara; Samandari, Ghazaleh

    2015-01-01

    Although Cambodia now permits elective abortion, scarcity of research on this topic means that information on abortion incidence is limited to regional estimates. This estimation model combines national survey data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) with national prospective data of abortion procedures from government health facilities, collected in 2005 and 2010, to calculate the national incidence of safe and unsafe abortion. According to DHS, the proportion of all induced abortions that took place in a health facility in the five years preceding each survey increased from almost 52% to 60%. Projecting from facility-based abortions to national estimates, the national abortion rate increased from 21 to 28 per 1000 women aged 15-44. The abortion ratio also increased from 19 to 28 per 100 live births. This research quantifies an increase in safely induced abortions in Cambodia and provides a deeper understanding of induced abortion trends in Cambodia.

  3. Geographic information system (GIS) representation of coal-bearing areas in India and Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippi, Michael H.; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) information may facilitate energy studies, which in turn provide input for energy policy decisions. Prior to this study, no GIS file representing the occurrence of coal-bearing units in India or Bangladesh was known to exist. This Open-File Report contains downloadable shapefiles representing the coalfields of India and Bangladesh and a limited number of chemical and petrographic analyses of India and Bangladesh coal samples. Also included are maps of India and Bangladesh showing the locations of the coalfields and coal samples in the shapefiles, figures summarizing the stratigraphic units in the coalfields of India and Bangladesh, and a brief report summarizing the stratigraphy and geographic locations of coal-bearing deposits in India and Bangladesh.

  4. Country programme review Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, R.; Maluszynski, Y.; Maudarbocus, Y.; Cherif, H.S.; Morre, P.

    1993-12-01

    A five-expert mission was organized from 21-26 August 1993 and this document reflects the findings and recommendations of the team. Intensive contacts with heads of institutions, scientists and decision making persons in various sectors in the country were co-ordinated by the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission. The terms of reference of the mission were: To assess the on-going TC projects; to assist the Bangladesh nationals to finalize the formulation of the new requests for 1995-96 TC programme and to establish priority areas with regard to the introduction of national projects involving accelerated technological transfer in order to catalyze national development plans in specific areas; to examine institutional framework suitable for the introduction of these priority nuclear techniques

  5. Situation Reports--Brasil, Cambodia, Fiji, Malaysia (West), Thailand, and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in six foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Brazil, Cambodia, Fiji, Malaysia (West), Thailand, and Uganda. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning situation. General background…

  6. The Importance of Understanding Culture When Improving Education: Learning from Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkvens, Jan B. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Following Education for All, initiatives like child-friendly schools initiative, are rolled out in many countries, including Cambodia. The child-friendly schools initiative is addressing general and local needs of children in schools, like a safe environment, well-trained teachers and the provision of teaching and materials. But there is also a…

  7. Conservation agriculture improves yield and reduces weeding activity in sandy soils of Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensive tillage in many less-developed countries, including Cambodia have caused significant decline in agriculture’s natural resources and sustainability. With limited available data, long-term conventional tillage system (CT) and conservation agriculture system (CA) can affect changes in soil pr...

  8. The right to appeal a judgment of the Extraordinary Chambers in the courts of Cambodia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Neill, L.; Sluiter, G.

    2009-01-01

    In early 2007, we submitted a report to the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia commenting on several aspects of its then-draft Internal Rules, including whether the ECCC’s envisaged appeal system adhered to international standards. The Internal Rules were adopted in June 2007, and then

  9. Rape in Rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowsher Ali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rape is one of the silent brutal sexual offences in Bangladesh. Despite strong laws against it, the evil of rape continues to rise. Increasing trend of the silent cruel sexual offence (rape represents a major psychopath sexual disorder and public health problem and progress of the country. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of alleged rape victims in a rural district of Bangladesh with the ultimate aim to create public awareness about the brutal crime. Materials and method: This retrospective study was carried out on 330 sexually assailed alleged rape victims’ report forms, who reported at Faridpur Medical College, Bangladesh from 2007 to 2011 for medical examination. Results: Among the study subjects maximum number (70.0% of alleged rape cases were under the age of 20 years. More than two-thirds (64.60% of the assailants were known to the victims, most of the incidents (64.20% occurred in the victims’ houses and nearby places. The study also revealed that minimum number of victims (14.20% reported within 24 hours for medical examination. Almost one fourth of the alleged rape cases were gang rape and no positive finding in favour of sexual intercourse was found in about three fourth (72.40% of cases. Conclusion: Public awareness about rape would be effective to report in due time with preserving the evidence of crime and modern techniques like DNA diagnosis may be of help to detect the assailant.

  10. [Family planning in Bangladesh].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, S

    1981-03-01

    The author participated in the family planning project in Bangladesh from August 1, 1977 to December 31, 1979. The population of Bangladesh was 81 million in 1977 with annual increase of 3%, and the government was aiming at zero population growth. The government guidelines emphasized family planning as an effort integrated with other community programs. The use of adult education classes, mass media, and agricultural field workers and the training of paramedical personnel were proposed. The project members' activities involved motivating the public to delay marriages, to space births and to limit the family size to two children (average family size 6.5 children) as well as distributing contraceptives, promoting IUD and sterilization. Sterilization campaign for women in DNN district, 30 km south of Dacca, was carried out as follows. The women who had signed up in advance arrived at the elementary school classroom, where 2 medical teams performed operations using the teachers' desks and the equipment rented from a hospital in Dacca. The general procedure involved a physical examination by a female doctor, checking blood pressure, changing into a brand new native gown, premedication by injection, total anesthesia and operation itself. The equipment was sterilized by boiling. The patients were carried on the stretchers to the other classroom where they recuperated, staying overnight on the straw mats on the mud floor. They went home on foot the next day. The shortage of food and resources, high unemployment rate and low standard of living are some of the social problems Bangladesh faces along with overpopulation.

  11. Policies and strategies. Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, N

    1992-08-01

    Bangladesh has a population of nearly 108 million on a landmass of 143,998 sq km. The rate of population growth peaked at around 35 in the 1960s. The population increased from about 43 million in 1951 to 68 million in 1970 and to about 90 million in 1981. In 1976 a national policy for population control and family planning (FP) was announced which employed thousands of full-time field workers, and developed information, education, and motivation activities. The implementation strategy entailed the integration of health and FP, maternal child health (FP/MCH) service delivery systems at subdistrict (upazila) levels with a wide choice of contraceptive methods and expanded good quality services. Greater emphasis on MCH services included immunization, oral rehydration, and training of traditional birth attendants. Even if the goal of net reproductive rate of 1 is achieved by 2005, the population will rise to about 137 million by 2000. The Fourth 5 year Plan (1990-95) seeks to lower the growth rate from 2.15 in 1990 to 1.8% by 1995; to cut the crude birth rate of 34.5 live births/1000 people in 1990 to 30.1/1000 by 1995; and to reduce the crude death rate of 13.6/1000 population in 1990 to 11.9/1000 by 1995. The reduction of the total fertility rate from 4.30 in 1990 to 3.40 by 1995 would require increasing the contraceptive prevalence rate of 40% in 1991 to 50% in 1995. It is also planned to raise the number of the continuous users of contraceptives from 8.8 million in 1991 to 12.3 million acceptors by 1995. The government has been providing continuous institutional support to a network of FP clinics in rural areas which the Family Planning Board started to operate in 1965. The present field structure is composed of the division level (4 divisions in the country), district level (64 districts), upazila level (460 upazilas), and union level (4500 rural unions).

  12. Cambodia: human trafficking legislation threatens HIV response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearshouse, Richard

    2008-12-01

    In February 2008, Cambodia's new Law on the Suppression of Human Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation was promulgated and went into effect. The law criminalizes sex for money, public soliciting for prostitution and many forms of financial transactions connected to sex work. The law has been criticized for conflating sex work and trafficking.

  13. Cambodia | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    build research capacity and a research culture in Cambodia. upgrade skills and improve working conditions for young, low-skilled workers — mainly women and ethnic minorities. improve nutrient-rich food, where over one-third of deaths under age 5 relate to under-nutrition. produce more fish — a traditional food rich in iron ...

  14. English in Cambodia: Changes and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Stephen H.; Bounchan, Suksiri

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports research undertaken at a prestigious university in Phnom Penh in late 2007. The views of lecturers who teach the BEd (TEFL) degree and their students were canvassed in relation to the status of English in Cambodia. The students completed a questionnaire probing their views on the notion of a Cambodian English, as well as their…

  15. Journalism Training in Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, Sue

    2000-01-01

    Notes that both journalism and journalism training are undergoing major changes in Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos. Offers insights and practical guidance for trainers, elements of which could apply to most developing countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Highlights some of the problems encountered by a short-term foreign guest lecturer, albeit one who…

  16. The Arts of Cambodia and Its Neighbors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, CA.

    This teacher's packet accompanies a slide presentation on the arts of Cambodia and those nations on the Indochina peninsula. The packet contains: (1) a slide list describing the art depicted on each slide with time period and dimensions of the piece; (2) an introductory essay describing the geography, people, religion, art and history of the area;…

  17. Cambodia Rural Livelihoods and Natural Resources Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... from several government agencies and nongovernmental organizations involved in community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) projects in the area of forestry, fisheries, coastal resources and protected areas. Research support will be provided by a team based in the Cambodia CBNRM Learning Institute.

  18. Swimming in uncharted waters. Reports from Cambodia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, G.D.M.

    2011-01-01

    This is 2006 and my home is Phnom Penh. I’m on a placement for a volunteer organization that aims at the sharing of skills and knowledge for a local salary. My years in Cambodia have their highs and lows but hours of careless happiness are hard to come by. There is commiseration and compassion,

  19. Cambodia Rural Livelihoods and Natural Resources Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cambodia is one of the least developed countries in Southeast Asia, with a large poor rural population dependent on natural resources for food and income. Over the past several years, the country has introduced extensive legislation related to the management of natural resources. On paper, the role of local communities ...

  20. Pediatric Palliative Care Initiative in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Yaşar Çeliker

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cancer care with curative intent remains difficult to manage in many resource-limited settings such as Cambodia. Cambodia has a small workforce with limited financial and health-care resources resulting in delayed diagnoses and availability of limited therapeutic tools. Thus, palliative care becomes the primary form of care in most cases. Although palliative care is becoming an integral part of medical care in developed countries, this concept remains poorly understood and utilized in developing countries. Angkor Hospital for Children serves a relatively large pediatric population in northern Cambodia. According to the modern definition of palliative care, approximately two-thirds of the patients admitted to the hospital were deemed candidates to receive palliative care. In an effort to develop a pediatric palliative care team utilizing existing resources and intensive training, our focus group recruited already existing teams with different health-care expertise and other motivated members of the hospital. During this process, we have also formed a palliative care training team of local experts to maintain ongoing palliative care education. Feedback from patients and health-care providers confirmed the effectiveness of these efforts. In conclusion, palliative and sustainable care was offered effectively in a resource-limited setting with adequately trained and motivated local providers. In this article, the steps and systems used to overcome challenges in Cambodia are summarized in the hope that our experience urges governmental and non-governmental agencies to support similar initiatives.

  1. Pediatric Palliative Care Initiative in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çeliker, Mahmut Yaşar; Pagnarith, Yos; Akao, Kazumi; Sophearin, Dim; Sorn, Sokchea

    2017-01-01

    Cancer care with curative intent remains difficult to manage in many resource-limited settings such as Cambodia. Cambodia has a small workforce with limited financial and health-care resources resulting in delayed diagnoses and availability of limited therapeutic tools. Thus, palliative care becomes the primary form of care in most cases. Although palliative care is becoming an integral part of medical care in developed countries, this concept remains poorly understood and utilized in developing countries. Angkor Hospital for Children serves a relatively large pediatric population in northern Cambodia. According to the modern definition of palliative care, approximately two-thirds of the patients admitted to the hospital were deemed candidates to receive palliative care. In an effort to develop a pediatric palliative care team utilizing existing resources and intensive training, our focus group recruited already existing teams with different health-care expertise and other motivated members of the hospital. During this process, we have also formed a palliative care training team of local experts to maintain ongoing palliative care education. Feedback from patients and health-care providers confirmed the effectiveness of these efforts. In conclusion, palliative and sustainable care was offered effectively in a resource-limited setting with adequately trained and motivated local providers. In this article, the steps and systems used to overcome challenges in Cambodia are summarized in the hope that our experience urges governmental and non-governmental agencies to support similar initiatives. PMID:28804708

  2. Calming the mind: Healing after mass atrocity in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agger, Inger

    2015-08-01

    After catastrophic events in which people's survival has been threatened, as happened during the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia 1975-1979, some continue to suffer from painful mental symptoms. Surveys carried out in Cambodia based on Western diagnostic categories have found a high prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety symptoms in the population. This study explored Cambodian approaches to healing trauma, examining the ways in which Cambodians appeal to elements of Buddhism in their efforts to calm their minds, situating this mode of coping in the context of broader Khmer Buddhist practice and understandings. Western psychology may have much to learn from local, contextualised methods of dealing with the aftermath of trauma, including Khmer understandings of distress and approaches to relief. Methods of assessment and treatment of distress cannot be transposed wholesale from one cultural setting to another but require considerable cultural adaptation. This kind of cultural interchange may give rise to innovative, hybrid discourses and methods that may have much to offer in the support of victims of organised violence. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Infections at a Provincial Reference Hospital, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Maryline; San, Kim Chamroeun; Pho, Yati; Sok, Chandara; Dousset, Jean-Philippe; Brant, William; Hurtado, Northan; Eam, Khun Kim; Ardizzoni, Elisa; Heng, Seiha; Godreuil, Sylvain; Yew, Wing-Wai; Hewison, Cathy

    2017-07-01

    Prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) disease is poorly documented in countries with high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB). We describe prevalence, risk factors, and TB program implications for NTM isolates and disease in Cambodia. A prospective cohort of 1,183 patients with presumptive TB underwent epidemiologic, clinical, radiologic, and microbiologic evaluation, including >12-months of follow-up for patients with NTM isolates. Prevalence of NTM isolates was 10.8% and of disease was 0.9%; 217 (18.3%) patients had TB. Of 197 smear-positive patients, 171 (86.8%) had TB confirmed (167 by culture and 4 by Xpert MTB/RIF assay only) and 11 (5.6%) had NTM isolates. HIV infection and past TB were independently associated with having NTM isolates. Improved detection of NTM isolates in Cambodia might require more systematic use of mycobacterial culture and the use of Xpert MTB/RIF to confirm smear-positive TB cases, especially in patients with HIV infection or a history of TB.

  4. Mass media tours Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    In May 1998, representatives of Japan's mass media toured Bangladesh to learn about the country's reproductive health and population programs. The goal of the visit was for the journalists to spread information about the projects to their peers, to government officials, and parliamentarians responsible for allocations of foreign aid. The 1st stage of the visit involved meetings with program officials and organizers. In the 2nd stage, the journalists toured: 1) Matlab, where the International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research has been implementing an intensive family planning (FP) program; 2) the Panchdona IP area, where the Integrated Family Development Project is being conducted with funding from the Japanese government; 3) an FP office and satellite clinic; and 4) a site where voluntary organizations are providing FP/maternal-child health care. The journalists also learned about how micro-credit loans operate. Participating journalists reported that they were very impressed with the people of Bangladesh, and that they had gained a new understanding of the relationship between reproductive health and human rights.

  5. Human Sentinel Surveillance of Influenza and Other Respiratory Viral Pathogens in Border Areas of Western Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ans Timmermans

    Full Text Available Little is known about circulation of influenza and other respiratory viruses in remote populations along the Thai-Cambodia border in western Cambodia. We screened 586 outpatients (median age 5, range 1-77 presenting with influenza-like-illness (ILI at 4 sentinel sites in western Cambodia between May 2010 and December 2012. Real-time reverse transcriptase (rRT PCR for influenza was performed on combined nasal and throat specimens followed by viral culture, antigenic analysis, antiviral susceptibility testing and full genome sequencing for phylogenetic analysis. ILI-specimens negative for influenza were cultured, followed by rRT-PCR for enterovirus and rhinovirus (EV/RV and EV71. Influenza was found in 168 cases (29% and occurred almost exclusively in the rainy season from June to November. Isolated influenza strains had close antigenic and phylogenetic relationships, matching vaccine and circulating strains found elsewhere in Cambodia. Influenza vaccination coverage was low (<20%. Western Cambodian H1N1(2009 isolate genomes were more closely related to 10 earlier Cambodia isolates (94.4% genome conservation than to 13 Thai isolates (75.9% genome conservation, despite sharing the majority of the amino acid changes with the Thai references. Most genes showed signatures of purifying selection. Viral culture detected only adenovirus (5.7% and parainfluenza virus (3.8%, while non-polio enteroviruses (10.3% were detected among 164 culture-negative samples including coxsackievirus A4, A6, A8, A9, A12, B3, B4 and echovirus E6 and E9 using nested RT-PCR methods. A single specimen of EV71 was found. Despite proximity to Thailand, influenza epidemiology of these western Cambodian isolates followed patterns observed elsewhere in Cambodia, continuing to support current vaccine and treatment recommendations from the Cambodian National Influenza Center. Amino acid mutations at non-epitope sites, particularly hemagglutinin genes, require further investigation in

  6. Human Sentinel Surveillance of Influenza and Other Respiratory Viral Pathogens in Border Areas of Western Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Ans; Melendrez, Melanie C; Se, Youry; Chuang, Ilin; Samon, Nou; Uthaimongkol, Nichapat; Klungthong, Chonticha; Manasatienkij, Wudtichai; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Tyner, Stuart D; Rith, Sareth; Horm, Viseth Srey; Jarman, Richard G; Bethell, Delia; Chanarat, Nitima; Pavlin, Julie; Wongstitwilairoong, Tippa; Saingam, Piyaporn; El, But Sam; Fukuda, Mark M; Touch, Sok; Sovann, Ly; Fernandez, Stefan; Buchy, Philippe; Chanthap, Lon; Saunders, David

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about circulation of influenza and other respiratory viruses in remote populations along the Thai-Cambodia border in western Cambodia. We screened 586 outpatients (median age 5, range 1-77) presenting with influenza-like-illness (ILI) at 4 sentinel sites in western Cambodia between May 2010 and December 2012. Real-time reverse transcriptase (rRT) PCR for influenza was performed on combined nasal and throat specimens followed by viral culture, antigenic analysis, antiviral susceptibility testing and full genome sequencing for phylogenetic analysis. ILI-specimens negative for influenza were cultured, followed by rRT-PCR for enterovirus and rhinovirus (EV/RV) and EV71. Influenza was found in 168 cases (29%) and occurred almost exclusively in the rainy season from June to November. Isolated influenza strains had close antigenic and phylogenetic relationships, matching vaccine and circulating strains found elsewhere in Cambodia. Influenza vaccination coverage was low (Cambodia isolates (94.4% genome conservation) than to 13 Thai isolates (75.9% genome conservation), despite sharing the majority of the amino acid changes with the Thai references. Most genes showed signatures of purifying selection. Viral culture detected only adenovirus (5.7%) and parainfluenza virus (3.8%), while non-polio enteroviruses (10.3%) were detected among 164 culture-negative samples including coxsackievirus A4, A6, A8, A9, A12, B3, B4 and echovirus E6 and E9 using nested RT-PCR methods. A single specimen of EV71 was found. Despite proximity to Thailand, influenza epidemiology of these western Cambodian isolates followed patterns observed elsewhere in Cambodia, continuing to support current vaccine and treatment recommendations from the Cambodian National Influenza Center. Amino acid mutations at non-epitope sites, particularly hemagglutinin genes, require further investigation in light of an increasingly important role of permissive mutations in influenza virus evolution

  7. OPPORTUNITIES OF DEVELOPING TOURISM INDUSTRY IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayub CHOWDHURY

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism appeal includes natural places like beaches, eco-parks, lakes, valleys, rivers, islands etc., archeological sites, historic mosques and monuments, resorts, picnic spots, forest and wildlife. Bangladesh is a riverine country having attractive panoramic beauty. There are hills, valley, canals, lake, eco-park and mangrove forests, rivers, so many islands and the longest beach in the world. In this country, the scope of nature based tourism, resource based tourism, culture based tourism and eco-tourism is quite evident. Bangladesh is trying hard to develop its tourism industry. Therefore the whole situation deserves to be seen from right perspectives. Role of government is positive since the last twenty years both private and public organizations have come forwarded to attract the local and foreign tourists. The cracks of problem could not identify accurately because of the paucity number of researches and investigations in our country. Developed and organized tourism industry could change the economic condition and contribute a big share in the GDP of Bangladesh. This study will impede the opportunities of developing tourism industry in the light of existing resources.

  8. Review of Climate Change and Water-Related Diseases in Cambodia and Findings From Stakeholder Knowledge Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, Lachlan J; Chan, Vibol S; Bowen, Kathyrn J; Iddings, Steven N; Hero, Kol; Raingsey, Piseth P

    2016-03-01

    This project aims to increase the resilience of Cambodian communities to the health risks posed by climate change-related impacts on water-related diseases. There are a number of water-related diseases that are present in Cambodia and are likely to be susceptible to climate change. These include diarrheal diseases, typhoid fever, leptospirosis, melioidosis, viral hepatitis, and schistosomiasis. Certain subsectors of Cambodia's population may be more vulnerable than others with respect to climate change impacts on water and health, including agricultural workers and residents of flood-and drought-prone areas. The current level of understanding on the part of health professionals and other key stakeholders in Cambodia regarding the risks posed by climate change on water-sensitive diseases is relatively low. Strategies by which this understanding might be strengthened are suggested. © 2014 APJPH.

  9. Diarrheal Diseases and Climate Change in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, Lachlan J; Imai, Chisato; Buettner, Petra G; Gager, Paul; Chan, Vibol S; Hashizume, Masahiro; Iddings, Steven N; Kol, Hero; Raingsey, Piseth P; Lyne, K

    2016-10-01

    The DRIP-SWICCH (Developing Research and Innovative Policies Specific to the Water-related Impacts of Climate Change on Health) project aimed to increase the resilience of Cambodian communities to the health risks posed by climate change-related impacts on water. This article follows a review of climate change and water-related diseases in Cambodia and presents the results of a time series analysis of monthly weather and diarrheal disease data for 11 provinces. In addition, correlations of diarrheal disease incidence with selected demographic, socioeconomic, and water and sanitation indicators are described, with results suggesting education and literacy may be most protective against disease. The potential impact of climate change on the burden of diarrheal disease in Cambodia is considered, along with the implications of these findings for health systems adaptation.

  10. Bangladesh floods, cyclones and ENSO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, A.M.

    1994-04-01

    It has been found that in general there is a reduction of rainfall in all the regions of Bangladesh in all the seasons - premonsoon, monsoon and post monsoon during El Nino years. It has also been observed that in strong El Nino year Bangladesh is not hit by a catastrophic flood or a catastrophic cyclone. In the past, occurrence of famines in this region of the world coincided with El Nino years. The years of weak El Nino or when the El Nino index is positive seem to be favourable for the occurrence of floods and cyclones in Bangladesh. A theory of the modulation of the monsoon in Bangladesh by the Walker circulation has been described in the paper. (author). 14 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  11. Case Study: Bangladesh Bank Heist

    OpenAIRE

    Md Ahsan Habib

    2017-01-01

    Cyber crime is a threat to our E- commerce . A hacker group named "Lazarus" hacked $951 million from Bangladesh Bank's account. This is the short case study of this incident with professional ethical view.

  12. Bangladesh : Growth and Export Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    Bangladesh's growth over the past two decades or more, in terms of developing-country standards, has been notable. Such record of progress is one guide to the country's potential to grow, and to score well in world markets. To this end, i.e., to make the most of its export opportunities on a changing international playing field, Bangladesh needs to follow a strategic game plan, invest in infrastructure, technology and skills, streamline policies, and improve quality and safety standards. This...

  13. Dietary Arsenic Exposure in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Kile, Molly L.; Houseman, E. Andres; Breton, Carrie V.; Smith, Thomas; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Mahiuddin, Golam; Christiani, David C.

    2007-01-01

    Background Millions of people in Bangladesh are at risk of chronic arsenic toxicity from drinking contaminated groundwater, but little is known about diet as an additional source of As exposure. Methods We employed a duplicate diet survey to quantify daily As intake in 47 women residing in Pabna, Bangladesh. All samples were analyzed for total As, and a subset of 35 samples were measured for inorganic arsenic (iAs) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry equipped with a dynamic rea...

  14. CSM a success in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The Bangladesh Social Marketing Project (SMP), providing contraceptives at an annual rate of 931,000 couple years of protection (CYP) as of June 1983, is a success. This figure has grown markedly since the start of the program in late 1975, when the SMP provided 80,000 CYPs, or 8% of nonclinical protection provided. The SMP has contributed to the steadily increasing national nonclinical contraceptive distribution. Currently, SMP distribution accounts for as much as the government and nongovernment programs combined. When clinical methods (including sterilizations) are added to national distribution, the SMP share represents about 28% of total contraceptive use. The SMP does not provide clinical methods, but the entire increase in nonclinical protection provided by the national program since 1975 has been the result of SMP product sales. The SMP utilizes the available mass media for promotion, including print, radio, television, as well as outdoor media and point of purchase materials. Mobile Film Units (MFUs) are an innovative promotional method employed by the SMP. Approximately 80 night time outdoor showings are organized each month in rural areas by SMP promoters. Typically, several short films, usually a popular story with a family planning theme, are run. Between each film the SMP products are of advertised. Products are often sold during and after the films. Retail outlets for SMP products include general stores, pharmacies, and other small shops. When products were introduced in 1975 retail outlets totaled 7500. By August 1983 the number of country wide retailers carrying SMP products had grown to nearly 100,000. In 1982 a marketing strategy emphasizing the role of doctors and rural medical practitioners (RMPs) was introduced. There are between 70,00-100,000 RMPs in Bangladesh. They are well known and respected "doctors" in their villages and add an extensive family planning outreach to the SMP system. The most important advantage of using the RMPs is their

  15. Starting mental health services in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasundaram, D J; van de Put, W A; Eisenbruch, M; de Jong, J T

    1999-04-01

    Cambodia has undergone massive psychosocial trauma in the last few decades, but has had virtually no western-style mental health services. For the first time in Cambodia a number of mental health clinics in rural areas have been started. This experience is used to discuss the risks and opportunities in introducing these services in the present war-torn situation. Basic statistics from the clinics are presented in the context of the historical and traditional setting, and the effort to maintain a culturally informed approach is described. The contrasting results in the clinics are analyzed in relation to factors intrinsic to the health care system and those related to the local population in order to highlight the issues involved in establishing future mental health services, both locally in other provinces and in situations similar to Cambodia. The efficacy of introducing low-cost, basic mental health care is shown, and related to the need to find solutions for prevailing problems on the psychosocial level. They can be introduced with modest means, and can be complementary to local health beliefs and traditional healing. In introducing mental health services, an approach is needed which adapts to the absorption potential of the health system as well as to the patients' need to find meaningful help. Existing resources, from the traditional healing sector to rudimentary village structures, cannot be neglected in the rehabilitation of the community, or in interventions to help the individual patient.

  16. Ex vivo drug sensitivity profiles of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from Cambodia and Thailand, 2005 to 2010, determined by a histidine-rich protein-2 assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyner Stuart D

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In vitro drug susceptibility assay of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates processed “immediate ex vivo” (IEV, without culture adaption, and tested using histidine-rich protein-2 (HRP-2 detection as an assay, is an expedient way to track drug resistance. Methods From 2005 to 2010, a HRP-2 in vitro assay assessed 451 P. falciparum field isolates obtained from subjects with malaria in western and northern Cambodia, and eastern Thailand, processed IEV, for 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50 against seven anti-malarial drugs, including artesunate (AS, dihydroartemisinin (DHA, and piperaquine. Results In western Cambodia, from 2006 to 2010, geometric mean (GM IC50 values for chloroquine, mefloquine, quinine, AS, DHA, and lumefantrine increased. In northern Cambodia, from 2009–2010, GM IC50 values for most drugs approximated the highest western Cambodia GM IC50 values in 2009 or 2010. Conclusions Western Cambodia is associated with sustained reductions in anti-malarial drug susceptibility, including the artemisinins, with possible emergence, or spread, to northern Cambodia. This potential public health crisis supports continued in vitro drug IC50 monitoring of P. falciparum isolates at key locations in the region.

  17. Bangladesh (country/area statements).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    According to this statement presented to the Committee on Population of the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, the population of Bangladesh increased from 76.4 million in 1974 to 89.9 million in 1981 and if the annual estimated growth rate of 2.4% continues unchecked, the population will be 111.5 million by 1990. Rapid population growth increases the man-land ratio, while the undesirable age structure entails a high dependency burden and provides a large base for further population growth. The huge investment in food production is neutralized and educational facilities remain unavailable for most of the nation's 15.6 million school-age children. Even under the most optimistic population projection, the total will increase by more than 60% by the year 2015, exacerbating the already serious problems of poverty and unemployment. The urban population is expected to increase from 17.5 million at present to 37.3 million by 2000, including a multitude of squatters with no visible income-earning opportunities. The population policy adopted by the government in June 1976 was directed toward influencing demographic behavior primarily through information, education, and motivation activities and a wide array of family planning services provided at maternal-child health and family planning centers. The government has taken some steps to increase economic productivity and create employment, and has made administrative changes including upgrading the smallest administrative units and creating directorates for primary education and women's affairs. Health and population control strategies will include establishing primary health care and maternal-child health and family planning centers throughout the country, expanding the family planning worker to population ratio, and integrating the family planning programs with all development oriented programs. The National Council for Population Control and several other organizational structures have been created

  18. 31 CFR 500.565 - Family remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Vietnam and Cambodia. 500.565 Section 500.565 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia. (a) The remittances specified in this section are authorized... relative is a national of Vietnam or Cambodia, is a resident of Vietnam, Cambodia, or a country to which...

  19. Labor migration and mental health in Cambodia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sarah R; Robinson, W Courtland; Chhim, Sotheara; Bass, Judith K

    2014-03-01

    Labor migration is thought to have significant mental and physical health impacts, given the risks for exploitation and abuse of migrant workers, particularly among those in semiskilled and unskilled positions, although empirical data are limited. This qualitative study, conducted in July 2010 in Banteay Meanchey Province, Cambodia, focused on psychosocial and mental health signs and symptoms associated with labor migration among Cambodian migrant workers to Thailand. Two qualitative methods identified a number of mental health problems faced by Cambodian migrant workers in Thailand, including the presence of anxiety and depression-like problems among this population, described in local terminology as pibak chet (sadness), keut chreun (thinking too much), and khval khvay khnong chet (worry in heart). Key informants revealed the extent to which psychosocial well-being is associated with conditions of poverty, including debt and lack of access to basic services.

  20. Introduction of ICT and Multimedia into Cambodia's Teacher Training Centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionys, David

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the integration of ICT in the teacher training centres of Cambodia. It focuses on the collaboration between the Teacher Training Department of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (MoEYS) of Cambodia and VVOB (Flemish Association for Development Cooperation and Technical Assistance), which is aimed at improving ICT…

  1. Low Circulation of Zika Virus, Cambodia, 2007-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Veasna; Ong, Sivuth; Leang, Rithea; Huy, Rekol; Ly, Sowath; Mounier, Ugo; Ou, Teyputita; In, Saraden; Peng, Borin; Ken, Sreymom; Buchy, Philippe; Tarantola, Arnaud; Horwood, Paul F; Dussart, Philippe

    2017-02-01

    We describe a retrospective study on circulation of Zika virus in Cambodia during 2007-2016 among patients with dengue-like symptoms and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Our findings suggest that Zika virus in Cambodia belongs to the Asia genotype, is endemic, has low prevalence, and has had low-level impact on public health.

  2. 75 FR 11620 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 6918] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to Cambodia Pursuant to section 7086(c)(2) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs... Cambodia, and I hereby waive such restriction. This determination shall be reported to the Congress, and...

  3. Community Driven Universal Access Solutions in Cambodia : Pilots ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Community Driven Universal Access Solutions in Cambodia : Pilots to Policy Research. In Cambodia new information and communication technologies (ITCs) are almost nonexistent outside the major cities. The country's national ICT policy framework is in its formative stage, receptive to policy research and strategy ...

  4. Food Security and Climate Change in Cambodia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cambodia is one of the poorest countries in Asia. About 70% of the population depends on agriculture for a living. Food insecurity affects rural people in particular, and the number of people who are food insecure is growing. Among Southeast Asian countries, Cambodia is also one of the most vulnerable to climate change.

  5. Vegetation and vascular flora of the Mekong River, Kratie and Steung Treng Provinces, Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    James F. Maxwell

    2009-01-01

    A preliminary and detailed botanical survey of the islands in the Mekong River between Kratie and Steung Treng was done. This area includes the most biologically intact and threatened riparian and terrestrial ecosystems along the river in Cambodia. The vegetation includes six riverine zones and four terrestrial facies. Riverine habitats are mostly intact while the terrestrial vegetation ranges from destroyed to degraded. Effective conservation measures are required to stop further habitat...

  6. Bangladesh Integrated Household Survey (BIHS) 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This dataset is the second round of Bangladesh Integrated Household Survey (BIHS). The BIHS is the only nationally representative survey in Bangladesh that collects...

  7. All projects related to bangladesh | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Program: Maternal and Child Health. Total Funding: CA$ 438,600.00. Reducing dietary related risks associated with non-communicable diseases in Bangladesh. Project. Bangladesh is undergoing a rapid demographic and epidemiological transition. Region: Bangladesh, Canada. Program: Food, Environment, and Health.

  8. Spread of HIV-1 to children in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richner, B; Laurent, D; Sunnarat, Y; Bee, D; Nadal, D

    1997-05-17

    Beginning November 1, 1995, children under 5 years of age, who were admitted to Kantha Bopha Hospitals and who were suspected tuberculosis cases, were screened for human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). By January 31, 1997, 9026 children, 83% of the under 5-year-olds admitted, had been tested; 290 (3.2%) were positive. Serum samples from 205 children of the 236 seropositive children under the age of 18 months were tested for p24 antigen; 51 (25%) were positive. Mothers of 173 of the seropositive children were tested for antibodies to HIV; 170 were positive, which suggests that the main mode of acquisition of HIV-1 in the children was vertical transmission. If HIV-1 infection occurred only in the 54 seropositive children older than 18 months and in the 51 children younger than 18 months with detectable p24 antigen, the calculated prevalence of HIV-1 in children under 5 years old who were suspected of having tuberculosis when admitted to Kantha Bopha Children's Hospitals would be 1.2%. If the 17% not included in the test were all negative, the prevalence would be 1%. This is an underestimate because some of the children not tested could be positive and because some of the children tested had indeterminate HIV status. HIV testing was extended to all children admitted to the hospital; 715 were younger than 5 years of age, 596 of whom were suspected of having tuberculosis, and 119 of whom were not. The seroprevalences for the 2 subgroups were 3.2% and 0.8%, respectively. None of the 369 older children was seropositive. In 1996, the World Health Organization estimated a seroprevalence of 1.97% in adults 15-49 years old in Cambodia, the highest among Asian countries. The blood bank at Kantha Bopha found 211 (6.6%) HIV-1 seropositives among 3197 donors in 1995 and 211 (7.5%) among 2834 donors in 1996. Similar figures were seen at the National Transfusion Centre in Phnom Penh. A 1996 survey in Cambodia found an HIV-1

  9. Cambodia. MOE to introduce population education in three subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Cambodia is currently undertaking reforms of its educational system both in structure and substance. Under these reforms, the Ministry of Education (MOE) is revising its curricula and textbooks in selective subjects. The government and UNFPA saw a timely opportunity to introduce population education concepts into three subjects, geography, home science, and moral education and civics from grades 7 to 12. To pave the way for this activity, the UNFPA and the government discussed the development of a pilot project that will concentrate first on the training of small numbers of professional educators and development of a first draft of curricula and textbooks including teacher's guides which could be tried out in this pilot stage and reproduced during the second phase. The project document has been prepared with the assistance of CST adviser on population education, Mr. Ansar Ali Khan, based in CST Bangkok, and is now under review. full text

  10. Multiple populations of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miotto, Olivo; Almagro-Garcia, Jacob; Manske, Magnus; MacInnis, Bronwyn; Campino, Susana; Rockett, Kirk A; Amaratunga, Chanaki; Lim, Pharath; Suon, Seila; Sreng, Sokunthea; Anderson, Jennifer M; Duong, Socheat; Nguon, Chea; Chuor, Char Meng; Saunders, David; Se, Youry; Lon, Chantap; Fukuda, Mark M; Amenga-Etego, Lucas; Hodgson, Abraham VO; Asoala, Victor; Imwong, Mallika; Takala-Harrison, Shannon; Nosten, Francois; Su, Xin-zhuan; Ringwald, Pascal; Ariey, Frédéric; Dolecek, Christiane; Hien, Tran Tinh; Boni, Maciej F; Thai, Cao Quang; Amambua-Ngwa, Alfred; Conway, David J; Djimdé, Abdoulaye A; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Zongo, Issaka; Ouedraogo, Jean-Bosco; Alcock, Daniel; Drury, Eleanor; Auburn, Sarah; Koch, Oliver; Sanders, Mandy; Hubbart, Christina; Maslen, Gareth; Ruano-Rubio, Valentin; Jyothi, Dushyanth; Miles, Alistair; O’Brien, John; Gamble, Chris; Oyola, Samuel O; Rayner, Julian C; Newbold, Chris I; Berriman, Matthew; Spencer, Chris CA; McVean, Gilean; Day, Nicholas P; White, Nicholas J; Bethell, Delia; Dondorp, Arjen M; Plowe, Christopher V; Fairhurst, Rick M; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P

    2013-01-01

    We describe an analysis of genome variation in 825 Plasmodium falciparum samples from Asia and Africa that reveals an unusual pattern of parasite population structure at the epicentre of artemisinin resistance in western Cambodia. Within this relatively small geographical area we have discovered several distinct but apparently sympatric parasite subpopulations with extremely high levels of genetic differentiation. Of particular interest are three subpopulations, all associated with clinical resistance to artemisinin, which have skewed allele frequency spectra and remarkably high levels of haplotype homozygosity, indicative of founder effects and recent population expansion. We provide a catalogue of SNPs that show high levels of differentiation in the artemisinin-resistant subpopulations, including codon variants in various transporter proteins and DNA mismatch repair proteins. These data provide a population genetic framework for investigating the biological origins of artemisinin resistance and for defining molecular markers to assist its elimination. PMID:23624527

  11. Media education to improve adolescent sexual and reproductive health in Cambodia. RAS/98/P10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    Through the use of interactive radio and other media, Health Unlimited through its implementing agencies, the Cambodia Health Education Media Services and Cambodia Health Education and Development is working towards increasing knowledge of reproductive and sexual health among Cambodian adolescents. It also seeks to promote the use of reproductive and sexual health services for the youth; improve youth involvement in developing information, education and communication (IEC) materials on reproductive health; and increase the capacity of nongovernmental organizations, government agencies and the private sector to develop IEC for the youth. The strategies being pursued include exploring the role of radio and using nongovernmental organization expertise in radio show production and sharing IEC messages with the media. The main activities being carried include the production of interactive radio magazine programs for the youth along with magazine supplements, training of health and media staff and providing them with work experience, and involving the youth in media production by using an interactive format and focus group discussion.

  12. Ground-water resources of Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, William Charles; Bradford, Gary M.

    1977-01-01

    Cambodia (now the Khmer Republic), in tropical, humid southeast Asia, has an area of 175,630 km and a population of about 5 million. The Mekong River, one of the world's largest rivers, flows through Cambodia. Also, the Tonle Sap (Grand Lac), a highly productive fresh-water lake, functions as a huge off-channel storage reservoir for flood flow of the Mekong River. Surfacewater discharge in streams and rivers of Cambodia is abundant during the wet season, mid-May through mid-November, when 85 percent of the precipitation falls, but is frequently deficient during the remainder of the year. Annual rainfall ranges from 1,370 mm in the central lowlands to more than 5,000 mm in the mountainous highlands. The mean annual temperature for the country is 27.5?C and the evaporation rate is high. During 1960-63, 1,103 holes were drilled in 16 of the 18 khets (provinces), of which 795 or approximately 72 percent, were productive wells at rates ranging from 1.1 to 2,967 l/min. The productive wells ranged in depth from 2 to 209.4 m and were 23.2 m deep on the average. Mr. Rasmussen ' studied the subsurface geology of Cambodia in considerable detail by examining drillers' logs and constructing nine geologic cross sections. The principal aquifer tapped by drilled wells in Cambodia is the Old Alluvium. In many places, however, dug wells and a few shallow drilled wells obtain water from the Young Alluvium. Sandstone of the Indosinias Formation yields moderate to small quantities of water to wells in a number of places. Also, wells tapping water-bearing basalt have a small to moderate yield. The quality of water is recorded in only a few analyses. The dissolved solids concentrations appear to be generally low so that the water is usable for most purposes without treatment. Some well waters, however, are high in iron and would have to be aerated and filtered before use. In this report, well records are tabulated, and the geology and hydrology is discussed by khets. The bulk of the

  13. Social marketing of contraceptives in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellstede, W P; Ciszewski, R L

    1984-01-01

    Since 1975 there has been a family planning program operating in Bangladesh which advertises and commercially distributes contraceptive products in both rural and urban areas throughout the country. The program, known as the Social Marketing Project (SMP) and managed by Population Services International (PSI), now serves almost 1 million acceptors per month at an annual cost per couple of less than US$6.50, including the cost of donated contraceptives. This paper looks at the evolution of the project and its growth through the years, and addresses some primary concerns of planners of social marketing programs.

  14. Molecular Epidemiology of Hemoglobinopathies in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkongdee, Thongperm; Tanakulmas, Jatuporn; Butthep, Punnee; Winichagoon, Pranee; Main, Barbara; Yiannakis, Miriam; George, Joby; Devenish, Robyn; Fucharoen, Suthat; Svasti, Saovaros

    2016-06-01

    Determining the magnitude of the thalassemia problem in a country is important for implementing a national prevention and control program. In order to acquire accurate thalassemia prevalence data, the gene frequency of α- and β-thalassemia (α- and β-thal) in different regions of a country should be determined. The molecular basis of thalassemia in Cambodia was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques in a community-based cross-sectional survey of 1631 unrelated individuals from three regions, Battambang, Preah Vihear and Phnom Penh. Thalassemia mutations were detected in 62.7% of the three studied population of Cambodia. Hb E (HBB: c.79G > A) was the most common β-globin gene mutation with a frequency ranging from 0.139 to 0.331, while the most frequent α-globin gene mutation was the -α(3.7) (rightward) deletion (0.098-0.255). The other frequencies were 0.001-0.003 for β-thal, 0.008-0.011 for α-thal-1 (- -(SEA)), 0.003-0.008 for α-thal-2 [-α(4.2) (leftward deletion)], 0.021-0.044 for Hb Constant Spring (Hb CS, HBA2: c.427T > C) and 0.009-0.036 for Hb Paksé (HBA2: c.429A > T). A regional specific thalassemia gene frequency was observed. Preah Vihear had the highest prevalence of Hb E (55.9%), α-thal-2 (24.0%) and nondeletional α-thal (15.1%), whereas Phnom Penh had the lowest frequency of thalassemia genes. Interestingly, in Preah Vihear, the frequency of Hb Paksé was extremely high (0.036), almost equivalent to that of Hb CS (0.044). Our results indicate the importance of micromapping and epidemiology studies of thalassemia, which will assist in establishing the national prevention and control program in Cambodia.

  15. Cambodia's recent history has major population impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This article describes major demographic patterns and programs for reducing fertility in Cambodia, based on the 1996 Demographic Survey. A population census will be undertaken in 1998. Cambodia has a very low sex ratio among persons aged 40-44 years, and a loss of population aged 35-39 years. This population pattern is accounted for by the number of men who died during the war period of 1975-79. Over 24% of households are headed by women. Population is about 10.8 million. Population will double in about 25 years. The rate of natural increase was 2.6% annually. The Royal Government Public Investment Program for 1996-2000, will increase investment in family planning and birth spacing to increase contraceptive supplies, improve distribution, and expand the scope of IEC. In 1995, a KAP survey estimated that the total fertility rate was 4.9 children/woman. The 1996 Demographic Survey estimated a rate of 5.2 children/woman. Only 12.6% of currently married women used contraception, and only 6.9% were using modern contraception. With a child mortality rate of 181/1000, Cambodia is a country with one of the highest rates in the world. A national maternal mortality survey based on the sisterhood method estimated maternal mortality at 473 maternal deaths/100,000 live births. The National Maternal and Child Health Centers offers birth spacing services nationwide. The UNFPA funded program offers birth spacing and sexually transmitted disease services in 13 provinces and extensive technical and management training. Regular meetings are held between governmental and nongovernmental groups.

  16. Dynamics of soil carbon, nitrogen and soil respiration in farmer’s field with conservation agriculture Siem Reap, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The years of intensive tillage in many countries, including Cambodia, have caused significant decline in agriculture’s natural resources that could threaten the future of agricultural production and sustainability worldwide. Long-term tillage system and site-specific crop management can affect chang...

  17. NEW TRENDS IN LEGAL EDUCATION AT BANGLADESH OPEN UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid FERDOUSI

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, Formal legal education is provided by either a department of a university or an affiliated college. There are four public universities and above twenty six private universities in our country with law as a regular subject of teaching. Besides, the National University imparts teaching of law through law colleges in the country. All public and private universities providing law graduate degree by conventional system but many people deprived from this opportunities. Thus to increase equitable access to education and to develop the human resources of the country the Bangladesh Open University playing significant role. Large numbers of students of rural areas, particularly women, out of school and adults who must do work to support their families are include with the university. Bangladesh Open University is the only institution in Bangladesh which imparts education in open and distance mode and offers 23 formal programmes, the demand for the introduction of LL.B programme for the benefit of those who have been, for various reasons, deprived of the opportunity of undertaking graduate course in law in conventional mode of education. The decision to offer the programme in distance mode is being taken in response to the earnest desire of the relevant quarters expressed in various dailies and formal applications submitted to the university authority as the learners in the open and distance mode learn at his own place and any time whenever he feels convenient to learn and is not for restricted by time, space or age. Distance learning is, indeed, presently considered as a viable alternative of the conventional system of education to fulfill the growing demand for legal education.This paper presents the new academic trends in Bangladesh Open University by distance learning Bachelor of Laws (LL.B. degree and modern aspects of the legal education at School of Law in Bangladesh Open University.

  18. Prospects for Vascular Access Education in Developing Countries: Current Situation in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganuma, Toshihide; Takemoto, Yoshiaki

    2017-01-01

    We report our activities training doctors on vascular access procedures at International University (IU) Hospital in Cambodia through a program facilitated by Ubiquitous Blood Purification International, a nonprofit organization that provides medical support to developing countries in the field of dialysis medicine. Six doctors from Japan have been involved in the education of medical personnel at IU, and we have collectively visited Cambodia about 15 times from 2010 to 2016. In these visits, we have performed many operations, including 42 for arteriovenous fistula, 1 arteriovenous graft, and 1 percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. Stable development and management of vascular access is increasingly required in Cambodia due to increased use of dialysis therapy, and training of doctors in this technique is urgently required. However, we have encountered several difficulties that need to be addressed, including (1) the situation of personnel receiving this training, (2) problems with facilities, including medical equipment and drugs, (3) financial limitations, and (4) problems with management of vascular access. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Pediatric bloodstream infections in Cambodia, 2007 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesser, Nicole; Moore, Catrin E; Pocock, Joanna M; An, Khun Peng; Emary, Kate; Carter, Michael; Sona, Soeng; Poda, Sar; Day, Nicholas; Kumar, Varun; Parry, Christopher M

    2013-07-01

    Pediatric bacterial bloodstream infections (BSIs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Epidemiological data from resource-limited settings in southeast Asia, such as Cambodia, are sparse but have important implications for treatment and public health strategies. We retrospectively investigated BSI in children at a pediatric hospital and its satellite clinic in Siem Reap, Cambodia, from January 1, 2007, to July 31, 2011. The range of bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were analyzed in conjunction with demographic, clinical and outcome data. Of 7682 blood cultures with results (99.9% of cultures taken), 606 (7.9%) episodes of BSI were identified in 588 children. The incidence of BSI increased from 14 to 50/1000 admissions (P < 0.001); this was associated with an increased sampling rate. Most BSI were community acquired (89.1%). Common pathogens included Salmonella Typhi (22.8% of all isolates), Staphylococcus aureus (12.2%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (10.0%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.4%) and Escherichia coli (6.3%). 21.5% of BSI were caused by a diverse group of uncommon organisms, the majority of which were environmental Gram-negative species. No Listeria monocytogenes or Group B streptococcal BSI were identified. Antimicrobial resistance, particularly among the Enterobacteriaceae, was common. Overall mortality was substantial (19.0%), higher in neonates (36.9%) and independently associated with meningitis/meningoencephalitis and K. pneumoniae infection. BSI is a common problem in Cambodian children attending hospital and associated with significant mortality. Further studies are needed to clarify the epidemiology of neonatal sepsis, the contribution of atypical organisms and the epidemiology of pneumococcal disease before the introduction of vaccine.

  20. All projects related to Bangladesh | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2007-09-05

    Telecentre Network Startup : Bangladesh - Mission 2011. Project. The second generation of telecentres has seen the emergence of national-level networks in various parts of the word including the Ugandan Telecentre Network, Mission 2007 in India and Mission Swaabhimaan in Nepal. Start Date: September 5, 2007.

  1. Puffer fish tragedy in Bangladesh: an incident of Takifugu oblongus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A food poisoning incident resulting from the ingestion of the marine puffer Takifugu oblongus occurred at Degholia in the Khulna district of Bangladesh on 18 May 2002. A total of 36 victims, including seven deaths, from six families was reported. The victims suffered from dyspnoea, numbness of lips, paralysis, and stomach ...

  2. The Dissonance between Schooling and Learning: Evidence from Rural Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadullah, M. Niaz; Chaudhury, Nazmul

    2015-01-01

    Using a basic mathematics competence test based on the primary school curricular standard, we examine the extent to which years spent in school actually increases numeracy achievement in rural Bangladesh. Our sample includes 10-18-year-old children currently enrolled in school as well as those out of school. About half of the children failed to…

  3. Transglossic Language Practices of Young Adults in Bangladesh and Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Shaila; Dovchin, Sender; Pennycook, Alastair

    2015-01-01

    The paper explores the use of varied semiotic resources in the linguistic, social and cultural practices of young adults in the context of Bangladesh and Mongolia. Based on a translinguistic analysis (including pre-textual history, contextual relations, sub-textual meaning, intertextual echoes and post-textual interpretation) of these practices,…

  4. Changes in ante-natal care and family planning in Krakor, Pursat, Cambodia, 1996-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, B; Lower, T; James, R; Rouse, I

    2001-01-01

    This study examines variations in ante-natal care (ANC) and family planning in Krakor, Pursat, Cambodia between 1996 and 1998. Population-based survey interviews were conducted with a total of 291 women in 1996 and 211 women in 1998. An intervention strategy designed to enhance the skills and roles of Health Centre staff, Village Health Volunteers (VHVs) and Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) was conducted. Over this timeframe, reported ANC access increased from 37% to 47%. Most women delivered their last child at home, usually assisted by a TBA. Few women practiced family planning, despite the fact that most reported that they did not want any further children. A range of reasons for not practicing family planning were found to be highly significant, including the lack of available services (pCambodia.

  5. Library and Information Science Education in South Asia: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangla, P. B.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews formal postgraduate-level library and information science programs offered by universities, documentation centers, and research institutions in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. Highlights include historical background; admission requirements; length of program; curricula; faculty; course content; research; administrative…

  6. Subsurface iron and arsenic removal for drinking water treatment in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Halem, D.

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of shallow tube well drinking water is an urgent health problem in Bangladesh. Current arsenic mitigation solutions, including (household) arsenic removal options, do not always provide a sustainable alternative for safe drinking water. A novel technology, Subsurface Arsenic

  7. Biofertilizer for food legumes: Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In Bangladesh grain legumes are the protein meat substitute of the poor, and an integral part of the daily diet. Yet present yields cannot meet demand and every year about 25% of the country's grain legumes' requirements have to be imported at a cost of about US $23 million in hard-earned foreign exchange. This money could easily be saved by increasing production in the country. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, in Bangladesh to find ways of increasing yields of grain legumes using efficient strains of biofertilizers. (IAEA)

  8. Prevalence of Intestinal Helminths among Inhabitants of Cambodia (2006-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Eom, Keeseon S.; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Yoon, Cheong-Ha; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the status of intestinal helminthic infections in Cambodia, epidemiological surveys were carried out on a national scale, including 19 provinces. A total of 32,201 fecal samples were collected from schoolchildren and adults between 2006 and 2011 and examined once by the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. The overall egg positive rate of intestinal helminths was 26.2%. The prevalence of hookworms was the highest (9.6%), followed by that of Opisthorchis viverrini/minute intestinal flukes (Ov/MIF) (5.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (4.6%), and Trichuris trichiura (4.1%). Other types of parasites detected were Enterobius vermicularis (1.1%), Taenia spp. (0.4%), and Hymenolepis spp. (0.2%). The northwestern regions such as the Siem Reap, Oddar Meanchey, and Banteay Meanchey Provinces showed higher prevalences (17.4-22.3%) of hookworms than the other localities. The southwestern areas, including Koh Kong and Preah Sihanouk Provinces showed higher prevalences of A. lumbricoides (17.5-19.2%) and T. trichiura (6.1-21.0%). Meanwhile, the central and southern areas, in particular, Takeo and Kampong Cham Provinces, showed high prevalences of Ov/MIF (23.8-24.0%). The results indicate that a considerably high prevalence of intestinal helminths has been revealed in Cambodia, and thus sustained national parasite control projects are necessary to reduce morbidity due to parasitic infections in Cambodia. PMID:25548418

  9. Identification of multidrug resistance in previously treated tuberculosis patients: a mixed methods study in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royce, S; Khann, S; Yadav, RP; Mao, ET; Cattamanchi, A; Sam, S; Handley, MA

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Setting Previously treated tuberculosis (TB) patients are a priority for drug susceptibility testing (DST) to identify cases with multidrug resistance (MDR). In Cambodia, a recent study found that only one-third of smear-positive previously treated patients had DST results. Objective To quantify the gaps in detecting MDR in previously treated TB patients in Cambodia, and describe health workers’ perspectives on barriers, facilitators and potential interventions. Design We analyzed case notifications in Cambodia (2004–2012) and conducted semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders Results The proportion of previously treated notifications varied significantly across provinces 2010–12, in the context of longer term trends of decreasing relapse and increasing “other” retreatment notifications. Correct classification of patients’ TB treatment history and ensuring specimens from previously-treated patients are collected and reach the laboratory could nearly double the number of detected MDR-TB cases. Identified barriers include patients’ reluctance to disclose and staff difficulty eliciting treatment history, partly due to availability of streptomycin only in hospitals. Facilitators include trained health workers, collection of sputum for DST even if previously treated patients are not taking streptomycin, streamlining sputum transportation and promptly reporting results. Conclusion Improved monitoring, supportive supervision, and correctly classifying previously treated patients are essential for improving detection of MDR-TB. PMID:25299861

  10. Prevalence of intestinal helminths among inhabitants of Cambodia (2006-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Tai-Soon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Eom, Keeseon S; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Yoon, Cheong-Ha; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong

    2014-12-01

    In order to investigate the status of intestinal helminthic infections in Cambodia, epidemiological surveys were carried out on a national scale, including 19 provinces. A total of 32,201 fecal samples were collected from schoolchildren and adults between 2006 and 2011 and examined once by the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. The overall egg positive rate of intestinal helminths was 26.2%. The prevalence of hookworms was the highest (9.6%), followed by that of Opisthorchis viverrini/minute intestinal flukes (Ov/MIF) (5.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (4.6%), and Trichuris trichiura (4.1%). Other types of parasites detected were Enterobius vermicularis (1.1%), Taenia spp. (0.4%), and Hymenolepis spp. (0.2%). The northwestern regions such as the Siem Reap, Oddar Meanchey, and Banteay Meanchey Provinces showed higher prevalences (17.4-22.3%) of hookworms than the other localities. The southwestern areas, including Koh Kong and Preah Sihanouk Provinces showed higher prevalences of A. lumbricoides (17.5-19.2%) and T. trichiura (6.1-21.0%). Meanwhile, the central and southern areas, in particular, Takeo and Kampong Cham Provinces, showed high prevalences of Ov/MIF (23.8-24.0%). The results indicate that a considerably high prevalence of intestinal helminths has been revealed in Cambodia, and thus sustained national parasite control projects are necessary to reduce morbidity due to parasitic infections in Cambodia.

  11. Lancement d'un réseau de télécentres au Bangladesh - Mission 2011

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Telecentre Network Startup : Bangladesh - Mission 2011. The second generation of telecentres has seen the emergence of national-level networks in various parts of the word including the Ugandan Telecentre Network, Mission 2007 in India and Mission... View moreTelecentre Network Startup : Bangladesh - Mission 2011 ...

  12. A Pilot Astronomy Outreach Project in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Dipen; Mridha, Shahjahan; Afroz, Maqsuda

    2015-08-01

    In its strategic planning for the "Astronomy for Development Project," the International Astronomical Union (IAU) has ecognized, among other important missions, the role of astronomy in understanding the far-reaching possibilities for promoting global tolerance and citizenship. Furthermore, astronomy is deemed inspirational for careers in science and technology. The "Pilot Astronomy Outreach Project in Bangladesh"--the first of its kind in the country--aspires to fulfill these missions. As Bangladesh lacks resources to promote astronomy education in universities and schools, the role of disseminating astronomy education to the greater community falls on citizen science organizations. One such group, Anushandhitshu Chokro (AChokro) Science Organization, has been carrying out a successful public outreach program since 1975. Among its documented public events, AChokro organized a total solar eclipse campaign in Bangladesh in 2009, at which 15,000 people were assembled in a single open venue for the eclipse observation. The organization has actively pursued astronomy outreach to dispel public misconceptions about astronomical phenomena and to promote science. AChokro is currently working to build an observatory and Science Outreach Center around a recently-acquired 14-inch Scmidt-Cassegrain telescope and a soon-to-be-acquired new 16-inch reflector, all funded by private donations. The telescopes will be fitted with photometers, spectrometers, and digital and CCD cameras to pursue observations that would include sun spot and solar magnetic fields, planetary surfaces, asteroid search, variable stars and supernovae. The Center will be integrated with schools, colleges, and community groups for regular observation and small-scale research. Special educational and observing sessions for adults will also be organized. Updates on the development of the Center, which is expected to be functioning by the end of 2015, will be shared and feedback invited on the fostering of

  13. Water, climate change and society in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele-Eich, I.; Simmer, C.

    2017-12-01

    Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh with a population of over 17 million people, is among the top five coastal cities most vulnerable to climate change, with over 30 % of the population living in slums. Effective disaster mitigation and adaptation requires an understanding how hazards such as flooding impact the population. The impacts of climate change on flooding and thus livelihoods in the complex delta of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna rivers can not be treated isolated from other anthropogenic impacts due to e.g. the construction of dams as well as a growing population. We illustrate this by setting up a conceptual socio-hydrological causal network using the enhanced Driving force - Pressure - State - Impact - Response framework. The constructed socio-hydrological framework includes both natural and anthropogenic processes and their two-way feedbacks, allowing policy makers to know where available resources can be used effectively to increase resilience and reduce vulnerability. We conclude that climate change takes place over long stretches of time and thus enable the population of Bangladesh to adapt slowly. Resources such as social capital, which is one of the main tools for slum dwellers to be able to cope with flooding can be altered over time, and as such the system can be considered overall stable and resilient. However, transboundary water sharing issues during the dry season and other implications resulting from dam structures such as Farakka Barrage complicate a prognosis on how the rapidly growing population will be affected in the 21st century. This is particularly important in connection with previous findings, which suggest that the Greater Dhaka population already experience a significant increase in mortality during droughts. Climate change can thus be seen as an anthropogenic amplification of the socio-hydrological challenges already faced by Bangladesh today.

  14. Adolescent motherhood in Bangladesh: Trends and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Mainul; Islam, Md Kamrul; Hasan, Mohammad Sazzad; Hossain, Mohammad Bellal

    2017-01-01

    While studies on fertility and contraceptives issues are available, until recently adolescent motherhood has not received enough attention among policy makers in understanding adolescent motherhood in Bangladesh. We aimed to examine the trends and determinants of adolescent motherhood among women aged 15-49 years. For trend analysis we used all the 7 waves of Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS, 1993-2014) data but for multivariate analysis 4 waves of BDHS (2004-2014). Two separate analyses were carried out on ever married women aged 15-49: (1) teenage girls aged 15-19 and (2) adult women aged 20 and above. The prevalence of adolescent motherhood had declined to a slower pace from 1993 to2014 (from 33.0% to 30.8%). Lower spousal age gap and higher education were found to be associated with lower likelihood of adolescent motherhood both among teenage girls [OR 0.447 (0.374-0.533)] and adult women [OR 0.451 (0.420-0.484)]. Teenage girls in the poorest wealth quintile [OR 1.712 [1.350-2.173] were more likely to experience adolescent motherhood than the richest wealth quintile. Teenage girls who had no education were found to have 2.76 times higher odds of adolescent motherhood than their counterparts who had higher than secondary education. Concerning the time effect, the odds of adolescent motherhood among adult women was found to decline overtime. Despite substantial decrease in total fertility rate in Bangladesh adolescent motherhood is still highly prevalent though declining from 1993 to 2014. Social policies including those addressing poverty, ensuring greater emphasis on education for women; and adolescent mothers in rural areas are needed.

  15. Counterfeit and substandard antimalarial drugs in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lon, C T; Tsuyuoka, R; Phanouvong, S; Nivanna, N; Socheat, D; Sokhan, C; Blum, N; Christophel, E M; Smine, A

    2006-11-01

    Counterfeit and substandard antimalarial drugs can cause death and contribute to the growing malaria drug resistance problem, particularly in Southeast Asia. Since 2003 in Cambodia the quality of antimalarial drugs both in the public and private health sector is regularly monitored in sentinel sites. We surveyed 34% of all 498 known facilities and drug outlets in four provinces. We collected 451 drug samples; 79% of these were not registered at the Cambodia Department of Drugs and Food (DDF). Twenty-seven percent of the samples failed the thin layer chromatography and disintegration tests; all of them were unregistered products. Immediate action against counterfeit drugs was taken by the National Malaria Control Program (NMCP) and the DDF. They communicated with the Provincial Health Department about the presence of counterfeit antimalarial drugs through alert letters, a manual, annual malaria conferencing and other training occasions. Television campaigns to alert the population about counterfeit drugs were conducted. Moreover, the NMCP has been promoting the use of good quality antimalarial drugs of a blister co-packaged combination of artesunate and mefloquine in public and private sectors. Appropriate strategies need to be developed and implemented by relevant government agencies and stakeholders to strengthen drug quality assurance and control systems in the country.

  16. Space Radar Image of Phnom Phen, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image shows the city of Phnom Penh, the capital of Cambodia. Phnom Penh lies at the confluence of the Mekong River and the Basak Sab. The city was originally established in 1434 to succeed Angkor Thom as capital of the Khmer Nation. Phnom Penh is the bright blue and orange area west of the rivers, near the center of the image. The red, light blue and purple colors indicate differences in vegetation height and structure. Radar images like this one are being used by archaeologists to investigate ruins in the Angkor area in northern Cambodia. This image was acquired by Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 15, 1994. The image is 27 kilometers by 27 kilometers (17 miles by 17 miles) and is centered at 11.5 degrees north latitude, 105.0 degrees East longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  17. Wheat Blast: A New Fungal Inhabitant to Bangladesh Threatening World Wheat Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abu Sadat

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available World wheat production is now under threat due to the wheat blast outbreak in Bangladesh in early March 2016. This is a new disease in this area, indicating the higher possibility of this pathogen spreading throughout the Asia, the world’s largest wheat producing area. Occurrence of this disease caused ~3.5% reduction of the total wheat fields in Bangladesh. Its economic effect on the Bangladesh wheat market was little because wheat contributes to 3% of total cereal consumption, among which ~70% have been imported from other countries. However, as a long-term perspective, much greater losses will occur once this disease spreads to other major wheat producing areas of Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan due to the existing favorable condition for the blast pathogen. The wheat blast pathogen belongs to the Magnaporthe oryzae species complex causing blast disease on multiple hosts in the Poaceae family. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Bangladesh outbreak strains and the Brazil outbreak strains were the same phylogenetic lineage, suggesting that they might be migrated from Brazil to Bangladesh during the seed import. To protect wheat production of Bangladesh and its neighbors, several measures including rigorous testing of seed health, use of chemicals, crop rotation, reinforcement of quarantine procedures, and increased field monitoring should be implemented. Development of blast resistant wheat varieties should be a long-term solution and combination of different methods with partial resistant lines may suppress this disease for some time.

  18. 10th national conference of Society of Nuclear Medicine, Bangladesh and International symposium, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 10-11 February 2005: A report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, F.

    2005-01-01

    The Society of Nuclear Medicine, Bangladesh organized its 10th Annual Conference at Dhaka on 10-11 February 2005. The theme of this year's convention was 'Interventional Nuclear Medicine'. Besides the faculty from Bangladesh including consultants from various clinical specialties, four international experts also participated in the two day meeting. The pre-congress CME was held in the premises of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission on 10 February. Several lectures on the management of Thyroid Disorders using radionuclide techniques were delivered by a distinguished national and international faculty. The lectures were attended by a large audience with a packed auditorium, mostly nuclear medicine specialists, general physicians, surgeons and endocrinologists from Dhaka and other places of Bangladesh. There was good interaction and participants took active part in the discussions. The actual Annual Convention of Society of Nuclear Medicine Bangladesh (SNMB) was held in Dhaka on 11 February 2005. The convention was attended by more than 250 registered participants, including nuclear medicine physicians, clinicians, residents, and technologists, representative of the Atomic Energy Commission and pioneers of nuclear medicine in Bangladesh

  19. All projects related to bangladesh | Page 6 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: Internet, LANGUAGE BARRIER, ASIAN LANGUAGES, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, INFORMATION SOCIETY. Region: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, ... From Tobacco to Food Production: Constraints and Transition Strategies in Bangladesh. Project. Bangladesh is one of the many ...

  20. Electrochemical arsenic remediation for rural Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addy, Susan Amrose [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic in drinking water is a major public health problem threatening the lives of over 140 million people worldwide. In Bangladesh alone, up to 57 million people drink arsenic-laden water from shallow wells. ElectroChemical Arsenic Remediation(ECAR) overcomes many of the obstacles that plague current technologies and can be used affordably and on a small-scale, allowing for rapid dissemination into Bangladesh to address this arsenic crisis. In this work, ECAR was shown to effectively reduce 550 - 580 μg=L arsenic (including both As[III]and As[V]in a 1:1 ratio) to below the WHO recommended maximum limit of 10 μg=L in synthetic Bangladesh groundwater containing relevant concentrations of competitive ions such as phosphate, silicate, and bicarbonate. Arsenic removal capacity was found to be approximately constant within certain ranges of current density, but was found to change substantially between ranges. In order of decreasing arsenic removal capacity, the pattern was: 0.02 mA=cm2> 0.07 mA=cm2> 0.30 - 1.1 mA=cm2> 5.0 - 100 mA=cm2. Current processing time was found to effect arsenic removal capacity independent of either charge density or current density. Electrode polarization studies showed no passivation of the electrode in the tested range (up to current density 10 mA=cm2) and ruled out oxygen evolution as the cause of decreasing removal capacity with current density. Simple settling and decantation required approximately 3 days to achieve arsenic removal comparable to filtration with a 0.1 mu m membrane. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) showed that (1) there is no significant difference in the arsenic removal mechanism of ECAR during operation at different current densities and (2) the arsenic removal mechanism in ECAR is consistent with arsenate adsorption onto a homogenous Fe(III)oxyhydroxide similar in structure to 2-line ferrihydrite. ECAR effectively reduced high arsenic concentrations (100

  1. Evidence of two distinct phylogenetic lineages of dog rabies virus circulating in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mey, Channa; Metlin, Artem; Duong, Veasna; Ong, Sivuth; In, Sotheary; Horwood, Paul F; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Bourhy, Hervé; Tarantola, Arnaud; Buchy, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    This first extensive retrospective study of the molecular epidemiology of dog rabies in Cambodia included 149 rabies virus (RABV) entire nucleoprotein sequences obtained from 1998-2011. The sequences were analyzed in conjunction with RABVs from other Asian countries. Phylogenetic reconstruction confirmed the South-East Asian phylogenetic clade comprising viruses from Cambodia, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos and Myanmar. The present study represents the first attempt to classify the phylogenetic lineages inside this clade, resulting in the confirmation that all the Cambodian viruses belonged to the South-East Asian (SEA) clade. Three distinct phylogenetic lineages in the region were established with the majority of viruses from Cambodia closely related to viruses from Thailand, Laos and Vietnam, forming the geographically widespread phylogenetic lineage SEA1. A South-East Asian lineage SEA2 comprised two viruses from Cambodia was identified, which shared a common ancestor with RABVs originating from Laos. Viruses from Myanmar formed separate phylogenetic lineages within the major SEA clade. Bayesian molecular clock analysis suggested that the time to most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of all Cambodian RABVs dated to around 1950. The TMRCA of the Cambodian SEA1 lineage was around 1964 and that of the SEA2 lineage was around 1953. The results identified three phylogenetically distinct and geographically separated lineages inside the earlier identified major SEA clade, covering at least five countries in the region. A greater understanding of the molecular epidemiology of rabies in South-East Asia is an important step to monitor progress on the efforts to control canine rabies in the region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Field survey focused on Opisthorchis viverrini infection in five provinces of Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Kazuko; Kirinoki, Masashi; Matsuda, Hajime; Hayashi, Naoko; Chigusa, Yuichi; Sinuon, Muth; Chuor, Char Meng; Kitikoon, Viroj

    2014-04-01

    Opisthorchiasis is endemic in Thailand and Lao People's Democratic Republic and constitutes a major public health problem throughout the Mekong Basin. Although Cambodia is located in the Mekong Basin, the status of O. viverrini infection in that country was not previously clarified. This research was conducted to document the extent and distribution of O. viverrini infection in Cambodia. Surveillance was conducted in 55 villages in five Cambodian provinces. Research tools included stool examination using the Kato-Katz thick-smear technique, identification of intermediate hosts, and interviews covering factors related to O. viverrini infection. Some larvae and egg-positive stool samples were examined using PCR to detect O. viverrini DNA. A total of 16,082 stool samples from the 55 villages were examined, of which 1232 were egg positive. In 15 villages with egg-positive rates of greater than 10%, eggs were found in 998 of 3585 stool samples, for an egg-positive rate of 27.8%. PCR analysis showed that 30 of 33 samples were positive for O. viverrini DNA from five villages in Kampong Cham and Kampong Thom provinces. The first intermediate host Bithynia siamensis siamensis was identified in the target areas of Takaev, Kandal, and Kampong Cham provinces. Cercariae were identified morphologically as O. viverrini and some were confirmed using PCR. Metacercariae of O. viverrini were identified by morphologic observations, animal experiments, or PCR in six species of fish in the target areas. Four Cambodian provinces were identified as endemic areas of O. viverrini infection. Careful planning is necessary for effective field surveys, because complex environmental factors might be involved in the distribution of O. viverrini infection-endemic areas in Cambodia. Many problems remain to be resolved regarding the status of O. viverrini infection in Cambodia, and a nationwide baseline survey is necessary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Modern population trends in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abul-basher, M M

    1985-01-01

    Population growth trends in Bangladesh in the 1871-1981 period were analyzed, with emphasis on fertility and mortality differentials, to provide a basis for population planning. Following proclamation of British Imperial Rule in 1857, mortality rates in Bangladesh began to decline as a result of preventive measures against natural disasters such as draught and famine, but the fertility rate remained unaltered. The demographic pattern was unstable over time, reflecting the impact of the influenza epidemic of 1918-19, war, migration, and economic development. Population growth accelerated greatly during the 1961-74 period, when industrialization emerged and job opportunities were created in the urban centers. Economic hardship, food shortages, and the introduction of family planning curbed urban growth drastically and total growth to some extent in 1974-81. On the average, growth has been higher in the Dhaka and Chittagong Divisions of Bangladesh than in the Khulna and Rajshahi Divisions. Differences in population growth among the regions are attributable largely to internal and external migration. The regression polynomial model best fits past population trends in Bangladesh and can reproduce the observed population by 99.60%. This polynomial is most suitable for graduation and prediction of population trends.

  4. Seismicity and tectonics of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, K.M.

    1989-05-01

    Northern and eastern Bangladesh and surrounding areas belong to a seismically active zone and are associated with the subduction of the Indian plate. The seismicity and tectonics have been studied in detail and the observations have been correlated to understand the earthquake phenomenon in the region. The morphotectonic behaviour of northern Bangladesh shows that it is deeply related to the movement of the Dauki fault system and relative upliftment of the Shillong plateau. Contemporary seismicity in the Dauki fault system is relatively quiet comparing to that in the Naga-Disang-Haflong thrust belt giving rise to the probability of sudden release of energy being accumulated in the vicinity of the Dauki fault system. This observation corresponds with the predicted average return period of a large earthquake (1897 type) and the possibility of M > 8 earthquake in the vicinity of the Dauki fault within this century should not be ruled out. The seismicity in the folded belt in the east follows the general trend of Arakan-Yoma anticlinorium and represents shallow and low-angled thrust movements in conformity with the field observation. Seismotectonic behaviour in the deep basin part of Bangladesh demonstrates that an intraplate movement in the basement rock has been taking place along the deep-seated faults causing relative upliftment and subsidence in the basin. Bangladesh has been divided into three seismic zones on the basis of morphotectonic and seismic behaviour. Zone-I has been identified as the zone of high seismic risk. (author). 43 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  5. System-wide analysis of health financing equity in Cambodia: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Virginia; Asante, Augustine; Ir, Por; Limwattananon, Supon; Jacobs, Bart; Liverani, Marco; Hayen, Andrew; Jan, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    To assess progress towards universal health coverage, countries like Cambodia require evidence on equity in the financing and distribution of healthcare benefits. This evidence must be based on a system-wide perspective that recognises the complex roles played by the public and private sectors in many contemporary healthcare systems. To undertake a system-wide assessment of who pays and who benefits from healthcare in Cambodia and to understand the factors influencing this. Financing and benefit incidence analysis will be used to calculate the financing burden and distribution of healthcare benefits across socioeconomic groups. Data on healthcare usage, living standards and self-assessed health status will be derived from a cross-sectional household survey designed for this study involving a random sample of 5000 households. This will be supplemented by secondary data from the Cambodian National Health Accounts 2014 and the Cambodian Socioeconomic Survey (CSES) 2014. We will also collect qualitative data through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews to inform the interpretation of the quantitative analyses. This study will produce previously unavailable information on who pays for, and who benefits from, health services across the entire health system of Cambodia. This evidence comes at a critical juncture in healthcare reform in South-East Asia with so many countries seeking guidance on the equity impact of their current financing arrangements that include a complex mix of public and private providers.

  6. Urinary antibiotic activity in paediatric patients attending an outpatient department in north-western Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emary, Katherine R W; Carter, Michael J; Pol, Sreymom; Sona, Soeng; Kumar, Varun; Day, Nicholas P J; Parry, Christopher M; Moore, Catrin E

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a prominent public and global health concern. We investigated antibiotic use in children by determining the proportion of unselected children with antibacterial activity in their urine attending a paediatric outpatient department in Siem Reap, Cambodia. Caregiver reports of medication history and presence of possible infection symptoms were collected in addition to urine samples. Urine antibiotic activity was estimated by exposing bacteria to urine specimens, including assessment against multiresistant bacteria previously isolated from patients in the hospital (a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a multiresistant Salmonella typhi and an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolate). Medication information and urine were collected from 775 children. Caregivers reported medication use in 69.0% of children in the preceding 48 h. 31.7% samples showed antibacterial activity; 16.3% showed activity against a local multiresistant organism. No specimens demonstrated activity against an ESBL-producing E. coli. Antibiotics are widely used in the community setting in Cambodia. Parents are often ill-informed about drugs given to treat their children. Increasing the regulation and training of private pharmacies in Cambodia may be necessary. Regional surveillance of antibiotic use and resistance is also essential in devising preventive strategies against further development of antibiotic resistance, which would have both local and global consequences. © 2014 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Resistance of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Populations to Deltamethrin, Permethrin, and Temephos in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Sébastien; Lopes, Sergio; Prasetyo, Didot; Hustedt, John; Sarady, Ay Sao; Doum, Dyna; Yean, Sony; Peng, Borin; Bunleng, Sam; Leang, Rithea; Fontenille, Didier; Hii, Jeffrey

    2018-02-01

    Dengue fever is a major public health concern, including 185,000 annual cases in Cambodia. Aedes aegypti is the primary vector for dengue transmission and is targeted with insecticide treatments. This study characterized the insecticide resistance status of Ae aegypti from rural and urban locations. The susceptibility to temephos, permethrin, and deltamethrin of Ae aegypti was evaluated in accordance with World Health Organization instructions. All the field populations showed lower mortality rate to temephos compared with the sensitive strain with resistance ratio 50 (RR 50 ) varying from 3.3 to 33.78 and RR 90 from 4.2 to 47 compared with the sensitive strain, demonstrating a generalized resistance of larvae to the temephos in Cambodia. Ae aegypti adult populations were highly resistant to permethrin regardless of province or rural/urban classification with an average mortality of 0.02%. Seven of the 8 field populations showed resistance to deltamethrin. These results are alarming for dengue vector control, as widespread resistance may compromise the entomological impact of larval control operations. Innovative vector control tools are needed to replace ineffective pesticides in Cambodia.

  8. Estimating the size of the homeless adolescent population across seven cities in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Lindsay; Rubenstein, Beth L; Pak, Kimchoeun; Taing, Rosemary; Yu, Gary; Kosal, Sok; Roberts, Leslie

    2017-01-26

    The Government of Cambodia has committed to supporting family care for vulnerable children, including homeless populations. Collecting baseline data on the numbers and characteristics of homeless adolescents was prioritized to illuminate the scope of the issue, mobilize resources and direct the response. Administrative zones across seven cities were purposively selected to cover the main urban areas known to have homeless populations in Cambodia. A complete enumeration of homeless individuals between the ages of 13 and 17 was attempted in the selected areas. In addition, a second independent count was conducted to enable a statistical estimation of completeness based on overlap across counts. This technique is known as capture-recapture. Adolescents were also interviewed about their schooling, health and other circumstances. After adjustment by the capture-recapture corrective multipliers (range: 3.53 -27.08), the study yielded an estimate of 2,697 13-17 year old homeless adolescents across all seven cities. The total number of homeless boys counted was significantly greater than homeless girls, especially in older ages. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time capture-recapture methods have been applied to a homeless estimation of this scale in a resource-limited setting. Findings suggest the number of homeless adolescents in Cambodia is much greater than one would expect if relying on single count data alone and that this population faces many hardships.

  9. Compulsory drug detention centers in China, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Laos: health and human rights abuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Joseph; Pearshouse, Richard; Cohen, Jane; Schleifer, Rebecca

    2013-12-12

    According to official accounts, in 2012 more than 235,000 people were detained in over 1,000 compulsory drug detention centers in East and Southeast Asia. Between July 2007 and May 2013, in-depth interviews were conducted with 195 individuals recently released from drug detention centers in China, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Laos. Individuals reported being held for up to five years in drug detention centers without clinical determination of drug dependency or due process, and being denied evidence-based drug treatment as well as other basic health services. Many individuals reported being forced to perform arduous physical exercise or military-style drills. Forced labor was reported by all individuals having been detained in Vietnam, and some held in Cambodia and China. Physical—and less often, sexual—abuse was reported among those held in each country. Long-term, compulsory detention for treatment of drug dependency is counter to established principles of medical care and violates a wide range of human rights, including the right to health. Individuals held in drug detention centers in China, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Laos are subject to torture and cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment. Copyright © 2013 Amon, Pearshouse, Cohen, and Schleifer. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  10. First archaeointensity results from the historical period of Cambodia, Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, J. T.; Cai, S.; Tauxe, L.; Hendrickson, M.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding variations of the geomagnetic field has applications regarding the behavior of the Earth's outer core, dating of archeological artifacts, and the phenomenon that shields life from solar radiation. However, archaeointensity studies of the Holocene have been mostly limited to localities in Europe and the Middle East; archaeomagnetic surveys from Southeast Asia are almost non-existent. This investigation aims to establish a secular variation curve of geomagnetic field intensity for Cambodia. We sampled ancient iron smelting mounds from the Khmer Empire, located in present day Cambodia, and are analyzing them for paleointensity. The specimens are thought to be from the historical period, likely between 1000-1500 CE. Our samples, which include furnace fragments, iron slag, and ceramic tuyères, contain magnetic minerals that record the paleointensity of Earth's magnetic field at the time it was fired. Using the IZZI paleointensity method (Yu et al., 2004), which gradually replaces the sample's natural remanent magnetization with a thermal remanent magnetization obtained in a known lab field, we can determine the geomagnetic intensities preserved in these specimens. Based on our preliminary experiments, the tuyères, and perhaps also the fresh slag, will in all likelihood yield the most ideal results. Following additional measurements from these best-fit samples, we will determine the paleointensities of Cambodia for the time period from which the artifacts originated. This will commence the establishment of regional geomagnetic reference curves in Southeast Asia and also improve the global model.

  11. Estimating the size of the homeless adolescent population across seven cities in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Stark

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Government of Cambodia has committed to supporting family care for vulnerable children, including homeless populations. Collecting baseline data on the numbers and characteristics of homeless adolescents was prioritized to illuminate the scope of the issue, mobilize resources and direct the response. Methods Administrative zones across seven cities were purposively selected to cover the main urban areas known to have homeless populations in Cambodia. A complete enumeration of homeless individuals between the ages of 13 and 17 was attempted in the selected areas. In addition, a second independent count was conducted to enable a statistical estimation of completeness based on overlap across counts. This technique is known as capture-recapture. Adolescents were also interviewed about their schooling, health and other circumstances. Results After adjustment by the capture-recapture corrective multipliers (range: 3.53 -27.08, the study yielded an estimate of 2,697 13–17 year old homeless adolescents across all seven cities. The total number of homeless boys counted was significantly greater than homeless girls, especially in older ages. Conclusions To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first time capture-recapture methods have been applied to a homeless estimation of this scale in a resource-limited setting. Findings suggest the number of homeless adolescents in Cambodia is much greater than one would expect if relying on single count data alone and that this population faces many hardships.

  12. All projects related to Cambodia | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-09-27

    Start Date: September 27, 2013. End Date: December 31, 2015. Topic: HEALTH EXPENDITURE, SMOKING, TOBACCO, RESPIRATORY DISEASES, CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, TUBERCULOSIS, SOUTHEAST ASIA. Region: Cambodia, Far East Asia, Central Asia, South Asia. Program: Food, Environment, and Health.

  13. Enabling Sex Workers to Document Violence (India and Cambodia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    DMSC) in India and the Women's Network for Unity (WMU) in Cambodia - researchers will endeavor to understand through action research how digital techniques can be used to document and report violations against sex workers. The overall ...

  14. Khmeriosicyos, a new monotypic genus of Cucurbitaceae from Cambodia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.; Duyfjes, B.E.E.; Ham, van der R.W.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    A new monotypic genus from Cambodia is described. The genus is defined by a unique combination of characters and has distinct pollen features. The only species is Khmeriosicyos harmandii W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes.

  15. An Impact Evaluation of Feed the Future Cambodia HARVEST project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Helping Address Rural Vulnerabilities and Ecosystem Stability (Cambodia-HARVEST) was a five-year program (2011-2016) supported under the Global Hunger and Food...

  16. cambodia : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Singapore ... ECONOMIC RESEARCH, SOCIAL RESEARCH, Social Policy, LABOUR LEGISLATION, LABOUR ECONOMICS, COMPETITION, COMPETITIVENESS, ENTREPRENEURSHIP, INCOME DISTRIBUTION.

  17. All projects related to Cambodia | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The global financial crisis of 2008 has aggravated poverty and inequality through contractions in employment, consumption and investment. Start Date: ... Topic: HOUSEHOLD SURVEYS, VULNERABLE GROUPS, Poverty alleviation, SOCIAL WELFARE. Region: ... Women and the Justice System in Cambodia. Project.

  18. Calming the mind: Healing after mass atrocity in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Agger, Inger

    2015-01-01

    After catastrophic events in which people?s survival has been threatened, as happened during the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia 1975?1979, some continue to suffer from painful mental symptoms. Surveys carried out in Cambodia based on Western diagnostic categories have found a high prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety symptoms in the population. This study explored Cambodian approaches to healing trauma, examining the ways in which Cambodians appeal to el...

  19. The Hairy-Nosed Otter (Lutra sumatrana) in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Long B.

    2000-01-01

    With the change in the political situation in Cambodia, it has been possible since 1998 to undertake conservation activities in the country. During field work in the Cardomon mountains, a single hairy-nosed otter was seen in a market. The author requests information on the distribution of the hairy-nosed otter in Indochina and Thailand, and additional funds to support surveys in Cambodia in February and April.

  20. SWOT ANALYSIS AND STRATEGIES TO DEVELOP SUSTAINABLE TOURISM IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaul Haque Mondal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is a small country with enormous natural beauty and cultural attractions. These gorgeous natural and cultural traits make this country as one of the important tourist destinations in the world but, this potentiality has been overlooked. The tourism industry is facing several challenges, and development efforts of this industry are not sustainable. This paper maps out a way to sustainable growth of the tourism industry in Bangladesh using the SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats model and a derived matrix out of it. The data used for this study were derived from multiple sources, including literature review and interviews with professionals. To analyze strategic factors of the tourism industry in the country, internal strengths and weaknesses as well as external opportunities and threats were determined to be followed by development of strategic planning based on the SWOT matrix. Results showed that existing tourism activities in Bangladesh are unsustainable. To develop a sustainable tourism industry to attract tourists, this study suggests different WT (weaknesses- threats strategies such as ensuring safety and security of tourists, effective planning for sustainable economic benefits, strict implementation of environmental regulations for ecological sustainability, alerting people about the importance of sustainable tourism development, and infrastructure development. Perhaps the findings of this study would be important in the effort to develop and promote a sustainable tourism industry in beautiful Bangladesh.

  1. Changing profile of rotavirus genotypes in Bangladesh, 2006-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrad, Mokibul Hassan; Hassan, Zahid; Farjana, Saiada; Moni, Sayra; Barua, Subarna; Das, Sumon Kumar; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; Azim, Tasnim; Rahman, Mustafizur

    2013-07-15

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide including Bangladesh. Unlike what was seen in high-income countries, the licensed rotavirus vaccines did not show high efficacy in Bangladeshi trials. We assessed rotavirus prevalence and genotypes in Bangladesh over six-year period to provide baseline information on the rotavirus burden and changing profile in the country. This study was conducted from June 2006 to May 2012 in Matlab, Bangladesh. Group A rotaviruses were detected in stools collected from diarrhea patients by ELISA and genotyped using multiplex reverse transcription PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing. Of the 9678 stool samples, 20.3% were positive for rotavirus. The most predominant genotype was G1P[8] (22.4%), followed by G9P[8] (20.8%), G2P[4] (16.9%) and G12P[8] (10.4%). Mixed infections were detected in 14.2% of the samples. Emergence of an unusual strain, G9P[4] was documented during 2011-12. Several amino acid mismatches in the antigenic epitopes of VP7 and VP4 between Bangladeshi and the vaccine strains were identified. Our study provides important information on rotavirus genotypes that should be considered for the selection and introduction of rotavirus vaccines in Bangladesh.

  2. Islam, Politics and Secularism in Bangladesh: Contesting the Dominant Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Nazrul Islam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Since late 2000s, the political landscape in Bangladesh moved from democracy to an authoritarian kleptocracy, and experienced a new set of political and social narratives. This paper aims to contest some of these dominant/official narratives which have been discursively constructed and promoted by the secularist parties (including the ruling regime and groups in Bangladesh over recent years. Examining the sociopolitical and historical facts and figures of the country, we have identified five major contested narratives related to (a Bengali nationalism in East Pakistan, (b foundational ideology of Bangladesh’s war of liberation, (c state-sponsored Islamization in Bangladesh, (d pro-liberation and anti-liberation dichotomy, and (e war crimes trial. Drawing on a robust content analysis of the credible secondary sources substantiated by qualitative interviews, we have examined these dominant narratives and found that they are not supported by historical evidence and popular mandate, yet have been constructed largely to support and legitimize the current authoritarian regime. The paper offers both counter-narratives and some pragmatic policy recommendations to elude increasing polarization and sociopolitical instability and foster a peaceful democratic society in Bangladesh.

  3. Cambodia: the women want justice and peace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Refugees and internally displaced people are an unfortunate and inevitable consequence of war. Among these, women refugees are most vulnerable to sexual violence as they go through various stages of displacement. During the war in Cambodia, women refugees experienced sexual violence in the form of rape, gang rape, sexual exploitation, and forced prostitution. This report presents a summary of a testimony by Yi Leang Eng, a Cambodian woman refugee, on her experiences during the war. According to her, violations of rape happened inside and outside the refugee camps everyday, relegating the violence as a normal occurrence. In this regard, nongovernmental organizations and governments are urged to cooperate and insist that perpetrators of such crimes must be punished and such practices must be immediately stopped. In addition, the issue of supporting women survivors and ensuring that they are given justice should also be discussed. Moreover, for the women survivors themselves, the welfare of their families should be top priority.

  4. Livelihood strategies and dynamics in rural Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiao, Xi; Pouliot, Mariéve; Walelign, Solomon Zena

    2017-01-01

    , and the results show that over 70% of households change livelihood strategies over time in response to evolving pressures, incentives and opportunities. The study identifies covariates that shape the choices of livelihood strategies and affects the households’ access to more remunerative strategies...... and their underlying factors. The study aims to identify the classification of rural livelihood strategies, their transitions and factors influencing these processes and changes. We employ the dynamic livelihood strategy framework, and use panel data for 2008 and 2012 covering 464 households in 15 villages in Cambodia......, such as education, ownership of physical assets, and access to infrastructure. These findings suggest policy implications for improving the range of livelihood choices available to lower income groups to move out of poverty trap....

  5. Project CHECO Southeast Asia Report. Aerial Protection of Mekong River Convoys in Cambodia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitchell, William A

    1971-01-01

    ...) shortages in the Khmer Republic (Cambodia) which had resulted from successful enemy attacks on commercial shipping vessels sailing the Mekong River inside Cambodia These attacks, combined with the closure of land Route 4 from the port city...

  6. Societal impacts and vulnerability to floods in Bangladesh and Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvir H. Dewan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh and Nepal lie between the Himalayas and low-lying coasts of the Bay of Bengal and are traversed by hundreds of rivers and tributaries. Historical data shows that, since 1970, the scale, intensity and duration of floods have increased in Bangladesh and Nepal, causing grave human suffering; disruptions in normal life and activity, damages of infrastructure, crops and agricultural land with severe impacts on the economy. Bangladesh is affected by torrential rain, glacier melt, upstream water flow and tidal surges. In 1988, Bangladesh experienced one of the most severe floods of the twentieth century which aroused significant concern internationally and triggered the Bangladesh Action Plan for Flood Control. The Government of Bangladesh (GOB has so far constructed a number of flood shelters and carried out 482 water and flood control projects involving flood protection embankments, drainage channels, sluice gates and regulators on different rivers and canals. These also provided safety measures against inundation by tidal waves, storm-surges and flooding. The Terai region of Nepal is highly prone to hydrological risks including torrential rain, floods, glaciers resulting in erosion and landslides. The Government of Nepal (GON has implemented different mitigation measures mainly early warning awareness, rescue measure, relief, and post-flood rehabilitation programs etc. Disaster Management Bureaus of both the countries have already conducted many trainings, workshops and seminars to disseminate scientific knowledge and coping up practices to disaster managers and to create public awareness. Besides the contemporary approaches to mitigating flood effects, people of these countries have coped with floods through generations relying on traditional/indigenous knowledge and other local adaptation practices. It is crucial that along with scientific process, indigenous, traditional and conventional practices are to be integrated for a national

  7. World Malaria Day 2016 in the Kingdom of Cambodia: high-level governmental support embodies the WHO call for "political will to end malaria".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavati, Sara E; Quintero, Cesia E; Bou, Thavrin; Khieu, Virak; Leang, Rithea; Lek, Dysoley; Ly, Po; Muth, Sinuon; Lim, Kim Seng; Tuseo, Luciano; Yok, Sovann; Yung, Kunthearith; Richards, Jack S; Rekol, Huy

    2016-06-02

    On World Malaria Day 2016, The Kingdom of Cambodia's National celebrations served as a prime of example of how political will is currently being exercised in Cambodia through high-level governmental support for malaria elimination. The main country event was well-planned and coordinated by the National Programme for Parasitology, Entomology and Malaria Control (CNM), and included key contributions from high-ranking political figures, such as His Excellency (H.E) Mam Bun Heng (Minister of Health), and H.E. Keut Sothea (Governor of Pailin Province). There were more than 1000 attendees, ranging from Village Malaria Workers and high school students to CNM's director and other officials in Pailin Province, Western Cambodia. A strong inter-sectoral participation included attendances from the Ministry of Education and high-level representatives of the Cambodian Armed Forces, as well as Malaria Partners like the World Health Organization.

  8. Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from the system of rice intensification (SRI) under a rain-fed lowland rice ecosystem in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ly, Proyuth; Jensen, Lars Stoumann; Bruun, Thilde Bech

    2013-01-01

    The present field study investigated the effects of the system of rice intensification (SRI) on greenhouse gas emissions and rice yield, in the first field trial of its kind in Cambodia. The study was a 2 × 4 factorial design, including SRI and conventional management practices (CMP) with the fol......The present field study investigated the effects of the system of rice intensification (SRI) on greenhouse gas emissions and rice yield, in the first field trial of its kind in Cambodia. The study was a 2 × 4 factorial design, including SRI and conventional management practices (CMP...

  9. India’s strategic interests in South Asia and its aid to Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Alexandrovna Nemova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Providing foreign aid to developing countries is one of the most important aspects of contemporary foreign politics. The article studies relations between India and Bangladesh from the perspective of foreign aid flows and discovers conditions, forms, mechanisms, and trends of India’s aid to Bangladesh from 1971 until today. The research uses the approach of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD towards foreign aid and understands it as financial assistance, technical assistance, as well as aid in goods in the form of grants and soft loans with the aim to provide economic development and well-being. The author analyzes factors of the geopolitical significance of Bangladesh for India and studies India’s aid to Bangladesh in the context of the history of bilateral relations between the two countries. As a result, a certain correlation is discovered between aid flows and the state of bilateral relations. China’s growing interest is seen as one of additional factors, which cause India to increase volumes of its aid to the neighboring countries, including Bangladesh. China and India are understood as emerging donors who are competing to increase their influence in the world. The two Asian giants have recently taken considerable aid commitments to Bangladesh which indicates that Bangladesh starts to play a more important role in the regional geopolitics. In this context, the article predicts a further growth in the volumes of Indian aid to Bangladesh in the future and concludes that India uses its foreign aid programs as a tool to promote its own economic, political, and strategic interests. Foreign aid, including official development assistance (ODA, is becoming a means of India’s economic diplomacy although some researchers point to the fact that the country’s policymakers still lack coordination to make aid efficient in terms of political gains.

  10. Cancer care scenario in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. M. Kamal Uddin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is a developing country that is facing many challenges, especially in the health sector. Cancer management is a priority due to the current trend of increased incidence in this region. In this article, the current scenario of cancer in Bangladesh and its management with brief history is outlined. The combined effort of government and private sector is highlighted with the gradual progress in cancer management. Recent introduction of the state-of-the-art facilities and the training facilities for human resource development are also outlined. The existing challenges and cooperation from local NGOs and other overseas sources are also highlighted to provide an insight regarding possible ways to tackle these challenges to ensure a better future.

  11. Cancer care scenario in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, A F M Kamal; Khan, Zohora Jameela; Islam, Johirul; Mahmud, Am

    2013-04-01

    Bangladesh is a developing country that is facing many challenges, especially in the health sector. Cancer management is a priority due to the current trend of increased incidence in this region. In this article, the current scenario of cancer in Bangladesh and its management with brief history is outlined. The combined effort of government and private sector is highlighted with the gradual progress in cancer management. Recent introduction of the state-of-the-art facilities and the training facilities for human resource development are also outlined. The existing challenges and cooperation from local NGOs and other overseas sources are also highlighted to provide an insight regarding possible ways to tackle these challenges to ensure a better future.

  12. The glycemic status of diabetes in an urban area of Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chang Hee; Kim, Kwang Joon; Lee, Yun-Kyu; Kwon, Jin-Hyun; Lee, Byung Wan; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Park, Joong-Yeol; Khun, Touch; Cha, Bong-Yun; Cho, Nam H

    2014-05-01

    Recently the Korea Diabetes Association participated in the 'Cambodia-Korea Twinning Project' to help Cambodia establish its own modernized diabetes center and to raise awareness of the seriousness of diabetes. Here we report the status of diabetes in an urban area of Cambodia as obtained through this project. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Collaborative Development of Anatomy Workshops for Medical and Dental Students in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Jennifer A.; Ivanusic, Jason J.; le Roux, Cara M.; Hatzopoulos, Kate; Gonsalvez, David; Hong, Someth; Durward, Callum

    2011-01-01

    After Phnom Penh was liberated from the Khmer Rouge in 1979, health science education in Cambodia had to be completely rebuilt. In this article, the authors report the results of a teaching collaboration between the University of Melbourne (Australia), the International University (Cambodia), and the University of Health Sciences (Cambodia). The…

  14. A Bibliographic Foray into Documents and Publications Relating to Peacekeeping in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, MacGregor

    1996-01-01

    Examines the publications, documents, and other materials relating to peacekeeping in Cambodia. Focuses on the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia as a part in the development of the United Nations peacekeeping missions. Evaluates sources concerning operations within Cambodia. Identifies resources of international government…

  15. Cucumber Mosaic Virus in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Akanda, Abdul Mannan; Tsuno, Kazunori; Maeda, Takanori; Wakimoto, Satoshi; 津野, 和宣; 前田, 孚憲; 脇本, 哲

    1991-01-01

    As many as 92 different samples belonging to 15 botanical families, showing virus disease-like symptom were collected from various locations of Bangladesh in 1986-87. Plant samples were lyophilized or dried lvith calcium chloride and preserved at 4℃. Since inactivation of most of the samples was observed in mechanical inoculation to original or closely related host plants in 1989, the dried samples were subjected to double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) and do...

  16. Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahangir Alam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

  17. Hypertension in Bangladesh: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.M. Monwarul Islam

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension (HTN is an increasingly important medical and public health problem. In Bangladesh, approximately 20% of adult and 40–65% of elderly people suffer from HTN. High incidence of metabolic syndrome, and lifestyle-related factors like obesity, high salt intake, and less physical activity may play important role in the pathophysiology of HTN. The association of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE gene polymorphism and low birth weight with blood pressure has been studied inadequately. Studies have found relationship between mass arsenic poisoning and HTN. Hypovitaminosis D presumably plays role in the aetiopathogenesis of HTN in Bangladeshi population. South Asians appear to respond to antihypertensive therapy in a similar manner to the Whites. The latest National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guideline advocates a calcium-channel blocker as step 1 antihypertensive treatment to people aged > 55 years and an ACE inhibitor or a low-cost angiotensin-II receptor blocker for the younger people. Calcium-channel blockers and beta-blockers have been found to be the most commonly prescribed antihypertensive drugs in Bangladesh. Non-adherence to the standard guidelines and irrational drug prescribing are likely to be important. On the other hand, non-adherence to antihypertensive treatment is quite high. At the advent of the new millennium, we are really unaware of our real situation. Large-scale, preferably, nation-wide survey and clinical research are needed to explore the different aspects of HTN in Bangladesh.

  18. Bangladesh mission sees great benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    A JOICFP 2-member mission visited Bangladesh during August 9-22 to monitor the progress of cooperative projects in Narsingdhi and Feni districts, implemented by the Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB), and to discuss the implementation of Postal Savings for International Voluntary Aid (POSIVA) funds. POSIVA is in its 4th year of providing funds to Bangladesh. The Population Reference Bureau's (PRB) Japan Representative joined the mission on a study tour during August 9-17 to directly observe reproductive health and family planning, women's empowerment, and micro-credit at the grassroots level. The representative hopes to raise the Japanese public's awareness of international nongovernmental organization (NGO) partnerships in order to encourage them to help rural populations in developing countries. The offices of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, the International Secretariat of Partners in Population and Development, UNFPA, Population Council, OECF, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), and the Grammin Bank were visited, as well as the project areas of Panchdona and Dhalia Unions of the Integrated Family Development Project. ODA assistance should be strengthened to improve grassroots activities, with a focus upon women's empowerment, maternal and child health, and alleviating poverty through NGOs working together with communities. A project to build capacity in reproductive health in Jessore District is described.

  19. Energy poverty in rural Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, Douglas F.; Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.

    2011-01-01

    Energy poverty is a well-established concept among energy and development specialists. International development organizations frequently cite energy-poverty alleviation as a necessary condition to reduce income poverty. Several approaches used to measure energy poverty over the past 20 years have defined the energy poverty line as the minimum quantity of physical energy needed to perform such basic tasks as cooking and lighting. This paper uses a demand-based approach to define the energy poverty line as the threshold point at which energy consumption begins to rise with increases in household income. At or below this threshold point, households consume a bare minimum level of energy and should be considered energy poor. This approach was applied using cross-sectional data from a comprehensive 2004 household survey representative of rural Bangladesh. The findings suggest that some 58 percent of rural households in Bangladesh are energy poor, versus 45 percent that are income poor. The findings also suggest that policies to support rural electrification and greater use of improved biomass stoves might play a significant role in reducing energy poverty. - Research Highlights: →We estimate energy poverty for rural Bangladesh adopting a demand-based approach. →Findings suggest that energy poverty does not necessarily follow the same pattern as income poverty. →Access to modern energy and efficient use of traditional energy help alleviate energy poverty. →Energy poverty indicator can help track the effectiveness of a wide range of energy policies.

  20. Diversity of bat astroviruses in Lao PDR and Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Audrey; Duong, Veasna; Hul, Vibol; San, Sorn; Davun, Holl; Omaliss, Keo; Chea, Sokha; Hassanin, Alexandre; Theppangna, Watthana; Silithammavong, Soubanh; Khammavong, Kongsy; Singhalath, Sinpakone; Afelt, Aneta; Greatorex, Zoe; Fine, Amanda E; Goldstein, Tracey; Olson, Sarah; Joly, Damien O; Keatts, Lucy; Dussart, Philippe; Frutos, Roger; Buchy, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Astroviruses are known to infect humans and a wide range of animal species, and can cause gastroenteritis in their hosts. Recent studies have reported astroviruses in bats in Europe and in several locations in China. We sampled 1876 bats from 17 genera at 45 sites from 14 and 13 provinces in Cambodia and Lao PDR respectively, and tested them for astroviruses. Our study revealed a high diversity of astroviruses among various Yangochiroptera and Yinpterochiroptera bats. Evidence for varying degrees of host restriction for astroviruses in bats was found. Furthermore, additional Pteropodid hosts were detected. The astroviruses formed distinct phylogenetic clusters within the genus Mamastrovirus, most closely related to other known bat astroviruses. The astrovirus sequences were found to be highly saturated indicating that phylogenetic relationships should be interpreted carefully. An astrovirus clustering in a group with other viruses from diverse hosts, including from ungulates and porcupines, was found in a Rousettus bat. These findings suggest that diverse astroviruses can be found in many species of mammals, including bats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Rapid assessment of injection practices in Cambodia, 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldstein Susan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injection overuse and unsafe injection practices facilitate transmission of bloodborne pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Anecdotal reports of unsafe and unnecessary therapeutic injections and the high prevalence of HBV (8.0%, HCV (6.5%, and HIV (2.6% infection in Cambodia have raised concern over injection safety. To estimate the magnitude and patterns of such practices, a rapid assessment of injection practices was conducted. Methods We surveyed a random sample of the general population in Takeo Province and convenience samples of prescribers and injection providers in Takeo Province and Phnom Penh city regarding injection-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Injection providers were observed administering injections. Data were collected using standardized methods adapted from the World Health Organization safe injection assessment guidelines. Results Among the general population sample (n = 500, the overall injection rate was 5.9 injections per person-year, with 40% of participants reporting receipt of ≥ 1 injection during the previous 6 months. Therapeutic injections, intravenous infusions, and immunizations accounted for 74%, 16% and 10% of injections, respectively. The majority (>85% of injections were received in the private sector. All participants who recalled their last injection reported the injection was administered with a newly opened disposable syringe and needle. Prescribers (n = 60 reported that 47% of the total prescriptions they wrote included a therapeutic injection or infusion. Among injection providers (n = 60, 58% recapped the syringe after use and 13% did not dispose of the used needle and syringe appropriately. Over half (53% of the providers reported a needlestick injury during the previous 12 months. Ninety percent of prescribers and injection providers were aware HBV, HCV, and HIV were transmitted through unsafe

  2. Understanding arsenic contamination of groundwater in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, Babar

    2001-01-01

    underneath Bangladesh. Logically, arsenic is likely to be present as compounds within sediments comprising the aquifer systems and may be associated with iron oxides, organic matter, sulfides etc. High arsenic contamination of groundwater in Bangladesh is a serious issue requiring appropriate understanding of the phenomenon relating to the occurrence and release of arsenic in groundwater. The water supply challenge is as much one of quantity as of quality. In many regions of the world, it means bringing water closer to the house. Further, if the water supply is of good quality, it improves public health. Three developments of the past decades have spurred new approaches to water supply and public health. First, the capacity to analyze smaller amounts of constituents in water has advanced substantially. Second, the health status and life expectancy have risen substantially across most countries. Finally, health and epidemiological research have advanced as well, and we are now much better informed of longer-term health effects of prolonged ingestion of contaminants. There are, at present, few (if any) low-cost technology and affordable solutions for the treatment of arsenic in non-piped water systems. Proposed interventions in rural areas must include alternative water sources such as rainwater harvesting, more efficient use of non-contaminated wells in the area, treated surface water, selective well drilling to deeper aquifers, and simple arsenic removal techniques as they are found effective. Arsenic contamination apparently can occur in a wide variety of hydrogeological and socioeconomic conditions. Therefore, any mitigation strategy will have to be tailored to suit the local geological, institutional and financial situation. However, the experience with water supply across the world demonstrates that the offered technical options will be sustainable only when the local community, or the customers, are truly committed to it and are willing to contribute financially to (at

  3. Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) Trends Over Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, A.

    2016-12-01

    An important omission in the Southeast Asian observing network is the border region with the Indian subcontinent. Significant amounts of pollution are generated and transported down the Indo-Gangenic Plain into the Bay of Bengal. High population density in a semi-arid region leads to the development of a complex mixture of absorbing pollution coupled with dust. Transport patterns of this mixture takes pollutants into Bangladesh, where more pollution is added to the atmosphere-leading to what is one of the highest non urban emission loading in the world (AOD500= 0.75 during the premonsoon season). Bangladesh is essentially a riverine country, and atmospheric outflow is over delta regions fed by over 500 rivers, including the Ganges, Bramaputra, Jamuna, and Padma systems forming the massive Meghna river. This combination of atmospheric and riverine components makes for an optically complex littoral region which challenges a host of environmental sensors and modeling systems. Data is needed to understand the sources, transport and optical characteristics of aerosol particles in the region. Dhaka (23.8103° N, 90.4125° E) is the capital of Bangladesh with a population of about 16 million. It has been growing rapidly with all the problem of a mega city. We have installed a sun photometer with NASA Aeronet project at the roof of the Chemistry Department, Dhaka University with other aerosol particles and gas measuring instruments. Bhola is an Island of the Bay of Bengal. It is surrounded by the Meghna River on the north and east, the Tatulia River on the west and the Bay of Bengal on the south. The observatory is located at Charfashion Bazar, Bhola (N 22o10´01″, E 90o45´00″, 3m asl). There is very little influence from traffic and industrial emissions. A Cimel sunphotometer (NASA AERONET) was installed for AOD measurements at this locations since 2013. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) trends between 2012 and 2016 at two different locations (Dhaka and Bhola) will be

  4. Challenges of Women in Science: Bangladesh Perspectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ranjeetha

    Challenges of Women in Science: Bangladesh Perspectives. Professor Shamima K Choudhury. Department of Physics, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh. And. Director, Bose Centre for Advanced Study and Research in Natural Sciences shamima@univdhaka.edu; skc.phy@gmail.com ...

  5. All projects related to Bangladesh | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Total Funding: CA$ 1,245,177.00. Preventing early marriage in urban poor settlements in Bangladesh. Project. Child marriage among girls is most common in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, with Bangladesh having the highest rate of marriage involving girls under age 15. Topic: MARRIAGE, GIRLS, POLICY MAKING, ...

  6. Molecular detection and genetic diversity of Babesia gibsoni in dogs in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terao, Masashi; Akter, Shirin; Yasin, Md Golam; Nakao, Ryo; Kato, Hirotomo; Alam, Mohammad Zahangir; Katakura, Ken

    2015-04-01

    Babesia gibsoni is a tick-borne hemoprotozoan parasite of dogs that often causes fever and hemolytic illness. Detection of B. gibsoni has been predominantly reported in Asian countries, including Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Malaysia, Bangladesh and India. The present study shows the first molecular characterization of B. gibsoni detected from dogs in Bangladesh. Blood samples were collected on FTA® Elute cards from 50 stray dogs in Mymensingh District in Bangladesh. DNA eluted from the cards was subjected to nested PCR for the 18S rRNA gene of Babesia species. Approximately 800bp PCR products were detected in 15 of 50 dogs (30%). Based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and direct sequencing of the PCR products, all parasite isolates were identified as B. gibsoni. Furthermore, the BgTRAP (B. gibsoni thrombospondin-related adhesive protein) gene fragments were detected in 13 of 15 18S rRNA gene PCR positive blood samples. Phylogenetic analysis of the BgTRAP gene revealed that B. gibsoni parasites in Bangladesh formed a cluster, which was genetically different from other Asian B. gibsoni isolates. In addition, tandem repeat analysis of the BgTRAP gene clearly showed considerable genetic variation among Bangladeshi isolates. These results suggested that B. gibsoni parasites in a different genetic clade are endemic in dogs in Bangladesh. Further studies are required to elucidate the origin, distribution, vector and pathogenesis of B. gibsoni parasites circulating in dogs in Bangladesh. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Avian influenza: the political economy of disease control in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ear, Sophal

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In the wake of avian flu outbreaks in 2004, Cambodia received $45 million in commitments from international donors to help combat the spread of animal and human influenza, particularly avian influenza (H5N1). How countries leverage foreign aid to address the specific needs of donors and the endemic needs of the nation is a complex and nuanced issue throughout the developing world. Cambodia is a particularly compelling study in pandemic preparedness and the management of avian influenza because of its multilayered network of competing local, national, and global needs, and because the level of aid in Cambodia represents approximately $2.65 million per human case-a disproportionately high number when compared with neighbors Vietnam and Indonesia. This paper examines how the Cambodian government has made use of animal and human influenza funds to protect (or fail to protect) its citizens and the global community. It asks how effective donor and government responses were to combating avian influenza in Cambodia, and what improvements could be made at the local and international level to help prepare for and respond to future outbreaks. Based on original interviews, a field survey of policy stakeholders, and detailed examination of Cambodia's health infrastructure and policies, the findings illustrate that while pandemic preparedness has shown improvements since 2004, new outbreaks and human fatalities accelerated in 2011, and more work needs to be done to align the specific goals of funders with the endemic needs of developing nations.

  8. Peptic Ulcer Disease in Bangladesh: A Multi-centre Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, C K; Khan, M R; Alam, F; Shil, B C; Kabir, M S; Mahmuduzzaman, M; Das, S C; Masud, H; Roy, P K

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of peptic ulcer has steadily declined through out the world. This decreasing trend is also noticeable in this subcontinent. The point prevalence of peptic ulcer (PUD) in Bangladesh was around 15% in eighties. The aim of this study was to see the present prevalence of peptic ulcer at endoscopy and to identify changing trends in the occurrence of peptic ulcer in Bangladesh. This retrospective analysis of the endoscopic records of multiple tertiary referral centres of Dhaka city were done from January 2012 to July 2013. A total of 5608 subjects were the study samples. We included those patients having peptic ulcer in the form of duodenal ulcer, benign gastric ulcer including pre-pyloric ulcer and gastric outlet obstruction due to peptic ulcer. Duodenal ulcer and benign gastric ulcer were found in 415(7.4%) and 184(3.28%) patients respectively and gastric outlet obstruction due to peptic ulcer was found in 23(0.40%) patients.

  9. Indiscriminate Fisheries: Understanding the Foodweb of the Great Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, L.; Kaufman, L.

    2014-12-01

    Indiscriminate fisheries target multiple species with multiple gear types. In contrast to well-studied, industrialized single-species, single-gear fisheries, little theory and little but growing literature on practice exists for indiscriminate fisheries. Indiscriminate fisheries are disproportionately important in low-income countries, providing most of the animal protein intake in countries such as Cambodia and Bangladesh. Indiscriminate fisheries may be either freshwater or marine, but here we focus on what may be the largest freshwater indiscriminate fishery in the world. Cambodia's freshwater fishery stands out because it provides the majority of animal protein to over 3 million people living in poverty. The fishery of the Tonle Sap lake is one of the largest, if not the largest contributor to this freshwater fish take, and is perhaps the largest freshwater fishery in the world. In contrast to its importance, very little is known about the foodweb ecology of this system, or how community management which now governs the entire fishery, interacts with biological and physical factors such as climate change.The foodweb of the Tonle Sap has changed dramatically due to high fishing pressure. A system that once harbored giant catfish, barbs and stingrays is now dominated by fish under 20cm in length. The simplification of the system may not have reduced its productivity. Theory of indiscriminate fisheries suggests that r-selected species may be favored and that biomass available for harvest may be maximized, while being more sensitive to environmental fluctuations such as climate change due to food web simplification. The r-selection and size predictions of theory have been confirmed by observations of the Tonle Sap. Early model results suggest sensitivity to environmental stochasticity. The interaction of these ecological changes with social systems will be tested in the Tonle Sap. Fisheries management across the lake has been transferred to community management

  10. Iron isotope constraints on arsenic release from Mekong Delta sediments, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, T.; Yamaguchi, K. E.; Hirata, T.; Yamagata, Y.; Yamaguchi, A.; Abe, G.

    2017-12-01

    Arsenic-contaminated groundwater is a world-wide environmental problem and threatens more than 100 million people living in delta areas of South, SE and East Asia. It is typically associated with reducing aquifers with organic-rich alluvial sediments, little thermal gradients, low sulfate concentrations, and slow flushing rates. Such conditions are typical for low-lying countries in Asian deltas; however, compared to Bangladesh, Cambodia has received far less attention. Upon reductive dissolution of Fe-(oxyhydr)oxides that adsorbed As, Fe and As are released into solution as dissolved Fe2+ and arsenate, respectively. Following the oxidation of dissolved Fe2+, newly-formed Fe-(oxyhydr)oxides adsorb As again. Thus, in anoxic waters, concentrations of As correlate with those of dissolved Fe2+. Fluctuating redox conditions in the aquifer are control As release, although inhibition of adsorption of arsenate and arsenite onto the Fe-(oxyhydr)oxides occurs when the concentrations of phosphate, bicarbonate, silicate, and/or organic matter become sufficiently high. Biogeochemical redox reactions of Fe result in significant isotope fractionation (e.g., Johnson et al., 2008). We hypothesized that magnitude of isotope fractionation of Fe in the aquifer sediments, reflecting repeated (incomplete) redox reactions of Fe, may be proportional to the amount of total As release. We aim to calibrate the As release from aquifer sediment by Fe isotope analysis. As a preliminary study, series of sediment samples were collected from the Mekong Delta, Cambodia, in September 2016. Based on measurements by XRF, ICP-AES and ICP-MS, concentrations of As varied significantly covering the range from 4.5 to 15.5 µg/g with a median value of 11 µg/g (higher than the average crustal value of 5 µg/g), and those of Fe is from 2.6 to 9.7 wt.% with a median value of 7.1 wt.%. Concentrations of As and Fe show positive correlation (R2 = 0.72), indicating an effective redox cycling of Fe and As as

  11. Financial sustainability planning for immunization services in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeung, Sann Chan; Grundy, John; Maynard, Jim; Brooks, Alan; Boreland, Marian; Sarak, Duong; Jenkinson, Karl; Biggs, Beverley-Ann

    2006-07-01

    The expanded programme of immunization was established in Cambodia in 1986. In 2002, 67% of eligible children were immunized, despite significant health sector and macro-economic financial constraints. A financial sustainability planning process for immunization was introduced in 2002, in order to mobilize national and international resources in support of the achievement of child health objectives. The aim of this paper is to outline this process, describe its early impact as an advocacy tool and recommend additional strategies for mobilizing additional resources for health. The methods of financial sustainability planning are described, including the advocacy strategies that were applied. Analysis of financial sustainability planning results indicates rising programme costs associated with new vaccine introduction and new technologies. Despite this, the national programme has demonstrated important early successes in using financial sustainability planning to advocate for increased mobilization of national and international sources of funding for immunization. The national immunization programme nevertheless faces formidable system and financial challenges in the coming years associated with rising costs, potentially diminishing sources of international assistance, and the developing role of sub-national authorities in programme management and financing.

  12. Coal mining in Bangladesh: Options to mitigate environmental impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Angen, Meara Rose

    2008-01-01

    This study examines methods of mitigating the environmental impacts of coal mining in Bangladesh. Coal is expected to aid in providing energy security for the country in the short-term. The coal mining industry is currently in its infancy, and no policy exists. This study examines the government policies of three diverse countries and discovers that there are several instruments commonly used to reduce the environmental impacts of coal mining. These instruments include regulations that set st...

  13. A comprehensive assessment of arsenic in commonly consumed foodstuffs to evaluate the potential health risk in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Md. Kawser [Faculty of Earth & Environmental Sciences, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Shaheen, Nazma [Institute of Nutrition and Food Science (INFS), University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Islam, Md. Saiful [Department of Risk Management and Environmental Sciences, Graduate School of Environment and Information Sciences, Yokohama National University, Yokohama, Kanagawa 240-8501 (Japan); Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md., E-mail: habibullah-al-sj@ynu.jp [Department of Risk Management and Environmental Sciences, Graduate School of Environment and Information Sciences, Yokohama National University, Yokohama, Kanagawa 240-8501 (Japan); Department of Fisheries, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Islam, Saiful [Institute of Nutrition and Food Science (INFS), University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Islam, Md. Monirul [Department of Fisheries, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); School of Earth and Environment, Leeds University, Leeds LS2, 9JT (United Kingdom); Kundu, Goutam Kumar [Department of Fisheries, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Bhattacharjee, Lalita [National Food Policy Capacity Strengthening Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (Bangladesh)

    2016-02-15

    Arsenic (As), particularly of its inorganic form (iAs) is highly toxic, and its presence in food composites is a matter of concern for the public health safety, specifically in Bangladesh which is regarded as the most arsenic affected country throughout the world. This study was carried out to investigate the levels of As in the composite samples of commonly consumed foodstuffs collected from 30 different agro-ecological zones for the first time in Bangladesh. Most of the individual food composites contain a considerable amount of As which was, as a whole, in the range of 0.077–1.5 mg/kg fw which was lower than those reported from Spain, EU, France, Korea, whereas higher than those of Mexico, Chile, Japan, Cambodia, Hong Kong, Serbia, respectively. Cereals, vegetables, milk, and fish contribute about 90% to the daily intake of inorganic arsenic. Human health risk of dietary iAs was assessed separately for both the rural and urban adults. The estimated daily dietary intakes (EDI) of iAs for the exposed rural (3.5) and urban residents (3.2 μg/kg-BW/day) clearly exceeded the previous provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) value of 2.1 μg/kg-BW/day, recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). From the health point of view, this study concluded that both the rural and urban residents of Bangladesh are exposed to carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks who consume As-contaminated water and foodstuffs. - Highlights: • A comprehensive health risk assessment from dietary arsenic exposure was evaluated. • Sample collected from 30 agro-ecological zones for the first time in Bangladesh. • Rural and urban adults are consuming more arsenic through food than the safe limit. • Cereals, vegetables, milk, and fish contribute about 90% to EDI of inorganic As. • Inhabitants are exposed chronically to arsenic induced risks.

  14. "Research in Cambodia, Half a Century Ago: An Address to the Thailand, Laos, Cambodia Studies Group"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Willmott

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Address to the Thailand, Laos, Cambodia Studies Association at the Association for Asian Studies Annual Conference in Toronto, March 16, 2012This event has given me the opportunity to return to almost the beginning of my academic career: my doctoral fieldwork in Cambodia fifty years ago. (It was preceded by fieldwork in an Inuit community in the Ungava, Northern Canada; not relevant here. Rereading my publications from that research has allowed me to relive the excitement of my Cambodian year, living with my wife and child in Phnom Penh apart from a month in Siem Reap, where I could hire a cyclo for ten riels and visit the various ruins of Angkor every afternoon. Research on overseas Chinese was informed by different paradigms in those days. Bill Skinner was a leading thinker in the field, and Maurice Freedman, my mentor and supervisor, was another. Our issues focused on community social structure and nationalism—many of us were supporters of the national liberation movements in Southeast Asian countries. For most of us, Chinese identity was simply a methodological issue...

  15. The dilemmas of aid: Cambodia 1992-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollogly, L

    2002-09-07

    Cambodia is a small, poor, and sparsely-populated country between Vietnam and Thailand, which is making a slow recovery from a long history of conflict. 80% of its 11.4 million people live by subsistence farming; rice is their main crop. Infant mortality is 89.4/1000, and 12% of children die before the age of 5 years. Life expectancy is around 50 years, and about 45,000 Khmers (Cambodians) are missing at least one limb from a 30 year deposit of landmines and dumping unexploded ordinance. Despite a decade of concerted effort by the international community to improve Cambodia's prospects, disease and poverty still define life for most of the population. In April, 2002, I visited Cambodia for the fourth time in 10 years, to see how medical aid projects were faring in particular, and to assess whether the past decade of international aid and intervention has improved the provision of health care for Khmers.

  16. European Commission programmes with Asia: the case of Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Carlos Corral Fuentes

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available After reviewing the historical, political, and, above all, social context of Cambodia, in which this Southeast Asian country’s progress but also its great shortfalls are shown, the author enters fully into the previous history and current situation of relations between theEU and Cambodia. For this, he analyses the different existing economic, trade and cooperation agreements, to focus on the EU-Cambodia Programme (1993-2000 concerning technical and financial assistance, restoration, disaster victims, NGOs, refugees, democracy and human rights, as well as the environment, drugs and economic cooperation. The EU, along with Japan, is one of the main contributors to Cambodia’s process of restoration and reconstruction, although the overall size of the EU’s cooperation is still considerably lower than that provided by the bilateral cooperation of its member states.

  17. Drought Monitoring for Rice Production in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyda Chhinh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice production underpins the national economy and the most rural livelihoods in Cambodia, but it is negatively impacted by repeated droughts. The research reported on in this paper focuses on relationships between drought occurrences in Cambodia’s most drought-prone province (Kampong Speu and (i damage to the annual rice harvest between 1994 and 2011, and (ii the Niño 3.4 index. Droughts were identified using the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI. In seven of the years between 1994 and 2006 droughts damaged >1000 ha of rice in the Kampong Speu province. Furthermore, in 11 years >200 ha of rice were damaged. A critical success index of 0.66 obtained for an analysis of SPI-defined drought and area rice damage in the province indicates a strong statistical relationship. A statistically significant correlation (r = −0.455 was achieved between Niño 3.4 and 12-month SPI values lagged by three months, this indicates the importance of ENSO linkages in explaining drought in this region. Late season droughts lead to greater rice damage than early- and mid-season droughts.

  18. Reproductive health for vulnerable children and youth in Cambodia. RAS/98/P14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    In Cambodia, Mith Samlanh/Friends, through Pharmaciens Sans Frontier, is developing a project aiming to provide reproductive health (RH) information, education and care among vulnerable urban youth and children in squatter areas, pagodas and streets. The project also seeks to reintegrate vulnerable youth and correct abusive and risky behavior, introduce RH services in vulnerable communities, and to build the capacity of partner nongovernmental organizations in all aspects of the project. As its strategy, it works with vulnerable groups, including commercial sex workers and street children in Phnom Penh and Kampong Cham province, to teach them useful skills. A summary of the main program activities is presented.

  19. Establishing acute flaccid paralysis surveillance under difficult circumstances: lessons learned in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nareth, L; Aylward, R B; Sopal, O; Bassett, D; Vun, M C; Bilous, J

    1997-02-01

    The implementation of the World Health Organization's recommended strategies for polio eradication, particularly acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance, can be limited by difficult circumstances beyond the control of immunization personnel. In Cambodia, however, obstacles to establishing AFP surveillance were rapidly overcome using a strategy that improved reporting through active surveillance in a geographically limited area before gradually expanding to include the whole country. The success of the strategy was ensured by the timely provision of the resources that were needed to establish, expand, and monitor surveillance activities.

  20. Sexual behaviour of commercial sex workers and their clients in Cambodia. Japan-Cambodia Collaborating Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morio, S; Soda, K; Tajima, K; Leng, H B; Kitamura, K; Mizushima, S; Ohshige, K; Tan, F; Suyama, A; Sopheab, H; Phalla, T

    1999-06-01

    This study surveyed the sexual behaviour of commercial sex workers and their clients in an attempt to identify factors of transmission of STDs (including HIV/AIDS) and to control their epidemics in Cambodia and South-East Asia. Cross-sectional study. Trained questioners asked items of the questionnaires to each objective subject in December 1996. Data were analysed to show the descriptive status by risk group of each person. 200 direct commercial sex workers, 220 indirect commercial sex workers, and 211 clients in Phnom Penh. Prostitution was widely accepted by both young males and females, and this was an easy way for young girls to obtain money. Although commercial sex workers and clients were knowledgeable about prevention methods against STDs, they seldom used condoms. Some commercial sex workers had been infected with STDs many times, and many of them incompletely treated the diseases by themselves. Social support from governmental and non-governmental organisation was poor. It is very important to support both commercial sex workers in practicing preventive methods against STDs and also visiting physicians when they notice symptoms of STDs. It is strongly recommended that not only governmental but also non-governmental organisations should be more active in this area.

  1. Influences on Academic Achievement of Primary School Pupils in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopheak Song

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Employing education production function approach, this article investigates the influences of school and pupil background factors on academic achievement of primary school pupils in Cambodia. Based on achievement data of 1,080 Grade 6 pupils from one rural and one semi-urban area, the study reveals that school and teacher quality exerts a considerable effect on pupils’ performance. Teachers’ experience and teacher guides are positively correlated with academic achievement, while instructional time loss is significantly associated with poor performance. In light of these results, policies to boost academic achievement of primary school pupils in Cambodia are discussed.

  2. Imaging in the Khmer’s Land: Cambodia Country Report

    OpenAIRE

    Samantha G. Harrington; Joseph Makris

    2015-01-01

    Cambodia is located in Southeast Asia on the Indochina Peninsula and borders Vietnam, Laos, Thailand and the Gulf of Thailand (Figure 1). With a total area of 69,898 square miles and population of 15,458,332, Cambodia’s population density has steadily increased since 1980. The country’s annual rate of urbanization is 2.65 %. As of 2014, 20.5% of the population lives in an urban setting. The estimated population growth rate is 1.63% (1). The capital of Cambodia is Phnom Penh, which is located ...

  3. Drivers, challenges and opportunities of forage technology adoption by smallholder cattle households in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, K; Wilson, S; Young, J R; Chan, H P; Vitou, S; Suon, S; Windsor, P A; Bush, R D

    2018-01-01

    Forage technology has been successfully introduced into smallholder cattle systems in Cambodia as an alternative feed source to the traditional rice straw and native pastures, improving animal nutrition and reducing labour requirements of feeding cattle. Previous research has highlighted the positive impacts of forage technology including improved growth rates of cattle and household time savings. However, further research is required to understand the drivers, challenges and opportunities of forage technology for smallholder cattle households in Cambodia to facilitate widespread adoption and identify areas for further improvement. A survey of forage-growing households (n = 40) in July-September 2016 examined forage technology adoption experiences, including reasons for forage establishment, use of inputs and labour requirements of forage plot maintenance and use of forages (feeding, fattening, sale of grass or seedlings and silage). Time savings was reported as the main driver of forage adoption with household members spending approximately 1 h per day maintaining forages and feeding it to cattle. Water availability was reported as the main challenge to this activity. A small number of households also reported lack of labour, lack of fencing, competition from natural grasses, cost of irrigation and lack of experience as challenges to forage growing. Cattle fattening and sale of cut forage grass and seedlings was not found to be a widespread activity by interviewed households, with 25 and 10% of households reporting use of forages for these activities, respectively. Currently, opportunities exist for these households to better utilise forages through expansion of forage plots and cattle activities, although assistance is required to support these households in addressing current constraints, particularly availability of water, if the sustainability of this feed technology for smallholder cattle household is to be established in Cambodia.

  4. Situation Report--Australia, Burundi, Cambodia, Mexico, Montserrat, Nicaragua, Papua & New Guinea, Republic of Vietnam, Sabah, Sarawak, Sierra Leone, Tahiti, Tonga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in fourteen foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Australia, Burundi, Cambodia, Mexico, Montserrat, Nicaragua, Papua and New Guines, Republic of Vietnam, Sabah, Sarawak, Sierra Leone, Tahiti (French Polynesia), and Tonga. Information is provided under two…

  5. Achieving universal access and moving towards elimination of new HIV infections in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vun, Mean Chhi; Fujita, Masami; Rathavy, Tung; Eang, Mao Tang; Sopheap, Seng; Sovannarith, Samreth; Chhorvann, Chhea; Vanthy, Ly; Sopheap, Oum; Welle, Emily; Ferradini, Laurent; Sedtha, Chin; Bunna, Sok; Verbruggen, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In the mid-1990s, Cambodia faced one of the fastest growing HIV epidemics in Asia. For its achievement in reversing this trend, and achieving universal access to HIV treatment, the country received a United Nations millennium development goal award in 2010. This article reviews Cambodia's response to HIV over the past two decades and discusses its current efforts towards elimination of new HIV infections. A literature review of published and unpublished documents, including programme data and presentations, was conducted. Cambodia classifies its response to one of the most serious HIV epidemics in Asia into three phases. In Phase I (1991-2000), when adult HIV prevalence peaked at 1.7% and incidence exceeded 20,000 cases, a nationwide HIV prevention programme targeted brothel-based sex work. Voluntary confidential counselling and testing and home-based care were introduced, and peer support groups of people living with HIV emerged. Phase II (2001-2011) observed a steady decline in adult prevalence to 0.8% and incidence to 1600 cases by 2011, and was characterized by: expanding antiretroviral treatment (coverage reaching more than 80%) and continuum of care; linking with tuberculosis and maternal and child health services; accelerated prevention among key populations, including entertainment establishment-based sex workers, men having sex with men, transgender persons, and people who inject drugs; engagement of health workers to deliver quality services; and strengthening health service delivery systems. The third phase (2012-2020) aims to attain zero new infections by 2020 through: sharpening responses to key populations at higher risk; maximizing access to community and facility-based testing and retention in prevention and care; and accelerating the transition from vertical approaches to linked/integrated approaches. Cambodia has tailored its prevention strategy to its own epidemic, established systematic linkages across different services and communities, and

  6. ARH in Cambodia (Phnom Penh and Sihanoukville municipalities and Battambang and Kampong Cham provinces). RAS/98/P12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    In Cambodia, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, through the Reproductive Health (RH) Association of Cambodia, seeks to help strengthen the national capacity to deliver RH services and high-quality RH information, education and communication (IEC) materials for adolescents in four project areas. It also aims to increase the utilization of RH services by young people aged 12-25 years. Its strategies include providing back-up IEC services and specialist technical inputs to the production of radio shows, and sharing the family life education curriculum as a resource. The main activities of the project consist of: 1) meeting with stakeholders to encourage community participation and carrying out needs assessment; 2) organizing adolescent reproductive health services and providing special clinic facilities; 3) setting up of youth club activities and mobilizing, training and supporting youth volunteers to provide outreach, peer education and referrals to clinic services; and 4) training and disseminating IEC materials.

  7. The village/commune safety policy and HIV prevention efforts among key affected populations in Cambodia: finding a balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson Nick

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Village/Commune Safety Policy was launched by the Ministry of Interior of the Kingdom of Cambodia in 2010 and, due to a priority focus on “cleaning the streets”, has created difficulties for HIV prevention programs attempting to implement programs that work with key affected populations including female sex workers and people who inject drugs. The implementation of the policy has forced HIV program implementers, the UN and various government counterparts to explore and develop collaborative ways of delivering HIV prevention services within this difficult environment. The following case study explores some of these efforts and highlights the promising development of a Police Community Partnership Initiative that it is hoped will find a meaningful balance between the Village/Commune Safety Policy and HIV prevention efforts with key affected populations in Cambodia.

  8. Epidemiology of Traumatic Brain Injuries at a Major Government Hospital in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Sophie; Blaine, Caitlin; Vycheth, Iv; Nang, Sam; Vuthy, Din; Park, Kee B

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a critical public health problem worldwide with a significant socioeconomic burden. Although improved safety regulations in high-income countries have resulted in a decline in traffic-related TBI, the incidence of TBI in low-income countries is on the rise. We illustrate the trends and factors involved in TBI in a large Cambodian governmental hospital in Phnom Penh. In addition, suggestions for improvement of the country's road traffic safety are discussed. This is a cross-sectional study of all patients who presented with traumatic brain injury to Department of Neurosurgery at Preah Kossamak Hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia between November 2013 and March 2016. TBIs in Cambodia are on the rise; 34% occur during rush hour, 5-9 pm, and 40% during the weekend. The vast majority (74%) occur as the result of road traffic accidents, of which 81% are motorcycle related. Helmet wear remains low at 13%, and recent alcohol use was reported as 38%. The most common diagnosis is skull fracture. The subdural to epidural hematoma ratio was 1:1.05. Lastly, in both subdural and epidural hematomas the frontal lobe was most commonly involved, with 60% of epidural hematomas associated with a lucid interval. Our study suggests prevention and management of TBIs can have a measurable public health impact in Cambodia. Initiative examples include helmet safety awareness campaigns, stricter penalties, improvement of prehospital care, and more efficient triage. A high proportion of unhelmeted motorcycle accidents correlates with an increase in epidural hematomas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of financial impact of foot and mouth disease on smallholder cattle farmers in Southern Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J R; Suon, S; Andrews, C J; Henry, L A; Windsor, P A

    2013-04-01

    The financial impact of an outbreak of FMD in 2010 on 62 smallholder cattle farmers in four villages in southern Cambodia was investigated by a financial impact survey questionnaire. Financial losses associated with FMD infection were severe with variation depending on whether the animal survived or died or was used for draft. The average post-FMD loss varied from USD 216.32, a 54% reduction from the pre-FMD value because of weight loss and treatment costs, to USD 370.54, a 92% reduction from pre-FMD values if the animal was treated, died and a rental draft replacement was required. Partial budget analysis identified a strongly positive incentive for cattle to be vaccinated biannually for FMD, providing USD 31.48 per animal for each animal owned. However low vaccination rates suggest that farmers are mostly unaware of the need or averse to the practice of vaccinating their cattle for FMD. This may be due to poor understanding of preventative disease strategies such as vaccination, unavailable disposable income for purchase of vaccines, and failure to recognize the full costs that are incurred when the disease occurs. Enhancing smallholder cattle productivity through the introduction of forage growing systems has been suggested as a pathway for alleviating rural poverty in the Mekong region. As our financial analysis identified a net benefit of vaccination for smallholder farmer enterprises in an endemic FMD area in Cambodia, it is considered important that farmer education strategies aimed at improving cattle productivity, also include both access to vaccine and training in preventative disease risk management and biosecurity practices in Cambodia. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Mercury contamination in human hair and fish from Cambodia: levels, specific accumulation and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Kunito, Takashi; Iwata, Hisato; Monirith, In; Tana, Touch Seang; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2005-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations in human hair and fish samples from Phnom Penh, Kien Svay, Tomnup Rolork and Batrong, Cambodia, collected in November 1999 and December 2000 were determined to understand the status of contamination, and age- and sex-dependent accumulation in humans and to assess the intake of mercury via fish consumption. Mercury concentrations in human hair ranged from 0.54 to 190 μg/g dry wt. About 3% of the samples contained Hg levels exceeding the no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL) of WHO (50 μg/g) and the levels in some hair samples of women also exceeded the NOAEL (10 μg/g) associated with fetus neurotoxicity. A weak but significant positive correlation was observed between age and Hg levels in hair of residents. Mercury concentrations in muscle of marine and freshwater fish from Cambodia ranged from <0.01 to 0.96 μg/g wet wt. Mercury intake rates were estimated on the basis of the Hg content in fish and daily fish consumption. Three samples of marine fish including sharp-tooth snapper and obtuse barracuda, and one sample of sharp-tooth snapper exceeded the guidelines by US EPA and by Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), respectively, which indicates that some fish specimens examined (9% and 3% for US EPA and JECFA guidelines, respectively) were hazardous for consumption at the ingestion rate of Cambodian people (32.6 g/day). It is suggested that fish is probably the main source of Hg for Cambodian people. However, extremely high Hg concentrations were observed in some individuals and could not be explained by Hg intake from fish consumption, indicating some other contamination sources of Hg in Cambodia. - A source other than fish may be responsible for high Hg in some Cambodians

  11. Beliefs about tobacco, health, and addiction among adults in Cambodia: findings from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yel, Daravuth; Bui, Anthony; Job, Jayakaran S; Knutsen, Synnove; Singh, Pramil N

    2013-09-01

    There remains a very high rate of smoked and smokeless tobacco use in the Western Pacific Region. The most recent findings from national adult tobacco surveys indicate that very few daily users of tobacco intend to quit tobacco use. In Cambodia, a nation that is predominantly Buddhist, faith-based tobacco control programs have been implemented where, under the fifth precept of Buddhism that proscribes addictive behaviors, monks were encouraged to quit tobacco and temples have been declared smoke-free. In the present study, we included items on a large national tobacco survey to examine the relation between beliefs (faith-based, other) about tobacco, health, and addiction among adults (18 years and older). In a stratified, multistage cluster sample (n=13,988) of all provinces of Cambodia, we found that (1) 88-93% believe that Buddhist monks should not use tobacco, buy tobacco, or be offered tobacco during a religious ceremony; (2) 86-93% believe that the Wat (temple) should be a smoke-free area; (3) 93-95% believe that tobacco is addictive in the same way as habits (opium, gambling, alcohol) listed under the fifth precept of Buddhism; and (4) those who do not use tobacco are significantly more likely to cite a Buddhist principle as part of their anti-tobacco beliefs. These data indicate that anti-tobacco sentiments are highly prevalent in the Buddhist belief system of Cambodian adults and are especially evident among non-users of tobacco. Our findings indicate that faith-based initiatives could be an effective part of anti-tobacco campaigns in Cambodia.

  12. Improving local health through community health workers in Cambodia: challenges and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozano, Kim; Simkhada, Padam; Thann, Khem; Khatri, Rose

    2018-01-06

    Volunteer community health workers (CHWs) are an important link between the public health system and the community. The 'Community Participation Policy for Health' in Cambodia identifies CHWs as key to local health promotion and as a critical link between district health centres and the community. However, research on the challenges CHWs face and identifying what is required to optimise their performance is limited in the Cambodian context. This research explores the views of CHWs in rural Cambodia, on the challenges they face when implementing health initiatives. Qualitative methodology was used to capture the experiences of CHWs in Kratie and Mondulkiri provinces. Two participatory focus groups with CHWs in Mondulkiri and ten semi-structured interviews in Kratie were conducted. Results from both studies were used to identify common themes. Participants were CHWs, male and female, from rural Khmer and Muslim communities and linked with seven different district health centres. Findings identify that CHWs regularly deliver health promotion to communities. However, systemic, personal and community engagement challenges hinder their ability to function effectively. These include minimal leadership and support from local government, irregular training which focuses on verticalised health programmes, inadequate resources, a lack of professional identity and challenges to achieving behaviour change of community members. In addition, the CHW programme is delivered in a fragmented way that is largely influenced by external aid objectives. When consulted, however, CHWs demonstrate their ability to develop realistic practical solutions to challenges and barriers. The fragmented delivery of the CHW programme in Cambodia means that government ownership is minimal. This, coupled with the lack of defined core training programme or adequate resources, prevents CHWs from reaching their potential. CHWs have positive and realistic ideas on how to improve their role and, subsequently

  13. WinFood data from Kenya and Cambodia: Constraints on field procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owino, Victor; Omollo, Selina; Konyole, Silvenus; Skau, Jutta; Roos, Nanna; Friis, Henrik; Michaelsen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    issues with the locally produced Winfood product hence ethics approval was delayed. Regarding D2O in Kenya we observed that both ERC and mothers misunderstood the concept of ‘special water’ and it took a long time to explain. In Cambodia mothers were worried about lengthy waiting time for saliva sampling. D2O spillage during dosing was a major problem in Kenya due to agitated children, mainly at 15 months who spat deuterium. High morbidity among children depicted as dehydration limited saliva production while mouth sores made saliva sampling difficult (saliva samples were contaminated with mucus, blood and breast milk). Blood assay challenges included high rates of hemolysis due to restless children and inexperienced staff since procedures are not routine. Nervous mothers made the situation worse. Lack of local facilities to measure iron, zinc status and lipid profile increased cost and delayed results. Conclusions: Challenges were largely contextual. Misconceptions about intervention and procedures, infant morbidity and restlessness affected D2O assessment. Inexperienced staff and lack of local sample analysis capacity affected blood assays. Local laboratory capacity, training of staff and sensitization of communities and ERC are highly recommended. (author)

  14. Gender and HIV/AIDS in Bangladesh: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joydeb Garai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The HIV/AIDS epidemic portrays a growing health threat in the world. In Bangladesh, the prevalence rate of HIV/AIDS is not yet high but it is gradually becoming a threat especially for women and young girls due to gender disparity. This systematic review was conducted to explore the gender-specific vulnerability to HIV/AIDS in Bangladesh in order to suggest to policy makers the best way for the prevention of HIV/AIDS in Bangladesh as well as in other low income countries. Methods: Peer review articles were identified using a systematic search of two databases: Pubmed and Goggle Scholar. The search was limited to studies published in English between 1998 and 2016 and included a special focus on articles addressing the gender-specific risk factors to HIV/ AIDS. Discussion and Conclusion: This paper analyzes how women and girls in marginalized position in the society fall victim to HIV/AIDS due to gender disparities and other related issues. The findings of the study indicate that women and young girls are the most vulnerable to HIV/AIDS infection among the general people. Along with biological susceptibility, other major causes of this vulnerability of women and girls are gender inequality, sexual abuse and violence, social stigma, inability to decision making power, economic dependency and men’s sexual power and privilege over women. This paper helps policy makers and invites them to take special care to reduce gender inequality before implementing any policy for the prevention of HIV/AIDS in Bangladesh as well as in low income countries.

  15. A review of the mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irish, Seth R; Al-Amin, Hasan Mohammad; Alam, Mohammad Shafiul; Harbach, Ralph E

    2016-10-22

    Diseases caused by mosquito-borne pathogens remain an important source of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh. To better control the vectors that transmit the agents of disease, and hence the diseases they cause, and to appreciate the diversity of the family Culicidae, it is important to have an up-to-date list of the species present in the country. Original records were collected from a literature review to compile a list of the species recorded in Bangladesh. Records for 123 species were collected, although some species had only a single record. This is an increase of ten species over the most recent complete list, compiled nearly 30 years ago. Collection records of three additional species are included here: Anopheles pseudowillmori, Armigeres malayi and Mimomyia luzonensis. While this work constitutes the most complete list of mosquito species collected in Bangladesh, further work is needed to refine this list and understand the distributions of those species within the country. Improved morphological and molecular methods of identification will allow the refinement of this list in years to come.

  16. Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus and its prevalence in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesmin, Subrina; Akter, Shamima; Akashi, Hidechika; Al-Mamun, Abdullah; Rahman, Md Arifur; Islam, Md Majedul; Sohael, Farzana; Okazaki, Osamu; Moroi, Masao; Kawano, Satoru; Mizutani, Taro

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has important health complications for both mother and child and is increasing all over the world. Although prevalence estimates for GDM are not new in developed and many developing countries, data are lacking for many low-income countries like Bangladesh. To evaluate the prevalence of GDM in Bangladesh. This cross-sectional study included 3447 women who consecutively visited the antenatal clinics with an average gestation age of 26 weeks. GDM was defined according to WHO criteria (fasting plasma glucose [FPG] ≥7.0 mmol/L or 2-h ≥7.8 mmol/L) and the new ADA criteria (FPG ≥5.3 mmol/L or 2-h ≥8.6 mmol/L OGTT). We also calculated overt diabetes as FPG ≥7.0 mmol/L. Prevalence of GDM was 9.7% according to the WHO criteria and 12.9% according to the ADA criteria in this study population. Prevalence of overt diabetes was 1.8%. Women with GDM were older, higher educated, had higher household income, higher parity, parental history of diabetes, and more hypertensive, compared with non-GDM women. This study demonstrates a high prevalence of GDM in Bangladesh. These estimates for GDM may help to formulate new policies to prevent and manage diabetes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. All projects related to cambodia | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-01-18

    In most societies, sex work is highly stigmatized and sex workers are subject to blame, disapproval and discrimination. Start Date: January 18, 2010. End Date: June 30, 2012. Topic: PROSTITUTION, VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY. Region: India, Cambodia, Far ...

  18. Academic Achievement among Adolescents in Cambodia: Does Caregiver Trauma Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Sothy; Mulsow, Miriam; Cleveland, Harrington; Hart, Sybil L.

    2009-01-01

    How will hostilities occurring around today's world influence future generations in affected areas? Cambodia may be one place where this question can be answered, and academic achievement is one way to measure these effects. Cambodian adolescent/caregiver dyads (n=288) were examined for links between caregiver trauma history and adolescent…

  19. Improving women's lives in Cambodia through fish on farms | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-29

    Apr 29, 2016 ... In Cambodia, rural diets typically lack protein and micronutrients, leading to high rates of stunting in children and anemia in women. Since 1998, Helen Keller International (HKI) has supported women in homestead-level production of nutrient-rich fruits, vegetables, and animal source foods. In 2012, rearing ...

  20. Securing land rights defuses conflicts in Cambodia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-28

    Oct 28, 2010 ... The hill people in Cambodia's Ratanakiri province set a powerful precedent that has served as a model for the country's land tenure laws. With IDRC support, they protected their livelihoods — under threat from logging and land-clearing — by establishing legal rights to their land and its resources.

  1. Nutrition from aquaculture and home gardens in Cambodia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    is about 76% carbohydrate, only 10% protein, and only 14% fat. Foods from animal sources — providing high quality protein, essential fatty acids, iron, and vitamin A — make up less than. 9% of total energy intake. While there has been significant progress in the child survival rate in Cambodia, over a third of deaths under ...

  2. Fish on farms combat dietary deficits in Cambodia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-04-11

    Apr 11, 2014 ... Nearly 70% of infants aged six to nine months suffer from Vitamin A and iron deficiency, and more than 50% of women of childbearing age are anemic. Cambodia's rate of stunted growth is the highest in Asia. But now, the farmers, Helen Keller International, and researchers from the University of British ...

  3. cambodia : tous les projets | Page 4 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE, INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORT, REGIONAL INTEGRATION, TRADE FACILITATION. Région: Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Cambodia, China, Laos, Viet Nam, Thailand. Programme: Emploi et croissance. Financement total : CA$ 300,000.00. Programme de recherche sur ...

  4. Community Driven Universal Access Solutions in Cambodia : Pilots ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Cambodia new information and communication technologies (ITCs) are almost nonexistent outside the major cities. The country's national ICT policy framework is in its formative stage, receptive to policy research and strategy development for digital inclusion of poor rural areas. This project will support collaboration ...

  5. All projects related to Cambodia | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2007-02-07

    Cambodia is one of the least developed countries in Southeast Asia, with a large poor rural population dependent on natural resources for food and income. Start Date: February 7, 2007 ... Since its inception, the Internet has been dominated by the English language and North American culture. Start Date: April 30, 2007.

  6. Physical activity and exercise performance in symptomatic Cambodia veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, M; Soetekouw, P M M B; Van Der Meer, J W M; Folgering, H; Bleijenberg, G

    2002-02-01

    Dutch (ex-)servicemen who encounter health problems since return from the 1992-3 peace operation UNTAC, commonly complain of reduced activity levels, decreases in physical fitness and aggravation of symptoms after strenuous exercise. To evaluate these symptoms. A prospective study of 26 symptomatic Cambodia veterans and 26 matched controls (healthy Cambodia veterans). Using an actometer and diaries, both groups were followed for a 12-day baseline period prior to an incremental maximal exercise test on a bicycle ergometer, followed by 7 days of post-ergometer data. During baseline, symptomatic Cambodia veterans reported more symptoms, had lower levels of physical activity and took longer periods of rest after high activity periods. Symptomatic veterans did not perceive the exercise test needing more exertion than healthy veterans did, although their physical fitness was decreased. Post-ergometer, daily observed symptoms did not aggravate in symptomatic veterans. Four days post-ergometer, actometer and daily observed activity scores were lowered in both groups. As compared to baseline, one day post-ergometer, levels of physical activity were changed in healthy veterans, but not in controls. Complaints about reduced activity levels and decreases in physical fitness in symptomatic Cambodia veterans were confirmed. Post-exertion malaise was not found. The observed post-exertion effects were traced back to weekday patterns.

  7. Epidemiologic aspects of scabies in Mali, Malawi, and Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landwehr, D; Keita, S M; Pönnighaus, J M; Tounkara, C

    1998-08-01

    The prevalence rates of scabies are compared in Bamako, Mali, Karonga District, Malawi, and Battambang Province, Cambodia. In Mali, children attending three different urban schools catering for different socio-economic levels were examined specifically for scabies. In Malawi, data were collected during a total population survey for leprosy. In Cambodia, a sample survey was carried out in a rural area to determine the prevalence of leprosy and other skin diseases. In Mali, the prevalence rate of scabies among all the children examined was 4% (44/1103), but only 1.8% (7/388) in the higher socio-economic group. In Malawi, the overall prevalence rate of scabies was 0.7% (408/61,735). The highest rate (1.1%) was found among children 0-9 years of age. In Cambodia, the overall prevalence in the 13 villages screened was 4.3% (645/14,843). The highest rate (6.5%) was found among children 0-9 years of age. Scabies was most prevalent among children in Cambodia and Malawi, but there were considerable differences in the overall rates between the two areas studied. The data from all three countries indicate that poor socio-economic conditions, in particular crowding and public water supplies, are risk factors for scabies.

  8. Private Solutions for Infrastructure in Cambodia : A Country Framework Report

    OpenAIRE

    Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility

    2002-01-01

    Infrastructure plays a crucial role in supporting Cambodia's growth and development. Improving access to efficient and affordable water, electricity, transport, and telecommunications services has a major impact on the living standards of individual households. This Country Framework Report (CFR) is one of a series of country reviews aimed at improving the environment for the private secto...

  9. Seroepidemiology of Human Enterovirus 71 Infection among Children, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwood, Paul F; Andronico, Alessio; Tarantola, Arnaud; Salje, Henrik; Duong, Veasna; Mey, Channa; Ly, Sovann; Dussart, Philippe; Cauchemez, Simon; Buchy, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 is reported to have emerged in Cambodia in 2012; at least 54 children with severe encephalitis died during that outbreak. We used serum samples collected during 2000-2011 to show that the virus had been widespread in the country for at least a decade before the 2012 outbreak.

  10. Stakeholder Involvement in the Higher Education Sector in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam, Chanphirun; Dahles, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    This article examines how stakeholders involve themselves in the higher education (HE) sector in donor-dependent Cambodia and to what extent and with what result these stakeholders succeed to collaborate, or fail to do so. This study is based on qualitative data from semi-structured interviews with 46 key research participants from relevant…

  11. Seroepidemiology of Human Enterovirus 71 Infection among Children, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwood, Paul F.; Andronico, Alessio; Tarantola, Arnaud; Salje, Henrik; Duong, Veasna; Mey, Channa; Ly, Sovann; Dussart, Philippe; Cauchemez, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 is reported to have emerged in Cambodia in 2012; at least 54 children with severe encephalitis died during that outbreak. We used serum samples collected during 2000–2011 to show that the virus had been widespread in the country for at least a decade before the 2012 outbreak. PMID:26690000

  12. Fish on farms combat dietary deficits in Cambodia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-04-11

    Apr 11, 2014 ... The farmers are learning to build and maintain ponds where they raise fish for family consumption and for sale in local markets. These activities are an extension of the Homestead Food Production program introduced to Cambodia by Helen Keller International in 1998. The program initially focused solely ...

  13. Fatal motorcycle crashes: a growing public health problem in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehler, Douglas R; Ear, Chariya; Parker, Erin M; Sem, Panhavuth; Ballesteros, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the risk characteristics of fatal motorcycle crashes in Cambodia over a 5-year period (2007-2011). Secondary data analyses were conducted using the Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System, the only comprehensive and integrated road crash surveillance system in the country. Researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Handicap International found that (1) males are dying in motorcycle crashes roughly seven times more frequently than females; (2) motorcyclist fatalities increased by about 30% from 2007 to 2011; (3) the motorcyclist death rates per 100,000 population increased from 7.4 to 8.7 deaths from 2007 to 2011; and (4) speed-related crashes and not wearing motorcycle helmet were commonly reported for motorcyclist fatalities at approximately 50% and over 80% through the study years, respectively. Additionally, this study highlights that Cambodia has the highest motorcycle death rate in South-East Asia, far surpassing Thailand, Malaysia, and Myanmar. By recognising the patterns of fatal motorcycle crashes in Cambodia, local road-safety champions and stakeholders can design targeted interventions and preventative measures to improve road safety among motorcyclists.

  14. The Nature of the Genocide in Cambodia (Kampuchea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, Ben

    1991-01-01

    Gives an historical overview of Cambodia during the Pol Pot regime. Describes the genocide that attempted to eradicate Buddhist monks, Vietnamese, Chinese, and Muslim Chams between 1975 and 1979. Argues the regime should still be held accountable and that the case should be tried in the World Court. (NL)

  15. CASE STUDY: Cambodia pits data against poverty | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-20

    Dec 20, 2010 ... Remote Kratie province in Cambodia's northeast is one of the country's poorest. Almost all residents are subsistence farmers in the highlands or fishers along the Mekong River: 30% of households live on less than US$0.50 per day. The red soil is largely planted to cassava and pepper trees, mainly for ...

  16. Cambodia Development Research Forum II | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Understanding SME policy environment in ASEAN. Téléchargez le PDF. Dossiers. Sustainable forest governance in the Asia-Pacific region : has REDD+ adequately addressed drivers of deforestation and forest degradation? Téléchargez le PDF. Rapports. Cambodia's preparedness for ASEAN economic community 2015 ...

  17. Soils under conservation agriculture with vegetables in Siem Reap, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallholder vegetable farmers in Siem Reap, Cambodia experienced declining crop productivity. It could be a result of a mixture of factors such as nutrient and pest problems and extreme weather events such as droughts and/or heavy rains. The no-till, continuous mulch and diverse species principles o...

  18. Why does Bangladesh remain so poor? Part II: eight answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, C

    1985-01-01

    Bangladeshis of varying background all over the country were asked why they think poverty persists to such an extent in Bangladesh. Their answers provide a new perspective on the situation. The initial response often blames outside and natural causes -- floods, droughts, lack of resources, low demand for the country's exports, or historic exploitation. It is true that Bangladesh has virtually no mineral resources except gas. Yet, the soil, water, and human labor add up to a huge potential. The Third Five Year Plan emphasizes use of the soil, irrigation, tanks, rivers, and human labor. These provide the only hope for reducing poverty a little during the next 5 years. Bangladeshis as well as foreign observers most commonly cite overpopulation as the cause of poverty. Population growth is a cause of present poverty in Bangladesh but is not the only cause of poverty. The Third Five Year Plan goal to reduce annual growth to 1.8% is ambitious, but even if it is achieved the population will double in a few decades. As it would most likely be impossible for Bangladesh to support such numbers and maintain political and economic stability, such growth will have to be prevented. Poverty in Bangladesh is party a result of the long history of low urbanization, weak institutions, spotty and inadequate physical infrastructure, and insufficient entrapreneurship. Other reasons cited as causes of persisting poverty include illiteracy, idleness, class exploitation, the selfishness of individuals, and a lack of trust among people. All of the efforts of the poor themselves, various agencies, and the government, as examined in the 1st part of this discussion, fail to indicate any reason to hope that poverty in Bangladesh can be dramatically reduced any time soon. The Third Five Year Plan foresees a possible reduction of the number of those in poverty by 10%. According to the Plan itself, those in or near poverty comprise 85% of the people. The conditions under which the people of some

  19. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices around drinking and driving in Cambodia: 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachani, A M; Risko, C B; Gnim, C; Coelho, S; Hyder, A A

    2017-03-01

    Road traffic injuries are a leading cause of disability and death in Cambodia. Economic development has long been associated with rapid increases in road traffic injuries and fatalities. Drink driving is of particular concern in Cambodia. In 2014, the percentage of fatal crashes involving alcohol rose to 17.5% (n = 381), representing a 34.9% (n = 253) increase from 2012. This study aims to illustrate current knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) around drinking and driving in three Cambodian provinces. A roadside survey of randomly selected road users (aged 18 years and older) was conducted in Phnom Penh, Kandal, and Kampong Speu, Cambodia, between November 2010 and May 2012. Data were collected for five-day periods every 6 months. A survey was administered to assess prevailing knowledge, attitudes, and practices surrounding drink driving. A total of 1187 road users responded to the KAP survey, the majority (49.6%, n = 585) of whom were from Phnom Penh. Males accounted for 96.2% (n = 1142) of respondents; the majority (63.8%, n = 757) were aged 34 years and younger. Despite the belief that drinking and driving would increase the risk of a crash, a significant proportion of respondents (37.1%, n = 438) reported driving within 2 h of drinking alcohol at least once in the 30 days preceding the survey. This proportion was particularly high among males aged 25-34 years at 49.2% (n = 208). Of those who reported drinking and driving, 76.5% (n = 335) indicated they 'felt conscious enough' to drive at the time and 34.0% (n = 149) reported having 'no other available transportation options'. This study shows that, in general, drinking and driving remains a problem in Cambodia. A multi-pronged, coordinated approach is needed to effectively address this issue. Such an approach ought to include social marketing and public education campaigns, enhanced enforcement, and programs that either limit the number of drinks to drivers or those that provide

  20. Novel approaches to risk stratification to support malaria elimination: an example from Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jonathan; Sovannaroth, Siv; Dy Soley, Lek; Ngor, Pengby; Mellor, Steven; Roca-Feltrer, Arantxa

    2014-09-19

    Accurate malaria stratification is essential for effective targeting of interventions but represents a particular challenge in pre-elimination settings. In these settings transmission is typically sufficiently low and spatially heterogeneous to warrant a need for estimates of malaria risk at sub-district or village level but is also likely to be sufficiently high to render the type of decision support systems appropriate to the final stages of malaria elimination impractical. In such a scenario it is arguably more feasible to strengthen existing passive malaria surveillance systems so that routinely generated case data can provide an effective basis for stratifying malaria risk. This paper explores the utility of routine malaria surveillance data for the stratification of malaria risk in Cambodia, where the target is malaria elimination by 2025. A malaria information system (MIS) was developed to generate timely, routine data on temporal and spatial variations in malaria cases reported through public health facilities and village malaria workers (VMWs). The MIS was implemented across all malaria endemic districts in the country during 2010-11. In 2012 MIS data were extracted and assessed on the basis of coverage and completeness. Village-level incidence estimates for 2011 were generated using predefined data inclusion criteria. In 2011, the MIS covered 681 health facilities and 1,489 VMW villages; the overall completeness of monthly reporting was 82& and 97& for health facilities and VMWs respectively. Using these data it was possible to estimate malaria incidence for 89& of villages covered by the MIS. The resulting stratification highlights the highly heterogeneous nature of malaria transmission in Cambodia and underlines the importance of village-level data for effective targeting of interventions, including VMWs. Challenges associated with implementing the MIS and the implications of these for developing viable and sustainable MIS in Cambodia and elsewhere are

  1. A survey of arsenic in foodstuffs on sale in the United Kingdom and imported from Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Rmalli, S.W.; Haris, P.I.; Harrington, C.F.; Ayub, M.

    2005-01-01

    Arsenic is a highly toxic element and its presence in food composites is a matter of concern to the well being of both humans and animals. Arsenic-contaminated groundwater is often used in Bangladesh and West Bengal (India) to irrigate crops used for food and animal consumption, which could potentially lead to arsenic entering the human food chain. In this study, we used graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy to determine the total arsenic concentrations in a range of foodstuffs, including vegetables, rice and fish, imported into the United Kingdom from Bangladesh. The mean and range of the total arsenic concentration in all the vegetables imported from Bangladesh were 54.5 and 5-540 μg/kg, respectively. The highest arsenic values found were for the skin of Arum tuber, 540 μg/kg, followed by Arum Stem, 168 μg/kg, and Amaranthus, 160 μg/kg. Among the other samples, freshwater fish contained total arsenic levels between 97 and 1318 μg/kg. The arsenic content of the vegetables from the UK was approximately 2- to 3-fold lower than those observed for the vegetables imported from Bangladesh. The levels of arsenic found in vegetables imported from Bangladesh in this study, in some cases, are similar to those previously recorded for vegetables grown in arsenic-affected areas of West Bengal, India, although lower than the levels reported in studies from Bangladesh. While the total arsenic content detected in our study in vegetables, imported from Bangladesh, is far less than the recommended maximum permitted level of arsenic, it does provide an additional source of arsenic in the diet. This raises the possibility that the level of arsenic intake by certain sectors of the UK population may be significantly higher then the general population and requires further investigations

  2. Media reporting of tenofovir trials in Cambodia and Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Elaine

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two planned trials of pre-exposure prophylaxis tenofovir in Cambodia and Cameroon to prevent HIV infection in high-risk populations were closed due to activist pressure on host country governments. The international news media contributed substantially as the primary source of knowledge transfer regarding the trials. We aimed to characterize the nature of reporting, specifically focusing on the issues identified by media reports regarding each trial. Methods With the aid of an information specialist, we searched 3 electronic media databases, 5 electronic medical databases and extensively searched the Internet. In addition we contacted stakeholder groups. We included media reports addressing the trial closures, the reasons for the trial closures, and who was interviewed. We extracted data using content analysis independently, in duplicate. Results We included 24 reports on the Cambodian trial closure and 13 reports on the Cameroon trial closure. One academic news account incorrectly reported that it was an HIV vaccine trial that closed early. The primary reasons cited for the Cambodian trial closure were: a lack of medical insurance for trial related injuries (71%; human rights considerations (71%; study protocol concerns (46%; general suspicions regarding trial location (37% and inadequate prevention counseling (29%. The primary reasons cited for the Cameroon trial closure were: inadequate access to care for seroconverters (69%; participants not sufficiently informed of risks (69%; inadequate number of staff (46%; participants being exploited (46% and an unethical study design (38%. Only 3/23 (13% reports acknowledged interviewing research personnel regarding the Cambodian trial, while 4/13 (30.8% reports interviewed researchers involved in the Cameroon trial. Conclusion Our review indicates that the issues addressed and validity of the media reports of these trials is highly variable. Given the potential impact of the media

  3. Less research on tuberculosis than HIV and malaria when research agendas are poorly coordinated: a systematic review of research outputs from Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mishal; James, Richard; Sundaram, Neisha; Wu, Shishi; Eang, Mao Tang; Vonthanak, Saphonn; Coker, Richard

    2017-03-01

    Coordination of health interventions and research is often weak during periods of political transition and unprecedented aid inflows, which Cambodia has recently experienced. Although HIV, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria have been a focus of international funding, TB has received much less. This study compares the numbers and methodologies of studies conducted on TB, malaria, and HIV in Cambodia, identifying evidence gaps and future research needs. Three electronic databases and the grey literature were searched for studies on HIV, TB, and malaria published between January 2000 and October 2015. Information about the disease focus and methodology was extracted from the studies included. A total of 2581 unique studies were screened and 712 were included in the analysis. The results of this review demonstrated that despite increasing numbers of publications, there have been fewer studies on TB (16%) than HIV (43%) and malaria (41%). Observational epidemiological studies outnumbered other methodologies (44%) for all three diseases. Despite substantial investments, important research areas appear to have been neglected in Cambodia; specifically, studies on TB and studies involving economic, qualitative, interventional, and genomics methods. The inter-disease disparity in published research in Cambodia identified, considered alongside disease burden, suggests that an increase in TB research may be needed to inform control strategies. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Bangladesh: Background and U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vaughn, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    .... Bangladesh has been a largely moderate and democratic country. This status is increasingly under threat from a combination of political violence, weak governance, poverty, corruption, and rising Islamist militancy...

  5. Analysis of Environmental Accounting and Reporting Practices of Listed Banking Companies in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdul Kaium Masud

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available “Bangladesh faces many ecological challenges, including air and water contamination, land degradation, and waste management”. Bangladesh faces many ecological challenges, including air and water contamination, land degradation, and waste management. This study was designed to investigate the extent and nature of environmental accounting and reporting of listed banks in Bangladesh in 12 major categories. Information was collected from the annual reports of 20 banks listed on the Dhaka Stock Exchange for the period 2010 to 2014. The results indicate that the banks examined significantly disclosed environmental information for the 12 categories. The study found that banks disclosed the most environmental information for green banking and renewable energy categories, whereas they disclosed the least for environmental recognition and waste management categories. Furthermore, yearly comparison reveals that disclosure of environmental information increased sharply from 16% in 2010 to 83% in 2014. In addition, Bangladesh Bank’s recent fruitful initiatives on environmental disclosures were reviewed, and the findings of the 12 categories have managerial implications for policy makers in corporations as well as the government. It is recommended that professional accounting bodies of Bangladesh, along with international and government policy makers develop a separate conceptual framework for environmental accounting and reporting for the financial and non-financial sectors of the country.

  6. Forest reference emission level and carbon sequestration in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nophea Sasaki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Adoption of the Paris Agreement suggests the urgent need for developing countries to establish a forest reference emission level (FREL if they wish to seek financial support to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. Analysis of past trends of deforestation is important for establishing a FREL, but so far only a handful of studies exist on such analysis at the commune level. We used the available data of forest cover in 2002 and 2006 and forest inventory data to analyze forest cover and carbon stock changes according to seven forest types at commune level in Cambodia. Carbon stocks were estimated in four carbon pools, namely aboveground, belowground, litter and deadwood pools. This analysis formed the basis for determining the FREL at national and provincial levels in Cambodia. We found that carbon emissions due to deforestation were 82.2 TgCO2 yr−1, but carbon sinks (removals due to increase of forest cover were 72.3 TgCO2 yr−1, representing the net emission loss of 9.9 TgCO2 yr−1 between 2002 and 2006. Taking the trend of deforestation between 2002 and 2006 as a baseline, FREL for a 30-year timeframe was estimated for six time intervals. FRELs at national level were estimated to be 26.8 to 69.2 TgCO2 yr−1 or up to 36% of the total greenhouse gas emissions in Cambodia. Our study provides a first look at how to set subnational and national FRELs for Cambodia using a retrospective approach. Such a framework could form a useful basis for Cambodia to adopt the national and subnational FRELs, for which effective policies can be developed to address the drivers of deforestation and forest degradation.

  7. Understanding children’s work in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    UCW

    2011-01-01

    Child labour constitutes an important obstacle to achieving Universal Primary Education and other Millennium Development Goals in Bangladesh. The current report provides an overview of the child labour phenomenon in Bangladesh – its extent and nature, its determinants, and its consequences on education. The report also addresses the national response to child labour and policy option for its elimination. The analysis considers the various causes of child labour and follows a cross-sectoral ap...

  8. Health Consequences of Child Labour in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Salma; Ray, Ranjan

    2012-01-01

    Background: The paper examines the effect of child labour on child health outcomes in Bangladesh, advancing the methodologies and the results of papers published in different journals. Objective: We examine the effect of child labour on child health outcomes. Methods: We used Bangladesh National Child Labour Survey data for 2002-2003 for our analysis. Results: The main finding of the paper suggests that child labour is positively and significantly associated with the probability of b...

  9. Young people and HIV in Cambodia: meanings, contexts and sexual cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarr, C M; Aggleton, P

    1999-06-01

    Like many other countries in South East Asia, Cambodia is experiencing a rapidly developing AIDS epidemic. Groups reported as being particularly seriously affected include sex workers and their clients. Young people too may be at heightened risk: some young women find sex work a lucrative option in the context of low wages and poor employment opportunities, and some young men pay for sex either as individuals or as part of group socializing. These same young men may subsequently have sex with other partners, thus extending networks of transmission. While there is limited knowledge about the form of such sexual networks, little is known about the meanings that underpin young people's sexual relations and partnerships, the sexual identities associated with such meanings, and prevailing socio-sexual cultures. This paper reports on findings from an in-depth qualitative study conducted among two groups of young people: one urban, the other rural. Following an initial Rapid Assessment Process, data was collected via individual interviews, focus group interviews and participant observation. The research team included young people themselves. Data is presented on dominant discourses about sex and sexuality in Cambodia; contemporary patterns of sexual behaviour; sexual meanings and sexual practices; sexual relations among young people involving payment; and sexual relations not involving payment. The implications for more effective HIV prevention efforts are discussed.

  10. Performance-based financing with GAVI health system strengthening funding in rural Cambodia: a brief assessment of the impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Sadatoshi; Obara, Hiromi; Nagai, Mari; Murakami, Hitoshi; Chan Lon, Rasmey

    2014-07-01

    Though Cambodia made impressive gains in immunization coverage between the years 2000 and 2005, it recognized several health system challenges to greater coverage of immunization and sustainability. The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) opened a Health System Strengthening (HSS) funding window in 2006. To address the health system challenges, Cambodia has been receiving the GAVI HSS fund since October 2007. The major component of the support is performance-based financing (PBF) for maternal, neonatal and child health (MNCH) services. To examine the impact of the PBF scheme on MNCH services and administrative management in rural Cambodia. Quantitative and qualitative studies were conducted in Kroch Chhmar Operational District (OD), Cambodia. Quantitative analyses were conducted on the trends of the numbers of MNCH services. A brief analysis was conducted using qualitative data. After the commencement of the PBF support, the volume of MNCH services was significantly boosted. In addition, strengthened financial and operational management was observed in the study area. However, the quality of the MNCH services was not ensured. Technical assistance, rather than the PBF scheme, was perceived by stakeholders to play a vital role in increasing the quality of the services. To improve the quality of the health services provided, it is better to include indicators on the quality of care in the PBF scheme. Mutual co-operation between PBF models and technical assistance may ensure better service quality while boosting the quantity. A robust but feasible data validation mechanism should be in place, as a PBF could incentivize inaccurate reporting. The capacity for financial management should be strengthened in PBF recipient ODs. To address the broader aspects of MNCH, a balanced input of resources and strengthening of all six building blocks of a health system are necessary. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene

  11. Hepatitis E Virus in Cambodia: Prevalence among the General Population and Complete Genome Sequence of Genotype 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroko; Takahashi, Kazuaki; Lim, Olline; Svay, Somana; Chuon, Channarena; Hok, Sirany; Do, Son Huy; Fujimoto, Mayumi; Akita, Tomoyuki; Goto, Noboru; Katayama, Keiko; Arai, Masahiro; Tanaka, Junko

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a growing public health problem in many countries. In this study, we investigated HEV seroprevalence among the general population in the Siem Reap province, Cambodia, and performed HEV genetic analysis with the aim to develop an HEV prevention strategy. This seroepidemiological cross-sectional study conducted from 2010 to 2014 included 868 participants from four different locations in Siem Reap province, Cambodia. They answered questionnaires and provided blood samples for the analysis of hepatitis virus infections. Among the participants (360 men and 508 women; age range, 7-90 years), the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG was 18.4% (95% confidence interval: 15.9-21.0); HEV RNA was detected in two participants (0.23%) and was classified as genotype 3 and 4. Full-length genome of the genotype 4 isolate, CVS-Sie10, was sequenced; it contained 7,222 nucleotides and three ORFs and demonstrated high sequence identity with the swine China isolates swGX40 (95.57%), SS19 (94.37%), and swDQ (91.94%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that men, elderly people, and house workers were risk groups significantly associated with the positivity for anti-HEV IgG. This is the first report on the detection of HEV genotype 4 in humans in Cambodia and on the complete genome sequence of HEV genotype 4 from this country. Our study demonstrates that new HEV infection cases occur frequently among the general population in Cambodia, and effective preventive measures are required.

  12. Hepatitis E Virus in Cambodia: Prevalence among the General Population and Complete Genome Sequence of Genotype 4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Yamada

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV is a growing public health problem in many countries. In this study, we investigated HEV seroprevalence among the general population in the Siem Reap province, Cambodia, and performed HEV genetic analysis with the aim to develop an HEV prevention strategy. This seroepidemiological cross-sectional study conducted from 2010 to 2014 included 868 participants from four different locations in Siem Reap province, Cambodia. They answered questionnaires and provided blood samples for the analysis of hepatitis virus infections. Among the participants (360 men and 508 women; age range, 7-90 years, the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG was 18.4% (95% confidence interval: 15.9-21.0; HEV RNA was detected in two participants (0.23% and was classified as genotype 3 and 4. Full-length genome of the genotype 4 isolate, CVS-Sie10, was sequenced; it contained 7,222 nucleotides and three ORFs and demonstrated high sequence identity with the swine China isolates swGX40 (95.57%, SS19 (94.37%, and swDQ (91.94%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that men, elderly people, and house workers were risk groups significantly associated with the positivity for anti-HEV IgG. This is the first report on the detection of HEV genotype 4 in humans in Cambodia and on the complete genome sequence of HEV genotype 4 from this country. Our study demonstrates that new HEV infection cases occur frequently among the general population in Cambodia, and effective preventive measures are required.

  13. Drug-resistant tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients in a national referral hospital, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Genevieve; Bulifon, Sophie; Breysse, Serge; Daneth, Thol; Bonnet, Maryline; Hurtado, Northan; Molfino, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    There are no recent data on the prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR TB) in Cambodia. We aim to describe TB drug resistance amongst adults with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection in a national referral hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Between 22 November 2007 and 30 November 2009, clinical specimens from HIV-infected patients suspected of having TB underwent routine microscopy, Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture, and drug susceptibility testing. Laboratory and clinical data were collected for patients with positive M. tuberculosis cultures. M. tuberculosis was cultured from 236 HIV-infected patients. Resistance to any first-line TB drug occurred in 34.7% of patients; 8.1% had multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB). The proportion of MDR TB amongst new patients and previously treated patients was 3.7 and 28.9%, respectively (pCambodia may be higher than previously recognised, particularly amongst HIV-infected patients. Additional prevalence studies are needed. This study also illustrates the feasibility and utility of analysis of non-respiratory specimens in the diagnosis of TB, even in low-resource settings, and suggests that extra-pulmonary specimens should be included in TB diagnostic algorithms.

  14. Bangladesh Norms for a Gender-Specific Functional Fine Dexterity Test (FFDT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra K. Lindstrom-Hazel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Good psychometrics and cultural relevance are needed for evidence-based practice. Occupational therapy (OT assessment tools in Bangladesh have been developed outside of Bangladesh and have not been validated or normed for Bangladeshis. This normative and psychometric study was to provide culturally relevant norms for in Bangladesh for bilateral fine motor. Method: The Functional Fine Dexterity Test (FFDT consists of two functional/self-care gender-specific task instruments: a shirt with five buttons for males and a pinning board for females. Raters were trained in timing these tasks. Results: Intra-Class Correlation (ICC scores were > .85 for all rater teams. Participants were timed three times while they completed the task. Convergent validity was examined using a Pearson’s Product-Moment correlation to compare the average of three trials of the FFDT and three trials of the Nine Hole Peg Test (NHPT. Male and female norms were developed for the FFDT using descriptive statistics. The sample included 180 Bangladesh participants. Convergent validity, when compared to the NHPT, ranged from r = .4 to .67 for males (ages 18-29 and 40-49, p < .05; and r = .53 to .76 for females (aged 18-39, p < .05. FFDT norms were developed for gender and age categories. Conclusion: The FFDT is a valid test to use for evaluating fine motor dexterity in Bangladesh. This is the first OT instrument to be studied for culturally relevancy.

  15. Pheromone use for insect control: present status and prospect in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Azharul Islam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The insect’s world is filled with many odors. Insects use these odors to cue them in a variety of complex social behaviors, including courtship, mating, and egg laying. Scientists and pest control specialists have known about these complex communication systems for decades. The main aim of this study was to visualize the availability, trends and differences in the sources of pheromone control in agricultural growth of Bangladesh. It also concerned on constrains and present use of pheromone and their possible recommendation on behalf of Bangladesh agriculture. It concentrated on the data during last three decades (1980-2010, comprising status of pheromone use in Bangladesh agriculture and its future. Review revealed that Bangladesh has been enormously successful in increasing pheromone use in agricultural production (especially for vegetables. Understanding of the nature of pheromones and their potential for pest control along with the future prospective of pheromone technique in agriculture were stated. Since the pheromone, technologies for control of major crop pests in Bangladesh are still limited. So that this review emphasized on more attention to the authority to increase the research works and project facilities related to develop and promote pheromone techniques. It is highly recommended to increase availability of pheromone in market, more investment in research and development, introduction of newly identified pheromone for specific pest, to assist government and non-government organizations to work with farmers to reduce harmful insecticide use and promote pheromone tactics as one part of integrated crop management (ICM.

  16. Trends in renewable energy strategy development and the role of CDM in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noim Uddin, Sk; Taplin, Ros

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses and discusses trends in renewable energy strategy development in Bangladesh and the prospective role of the clean development mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto Protocol. Use of renewables for electricity generation results in less greenhouse gas emissions compared with fossil fuel energy systems and often offers additional synergistic benefits. Despite the large potential for development of renewable energy sources in Bangladesh, currently their contribution to electricity generation remains insignificant. Existing policies and programs on renewable energy in Bangladesh are reviewed in relation to the specific requirements needed for CDM. A number of barriers are identified that impede the implementation of the CDM mechanism. Overall, it is recommended that more appropriate energy strategies, including a new national renewable energy strategy, need to be formulated and implemented and more suitable institutional settings need to be provided to promote energy sustainability for Bangladesh. Also, the suggestion is made that incorporation of objectives for CDM promotion in the new national renewable energy strategy to tie in with Bangladesh's CDM strategy should assist in advancement of renewables

  17. Women's housing conditions in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefali, M K

    1996-01-01

    This news article describes women's housing conditions, housing policy, and pilot programs to house poor women in Bangladesh. Although Bangladesh has a constitution that reinforces the equal status of women, in practice, men dominate and patrilineal customs determine inheritance and property rights. Religious affiliation also determines land tenure and inheritance. Muslim women can inherit 12.5% of their husband's property if there are children. 25% is inherited if wives are without children. Hindu women without sons can inherit their husband's property, but not parental property. Many families refuse to release property to women without a fight. Women, regardless of ownership of land, rarely control or use their land. The custom of requiring men to maintain wives during the marriage, and daughters until marriage, creates obstacles to women's decision making about property. Without collateral and other security women are unable to secure bank loans. Many women are also constrained by the requirement of male consent or guarantees for bank transactions. Banks do not have a gender responsive criteria for selecting loan recipients. The government does not provide sufficient housing to satisfy the growing housing needs due to population growth. Some housing is available from slum landlords. A National Housing Policy was formulated in 1993. Priority would be given to the housing needs of low income women in urban areas and women-headed households with income below the poverty line. The policy does not address the underlying factors that prevent equal access to housing for women. The government prepared a Human Settlement and Urban Development proposal for the Habitat II conference. The plan did not address gender issues. Special efforts are being made by nongovernmental groups to meet the housing needs of professional women and for some disadvantaged women.

  18. bangladesh : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    End Date: 28 septembre 2015. Sujet: SMALL ENTERPRISES, TAX EXEMPTIONS, EMPLOYMENT CREATION, WOMEN, POLICY MAKING, INDIA, PAKISTAN, SRI LANKA, NEPAL, BANGLADESH. Région: South Asia, Central Asia, Far East Asia, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Pakistan. Programme: Emploi et croissance.

  19. Resistance and Contingent Contestations to Large-Scale Land Concessions in Southern Laos and Northeastern Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian G. Baird

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, there have been considerable concerns raised regarding the social and environmental impacts of large-scale land concessions for plantation development in various parts of the world, especially in the tropics, including in Laos and Cambodia. However, there is still much to learn about the various connections and interactions associated with reactions to what are often referred to as “land grabs”, and the ways they are associated or not associated with broader social movements and networks opposed to land grabbing. There is also the need to develop language for discussing these circumstances, something I aim to contribute to in this article. Here, I present four different cases of types of resistance, or what I refer to as contingent contestations, to land concessions in southern Laos and northeastern Cambodia (two from each country, focusing on the perspectives and associated strategies of smallholder farmers, but without ignoring broader issues. I consider the roles of locals in these contestations, through emphasizing the importance of histories, identities/ethnicities, politics, and geography in determining the types of responses to these land deals that emerge, and the strategies that are adopted for contesting these developments.

  20. Forest plunder in Southeast Asia: an environmental security nexus in Burma and Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbott, K; Brown, M

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses the cycle of conversion, consumption, and corruption that undermines the environment and civil society in Cambodia and Burma (Myanmar). In these countries, forests are declining in patterns similar to other Southeast Asian deforestation. Illegal logging, prostitution, and heroin trafficking constitute the bulk of Cambodia's shadow economy. Revenues are used to provide financial support for political causes and build the private wealth of the elite. Major political and guerilla groups and the Cambodian military have been major beneficiaries of logging revenue, supported private sector forestry in many military zones, and facilitated logging and trade. About 40% of land goes to forest concessions granted to Southeast Asian companies, and revenues bypass the regular state budget. In Burma, the cease fire agreements in the early 1990s, led to remote border area forests being opened up to large, nonsustainable commercial timber mining. Land was divided into ethnic and government controlled areas. Timber profits were funneled into a business owned by members of the new ruling force, the SLORC, and used to launder drug exports and profits. Trading partners include Thailand, and most recently, China. It is speculated that deforested areas are replanted with opium poppies, and trade routes carry timber and heroin. The unregulated logging industry and the lack of financial accounting of the timber trade undermine the structures of civil society and good governance. Forest policies appear progressive but are in reality unenforced. Politics and agreements in both countries are closely tied to deforestation issues.

  1. Seroprevalence of bovine immunodeficiency virus and bovine leukemia virus in draught animals in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meas, S; Ohashi, K; Tum, S; Chhin, M; Te, K; Miura, K; Sugimoto, C; Onuma, M

    2000-07-01

    Since bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV), known as bovine lentivirus, has been detected in dairy and beef cattle in various countries around the world, a prevalence study of antibodies to BIV and bovine leukemia virus (BLV) was conducted in draught animals in five provinces in Cambodia, where protozoan parasite infections were suspected in some animals. To clarify the status of draught animals including Haryana, Brahman, mixed-breed, local breed cattle and muscle water buffaloes, a total of 544 cattle and 42 buffaloes were tested, and 26.3 and 16.7%, respectively, were found positive for anti-BIV p26 antibodies determined by Western blotting. There were 5.3% positive for anti-BLV antibodies detected by immunodiffusion test among the cattle, but no reactors among buffaloes and no dual infection for both BIV and BLV was determined in this study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from BIV-seropositive cattle were found to have BIV-provirus DNA, as detected by polymerase chain reaction and subsequent Southern blot hybridization. This is the first evidence for the presence of BIV and BLV infections in draught animals in tropical countries such as Cambodia. This wide distribution of BIV suggests its association with problems in animal health as reported worldwide, and that a primary BIV infection can predispose death of affected animals by other aggressive pathogens or stresses.

  2. Cluster randomized controlled trial of the plastic BioSand Water filter in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauber, C E; Printy, E R; McCarty, F A; Liang, K R; Sobsey, M D

    2012-01-17

    About half of the rural population of Cambodia lacks access to improved water; an even higher percentage lacks access to latrines. More than 35,000 concrete BioSand Water filters (BSF) have been installed in the country. However, the concrete BSF takes time to produce and weighs hundreds of pounds. A plastic BSF has been developed but may not perform to the same benchmarks established by its predecessor. To evaluate plastic BSF performance and health impact, we performed a cluster randomized controlled trial in 13 communities including 189 households and 1147 participants in the Angk Snoul district of Kandal Province from May to December 2008. The results suggest that villages with plastic BSFs had significantly lower concentrations of E. coli in drinking water and lower diarrheal disease (incidence rate ratio 0.41, 95% confidence interval: 0.24-0.69) compared to control villages. As one of the first studies on the plastic BSF in Cambodia, these are important findings, especially in a setting where the concrete BSF has seen high rates of continued use years after installation. The study suggests the plastic BSF may play an important role in scaling up the distribution/implementation of the BSF, potentially improving water quality and health in the region.

  3. Emergence of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Carriage in Children in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Emma K.; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Kumar, Varun; Amornchai, Premjit; Wongdeethai, Nattavut; Chheng, Kheng; Chantratita, Narisara; Putchhat, Hor; Thaipadungpanit, Janjira; Day, Nicholas P.; Peacock, Sharon J.

    2011-01-01

    We previously described the first reported isolation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (a case series of pediatric community-associated MRSA infections) in Cambodia. We define the rate of pediatric MRSA carriage in the same population and characterize the associated bacterial genotypes by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing. A prospective cohort study of MRSA carriage conducted over one month at the Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia, identified MRSA carriage in 87 (3.5%) of 2,485 children who came to the outpatient department, and 6 (4.1%) of 145 inpatients, including at least two with cases of nosocomial acquisition. Genotyping of all 93 MRSA isolates resolved 5 genotypes. Most (91%) isolates were assigned to sequence type 834. Only 28 (32%) of 87 MRSA carriers identified in the outpatient department had no history of recent healthcare contact. The study findings have important implications for healthcare in a setting where diagnostic microbiology and access to antimicrobial drugs with efficacy against MRSA are limited. PMID:21292906

  4. Costing of diabetes mellitus type II in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flessa, Steffen; Zembok, Anika

    2014-12-01

    Diabetes Mellitus Type II (T2DM) is a major and growing medical, social and economic burden in the East-Asian country of Cambodia. However, no economic modelling has been done to predict the number of cases and the budget impact. This paper forecasts the epidemiological and economic consequences of T2DM in Cambodia. The Ministry of Health and related donor agencies are supported to select the most cost-effective interventions against the disease. At the same time this paper demonstrates the relevance and potential of health economic modelling for least developed countries. We developed a Markov-Model for the specific situation of Cambodia. Data was taken from the scientific literature, grey literature in Cambodia and key-informant interviews. The number of people living with T2DM is steadily increasing from 145,000 in the year 2008 to 264,000 in the year 2028 (+82 %). In the year 2008 the diagnosed T2DM patients would incur costs of some 2 million US$ to cover all of diabetes treatment. 57 % of this amount would have to be spent for OAD-therapy, the rest for insulin therapy. In the year 2028 this amount will have grown to some 4 million US$. If all patients (incl. non-diagnosed) had to be paid-for the respective figure would be 5.5 million and 11 million US$. Screening for T2DM is only cost-effective if the sensitivity of the test is high while the unit price is low. The results of this simulation call for targeting the high-risk groups. However, an increased availability of Oral Anti-Diabetic and Insulin Therapy is highly cost-effective. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is a major public health challenge in Cambodia. The simulations clearly indicate that prevention and treatment of this disease is highly cost-effective. However, not everything that is cost-effective might be affordable in Cambodia. This country will require external support to ease the growing burden of T2DM.

  5. Coalbed Methane prospect of Jamalganj Coalfield Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imam, M. Badrul; Rahman, M.; Akhtar, Syed Humayun

    2002-01-01

    Five major Gondwana coalfields have been discovered in the half-graben type basins in the subsurface in the Precambrian platform area of the Northwest Bangladesh. The Jamalganj coalfields with an estimated reserve of about 1053 millions tons of coal, has seven coal seams in the depth range between 640 to 1158m below the ground surface. Compared to the other coalfields of the area, with coal occurring at 150 to 500m depth, Jamalganj coal is considered to be too deep to be exploited by conventional underground or open pit mining. Instead, developing coal bed methane from Jamalganj coalfield may be considered as a viable option for its exploitation. The positive factors of Jamalganj coal bed methane development include high net thickness of coal with at least one very thick (40m+) and widely developed seam, coal seam burial depth within optimum range, large coal reserves, indication of significant gas content from drilling data, and poor permeability in the rocks above and surrounding the coal layers. The thickest seam III can be primary target for CBM development especially where it combines with seam IV in the eastern part of coalfield. However, there are a number of unknown factors like actual gas content of coal, permeability, and in-seam pressure that need to be evaluated before deciding the viability of the project. An initial attempt to collect these base line data should include drilling test well or wells in the primary target area where seam III is most thick and widely developed. (author)

  6. Burden of serious fungal infections in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugnani, H C; Denning, D W; Rahim, R; Sadat, A; Belal, M; Mahbub, M S

    2017-06-01

    In Bangladesh there are several published papers on superficial mycoses. Deep mycoses are also recognized as an important emerging problem. Here, we estimate the annual incidence and prevalence of serious fungal infections in Bangladesh. Demographic data were obtained from world population reports and the data on TB and HIV extracted from the online publications on tuberculosis in Bangladesh and Asia Pacific research statistical data information resources AIDS Data HUB. All the published papers on fungal infections in Bangladesh were identified through extensive search of literature. We estimated the number of affected people from populations at risk and local epidemiological data. Bangladesh has a population of ∼162.6 million, 31% children and only 6% over the age of 60 years. The pulmonary TB caseload reported in 2014 was 119,520, and we estimate a prevalence of 30,178 people with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, 80% attributable to TB. An anticipated 90,262 and 119,146 patients have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis or severe asthma with fungal sensitization. Only 8,000 people are estimated to be HIV-infected, of whom 2900 are not on ART with a CD4 count Bangladesh. Candida bloodstream infection was estimated based on a 5 per 100,000 rate (8100 cases) and invasive aspergillosis based primarily on leukemia and COPD rates, at 5166 cases. Histoplasmosis was documented in 16 cases mostly with disseminated disease and presumed in 21 with HIV infection. This study constitutes the first attempt to estimate the burden of several types of serious fungal infections in Bangladesh.

  7. Evaluation of Tobacco Control Policies in Bangladesh | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Evaluation of Tobacco Control Policies in Bangladesh. Bangladesh introduced its first comprehensive tobacco control act in 2005, in an attempt to address the country's high prevalence of tobacco use. ... Institution. University of Dhaka. Pays d' institution. Bangladesh. Site internet. http://www.univdhaka.edu ...

  8. Intriguing Success in 3D Seismic Acquisition in Ecologically Critical Lawachara National Park of Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakht, Delawar; Siddique, Mohammad; Masud, Mohammad

    2010-09-15

    In-depth environmental studies were conducted in 2008 by a multi-disciplinary team of international and national specialists of SMEC International for Chevron Bangladesh for obtaining Environmental Clearance for 3D seismic acquisition in Moulvibazar Gas Field. This included Lawachara National Park which was declared as an ecologically critical area in 1996. Exclusive monitoring of potential impact mitigation mechanism identified through EIA studies resulted in to completing the project with intriguing success. This has displayed a glaring example of sharing expertise leading to successful initiative in technology transfer in the developing country like Bangladesh currently in dire quest of harnessing natural gas.

  9. Evidence on anti-malarial and diagnostic markets in Cambodia to guide malaria elimination strategies and policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phok, Sochea; Lek, Dysoley

    2017-04-25

    Understanding Cambodia's anti-malarial and diagnostic landscape in 2015 is critical for informing and monitoring strategies and policies as Cambodia moves forward with national efforts to eliminate malaria. The aim of this paper is to present timely and key findings on the public and private sector anti-malarial and diagnostic landscape in Cambodia. This evidence can serve as a baseline benchmark for guiding implementation of national strategies as well as other regional initiatives to address malaria elimination activities. From August 17th to October 1st, 2015, a cross sectional, nationally-representative malaria outlet survey was conducted in Cambodia. A census of all public and private outlets with potential to distribute malaria testing and/or treatment was conducted among 180 communes. An audit was completed for all anti-malarials, malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) and microscopy. A total of 26,664 outlets were screened, and 1303 outlets were eligible and interviewed. Among all screened outlets in the public sector, 75.9% of public health facilities and 67.7% of community health workers stocked both malaria diagnostic testing and a first-line artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). Among anti-malarial-stocking private sector outlets, 64.7% had malaria blood testing available, and 70.9% were stocking a first-line ACT. Market share data illustrate that most of the anti-malarials were sold or distributed through the private sector (58.4%), including itinerant drug vendors (23.4%). First-line ACT accounted for the majority of the market share across the public and private sectors (90.3%). Among private sector outlets stocking any anti-malarial, the proportion of outlets with a first-line ACT or RDT was higher among outlets that had reportedly received one or more forms of 'support' (e.g. reportedly received training in the previous year on malaria diagnosis [RDT and/or microscopy] and/or the national treatment guidelines for malaria) compared to outlets

  10. Rural household incomes and land grabbing in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiao, Xi; Smith-Hall, Carsten; Theilade, Ida

    2015-01-01

    and the contribution of each major product to income inequality; and identified the main household characteristics influencing absolute and relative incomes. ELCs were found to consistently have negative impacts on household total income, environmental income, size of available cultivable land and livestock holdings......This paper empirically quantifies environmentally augmented rural household incomes in Cambodia and analyzes how economic land concessions (ELCs) affect such incomes. Data is derived from a structured survey of 600 randomly selected households in 15 villages in three study sites in Cambodia, where...... local livelihoods are highly reliant on access to land and natural resources, supported by qualitative data from focus group discussions. Gini coefficient decomposition, multiple regression models, and propensity score matching (PSM) models were employed to analyze the composition of income portfolios...

  11. Low Urinary Iodine Concentration among Mothers and Children in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laillou, Arnaud; Sophonneary, Prak; Kuong, Khov; Hong, Rathavuth; Un, Samoeurn; Chamnan, Chhoun; Poirot, Etienne; Berger, Jacques; Wieringa, Frank

    2016-04-05

    A 2014 national assessment of salt iodization coverage in Cambodia found that 62% of samples were non-iodized, suggesting a significant decline in daily iodine intakes. The Cambodian Micronutrient Survey conducted in 2014 (CMNS-2014) permitted obtaining national data on urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) to assess iodine status and whether iodized salt use had an impact. Urine samples were collected from mothers (n = 736) and children (n = 950). The median UIC was 63 µg/L and 72 µg/L in mothers and children respectively. More than 60% of mothers and their children had a UIC Cambodia. It is essential for the government to enhance enforcement of the iodized salt legislation, and implement short term strategies, such as iodine supplementation, to prevent an increase of severe complications due to iodine deficiency in the Cambodian population.

  12. Emergence of pediatric melioidosis in Siem Reap, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnarith, Yos; Kumar, Varun; Thaipadungpanit, Janjira; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Amornchai, Premjit; Sin, Lina; Day, Nicholas P; Peacock, Sharon J

    2010-06-01

    We describe the first cases of pediatric melioidosis in Cambodia. Thirty-nine cases were diagnosed at the Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, between October 2005 and December 2008 after the introduction of microbiology capabilities. Median age was 7.8 years (range = 1.6-16.2 years), 15 cases were male (38%), and 4 cases had pre-existing conditions that may have pre-disposed the patient to melioidosis. Infection was localized in 27 cases (69%) and disseminated in 12 cases (31%). Eleven cases (28%) were treated as outpatients, and 28 (72%) cases were admitted. Eight children (21%) died a median of 2 days after admission; seven deaths were attributable to melioidosis, all of which occurred in children receiving suboptimal antimicrobial therapy and before bacteriological culture results were available. Our findings indicate the need for heightened awareness of melioidosis in Cambodia, and they have led us to review microbiology procedures and antimicrobial prescribing of suspected and confirmed cases.

  13. Newborn care practices in rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam MT

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Tajul Islam,1 Nazrul Islam,2 Yukie Yoshimura,1 Monjura Khatun Nisha,3 Nawzia Yasmin4 1Safe Motherhood Promotion Project, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2School of Population and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 3International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b; 4Department of Public Health, State University of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh Background: Neonatal mortality is high in Bangladesh. Most of the neonatal deaths are preventable through simple and cost-effective essential newborn care interventions. Studies to document the determinants of unhealthy newborn care practices are scarce. Objective: The objective of this study is to describe the pattern of neonatal care practices and their determinants in rural Bangladesh. Methodology: This study is based on baseline data of a community-based intervention to assess impact of limited postnatal care services on maternal and neonatal health-seeking behavior. Data from 510 women, who had a live birth at home 1 year prior to survey, of six randomly selected unions of an Upazila (subdistrict were analyzed. Results: Majority of the respondents were at an age group of 20–34 years. Only 6% had delivery by skilled providers. Immediate drying and wrapping, and giving colostrums to newborns were almost universal. Unhealthy practices, like unclean cord care (42%, delayed initiation of breastfeeding (60%, use of prelacteals (36%, and early bathing (71% were very common. Muslims were more likely to give early bath (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 2.01; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13–3.59; P=0.018 and delay in initiating breastfeeding (adjusted OR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.18–1.78; P<0.001 to newborns. Practice of giving prelacteals was associated with teenage mothers (adjusted OR: 2.26; 95% CI: 1.19–4.28; P=0.013 and women’s lack of education (adjusted OR: 2.64; 95% CI: 1.46–4.77; P=0

  14. Sustainable agriculture: a challenge in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.A. Faroque

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of conventional agriculture in Bangladesh is under threat from the continuous degradation of land and water resources, and from declining yields due to indiscriminate use of agro-chemicals. Government is pursuing efforts to promote sustainable agriculture with emphasis on better use of on-farm resources and the reduction of external inputs. This paper presents four dimensions of agricultural sustainability as productivity, environmental stability, economical profitability, and social and economic equity. Six characters were selected to evaluate sustainability. Significant differences were found between the two systems (conventional and sustainable agriculture in crop diversification, soil fertility management, pests and diseases management, use of agro-chemicals and environmental issues. However, no significant variations were found in other indicators such as land-use pattern, crop yield and stability, risk and uncertainties, and food security. Although crop yield and financial return were found to be slightly higher in the conventional system, the economic return and value addition per unit of land did not show any difference. It can be suggested that sustainable agriculture has a tendency towards becoming environmental, economically and socially more sound than conventional agriculture, as it requires considerably less agro-chemicals, adds more organic matter to the soil, provides balanced food, and requires higher local inputs without markedly compromising output and financial benefits. Broad-policy measures, including the creation of mass awareness of adverse health effects of agrochemical-based products, are outlined for the promotion of sustainable agriculture.

  15. Status of contamination monitoring in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begum, Aleya [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Savar, Dacca (Bangladesh)

    1997-06-01

    The applications of radioisotopes and radiation sources to the research and development in medicine, food agriculture, industries and others are rapidly increasing in Bangladesh. The existing major nuclear facilites and allied laboratories of the country include 3 MW TRIGA Mark-2 research reactor for training, research and radioisotope production, 14 MeV neutron generator for nuclear data measurement and elemental analysis via neutron activation, 3 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator for the research and application of nuclear physics, and 50,000 Ci and 5,000 Ci Co-60 irradiators. About 10 Co-60 and Cs-137 teletherapy units are in operation in hospitals. The radioactive contamination of working areas, equipment, protective clothing and skin may result from normal operation and accidents, and contamination monitoring and decontamination are the essential part of radiation protection program. Surface contamination is monitored with Berthold survey meters. Hand and foot monitors have been used. Routine systematic search, continuous air monitoring, the examination of silt movement in Chittagong harbor using Sc-46 tracer and the measurement of tritium contamination for the neutron generator are reported. (K.I.)

  16. Sexual violence towards married women in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naved, Ruchira Tabassum

    2013-05-01

    This article explored the magnitude and nature of within marriage sexual violence against women and factors associated with physically forced sex by husbands in urban and rural Bangladesh using population-based survey data from 2001 (n = 2,702). Results showed high prevalence of lifetime sexual violence: 37 % in urban and 50 % in rural areas. An overwhelming majority of the women reported being sexually abused by husbands more than once. Logistic regression analyses revealed that six out of ten independent variables included in the models were significant. The factors positively associated with physically forced sex by husbands during the last 12 months were: history of physical abuse of husband's mother by his father; level of controlling behavior by husband; and forced or coerced first sex. Women's age (20-24 compared to 15-19) and dowry demand at marriage increased the likelihood of this violence in the rural area. Urban women in the second and third income quartiles were more likely to be exposed to this violence compared to women in the first quartile. Results highlight the need for prevention programs targeting men, which would help at the same time to break the cycle of intergenerational exposure and thereby transmission of violence. Notions of gender equality; women's sexual rights; and women's right to consent and choice need to be widely promoted particularly among men.

  17. Influences on Academic Achievement of Primary School Pupils in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Sopheak Song

    2012-01-01

    Employing education production function approach, this article investigates the influences of school and pupil background factors on academic achievement of primary school pupils in Cambodia. Based on achievement data of 1,080 Grade 6 pupils from one rural and one semi-urban area, the study reveals that school and teacher quality exerts a considerable effect on pupils’ performance. Teachers’ experience and teacher guides are positively correlated with academic achievement, while instructional...

  18. Peacemaking in Cambodia: blueprint for a new world order?

    OpenAIRE

    Fujimura, Paul N.

    1993-01-01

    Approved for Public Release: Distribution is Unlimited This thesis examines the peacemaking process as it has unfolded in Cambodia. The end of the Cold War has engendered a new spirit of multi-lateral activism in the international community. Intervention in the domestic affairs of a sovereign country is deemed legitimate, necessary, and desired to secure more worldly goals of peace, stability and respect for human rights. The United Nations-sponsored peacemaking process b...

  19. Influenza activity in Cambodia during 2006-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Weigong

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little information about influenza disease among the Cambodian population. To better understand the dynamics of influenza in Cambodia, the Cambodian National Influenza Center (NIC was established in August 2006. To continuously monitor influenza activity, a hospital based sentinel surveillance system for ILI (influenza like illness with a weekly reporting and sampling scheme was established in five sites in 2006. In addition, hospital based surveillance of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI cases was established in 2 sites. Methods The sentinel sites collect weekly epidemiological data on ILI patients fulfilling the case definition, and take naso-pharyngeal specimens from a defined number of cases per week. The samples are tested in the Virology Unit at the Institut Pasteur in Phnom Penh. From each sample viral RNA was extracted and amplified by a multiplex RT-PCR detecting simultaneously influenza A and influenza B virus. Influenza A viruses were then subtyped and analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition assay. Samples collected by the ALRI system were tested with the same approach. Results From 2006 to 2008, influenza circulation was observed mainly from June to December, with a clear seasonal peak in October shown in the data from 2008. Conclusion Influenza activity in Cambodia occurred during the rainy season, from June to December, and ended before the cool season (extending usually from December to February. Although Cambodia is a tropical country geographically located in the northern hemisphere, influenza activity has a southern hemisphere transmission pattern. Together with the antigenic analysis of the circulating strains, it is now possible to give better influenza vaccination recommendation for Cambodia.

  20. cambodia : tous les projets | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les économies à faible revenu dépendent énormément de l'agriculture, et la croissance dans ce secteur est responsable d'une plus grande réduction de la pauvreté que dans tout autre secteur. Région: Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Viet Nam. Programme: Employment and Growth. Financement total : CA$ 708,181.00.

  1. Typhoid fever among hospitalized febrile children in Siem Reap, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijedoru, Lalith P M; Kumar, Varun; Chanpheaktra, Ngoun; Chheng, Kheng; Smits, Henk L; Pastoor, Rob; Nga, Tran Vu Thieu; Baker, Stephen; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Peacock, Sharon J; Putchhat, Hor; Parry, Christopher M

    2012-02-01

    Typhoid fever was confirmed by positive blood culture in 5 (3.7%) of 134 febrile children hospitalized in Cambodia. Typhoid was suspected in an additional 25 (18.7 %) blood culture-negative children based on: a positive immunoglobulin M lateral flow assay (IgMFA) (16); a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Salmonella typhi (2); or clinical assessment (7). The specificity of the IgMFA and PCR assays requires further study.

  2. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination for the Kingdom of Cambodia Under Section 2(b)(2) of the Export-Import...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Cambodia Under Section 2(b)(2) of the Export-Import Bank Act of 1945, as amended Presidential Documents... Determination for the Kingdom of Cambodia Under Section 2(b)(2) of the Export-Import Bank Act of 1945, as... Kingdom of Cambodia has ceased to be a Marxist-Leninist country within the definition of such term in...

  3. 8 CFR 245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public Law 106-429). 245.21 Section 245.21 Aliens and... ADMITTED FOR PERMANENT RESIDENCE § 245.21 Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia... that of a lawful permanent resident, a native or citizen of Vietnam, Cambodia, or Laos who: (1) Was...

  4. 8 CFR 1245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public Law 106-429). 1245.21 Section 1245.21 Aliens... certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public Law 106-429). (a) Eligibility. The..., Cambodia, or Laos who: (1) Was inspected and paroled into the United States before October 1, 1997; (2) Was...

  5. Determinants of Child Malnutrition and Infant and Young Child Feeding Approaches in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinbott, Anika; Jordan, Irmgard

    2016-01-01

    Women's diets often decrease with regard to amounts per meal and day as well as diversity if a household's access to food is limited. The result is a monotonous diet that, in particular, negatively affects women's nutritional status during pregnancy and lactation and, thus, the infant. The infant's diet is of utmost importance, as it needs to meet the nutrient requirements especially during the first 2 years of life, a critical window for the child's healthy development. In Cambodia, infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices are poor. Preparation of a special complementary meal in addition to breast milk feeds for children aged 6-23 months is often not a common habit. Instead, children eat watery, plain rice porridges that do not meet the nutrient requirements at this young age. A lack of adequate caring practices such as responsive feeding exacerbates the risk of malnutrition. Caregivers are often unaware of the importance of nutrition during the first 2 years of life regarding its effects on children's growth. In 2012, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) was started in two provinces of northern Cambodia: Oddar Meanchey and Preah Vihear. To contribute to reducing child mortality by addressing malnutrition among children 6-23 months of age, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) implemented a nutrition-sensitive agriculture project with nutrition-specific actions, i.e. a nutrition education intervention was embedded in a food security project. Wealth, a child's age, and maternal education were identified as determinants of a child's dietary diversity. The older the child and/or the wealthier the household, the more diverse the child's diet. Maternal education was positively associated with the child's dietary diversity. Household dietary diversity was significantly associated with child dietary diversity in a model including group, child's age, maternal education, and wealth as confounders. The RCT also showed that a 2- to 3-month

  6. Examination of core competencies of agricultural development professionals in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvedi, Murari; Ghimire, Ramjee; Channa, Ty

    2018-04-01

    This cross-sectional study examined perceived level of importance, perceived level of competency in extension core competencies, and whether and how perceptions of competency vary by respondents' demographics; ascertained gaps in competency, if any; and identified ways for agricultural development professionals in Cambodia to acquire core competencies. Data were collected using a group-administered survey among 39 agricultural development professionals participating in a national workshop in December 2015. The survey consisted of 48 competencies representing eight core competencies, and each competency had level of importance and level of competency parts. The findings show that extension workers in Cambodia deemed all competencies highly or very highly important to their extension work; however, their perceived level of competency in those competencies appeared not to meet the expectations. The level of competency in all but communication skills and diversity significantly differed by gender but not by age and experience. Respondents indicated all four methods-preservice, in-service, basic induction training, and participation in seminars, workshops, and webinars-equally appropriate to acquire core competencies. The findings imply that the agricultural development authority in Cambodia should review, update, or design extension education curricula incorporating the competencies highlighted in this study and train its extension cadres on those competencies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Technical Efficiency and Its Determinants of Rice Production in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokvibol Kea

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to measure the technical efficiency and establish core factors affecting rice production in Cambodia. A four‐year dataset generated from the central government document “Profile on Economics and Social” of 25 entire provinces between 2012 and 2015 and the stochastic production frontier model (SFA was applied. The results indicated that the level of output (quantity of Cambodian rice production varied according to the different level of capital investment in agricultural machineries, total rice actual harvested area, and technical fertilizer application within provinces. Furthermore, evidence revealed that the overall mean efficiency of rice production is 78.4%, which implies that there is still room to further improve technical efficiency given the same level of inputs and technology. More importantly, the findings revealed that irrigation, production techniques and amount of agricultural supporting staff are the most important influencing factors of rice production’s technical efficiency in Cambodia. In conclusion, the present study strongly recommends the development of irrigation systems and good water management practices to be considered and bring about more effective actions by the central government as well as related agencies for improving rice production in Cambodia in addition to capital investment and improving technical skills of supporting staff and rural farmers.

  8. THE PECULIARITIES OF DESIGNING OF MONOLITHIC FOUNDATION SLABS IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анна Николаевна Малахова

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The climatic and engineering-geological conditions of the construction sites for civil buildings in the People's Republic of Bangladesh are considered. There are described the features of the constructive solution of load-bearing structures of buildings of mass urban development. Monolithic reinforced concrete buildings of medium height of column and wall construction systems are considered, and the average ground pressure is determined. There are shown the slabs foundations of such buildings, the features of their design and reinforcement, including under the conditions of seismic influences.

  9. Impact of an aquaculture extension project in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2009-01-01

    This paper is an impact study of key short- and long-run effects of the Danida supported Mymensingh Aquaculture Extension Project (MAEP) in Bangladesh, applying different matching and double difference estimators. Results are mixed. First, the paper finds a positive short-run impact on pond...... that these results are closely linked to non-favourable developments in the output price and the fact that agricultural production, including rearing of livestock and service sector employment (self or wage employment), are much larger sources of income than fish pond production....

  10. Ebola Virus Disease – Global Scenario & Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Rezwanur Rahman

    2015-03-01

    include careful screening of the people coming back home from Ebola affected countries and also giving adequate safety training on the threat of Ebola exposure to the people going to those countries.11 It is a matter of relief and contentment that the Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research (IEDCR laboratory of Bangladesh has the capacity to primarily identify an Ebola patient but the identified samples need to be sent to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC headquarters in Atlanta for a confirmed result which could take a couple of days.11 Moreover the WHO has promised all necessary technical support to Bangladesh and requested the government to increase vigilance and screening at ports. As part of an ongoing countrywide 90 day Ebola alert from October 2014, screening centres and health desks have been set up at 25 ports, including three international airports and two seaports of the country. Health directorate officials said 15 isolation wards at district hospitals near the ports have been kept ready to provide treatment if any suspected Ebola patient was found. A 20 bed specialized ward is also set to be opened soon at the Kurmitola General Hospital in Dhaka. Officials said 3,167 personnel - doctors, nurses and sanitary inspectors who work at the health desks at the ports - have been provided specialized training on Ebola detection, management and handling.12 Till date there is no effective treatment or no vaccine could be invented to fight against this lethal virus. Rather we have to surrender to the old dictum - ‘prevention is better than cure’. The only tools at our hands are public awareness and strict maintenance of universal precaution and avoiding handling of remains of infected animals or persons.

  11. Chronic stunting among under-5 children in Bangladesh: A situation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Islam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition is a major problem in many developing countries, including Bangladesh. Chronic malnutrition is a major cause of mortality and morbidity among children under the age of five years. Although Bangladesh has made remarkable progress in reducing mortality in the under-fives, chronic stunting remains a formidable challenge for the country. Based on an analysis of available secondary data, this paper illustrates the current status of chronic stunting in Bangladesh. Data on selected relevant indicators such as gender, urban/rural residence, level of mother’s education, and income by wealth quintiles were extracted from the Bangladesh Health and Demography Surveys from 2004, 2007, and 2011. The data clearly suggest a strong relationship between selected socio-economic variables and stunting among children under the age of five. In rural areas, stunting prevalence rate was found to be more than six times higher than in urban areas. Income inequality was also a significant predictor of stunting. Children from the lowest wealth quintile are twice as likely to be stunted as children from the highest wealth quintile (54% of children under five in the lowest quintile compared to 27% of their counterparts in the highest wealth quintile. Similarly, the level of mother’s education is strongly related to stunting: the higher the level of mothers’ education, the lower the prevalence rate of stunting among children under five. Since wealth or income is a strong predictor of place of residence (urban/rural as well as mothers’ level of education, it can be generally concluded that inequity is the primary determinant of stunting among children under five. Bangladesh must forcefully address inequity in order to tackle the overwhelming prevalence of stunting among children under five. Despite making impressive gains to improve major health and development indicators at the macro level, Bangladesh has so far failed to adequately address the underlying

  12. Human health risks and socio-economic perspectives of arsenic exposure in Bangladesh: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Azizur; Rahman, A; Khan, M Zaved Kaiser; Renzaho, Andre M N

    2018-04-15

    Arsenic contamination of drinking water, which can occur naturally or because of human activities such as mining, is the single most important public health issue in Bangladesh. Fifty out of the 64 districts in the country have arsenic concentration of groundwater exceeding 50µgL -1 , the Bangladeshi threshold, affecting 35-77 million people or 21-48% of the total population. Chronic arsenic exposure through drinking water and other dietary sources is an important public health issue worldwide affecting hundreds of millions of people. Consequently, arsenic poisoning has attracted the attention of researchers and has been profiled extensively in the literature. Most of the literature has focused on characterising arsenic poisoning and factors associated with it. However, studies examining the socio-economic aspects of chronic exposure of arsenic through either drinking water or foods remain underexplored. The objectives of this paper are (i) to review arsenic exposure pathways to humans; (ii) to summarise public health impacts of chronic arsenic exposure; and (iii) to examine socio-economic implications and consequences of arsenicosis with a focus on Bangladesh. This scoping review evaluates the contributions of different exposure pathways by analysing arsenic concentrations in dietary and non-dietary sources. The socio-economic consequences of arsenicosis disease in Bangladesh are discussed in this review by considering food habits, nutritional status, socio-economic conditions, and socio-cultural behaviours of the people of the country. The pathways of arsenic exposure in Bangladesh include drinking water, various plant foods and non-dietary sources such as soil. Arsenic affected people are often abandoned by the society, lose their jobs and get divorced and are forced to live a sub-standard life. The fragile public health system in Bangladesh has been burdened by the management of thousands of arsenicosis victims in Bangladesh. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc

  13. Diversity and molecular phylogeny of mitochondrial DNA of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, M Kamrul; Feeroz, M Mostafa; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Engel, Gregory A; Kanthaswamy, Sree; Smith, David Glenn

    2014-11-01

    While studies of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in the eastern (e.g., China) and western (e.g., India) parts of their geographic range have revealed major genetic differences that warrant the recognition of two different subspecies, little is known about genetic characteristics of rhesus macaques in the transitional zone extending from eastern India and Bangladesh through the northern part of Indo-China, the probable original homeland of the species. We analyzed genetic variation of 762 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA from 86 fecal swab samples and 19 blood samples from 25 local populations of rhesus macaque in Bangladesh collected from January 2010 to August 2012. These sequences were compared with those of rhesus macaques from India, China, and Myanmar. Forty-six haplotypes defined by 200 (26%) polymorphic nucleotide sites were detected. Estimates of gene diversity, expected heterozygosity, and nucleotide diversity for the total population were 0.9599 ± 0.0097, 0.0193 ± 0.0582, and 0.0196 ± 0.0098, respectively. A mismatch distribution of paired nucleotide differences yielded a statistically significantly negative value of Tajima's D, reflecting a population that rapidly expanded after the terminal Pleistocene. Most haplotypes throughout regions of Bangladesh, including an isolated region in the southwestern area (Sundarbans), clustered with haplotypes assigned to the minor haplogroup Ind-2 from India reflecting an east to west dispersal of rhesus macaques to India. Haplotypes from the southeast region of Bangladesh formed a cluster with those from Myanmar, and represent the oldest rhesus macaque haplotypes of Bangladesh. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that rhesus macaques first entered Bangladesh from the southeast, probably from Indo-China, then dispersed westward throughout eastern and central India. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Health consequences of child labour in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The paper examines the effect of child labour on child health outcomes in Bangladesh, advancing the methodologies and the results of papers published in different journals. Objective: We examine the effect of child labour on child health outcomes. Methods: We used Bangladesh National Child Labour Survey data for 2002-2003 for our analysis. Results: The main finding of the paper suggests that child labour is positively and significantly associated with the probability of being injured or becoming ill. Intensity of injury or illness is significantly higher in construction and manufacturing sectors than in other sectors. Health disadvantages for different age groups are not essentially parallel. Conclusions: The results obtained in this paper strengthen the need for stronger enforcement of laws that regulate child labour, especially given its adverse consequences on health. Although the paper focuses on Bangladesh, much of the evidence presented has implications that are relevant to policymakers in other developing countries.

  15. Future demand scenarios of Bangladesh power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, Md. Alam Hossain; Boie, Wulf; Denich, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    Data on the future electricity demand is an essential requirement for planning the expansion of a power system. The purpose of this study is to provide a general overview of electricity consumption in Bangladesh, forecast sector-wise electricity demand up to 2035 considering the base year 2005, and compare the results with official projections. The Long-range Energy Alternative Planning (LEAP) model with three scenarios, namely low gross domestic product (GDP) growth, average GDP growth and high GDP growth, is applied in this study. In the low to high GDP growth scenarios, the extent of industrial restructuring and technical advancement is gradually increased. The findings have significant implications with respect to energy conservation and economic development. The study also compares the projected per capita electricity consumption in Bangladesh with the historical growth in several other developing countries. Such an evaluation can create awareness among the planners of power system expansion in Bangladesh to meet the high future demand.

  16. Bangladesh : World Bank Country-Level Engagement on Governance and Anticorruption

    OpenAIRE

    Wescott, Clay; Breeding, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Bangladesh is one of the world's poorest and most densely populated countries, and subject to annual cyclones and flooding. Despite these challenges, it benefits from strong economic growth, good performance on health and education, and poverty reduction, alongside weak governance and pervasive corruption. The reasons include strong macroeconomic policy, pro-poor spending, credible electio...

  17. Molecular epidemiology of Bordetella pertussis in Cambodia determined by direct genotyping of clinical specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Moriuchi

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: The B. pertussis population in Cambodia, where a whole-cell pertussis vaccine (WCV has been continuously used, resembled those observed previously in developed countries where acellular pertussis vaccines are used. Circulating B. pertussis strains in Cambodia were distinct from those in other countries using WCVs.

  18. 78 FR 17745 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8245] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Cambodia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and... United States to waive the requirements of Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Cambodia and I...

  19. Enhancing Aid Effectiveness in Education through a Sector-Wide Approach in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    Since 2001 the government of Cambodia has striven to advance policy-led education reform based on a sector-wide approach. This paper critically reviews the status and progress of Cambodia's education reform from the perspective of the aid's effectiveness. The paper looks at the performance of the sector reform in the three priority areas…

  20. Becoming and Being Academic Women in Cambodia: Cultural and Other Understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, T. W.; Nget, Sokhany; Am, Kunthy; Peou, Leakhna; You, Songly

    2015-01-01

    Cambodia's higher education is under development. This is the first study of the role of women teaching in a university in Cambodia. There has been many studies of academic women in western countries and these guided the 16 interviews in Khmer that were carried out by young female researchers, translated by them and then analysed with the…

  1. Unsystematic Technology Adoption in Cambodia: Students' Perceptions of Computer and Internet Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jayson W.; Nash, John B.; Flora, Kevin L.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to understand how upper secondary school students in Cambodia perceive the use of computers and the Internet. Data were collected from students in three urban upper secondary schools (n = 1,137) in Cambodia using questionnaires. The data indicate that the more exposure a Cambodian student had to computers and the Internet…

  2. Educational Policy Trajectories in an Era of Globalization: Singapore and Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Charlene

    2010-01-01

    This paper critically discusses the educational policy trajectories of Singapore and Cambodia in an era of globalization. Drawing upon David Johnson's five metaphors to describe the historical and political forces that shape educational policy trajectories, the paper argues that Cambodia's current educational policy trajectory is characterized by…

  3. 76 FR 33019 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Royal Government of Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7491] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Royal Government of Cambodia Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and... waive the requirements of Section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to the Royal Government of Cambodia...

  4. Is Something Better than Nothing? An Evaluation of Early Childhood Programs in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Nirmala; Sun, Jin; Pearson, Veronica; Pearson, Emma; Liu, Hongyun; Constas, Mark A.; Engle, Patrice L.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the relative effectiveness of home-based, community-based, and state-run early childhood programs across Cambodia. A total of 880 five-year-olds (55% girls) from 6 rural provinces in Cambodia attending State Preschools, Community Preschools, Home-Based Programs, or no programs were assessed twice using the Cambodian…

  5. "A Frog in a Well": The Exclusion of Disabled People from Work in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartrell, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Based on ethnographic research conducted in north-west Cambodia in 2000-2001, this paper examines why disabled people experience systematic marginalisation in the labour market. Although there are no official data on the relationship between disability and employment status in Cambodia, this research suggests that disabled people are more likely…

  6. Community participation during two mass anti-malarial administrations in Cambodia: lessons from a joint workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peto, Thomas J.; Debackere, Mark; Etienne, William; Vernaeve, Lieven; Tripura, Rupam; Falq, Gregoire; Davoeung, Chan; Nguon, Chea; Rekol, Huy; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Dondorp, Arjen M.; Sanann, Nou; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; de Smet, Martin; Pell, Christopher; Kindermans, Jean-Marie

    2018-01-01

    Two mass drug administrations (MDA) against falciparum malaria were conducted in 2015-16, one as operational research in northern Cambodia, and the other as a clinical trial in western Cambodia. During an April 2017 workshop in Phnom Penh the field teams from Medecins Sans Frontieres and the

  7. Educational Cooperation between Thailand and Cambodia: Outcomes on Human Development, International Understanding and Future Prospect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijtorntham, Wichuda; Ruangdej, Phumjit; Saisuwan, Chatchanog

    2015-01-01

    Thailand and Cambodia set up educational cooperation since 1996, before signed a Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation in the Promotion of Education in 2003. This research aimed to investigate outcomes of educational cooperation projects on Cambodia human development and international understanding, process of participatory learning and…

  8. REVALUATION OF WOMEN'S WORK IN BANGLADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Nuimuddin

    1986-01-01

    The paper seeks to revalue women's nonmarket work in the context of parts of rural Bangladesh, v} ich is where most of her women folk live. It raises relevant conceptual and methodological considerations relating to revaluation of women's work, reviews various sets of evidence on the pattern of time use of women in Bangladesh, and then puts up a broad order of magnitude as to the value of women's nonmarket work. For this purpose, it taken the sexual division of labour and sexual differential ...

  9. Achieving universal access and moving towards elimination of new HIV infections in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vun, Mean Chhi; Fujita, Masami; Rathavy, Tung; Eang, Mao Tang; Sopheap, Seng; Sovannarith, Samreth; Chhorvann, Chhea; Vanthy, Ly; Sopheap, Oum; Welle, Emily; Ferradini, Laurent; Sedtha, Chin; Bunna, Sok; Verbruggen, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In the mid-1990s, Cambodia faced one of the fastest growing HIV epidemics in Asia. For its achievement in reversing this trend, and achieving universal access to HIV treatment, the country received a United Nations millennium development goal award in 2010. This article reviews Cambodia’s response to HIV over the past two decades and discusses its current efforts towards elimination of new HIV infections. Methods A literature review of published and unpublished documents, including programme data and presentations, was conducted. Results and discussion Cambodia classifies its response to one of the most serious HIV epidemics in Asia into three phases. In Phase I (1991–2000), when adult HIV prevalence peaked at 1.7% and incidence exceeded 20,000 cases, a nationwide HIV prevention programme targeted brothel-based sex work. Voluntary confidential counselling and testing and home-based care were introduced, and peer support groups of people living with HIV emerged. Phase II (2001–2011) observed a steady decline in adult prevalence to 0.8% and incidence to 1600 cases by 2011, and was characterized by: expanding antiretroviral treatment (coverage reaching more than 80%) and continuum of care; linking with tuberculosis and maternal and child health services; accelerated prevention among key populations, including entertainment establishment-based sex workers, men having sex with men, transgender persons, and people who inject drugs; engagement of health workers to deliver quality services; and strengthening health service delivery systems. The third phase (2012–2020) aims to attain zero new infections by 2020 through: sharpening responses to key populations at higher risk; maximizing access to community and facility-based testing and retention in prevention and care; and accelerating the transition from vertical approaches to linked/integrated approaches. Conclusions Cambodia has tailored its prevention strategy to its own epidemic, established

  10. A prospective study of the causes of febrile illness requiring hospitalization in children in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chheng, Kheng; Carter, Michael J; Emary, Kate; Chanpheaktra, Ngoun; Moore, Catrin E; Stoesser, Nicole; Putchhat, Hor; Sona, Soeng; Reaksmey, Sin; Kitsutani, Paul; Sar, Borann; van Doorn, H Rogier; Uyen, Nguyen Hanh; Van Tan, Le; Paris, Daniel H; Paris, Daniel; Blacksell, Stuart D; Amornchai, Premjit; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Parry, Christopher M; Day, Nicholas P J; Kumar, Varun

    2013-01-01

    Febrile illnesses are pre-eminent contributors to morbidity and mortality among children in South-East Asia but the causes are poorly understood. We determined the causes of fever in children hospitalised in Siem Reap province, Cambodia. A one-year prospective study of febrile children admitted to Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and outcome data were comprehensively analysed. Between October 12(th) 2009 and October 12(th) 2010 there were 1225 episodes of febrile illness in 1180 children. Median (IQR) age was 2.0 (0.8-6.4) years, with 850 (69%) episodes in children <5 years. Common microbiological diagnoses were dengue virus (16.2%), scrub typhus (7.8%), and Japanese encephalitis virus (5.8%). 76 (6.3%) episodes had culture-proven bloodstream infection, including Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (22 isolates, 1.8%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (13, 1.1%), Escherichia coli (8, 0.7%), Haemophilus influenzae (7, 0.6%), Staphylococcus aureus (6, 0.5%) and Burkholderia pseudomallei (6, 0.5%). There were 69 deaths (5.6%), including those due to clinically diagnosed pneumonia (19), dengue virus (5), and melioidosis (4). 10 of 69 (14.5%) deaths were associated with culture-proven bloodstream infection in logistic regression analyses (odds ratio for mortality 3.4, 95% CI 1.6-6.9). Antimicrobial resistance was prevalent, particularly in S. enterica Typhi, (where 90% of isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, and 86% were multi-drug resistant). Comorbid undernutrition was present in 44% of episodes and a major risk factor for acute mortality (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1-4.2), as were HIV infection and cardiac disease. We identified a microbiological cause of fever in almost 50% of episodes in this large study of community-acquired febrile illness in hospitalized children in Cambodia. The range of pathogens, antimicrobial susceptibility, and co-morbidities associated with mortality described will be of use in the development of rational

  11. A prospective study of the causes of febrile illness requiring hospitalization in children in Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheng Chheng

    Full Text Available Febrile illnesses are pre-eminent contributors to morbidity and mortality among children in South-East Asia but the causes are poorly understood. We determined the causes of fever in children hospitalised in Siem Reap province, Cambodia.A one-year prospective study of febrile children admitted to Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and outcome data were comprehensively analysed. Between October 12(th 2009 and October 12(th 2010 there were 1225 episodes of febrile illness in 1180 children. Median (IQR age was 2.0 (0.8-6.4 years, with 850 (69% episodes in children <5 years. Common microbiological diagnoses were dengue virus (16.2%, scrub typhus (7.8%, and Japanese encephalitis virus (5.8%. 76 (6.3% episodes had culture-proven bloodstream infection, including Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (22 isolates, 1.8%, Streptococcus pneumoniae (13, 1.1%, Escherichia coli (8, 0.7%, Haemophilus influenzae (7, 0.6%, Staphylococcus aureus (6, 0.5% and Burkholderia pseudomallei (6, 0.5%. There were 69 deaths (5.6%, including those due to clinically diagnosed pneumonia (19, dengue virus (5, and melioidosis (4. 10 of 69 (14.5% deaths were associated with culture-proven bloodstream infection in logistic regression analyses (odds ratio for mortality 3.4, 95% CI 1.6-6.9. Antimicrobial resistance was prevalent, particularly in S. enterica Typhi, (where 90% of isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, and 86% were multi-drug resistant. Comorbid undernutrition was present in 44% of episodes and a major risk factor for acute mortality (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1-4.2, as were HIV infection and cardiac disease.We identified a microbiological cause of fever in almost 50% of episodes in this large study of community-acquired febrile illness in hospitalized children in Cambodia. The range of pathogens, antimicrobial susceptibility, and co-morbidities associated with mortality described will be of use in the development of rational guidelines

  12. Time to unsuccessful tuberculosis treatment outcome, Cambodia, China, and Viet Nam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoa, N B; Sokun, C; Wei, C

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and characteristics of patients with unsuccessful tuberculosis (TB) treatment. METHODS: Random selection of TB case registers among all treatment units in Cambodia, two provinces in China, and Viet Nam. The data of two calendar years were analyzed to assess...... unsuccessful outcomes and their time of occurrence. RESULTS: Among the 33 309 TB patients, treatment was unsuccessful in respectively 10.1%, 3.0% and 9.1% of patients in Cambodia, China and Viet Nam. The risk of death was highest in Cambodia, higher among males than females, increased with age, and was more...... common among retreatment cases than new cases, and among patients with a high than a low sputum smear microscopy grade. Half of all deaths occurred in the first 2 months in Cambodia and within 11 weeks in China and Viet Nam. Median time to default was 3 months in Cambodia and Viet Nam, and about 2 months...

  13. Energy productivity and efficiency of wheat farming in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Sanzidur; Hasan, M. Kamrul

    2014-01-01

    Wheat is the second most important cereal crop in Bangladesh and production is highly sensitive to variations in the environment. We estimate productivity and energy efficiency of wheat farming in Bangladesh by applying a stochastic production frontier approach while accounting for the environmental constraints affecting production. Wheat farming is energy efficient with a net energy balance of 20,596 MJ per ha and energy ratio of 2.34. Environmental constraints such as a combination of unsuitable land, weed and pest attack, bad weather, planting delay and infertile soils significantly reduce wheat production and its energy efficiency. Environmental constraints account for a mean energy efficiency of 3 percentage points. Mean technical efficiency is 88% thereby indicating that elimination of inefficiencies can increase wheat energy output by 12%. Farmers' education, access to agricultural information and training in wheat production significantly improves efficiency, whereas events such as a delay in planting and first fertilization significantly reduce it. Policy recommendations include development of varieties that are resistant to environmental constraints and suitable for marginal areas; improvement of wheat farming practices; and investments in education and training of farmers as well as dissemination of information. - Highlights: • Bangladesh wheat farming is energy efficient at 20,596 MJha −1 ; energy ratio 2.34. • Environmental factors significantly influence productivity and energy efficiency. • Environmental factors must be taken into account when estimating wheat productivity. • Government policies must focus on ways of alleviating environmental factors. • Farmers' education, training and information sources increase technical efficiency

  14. Implementation of information and communication technologies for health in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Sheik Mohammed Shariful; Tabassum, Reshman

    2015-11-01

    Bangladesh has yet to develop a fully integrated health information system infrastructure that is critical to guiding policy development and planning. Initial pilot telemedicine and eHealth programmes were not coordinated at national level. However, in 2011, a national eHealth policy was implemented. Bangladesh has made substantial improvements to its health system. However, the country still faces public health challenges with limited and inequitable access to health services and lack of adequate resources to meet the demands of the population. In 2008, eHealth services were introduced, including computerization of health facilities at sub-district levels, internet connections, internet servers and an mHealth service for communicating with health-care providers. Health facilities at sub-district levels were provided with internet connections and servers. In 482 upazila health complexes and district hospitals, an mHealth service was set-up where an on-duty doctor is available for patients at all hours to provide consultations by mobile phone. A government operated telemedicine service was initiated and by 2014, 43 fully equipped centres were in service. These centres provide medical consultations by qualified physicians to patients visiting rural and remote community clinics and union health centres. Despite early pilot interventions and successful implementation, progress in adopting eHealth strategies in Bangladesh has been slow. There is a lack of common standards on information technology for health, which causes difficulties in data management and sharing among different databases. Limited internet bandwidth and the high cost of infrastructure and software development are barriers to adoption of these technologies.

  15. Problems faced by Bangladesh in introducing a nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul Islam, A.B.M.; Quaiyum, M.A.; Hasnat, K.A.

    1977-01-01

    The per capita energy resources and consumption of energy in Bangladesh are among the lowest in the world as in the per capita GDP of the country. The need for and importance of nuclear power in providing cheaper and reliable energy for economic development of the country is discussed in the light of this situation. The constraints faced by the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) in the initiation and development of a national nuclear power programme are detailed. Following the liberation of the country in 1971 its financial resources were mainly channelled to the rehabilitation and restoration of the economy. As the size of the national grid has remained relatively small, unit sizes in the range of 50-200MW(e) only could be considered for commissioning. Lack of vendor interest in such small sizes and the difficulty of arranging long-term investment for nuclear stations are the main constraints faced by the BAEC. Other bottlenecks are due to the uncertainty about the nature and extent of future economic development, pricing policy for available indigenous fossil fuel, and national energy planning criteria, which are mainly influenced by the limited financial resources, national priority for various essential non-development expenditures, which use up most of the country's own earnings and foreign aid, etc. Problems that are likely to be faced in future are discussed. These include public acceptability of nuclear power in Bangladesh, the obstacles to the transfer of nuclear technology that may be erected through the prospective growth of a cartel of nuclear-exporting countries, drainage of trained manpower, etc. (author)

  16. Tuberculosis active case finding in Cambodia: a pragmatic, cost-effectiveness comparison of three implementation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Richard; Khim, Keovathanak; Boudarene, Lydia; Yoong, Joanne; Phalla, Chea; Saint, Saly; Koeut, Pichenda; Mao, Tan Eang; Coker, Richard; Khan, Mishal Sameer

    2017-08-22

    Globally, almost 40% of tuberculosis (TB) patients remain undiagnosed, and those that are diagnosed often experience prolonged delays before initiating correct treatment, leading to ongoing transmission. While there is a push for active case finding (ACF) to improve early detection and treatment of TB, there is extremely limited evidence about the relative cost-effectiveness of different ACF implementation models. Cambodia presents a unique opportunity for addressing this gap in evidence as ACF has been implemented using different models, but no comparisons have been conducted. The objective of our study is to contribute to knowledge and methodology on comparing cost-effectiveness of alternative ACF implementation models from the health service perspective, using programmatic data, in order to inform national policy and practice. We retrospectively compared three distinct ACF implementation models - door to door symptom screening in urban slums, checking contacts of TB patients, and door to door symptom screening focusing on rural populations aged above 55 - in terms of the number of new bacteriologically-positive pulmonary TB cases diagnosed and the cost of implementation assuming activities are conducted by the national TB program of Cambodia. We calculated the cost per additional case detected using the alternative ACF models. Our analysis, which is the first of its kind for TB, revealed that the ACF model based on door to door screening in poor urban areas of Phnom Penh was the most cost-effective (249 USD per case detected, 737 cases diagnosed), followed by the model based on testing contacts of TB patients (308 USD per case detected, 807 cases diagnosed), and symptomatic screening of older rural populations (316 USD per case detected, 397 cases diagnosed). Our study provides new evidence on the relative effectiveness and economics of three implementation models for enhanced TB case finding, in line with calls for data from 'routine conditions' to be included

  17. Access to artemisinin combination therapy for malaria in remote areas of Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Socheat Doung

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria-endemic countries are switching antimalarial drug policy to artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs and the global community are considering the setting up of a global subsidy mechanism in order to make them accessible and affordable. However, specific interventions may be needed to reach remote at-risk communities and to ensure that they are used appropriately. This analysis documents the coverage with ACTs versus artemisinin monotherapies, and the effectiveness of malaria outreach teams (MOTs and Village Malaria Workers (VMWs in increasing access to appropriate diagnosis and treatment with ACTs in Cambodia, the first country to switch national antimalarial drug policy to an ACT of artesunate and mefloquine (A+M in 2000. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out in three different types of intervention area: with VMWs, MOTs and no specific interventions. Individuals with a history of fever in the last three weeks were included in the study and completed a questionnaire on their treatment seeking and drug usage behaviour. Blood was taken for a rapid diagnostic test (RDT and data on the household socio-economic status were also obtained. Results In areas without specific interventions, only 17% (42/251 of respondents received a biological diagnosis, 8% (17/206 of respondents who received modern drug did so from a public health facility, and only 8% of them (17/210 received A+M. Worryingly, 78% (102/131 of all artemisinin use in these areas was as a monotherapy. However, both the VMW scheme and MOT scheme significantly increased the likelihood of being seen by a trained provider (Adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR of 148 and 4 respectively and of receiving A+M (AORs of 2.7 and 7.7 respectively. Conclusion The coverage rates of appropriate diagnosis and treatment of malaria were disappointingly low and the use of artemisinin monotherapy alarmingly high. This reflects the fragmented nature of Cambodia's health system in

  18. Factors associated with induced abortion among female entertainment workers: a cross-sectional study in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Siyan; Tuot, Sovannary; Chhoun, Pheak; Pal, Khuondyla; Tith, Khimuy; Brody, Carinne

    2015-07-31

    To explore risk factors associated with induced abortion among sexually active female entertainment workers (FEWs) in Cambodia. Cross-sectional study. Phnom Penh and Siem Reap, Cambodia. This study included 556 FEWs aged 18-47 years randomly selected from entertainment establishments in the two cities in 2014 using a two-stage cluster sampling method. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. History of induced abortion during the time working as a FEW. Of the total sample, 45.6% reported currently using a contraceptive method with condom (42.4%) being the most common method, followed by pills (25.6%). One-fourth (25%) of the respondents reported having been pregnant at least once, and 21.4% reported having at least one induced abortion during the time working as a FEW. After controlling for other covariates in a multivariate logistic regression model, FEWs with a history of induced abortion remained significantly more likely to be currently working in a karaoke bar (AOR=1.75, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.78), to have worked longer as a FEW (AOR=1.42, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.43), to have had a greater number of sexual partners in the past 12 months (AOR=1.86, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.54), to be currently using a contraceptive method (AOR=1.52, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.29), to be able to find condoms when they needed them (AOR=2.03, 95% CI 1.09 to 3.82), and to report inconsistent condom use with non-commercial partners in the past 3 months (AOR=1.62, 95% CI 1.06 to 3.44). This study highlights the high rates of unwanted pregnancies that ended in induced abortions among FEWs in Cambodia. Access of FEWs to quality sexual and reproductive healthcare services is deemed a high priority. Integrated interventions to improve sexual and reproductive health among these vulnerable women should be tailored to reach the most-at-risk groups. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go

  19. The international trade in toxic waste: the case of Sihanoukville, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, J; Frumkin, H

    2000-01-01

    In December 1998, 2,700 metric tons of industrial waste containing high levels of mercury and other metals and possibly other toxic compounds were shipped illegally from Taiwan to Sihanoukville, Cambodia. There the waste was unloaded and transferred to a nearby inland dumpsite. An estimated 2,000 Sihanoukville residents were exposed to the waste occupationally or environmentally, and at least six deaths and hundreds of injuries have been associated with the incident. The authors describe the human exposures and associated morbidity and mortality, recount the medical and public health response, and consider the issues complicating epidemiologic analysis of the incident. They also consider the major issues highlighted by the incident, including the trade in toxic waste between developed and less developed countries, the factors that shape emergency public health responses in resource-poor environments, and the importance of prevention and preparedness in containing emergencies in developing countries.

  20. Original study of the biochemical and oil composition of the Cambodia nut Irvingia malayana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandelier, J; Chunhieng, T; Olle, M; Montet, D

    2002-03-13

    Analysis of the biochemical composition of Irvingia malayana was carried out. This Cambodian nut contains 7.5% water and 70% oil. Most of the fatty acids are saturated and include 42% C12:0 and 41.8% C14:0; the sterol composition is similar to that of other vegetable oils. This oil is less rich in alpha-tocopherol than in gamma-tocopherol. Analysis of the solid content of the oil with respect to the temperature by NMR shows a fast fall of solid content around its fusion range at 38-39 degrees C. The main differences in the properties of the indigenous Cambodia nut from other known oleaginous seeds are in its selenium content, fatty acid composition, fusion temperature profile, and content of antioxidants. These important characteristics can soon make possible its application in pharmacology, cosmetics, the margarine industry, etc.

  1. Exposure to tobacco smoke among adults in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palipudi, Krishna Mohan; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Choudhury, Sohel; Mustafa, Zaman; Andes, Linda; Asma, Samira

    2011-01-01

    To examine exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) at home, in workplace, and in various public places in Bangladesh. Data from 2009 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in Bangladesh was analyzed. The data consists of 9,629 respondents from a nationally representative multi-stage probability sample of adults aged 15 years and above. Exposure to second-hand smoke was defined as respondents who reported being exposed to tobacco smoke in the following locations: Indoor workplaces, homes, government building or office, health care facilities, public transportation, schools, universities, restaurants, and cafes, coffee shops or tea houses. Exposure to tobacco smoke in these places was examined by gender across various socioeconomic and demographic sub-groups that include age, residence, education and wealth index using SPSS 17.0 for complex samples. The study shows high prevalence of SHS exposure at home and in workplace and in public places. Exposure to SHS among adults was reported high at home (54.9%) (male-58.2% and female-51.7%), in workplace (63%) (male-67.8% and female-30.4%), and in any public place (57.8%) (male-90.4% and female-25.1%) 30 days preceding the survey. Among the public places examined exposure was low in the educational institutions (schools-4.3%) and health care facilities (5.8%); however, exposure was high in public transportation (26.3%), and restaurants (27.6%). SHS exposure levels at home, in workplace and public places were varied widely across various socioeconomic and demographic sub-groups. Exposure was reported high in settings having partial ban as compared to settings having a complete ban. Following the WHO FCTC and MPOWER measures, strengthening smoke-free legislation may further the efforts in Bangladesh towards creating and enforcing 100% smoke-free areas and educating the public about the dangers of SHS. Combining these efforts can have a complementary effect on protecting the people from hazardous effect of SHS as well as

  2. Strategies for refinancing of SMEs in Bangladesh: Problems & constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitav Saha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, there has been a significant change in the world trade regime, too. The WTO techniques agreements limit the use of certain trade measures as quantitative restrictions and subsidies. Such development has also implication for a country's strategy in supporting its domestic industry in including SMEs. WTO agreements cover not only the traditional goods sector but also new sectors like services and intellectual property rights. There is a tendency for considering these newly included sectors as constraints to trade prospects of a poor country like Bangladesh. There are certain other areas where improvements pro­vide genuine incentives to SMEs and contribute to their enhanced competitiveness. Improved infrastructure, better law and order situation, and efficient ports and transportation are likely to impact favorably upon the SMEs sector and such things may be no less important than mere policy supported incentives. However, these provisions have now become realities. Bangladesh should continue its efforts to make the world community appreciate the difficult economic situation of the LDCs and to help to attain var­ious trade preferences and conces­sions. Its long-run economic pros­perity critically depends on success or otherwise of its efforts to turn the challenges of globalization opportunities. This will create a strong and potential base for economic development, which will in turn accelerate the process of poverty reduction, and reduction of unemployment, create employment opportunities as well as accelerate the overall economic growth of the country.

  3. Incorporating Canopy Cover for Airborne-Derived Assessments of Forest Biomass in the Tropical Forests of Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Minerva; Evans, Damian; Coomes, David A.; Friess, Daniel A.; Suy Tan, Boun; Samean Nin, Chan

    2016-01-01

    This research examines the role of canopy cover in influencing above ground biomass (AGB) dynamics of an open canopied forest and evaluates the efficacy of individual-based and plot-scale height metrics in predicting AGB variation in the tropical forests of Angkor Thom, Cambodia. The AGB was modeled by including canopy cover from aerial imagery alongside with the two different canopy vertical height metrics derived from LiDAR; the plot average of maximum tree height (Max_CH) of individual tre...

  4. Challenges of Women in Science: Bangladesh Perspectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ranjeetha

    Women in Bangladesh very often face discrimination in career in every field of Science and Engineering. • A study was undertaken to see the barriers limiting the. A study was undertaken to see the barriers limiting the appointment, retention, and advancement of women faculty in the Universities, Administration and other.

  5. Indigenous Plasmodium ovale malaria in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Starzengruber, Peter; Swoboda, Paul; Khan, Wasif Ali; Matt, Julia; Ley, Benedikt; Thriemer, Kamala; Haque, Rashidul; Yunus, Emran Bin; Hossain, Shah Monir; Walochnik, Julia; Noedl, Harald

    2010-07-01

    In spite of the high prevalence of malaria in Southeastern Bangladesh, there remains a significant shortage of information regarding the presence of three of five human malaria parasites: Plasmodium ovale, P. malariae, and P. knowlesi. The presence of P. ovale and P. knowlesi has previously never been reported from Bangladesh. We used a genus- and species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction, targeting highly conserved regions of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene, to investigate the presence of malaria parasites in a total number of 379 patient samples in a survey of patients with febrile illnesses in the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Southeastern Bangladesh. We identified the first cases of P. ovale in Bangladesh. They were confirmed by sequence analysis; 189 of 379 samples (49.9%; 95% confidence interval = 44.9-54.9%) were positive for Plasmodium sp. by PCR. P. falciparum monoinfections accounted for 68.3% (61.3-74.5%), followed by P. vivax (15.3%; 10.9-21.2%), P. malariae (1.6%; 0.5-4.6%), P. ovale (1.6%; 0.5-4.6%), and mixed infections (13.2%; 9.1-18.8%). We found no evidence of P. knowlesi in this region.

  6. eyes on bangladesh's disappearing coasts: proposed constitutional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    mph has an eye at the centre of the storm, which is the calmest part of the storm. National ... 1. INTRODUCTION. Although Bangladesh is not a significant emitter of greenhouse gases that contribute to climate change, the coastal country is suffering ..... situation.61 Her mud and bamboo hut was washed away by the cyclone.

  7. Pangolin distribution and conservation status in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J Trageser

    Full Text Available Asian pangolins are a highly-threatened species group, mainly due to the perceived medicinal value of their scales. Increased demand from China has resulted in pangolins being the most trafficked mammal in the world. Three pangolin species are reported to occur in Bangladesh: Manis pentadactyla, M. crassicaudata, and M. javanica. No peer-reviewed studies exist detailing these species' current distribution or status within Bangladesh. A literature review was conducted resulting in the clarification of conflicting reports and misidentified observations and specimen records. In this paper, we also report the current status of pangolins (Manis spp. in Bangladesh based on semi-structured interviews, camera trapping, media queries, and field surveys employing traditional ecological knowledge and non-randomized transect surveys. Ethnozoological knowledge pertaining to the natural history of M. pentadactyla is also reported from experienced Mro tribal hunters. The critically endangered M. pentadactyla was verified to occur in northwest, northeast, and southeast Bangladesh in natural and degraded habitats. Interviews with the Mro tribe in the southeast indicate that pangolin populations there were likely extirpated in 2014 due to skilled commercial collection beginning in 2010. Evidence of extant M. crassicaudata and M. javanica populations remain unverified and questionable, and historical records of M. crassicaudata and M. javanica are likely a result of misidentification.

  8. First Outbreak of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Mahbubur; Rahman, Khalilur; Siddque, A. K.; Shoma, Shereen; Kamal, A. H. M.; Ali, K. S.; Nisaluk, Ananda; Breiman, Robert F.

    2002-01-01

    During the first countrywide outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Bangladesh, we conducted surveillance for dengue at a hospital in Dhaka. Of 176 patients, primarily adults, found positive for dengue, 60.2% had dengue fever, 39.2% dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 0.6% dengue shock syndrome. The Dengue virus 3 serotype was detected in eight patients.

  9. REGIONAL VARIATIONS IN CHILD MARRIAGE IN BANGLADESH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Kamrul; Haque, Md Rabiul; Hossain, Mohammad Bellal

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the regional variations in the prevalence of child marriage in Bangladesh with a view to providing recommendations for division-specific policy interventions. Data from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey were analysed using multivariate logistic regression. Substantial regional variations in child marriage were found in Bangladesh. Rangpur and Khulna had more than four times higher odds of child marriage than Sylhet (4.57 and 4.11 times, respectively). Barisal and Rajshahi had more than three times higher odds of child marriage than Sylhet (3.70 and 3.48 times, respectively). Chittagong and Dhaka had about two times odds of child marriage than Sylhet (1.98 and 2.67 times, respectively), even after controlling for selected socio-demographic, economic and cultural characteristics. Respondent's education, employment status, husband's education and wealth index were inversely associated with the prevalence of child marriage. The policy implications of these findings are discussed in the context of Bangladesh.

  10. Teacher Educators' Attitude towards Computer: Perspective Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Ataur

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how teacher educators perceive the attitude towards use of computer technology in Teachers' Training Colleges in Bangladesh. This study investigated teacher educators' computer attitudes by using the valid and reliable instruments of Loyd and Gressard's (1984) Computer Attitude Scale (CAS). The data was collected through …

  11. Epidemiology of Drowning in Bangladesh: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Aminur; Alonge, Olakunle; Bhuiyan, Al-Amin; Agrawal, Priyanka; Salam, Shumona Sharmin; Talab, Abu; Rahman, Qazi Sadeq-Ur; Hyder, Adnan A

    2017-05-05

    Over one-quarter of deaths among 1-4 year-olds in Bangladesh were due to drowning in 2003, and the proportion increased to 42% in 2011. This study describes the current burden and risk factors for drowning across all demographics in rural Bangladesh. A household survey was carried out in 51 union parishads of rural Bangladesh between June and November 2013, covering 1.17 million individuals. Information on fatal and nonfatal drowning events was collected by face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Fatal and non-fatal drowning rates were 15.8/100,000/year and 318.4/100,000/6 months, respectively, for all age groups. The highest rates of fatal (121.5/100,000/year) and non-fatal (3057.7/100,000/6 months) drowning were observed among children 1 to 4 years of age. These children had higher rates of fatal (13 times) and non-fatal drowning (16 times) compared with infants. Males had slightly higher rates of both fatal and non-fatal drowning. Individuals with no education had 3 times higher rates of non-fatal drowning compared with those with high school or higher education. Non-fatal drowning rates increased significantly with decrease in socio-economic status (SES) quintiles, from the highest to the lowest. Drowning is a major public health issue in Bangladesh, and is now a major threat to child survival.

  12. Bangladesh | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Since 1974, we have supported researchers' efforts to improve lives in Bangladesh. As local concerns evolve, so does our focus. Information and communication technologies have been at the heart of many of our activities. In the late 1990s, IDRC-supported research provided low-cost Internet connectivity to schools and ...

  13. Survey of Hypertension in Dhaka, Bangladesh: Changing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess changes in the prescribing pattern of antihypertensive drugs and lifestyle factors associated with hypertensive patients in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 50 hypertensive patients in various heart disease hospitals and the consulting rooms of 10 cardiologists ...

  14. Defining and Predicting Heat Waves in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nissan, H.; Burkart, K.; Coughlan, E.R.; van Aalst, M.; Mason, S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a heat-wave definition for Bangladesh that could be used to trigger preparedness measures in a heat early warning system (HEWS) and explores the climate mechanisms associated with heat waves. A HEWSrequires a definition of heat waves that is both related to human health outcomes

  15. Gender, Parenting, and Adolescent Functioning in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sunita Mahtani; Bond, Michael Harris; Abdullah, Abu Saleh M.; Ma, Stefan S. L.

    2000-01-01

    Examined associations of self-esteem, relationship harmony, and academic achievement with perceptions of parents' styles and supervisory practices among 212 adolescents in Islamic Bangladesh. Found that parental supervisory practices were associated with a warm parental style for girls and parental dominating control for boys. Girls' (but not…

  16. English, Education, and Globalisation: A Bangladesh Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akteruzzaman, Mohammad; Islam, Rakibul

    2017-01-01

    As a third world country and a former British colony, Bangladesh has seen a dramatic upsurge in the use of the English language. Built on the concept of imperialistic aspects of the English language, this paper draws on responses from anonymous survey results and interviews and attempts to provide deeper insights into the global aspects of English…

  17. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-12

    BANGLADESH OBSER VER 18 Jul] ...................................................................................... 7 Rahman Returns From ECOSOC Session, Meets...French Secretary of State for Humanitarian Affairs Ber- and Social Commission ( ECOSOC ) had endorsed Bang- nard Kouchner, who chaired the one-day...Geneva via London at the Zia international The World Bank and the Asian Development Bank were airport after attending the ECOSOC special session. among

  18. Protozoal enteric infections among expatriates in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, P.; Ljungström, I.

    1986-01-01

    In order to study the prevalence, incidence, and symptoms of infections with Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica, we followed 251 expatriates in Bangladesh over a 1-year period. Microscopic examination of fecal specimens was performed upon enrollment, at 3-month intervals, and during episodes

  19. Making healthcare accessible in Bangladesh | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-29

    Jan 29, 2018 ... View infographics. Even so, the country is still far from its goal of universal health coverage. Bangladesh aims to provide all citizens and communities with the health services they need, at a price they can afford, by 2032. Among the challenges in achieving this goal are rapid urbanization, deep poverty, and ...

  20. First case of chromoblastomycosis from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brun Sophie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chromoblastomycosis is a rare and chronic cutaneous and subcutaneous infection caused by black fungi and mostly reported in tropical and subtropical areas. Here we report the first case of chromoblastomycosis from Bangladesh. Molecular biology permitted to identify Fonsecaea nubica, and the patient responded well to antifungal treatment alone.

  1. Effectiveness of community forestry in Prey Long forest, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrick, Frances H; Brown, Nick D; Lawrence, Anna; Bebber, Daniel P

    2014-04-01

    Cambodia has 57% forest cover, the second highest in the Greater Mekong region, and a high deforestation rate (1.2%/year, 2005-2010). Community forestry (CF) has been proposed as a way to reduce deforestation and support livelihoods through local management of forests. CF is expanding rapidly in Cambodia. The National Forests Program aims to designate one million hectares of forest to CF by 2030. However, the effectiveness of CF in conservation is not clear due to a global lack of controlled comparisons, multiple meanings of CF, and the context-specific nature of CF implementation. We assessed the effectiveness of CF by comparing 9 CF sites with paired controls in state production forest in the area of Prey Long forest, Cambodia. We assessed forest condition in 18-20 randomly placed variable-radius plots and fixed-area regeneration plots. We surveyed 10% of households in each of the 9 CF villages to determine the proportion that used forest products, as a measure of household dependence on the forest. CF sites had fewer signs of anthropogenic damage (cut stems, stumps, and burned trees), higher aboveground biomass, more regenerating stems, and reduced canopy openness than control areas. Abundance of economically valuable species, however, was higher in control sites. We used survey results and geographic parameters to model factors affecting CF outcomes. Interaction between management type, CF or control, and forest dependence indicated that CF was more effective in cases where the community relied on forest products for subsistence use and income. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. Iodized salt in Cambodia: trends from 2008 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laillou, Arnaud; Mam, Borath; Oeurn, Sam; Chea, Chantum

    2015-05-29

    Though the consequences of nutritional iodine deficiency have been known for a long time, in Cambodia its elimination has only become a priority in the last 18 years. The Royal Government of Cambodia initiated the National Sub-Committee for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders in 1996 to fight this problem. Using three different surveys providing information across all provinces, we examined the compliance of salt iodization in Cambodia over the last 6 years. Salt samples from the 24 provinces were collect at the household level in 2008 (n = 566) and 2011 (n = 1275) and at the market level in 2014 (n = 1862) and analysed through a wavelength spectrophotometer for iodine content. According to the samples collected, the median iodine content significantly dropped from 22 mg/kg (25th/75th percentile: 2/37 mg/kg) in 2011 to 0 mg/kg in 2014 (25th/75th percentile: 0/8.9 mg/kg) (p < 0.001). The proportion of non-iodized salt within our collected salt drastically increased from 22% in 2011 to 62% in 2014 (p < 0.001). Since the international organizations ceased to support the procurement of iodine, the prevalence of salt compliant with the Cambodian declined within our samples. To date, the current levels of iodine added to tested salt are unsatisfactory as 92% of those salts do not meet the government requirements (99.6% of the coarse salt and 82.4% of the fine salt). This inappropriate iodization could illustrate the lack of periodic monitoring and enforcement from government entities. Therefore, government quality inspection should be reinforced to reduce the quantity of salt not meeting the national requirement.

  3. Calcium Deficiency in Bangladesh: Burden and Proposed Solutions for the First 1000 Days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromage, Sabri; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2016-12-01

    Bangladesh incurs among the highest prevalence of stunting and micronutrient deficiencies in the world, despite efforts against diarrheal disease, respiratory infections, and protein-energy malnutrition which have led to substantial and continuous reductions in child mortality over the past 35 years. Although programs have generally paid more attention to other micronutrients, the local importance of calcium to health has been less recognized. To synthesize available information on calcium deficiency in Bangladesh in order to inform the design of an effective national calcium program. We searched 3 online databases and a multitude of survey reports to conduct a narrative review of calcium epidemiology in Bangladesh, including population intake, determinants and consequences of deficiency, and tested interventions, with particular reference to young children and women of childbearing age. This was supplemented with secondary analysis of a national household survey in order to map the relative extent of calcium adequacy among different demographics. Intake of calcium is low in the general population of Bangladesh, with potentially serious and persistent effects on public health. These effects are especially pertinent to young children and reproductive-age women, by virtue of increased physiologic needs, disproportionately poor access to dietary calcium sources, and a confluence of other local determinants of calcium status in these groups. A tablet supplementation program for pregnant women is an appealing approach for the reduction in preeclampsia and preterm birth. Further research is warranted to address the comparative benefit of different promising approaches in children for the prevention of rickets. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Radiation safety aspects in application of isotopes for industrial radiography in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakht, D.

    1997-01-01

    Industrial Radiography arose out of the widespread applications of X-rays pioneered by Roentgen about 100 years back. It is routinely used in studying the integrity of structural materials and like most countries in the world, its use in Bangladesh is increasing at a faster rate. This is because Bangladesh is a developing country of 3rd world and in the backdrop of agrarian poverty ridden economy, its population may exceed 125 millions by 2000 AD, leaving some 12 millions people unemployed. To support them, therefore, immense activities are activated in different sectors. Accordingly, increasing importance on NDT is given and in most cases particular application of Gamma radiography is preferred using Iridium Isotope Ir-192. Consequently the points of implications of isotopes are in Open Field and Inservice Inspection Radiography, Handling of Radiation Emergencies, Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials and Hazardous Effects and Risk of Ionizing Radiation, etc. Accordingly over exposure of Ir-192 Radionuclides, Accidents and Unusual Occurrences: Case Studies, Training Courses on Safety and Regulation of Sealed Sources, Licenses for Radiography Operation including Safe Disposal of Isotopes are the salient issues to be viewed in appropriate perspectives. The role played by Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission and Bangladesh Society for NDT in collaboration with other members of the international committee for NDT are furthering the safe industrialization process

  5. Determinants of enrollment of informal sector workers in cooperative based health scheme in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Abdur Razzaque; Sultana, Marufa; Mahumud, Rashidul Alam; Ahmed, Sayem; Islam, Ziaul; Morton, Alec; Khan, Jahangir A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Providing access to affordable health care for the informal sector remains a considerable challenge for low income countries striving to make progress towards universal health coverage. The objective of the study is to identify the factors shaping the decision to enroll in a cooperative based health scheme for informal workers in Bangladesh and also help to identify the features of informal workers without health schemes and their likelihood of being insured. Methods Data were derived from a cross-sectional in-house survey within the catchment area of a cooperative based health scheme in Bangladesh during April–June 2014, covering a total of 784 households (458 members and 326 non-members). Multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with cooperative based health scheme and explanatory variables. Findings This study found that a number of factors were significant determinants of health scheme participation including sex of household head, household composition, occupational category as well as involvement social financial safety net programs. Conclusion Findings from this study can be suggestive for policy-makers interested in scaling up health insurance for informal workers in Bangladesh. Shared funding from this large informal sector can generate new resources for healthcare, which is in line with the healthcare financing strategy of Bangladesh as well as the recommendation of the World Health Organization for developing social health insurance as part of the path to Universal Health Coverage. PMID:28750052

  6. Public acceptance, market development and commercialization of food irradiation technology in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, A.

    2001-01-01

    Current status of food irradiation technology in Bangladesh with respect to public acceptance, commercial application, trade development and present research and development activities are summarized in the paper. Irradiated food products are generally accepted by people. To further boost public opinion on the usefulness of the technology, two national seminars were successfully organized in 1995 and 1996 respectively with wide participation and media coverage. A number of non-traditional items such as beef casing, flour, turtle meat, macaroni, peat soil, etc. were irradiated and successfully marketed during the last 5 years. Bangladesh adopted a ''Specification for Authorisation of Irradiation by Groups/Classes of Foods'' in 1995 in line with the ICGFI Guidelines. The Bangladesh Standard is essentially similar to the Harmonised Regulations adopted for the RCA countries in April 1998. About 1300 metric tons of different food items were irradiated for commercial purposes at the Gammatech Irradiation Facility in Chittagong during the past 5 years. Present research activities in Bangladesh include irradiation disinfestations of nematodes in ginger and turmeric, and mites and thrips from cut flowers. Work on identification of fruit flies, mites and thrips by using sensitive protein markers is in progress. (author)

  7. Technical and Vocational Education and Training - Curricula Reform Demand in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruque A. Haolader

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This case study investigates the Diploma-in-Engineering (Electronics Technology curriculum in Bangladesh. It includes student assessment approach and learning/ teaching outcomes, and compares them with Germany’s initial vocational training in the Dual System. The required data was collected through a selfdesigned test and a questionnaire. The test measured mainly students’ technical competencies, particularly in the case of practical relevant tasks. Both quantitative and qualitative methodologies were used to analyze the data. A comparison between the polytechnic students and vocational school trainees in Germany at different cognitive levels was made. The findings show that the polytechnic students in Bangladesh perform poorly. It was found that the differences in the categories of Apply and Understand were bigger than the difference in the category of Remember. Furthermore, this study investigated and found that the student assessment approaches in Bangladesh and Germany differ greatly regarding their theoretical requirements and practical relevance. The Diploma curriculum mainly focuses on theoretical matters. Germany’s learning field based curriculum in vocational schools focuses on practice oriented learning and teaching, and fosters the trainees’ knowledge transfer capability. The current TVET reform in Bangladesh that introduces CBTandA, among others, may address these issues and help Bangladeshi TVET graduates to compete in an international labour market.

  8. Radiation safety aspects in application of isotopes for industrial radiography in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakht, D. [Titas Gas Transmission and Distribution Company, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    1997-10-01

    Industrial Radiography arose out of the widespread applications of X-rays pioneered by Roentgen about 100 years back. It is routinely used in studying the integrity of structural materials and like most countries in the world, its use in Bangladesh is increasing at a faster rate. This is because Bangladesh is a developing country of 3rd world and in the backdrop of agrarian poverty ridden economy, its population may exceed 125 millions by 2000 AD, leaving some 12 millions people unemployed. To support them, therefore, immense activities are activated in different sectors. Accordingly, increasing importance on NDT is given and in most cases particular application of Gamma radiography is preferred using Iridium Isotope Ir-192. Consequently the points of implications of isotopes are in Open Field and Inservice Inspection Radiography, Handling of Radiation Emergencies, Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials and Hazardous Effects and Risk of Ionizing Radiation, etc. Accordingly over exposure of Ir-192 Radionuclides, Accidents and Unusual Occurrences: Case Studies, Training Courses on Safety and Regulation of Sealed Sources, Licenses for Radiography Operation including Safe Disposal of Isotopes are the salient issues to be viewed in appropriate perspectives. The role played by Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission and Bangladesh Society for NDT in collaboration with other members of the international committee for NDT are furthering the safe industrialization process

  9. Artemisinin resistance without pfkelch13 mutations in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Angana; Bopp, Selina; Magistrado, Pamela; Wong, Wesley; Daniels, Rachel; Demas, Allison; Schaffner, Stephen; Amaratunga, Chanaki; Lim, Pharath; Dhorda, Mehul; Miotto, Olivo; Woodrow, Charles; Ashley, Elizabeth A; Dondorp, Arjen M; White, Nicholas J; Wirth, Dyann; Fairhurst, Rick; Volkman, Sarah K

    2017-05-12

    Artemisinin resistance is associated with delayed parasite clearance half-life in vivo and correlates with ring-stage survival under dihydroartemisinin in vitro. Both phenotypes are associated with mutations in the PF3D7_1343700 pfkelch13 gene. Recent spread of artemisinin resistance and emerging piperaquine resistance in Southeast Asia show that artemisinin combination therapy, such as dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, are losing clinical effectiveness, prompting investigation of drug resistance mechanisms and development of strategies to surmount emerging anti-malarial resistance. Sixty-eight parasites isolates with in vivo clearance data were obtained from two Tracking Resistance to Artemisinin Collaboration study sites in Cambodia, culture-adapted, and genotyped for pfkelch13 and other mutations including pfmdr1 copy number; and the RSA 0-3h survival rates and response to antimalarial drugs in vitro were measured for 36 of these isolates. Among these 36 parasites one isolate demonstrated increased ring-stage survival for a PfKelch13 mutation (D584V, RSA 0-3h  = 8%), previously associated with slow clearance but not yet tested in vitro. Several parasites exhibited increased ring-stage survival, yet lack pfkelch13 mutations, and one isolate showed evidence for piperaquine resistance. This study of 68 culture-adapted Plasmodium falciparum clinical isolates from Cambodia with known clearance values, associated the D584V PfKelch13 mutation with increased ring-stage survival and identified parasites that lack pfkelch13 mutations yet exhibit increased ring-stage survival. These data suggest mutations other than those found in pfkelch13 may be involved in conferring artemisinin resistance in P. falciparum. Piperaquine resistance was also detected among the same Cambodian samples, consistent with reports of emerging piperaquine resistance in the field. These culture-adapted parasites permit further investigation of mechanisms of both artemisinin and piperaquine

  10. Characterization and observation of animals responsible for rabies post-exposure treatment in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynes, J M; Soares, J L; Keo, C; Ong, S; Heng, N Y; Vanhoye, B

    1999-06-01

    In order to provide relevant therapeutic answers to human patients exposed to risk of rabies infection who visit the Institut Pasteur du Cambodge for post-exposure treatment and to improve control of rabies in Cambodia, a pilot study was carried out in Phnom Penh Province in November and December 1997 with three objectives: characterization of the population of animals responsible for the exposure to rabies, observation of the animals concerned, and confirmation of the presence of rabies virus in the province. Between 18 November 1997 and 19 December 1997, 409 of the 741 patients treated at the Institut Pasteur du Cambodge because of an exposure to a known rabies vector were included in the study. The animals concerned were: 401 dogs (98%), six monkeys (1.5%) and two cats (0.5%). Three-hundred-and-seventy of the animals (90.5%) were owned, 4 (1%) were unowned but were available for characterization and observation, and 35 (8.6%) had an unknown ownership status and were not available for further study. The exposures occurred on private property in 84% of the cases, and 80 of the 370 owned animals (22%) lived in the same home as had the patient. The 374 animals with known ownership status were examined. Five were already dead and two of these five dogs had presented clinical signs typical of those of rabies. The male:female sex ratio of the dogs was 2.1:1. The 369 live animals were placed under observation for 10 d immediately after exposure of the humans had taken place. At the end of the period none of the animals had developed clinical signs of rabies, three had died of diseases other than rabies, and one was lost. Tests for the rabies nucleocapsid antigen were positive in two cases (the two suspected rabid dogs), confirming the presence of rabies in Phnom Penh Province. Consequently, we recommend measures to improve the control of rabies in Cambodia.

  11. Artyfechinostomum malayanum: Metacercariae Encysted in Pila sp. Snails Purchased from Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Woon-Mok; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S; Sinuon, Muth; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2017-06-01

    The metacercariae of Artyfechinostomum malayanum (Leiper, 1911) Mendheim, 1943 were discovered in Pila sp. snails purchased from a market in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. They were isolated from the snails using the artificial digestion technique and were orally fed to 2 hamsters, 1 rat, and 2 mice to obtain the adult flukes. The metacercariae were round, 145-165 μm in diameter, having a cyst wall of 6-10 μm in thickness, a head collar and collar spines, and characteristic features of excretory granules. Adult flukes were recovered in the small intestines of the animals at days 14 and 32 post infection and were morphologically observed using a light microscope and a scanning electron microscope. They were plump or elongated, ventrally curved, 6.0-8.1 × 1.6-2.0 mm in size, and characterized by the head collar bearing 43 collar spines, including 5 end group ones on each side, a long cirrus sac extending beyond the posterior margin of the ventral sucker, a submedian ovary, and 2 deeply lobed testes. Eggs in uteri were operculate, ovoid to ellipsoid, and 120-135 × 68-75 μm in size. In scanning electron microscopy, the head collar was prominent with collar spines looking like horns. Scale-like tegumental spines were densely distributed on the ventral surface between the head collar and ventral sucker. Sensory papillae were distributed mainly on the tegument around suckers. By this study, it has been first confirmed that the life cycle of A. malayanum exists in Cambodia.

  12. Survey of smallholder beef cattle production systems in different agro-ecological zones of Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samkol, Pok; Sath, Keo; Patel, Mikaela; Windsor, Peter Andrew; Holtenius, Kjell

    2015-10-01

    A survey was conducted to better understand the contribution of farm productivity to rural household income and identify differences in production systems, feeding practices and development constraints to smallholder beef cattle producers in the four agro-ecological zones (AEZs) of Cambodia. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 360 households in the four AEZs: I, the Great Lake Floodplain; II, the Mekong Floodplain; III, the Coastal and IV, the Plateau/Mountainous. In addition, samples of common nutritional resources used for cattle feed were collected for nutrient composition analysis, plus cattle were scored for body condition. Rice farming and cattle production were the most common sources of income in all AEZs. The average cattle herd size was 3.7 (SD = 2.4), but the majority of households raised 1-3 animals. The most common cattle management system was grazing with supplementation, mainly with rice straw and 'cut-and-carry' natural grasses fed during the wet season in all AEZs. The body condition score of all cattle types was 3.2 (SD = 0.8), except for cows in lactation that were 1.8. Major constraints to cattle production in AEZs I, II and III were lack of quality feed resources, capital for cattle production and concerns on breed quality, whereas in AEZ IV, diseases were identified as the main constraint. This survey confirms the importance of cattle to smallholders in the four AEZs. Interventions including farmer education to improve husbandry skills, increase the utilisation of forages and crop residues and address disease issues are necessary to enhance cattle production and rural livelihoods in Cambodia.

  13. Social and economic impact of diabetics in Bangladesh: protocol for a case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetes affects both individuals and their families and has an impact on economic and social development of a country. Information on the availability, cost, and quality of medical care for diabetes is mostly not available for many low- and middle-income countries including Bangladesh. Complications from diabetes, which can be devastating, could largely be prevented by wider use of several inexpensive generic medicines, simple tests and monitoring and can be a cost saving intervention. This study will provide an in-depth and comprehensive picture of social and economic impacts of diabetes in Bangladesh and propose clear recommendations for improving prevention and management of diabetes. The objectives of the study are: 1) To study the association between diabetes and other health problems and its social impacts 2) To estimate the economic impact of diabetes including total direct and indirect costs 3) To measure the impact of diabetes on quality of life among diabetes patients in Bangladesh 4) To study the impact of diabetes on the health care system Methods This is a case–control study comparing cases with type 2 diabetes to controls without diabetes matched on age, sex and place of residence. 564 cases and 564 controls will be selected from the outpatient department of a tertiary hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data on socioeconomic status, health utility index, direct and indirect costs for diabetes, medication adherence, quality of life, treatment satisfaction, diet, physical activity, mental state examination, weight, height, hip and waist circumference, blood pressure, pulse, medication history, laboratory data and physical examination will be conducted. Outcome measures: The primary outcome measures will be association between diabetes and other health problems, cost of diabetes, impact of diabetes on quality of life and secondary outcome measures are impact of diabetes on healthcare systems in Bangladesh. Discussion This study will provide an

  14. Social and economic impact of diabetics in Bangladesh: protocol for a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariful Islam, Sheikh Mohammed; Lechner, Andreas; Ferrari, Uta; Froeschl, Guenter; Niessen, Louis W; Seissler, Jochen; Alam, Dewan Shamsul

    2013-12-21

    Diabetes affects both individuals and their families and has an impact on economic and social development of a country. Information on the availability, cost, and quality of medical care for diabetes is mostly not available for many low- and middle-income countries including Bangladesh. Complications from diabetes, which can be devastating, could largely be prevented by wider use of several inexpensive generic medicines, simple tests and monitoring and can be a cost saving intervention. This study will provide an in-depth and comprehensive picture of social and economic impacts of diabetes in Bangladesh and propose clear recommendations for improving prevention and management of diabetes. The objectives of the study are: 1) To study the association between diabetes and other health problems and its social impacts. 2) To estimate the economic impact of diabetes including total direct and indirect costs. 3) To measure the impact of diabetes on quality of life among diabetes patients in Bangladesh. 4) To study the impact of diabetes on the health care system This is a case-control study comparing cases with type 2 diabetes to controls without diabetes matched on age, sex and place of residence. 564 cases and 564 controls will be selected from the outpatient department of a tertiary hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data on socioeconomic status, health utility index, direct and indirect costs for diabetes, medication adherence, quality of life, treatment satisfaction, diet, physical activity, mental state examination, weight, height, hip and waist circumference, blood pressure, pulse, medication history, laboratory data and physical examination will be conducted. The primary outcome measures will be association between diabetes and other health problems, cost of diabetes, impact of diabetes on quality of life and secondary outcome measures are impact of diabetes on healthcare systems in Bangladesh. This study will provide an in-depth and comprehensive picture of social

  15. Risk of eating disorders among university students in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl; Ahsan, Gias Uddin

    2015-02-01

    As there is a lack of information on eating disorders in Bangladesh, the aim of this study was to explore the eating disorder attitudes and behaviors among undergraduate university students in the country. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey and anthropometric measurement were conducted with undergraduate students who were recruited randomly from classes. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was used to determine the prevalence of disordered eating attitudes. The sample included 800 university students (56.6% men and 43.4% women), with a mean age of 21.0 years (SD=32.5). Using the EAT-26, 37.6% of the students were classified as being at risk for an eating disorder. In multivariate analysis, being a late adolescent (17-19 years), high religious involvement, overweight body perception, low body appreciation, having had cosmetic surgery, and current binge drinking were found to be associated with an eating disorder risk. Very high rates of eating disorder risk were found. This result calls for increased awareness and understanding of eating disorders, and related risk factors and interventions in university students in Bangladesh.

  16. Maternal mortality in Matlab, Bangladesh: 1976-85.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, M A; Fauveau, V; Chowdhury, A I; Chakraborty, J; Khan, M A

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a study of maternal mortality in Matlab, Bangladesh during the 1976-85 period. The study employed a multiple-step procedure to identify maternity-related deaths to all reproductive-aged women within the study area during this period. A total of 387 maternal deaths were identified, resulting in an overall maternal mortality ratio of 5.5 per 1,000 live births. The introduction of a family planning program in half of the Matlab study area led to a moderate but significant reduction in maternal mortality rates, relative to the comparison area. This appears to have been primarily due to a reduction in the overall number of pregnancies in the treatment area, since among women who became pregnant, mortality risks remained high. The results of this study underscore the need for a broad-based service strategy that includes but is not limited solely to family planning, in order to achieve significant reductions in maternal mortality levels in settings such as rural Bangladesh.

  17. Exploring the Future Potential of Jute in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanzidur Rahman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study assesses the future potential of the jute sector in Bangladesh by examining its growth performance, international competitiveness, profitability, and production efficiency using national time-series data of over the period 1973–2013 and farm survey data from 289 farmers from two major jute growing areas of Bangladesh. Results revealed that the jute sector has experienced substantial growth in area, production, productivity, prices, and exports. However, productivity has stagnated during the latter 10-year period (2004–2013, while it grew at a rate of 1.3% per annum (p.a. during the first 31-year period (1973–2003. Only traditional jute production is globally competitive, although financial profitability of white jute is relatively higher (benefit cost ratio = 1.24 and 1.17, respectively. Land, labor, and irrigation are the main productivity drivers for jute. The mean production efficiency of jute is estimated at 75% indicating substantial scope to improve yield by eliminating inefficiency. Marginal farmers are relatively inefficient. Policy implications include investments in research and development, irrigation, and tenurial reform and export protection for white jute in order to revive the sector and boost export earnings.

  18. Utilizing three years of epidemiological data from medical missions in Cambodia to shape the mobile medical clinic formulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeany Kim Jun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this project was to gather epidemiological data on common diseases and medications dispensed during medical mission trips to Cambodia to shape the mobile medical clinic formulary. Methods: Data for patients seen during week-long mobile medical clinics was collected in Cambodia during Septembers 2012 to 2014. Each patient’s gender, age, weight, blood pressure, glucose, pertinent laboratory values, diagnoses, and medications dispensed were collected. Blood pressure and glucose levels were measured in patients 18 years and above. Data collected onto paper intake forms were transferred onto spreadsheets without patient identifying information and analyzed for aggregate means, common diseases, and most dispensed medications. This project received institutional review board approval. Results: A total of 1,015 patients were seen over three years. Women made up 61.4%, and the mean age was 41.8 years. The most common diagnosis was gastrointestinal disorders (22.9% that included gastroesophageal reflux disease and intestinal parasites. Next, 20.1% of patients had hypertension (BP>140/90, 18.0% had presbyopia, 15.4% had back and joint pain, followed by 8.8% with headache, including migraines. Approximately 8.4% of patients had hyperglycemia (RPG >140 mg/dl. The top five medications dispensed were acetaminophen, omeprazole, multivitamin, ibuprofen, and metformin. For hypertension, amlodipine and lisinopril were dispensed. Conclusion: Cambodia lacks systematic public health collection of epidemiological data for prevalence of diseases. Hence, investigators collected and analyzed information from week-long mobile medical clinics over three years. Proton-pump inhibitors and H. pylori lab tests were recommended for gastrointestinal disorders. Acetaminophen and ibuprofen were recommended for pain. Angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers were recommended over diuretics since patients were

  19. A Comprehensive Approach to Motorcycle-Related Head Injury Prevention: Experiences from the Field in Vietnam, Cambodia, and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Greig; Van Bui, Truong; Sidik, Mirjam; Moore, Danielle; Ederer, David J; Parker, Erin M; Ballesteros, Michael F; Sleet, David A

    2017-11-30

    Motorcyclists account for 23% of global road traffic deaths and over half of fatalities in countries where motorcycles are the dominant means of transport. Wearing a helmet can reduce the risk of head injury by as much as 69% and death by 42%; however, both child and adult helmet use are low in many countries where motorcycles are a primary mode of transportation. In response to the need to increase helmet use by all drivers and their passengers, the Global Helmet Vaccine Initiative (GHVI) was established to increase helmet use in three countries where a substantial portion of road users are motorcyclists and where helmet use is low. The GHVI approach includes five strategies to increase helmet use: targeted programs, helmet access, public awareness, institutional policies, and monitoring and evaluation. The application of GHVI to Vietnam, Cambodia, and Uganda resulted in four key lessons learned. First, motorcyclists are more likely to wear helmets when helmet use is mandated and enforced. Second, programs targeted to at-risk motorcyclists, such as child passengers, combined with improved awareness among the broader population, can result in greater public support needed to encourage action by decision-makers. Third, for broad population-level change, using multiple strategies in tandem can be more effective than using a single strategy alone. Lastly, the successful expansion of GHVI into Cambodia and Uganda has been hindered by the lack of helmet accessibility and affordability, a core component contributing to its success in Vietnam. This paper will review the development of the GHVI five-pillar approach in Vietnam, subsequent efforts to implement the model in Cambodia and Uganda, and lessons learned from these applications to protect motorcycle drivers and their adult and child passengers from injury.

  20. The Cambodia Research Consortium: expediting research for malaria elimination with the emergency response to artemisinin resistance framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavati, Sara E; Lawford, Harriet L S; Fatunmbi, Bayo S; Lek, Dysoley; Leang, Rithea; Top Samphor, Narann; Dondorp, Arjen M; Huy, Rekol; Kazadi, Walter M

    2016-01-04

    This commentary offers insight into how to best address barriers that may hinder the translation of malaria research findings into policy. It also proposes viable methods of implementing these policies in Cambodia. Currently, a wide range of malaria research is being conducted by in-country stakeholders, including Cambodia's National Programme for Parasitology, Entomology and Malaria Control's (CNM), non-governmental organizations, and academic institutions. Coordinating research amongst these partners, as well as within the Ministry of Health, is a challenge. Results are rarely disseminated widely and seldom inform programme and policy decisions. CNM and its research partners have severely limited access to each other's databases. This lack of accessibility, timeliness, engagement and cooperation between CNM and its partners greatly impacts overall research efficiency in this field, and is stifling innovation both within and beyond CNM. Cambodia has set a goal to eradicate all forms of malaria by 2030. As countries approach the elimination phase, there is a greater need for sharing research-generated evidence amongst partners, in order to ensure that appropriate and impactful activities are conducted. The Cambodian Research Consortium was established to serve as a framework for partners, stakeholders and researchers to share research projects, information and results, and to promote the goals of CNM. The sharing of malaria research results will help to inform prevention, control and elimination activities in the country. It will also determine and address the country's operational research needs, and could potentially become a framework model to be used in other countries aiming to transition from malaria control to elimination.

  1. Measuring pediatric quality of care in rural clinics-a multi-country assessment-Cambodia, Guatemala, Zambia and Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward, Anbrasi; Dam, Kim; Chege, Jane; Ghee, Annette E; Zare, Hossein; Chhorvann, Chea

    2016-10-01

    To assess the quality of care provided in rural pediatric facilities in Cambodia, Guatemala, Kenya and Zambia DESIGN: All public health facilities in four districts in each country were included in the assessment. Based on utilization patterns, five children under five were selected randomly from each facility to perform the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) assessments followed by exit interviews with their caretakers. Seventy rural ambulatory pediatric care facilities. Three hundred and forty pediatric case management observations and exit interviews with child caretakers. IMCI index of observed quality of care for patient assessment and counseling RESULTS: Screening for danger signs, diarrhea and fever showed significant differences between countries (P Cambodia and Guatemala performing better. More than 90% of the children were screened for fever in all three countries, but Cambodia. The assessment of nutritional status, checking weight against growth chart and palmar pallor for anemia, was suboptimal in all countries. Mean consultation time ranged from 8.2 minutes in Zambia and 12.6 minutes in Guatemala. Child age, consultation time, health provider cadre and presenting symptoms were significantly associated with higher quality of assessment and counseling care as measured by the IMCI index. Achieving the goals of universal health coverage in these contexts must be complimented with accelerated efforts for capacity investments at the primary care level to ensure optimal quality of healthcare and favorable health outcomes for children, who still experience a high disease burden for these common IMCI conditions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Drug-resistant tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients in a national referral hospital, Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Walls

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: There are no recent data on the prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR TB in Cambodia. We aim to describe TB drug resistance amongst adults with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV co-infection in a national referral hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Design: Between 22 November 2007 and 30 November 2009, clinical specimens from HIV-infected patients suspected of having TB underwent routine microscopy, Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture, and drug susceptibility testing. Laboratory and clinical data were collected for patients with positive M. tuberculosis cultures. Results: M. tuberculosis was cultured from 236 HIV-infected patients. Resistance to any first-line TB drug occurred in 34.7% of patients; 8.1% had multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB. The proportion of MDR TB amongst new patients and previously treated patients was 3.7 and 28.9%, respectively (p<0.001. The diagnosis of MDR TB was made after death in 15.8% of patients; in total 26.3% of patients with MDR TB died. The diagnosis of TB was established by culture of extra-pulmonary specimens in 23.6% of cases. Conclusions: There is significant resistance to first-line TB drugs amongst new and previously treated TB–HIV co-infected patients in Phnom Penh. These data suggest that the prevalence of DR TB in Cambodia may be higher than previously recognised, particularly amongst HIV-infected patients. Additional prevalence studies are needed. This study also illustrates the feasibility and utility of analysis of non-respiratory specimens in the diagnosis of TB, even in low-resource settings, and suggests that extra-pulmonary specimens should be included in TB diagnostic algorithms.

  3. Forest Disturbances and Regrowth Assessment Using ALOS PALSAR Data from 2007 to 2010 in Vietnam, Cambodia and Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Mermoz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to develop a new methodology for monitoring forest disturbances and regrowth using ALOS PALSAR data in tropical regions. In the study, forest disturbances and regrowth were assessed between 2007 and 2010 in Vietnam, Cambodia and Lao People’s Democratic Republic. The deforestation rate in Vietnam has been among the highest in the tropics in the last few decades, and those in Cambodia and Lao are increasing rapidly. L-band ALOS PALSAR mosaic data were used for the detection of forest disturbances and regrowth, because L-band SAR intensities are sensitive to forest aboveground biomass loss. The methodology used here combines SAR data processing, which is particularly suited for change detection, forest detection and forest disturbances and regrowth detection using expectation maximization, which is closely related to fuzzy logic. A reliable training and testing database has been derived using AVNIR-2 and Google Earth images for calibration and validation. Efforts were made to apply masking areas that are likely to show different SAR backscatter temporal behaviors from the forests considered in the study, including mangroves, inundated forests, post-flooding or irrigated croplands and water bodies, as well as sloping areas and urban areas. The resulting forest disturbances and regrowth map (25-m resolution indicates disturbance rates of −1.07% in Vietnam, −1.22% in Cambodia and −0.94% in Lao between 2007 and 2010, with corresponding aboveground biomass losses of 60.7 Tg, 59.2 Tg and 83.8 Tg , respectively. It is expected that the method, relying on free of charge data (ALOS and ALOS2 mosaics, can be applied widely in the tropics.

  4. MEASURING THE CUSTOMER SATISFACTION OF ISLAMIC BANKING SECTOR IN BANGLADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain Shahid SHOHROWARDHY

    2015-01-01

    The banking sector has been playing a significant role in achieving the economic growth of Bangladesh, where contribution of Islamic Banking Sector is remarkable. Islamic Banking Sector shows a substantial growth position in Bangladesh. Customer satisfaction is the most significant affecting phenomenon in determining the banking growth. Thus, this study attempts to measure the existing level of customer satisfaction of Islamic Banks in Bangladesh, using the Structural Equation Model (SEM). Th...

  5. Trends in international migration and remittance flows: Case of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Farid, K.S; Mozumdar, L.; Kabir, M.S; Hossain, K.B

    2009-01-01

    International migration from Bangladesh has become a defining characteristic of the country. Especially since 1980s, large scale labour migration has become a common phenomenon of Bangladesh. This paper examines the various issues of international migration and remittance flows of Bangladesh on the basis of the secondary data generated from various reports of government and non-government organizations and of various publications of home and abroad. With a few exceptions, manpower export has ...

  6. Bangladesh : tous les projets | Page 5 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: South Asia, Central Asia, Far East Asia, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, India, Nepal, Pakistan. Financement total : CA$ 390,500.00. Évaluation des politiques de lutte contre le tabagisme au Bangladesh. Projet. En 2005, le Bangladesh a adopté sa première loi de vaste portée visant à contrer la prévalence élevée du ...

  7. Global Financial Crisis, Remittances, Exports and Poverty in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Raihan, Selim

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the impacts of reduced inflow of remittances and export earnings in the face of global financial crisis on the economy of Bangladesh. There is no denying the fact that remittances have emerged as a key driver of macroeconomic stability, economic growth and poverty reduction in Bangladesh. Also, Bangladesh experienced robust growth in export earnings, especially through the remarkable growth in readymade garments, over the last two decades. The study suggests that remittanc...

  8. FUTURE OF BANGLADESH-INDIA RELATIONSHIP-A CRITICAL ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    the Indian Government imposed a lot of restrictions in terms of tariffs and other barriers on Bangladesh goods entering into its market. “An average...relations have been fluctuating for reasons like changes of governments and the political scenarios in Bangladesh as well as the non -cooperative attitude of... tariffs duty for consumer goods in Bangladesh was 23% while the same was 30-55% in India”.13 Thus, Bangladeshi goods exported to India faced

  9. Water, climate change and society in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele-Eich, Insa; Aßheuer, Tibor; Simmer, Clemens

    2017-04-01

    Due to its location in the extensive Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna river delta, Bangladesh faces multiple natural hazards, in particular flooding, droughts and sea-level rise. In addition to climate change, transboundary water sharing issues resulting from dam structures such as Farakka Barrage complicate a prognosis on how the rapidly growing population will be affected in the 21st century. This is particularly important as our previous research suggests that the Greater Dhaka population already experiences a significant increase in mortality during droughts (Thiele-Eich et al., 2015). We attempt to explore the complex interactions between the hydrological system under climate change and anthropogenic impacts due to dams as well as a growing population. Our approach consists of a quantitative assessment of climate change using over fourty years of meteorological data (Bangladesh Meteorological Department) and hydrological data (Bangladesh Water Development Board), and CCSM4 climate model output (NCAR, 1950-2100). In addition to an extensive literature review, we also conducted qualitative interviews with slum dwellers in the megacity Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. Results show that significant changes in flood characteristics are expected for the later part of the 21st century, although they are difficult to quantify down to exact numbers due to large uncertainties. These changes take place over longer stretches of time and thus enable the population of Bangladesh to adapt slowly. Resources such as social capital, which is one of the main tools for slum dwellers to be able to cope with flooding can be altered over time, and as such the system can be considered overall stable and resilient. The presented results will also focus on how the riparian and coastal population is impacted by the interplay of natural changes such as sea-level rise and anthropogenic changes such as Farakka Barrage and the associated reduction in dry season flow. Thiele-Eich, I.; Burkart, K

  10. Genetically Diverse Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza A Virus Subtypes Co-Circulate among Poultry in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerloff, Nancy A; Khan, Salah Uddin; Zanders, Natosha; Balish, Amanda; Haider, Najmul; Islam, Ausraful; Chowdhury, Sukanta; Rahman, Mahmudur Ziaur; Haque, Ainul; Hosseini, Parviez; Gurley, Emily S; Luby, Stephen P; Wentworth, David E; Donis, Ruben O; Sturm-Ramirez, Katharine; Davis, C Todd

    2016-01-01

    Influenza virus surveillance, poultry outbreak investigations and genomic sequencing were assessed to understand the ecology and evolution of low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) A viruses in Bangladesh from 2007 to 2013. We analyzed 506 avian specimens collected from poultry in live bird markets and backyard flocks to identify influenza A viruses. Virus isolation-positive specimens (n = 50) were subtyped and their coding-complete genomes were sequenced. The most frequently identified subtypes among LPAI isolates were H9N2, H11N3, H4N6, and H1N1. Less frequently detected subtypes included H1N3, H2N4, H3N2, H3N6, H3N8, H4N2, H5N2, H6N1, H6N7, and H7N9. Gene sequences were compared to publicly available sequences using phylogenetic inference approaches. Among the 14 subtypes identified, the majority of viral gene segments were most closely related to poultry or wild bird viruses commonly found in Southeast Asia, Europe, and/or northern Africa. LPAI subtypes were distributed over several geographic locations in Bangladesh, and surface and internal protein gene segments clustered phylogenetically with a diverse number of viral subtypes suggesting extensive reassortment among these LPAI viruses. H9N2 subtype viruses differed from other LPAI subtypes because genes from these viruses consistently clustered together, indicating this subtype is enzootic in Bangladesh. The H9N2 strains identified in Bangladesh were phylogenetically and antigenically related to previous human-derived H9N2 viruses detected in Bangladesh representing a potential source for human infection. In contrast, the circulating LPAI H5N2 and H7N9 viruses were both phylogenetically and antigenically unrelated to H5 viruses identified previously in humans in Bangladesh and H7N9 strains isolated from humans in China. In Bangladesh, domestic poultry sold in live bird markets carried a wide range of LPAI virus subtypes and a high diversity of genotypes. These findings, combined with the seven year

  11. Genetically Diverse Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza A Virus Subtypes Co-Circulate among Poultry in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerloff, Nancy A.; Khan, Salah Uddin; Zanders, Natosha; Balish, Amanda; Haider, Najmul; Islam, Ausraful; Chowdhury, Sukanta; Rahman, Mahmudur Ziaur; Haque, Ainul; Hosseini, Parviez; Gurley, Emily S.; Luby, Stephen P.; Wentworth, David E.; Donis, Ruben O.; Sturm-Ramirez, Katharine; Davis, C. Todd

    2016-01-01

    Influenza virus surveillance, poultry outbreak investigations and genomic sequencing were assessed to understand the ecology and evolution of low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) A viruses in Bangladesh from 2007 to 2013. We analyzed 506 avian specimens collected from poultry in live bird markets and backyard flocks to identify influenza A viruses. Virus isolation-positive specimens (n = 50) were subtyped and their coding-complete genomes were sequenced. The most frequently identified subtypes among LPAI isolates were H9N2, H11N3, H4N6, and H1N1. Less frequently detected subtypes included H1N3, H2N4, H3N2, H3N6, H3N8, H4N2, H5N2, H6N1, H6N7, and H7N9. Gene sequences were compared to publicly available sequences using phylogenetic inference approaches. Among the 14 subtypes identified, the majority of viral gene segments were most closely related to poultry or wild bird viruses commonly found in Southeast Asia, Europe, and/or northern Africa. LPAI subtypes were distributed over several geographic locations in Bangladesh, and surface and internal protein gene segments clustered phylogenetically with a diverse number of viral subtypes suggesting extensive reassortment among these LPAI viruses. H9N2 subtype viruses differed from other LPAI subtypes because genes from these viruses consistently clustered together, indicating this subtype is enzootic in Bangladesh. The H9N2 strains identified in Bangladesh were phylogenetically and antigenically related to previous human-derived H9N2 viruses detected in Bangladesh representing a potential source for human infection. In contrast, the circulating LPAI H5N2 and H7N9 viruses were both phylogenetically and antigenically unrelated to H5 viruses identified previously in humans in Bangladesh and H7N9 strains isolated from humans in China. In Bangladesh, domestic poultry sold in live bird markets carried a wide range of LPAI virus subtypes and a high diversity of genotypes. These findings, combined with the seven year

  12. High prevalence of non-communicable diseases and associated risk factors amongst adults living with HIV in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhoun, Pheak; Tuot, Sovannary; Harries, Anthony D; Kyaw, Nang Thu Thu; Pal, Khuondyla; Mun, Phalkun; Brody, Carrine; Mburu, Gitau; Yi, Siyan

    2017-01-01

    With rapid expansion of antiretroviral therapy for HIV, there are rising life expectancies among people living with HIV. As a result, co-morbidity from non-communicable diseases in those living and aging with HIV is increasingly being reported. Published data on this issue have been limited in Cambodia. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia and associated risk factors in adults living with HIV in Cambodia. This cross-sectional study was conducted in five provinces of Cambodia from May-June 2015. Information was obtained on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics through face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire, and anthropometric and biochemical measurements were performed. Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed with fasting blood glucose ≥126 mg/dl, hypertension with systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg and hypercholesterolemia with fasting blood cholesterol ≥190 mg/dl. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to explore risk factors. The study sample included 510 adults living with HIV; 67% were female, with a mean age of 45 (standard deviation = 8) years. Of these, 8.8% had diabetes mellitus, 15.1% had hypertension and 34.7% had hypercholesterolemia. Of the total participants with non-communicable diseases (n = 244), 47.8% had one or more diseases, and 75% were not aware of their diseases prior to the study: new disease was diagnosed in 90% of diabetes mellitus, 44% of hypertension and 90% of hypercholesterolemia. Single disease occurred in 81%, dual disease in 17% and triple disease in 2%. In adjusted analyses, those consuming 1 serving of fruit compare to 2 servings as significantly with diabetes mellitus, those eating 1 serving of fruit compare to 2 servings and using lard for cooking were significantly associated with hypertension, and those being unemployed, having monthly income less than 100 USD and being

  13. Health-related quality of life in old age: a comparison between rural areas in Bangladesh and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Jan; Rana, A K M Masud; Luong, Duong Huy; Winblad, Bengt; Kabir, Zarina Nahar

    2012-07-01

    This study compares health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and its determinants among older people (≥60 years) in rural Bangladesh and Vietnam. Cross-sectional studies among older people were conducted in Bangladesh (n = 1031) and Vietnam (n = 870). Data on HRQoL were collected using an instrument that includes 24 items distributed into 6 dimensions. Older people in Vietnam reported more favorable HRQoL outcomes than those in Bangladesh, reporting better HRQoL on physical, psychological, social, and financial dimensions. Hierarchical linear regression analyses show that advanced age, being a woman, belonging to a poor household, and reporting poor health were significantly associated with lower HRQoL scores in both Bangladesh and Vietnam. In Bangladesh, being illiterate was additionally associated with lower HRQoL scores. The results of this explorative study underline the importance of a cross-cultural understanding of HRQoL of older people and the influence of the socioecological context.

  14. First report of human intestinal sarcocystosis in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khieu, Virak; Marti, Hanspeter; Chhay, Saomony; Char, Meng Chuor; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2017-10-01

    Human intestinal sarcocystosis (HIS), caused by Sarcocystis species, is acquired by eating undercooked meat from sarcocyst-containing cattle (S. hominis, S. heydorni) and pigs (S. suihominis). We report on the detection of human intestinal Sarcocystis infections in a cross-sectional survey of Strongyloides stercoralis in early 2014, in Rovieng District, Preah Vihear Province, northern Cambodia. Among 1081 participants, 108 (10.0%) were diagnosed with Sarcocystis spp. oocysts in stool samples. Males had a significantly higher risk of infection than females (OR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.3-2.9, p=0.001). None of the reported symptoms (abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, muscle pain and itching skin) occurring in the two weeks preceding the examinations were associated with a Sarcocystis infection. Many Sarcocystis cases were found among those who had participated in a wedding celebration and Chinese New Year festivities, where they had consumed raw or insufficiently cooked beef (83.3%) and pork (38.9%) based dishes. This report documents the first HIS cases in Cambodia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The first reported cases of canine schistosomiasis mekongi in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Jun; Muth, Sinuon; Socheat, Duong; Matsuda, Hajime

    2002-09-01

    We have been conducting surveys of schistosomiasis mekongi along the Mekong river in Cambodia since 1997. We attempted to detect canine schistosome infection during the survey in 2000 because dogs were reported to be natural reservoirs of the Mekong schistosome in Lao PDR. A total of 28 canine fecal samples were collected in Kbal Chuor village, Kratie Province and examined for schistosome eggs. One specimen had schistosome eggs (positive rate = 3.6%; egg density = 100/gram stool), which showed characteristics of Schistosoma mekongi. During the 2001 survey, one out of 310 canine stool samples was positive for schistosome eggs (positive rate = 0.32%; egg density = 3,456/gram stool). These are the first confirmed cases of canine schistosomiasis mekongi in Cambodia, which suggests that dogs are animal reservoirs of S. mekongi in the survey area. We further tried to detect S. mekongi in cows, water buffalos, pigs,horses, and field rats in five villages in Kratie Province; no schistosome egg was found in the stools of these animals.

  16. Research as a visiting doctor in Afghanistan and Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilsczek, F H

    2001-12-01

    This paper describes research I conducted into health care and its difficulties while working as a visiting doctor in two developing countries. The research was conducted in the Departments of Medicine, University Hospital, Jalalabad, Afghanistan, in 1994 and 1995, and Calmette Hospital, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, in 1997 and 1998. In Afghanistan I did an observational study of medical practice and case studies at the Department of Medicine, and a survey of drugs sold in pharmacies in Jalalabad. In Cambodia I surveyed hemoglobin concentrations of medical patients, and did an observational study of medical practice and case studies at Calmette Hospital. I surveyed the body weight of medical patients in relation to drug doses, and used a questionnaire to survey prescribing practices of physicians. Each project was conducted by me alone and was completed within 1-3 months. The support by the hospital was good and there where no ethics committees that had to approve the projects. Only verbal consent from the patients had to be obtained and no national laws or regulations affected the research. Small clinical research projects in developing countries are relatively easy to perform, if conducted by one researcher working in a hospital and not relying on special equipment such as a computer.

  17. Cost and disease burden of Dengue in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beauté Julien

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue is endemic in Cambodia (pop. estimates 14.4 million, a country with poor health and economic indicators. Disease burden estimates help decision makers in setting priorities. Using recent estimates of dengue incidence in Cambodia, we estimated the cost of dengue and its burden using disability adjusted life years (DALYs. Methods Recent population-based cohort data were used to calculate direct and productive costs, and DALYs. Health seeking behaviors were taken into account in cost estimates. Specific age group incidence estimates were used in DALYs calculation. Results The mean cost per dengue case varied from US$36 - $75 over 2006-2008 respectively, resulting in an overall annual cost from US$3,327,284 in 2008 to US$14,429,513 during a large epidemic in 2007. Patients sustain the highest share of costs by paying an average of 78% of total costs and 63% of direct medical costs. DALY rates per 100,000 individuals ranged from 24.3 to 100.6 in 2007-2008 with 80% on average due to premature mortality. Conclusion Our analysis confirmed the high societal and individual family burden of dengue. Total costs represented between 0.03 and 0.17% of Gross Domestic Product. Health seeking behavior has a major impact on costs. The more accurate estimate used in this study will better allow decision makers to account for dengue costs particularly among the poor when balancing the benefits of introducing a potentially effective dengue vaccine.

  18. The effect of drinking water salinity on blood pressure in young adults of coastal Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, Mohammad Radwanur Rahman; Rutherford, Shannon; Phung, Dung; Islam, Mohammad Zahirul; Chu, Cordia

    2016-07-01

    More than 35 million people in coastal Bangladesh are vulnerable to increasing freshwater salinization. This will continue to affect more people and to a greater extent as climate change projections are realised in this area in the future. However the evidence for health effects of consuming high salinity water is limited. This research examined the association between drinking water salinity and blood pressure in young adults in coastal Bangladesh. We conducted a cross-sectional study during May-June 2014 in a rural coastal sub-district of Bangladesh. Data on blood pressure (BP) and salinity of potable water sources was collected from 253 participants aged 19-25 years. A linear regression method was used to examine the association between water salinity exposure categories and systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) level. Sixty five percent of the study population were exposed to highly saline drinking water above the Bangladesh standard (600 mg/L and above). Multivariable linear regression analyses identified that compared to the low water salinity exposure category (water salinity category (>600 mg/L), had statistically significantly higher SBP (B 3.46, 95% CI 0.75, 6.17; p = 0.01) and DBP (B 2.77, 95% CI 0.31, 5.24; p = 0.03). Our research shows that elevated salinity in drinking water is associated with higher BP in young coastal populations. Blood pressure is an important risk factor of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Given the extent of salinization of freshwater in many low-lying countries including in Bangladesh, and the likely exacerbation related to climate change-induced sea level rise, implementation of preventative strategies through dietary interventions along with promotion of low saline drinking water must be a priority in these settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Determinants of overweight or obesity among ever-married adult women in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Haribondhu; Saquib, Nazmus; Hasan, Md Mehedi; Saquib, Juliann; Rahman, Ahmed Shafiqur; Khan, Jahidur Rahman; Uddin, Md Jasim; Cullen, Mark R; Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing in Bangladesh. It is higher among Bangladeshi women than among men. This study was conducted to assess a host of demographic and socioeconomic correlates of overweight and obesity, separately for the urban and rural women of Bangladesh. We used data from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2011. The BDHS provides cross-sectional data on a wide range of indicators relating to population, health, and nutrition. We analyzed nutrition-related data to identify the factors associated with being overweight or obese among ever-married women aged 18-49 years. Of 16,493 women, about 18 % (95 % CI 17 · 80-18 · 99) were overweight or obese. Unemployed urban women were at 1 · 44 (95 % CI 1 · 18-1 · 76, p obese than those women who were involved in manual-labored work. Watching television at least once a week was another significant predictor among urban women (OR 1 · 49; 95 % CI 1 · 24-1 · 80; p obesity of both rural and urban women. The findings of the study indicate that a large number of women in Bangladesh are suffering from being overweight or obese, and multiple factors are responsible for this including, older age, being from wealthy households, higher education, being from food-secured households, watching TV at least once a week, and being an unemployed urban woman. Given the anticipated long-term effects, the factors that are associated with being overweight or obese should be considered while formulating an effective intervention for the women of Bangladesh.

  20. Malaria hotspots drive hypoendemic transmission in the Chittagong Hill Districts of Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabeena Ahmed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malaria is endemic in 13 of 64 districts of Bangladesh, representing a population at risk of about 27 million people. The highest rates of malaria in Bangladesh occur in the Chittagong Hill Districts, and Plasmodium falciparum (predominately chloroquine resistant is the most prevalent species. METHODS: The objective of this research was to describe the epidemiology of symptomatic P. falciparum malaria in an area of Bangladesh following the introduction of a national malaria control program. We carried out surveillance for symptomatic malaria due to P. falciparum in two demographically defined unions of the Chittagong Hill Districts in Bangladesh, bordering western Myanmar, between October 2009 and May 2012. The association between sociodemographics and temporal and climate factors with symptomatic P. falciparum infection over two years of surveillance data was assessed. Risk factors for infection were determined using a multivariate regression model. RESULTS: 472 cases of symptomatic P. falciparum malaria cases were identified among 23,372 residents during the study period. Greater than 85% of cases occurred during the rainy season from May to October, and cases were highly clustered geographically within these two unions with more than 80% of infections occurring in areas that contain approximately one-third of the total population. Risk factors statistically associated with infection in a multivariate logistic regression model were living in the areas of high incidence, young age, and having an occupation including jhum cultivation and/or daily labor. Use of long lasting insecticide-treated bed nets was high (89.3%, but its use was not associated with decreased incidence of infection. CONCLUSION: Here we show that P. falciparum malaria continues to be hypoendemic in the Chittagong Hill Districts of Bangladesh, is highly seasonal, and is much more common in certain geographically limited hot spots and among certain occupations.

  1. Testimony ceremonies in Asia: Integrating spirituality in testimonial therapy for torture survivors in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agger, Inger; Igreja, Victor; Kiehle, Rachel; Polatin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the therapeutic implications of including culturally adapted spiritual ceremonies in the process of testimonial therapy for torture survivors in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and the Philippines. Data were collected through an action research process with Asian mental health and human rights organizations, during which the testimonial method was reconceptualized and modified to include four sessions. In the first two sessions, community workers assist survivors in the writing of their testimony, which is their narrative about the human rights violations they have suffered. In the third session, survivors participate in an honour ceremony in which they are presented with their testimony documents. In the fourth session, the community workers meet with the survivors for a reevaluation of their well-being. The honour ceremonies developed during the action research process came to employ different kinds of symbolic language at each site: human rights (India), religious/Catholic (Sri Lanka), religious/Buddhist (Cambodia), and religious/Moslem (Philippines). They all used embodied spirituality in various forms, incorporating singing, dancing, and religious purification rituals in a collective gathering. We suggest that these types of ceremonies may facilitate an individual’s capacity to contain and integrate traumatic memories, promote restorative self-awareness, and engage community support. Additional research is needed to determine the method’s applicability in other sociopolitical contexts governed by more Western-oriented medical traditions. PMID:22637721

  2. Testimony ceremonies in Asia: integrating spirituality in testimonial therapy for torture survivors in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agger, Inger; Igreja, Victor; Kiehle, Rachel; Polatin, Peter

    2012-07-01

    This study explores the therapeutic implications of including culturally adapted spiritual ceremonies in the process of testimonial therapy for torture survivors in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and the Philippines. Data were collected through an action research process with Asian mental health and human rights organizations, during which the testimonial method was reconceptualized and modified to include four sessions. In the first two sessions, community workers assist survivors in the writing of their testimony, which is their narrative about the human rights violations they have suffered. In the third session, survivors participate in an honour ceremony in which they are presented with their testimony documents. In the fourth session, the community workers meet with the survivors for a reevaluation of their well-being. The honour ceremonies developed during the action research process came to employ different kinds of symbolic language at each site: human rights (India), religious/Catholic (Sri Lanka), religious/Buddhist (Cambodia), and religious/Moslem (Philippines). They all used embodied spirituality in various forms, incorporating singing, dancing, and religious purification rituals in a collective gathering. We suggest that these types of ceremonies may facilitate an individual's capacity to contain and integrate traumatic memories, promote restorative self-awareness, and engage community support. Additional research is needed to determine the method's applicability in other sociopolitical contexts governed by more Western-oriented medical traditions.

  3. Farmers’ Education and Farmers’ Wealth in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Zafar Mahmudul Haq

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of farmers’ education is examined with a view to evaluate the actual situation of farmers’ education in Bangladesh. Fifty samples were collected from two sub districts of the Gazipur district in Bangladesh. The selection of the study sites and collection of the samples such as the years of schooling of the farm household head, total income, farm size, number of earners of farm families, family size, years of farming experience of farm household head, number of times extension contacts and rice yield were done purposively. It is cleared from the study that education is necessary for farmers to raise their wealth. Results were derived through regression analysis. The study has also shown that size of family and years of farming experience contributed significantly to the wealth accumulation of farmers.

  4. Development Dynamics of Remittances in Bangladesh

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    Munim K. Barai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Remittance inflows in the economy of Bangladesh are getting larger every passing year, matching with the increasing external demand for its manpower. The ensuing development impacts of remittances, as a means of transfer of wealth, on socioeconomic factors are increasingly viewed with importance. Remittances have helped improve the social and economic indicators like nutrition, living condition and housing, education, health care, poverty reduction, social security, and investment activities of the recipient households. The relative weight of remittances has also increased against most of the macroeconomic variables alongside the contribution to GDP. Moreover, Bangladesh has been able to avoid any serious imbalances in BOP’s current account, although it has persistent merchandize trade deficits. Not only that, the export tradable sector has thus far remained unaffected from the Dutch Disease effects of remittances.

  5. Career choices among medical students in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, SM Moslehuddin; Majumdar, Md Anwarul Azim; Karim, Rezina; Rahman, Sayeeda; Rahman, Nuzhat

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Information regarding career choices of medical students is important to plan human resources for health, design need-based educational programs, and ensure equitable and quality health care services in a country. Aim The aim of the study is to identify career choices, nature of career, intended practice locations, and reasons for career choices of Bangladesh medical students. Method First-, third-, and fifth-year students of Bangladesh Medical College and Uttara Adhunik Medical College completed a self-report questionnaire on career choices, nature of career, intended practice locations, and reasons for career choices. The students were requested to choose three long-term choices from the given specialties. Results A total of 132 students responded (46 males and 86 females) and response rate was 75%. The popular choices (first choice) among males and females were medical specialty, surgical specialty, obstetrics and gynecology, and general practice. For first, second, and third choices altogether, male students chose surgical specialties and female students preferred medical specialties. The leading reasons for selecting a specialty were personal interest and wide job opportunity. More than 67% of respondents wanted to join private services and about 90% chose major cities as practice locations. About 43% of respondents expressed willingness to practice medicine in Bangladesh, whereas 51% of total respondents wanted to practice abroad. Discussion Majority of students intended to specialize in established clinical specialties and subsequently practice in major cities, and more than half wanted to immigrate to other countries. Basic medical subjects and service-oriented (lifestyle-related) and preventive/social medical specialties were found to be less attractive. If this pattern continues, Bangladesh will suffer a chronic shortage of health personnel in certain specialties and in rural areas. Conclusions Reorientation of health care and medical

  6. Comparative advantage in Bangladesh crop production

    OpenAIRE

    Shahabuddin, Quazi; Dorosh, Paul A.

    2002-01-01

    "This study uses data from 1996/97 through 1998/99 to examine the relative efficiency of production of crops in Bangladesh and their comparative advantage in international trade as measured by net economic profitability (the profitability using economic, rather than financial costs and prices), and the domestic resource cost ratio, (the amount of value of non-tradable domestic resources used in production divided by the value of tradable products). The economic profitability analysis demonstr...

  7. Providing antenatal corticosteroids for preterm birth: a quality improvement initiative in Cambodia and the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey Michael; Gupta, Shivam; Williams, Emma; Brickson, Kate; Ly Sotha, Keth; Tep, Navuth; Calibo, Anthony; Castro, Mary Christine; Marinduque, Bernabe; Hathaway, Mark

    2016-12-01

    To determine whether a simple quality improvement initiative consisting of a technical update and regular audit and feedback sessions will result in increased use of antenatal corticosteroids among pregnant women at risk of imminent preterm birth delivering at health facilities in the Philippines and Cambodia. Non-randomized, observational study using a pre-/post-intervention design conducted between October 2013 and June 2014. A total of 12 high volume facilities providing Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care services in Cambodia (6) and Philippines (6). A technical update on preterm birth and use of antenatal corticosteroids, followed by monthly audit and feedback sessions. The proportion of women at risk of imminent preterm birth who received at least one dose of dexamethasone. Coverage of at least one dose of dexamethasone increased from 35% at baseline to 86% at endline in Cambodia (P Cambodia and Philippines. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care.

  8. Total and free available fluoride in toothpastes in Brunei, Cambodia, Laos, the Netherlands and Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benzian, H.; Holmgren, C.J.; Buijs, M.; van Loveren, C.; van der Weijden, F.; van Palenstein Helderman, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed total and free fluoride concentrations in samples of toothpaste from Brunei, Cambodia, Laos, the Netherlands and Suriname, and investigated the labelling practices of the respective manufacturers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Convenience samples were bought in the five

  9. Mental health survey among landmine survivors in Siem Reap province, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Cardozo, Barbara; Blanton, Curtis; Zalewski, Tami; Tor, Svang; McDonald, Laura; Lavelle, James; Brooks, Robert; Anderson, Mark; Mollica, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Many survivors of the Khmer Rouge period in Cambodia and the subsequent war with Vietnam have now returned to Cambodia. In this two-stage household cluster survey in Siem Reap Province in Cambodia, we explored the mental health consequences on 166 landmine injury survivors selected from 1000 household in 50 clusters and an oversample of all landmine survivors. We found a prevalence of anxiety of 62% for all respondents, 74% for depression, and 34% for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These prevalences were statistically significantly higher than among the adult population who had not been injured by landmines. These data underscore the importance of providing mental health care services for the people in Siem Reap Province in Cambodia who have been injured by landmines.

  10. Rainfall variability and seasonality in northern Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Sheikh Hefzul; Hussain, Md. Manjurul; Husna, Noor-E.-Ashmaul

    2017-08-01

    This paper aimed at the analysis of rainfall seasonality and variability for the northern part of South-Asian country, Bangladesh. The coefficient of variability was used to determine the variability of rainfall. While rainfall seasonality index ( SI ) and mean individual seasonality index ( \\overline{SI_i} ) were used to identify seasonal contrast. We also applied Mann-Kendall trend test and sequential Mann-Kendall test to determine the trend in seasonality. The lowest variability was found for monsoon among the four seasons whereas winter has the highest variability. Observed variability has a decreasing tendency from the northwest region towards the northeast region. The mean individual seasonality index (0.815378 to 0.977228) indicates that rainfall in Bangladesh is "markedly seasonal with a long dry season." It was found that the length of the dry period is lower at the northeastern part of northern Bangladesh. Trend analysis results show no significant change in the seasonality of rainfall in this region. Regression analysis of \\overline{SI_i} and SI, and longitude and mean individual seasonality index show a significant linear correlation for this area.

  11. Trapped in Statelessness: Rohingya Refugees in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Abul Hasnat; Rahman, Mijanur; Hussain, Sumaira; Jindal, Charulata; Choudhury, Sushmita; Akter, Shahnaz; Ferdousi, Shahana; Mouly, Tafzila Akter; Hall, John; Efird, Jimmy T

    2017-08-21

    The Rohingya people are one of the most ill-treated and persecuted refugee groups in the world, having lived in a realm of statelessness for over six generations, and who are still doing so. In recent years, more than 500,000 Rohingyas fled from Myanmar (Burma) to neighboring countries. This article addresses the Rohingya refugee crisis in Bangladesh, with special emphasis on the living conditions of this vulnerable population. We reviewed several documents on Rohingya refugees, visited a registered refugee camp (Teknaf), collected case reports, and conducted a series of meetings with stakeholders in the Cox's Bazar district of Bangladesh. A total of 33,131 registered Rohingya refugees are living in two registered camps in Cox's Bazar, and up to 80,000 additional refugees are housed in nearby makeshift camps. Overall, the living conditions of Rohingya refugees inside the overcrowded camps remain dismal. Mental health is poor, proper hygiene conditions are lacking, malnutrition is endemic, and physical/sexual abuse is high. A concerted diplomatic effort involving Bangladesh and Myanmar, and international mediators such as the Organization of Islamic Countries and the United Nations, is urgently required to effectively address this complex situation.

  12. English, Education, and Globalisation: A Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Akteruzzaman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As a third world country and a former British colony, Bangladesh has seen a dramatic upsurge in the use of the English language. Built on the concept of imperialistic aspects of the English language, this paper draws on responses from anonymous survey results and interviews and attempts to provide deeper insights into the global aspects of English as a language and the credibility of this language in the minds of the populace. This paper assesses the English language as a feature of globalization where English is considered to be of the utmost value. Questionnaires were designed and interviews were arranged to evaluate the commercial and linguistic aspects of English in Bangladesh to reach a conclusion whether the mass perceives this very language as it should be or there are any other economic and cultural aspects. The findings were presented graphically and the study showed that English fails to meet the expectations of the stakeholders and policy makers of Bangladesh. The paper concludes with some recommendations that could help resolve the situation and present English to the people in a better light.

  13. Present status of radiation education in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, Sana

    1999-01-01

    Radioisotopes and Radiation are being widely used in the fields of agriculture, medicine, industry for the benefit of people throughout the world. At the same time the use of radiation sources can do harm to man and environment. In order to ensure the satiety against radiation hazards and safe use of radiation, proper education, training, knowledge and awareness are essential. Like other achieve economic development through application f count rues Bangladesh is flying to in agriculture, food, industry, power; health or medi of isotopes and radiation technology cine. Basic education about radiation is incorporated in the school curriculum. Courses on radiation are also given in college and university education. Research organizations, universities carry out research and development works on different disciplines using radiation and radioisotopes. Seminars, workshops, conferences, takings on isotopes and radiation are also being organized. In 1993 Government of Bangladesh passed the Nuclear Satiety and Radiation Control Act 1993 for see use of radiation. The present paper win cover the radiation education, research and development works on radiation, applications of radiation in agriculture, medicine and industry, personal safety and radiation protection against radiation hazard and rules and regulations of the nuclear safety and radiation control act practised in Bangladesh. (author)

  14. Snake prices and crocodile appetites: Aquatic wildlife supply and demand on Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, SE; Allison, EH; Gill, JA; Reynolds, JD

    2010-01-01

    Commercial trade is a major driver of over-exploitation of wild species, but the pattern of demand and how it responds to changes in supply is poorly understood. Here we explore the markets for snakes from Tonle Sap Lake in Cambodia to evaluate future exploitation scenarios, identify entry points for conservation and, more generally, to illustrate the value of multi-scale analysis of markets to traded wildlife conservation. In Cambodia, the largest driver of snake exploitation is the domestic...

  15. Asiagomphus reinhardti sp. nov. (Odonata, Gomphidae) from eastern Cambodia and southern Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosterin, Oleg E; Yokoi, Naoto

    2016-04-11

    Asiagomphus reinhardti sp. nov. is described by two males from Annamense Mountains in eastern Cambodia (holotype: Cambodia, Mondulkiri Province, the left tributary of the main river downstream from Buu Sraa Waterfall, 12°34'01-19'' N 107°24'50''-25'03'' E, ca 450 m a.s.l., 15 vi 2014, RMNH) and southern Laos. The species is characterised by a large caudal lobe on S10 in males and a blunt medial lateroventral projection at cercus.

  16. NEW AND RARE ORCHIDS (ORCHIDACEAE IN THE FLORA OF CAMBODIA AND LAOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Averyanov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Herbarium material collected in 2009–2013 in Cambodia and Laos provides 240 new localities for 156 orchid species (from 73 genera. Among them, 13 and 45 species respectively are new for the flora of each country. One species (Bulbophyllum konstantinovii discovered in Cambodia is described as new for science. Eight genera (Acanthephippium, Didymoplexiopsis, Eclecticus, Herpysma, Hetaeria, Lecanorchis, Neuwiedia, and Trichosma were found in Laos at first.

  17. GET A SECOND CHANCE TO MAKE A FIRST IMPRESSION: Eradicate the Poverty Level of the Women Farmer in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zobaida AKHTER

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the socio-economic context of Bangladesh, involvement of women in agriculture is very important. It would be easier to control rural-urban migration by engaging women in agricultural activities to a greater extent. Women play a vital role in agricultural production throughout the Bangladesh, making a significant contribution to the basic productivity of their communities. The paper argues that efforts to promote women in farming are confronted by challenges including poverty, misconception regarding education, training, farming etc. The paper also states that the utilization and development of distance education would effectively address the problem of education and training aimed at rural women.

  18. Factors Associated with Disability in Rural Bangladesh: Bangladesh Population-Based Diabetes and Eye Study (BPDES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Fakir M Amirul; Bhowmik, Jahar L; Islam, Silvia Z; Renzaho, Andre M N; Hiller, Janet E

    2016-01-01

    To assess factors associated with disability in a rural district of Bangladesh. Using a population-based systematic sampling technique, data were collected from 3104 adults aged ≥ 30 years from the Banshgram union of Narail district. Data collected included an interviewer administered questionnaire to report physical disabilities including impairment that prevents engagement with paid work, visual, hearing, and mobility as well as mental disabilities. Socio-demographic and anthropometric factors including educational attainment and body mass index, as well as clinical factors such as blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose were also collected. Binary and multinomial logistic regression techniques were used to explore the association of various socio-demographic and clinical factors with disability. The mean (SD), minimum and maximum ages of the participants were 51 (12), 30 and 89 years. Of total participants, 65% were female. The prevalence of disability varied from 29.1% for visual impairment (highest) to 16.5% for hearing, 14.7% for movement difficulties and 1.6% (lowest) for any other disability that prevented engagement with paid work. Overall, the prevalence of a single disability was 28.6% and that of two or more disabilities was 14.7%. Older age, gender (female), lower socio-economic status (SES), and hypertension were associated with a higher prevalence of most of the disability components. The prevalence of hearing problems (24.5% vs. 13.3%, pvisual impairment (54.6% vs. 9.2%, pdisability (prevalence risk ratio [PRR] 1.25, 95% CI: 1.09-1.42, pdisability and multiple disabilities was respectively 21% (PRR 1.21, 95% CI: 1.02-1.42, pdisability is high. Public health programs should target those of low SES, older age, and female participants and aim to provide necessary supports in order to bridge disability-related inequities.

  19. Mobile Technology for Improved Family Planning (MOTIF): the development of a mobile phone-based (mHealth) intervention to support post-abortion family planning (PAFP) in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Chris; Vannak, Uk; Sokhey, Ly; Ngo, Thoai D; Gold, Judy; Free, Caroline

    2016-01-05

    The objective of this paper is to outline the formative research process used to develop the MOTIF mobile phone-based (mHealth) intervention to support post-abortion family planning in Cambodia. The formative research process involved literature reviews, interviews and focus group discussions with clients, and consultation with clinicians and organisations implementing mHealth activities in Cambodia. This process led to the development of a conceptual framework and the intervention. Key findings from the formative research included identification of the main reasons for non-use of contraception and patterns of mobile phone use in Cambodia. We drew on components of existing interventions and behaviour change theory to develop a conceptual framework. A multi-faceted voice-based intervention was designed to address health concerns and other key determinants of contraception use. Formative research was essential in order to develop an appropriate mHealth intervention to support post-abortion contraception in Cambodia. Each component of the formative research contributed to the final intervention design.

  20. Introduction of new vaccines: decision-making process in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Jasim; Sarma, Haribondhu; Bari, Tajul I; Koehlmoos, Tracey P

    2013-06-01

    The understanding of the decision-making process in the introduction of new vaccines helps establish why vaccines are adopted or not. It also contributes to building a sustainable demand for vaccines in a country. The purpose of the study was to map and analyze the formal decision-making process in relation to the introduction of new vaccines within the context of health policy and health systems and identify the ways of making decisions to introduce new vaccines in Bangladesh. During February-April 2011, a qualitative assessment was made at the national level to evaluate the decision-making process around the adoption of new vaccines in Bangladesh. The study population included: policy-level people, programme heads or associates, and key decision-makers of the Government, private sector, non-governmental organizations, and international agencies at the national level. In total, 13 key informants were purposively selected. Data were collected by interviewing key informants and reviewing documents. Data were analyzed thematically. The findings revealed that the actors from different sectors at the policy level were involved in the decision-making process in the introduction of new vaccines. They included policy-makers from the ministries of health and family welfare, finance, and local government and rural development; academicians; researchers; representatives from professional associations; development partners; and members of different committees on EPI. They contributed to the introduction of new vaccines in their own capacity. The burden of disease, research findings on vaccine-preventable diseases, political issues relating to outbreaks of certain diseases, initiatives of international and local stakeholders, pressure of development partners, the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) support, and financial matters were the key factors in the introduction of new vaccines in Bangladesh. The slow introduction and uptake of new vaccines is a concern

  1. [Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection: clinical trial under the coordination of the Institut Pasteur in Cambodia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borand, Laurence; Pheng, Phearavin; Saman, Manil; Leng, Chanthy; Chea, Phalla; Sarady Ay, Sao; Suom, Sophea; Roat Men, Nimul; Nerrienet, Eric; Marcy, Olivier

    2013-10-01

    Tuberculosis is a major cause of death among adults infected by HIV. The CAMELIA (ANRS 1295/CIPRA KH001) randomized clinical trial aimed to determine the optimal timing of ARV initiation after tuberculosis treatment onset to reduce mortality. Here, we describe the trial implementation in five hospitals in Cambodia under the coordination of the Institut Pasteur in Cambodia, its conduct, the challenges and public health benefits in Cambodia and beyond. © 2013 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  2. Nonfatal Injuries and Psychosocial Correlates among Middle School Students in Cambodia and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2017-03-08

    The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of nonfatal injury among middle school students in Cambodia and Vietnam. Cross-sectional data from 7137 school children (mean age 15.5 years, SD = 1.4) who were randomly sampled for participation in nationally representative Global School-based Health Surveys (GSHS) in Cambodia and Vietnam were analyzed. The proportion of school children reporting one or more serious injuries in the past year was 22.6% among boys and 17.5% among girls in Cambodia and 34.3% among boys and 25.1% among girls in Vietnam. The most prevalent cause of the most serious injury in Cambodia was traffic injuries (4.7% among boys and 4.3% among girls) and in Vietnam it was falls (10.0% among boys and 7.0% among girls). In multinomial logistic regression analyses, experiencing hunger (as an indicator for low socioeconomic status) and drug use were associated with having sustained one injury and two or more injuries in the past 12 months in Cambodia. In addition, poor mental health was associated with two or more injuries. In Vietnam, being male, experiencing hunger, current alcohol use, poor mental health and ever having had sex were associated with having sustained one injury and two or more injuries in the past 12 months. Several psychosocial variables were identified which could help in designing injury prevention strategies among middle school children in Cambodia and Vietnam.

  3. Natural course of symptoms in Cambodia veterans: a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vries, M; Soetekouw, P M; Van Der Meer, J W; Bleijenberg, G

    2001-02-01

    Dutch (ex-)servicemen were deployed in the 1992-3-peace operation UNTAC in Cambodia. Since their return, they have voiced concerns about the health consequences of their service and they have reported symptoms such as fatigue and cognitive problems. The natural course of symptoms in Dutch Cambodia veterans was evaluated in a prospective study. At 18-months follow-up, a questionnaire was sent to 354 veterans who met a set case definition for symptoms in Cambodia veterans or who had sub-threshold scores. Initial measurement of fatigue severity, psychological well-being, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, trait-anxiety, self-efficacy and causal attributions, was used to evaluate predictors for self-reported improvement and low levels of fatigue at follow-up. At follow-up, 19% of the respondents reported complete recovery, 20% felt much better, 57% had the same complaints and 4% had become worse compared with their initial assessment. Self-reported improvement and less severe fatigue at follow-up were predicted by less severe fatigue at initial assessment and more perceived control over symptoms. Self-reported improvement was reported in a considerable percentage of Cambodia veterans, whereas another substantial percentage of Cambodia veterans continued to suffer with severe levels of fatigue and related symptoms. Predictors of improvement in Cambodia veterans and patients with chronic fatigue syndrome show similarities and also seem to bear importance for Gulf War veterans.

  4. Living arrangements and socio-demographic conditions of older adults in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Z; Kim, S K

    2001-01-01

    Since the takeover of Cambodia by the Khmer Rouge in 1975, the social conditions within the country have been understudied. Only recently has dependable socio-demographic data become available. We use some these data to examine living arrangements and other socio-demographic conditions among Cambodia's older population. We compare results to those recently found in Thailand and Vietnam, two neighboring countries, in order to place Cambodia within a regional context. On balance, living arrangements in Cambodia are similar to those in neighboring countries. Older adults are likely to be living with a child and in a variety of diverse arrangements involving different family members. We attempt to get at gender preference for coresident children indirectly by adjusting living arrangement patterns for Cambodia's unique sex and marital status structure. We find a predominance of elders living with never married children of either sex and a slight daughter preference. Older adults in Cambodia may face particular challenges due to the influences of the past decades of instability and violence. We conclude our paper with a discussion of how future research might assist in developing a national policy for older adults.

  5. INFLUENCE OF MICRO-FINANCE ON BANGLADESH RURAL PEOPLE

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Rasel

    2013-01-01

    KYMENLAAKSON AMMATTIKORKEAKOULU University of Applied Sciences International Business Bangladesh is a rising country located in the southern part of Asia. More than half of the population of it lives in rural areas and they are living under the poverty level. In Bangladesh rural people are not capable of getting loan facilities from the regular financial sector due to the guarantee r...

  6. Can Bangladesh produce enough cereals to meet future demand?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timsina, J.; Wolf, J.; Guilpart, N.; Bussel, van L.G.J.; Grassini, P.; Wart, van J.; Hossain, A.; Rashid, H.; Islam, S.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2018-01-01

    Bangladesh faces huge challenges in achieving food security due to its high population, diet changes, and limited room for expanding cropland and cropping intensity. The objective of this study is to assess the degree to which Bangladesh can be self-sufficient in terms of domestic maize, rice and

  7. Seasonal forecasting of Bangladesh summer monsoon rainfall using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, the development of a statistical forecasting method for summer monsoon rainfall over. Bangladesh is described. Predictors for Bangladesh summer monsoon (June–September) rainfall were identified from the large scale ocean–atmospheric circulation variables (i.e., sea-surface temperature, surface air ...

  8. Young Adults' Linguistic Manipulation of English in Bangla in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Shaila

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed in the print media that bilingual young adults in Bangladesh are subjugated by the colonial legacy of English and they are "polluting" Bangla, the national language of Bangladesh, by their indiscriminate insertion of English in it. However, this ethnographic study on a group of young adults in a university in…

  9. Gender mainstraming in the Bangladesh Rural Electrification Board

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, Joy S.; Ekram, Lailun Nahar; Halim, Sadeka; Mhatab, Nazmunnessa

    2004-01-01

    A Gender Equity Strategy and Action Plan has been integrated into the Bangladesh Rural Electrification Board’s Master Plan. Implementation of this plan will be the first gender mainstreaming exercise in the energy sector in Bangladesh, and possibly in the world.

  10. Seasonal forecasting of Bangladesh summer monsoon rainfall using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, the development of a statistical forecasting method for summer monsoon rainfall over Bangladesh is described. Predictors for Bangladesh summer monsoon (June–September) rainfall were identified from the large scale ocean–atmospheric circulation variables (i.e., sea-surface temperature, surface air ...

  11. Rainfall and temperature scenarios for Bangladesh for the middle of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mean surface air temperature projection for Bangladesh is experimentally obtained for 2050 and 2060. This work discloses that simulated ... seasonal and annual rainfall, and mean surface air temperature in Bangladesh. The projected change ... already being felt in South Asia and will continue to intensify (Haq et al 1998; ...

  12. Health Impacts of Tobacco Cultivation in Bangladesh | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Health Impacts of Tobacco Cultivation in Bangladesh. Research on the links between tobacco farming and health problems among men, women, and children in Bangladesh will examine the health and socio-economic impact of tobacco cultivation. To date, the health hazards of growing tobacco have not been documented ...

  13. Hydropower, social priorities and the rural–urban development divide: The case of large dams in Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siciliano, Giuseppina; Urban, Frauke; Kim, Sour; Dara Lonn, Pich

    2015-01-01

    Hydropower investment is a priority in many developing countries, as a means to increase electrification rates and promote national development. However, neglect of dam-affected people's needs, can make them vulnerable to the multifaceted impacts of such projects. Using the case of Cambodia's first large dam, the Kamchay dam, this paper reveals social priorities of affected communities and institutional actors linked to environmental and social implications of large hydropower projects using a preference ranking method. Qualitative research revealed concerns among dam-affected communities which included energy access, livelihood changes, environmental impacts, access to natural resources and compensation. Results also reveal divergence between national and local priorities, which in turn brings about an unequal distribution of costs and benefits of the Kamchay Dam between urban and rural areas. The paper provides recommendations to policy-makers, NGOs and international organizations regarding governance issues, consultation processes and mitigation measures. - Highlights: • We assess social priorities linked to the impacts of a large dam in Cambodia. • We examine differences between local actors in the prioritization of the impacts. • Findings show divergences between national and local priorities of dam construction. • Distribution of cost and benefit is spatially unequal between rural and urban areas.

  14. Radiation education in Bangladesh: status need and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakht, Delawar

    1999-01-01

    Since the emergence of Bangladesh as an independent state, the provisions of radiation education and training have expanded greatly. Still then, since it is a developing country with high population growth rate, low literacy level and located thousands of miles away from the developed ones, it is difficult to transfer and disseminate knowledge, particularly about the subject of radiation at a speed and spread as required to meet the challenge of future. So, not only professional training but also institutional and formal academic knowledge and skill development is essential in the process of acquisition and transfer of such knowledge. Accordingly the courses on radiation and radioactivity including risk perception in general have to be vigorously pursued for the sake of safety and attaining basic concepts about health effects of different levels of radiation. (author)

  15. Status of tick distribution in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Srikant; Bansal, Gyan Chand; Gupta, Suresh Chandra; Ray, Debdatta; Khan, Muhammad Qasim; Irshad, Hamid; Shahiduzzaman, Md; Seitzer, Ulrike; Ahmed, Jabbar S

    2007-09-01

    On a global basis, ticks transmit a greater variety of pathogenic microorganisms, protozoa, rickettsiae, spirochaets, and viruses than any other arthropods and are among the most important vectors of diseases affecting livestock, humans, and companion animals. Ticks and tick-borne diseases (TTBDs) affect 80% of the world cattle population and are widely distributed throughout the world, particularly in tropical and subtropical countries including India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. Ticks and tick-transmitted infections have coevolved with various wild animal hosts, which constitute the reservoir hosts for ticks and tick-borne pathogens of livestock, pets, and humans. In this region, the livestock sector is suffering from a number of disease problems caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Among the parasitological problems, the damage caused by TTBDs is considered very high, and the control of TTBDs has been given priority.

  16. Health impact assessment of climate change in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Deborah Imel

    2003-01-01

    Global climate change (GCC) may have serious and irreversible impacts. Improved methods are needed to predict and quantify health impacts, so that appropriate risk management strategies can be focused on vulnerable areas. The disability-adjusted life year (DALY) is proposed as an effective tool in environmental health impact assessment (HIA). The DALY accounts for years of life lost to premature death and/or morbidity. Both the DALY and the determinants-of-health approach are applied to HIA of GCC in Bangladesh. Based on historical data, a major storm event may result in approximately 290 DALY per 1000 population, including both deaths and injuries, compared to a current all-cause rate of about 280 per 1000 in the region. A more precise result would require a large input of data; however, this level of analysis may be sufficient to rank risks, and to motivate and target risk management efforts

  17. Cause-specific mortality and socioeconomic status in Chakaria, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed M. A. Hanifi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bangladesh has achieved remarkable gains in health indicators during the last four decades despite low levels of economic development. However, the persistence of inequities remains disturbing. This success was also accompanied by health and demographic transitions, which in turn brings new challenges for a nation that has yet to come to terms with pre-transition health challenges. It is therefore important to understand the causes of death and their relationship with socioeconomic status (SES. Objective: The paper aims to assess the causes of death by SES based on surveillance data from a rural area of Bangladesh, in order to understand the situation and inform policy makers and programme leaders. Design: We analysed population-based mortality data collected from the Chakaria Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Bangladesh. The causes of death were determined by using a Bayesian-based programme for interpreting verbal autopsy findings (InterVA-4. The data included 1,391 deaths in 217,167 person-years of observation between 2010 and 2012. The wealth index constructed using household assets was used to assess the SES, and disease burdens were compared among the wealth quintiles. Results: Analysing cause of death (CoD revealed that non-communicable diseases (NCDs were the leading causes of deaths (37%, followed by communicable diseases (CDs (22%, perinatal and neonatal conditions (11%, and injury and accidents (6%; the cause of remaining 24% of deaths could not be determined. Age-specific mortality showed premature birth, respiratory infections, and drowning were the dominant causes of death for childhood mortality (0–14 years, which was inversely associated with SES (p<0.04. For adult and the elderly (15 years and older, NCDs were the leading cause of death (51%, followed by CDs (23%. For adult and the elderly, NCDs concentrated among the population from higher SES groups (p<0.005, and CDs among the lower SES groups (p<0

  18. A hand surgeon and his family in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumley, Graham J

    2002-03-01

    Those of us who have trained and practice our profession in developed countries, frequently overlook the orthopaedic, and general medical needs, of the developing world. After brief periods in India and more than 4 years practicing in Cambodia, the opportunities for the orthopaedic surgeon to make an impact on patient care and medical education are clear. The challenge of treating patients with untreated congenital and traumatic deformity, advanced tumors, and land mine injuries can be met with dedication to medical education and skills transfer to local personnel. I have experienced many challenges, balanced by the satisfaction of teaching a generation of surgeons and directly helping so many who would have no other opportunity for care, while providing a worthwhile experience personally and for my family. Many will find such work rewarding, knowing that they will leave their mark for good on a hurting world.

  19. The present status of the clinical laboratory medicine in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Yoshiko

    2002-01-01

    The educational system and the introduction of legislation of clinical medicine are both still in developing stage in Cambodia where only 10 years have passed since the establishment of a new government. In order to maintain good health of all Cambodian citizens and to improve the quality of care in health services, it should be necessary to implement an appropriate educational system for both laboratory technologists and technicians. To conduct refreshment training course for laboratory workers with provision of the instruments, material and reagents is another way to make improvement of it in public hospitals. It should be also required to overcome economic problems how to absorb medical expense and to understand the importance for doctors to diagnose with scientific data of clinical examinations. Maturation of the total medical system in this country should be necessary and suggestions from neighboring countries with views toward the world standard would be expected.

  20. Combining continuing education with expert consultation via telemedicine in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Xavier; Aird, James; Tho, Ly; Bintcliffe, Fiona; Monsell, Fergal; Gollogly, Jim; Noor, Saqib

    2014-04-01

    Telemedicine has the potential to increase access to both clinical consultation and continuing medical education in Cambodia. We present a Cambodian surgical centre's experience with a collaboration in which complicated orthopaedic cases were presented to a panel of consultants using free online videoconferencing software, providing a combined opportunity for both continuing education and the enhancement of patient care. Effects of the case conference on patient care were examined via a retrospective review and clinician perspectives were elicited via a qualitative survey. The case conference altered patient care in 69% of cases. All Cambodian staff reported learning from the conference and 78% reported changes in their care for patients not presented at the conference. Real-time videoconferencing between consultants in the developed world and physicians in a developing country may be an effective, low-cost and easily replicable means of combining direct benefits to patient care with continuing medical education.

  1. Leptospira and Rodents in Cambodia: Environmental Determinants of Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Svilena; Herbreteau, Vincent; Blasdell, Kim; Chaval, Yannick; Buchy, Philippe; Guillard, Bertrand; Morand, Serge

    2012-01-01

    We investigated infection of rodents and shrews by Leptospira spp. in two localities of Cambodia (Veal Renh, Kaev Seima) and in four types of habitat (forests, non-flooded lands, lowland rain-fed paddy fields, houses) during the wet and the dry seasons. Habitat preference was common, and rodent and shrew species were found only in houses or in rain-fed paddy fields or in forests. Among 649 small mammals trapped belonging to 12 rodent species and 1 shrew species, 71 of 642 animals tested were carriers of Leptospira according to the 16S ribosomal RNA marker used. Rodent infection was higher in low-slope locations, corresponding to rain-fed paddy fields, especially in the rainy season and in Kaev Seima. Rodents (Rattus exulans) and shrews (Suncus murinus) inhabiting households showed significantly low levels of infections, whereas rodents living in and near to forests (shrubby wasteland, orchards) showed high levels of infection. PMID:22665613

  2. Type 2 diabetes and its correlates among adults in Bangladesh: a population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Muhammad Abdul Baker; Uddin, Md Jamal; Khan, Hafiz M R; Haque, Md Rabiul

    2015-10-19

    Type 2 diabetes is one of the most prevalent non-communicable diseases in Bangladesh. However, the correlates of type 2 diabetes among adults in Bangladesh remain unknown. We aimed to investigate the correlates of type 2 diabetes among the adults in Bangladesh. We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from the nationally representative 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. A random sample of 7,543 (3,823 women and 3,720 men) adults of age 35 years and older from both urban and rural areas, who participated in the survey was included. Diabetes was defined as having a fasting plasma blood glucose level of ≥ 7 mm/L or taking diabetes medication during the survey. Hypothesized factors, e.g., age, sex, education, place of residence, social status, body mass index, and hypertension were considered in the analyses. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify the important correlates of type 2 diabetes. Among the respondents, the overall prevalence of diabetes was 11 %, and the prevalence was slightly higher in women (11.2 %) than men (10.6 %). Respondents with the age group of 55-59 years had higher odds of having diabetes (odds ratios (OR) = 2.37, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.76-3.21) than the age group of 35-39 years. Moreover, respondents who had higher educational attainment (OR = 1.67, 95 % CI: 1.18-2.36) and higher social status (OR = 2.01, 95 % CI: 1.50-2.70) had higher odds of having diabetes than the respondents with no education and lower social status, respectively. We also found socioeconomic status, place of residence (rural or urban), regions of residence (different divisions), overweight and obesity, and hypertension as significant correlates of type 2 diabetes in Bangladesh. Our study shows that older age, higher socioeconomic status, higher educational attainment, hypertension, and obesity were found to be significant correlates of type 2 diabetes. Need-based policy program strategies including early diagnosis

  3. eHealth and mHealth initiatives in Bangladesh: a scoping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Lucas, Henry; Khan, Azfar Sadun; Islam, Rubana; Bhuiya, Abbas; Iqbal, Mohammad

    2014-06-16

    The health system of Bangladesh is haunted by challenges of accessibility and affordability. Despite impressive gains in many health indicators, recent evidence has raised concerns regarding the utilization, quality and equity of healthcare. In the context of new and unfamiliar public health challenges including high population density and rapid urbanization, eHealth and mHealth are being promoted as a route to cost-effective, equitable and quality healthcare in Bangladesh. The aim of this paper is to highlight such initiatives and understand their true potential. This scoping study applies a combination of research tools to explore 26 eHealth and mHealth initiatives in Bangladesh. A screening matrix was developed by modifying the framework of Arksey & O'Malley, further complemented by case study and SWOT analysis to identify common traits among the selected interventions. The WHO health system building blocks approach was then used for thematic analysis of these traits. Findings suggest that most eHealth and mHealth initiatives have proliferated within the private sector, using mobile phones. The most common initiatives include tele-consultation, prescription and referral. While a minority of projects have a monitoring and evaluation framework, less than a quarter have undertaken evaluation. Most of the initiatives use a health management information system (HMIS) to monitor implementation. However, these do not provide for effective sharing of information and interconnectedness among the various actors. There are extremely few individuals with eHealth training in Bangladesh and there is a strong demand for capacity building and experience sharing, especially for implementation and policy making. There is also a lack of research evidence on how to design interventions to meet the needs of the population and on potential benefits. This study concludes that Bangladesh needs considerable preparation and planning to sustain eHealth and mHealth initiatives successfully

  4. Bolstering medical education to enhance critical care capacity in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Tyler J; Fassier, Thomas; Chhuoy, Meng; Bounchan, Youttiroung; Tan, Sokhak; Ku, No; Chhor, Nareth; LoGerfo, James P; West, T Eoin

    2015-04-01

    The capacity to care for the critically ill has long been viewed as a fundamental element of established and comprehensive health care systems. Extending this capacity to health care systems in low- and middle-income countries is important given the burden of disease in these regions and the significance of critical care in overall health system strengthening. However, many practicalities of improving access and delivery of critical care in resource-limited settings have yet to be elucidated. We have initiated a program to build capacity for the care of critically ill patients in one low-income Southeast Asian country, Cambodia. We are leveraging existing international academic partnerships to enhance postgraduate critical care education in Cambodia. After conducting a needs assessment and literature review, we developed a three-step initiative targeting training in mechanical ventilation. First, we assessed and revised the current resident curriculum pertaining to mechanical ventilation. We addressed gaps in training, incorporated specific goals and learning objectives, and decreased the hours of lectures in favor of additional bedside training. Second, we are incorporating e-learning, e-teaching, and e-assessment into the curriculum, with both live, interactive and independent, self-paced online instruction. Third, we are developing a train-the-trainer program defined by bidirectional international faculty exchanges to provide hands-on, case-based, and bedside training to achieve competency-based outcomes. In targeting specific educational needs and a key population-the next generation of Cambodian intensivists-this carefully designed approach should address some existing gaps in the health care system and hopefully yield a lasting impact.

  5. Gender differences in functional disability and self-care among seniors in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tareque, Md Ismail; Tiedt, Andrew D; Islam, Towfiqua Mahfuza; Begum, Sharifa; Saito, Yasuhiko

    2017-08-08

    Disability among older adults is a public health concern. To date there are no in-depth and comprehensive analyses on older adults' disabilities in Bangladesh. This study investigated gender differences in the prevalence of disability and the socio-demographic factors associated with disability among older adults in Bangladesh. This research used a sample of 4176 elderly males and females aged 60 years and over from a nationally representative data set- Bangladesh's 2010 Household Income and Expenditure Survey. The study used both household level and individual level data and applied a wealth index, which was constructed based on household assets using principal component analysis. The Washington Group's short set of questions on disability were used to measure disability. Chi-square tests and ordinal logistic regression models were fit. Forty-two percent of older had some form of functional disability, including 5% of elderly with severe/extreme functional disability. Seven percent of older adults had a self-care disability, including 3% of elderly with a severe/extreme form of self-care disability. Elderly females suffered from all the studied disabilities, including functional and self-care disabilities in higher percentages, and had higher odds ratios of having both functional disability and self-care disability compared to elderly males. The study also identified some significant factors affecting functional disability and self-care disability, namely age, having a chronic condition, wealth status and place of residence, including divisional differences. Programs aimed at reducing functional disability among seniors, particularly elderly females, should be granted the highest priority in Bangladesh.

  6. Serum prolactin and gonadotropin levels in women with infertility in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Shamima Bari; Rokeya Begum; Qazi Shamima Akter

    2018-01-01

    Background and objectives: Infertility is a global health problem including Bangladesh. Altered prolactin, follicle (FSH) and luteinizing hormones (LH) levels have been implicated as a cause of infertility. The present study was undertaken to find out the serum prolactin and gonadotropin levels in women with primary and secondary infertility. Methods: The study involved a total of 100 women of which 50 had primary (Group A) and another 50 had secondary (Group B) infertility. Fifty fertile...

  7. CUSTOMER SATISFACTION IN MOBILE PHONE SERVICES IN BANGLADESH: A SURVEY RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Belal Uddin; Bilkis Akhter

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to explore customer satisfaction and its influencing factors of the mobile phone operation industry in Bangladesh. Data were collected through a questionnaire survey form a diversified representative sample. An iterated factor analysis with principal component analysis (PCA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) including measurement model and structural model were applied to analyze data. The empirical results demonstrate that service quality and fair price have indirect in...

  8. Achieving Bangladesh's tourism potential: Linkages to export diversification, employment generation and the "green economy"

    OpenAIRE

    Honeck, Dale; Akhtar, Md. Shoaib

    2014-01-01

    Bangladesh's international image is not as a popular tourism destination, and many people might be surprised to learn it has three World Heritage sites, including the Sundarbans tiger reserves. Moreover, it is part of important travel circuits for cultural and religious tourism, and has demonstrated potential for sports tourism. The objective of this working paper is to critically test the assertion that pro-poor "green" tourism is one of the best development options for the majority of least...

  9. Klebsiella pneumoniae related community-acquired acute lower respiratory infections in Cambodia: Clinical characteristics and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rammaert Blandine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many Asian countries, Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP is the second pathogen responsible for community-acquired pneumonia. Yet, very little is known about KP etiology in ALRI in Cambodia, a country that has one of the weakest medical infrastructures in the region. We present here the first clinico-radiological description of KP community-acquired ALRI in hospitalized Cambodian patients. Methods Through ALRI surveillance in two provincial hospitals, KP was isolated from sputum and blood cultures, and identified by API20E gallery from patients ≥ 5 years-old with fever and respiratory symptoms onset ≤14 days. Antibiotics susceptibility testing was provided systematically to clinicians when bacteria were isolated. We collected patients' clinical, radiological and microbiological data and their outcome 3 months after discharge. We also compared KP-related with other bacteria-related ALRI to determine risk factors for KP infection. Results From April 2007 to December 2009, 2315 ALRI patients ≥ 5 years-old were enrolled including 587 whose bacterial etiology could be assigned. Of these, 47 (8.0% had KP infection; their median age was 55 years and 68.1% were females. Reported prior medication was high (42.5%. Patients' chest radiographs showed pneumonia (61.3% including 39% that were necrotizing, preexisting parenchyma lesions (29.5% and pleural effusions alone (4.5% and normal parenchyma (4.5%. Five patients had severe conditions on admission and one patient died during hospitalization. Of the 39 patients that were hospital discharged, 14 died including 12 within 1 month after discharge. Only 13 patients (28% received an appropriate antibiotherapy. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL - producing strains were found in 8 (17.0% patients. Female gender (Odds ratio (OR 2.1; p = 0.04 and diabetes mellitus (OR 3.1; p = 0.03 were independent risk factors for KP-related ALRI. Conclusions KP ALRI in Cambodia has high fatality rate

  10. Klebsiella pneumoniae related community-acquired acute lower respiratory infections in Cambodia: clinical characteristics and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammaert, Blandine; Goyet, Sophie; Beauté, Julien; Hem, Sopheak; Te, Vantha; Try, Patrich Lorn; Mayaud, Charles; Borand, Laurence; Buchy, Philippe; Guillard, Bertrand; Vong, Sirenda

    2012-01-10

    In many Asian countries, Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) is the second pathogen responsible for community-acquired pneumonia. Yet, very little is known about KP etiology in ALRI in Cambodia, a country that has one of the weakest medical infrastructures in the region. We present here the first clinico-radiological description of KP community-acquired ALRI in hospitalized Cambodian patients. Through ALRI surveillance in two provincial hospitals, KP was isolated from sputum and blood cultures, and identified by API20E gallery from patients ≥ 5 years-old with fever and respiratory symptoms onset ≤14 days. Antibiotics susceptibility testing was provided systematically to clinicians when bacteria were isolated. We collected patients' clinical, radiological and microbiological data and their outcome 3 months after discharge. We also compared KP-related with other bacteria-related ALRI to determine risk factors for KP infection. From April 2007 to December 2009, 2315 ALRI patients ≥ 5 years-old were enrolled including 587 whose bacterial etiology could be assigned. Of these, 47 (8.0%) had KP infection; their median age was 55 years and 68.1% were females. Reported prior medication was high (42.5%). Patients' chest radiographs showed pneumonia (61.3% including 39% that were necrotizing), preexisting parenchyma lesions (29.5%) and pleural effusions alone (4.5%) and normal parenchyma (4.5%). Five patients had severe conditions on admission and one patient died during hospitalization. Of the 39 patients that were hospital discharged, 14 died including 12 within 1 month after discharge. Only 13 patients (28%) received an appropriate antibiotherapy. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) - producing strains were found in 8 (17.0%) patients. Female gender (Odds ratio (OR) 2.1; p = 0.04) and diabetes mellitus (OR 3.1; p = 0.03) were independent risk factors for KP-related ALRI. KP ALRI in Cambodia has high fatality rate, are more frequently found in women, and should be

  11. An integrated approach to improving rural livelihoods: examples from India and Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Croke

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of work in West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and SW Bangladesh through a series of projects from 2005 to the present, considering the impact of farming systems, water shed development and/or agricultural intensification on livelihoods in selected rural areas of India and Bangladesh. The projects spanned a range of scales spanning from the village scale (∼  1 km2 to the meso-scale (∼  100 km2, and considered social as well as biophysical aspects. They focused mainly on the food and water part of the food-water-energy nexus. These projects were in collaboration with a range of organisations in India and Bangladesh, including NGOs, universities, and government research organisations and departments. The projects were part funded by the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, and built on other projects that have been undertaken within the region. An element of each of these projects was to understand how the hydrological cycle could be managed sustainably to improve agricultural systems and livelihoods of marginal groups. As such, they evaluated appropriate technology that is generally not dependent on high-energy inputs (mechanisation. This includes assessing the availability of water, and identifying potential water resources that have not been developed; understanding current agricultural systems and investigating ways of improving water use efficiency; and understanding social dynamics of the affected communities including the potential opportunities and negative impacts of watershed development and agricultural development.

  12. Utilization of maternal health services among adolescent women in Bangladesh: A scoping review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabuddin, A S M; Delvaux, Thérèse; Abouchadi, Saloua; Sarker, Malabika; De Brouwere, Vincent

    2015-07-01

    To understand the health-seeking behaviour of adolescent women in Bangladesh with respect to the use of maternal health services. Literature review of seven electronic databases: PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO, Embase, CINAHL, POPLINE and Global Health. Studies published in English between 1990 and 2013 which describe Bangladeshi adolescent women's healthcare-seeking behaviour during pregnancy, delivery and post-partum were included. Twelve studies were included in this review. 11 used quantitative methods and one used a mixed-methods approach. All studies included married adolescent women only. Women with lower educational levels are less likely to seek skilled maternal health services than those with higher levels of education. Use of maternal health services is also less common among rural married adolescent women than women in urban areas. Being part of the richest bands of wealth, having had previous experiences of childbirth and higher women's autonomy positively influence the use of skilled maternal health services among married adolescent women in Bangladesh. Antenatal care is a key predictor of the use of skilled birth attendants for delivery and post-natal care. Maternal health-related programmes should be designed targeting rural and uneducated married adolescent women in Bangladesh. More qualitative investigations are required to broaden our understanding on maternal health-seeking behaviour of both married and unmarried adolescent women. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. An integrated approach to improving rural livelihoods: examples from India and Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croke, Barry; Merritt, Wendy; Cornish, Peter; Syme, Geoffrey J.; Roth, Christian H.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents an overview of work in West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and SW Bangladesh through a series of projects from 2005 to the present, considering the impact of farming systems, water shed development and/or agricultural intensification on livelihoods in selected rural areas of India and Bangladesh. The projects spanned a range of scales spanning from the village scale (˜ 1 km2) to the meso-scale (˜ 100 km2), and considered social as well as biophysical aspects. They focused mainly on the food and water part of the food-water-energy nexus. These projects were in collaboration with a range of organisations in India and Bangladesh, including NGOs, universities, and government research organisations and departments. The projects were part funded by the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, and built on other projects that have been undertaken within the region. An element of each of these projects was to understand how the hydrological cycle could be managed sustainably to improve agricultural systems and livelihoods of marginal groups. As such, they evaluated appropriate technology that is generally not dependent on high-energy inputs (mechanisation). This includes assessing the availability of water, and identifying potential water resources that have not been developed; understanding current agricultural systems and investigating ways of improving water use efficiency; and understanding social dynamics of the affected communities including the potential opportunities and negative impacts of watershed development and agricultural development.

  14. Treatment and management of liver diseases by Khmer traditional healers practicing in Phnom Penh area, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassagne, François; Deharo, Eric; Punley, Hieng; Bourdy, Geneviève

    2017-04-18

    Liver disorders are a major health problem in Cambodia, where some patients prefer to seek treatment from traditional healers. The aim of the study was to document the knowledge and practices of these healers in four Southern Cambodian provinces. An ethnopharmacological survey was carried out from September 2015 to January 2016 in Cambodian urban and rural areas. Thirty-three Khmer traditional healers (KTH) were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire including socio-demographic data, healer's formation and their professional practice conditions, perception of liver diseases (types and causes of liver disorders, diagnostic methods and symptoms of liver problems), dietary recommendations given to patients, and herbal remedies used to treat them. For each medicinal plant mentioned in herbal remedies, the local name, part of the plant, mode of preparation and administration, and their properties, according to the healers, were recorded. The plants mentioned by the traditional therapists were collected and later identified by specialists. Different types of liver disease are identified by the healers, and diagnosis was mostly based on reading medical records, and by observing the yellow discoloration of the skin and eyes. A total of 42 herbal remedies including 83 medicinal plants belonging to 40 families were mentioned for treating liver disorders. The most predominant families were Leguminosae and Poaceae. Among the plants reported, Cananga latifolia, Andrographis paniculata, Smilax aff. glabra, Gomphrena celosioides, Passiflora foetida and Physalis minima were the most cited species. A large part of the herbal remedies used were multi-ingredient recipes, and were prepared mainly by a decoction administered orally. Plants are combined in multi-ingredient recipes, and selected on the basis of their properties (trocheak, psah, somrap mé rok, ktchol) which originate from Khmer medical concepts. Most of the plants used by healers have a wide ethnobotanical use

  15. Genetic diversity of coronaviruses in bats in Lao PDR and Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Audrey; Duong, Veasna; Hul, Vibol; San, Sorn; Davun, Hull; Omaliss, Keo; Chea, Sokha; Hassanin, Alexandre; Theppangna, Watthana; Silithammavong, Soubanh; Khammavong, Kongsy; Singhalath, Sinpakone; Greatorex, Zoe; Fine, Amanda E; Goldstein, Tracey; Olson, Sarah; Joly, Damien O; Keatts, Lucy; Dussart, Philippe; Afelt, Aneta; Frutos, Roger; Buchy, Philippe

    2017-03-01

    South-East Asia is a hot spot for emerging zoonotic diseases, and bats have been recognized as hosts for a large number of zoonotic viruses such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), responsible for acute respiratory syndrome outbreaks. Thus, it is important to expand our knowledge of the presence of viruses in bats which could represent a risk to humans. Coronaviruses (CoVs) have been reported in bat species from Thailand, China, Indonesia, Taiwan and the Philippines. However no such work was conducted in Cambodia or Lao PDR. Between 2010 and 2013, 1965 bats were therefore sampled at interfaces with human populations in these two countries. They were tested for the presence of coronavirus by consensus reverse transcription-PCR assay. A total of 93 samples (4.7%) from 17 genera of bats tested positive. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of potentially 37 and 56 coronavirus belonging to alpha-coronavirus (αCoV) and beta-CoV (βCoV), respectively. The βCoVs group is known to include some coronaviruses highly pathogenic to human, such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. All coronavirus sequences generated from frugivorous bats (family Pteropodidae) (n=55) clustered with other bat βCoVs of lineage D, whereas one coronavirus from Pipistrellus coromandra fell in the lineage C of βCoVs which also includes the MERS-CoV. αCoVs were all detected in various genera of insectivorous bats and clustered with diverse bat αCoV sequences previously published. A closely related strain of PEDV, responsible for severe diarrhea in pigs (PEDV-CoV), was detected in 2 Myotis bats. We highlighted the presence and the high diversity of coronaviruses circulating in bats from Cambodia and Lao PDR. Three new bat genera and species were newly identified as host of coronaviruses, namely Macroglossus sp., Megaerops niphanae and Myotis horsfieldii. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Controlling scabies in madrasahs (Islamic religious schools) in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, K; Talukder, M Q K; Farooque, M G; Khairul, M; Sharmin, F; Jerin, I; Rahman, M A

    2013-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a scabies control programme in reducing the prevalence of scabies in urban Bangladesh madrasahs, where the condition is extremely common. A controlled trial involving four intervention madrasahs (total students 2359) and four control madrasahs (total students 2465) in Dhaka Metropolitan Area. A baseline scabies sample survey was carried out on 40 and 44 students of four intervention and four control madrasahs, respectively. Another 40 students of the intervention madrasahs were administered a pre-intervention test on scabies knowledge. This was followed by mass treatment of all students, teachers and staff of the eight madrasahs with topical 5% permethrin cream. The subsequent intervention involved daily monitoring of students for five key personal hygiene practices, weekly 10-min scabies health education classes, supply of simple and inexpensive products to students to prevent cross-infestation to/from peers (e.g. plastic bags, clothes hangers), and chemotherapy of new students detected with scabies. After 4 months of the intervention, the prevalence of scabies, personal hygiene practices and scabies knowledge were assessed in students of the intervention madrasahs. Before the intervention, the prevalence of scabies was 61% and 62% in intervention and control madrasahs, respectively (P = 1.00). After mass scabies treatment in all eight madrasahs and 4 months of intervention, the prevalence of scabies was reduced to 5% and 50% in intervention and control madrasahs, respectively (P scabies knowledge were 40% before the intervention and 99% after the intervention in the four intervention madrasahs. The cost of this programme was US$1.60 per student, and primarily included products such as plastic bags and clothes hangers, and health education material. This programme demonstrates a pragmatic and cost-effective way to control scabies in a residential institutional setting. It is recommended that this programme should be scaled up to

  17. Women's dietary diversity in rural Bangladesh: Pathways through women's empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinharoy, Sheela S; Waid, Jillian L; Haardörfer, Regine; Wendt, Amanda; Gabrysch, Sabine; Yount, Kathryn M

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between women's empowerment and women's nutrition is understudied. We aimed to elucidate this relationship by quantifying possible pathways between empowerment and dietary diversity among women in rural Bangladesh. In 2015, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 2,599 married women ages 15-40 (median: 25) living in 96 settlements of Habiganj District, Bangladesh, as a baseline for the Food and Agricultural Approaches to Reducing Malnutrition trial. We collected data on women's empowerment (highest completed grade of schooling and agency), dietary diversity, and demographic factors, including household wealth. We used exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis on random split-half samples, followed by structural equation modelling, to test pathways from schooling, through domains of women's agency, to dietary diversity. Factor analysis revealed 3 latent domains of women's agency: social solidarity, decision-making, and voice with husband. In the adjusted mediation model, having any postprimary schooling was positively associated with voice with husband (β 41  = .051, p = .010), which was positively associated with dietary diversity (β 54  = .39, p = .002). Schooling also had a direct positive association with women's dietary diversity (β 51  = .22, p diversity. The link between schooling and dietary diversity was direct and indirect, through women's voice with husband but not through women's social solidarity or decision-making. In this population, women with postprimary schooling seem to be better able to negotiate improved diets for themselves. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Prevalence and characterization of motile Salmonella in commercial layer poultry farms in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barua, Himel; Biswas, Paritosh K.; Olsen, Katharina E. P.

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella is a globally widespread food-borne pathogen having major impact on public health. All motile serovars of Salmonella enterica of poultry origin are zoonotic, and contaminated meat and raw eggs are an important source to human infections. Information on the prevalence of Salmonella...... at farm/holding level, and the zoonotic serovars circulating in layer poultry in the South and South-East Asian countries including Bangladesh, where small-scale commercial farms are predominant, is limited. To investigate the prevalence of Salmonella at layer farm level, and to identify the prevalent...... serovars we conducted a cross-sectional survey by randomly selecting 500 commercial layer poultry farms in Bangladesh. Faecal samples from the selected farms were collected following standard procedure, and examined for the presence of Salmonella using conventional bacteriological procedures. Thirty...

  19. Technology-enhanced teacher development in rural Bangladesh: A critical realist evaluation of the context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Md Golam

    2018-04-03

    This study arose in response to the complexity of implementing technology-enhanced learning for teacher development in a developing country. Bangladesh is a country with growing technological capacity including mobile phone network coverage, yet it faces vast challenges of utilising these facilities in the education sector. As educational change and technological innovation do not happen in a vacuum, the researcher used a critical realist approach to understand the layers of the rural Bangladesh context where technology-enhanced learning will take place. Findings have been drawn from survey data (n = 207) and a series of six focus group sessions with the same six stakeholders, informing future technology-enhanced teacher development programmes. The implications of the study are to suggest principles for pedagogical change and a methodological approach which attends to context. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Harnessing pluralism for better health in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Syed Masud; Evans, Timothy G; Standing, Hilary; Mahmud, Simeen

    2013-11-23

    How do we explain the paradox that Bangladesh has made remarkable progress in health and human development, yet its achievements have taken place within a health system that is frequently characterised as weak, in terms of inadequate physical and human infrastructure and logistics, and low performing? We argue that the development of a highly pluralistic health system environment, defined by the participation of a multiplicity of different stakeholders and agents and by ad hoc, diffused forms of management has contributed to these outcomes by creating conditions for rapid change. We use a combination of data from official sources, research studies, case studies of specific innovations, and in-depth knowledge from our own long-term engagement with health sector issues in Bangladesh to lay out a conceptual framework for understanding pluralism and its outcomes. Although we argue that pluralism has had positive effects in terms of stimulating change and innovation, we also note its association with poor health systems governance and regulation, resulting in endemic problems such as overuse and misuse of drugs. Pluralism therefore requires active management that acknowledges and works with its polycentric nature. We identify four key areas where this management is needed: participatory governance, accountability and regulation, information systems, and capacity development. This approach challenges some mainstream frameworks for managing health systems, such as the building blocks approach of the WHO Health Systems Framework. However, as pluralism increasingly defines the nature and the challenge of 21st century health systems, the experience of Bangladesh is relevant to many countries across the world. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Economic development and population policy in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M R

    1984-09-01

    This paper deals with Bangladesh's growth rate and the policy implications for its economy. Despite its obvious influence on the economy, population has never been integrated as an endogenous variable in any planning model. Development planning is mostly supported by donor agencies, involving little micro-level planning and practically no trickle-down effect. This paper examines the interaction of population and other development variables in the country's planning process. Much of the rural population consists of landless farmers share croppers, so that the land ownership pattern contributes to low productivity. Population increase is making the rural masses even poorer. This process is further compounded by increasing foreign aid dependence, adverse terms of trade in the international market, low savings and investments, and the rural sector's worsening terms of trade. During 1950-1970 real per capita gross domestic product (GDP) increased only at a rate of 1% per annum and during 1950-1970 real growth of GDP fell behind the population growth rate. A cost benefit analysis of fertility reduction is needed. The cost benefit ratio of most countries varies between 1:10 to 1:30; for Bangladesh it is 1:16. Macro-model studies indicate that the higher the fertility reduction and shorter the period of required decline, the higher will be the benefits in terms of gains in per capita income. There is, however, a contradiction between national and household interests. The latter's decision to have more children has a negative spillover effect, which nullifies the gains of the community. The national family planning program suffered a serious setback during and after the liberation of Bangladesh, mainly due to lack of administrative leadership and support. In order for the population growth rate to be checked and to increase the quality of life for the entire population, the family planning program must be revitalized by mobilizing the entire government machinery and

  2. Status of radiation curing in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idriss Ali, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    Bangladesh is a small country covering about 148 thousand square kilometer area with a population of 120 million. It has only 15% urban area; most of the people live in the rural area. It is neither industrial nor developed. It is trying hard to stand on its feet combating all damages caused by frequent natural calamities like cyclones and floods. Thus, most of the technological activities are still being carried out on turnkey basis. However, some research and development institutions have already been developed to such an extent that transfer of technology can occur and the local industries can also benefit out of this endeavour

  3. Ladies without lamps: nurses in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Shahaduz

    2009-03-01

    In this article, I explore the experiences and concerns of Bangladeshi nurses. I have based this on a larger ethnographic study that was conducted in a ward of a government teaching hospital in Bangladesh. The study shows how the values and norms of Bangladeshi society have shaped the life of Bangladeshi nurses, that they do scarcely any nursing work, and that they suffer from various negative social images. I argue, through this article, that the role, image, and concerns of Bangladeshi nurses have changed dramatically from the ideal image of nursing, and are dissimilar from the ways nursing is practiced in many other parts of the world.

  4. Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes in Bangladesh: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Sal-sabil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is one of the most significant public health challenge in developing countries. The risk factors for diabetes are poorly understood among the Bangladeshi population. This study aimed to explore the potential risk factors for type 2 diabetes in Bangladesh. A systematic review was performed. Studies describing the risk factors for type 2 diabetes in Bangladesh published between 1994 to 2014 were included and summarized. Of the 35 studies identified, we included 14 studies that met the inclusion criteria. The prevalence of diabetes was higher among females compared to males. Fourteen common risk factors for diabetes in Bangladesh were identified, namely increased age, obesity, waist- hip ratio, social class, hypertension, family history, sedentary life style among others. The p otential risk factors differed by urban-rural areas and by gender. Several risk factors contribute to the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Our reviews suggest "metabolically-disadvantageous" body composition of more abdominal and visceral fat in Bangladeshi adults might cause higher diabetes risk at a lower BMI compared to Western population. Preventive strategies targeting to control risk factors for diabetes is a priority public health issue and should be considered for early intervention by clinicians and policy makers.

  5. Factors predicting quality of work life among nurses in tertiary-level hospitals, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, N; Akkadechanunt, T; Chontawan, R; Klunklin, A

    2017-11-03

    This study examined the level of quality of work life and predictability of years of education, monthly income, years of experience, job stress, organizational commitment and work environment on quality of work life among nurses in tertiary-level hospitals in the People's Republic of Bangladesh. There is an acute shortage of nurses worldwide including Bangladesh. Quality of work life is important for quality of patient care and nurse retention. Nurses in Bangladesh are fighting to provide quality care for emerging health problems for the achievement of sustainable development goals. We collected data from 288 randomly selected registered nurses, from six tertiary-level hospitals. All nurses were requested to fill questionnaire consisted of Demographic Data Sheet, Quality of Nursing Work Life Survey, Expanded Nursing Stress Scale, Questionnaire of Organizational Commitment and Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index. Data were analysed by descriptive statistics and multiple regression. The quality of work life as perceived by nurses in Bangladesh was at moderate level. Monthly income was found as the best predictor followed by work environment, organizational commitment and job stress. A higher monthly income helps nurses to fulfil their personal needs; positive work environment helps to provide quality care to the patients. Quality of work life and predictors measured by self-report only may not reflect the original picture of the quality of work life among nurses. Findings provide information for nursing and health policymakers to develop policies to improve quality of work life among nurses that can contribute to quality of nursing care. This includes the working environment, commitment to the organization and measures to reduce job stress. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.

  6. Patterns and correlates of physical activity in adolescents in Dhaka city, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A; Burton, N W; Trost, S G

    2017-04-01

    Despite the widely acknowledged public health importance of physical activity (PA), few studies have examined levels of PA in Bangladesh. The purpose of this study was to investigate the patterns and correlates of PA in adolescents in Bangladesh. Cross-sectional survey. A total of 798 students, aged 13-17 years; 48% girls, from eight purposively selected secondary schools in Dhaka city, Bangladesh completed a self-administered questionnaire including the 3-Day PA Recall. Parents completed a separate questionnaire to provide household/family-level data. Multilevel generalized linear modelling was used to identify the correlates of PA for boys and girls. Two-thirds (66%) of the adolescents met the recommendations of 60 min/day of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) daily, with more boys than girls (76% and 55%, respectively). The most common activities reported were walking for travel (42%), cricket (33%) and household chores (30%). Multivariable modelling showed that girls' PA was positively associated with mother's education level, walking to school, involvement in school sports and having home sports equipment. Boys' PA was positively associated with mother's employment, having home sports equipment, having a playground at school and walking to school. One third of adolescents in Bangladesh were insufficiently active with girls less active than boys. Walking to school and access to sports facilities including playgrounds and home equipment may be important to promote activity among Bangladeshi adolescents, with special attention to the girls. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Improvement in smallholder farmer knowledge of cattle production, health and biosecurity in Southern Cambodia between 2008 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nampanya, S; Suon, S; Rast, L; Windsor, P A

    2012-04-01

    Farmer knowledge surveys were conducted in 2008 and 2010 in Cambodia to evaluate the impact of a research project studying interventions that can improve cattle production and health, including biosecurity and practices relating to risks of transmission of transboundary diseases. The project hypothesis is that by increasing the value of smallholder-owned large ruminants through nutritional interventions and improved marketing, knowledge-based interventions including risk management for infectious diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) can be implemented into a more sustainable pathway for rural development. Between 2008 and 2010, significant improvements in farmer knowledge and attitudes were recorded in three villages in three provinces of southern Cambodia. This was achieved through participatory 'applied field research', 'on the job' training plus 'formal' training programmes. No cases of FMD were recorded during the study period in the 'high-intervention' (HI) villages despite the common occurrence of the disease in a nearby 'low-intervention' and many other villages in the three provinces. Whilst it is likely that protection of these villages from FMD infection was from increasing the herd immunity by vaccination, it could also have been partly because of a decrease in risk behaviours by farmers as a result of their increasing knowledge of biosecurity. The research indicates that smallholder farmers are motivated by nutritional interventions that improve the value of their cattle 'bank' and offer better marketing opportunities. This provides a more receptive environment for introduction of disease risk management for infectious and other production limiting diseases, best implemented for smallholder farmers in Cambodia by intensive training programmes. In lieu of a widespread public awareness programme to deliver mass education of smallholder farmers in disease prevention and biosecurity, livestock development projects in South-East Asia should be

  8. Pygidiopsis cambodiensis n. sp. (Digenea: Heterophyidae) from experimental hamsters infected with metacercariae in mullets from Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Woon-Mok; Kim, Deok-Gyu; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Cho, Jaeeun; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2016-01-01

    Pygidiopsis cambodiensis n. sp. is described based on adult flukes recovered from Syrian golden hamsters experimentally infected with metacercariae from mullets (Liza macrolepis) purchased at a local fish market in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The specimens were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. Among the 13 species so far assigned to Pygidiopsis, the new species belongs to the summa-type (including Pygidiopsis pelecani, Pygidiopsis phalacrocoracis, Pygidiopsis piclaumoreli, Pygidiopsis plana, and Pygidiopsis summa) which lack circumoral spines and have vitelline follicles extending posteriorly from the level of the ovary some distance into the post-testicular space and the uterus not exceeding the acetabulum anteriorly. The new species differs from the other five species of the summa-type particularly in the morphology of the ventrogenital complex, including the genital sac, gonotyl, and gonotyl spines (= rodlets). The genital sac is well developed, sucker-like, slightly larger than the ventral sucker, muscular, and equipped with two gonotyls on the ventral side of the sac. Gonotyls are protruding pad-like, and the number of rodlets on the left gonotyl is four to five and that on the right gonotyl is 10-11 in two rows. This is the fifth Pygidiopsis species reported in Asia, following P. summa (Japan, Korea, and Vietnam), P. phalacrocorasis (Japan), P. pelecani (China), and Pygidiopsis marivillai (Philippines).

  9. Rehabilitating health services in Cambodia: the challenge of coordination in chronic political emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanjouw, S; Macrae, J; Zwi, A B

    1999-09-01

    The end of the Cold War brought with it opportunities to resolve a number of conflicts around the world, including those in Angola, Cambodia, El Salvador and Mozambique. International political efforts to negotiate peace in these countries were accompanied by significant aid programmes ostensibly designed to redress the worst effects of conflict and to contribute to the consolidation of peace. Such periods of political transition, and associated aid inflows, constitute an opportunity to improve health services in countries whose health indicators have been among the worst in the world and where access to basic health services is significantly diminished by war. This paper analyzes the particular constraints to effective coordination of health sector aid in situations of 'post'-conflict transition. These include: the uncertain legitimacy and competence of state structures; donor choice of implementing channels; and actions by national and international political actors which served to undermine coordination mechanisms in order to further their respective agendas. These obstacles hindered efforts by health professionals to establish an effective coordination regime, for example, through NGO mapping and the establishment of aid coordinating committees at national and provincial levels. These technical measures were unable to address the basic constitutional question of who had the authority to determine the distribution of scarce resources during a period of transition in political authority. The peculiar difficulties of establishing effective coordination mechanisms are important to address if the long-term effectiveness of rehabilitation aid is to be enhanced.

  10. Neurobehavioral effects of arsenic exposure among secondary school children in the Kandal Province, Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vibol, Sao; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Sarmani, Sukiman

    2015-01-01

    The research was carried out at 3 study sites with varying groundwater arsenic (As) levels in the Kandal Province of Cambodia. Kampong Kong Commune was chosen as a highly contaminated site (300–500 μg/L), Svay Romiet Commune was chosen as a moderately contaminated site (50–300 μg/L) and Anlong Romiet Commune was chosen as a control site. Neurobehavioral tests on the 3 exposure groups were conducted using a modified WHO neurobehavioral core test battery. Seven neurobehavioral tests including digit symbol, digit span, Santa Ana manual dexterity, Benton visual retention, pursuit aiming, trail making and simple reaction time were applied. Children's hair samples were also collected to investigate the influence of hair As levels on the neurobehavioral test scores. The results from the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analyses of hair samples showed that hair As levels at the 3 study sites were significantly different (p<0.001), whereby hair samples from the highly contaminated site (n=157) had a median hair As level of 0.93 μg/g, while the moderately contaminated site (n=151) had a median hair As level of 0.22 μg/g, and the control site (n=214) had a median hair As level of 0.08 μg/g. There were significant differences among the 3 study sites for all the neurobehavioral tests scores, except for digit span (backward) test. Multiple linear regression clearly shows a positive significant influence of hair As levels on all the neurobehavioral test scores, except for digit span (backward) test, after controlling for hair lead (Pb), manganese (Mn) and cadmium (Cd). Children with high hair As levels experienced 1.57–4.67 times greater risk of having lower neurobehavioral test scores compared to those with low hair As levels, after adjusting for hair Pb, Mn and Cd levels and BMI status. In conclusion, arsenic-exposed school children from the Kandal Province of Cambodia with a median hair As level of 0.93 µg/g among those from the highly

  11. Mobile phone use among female entertainment workers in Cambodia: an observation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Carinne; Tatomir, Brent; Sovannary, Tuot; Pal, Khuondyla; Mengsrun, Song; Dionosio, Jennifer; Luong, Minh-Anh; Yi, Siyan

    2017-01-01

    Text or voice messages containing health behavior change content may be an inexpensive, discreet, sustainable and scalable way to reach populations at high risk for HIV. In Cambodia, one of the important high-risk populations is female entertainment workers (FEWs). This ethnographic study aims to explore typical phone use, examining patterns and behaviors that may influence the design of future mHealth interventions. The study consisted of one 8-hour non-participant observation session for 15 randomly sampled FEWs. Observations focused on capturing normal daily use of mobile devices. Observation checklists were populated by observers during the observations and a post-observation survey was conducted. Findings were discussed with Cambodian HIV outreach workers and HIV research fellows and their interpretations are summarized below. In this ethnographic study, all 15 participants made calls, checked the time and received research-related texts. More than half (n=8) of the participants engaged in texting to a non-research recipient. About half (n=7) went on Facebook (FB) and some (n=5) listened to music and looked at their FB newsfeed. Fewer played a mobile game, posted a photo to FB, went on YouTube, used FB chat/messenger, watched a video on FB, played a game on FB, used FB call/voice chat, looked at their phone's background or used the LINE app. Fewer still shared their phones, left them unattended, added airtime or changed their SIM cards. When participants received a research text message, most did not share the text message with anyone, did not ask for help deciphering the message and did not receive help composing a response. Notable themes from observer notes, HIV outreach workers and researchers include reasons why phone calls were the most frequent mode of communication, examples of how cell phone company text messages are used as a form of behavior change, literacy as a persistent barrier for some FEWs, and FEWs' high interest in receiving health

  12. Helmets for Kids: evaluation of a school-based helmet intervention in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ederer, David J; Bui, Truong Van; Parker, Erin M; Roehler, Douglas R; Sidik, Mirjam; Florian, Michael J; Kim, Pagna; Sim, Sophal; Ballesteros, Michael F

    2016-02-01

    This paper analyses helmet use before and after implementing Helmets for Kids, a school-based helmet distribution and road safety programme in Cambodia. Nine intervention schools (with a total of 6721 students) and four control schools (with a total of 3031 students) were selected using purposive sampling to target schools where students were at high risk of road traffic injury. Eligible schools included those where at least 50% of students commute to school on bicycles or motorcycles, were located on a national road (high traffic density), had few or no street signs nearby, were located in an area with a history of crash injuries and were in a province where other Cambodia Helmet Vaccine Initiative activities occur. Programme's effectiveness at each school was measured through preintervention and postintervention roadside helmet observations of students as they arrived or left school. Research assistants conducted observations 1-2 weeks preintervention, 1-2 weeks postintervention, 10-12 weeks postintervention and at the end of the school year (3-4 months postintervention). In intervention schools, observed student helmet use increased from an average of 0.46% at 1-2 weeks preintervention to an average of 87.9% at 1-2 weeks postintervention, 83.5% at 10-12 weeks postintervention and 86.5% at 3-4 months postintervention, coinciding with the end of the school year. Increased helmet use was observed in children commuting on bicycle or motorcycle, which showed similar patterns of helmet use. Helmet use remained between 0.35% and 0.70% in control schools throughout the study period. School-based helmet use programmes that combine helmet provision and road safety education might increase helmet use among children. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Neurobehavioral effects of arsenic exposure among secondary school children in the Kandal Province, Cambodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vibol, Sao [United Nations University – International Institute for Global Health, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Faculty of Agricultural Technology and Management, Royal University of Agriculture, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Hashim, Jamal Hisham, E-mail: jamalhas@hotmail.com [United Nations University – International Institute for Global Health, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Community Health, National University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Sarmani, Sukiman [Faculty of Science and Technology, National University of Malaysia, Bangi (Malaysia)

    2015-02-15

    The research was carried out at 3 study sites with varying groundwater arsenic (As) levels in the Kandal Province of Cambodia. Kampong Kong Commune was chosen as a highly contaminated site (300–500 μg/L), Svay Romiet Commune was chosen as a moderately contaminated site (50–300 μg/L) and Anlong Romiet Commune was chosen as a control site. Neurobehavioral tests on the 3 exposure groups were conducted using a modified WHO neurobehavioral core test battery. Seven neurobehavioral tests including digit symbol, digit span, Santa Ana manual dexterity, Benton visual retention, pursuit aiming, trail making and simple reaction time were applied. Children's hair samples were also collected to investigate the influence of hair As levels on the neurobehavioral test scores. The results from the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analyses of hair samples showed that hair As levels at the 3 study sites were significantly different (p<0.001), whereby hair samples from the highly contaminated site (n=157) had a median hair As level of 0.93 μg/g, while the moderately contaminated site (n=151) had a median hair As level of 0.22 μg/g, and the control site (n=214) had a median hair As level of 0.08 μg/g. There were significant differences among the 3 study sites for all the neurobehavioral tests scores, except for digit span (backward) test. Multiple linear regression clearly shows a positive significant influence of hair As levels on all the neurobehavioral test scores, except for digit span (backward) test, after controlling for hair lead (Pb), manganese (Mn) and cadmium (Cd). Children with high hair As levels experienced 1.57–4.67 times greater risk of having lower neurobehavioral test scores compared to those with low hair As levels, after adjusting for hair Pb, Mn and Cd levels and BMI status. In conclusion, arsenic-exposed school children from the Kandal Province of Cambodia with a median hair As level of 0.93 µg/g among those from the highly

  14. Selling sex in unsafe spaces: sex work risk environments in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Lisa; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Phlong, Pisith; Couture, Marie-Claude; Stein, Ellen; Evans, Jennifer; Cockroft, Melissa; Sansothy, Neth; Nemoto, Tooro; Page, Kimberly

    2011-11-20

    The risk environment framework provides a valuable but under-utilised heuristic for understanding environmental vulnerability to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers. Brothels have been shown to be safer than street-based sex work, with higher rates of consistent condom use and lower HIV prevalence. While entertainment venues are also assumed to be safer than street-based sex work, few studies have examined environmental influences on vulnerability to HIV in this context. As part of the Young Women's Health Study, a prospective observational study of young women (15-29 years) engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, we conducted in-depth interviews (n = 33) to explore vulnerability to HIV/STI and related harms. Interviews were conducted in Khmer by trained interviewers, transcribed and translated into English and analysed for thematic content. The intensification of anti-prostitution and anti-trafficking efforts in Cambodia has increased the number of women working in entertainment venues and on the street. Our results confirm that street-based sex work places women at risk of HIV/STI infection and identify significant environmental risks related to entertainment-based sex work, including limited access to condoms and alcohol-related intoxication. Our data also indicate that exposure to violence and interactions with the police are mediated by the settings in which sex is sold. In particular, transacting sex in environments such as guest houses where there is little or no oversight in the form of peer or managerial support or protection, may increase vulnerability to HIV/STI. Entertainment venues may also provide a high risk environment for sex work. Our results indicate that strategies designed to address HIV prevention among brothel-based FSWs in Cambodia have not translated well to street and entertainment-based sex work venues in which increasing numbers of women are working. There is an urgent need for targeted interventions

  15. Digital Divide between Teachers and Students in Urban Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin

    2011-01-01

    Telecom boom since 2000 and ‘Digital Bangladesh’ campaign since late 2008 created significant nationwide hype, resulting rapid increase in the use of digital devices. While studies are being conducted to use the ability of “power users of technology” for reducing digital divide, there is hardly any...... data available on them in Bangladesh context. A study was conducted to study the digital divide and ICT usage pattern among the urban students and teachers of schools and colleges in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. About 75 students enrolled in probability and statistics course of Independent...... into digital divide and associated reasons in four different educations systems in Bangladesh....

  16. A Culture Under Siege: Post-Colonial Higher Education and Teacher Education in Cambodia from 1953 to 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Masson, Gildas; Fergusson, Lee C.

    1997-01-01

    Charts the 20-year rise and fall of higher education and teacher education in Cambodia beginning with political independence in 1953 and ending with the devastation wrought by the Khmer Rouge. Discusses the effects of political instability, civil war, and the Vietnam War on Cambodia's educational system. (MJP)

  17. Violence Against Women in Cambodia: Towards a Culturally Responsive Theory of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbruch, Maurice

    2018-01-17

    Almost one in four women in Cambodia is a victim of physical, emotional or sexual violence. This article brings together two seldom connected fields: Theory of Change (ToC) and cultural responsiveness in international development. It applies these approaches to a priority in global health, which is to prevent violence against women (VAW) and, drawing on my research on the epigenesis of VAW in Cambodia, develops an argument on the need for interventions to work with tradition and culture rather than only highlight it in problematic terms. The research draws on an ethnographic study carried out in Cambodia with 102 perpetrators and survivors of emotional, physical and sexual VAW and 228 key informants from the Buddhist and healing sectors. The eight 'cultural attractors' identified in the author's prior research highlight the cultural barriers to acceptance of the current Theory of Change. ToC for VAW prevention in Cambodia seems to assume that local culture promotes VAW and that men and women must be educated to eradicate the traditional gender norms. There is a need for interventions to work with tradition and culture rather than only highlight it in problematic terms. The cultural epigenesis of VAW in Cambodia is an insight which can be used to build culturally responsive interventions and strengthen the primary prevention of VAW.

  18. Medical Biotechnology: Problems and Prospects in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Mizan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology is the knowledge and techniques of developing and using biological systems for deriving special products and services. The age-old technology took a new turn with the advent of recombinant DNA techniques, and boosted by the development of other molecular biological techniques, cell culture techniques and bioinformatics. Medical biotechnology is the major thrust area of biotechnology. It has brought revolutions in medicine – quick methods for diagnosing diseases, generation of new drugs and vaccines, completely novel approach of treatment are only a few to mention. The industrial and financial bulk of the industry mushroomed very rapidly in the last three decades, led by the USA and western advanced nations. Asian countries like China, India, South Korea, Taiwan and Singapore joined late, but advancing forward in a big way. In all the Asian countries governments supported the initiatives of the expert and entrepreneur community, and invested heavily in its development. Bangladesh has got great potential in developing biotechnology and reaping its fruits. However, lack of commitment and patriotism, and too much corruption and irresponsibility in political and bureaucratic establishment are the major hindrance to the development of biotechnology in Bangladesh.

  19. Electricity Crisis and Load Management in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Kanti Das

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is a densely populated country. Only a small part of her area is electrified which cover around 18% of total population. The people who are in the electrified area are suffering from severe load shedding. A systematic load management procedure related to demand side may improve the situation is the research problem. The major objectives serve by the research are to analyze contemporary electricity status with a view to drawing inference about demand supply gap and extracting benefits from load management. Data supplied by the Bangladesh Power Development Board, World Bank and outcome of survey are analyzed with some simple statistical tools to test the hypothesis. Analysis discloses that with properly managed uses of electricity with load switch and rotation week-end can improve the concurrent condition of electricity. Moreover, introducing smart distribution system, reducing system loss, shifting load to off-peak, large scale use of prepaid mete, observing energy week and using energy efficient home and office appliance are recommended to improve load through demand side management. Some other recommendations such as introducing alternative energy, public private partnership and using renewable energy development and producing energy locally are made for load management from the supply side.

  20. Development of a context specific accreditation assessment tool for affirming quality midwifery education in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogren, Malin; Sathyanarayanan Doraiswamy; Erlandsson, Kerstin; Akhter, Halima; Akter, Dalia; Begum, Momtaz; Chowdhury, Merry; Das, Lucky; Akter, Rehana; Begum, Sufia; Akter, Renoara; Yesmin, Syeada; Khatun, Yamin Ara

    2018-02-21

    using the International Confederation of Midwives (ICM) Global Standards for Midwifery Education as a conceptual framework, the aim of this study was to explore and describe important 'must haves' for inclusion in a context-specific accreditation assessment tool in Bangladesh. A questionnaire study was conducted using a Likert rating scale and 111 closed-response single items on adherence to accreditation-related statements, ending with an open-ended question. The ICM Global Standards guided data collection, deductive content analysis and description of the quantitative results. twenty-five public institutes/colleges (out of 38 in Bangladesh), covering seven out of eight geographical divisions in the country. one hundred and twenty-three nursing educators teaching the 3-year diploma midwifery education programme. this study provides insight into the development of a context-specific accreditation assessment tool for Bangladesh. Important components to be included in this accreditation tool are presented under the following categories and domains: 'organization and administration', 'midwifery faculty', 'student body', 'curriculum content', 'resources, facilities and services' and 'assessment strategies'. The identified components were a prerequisite to ensure that midwifery students achieve the intended learning outcomes of the midwifery curriculum, and hence contribute to a strong midwifery workforce. The components further ensure well-prepared teachers and a standardized curriculum supported at policy level to enable effective deployment of professional midwives in the existing health system. as part of developing an accreditation assessment tool, it is imperative to build ownership and capacity when translating the ICM Global Standards for Midwifery Education into the national context. this initiative can be used as lessons learned from Bangladesh to develop a context-specific accreditation assessment tool in line with national priorities, supporting the