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Sample records for include attention deficit

  1. Including Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Mainstream Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Around 80% of pupils with attention deficit disorders are educated in mainstream schools. The difficulties relating to inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity experienced by such pupils present mainstream educators with a unique set of challenges and opportunities. In this article, Neil Humphrey, Senior Lecturer in the Psychology of Education…

  2. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Marguerite; Nigg, Joel T.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder’s pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic theories, and the use of neuroimaging to further understand the etiology. We address some of the major concerns that remain unclear about ADHD, including subtype instability, heterogeneity, and the underlying neural correlates that define the disorder. We highlight that the field of ADHD is rapidly evolving; the descriptions provided here will hopefully provide a sturdy foundation for which to build and improve our understanding of the disorder. PMID:24214656

  3. Attention deficits and divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Geneviève; Saint-Aubin, Jean

    2014-09-01

    Building on previous work on the role of attention deficits associated with the regulation of executive control in psychiatric disorders, we examine whether these attention deficits are related to an interpersonal disturbance, the experience of divorce. Attentional capacities of 95 randomly selected couples from the general population were measured with a well-established task, the Attentional Network Task, which assesses the efficiency of 3 attention networks (that is, alerting, orienting, and executive control). Among the 190 participants, 32 had experienced a divorce in the past. ANCOVAs were used to compare divorced people in marital or cohabiting unions with people in first unions in their performance on this purely cognitive task. Our findings indicate that divorced people who are currently living in a cohabiting relationship show significantly lower executive control than other adults living as couples, after controlling for sex, age, income, and education. This subgroup of divorced people not only exhibit greater difficulty in responding to some stimuli while ignoring irrelevant ones but also manifest cognitive deficits in conflict resolution. This study highlights the links between attention and the long-term maintenance of intimate relationships. Our results may have important implications for the identification of people at risk for divorce.

  4. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001551.htm Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a problem caused ...

  5. Dissociations between developmental dyslexias and attention deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukov, Limor; Friedmann, Naama; Shalev, Lilach; Khentov-Kraus, Lilach; Shalev, Nir; Lorber, Rakefet; Guggenheim, Revital

    2014-01-01

    We examine whether attention deficits underlie developmental dyslexia, or certain types of dyslexia, by presenting double dissociations between the two. We took into account the existence of distinct types of dyslexia and of attention deficits, and focused on dyslexias that may be thought to have an attentional basis: letter position dyslexia (LPD), in which letters migrate within words, attentional dyslexia (AD), in which letters migrate between words, neglect dyslexia, in which letters on one side of the word are omitted or substituted, and surface dyslexia, in which words are read via the sublexical route. We tested 110 children and adults with developmental dyslexia and/or attention deficits, using extensive batteries of reading and attention. For each participant, the existence of dyslexia and the dyslexia type were tested using reading tests that included stimuli sensitive to the various dyslexia types. Attention deficit and its type was established through attention tasks assessing sustained, selective, orienting, and executive attention functioning. Using this procedure, we identified 55 participants who showed a double dissociation between reading and attention: 28 had dyslexia with normal attention and 27 had attention deficits with normal reading. Importantly, each dyslexia with suspected attentional basis dissociated from attention: we found 21 individuals with LPD, 13 AD, 2 neglect dyslexia, and 12 surface dyslexia without attention deficits. Other dyslexia types (vowel dyslexia, phonological dyslexia, visual dyslexia) also dissociated from attention deficits. Examination of 55 additional individuals with both a specific dyslexia and a certain attention deficit found no attention function that was consistently linked with any dyslexia type. Specifically, LPD and AD dissociated from selective attention, neglect dyslexia dissociated from orienting, and surface dyslexia dissociated from sustained and executive attention. These results indicate that

  6. Magnesium supplementation in children with attention deficit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farida El Baza

    2015-07-07

    Jul 7, 2015 ... Abstract Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevel- opmental disorder with associated ... attention, hyperactivity, increased impulsivity and emotional deregulation, resulting in ... Full detailed medical history including presence of organic or psychological diseases ...

  7. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokor, Gyula; Anderson, Peter D

    2014-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobiological condition of childhood onset with the hallmarks of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Inattention includes excessive daydreaming, disorganization, and being easily distracted. Impulsivity manifests as taking an action before fully thinking of the consequences. Hyperactivity includes an excessive rate of speech and motor activity. Complications of ADHD include academic failure, low self-esteem, poor work performance, substance abuse, criminal justice issues, and social problems. ADHD is predominately due to decreased activity in the frontal lobe. Dopamine and norepinephrine are the main neurotransmitters involved in the pathophysiology of ADHD. Pharmacological treatment of ADHD includes psychostimulants, norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, α2 agonists, bupropion, and monoamine oxidase inhibitors. The most effective medications are the psychostimulants. Nonpharmacological treatment of ADHD includes coaching, providing structure, academic accommodations, and work accommodations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tube DysfunctionStrep ThroatHyperthyroidismOpioid AddictionDiabetesCroupAnemia Home Diseases and Conditions Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Condition Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity ...

  9. Detection of feigned attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucha, Lara; Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Koerts, Janneke; Groen, Yvonne; Thome, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there is an increasing awareness that individuals may purposely feign or exaggerate symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to gain external incentives, including access to stimulant drugs or special academic accommodations. There are vast consequences of

  10. Multicomponent attention deficits in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, Birim Günay; Sener, Sahnur; Koçkar, Aylin Ilden; Karakaş, Sirel

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the specific aspects of attention, such as selective attention, sustained attention, and short-term memory in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, combined subtype (ADHD-C). A total of 40 children with a diagnosis of ADHD from the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, aged 6-11 years old were compared with 40 controls matched for age and gender on a battery of tests. Short-term memory span and attention was measured by Visual Aural Digit Span Test-Revised. Stroop test and the Turkish version of Cancellation Test were used to assess selective and sustained attention, respectively. In order to check for factor structure in two groups on the test scores, principal component analysis was conducted for both groups separately. Relative to the comparison children, children with ADHD showed significant deficits on tests that are related to different aspects of attention. The results are consistent with the theories explaining the biological basis of ADHD by scattered attention networks in the brain, which have reciprocal dynamic interactions. Further comparative studies are needed to elucidate whether the cognitive processes that are known to be assessed by these tests are specific to ADHD.

  11. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-04-10

    This podcast discusses Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD, the most common behavioral disorder in children. Learn about symptoms, risk factors, and treatment.  Created: 4/10/2014 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 5/7/2014.

  12. Adult Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Overview Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental health disorder that ... combination of persistent problems, such as difficulty paying attention, hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. Adult ADHD can lead ...

  13. Faststats: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)* Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... visits Number of visits to physician offices with attention deficit disorder as the primary diagnosis: 10.9 ...

  14. [Attentional impairment in children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbes, Zeineb; Bouden, Asma; Amado, Isabelle; Chantal Bourdel, Marie; Tabbane, Karim; Béchir Halayem, Mohamed

    2009-10-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous disorder currently defined by clinical history and behavioral report of impairment. The Attention Network test (ANT) gives measures of different aspects of the complex process of attention. We ask if children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) will show a characteristic pattern of deficits on this test. The sample included 40 children (M=9 years) who performed the "Attention network test". Children with an ADHD diagnosis (N=20) were compared to a control group (N=20). The group of children with ADHD showed slower reaction times in all conditions (mean RT=866 ms; SD=234,063). Children with ADHD showed a significant impairment in their executive control system compared to healthy subjects, with slower reaction times in incongruent conditions and lower accuracy scores (RT=1064 ms; F(1.38) p=0.02). Our results showed that spatial orienting and alerting in ADHD was no different than controls (p=0,68). ADHD group showed a greater variable response (p=0,0001). The present study showed that impairment in executive control system and variability measures are the characteristic pattern of deficits in children with ADHD.

  15. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Intervention: Strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper addresses attention deficit hyperactivity disorder intervention strategies for primary school teachers. Wrong labelling of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder has given rise to this paper. Hitherto not much attention has been given to the pupils who manifest symptoms of this chronic behavioural ...

  16. Stigma in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Anna K.; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Lara

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequently diagnosed disorder in child- and adulthood with a high impact affecting multiple facets of social life. Therefore, patients suffering from ADHD are at high risk to be confronted with stigma, prejudices, and discrimination. A review of the empirical research in the field of ADHD with regard to stigma was performed. The findings of investigations in this field were clustered in different categories, including stigma in children wit...

  17. Dissociations between developmental dyslexias and attention deficits

    OpenAIRE

    Lukov, Limor; Friedmann, Naama; Shalev, Lilach; Khentov-Kraus, Lilach; Shalev, Nir; Lorber, Rakefet; Guggenheim, Revital

    2015-01-01

    We examine whether attention deficits underlie developmental dyslexia, or certain types of dyslexia, by presenting double dissociations between the two. We took into account the existence of distinct types of dyslexia and of attention deficits, and focused on dyslexias that may be thought to have an attentional basis: letter position dyslexia (LPD), in which letters migrate within words, attentional dyslexia (AD), in which letters migrate between words, neglect dyslexia, in which letters on o...

  18. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosler, M.; Casas, M.; Konofal, E.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine available literature regarding attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults. METHODS: An electronic literature search of peer-reviewed English language articles using MEDLINE (without time limits) was undertaken. RESULTS: Symptoms of ADHD in adults exert a

  19. Focusing on ADHD - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe September 2014 Print this issue Focusing on ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder En español Send us ... Power of Pets Sound Health Wise Choices Managing ADHD Help kids with ADHD stay on top of ...

  20. Mindfulness and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Smalley, Susan L.; Loo, Sandra K.; Hale, T. Sigi; Shrestha, Anshu; McGough, James; Flook, Lisa; Reise, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder characterized by attentional difficulties. Mindfulness is a receptive attention to present experience. Both ADHD and mindfulness are associated with attention and personality. This study tests whether individuals with ADHD have lower mindfulness scores than controls and, if true, whether personality contributes to these differences. 105 adults (half with ADHD) were assessed for mindfulness, using the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulne...

  1. Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to instructions, inability to organize oneself and school work, fidgeting with hands and feet, talking too much, leaving projects, chores and homework unfinished, and having trouble paying attention to and responding ...

  2. Attentional blink in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Amador, Juan Antonio; Aznar Casanova, José Antonio; Bezerra, Izabela; Torro Alves, Nelson; Moreno Sánchez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the temporal mechanism of attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and controls using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task in which two letters (T1 and T2) were presented in close temporal proximity among distractors (attentional blink [AB]). Method: Thirty children aged between 9 and 13 years (12 with ADHD combined type and 18 controls) took part in the study. Both groups performed two kinds of RSVP task. In the single task, p...

  3. Genetic Basis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Nihal Yurteri; A. Evren Tufan; Gizem Melissa Akgun; Ayten Erdogan

    2011-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neuropsychiatric disorders of childhood. Due to studies reporting that the effects of ADHD diagnosis on functioning may last throughout life, this disorder, which has great importance for child and adolescent psychiatry, started to attract greater attention recently in terms of adult psychiatry. A review, evaluating the results of studies conducted on the genetic basis of ADHD, which started to attract increasing attent...

  4. Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserstein, Jeanette; Wasserstein, Adella; Wolf, Lorraine E.

    This digest examines attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and symptoms of the disability. Pertinent adult problems include: (1) substance abuse, antisocial behaviors, and criminality, all of which can occur in adults with ADHD; (2) poor social skills or deficits in self-awareness are also frequent; (3) occurrence of ADHD with…

  5. Detection of feigned attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucha, Lara; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Koerts, Janneke; Groen, Yvonne; Thome, Johannes

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, there is an increasing awareness that individuals may purposely feign or exaggerate symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to gain external incentives, including access to stimulant drugs or special academic accommodations. There are vast consequences of undetected feigned ADHD such as substantial costs covered by society for unnecessary assessments and treatments, unjustified occupation of limited medical resources and undermining society's trust in the existence of the disorder or the effectiveness of treatment. In times of economic crisis and cost savings in the medical sector, the detection of feigned ADHD is of importance. This review briefly describes the research on this topic with an emphasis on the approaches available for detection of feigned ADHD (i.e., self-report questionnaires, personality inventories, cognitive tests used in routine neuropsychological assessment and tests specifically designed for detecting feigned cognitive dysfunction). Promising approaches and measures are available for identifying feigned ADHD but there is an immediate need for further research.

  6. Connectivity supporting attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Anita D; Jacobson, Lisa A; Wexler, Joanna L; Nebel, Mary Beth; Caffo, Brian S; Pekar, James J; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-01-01

    Intra-subject variability (ISV) is the most consistent behavioral deficit in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ISV may be associated with networks involved in sustaining task control (cingulo-opercular network: CON) and self-reflective lapses of attention (default mode network: DMN). The current study examined whether connectivity supporting attentional control is atypical in children with ADHD. Group differences in full-brain connection strength and brain-behavior associations with attentional control measures were examined for the late-developing CON and DMN in 50 children with ADHD and 50 typically-developing (TD) controls (ages 8-12 years). Children with ADHD had hyper-connectivity both within the CON and within the DMN. Full-brain behavioral associations were found for a number of between-network connections. Across both groups, more anti-correlation between DMN and occipital cortex supported better attentional control. However, in the TD group, this brain-behavior association was stronger and occurred for a more extensive set of DMN-occipital connections. Differential support for attentional control between the two groups occurred with a number of CON-DMN connections. For all CON-DMN connections identified, increased between-network anti-correlation was associated with better attentional control for the ADHD group, but worse attentional control in the TD group. A number of between-network connections with the medial frontal cortex, in particular, showed this relationship. Follow-up analyses revealed that these associations were specific to attentional control and were not due to individual differences in working memory, IQ, motor control, age, or scan motion. While CON-DMN anti-correlation is associated with improved attention in ADHD, other circuitry supports improved attention in TD children. Greater CON-DMN anti-correlation supported better attentional control in children with ADHD, but worse attentional control in TD children. On the other

  7. Modafinil Trial in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A film-coated tablet formulation of modafinil (ProvigilR was used to treat a total of 246 patients, ages 6 to 17 years, with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD at the Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, and other centers.

  8. Did goethe describe attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonazza, Sara; Scaglione, Cesa; Poppi, Massimo; Rizzo, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    As early as 1846, the typical symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were described by Heinrich Hoffmann (1809-1894). However, in Goethe's masterpiece Faust (1832), the character of Euphorion strongly suggests ADHD diagnosis. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Medication Treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph B.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Hughes, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorder among school-age children. For more than half a century, physicians have prescribed medications to help manage behaviors such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Today, there is a growing consensus that ADHD is a biologically…

  10. Personality Correlates of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilveil, Ira; Clark, Dona

    This study delineates personality correlates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.) A standardized projective technique (the Roberts Apperception Test for Children (RATC) and the Conners Parent Rating Scale were administered to 52 ADHD children, ages 6-15. Results indicated that, when compared to the RATC standardization sample, ADHD…

  11. Stigma in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Kathi; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Lara

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequently diagnosed disorder in child- and adulthood with a high impact affecting multiple facets of social life. Therefore, patients suffering from ADHD are at high risk to be confronted with stigma, prejudices, and discrimination. A review of

  12. Primary School Teacher's knowledge towards Attention Deficit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Primary School Teacher's knowledge towards Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and its associated factors in Nekemte town, Oromiya Region, Western Ethiopia. ... There are 10 government and 20 private full cycle primary schools in the town. Institution based descriptive cross-sectional study were applied.

  13. Magnesium supplementation in children with attention deficit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder with associated mineral deficiency. Aim: To assess magnesium level in ADHD children and compare it to the normal levels in children. Then, to detect the effect of magnesium supplementation as an add on therapy, ...

  14. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdizán, J R; Izaguerri-Gracia, A C

    2009-02-27

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may exist in up to 60% of adults, whose first symptoms appeared before they were seven years old. Since it is a neurobiological condition, its basic symptoms -lack of attention, hyperactivity and impulsiveness- are similar at all ages, but in adults the clinical manifestations are specific to the subgroup with more frequent comorbidities than in childhood. Manifestations that characteristically appear in adults are difficulty in concentrating, poorer memory and short-term memory, disorganisation, difficulties with self-discipline, impulsiveness, low self-esteem, mental restlessness, frustration and limited social skills. Today, adult cases are underdiagnosed because for a long time ADHD was thought to be a condition that only affected children and teenagers; however, although its clinical manifestations in adults are essentially similar to those seen in children, they are different and have different forms of presentation. There are no biomedical tests that allow an objective diagnosis to be established, and thus care must be taken to draw up and evaluate a patient record that includes possible symptoms since childhood, typical signs and symptoms, and any relevant comorbidities. Self-evaluation scales are necessary as the preferred instrument for use as an aid to the patient record. The main pharmacological treatment is based on psychopharmaceuticals such as immediate-, controlled- or extended-release methylphenidate and on atomoxetine; cognitive-behavioural and psychosocial treatment should also be associated.

  15. Clinical treatment reverses attentional deficits in congestive heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamai Sérgio

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congestive heart failure (CHF is associated with cognitive deficits, particularly of memory and attention. The present study aims to clarify whether clinical treatment can reverse the attentional deficits of patients with CHF. Methods A convenience sample of 50 patients with CHF functional class IV and 30 elderly controls were recruited from a teaching hospital in Brazil. Participants received a clinical and cognitive examination that included the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, Cambridge Cognitive Examination of the Elderly (CAMCOG, Digit Span, Digit-Symbol Substitution, and Letter Cancellation test. The cognitive performance of CHF patients was reassessed 6 weeks after the introduction of clinical treatment. Results Twenty-seven CHF subjects had MMSE 0.10. Conclusions CHF is associated with deficits in attention and psychomotor speed. These deficits improve with clinical treatment.

  16. A Multiple Deficit Model of Reading Disability and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Searching for Shared Cognitive Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Lauren M.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Shanahan, Michelle A.; Santerre-Lemmon, Laura E.; Barnard, Holly D.; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.; Olson, Richard K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study tests a multiple cognitive deficit model of reading disability (RD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and their comorbidity. Methods: A structural equation model (SEM) of multiple cognitive risk factors and symptom outcome variables was constructed. The model included phonological awareness as a unique…

  17. Assessing attentional systems in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, Maria; Martella, Diana; Ruggiero, Maria Cleonice; Maccari, Lisa; Paloscia, Claudio; Rosa, Caterina; Pasini, Augusto

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency and interactions of attentional systems in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) by considering the effects of reinforcement and auditory warning on each component of attention. Thirty-six drug-naïve children (18 children with ADHD/18 typically developing children) performed two revised versions of the Attentional Network Test, which assess the efficiency of alerting, orienting, and executive systems. In feedback trials, children received feedback about their accuracy, whereas in the no-feedback trials, feedback was not given. In both conditions, children with ADHD performed more slowly than did typically developing children. They also showed impairments in the ability to disengage attention and in executive functioning, which improved when alertness was increased by administering the auditory warning. The performance of the attentional networks appeared to be modulated by the absence or the presence of reinforcement. We suggest that the observed executive system deficit in children with ADHD could depend on their low level of arousal rather than being an independent disorder. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  18. Current pharmacotherapy of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, D S

    2013-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral developmental disorder in children and adults characterized by a persistent pattern of impulsiveness, inattention and hyperactivity. It affects about 3-10% of children and 2-5% of adolescents and adults and occurs about four times more commonly in boys than girls. The cause of ADHD is unknown, but it has strong genetic and environment components. The first-line treatment options for ADHD include behavioral therapy, pharmacotherapy with stimulants or both. Methylphenidate and amphetamine salts are the stimulant drugs of choice for ADHD treatment. Amphetamines act by increasing presynaptic release of dopamine and other biogenic amines in the brain. Methylphenidate inhibits the reuptake of dopamine and norepinephrine and therefore its pharmacology is identical to that of amphetamines. Lisdex-amfetamine is a prodrug of dextroamphetamine with low feasibility for abuse. Atomoxetine, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, is an alternative, non-stimulant drug for ADHD but it is less efficacious than stimulants. Stimulants are generally safe but are associated with adverse effects including headache, insomnia, anorexia and weight loss. There is increased awareness about serious cardiovascular and psychiatric adverse events with ADHD drugs including concern for growth suppression in children. Stimulants have a high potential for abuse and dependence, and should be handled safely to prevent misuse and abuse. Copyright 2013 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  19. Medical Comorbidities in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irem Yalug

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is one of the most common developmental disorders of childhood with a reported world-wide prevalence of 8 to 12 %. In studies conducted in our country the prevalence rates in community were reported to vary between 8.6 to 8.1 % while clinical prevalence rates were reported to vary between 8.6 to 29.44 %. Fifty to eighty percent of cases were reported to continue into adolescence while thirty to fifty percent may continue into adulthood. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is known to accompany subtle physical anomalies, allergic and neurologic disorders, obesity and eating disorders, traumatic injuries, risky sexual behavior, sleep disorders, substance and alcohol use, axis I and II disorders, occupational, legal and academic problems and increased treatment expenditures. Though the effects of this disorder continue throughout life, create burdens to the society along with its treatment as well as disabling the affected patients through their lives, and receive increasing attention in recent years, reviews focusing on problems associated with it are lacking. Therefore, this study aimed to summarize the results of previous studies conducted about medical comorbidities in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  20. Attentional Lapses of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Tasks of Sustained Attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gmehlin, Dennis; Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Walther, Stephan; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver; Weisbrod, Matthias; Aschenbrenner, Steffen

    Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show attentional dysfunction such as distractibility and mind-wandering, especially in lengthy tasks. However, fundamentals of dysfunction are ambiguous and relationships of neuropsychological test parameters with self-report measures of

  1. Training on Movement Figure-Ground Discrimination Remediates Low-Level Visual Timing Deficits in the Dorsal Stream, Improving High-Level Cognitive Functioning, Including Attention, Reading Fluency, and Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Teri; Shelley-Tremblay, John

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether neurotraining to discriminate a moving test pattern relative to a stationary background, figure-ground discrimination, improves vision and cognitive functioning in dyslexics, as well as typically-developing normal students. We predict that improving the speed and sensitivity of figure-ground movement discrimination (PATH to Reading neurotraining) acts to remediate visual timing deficits in the dorsal stream, thereby improving processing speed, reading fluency, and the executive control functions of attention and working memory in both dyslexic and normal students who had PATH neurotraining more than in those students who had no neurotraining. This prediction was evaluated by measuring whether dyslexic and normal students improved on standardized tests of cognitive skills following neurotraining exercises, more than following computer-based guided reading (Raz-Kids (RK)). The neurotraining used in this study was visually-based training designed to improve magnocellular function at both low and high levels in the dorsal stream: the input to the executive control networks coding working memory and attention. This approach represents a paradigm shift from the phonologically-based treatment for dyslexia, which concentrates on high-level speech and reading areas. This randomized controlled-validation study was conducted by training the entire second and third grade classrooms (42 students) for 30 min twice a week before guided reading. Standardized tests were administered at the beginning and end of 12-weeks of intervention training to evaluate improvements in academic skills. Only movement-discrimination training remediated both low-level visual timing deficits and high-level cognitive functioning, including selective and sustained attention, reading fluency and working memory for both dyslexic and normal students. Remediating visual timing deficits in the dorsal stream revealed the causal role of visual movement

  2. Training on Movement Figure-Ground Discrimination Remediates Low-Level Visual Timing Deficits in the Dorsal Stream, Improving High-Level Cognitive Functioning, Including Attention, Reading Fluency, and Working Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teri Lawton

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether neurotraining to discriminate a moving test pattern relative to a stationary background, figure-ground discrimination, improves vision and cognitive functioning in dyslexics, as well as typically-developing normal students. We predict that improving the speed and sensitivity of figure-ground movement discrimination (PATH to Reading neurotraining acts to remediate visual timing deficits in the dorsal stream, thereby improving processing speed, reading fluency, and the executive control functions of attention and working memory in both dyslexic and normal students who had PATH neurotraining more than in those students who had no neurotraining. This prediction was evaluated by measuring whether dyslexic and normal students improved on standardized tests of cognitive skills following neurotraining exercises, more than following computer-based guided reading (Raz-Kids (RK. The neurotraining used in this study was visually-based training designed to improve magnocellular function at both low and high levels in the dorsal stream: the input to the executive control networks coding working memory and attention. This approach represents a paradigm shift from the phonologically-based treatment for dyslexia, which concentrates on high-level speech and reading areas. This randomized controlled-validation study was conducted by training the entire second and third grade classrooms (42 students for 30 min twice a week before guided reading. Standardized tests were administered at the beginning and end of 12-weeks of intervention training to evaluate improvements in academic skills. Only movement-discrimination training remediated both low-level visual timing deficits and high-level cognitive functioning, including selective and sustained attention, reading fluency and working memory for both dyslexic and normal students. Remediating visual timing deficits in the dorsal stream revealed the causal role of visual

  3. Training on Movement Figure-Ground Discrimination Remediates Low-Level Visual Timing Deficits in the Dorsal Stream, Improving High-Level Cognitive Functioning, Including Attention, Reading Fluency, and Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Teri; Shelley-Tremblay, John

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether neurotraining to discriminate a moving test pattern relative to a stationary background, figure-ground discrimination, improves vision and cognitive functioning in dyslexics, as well as typically-developing normal students. We predict that improving the speed and sensitivity of figure-ground movement discrimination ( PATH to Reading neurotraining) acts to remediate visual timing deficits in the dorsal stream, thereby improving processing speed, reading fluency, and the executive control functions of attention and working memory in both dyslexic and normal students who had PATH neurotraining more than in those students who had no neurotraining. This prediction was evaluated by measuring whether dyslexic and normal students improved on standardized tests of cognitive skills following neurotraining exercises, more than following computer-based guided reading ( Raz-Kids ( RK )). The neurotraining used in this study was visually-based training designed to improve magnocellular function at both low and high levels in the dorsal stream: the input to the executive control networks coding working memory and attention. This approach represents a paradigm shift from the phonologically-based treatment for dyslexia, which concentrates on high-level speech and reading areas. This randomized controlled-validation study was conducted by training the entire second and third grade classrooms (42 students) for 30 min twice a week before guided reading. Standardized tests were administered at the beginning and end of 12-weeks of intervention training to evaluate improvements in academic skills. Only movement-discrimination training remediated both low-level visual timing deficits and high-level cognitive functioning, including selective and sustained attention, reading fluency and working memory for both dyslexic and normal students. Remediating visual timing deficits in the dorsal stream revealed the causal role of visual movement

  4. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in prison inmates

    OpenAIRE

    Ginsberg, Ylva

    2012-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an inherited developmental disorder with early onset, chronically persisting in the vast majority of cases. ADHD is associated with pervasive cognitive, emotional and functional impairments, as well as an increased rate of coexisting disorders. ADHD in the presence of early disruptive behaviours increase the risk for later delinquency. ADHD is estimated to be present in about 25-45% of adult prison inmates, thus 10-times increased...

  5. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    White, Russell D.; Harris, George D.; Gibson, Margaret E.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common in the general population, and many individuals with this condition participate in sports activity at all competition levels. Evidence Acquisition: Related studies were selected through literature searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane databases for the years 1991 to 2011. Key search terms were ADD, ADHD, sports, athletes, athletics, guidelines, NCAA, WADA, IOC, college, concussion, diagnosis, management, treatment, evaluat...

  6. ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER. A CLINICAL LECTURE

    OpenAIRE

    A. S. Kotov; M. N. Borisova; M. V. Panteleeva; Yu. V. Matyuk; A. V. Shatalin

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a serious problem to pediatric neurologists. The prevalence of ADHD in developed countries ranges from 1 to 20 %. ADHD is characterized by a triad of symptoms: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity (the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, codes it as F90) and it is the most common conduct disorder in children. The etiology of ADHD remains disсutable to the present day; there are a few basic concepts of t...

  7. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Preschool-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Mini; Pergjika, Alba

    2017-07-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder marked by age-inappropriate deficits in attention or hyperactivity/impulsivity that interfere with functioning or development. It is highly correlated with other disorders, such as oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and mood symptoms. The etiology is multifactorial, and neuroimaging findings are nonspecific. Although assessment tools exist, there is variability among them, and historically, parent-teacher agreement has not been consistent. Treatment algorithm for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in preschoolers includes behavioral interventions first followed by psychopharmacologic treatment when behavioral therapies fail. Other nonpharmacologic and nonbehavioral interventions are discussed including the role of exercise and nutrition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER. A CLINICAL LECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kotov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a serious problem to pediatric neurologists. The prevalence of ADHD in developed countries ranges from 1 to 20 %. ADHD is characterized by a triad of symptoms: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity (the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, codes it as F90 and it is the most common conduct disorder in children. The etiology of ADHD remains disсutable to the present day; there are a few basic concepts of the origin of this disorder. Its manifestations may be a reason for family conflicts, poor peer relationships, social and school maladjustment, learning problems, lower academic performance, accidents and injuries, smoking, psychoactive substance abuse (toxicomania, narcomania, delinquencies, deviant social behavior, thus having a negative impact on all spheres of a patient’s life. The manifestations of ADHD may continue in adulthood, resulting in work and family life problems, low self-evaluation, alcohol and psychoactive substance abuse, and other unfavorable consequences. The authors describe the etiology, pathogenesis, diagnostic principles (diagnostic scales and tests, differential diagnosis (by setting out a large group of different diseases, the manifestations of which can mimic ADHD, treatment, and prognosis of the disorder. Within its therapeutic correction framework, the authors present the definition and general principles of Montessori therapy, including recommendations for parents and relatives to deal with children with ADHD. 

  9. Stigma in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Anna K; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Lara

    2012-09-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequently diagnosed disorder in child- and adulthood with a high impact affecting multiple facets of social life. Therefore, patients suffering from ADHD are at high risk to be confronted with stigma, prejudices, and discrimination. A review of the empirical research in the field of ADHD with regard to stigma was performed. The findings of investigations in this field were clustered in different categories, including stigma in children with ADHD, stigma in adults with ADHD, stigma in relatives or in people close to a patient with ADHD, and the influence of stigma on authorities' attitudes toward patients with ADHD. Variables identified to contribute to stigma in ADHD are public's uncertainty concerning the reliability/validity of an ADHD diagnosis and the related diagnostic assessment, public's perceived dangerousness of individuals with ADHD, socio-demographical factors as age, gender, and ethnicity of the respondent or the target individual with ADHD, stigmatization of ADHD treatment, for example public's skepticism toward ADHD medication and disclosure of diagnostic status as well as medication status of the individual with ADHD. The contribution of stigma associated with ADHD can be conceptualized as an underestimated risk factor, affecting treatment adherence, treatment efficacy, symptom aggravation, life satisfaction, and mentally well-being of individuals affected by ADHD. Public as well as health professionals' concepts about ADHD are highly diverse, setting individuals with an ADHD diagnosis at greater risk to get stigmatized.

  10. Executive and attentional contributions to Theory of Mind deficit in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Alison; Slama, Hichem; Mousty, Philippe; Massat, Isabelle; Capiau, Tatiana; Drabs, Virginie; Peigneux, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children has been associated with attentional and executive problems, but also with socioemotional difficulties possibly associated with deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM). Socioemotional problems in ADHD are associated with more negative prognoses, notably interpersonal, educational problems, and an increased risk of developing other psychiatric disorders that emphasize the need to clarify the nature of their ToM deficits. In this study, we hypothesized that ToM dysfunction in children with ADHD is largely attributable to their attentional and/or executive deficits. Thirty-one children with ADHD (8-12 years, IQ > 85) and 31 typically developing (TD) children were assessed using executive functions (inhibition, planning, and flexibility) and attentional tasks, as well as two advanced ToM tasks (Reading the Mind in the Eyes and Faux Pas) involving different levels of executive control. Children with ADHD performed more poorly than TD children in attentional, executive function, and ToM tasks. Linear regression analyses conducted in the ADHD group indicated that inhibition scores predicted performance on the "Faux Pas" task the best, while attention scores were the best for predicting performance on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task. When controlled for inhibition and attentional variables, ToM performance in children with ADHD was actually similar to TD children. Contrarily, controlling for ToM scores did not normalize performance for inhibition and attentional tasks in children with ADHD. This unidirectional relationship suggests that deficits in the EF and attentional domains are responsible for ToM deficits in ADHD, which therefore may contribute to their socioemotional difficulties.

  11. Stroke caused auditory attention deficits in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Maria Ibraim da Freiria Elias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify the auditory selective attention in children with stroke. METHODS: Dichotic tests of binaural separation (non-verbal and consonant-vowel and binaural integration - digits and Staggered Spondaic Words Test (SSW - were applied in 13 children (7 boys, from 7 to 16 years, with unilateral stroke confirmed by neurological examination and neuroimaging. RESULTS: The attention performance showed significant differences in comparison to the control group in both kinds of tests. In the non-verbal test, identifications the ear opposite the lesion in the free recall stage was diminished and, in the following stages, a difficulty in directing attention was detected. In the consonant- vowel test, a modification in perceptual asymmetry and difficulty in focusing in the attended stages was found. In the digits and SSW tests, ipsilateral, contralateral and bilateral deficits were detected, depending on the characteristics of the lesions and demand of the task. CONCLUSION: Stroke caused auditory attention deficits when dealing with simultaneous sources of auditory information.

  12. Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Data and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Note: Javascript is disabled ... claims to understand diagnosis and treatment patterns for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). On this page you ...

  13. Update on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Katie Campbell

    2004-04-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is present in 3% to 10% of children in the United States. Children with ADHD can have academic impairments, social dysfunction, and poor self-esteem. There is also a higher risk of both cigarette smoking and substance abuse. Given this, the importance of treatment for ADHD needs to be underscored. This article will briefly review the diagnosis, etiology, and treatment of ADHD, with particular focus on nonstimulant medication and alternative treatment modalities. Recent evidence suggests that the overall rate of medication treatment for ADHD has been increasing, with over 2 million children being treated with stimulants in 1997. With this increase, controversy has arisen over the possible association of stimulants with growth suppression. In addition, estimates indicate that as many as 30% of children with ADHD either do not respond to stimulant treatment or cannot tolerate the treatment secondary to side effects. This has lead to the consideration of treatment with both nonstimulant medications as well as alternative therapies, including diet, iron supplementation, herbal medications, and neurofeedback. Considering the various treatment options now available for ADHD, along with the complexity of the condition, clinical practice guidelines are emerging for the treatment of ADHD and will be discussed. ADHD continues to be a serious health problem. Adequate treatment is needed to avoid academic impairments, social dysfunction, and poor self-esteem. This treatment includes consideration of stimulant medication, nonstimulant medication, as well as alternative therapies. The child with ADHD is likely better served with a mutimodal treatment plan, including medication, parent/school counseling, and behavioral therapy. Implementing an evidenced based algorithm for the treatment of ADHD may prove to be most effective.

  14. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Obesity: Update 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Cortese, Samuele; Tessari, Luca

    2017-01-01

    While psychiatric comorbidities of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been extensively explored, less attention has been paid to somatic conditions possibly associated with this disorder. However, mounting evidence in the last decade pointed to a possible significant association between ADHD and certain somatic conditions, including obesity. This papers provides an update of a previous systematic review on the relationship between obesity and ADHD (Cortese and Vincenzi, Curr...

  15. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, S.

    2013-01-01

    The proposed revision of the diagnostic criteria in DSM-5 for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) will not fundamentally change the concept of ADHD. This is mainly due to the fact that, DSM-5 will retain the exact DSM-IV wording of all 18 symptoms, but will add new examples that make...... will most likely increase the prevalence of ADHD, especially in adults and adolescents, but maybe also in children. The added examples will also result in necessary revisions and new validations of rating scales and diagnostic interviews. This review will examine each of the proposed DSM-5 changes...

  16. Treatment Approaches to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antai-Otong, Deborah; Zimmerman, Michele L

    2016-06-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder in children, adolescents, and adults, with a prevalence estimated from 5% to 7% across cultures and approximately 2% to 5% in adults. This lifelong disorder challenges nurses to understand the basis of ADHD, analyze symptoms, differentiate coexisting disorders, gather health information from varied sources, and implement person-centered multimodal treatment. Nurses are poised to plan, and work with patients, families, and teachers in the community and school systems to optimize academic and occupational performance and improve quality of life. Pharmacotherapy, psychoeducation, and behavioral therapies are strong components of multimodal treatment planning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [DMS-5 - attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaschewski, Tobias; Döpfner, Manfred

    2014-07-01

    Modifications to the DSM-5 criteria for the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders are described and discussed. The main modifications concern the onset of the disorder, the reduction on the number of criteria fulfilled for a diagnosis in patients aged 17 years or older, and the elimination of autism spectrum disorders as an exclusion criterion for this diagnosis. These changes are mainly welcomed. However, the demanded increase in the age for the latest onset of the disorder may prove to be problematic.

  18. Test Anxiety and College Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jason M.; Lindstrom, Will; Foels, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Test anxiety was examined in college students with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results indicated that, relative to college students without ADHD, college students with ADHD reported higher total test anxiety as well as specific aspects of test anxiety, including worry (i.e., cognitive aspects of test anxiety) and…

  19. Relationship between Learning Problems and Attention Deficit in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponde, Milena Pereira; Cruz-Freire, Antonio Carlos; Silveira, Andre Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of attention deficit on learning problems in a sample of schoolchildren in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Method: All students enrolled in selected elementary schools were included in this study, making a total of 774 children. Each child was assessed by his or her teacher using a standardized scale. "The…

  20. Mindfulness and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, Susan L; Loo, Sandra K; Hale, T Sigi; Shrestha, Anshu; McGough, James; Flook, Lisa; Reise, Steven

    2009-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder characterized by attentional difficulties. Mindfulness is a receptive attention to present experience. Both ADHD and mindfulness are associated with attention and personality. This study tests whether individuals with ADHD have lower mindfulness scores than controls and, if true, whether personality contributes to these differences. One hundred and five adults (half with ADHD) were assessed for mindfulness, using the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills, and personality, using the Tridimensional Character Inventory. Individuals with ADHD report themselves as less mindful than non-ADHD controls and more novelty-seeking, less self-directed, and more self-transcendent. Mindfulness is negatively associated with ADHD and positively associated with self-directedness and self-transcendence. Analyses of subscales of mindfulness suggest that ADHD is associated most with the "Acting in Awareness" dimension, perhaps because of shared items reflecting attentional variability. The current findings support that a large portion of variability in trait mindfulness can be explained by ADHD status and personality traits of self-directedness and self-transcendence. It further suggests that interventions that increase mindfulness might improve symptoms of ADHD and increase self-directedness and/or self-transcendence.

  1. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder during adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnin, E; Maurs, C

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), although considered a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental condition, is nevertheless a frequent and disabling condition in adults. A proportion of such patients are not diagnosed during childhood or adolescence, as diagnosis of the syndrome is rather complex, especially when other psychiatric, neurological or other neurodevelopmental conditions are also associated, yet comorbidities and consequences of ADHD are frequently observed in adults and older populations. As ADHD patients present to memory clinics with attentional and executive disorders, neuropsychological examinations of undiagnosed ADHD patients may reveal atypical cognitive profiles that can complicate the usual diagnostic procedure and increase the risk of delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis. Thus, explorations of cognitive and/or behavioral disorders in adult populations should systematically screen for this neurodevelopmental condition. Accurate diagnosis could lead to non-pharmaceutical and/or pharmaceutical treatments to improve symptoms and quality of life for adult ADHD patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Sleep disturbance and deficits of sustained attention following stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Samuel C; Stolwyk, Renerus J; New, Peter W; Anderson, Clare

    2016-01-01

    To simultaneously investigate the prevalence of and impact that the poststroke complications of daytime sleepiness, poor sleep quality, depression, and fatigue may be having upon deficits of sustained attention, as assessed using the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT). Twenty-two patients with stroke (mean age: 68.23 ± 12.17 years) and 20 healthy control participants (mean age: 68.1 ± 9.5 years) completed subjective measures of daytime sleepiness, sleep quality, fatigue, and depression and an objective measure of sustained attention as assessed using the PVT. Patients with stroke compared to controls showed heightened levels of fatigue (p = .001, η(2) = .29) and depression (p = .002, η(2) = .23), plus greater deficits of sustained attention as reflected by poorer performance across all PVT outcome measures including: slower mean reaction times (p = .002, η(2) = .22); increased number of lapses (p = .002, η(2) = .24); and greater variability in reaction time (RT) responses (p = .016, η(2) = .15). Reaction time distribution analysis suggested that daytime sleepiness and sleep quality had little influence across PVT performance; however, depressive symptomology was associated with longer RT responses, indicative of inattention, and fatigue impacted upon the entire distribution of PVT responses. PVT performance illustrated significant deficits across the domain of sustained attention for patients with stroke in comparison to healthy controls, in terms of inattention as well as slower sensory-motor speed. The common poststroke complications of depressive symptomology and fatigue appear to be associated with these deficits in sustained attention, warranting further investigation.

  3. Attentional blink in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Amador-Campos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To explore the temporal mechanism of attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and controls using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP task in which two letters (T1 and T2 were presented in close temporal proximity among distractors (attentional blink [AB].Method:Thirty children aged between 9 and 13 years (12 with ADHD combined type and 18 controls took part in the study. Both groups performed two kinds of RSVP task. In the single task, participants simply had to identify a target letter (T1, whereas in the dual task, they had to identify a target letter (T1 and a probe letter (T2.Results:The ADHD and control groups were equivalent in their single-task performance. However, in the dual-task condition, there were significant between-group differences in the rate of detection of the probe letter (T2 at lag + 1 and lag + 4. The ADHD group exhibited a larger overall AB compared with controls.Conclusion:Our findings provide support for a link between ADHD and attentional blink.

  4. Attentional blink in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador-Campos, Juan A; Aznar-Casanova, J Antonio; Bezerra, Izabela; Torro-Alves, Nelson; Sánchez, Manuel M

    2015-01-01

    To explore the temporal mechanism of attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and controls using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task in which two letters (T1 and T2) were presented in close temporal proximity among distractors (attentional blink [AB]). Thirty children aged between 9 and 13 years (12 with ADHD combined type and 18 controls) took part in the study. Both groups performed two kinds of RSVP task. In the single task, participants simply had to identify a target letter (T1), whereas in the dual task, they had to identify a target letter (T1) and a probe letter (T2). The ADHD and control groups were equivalent in their single-task performance. However, in the dual-task condition, there were significant between-group differences in the rate of detection of the probe letter (T2) at lag + 1 and lag + 4. The ADHD group exhibited a larger overall AB compared with controls. Our findings provide support for a link between ADHD and attentional blink.

  5. Attention Contributes to Arithmetic Deficits in New-Onset Childhood Absence Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dazhi Cheng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychological studies indicate that new-onset childhood absence epilepsy (CAE is associated with deficits in attention and executive functioning. However, the contribution of these deficits to impaired academic performance remains unclear. We aimed to examine whether attention and executive functioning deficits account for the academic difficulties prevalent in patients with new-onset CAE. We analyzed cognitive performance in several domains, including language, mathematics, psychomotor speed, spatial ability, memory, general intelligence, attention, and executive functioning, in 35 children with new-onset CAE and 33 control participants. Patients with new-onset CAE exhibited deficits in mathematics, general intelligence, attention, and executive functioning. Furthermore, attention deficits, as measured by a visual tracing task, accounted for impaired arithmetic performance in the new-onset CAE group. Therefore, attention deficits, rather than impaired general intelligence or executive functioning, may be responsible for arithmetic performance deficits in patients with new-onset CAE.

  6. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Executive Function Impairment: An Overview.

    OpenAIRE

    Carruthers, Lindsey.

    2016-01-01

    As with any cognitive ability, attention is vulnerable to dysfunction. The most common attentional problem is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This brief overview will highlight the symptoms and deficits associated with ADHD, its prevalence in today’s society, the association between executive function impairment and ADHD using Barkley’s (1997) work, and the personal and societal effects of the disorder.

  7. Story Comprehension and Academic Deficits in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: What Is the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthiaume, Kristen S.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the reliable findings that children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have both attentional and academic difficulties, it is assumed that the attentional deficit contributes to the academic problems. In this article, existing support for a link between the attentional and academic difficulties experienced by children…

  8. A framework of psychological compensation in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkt, Julia; Reinelt, Tilman; Petermann, Franz

    2015-01-01

    The term compensation is widely used in the context of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), yet, it is neither defined nor theory driven. Adapting a model of psychological compensation (Bäckman and Dixon, 1992) to fit ADHD research is the aim of this review: we will (1) introduce the existing theoretical framework of psychological compensation, (2) discuss its applicability to ADHD and adapt the model to fit ADHD research, and (3) set up requirements for research on psychological compensation in ADHD. According to the framework psychological compensation can be inferred if a deficit (i.e., a mismatch between skill and environmental demand) is counterbalanced by the investment of more effort, the utilization of latent skills, or the acquisition of new skills. The framework has to be adapted because ADHD deficits are developmental and in individuals with ADHD compensation can appear independent of awareness of the deficit. A better understanding of psychological compensation in ADHD could foster diagnosis and interventions. Therefore, we suggest that future studies should follow a research design incorporating independent measures of deficit, compensation, and outcome as well as include individuals who compensate for their ADHD related deficits.

  9. A framework of psychological compensation in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eMerkt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The term compensation is widely used in the context of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, yet, it is neither defined nor theory driven. Adapting a model of psychological compensation (Bäckman and Dixon, 1992 to fit ADHD research is the aim of this review: We will (1 introduce the existing theoretical framework of psychological compensation, (2 discuss its applicability to ADHD and adapt the model to fit ADHD research, and (3 set up requirements for research on psychological compensation in ADHD. According to the framework psychological compensation can be inferred if a deficit (i.e., a mismatch between skill and environmental demand is counterbalanced by the investment of more effort, the utilization of latent skills, or the acquisition of new skills. The framework has to be adapted because ADHD deficits are developmental and in individuals with ADHD compensation can appear independent of awareness of the deficit. A better understanding of psychological compensation in ADHD could foster diagnosis and interventions. Therefore, we suggest that future studies should follow a research design incorporating independent measures of deficit, compensation and outcome as well as include individuals who compensate for their ADHD related deficits.

  10. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tuberous sclerosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agati, Elisa; Moavero, Romina; Cerminara, Caterina; Curatolo, Paolo

    2009-10-01

    The neurobiological basis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in tuberous sclerosis complex is still largely unknown. Cortical tubers may disrupt several brain networks that control different types of attention. Frontal lobe dysfunction due to seizures or epileptiform electroencephalographic discharges may perturb the development of brain systems that underpin attentional and hyperactive functions during a critical early stage of brain maturation. Comorbidity of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with mental retardation and autism spectrum disorders is frequent in children with tuberous sclerosis. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may also reflect a direct effect of the abnormal genetic program. Treatment of children with tuberous sclerosis complex with combined symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and epilepsy may represent a challenge for clinicians, because antiepileptic therapy and drugs used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may aggravate the clinical picture of each other.

  11. Diagnostic Issues and Gender Differences of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Valdovinos, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    This literature review looks at different studies on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) and the findings on gender differences. Many studies have analyzed male and femaleADHD behaviors, cognitive functioning, IQ, task performance, and parent/teacher and selfreportedratings. Most studies have found that the results for gender differences vary due to thevarying sample selection methods that they use, which include clinical and community samples,sample size, culture, and age. Results...

  12. Complex Prospective Memory in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Westermann, Celina; Weisbrod, Matthias; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults has been associated with disturbances of attention and executive functions. Furthermore, impairments of verbal and figural retrospective memory were reported. However, little is known about the effects of ADHD on prospective

  13. Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Symptoms and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Note: Javascript is disabled ... for developmental level: Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, ...

  14. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Signs Treating ADHD Reprints For More Information Share Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): The Basics Download PDF ... Overview Do you find it hard to pay attention? Do you feel the need to move constantly ...

  15. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Motor Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulardins, Juliana B; Marques, Juliana C B; De Oliveira, Jorge A

    2017-04-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurobehavioral disorder during childhood, affecting approximately 3-6% of school-aged children; its cardinal symptoms of high activity, impulsivity, and behavioral distractibility might be assumed to have close relationships to interferences with motor skills. A separate body of literature attests to ways that motor problems can severely impact children's daily lives, as motor problems may occur in 30-50% of children with ADHD. This article critically reviews research on motor impairment in children with ADHD, notable differences in motor performance of individuals with ADHD compared with age-matched controls, and possible neural underpinnings of this impairment. We discuss the highly prevalent link between ADHD and developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and the lack of a clear research consensus about motor difficulties in ADHD. Despite increasing evidence and diagnostic classifications that define DCD by motor impairment, the role of ADHD symptoms in DCD has not been delineated. Similarly, while ADHD may predispose children to motor problems, it is unclear whether any such motor difficulties observed in this population are inherent to ADHD or are mediated by comorbid DCD. Future research should address the exact nature and long-term consequences of motor impairment in children with ADHD and elucidate effective treatment strategies for these disorders together and apart.

  16. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and adoption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Mayoralas, Daniel Martín; Fernández-Perrone, Ana L; López-Arribas, Sonia; Pelaz-Antolín, Antonio; Fernández-Jaén, Alberto

    2015-02-25

    The term adoption or adoptive filiation is understood as referring to the legal act by which family ties are created between two persons such that a relationship of fatherhood or motherhood is established between them. AIMS. The purpose of this study is to outline the problems derived from prenatal exposure to alcohol and other risk factors, from hypostimulation during the 'critical period' in institutionalised patients (especially those adopted from eastern European countries) and their relation with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This work also seeks to take a deeper look into the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of these problems. These children have problems in terms of psychosocial relationships, behavioural problems, delayed language or reading development and, above all, ADHD. In practice it is extremely difficult to separate the two factors during the assessment of children adopted from eastern European countries in neuropaediatric consultations. Exactly how all these factors are interrelated is not well understood. There is a close relationship between prenatal exposure to alcohol and the consequences of adoption. There is a need for placebo-controlled randomised studies, with larger population samples, that test the benefits and profile of side effects, both with psychostimulants and with atomoxetine in this group of patients.

  17. Developmental psychopathology: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sören; Petermann, Franz

    2009-09-17

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274.

  18. Developmental psychopathology: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petermann Franz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. Method According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Results Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. Conclusion These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274.

  19. Attentional Lapses of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Tasks of Sustained Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmehlin, Dennis; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Walther, Stephan; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver; Weisbrod, Matthias; Aschenbrenner, Steffen

    2016-06-01

    Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show attentional dysfunction such as distractibility and mind-wandering, especially in lengthy tasks. However, fundamentals of dysfunction are ambiguous and relationships of neuropsychological test parameters with self-report measures of ADHD symptoms are marginal. We hypothesize that basic deficits in sustaining attention explain more complex attentional dysfunction in persons with ADHD and relate to ADHD symptoms. Attentional function was analyzed by computing ex-Gaussian parameters for 3 time Blocks in a 20 min test of sustained alertness. Changes in performance across these blocks were analyzed by comparing adult persons with ADHD (n = 24) with healthy matched controls (n = 24) and correlated with neuropsychological measures of selective and divided attention as well as self-report measures of ADHD symptoms. We found a significantly steeper increase in the number of slow responses (ex-Gaussian parameter τ) in persons with ADHD with time on task in basic sustained alertness. They also performed significantly worse in tasks of sustained selective and divided attention. However, after controlling for an increase in τ during the alertness task, significant differences between groups disappeared for divided and partly selective attention. Increases in τ in the sustained alertness task correlated significantly with self-report measures of ADHD symptoms. Our results provide evidence that very basic deficits in sustaining attention in adults with ADHD are related to infrequent slow responses (=attentional lapses), with changes over time being relevant for more complex attentional function and experienced ADHD symptoms in everyday life. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Neuropsychological Treatment of Attention Deficit Disorder in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovieva, Yulia; Quintanar, Luis

    2017-01-01

    The syndrome of attention deficit disorder is one of the most frequent pictures of disabilities in pre-scholars. The present study analyses the results of fulfillment of tasks for mechanisms of control and spatial functions. 14 pre-scholars with attention deficit disorder took part in the study. The neuropsychological evaluation was applied before…

  1. Persistence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder into adulthood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Persistence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder into adulthood: A study conducted on parents of children diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Z Mahomedy, D van der Westhuizen, MJ van der Linde, J Coetsee. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  2. Connectivity supporting attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita D. Barber

    2015-01-01

    While CON–DMN anti-correlation is associated with improved attention in ADHD, other circuitry supports improved attention in TD children. Greater CON–DMN anti-correlation supported better attentional control in children with ADHD, but worse attentional control in TD children. On the other hand, greater DMN–occipital anti-correlation supported better attentional control in TD children.

  3. Zinc in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, L Eugene; DiSilvestro, Robert A

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to review the published evidence for a role of zinc nutrition in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A computer literature search was supplemented by the authors' knowledge. Numerous controlled studies report cross-sectional evidence of lower zinc tissue levels (serum, red cells, hair, urine, nails) in children who have ADHD, compared to normal controls and population norms. A few studies show correlations of zinc level with either clinical severity or a change thereof in response to stimulant or chemical challenge. Two placebo-controlled trials--one of zinc monotherapy, the other of zinc supplementation of methylphenidate--reported significant benefit. However, diagnostic procedures and sample representativeness were often not clear, and most such reports have come from countries and cultures with different diets and/or socioeconomic realities than are found in the United States (only one American sample in nine published reports). In particular, both positive clinical trials of zinc supplementation came from the Mid-East (Turkey and Iran), an area with suspected endemic zinc deficiency. The largest of these trials used zinc doses above the recommended upper tolerable limit and had a 2 in 3 dropout rate. It is not clear how well the accumulating evidence for a possible role of zinc in ADHD applies to middle-class American children. However, the evidence appears strong enough to warrant further controlled study in well-diagnosed samples representative of the socioeconomic spectrum. Hypothesis-testing clinical trials are needed of this potential treatment that, if found effective, might become a relatively safe, cheap substitute for, or adjunct to, current treatments in some patients. At present, it should remain an investigational treatment.

  4. Attention Contributes to Arithmetic Deficits in New-Onset Childhood Absence Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Dazhi; Yan, Xiuxian; Gao, Zhijie; Xu, Keming; Chen, Qian

    2017-01-01

    Neuropsychological studies indicate that new-onset childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) is associated with deficits in attention and executive functioning. However, the contribution of these deficits to impaired academic performance remains unclear. We aimed to examine whether attention and executive functioning deficits account for the academic difficulties prevalent in patients with new-onset CAE. We analyzed cognitive performance in several domains, including language, mathematics, psychomotor...

  5. Deficient Attention Is Hard to Find: Applying the Perceptual Load Model of Selective Attention to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L.; Nigg, Joel T.; Carr, Thomas H.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Whether selective attention is a primary deficit in childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) remains in active debate. Methods: We used the "perceptual load" paradigm to examine both early and late selective attention in children with the Primarily Inattentive (ADHD-I) and Combined subtypes (ADHD-C) of ADHD. Results:…

  6. Altered salience processing in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegelbeckers, Jana; Bunzeck, Nico; Duzel, Emrah; Bonath, Björn; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Krauel, Kerstin

    2015-06-01

    Attentional problems in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have often been linked with deficits in cognitive control. Whether these deficits are associated with increased sensitivity to external salient stimuli remains unclear. To address this issue, we acquired functional brain images (fMRI) in 38 boys with and without ADHD (age: 11-16 years). To differentiate the effects of item novelty, contextual rareness and task relevance, participants performed a visual oddball task including four stimulus categories: a frequent standard picture (62.5%), unique novel pictures (12.5%), one repeated rare picture (12.5%), and a target picture (12.5%) that required a specific motor response. As a main finding, we can show considerable overlap in novelty-related BOLD responses between both groups, but only healthy participants showed neural deactivation in temporal as well as frontal regions in response to novel pictures. Furthermore, only ADHD patients, but not healthy controls, engaged wide parts of the novelty network when processing the rare but familiar picture. Our results provide first evidence that ADHD patients show enhanced neural activity in response to novel but behaviorally irrelevant stimuli as well as reduced habituation to familiar items. These findings suggest an inefficient use of neuronal resources in children with ADHD that could be closely linked to increased distractibility. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. [Sleeping disorders can imitate attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvolby, Allan; Jørgensen, Jan Ib; Bilenberg, Niels

    2005-10-10

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often associated with anxiety, depression, oppositional defiant disorder and sleeping difficulties. Sleeping disorders are reported in more than 50% of children with ADHD. On the other hand, symptoms of sleep disorder, inattention, hyperactivity and impulsiveness can imitate the symptoms of ADHD. We describe a 5(1/2)-year-old boy with symptoms of attention deficit and social withdrawal. His sleep was disturbed, with late sleep onset and frequent awakening during the night. After correction of his sleep pattern, the symptoms of attention deficit and social withdrawal disappeared.

  8. Stigmatization in teachers towards adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Tucha, Lara; Müller, Kathi; Koerts, Janneke; Hauser, Joachim; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is understood as a developmental disorder which shares common characteristics between childhood, adolescence and adulthood. However, ADHD is widely associated with misconceptions and misbeliefs which can lead to stigmatization. Teachers

  9. Dansk standardisering af attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder-ratingskalaen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lotte; Jørgensen, Siv Lykke; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. The diagnostic classification is based on developmental anamnesis, objective examination, neuropsychological tests, observation of the child, and evaluation of the symptoms...

  10. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Adolescents With Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Karen L; Lam, David; Tsui, Sarah; Ngan, Mary; Tsang, Brian; Lam, Siu M

    2016-04-01

    We examined attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adolescents with epilepsy and the association with seizure-related and sociodemographic variables. Strengths and Weakness of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Normal Behaviors rating scale was administered to 122 children with epilepsy and 50 children with asthma, aged 10 to 18 years attending mainstream schools. Twenty-nine (23.7%) adolescents with epilepsy compared with five (10%) with asthma had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (P = 0.037). Adolescents with epilepsy had a significantly higher score in the inattention subscale when compared with those with asthma (-0.25 ± 1.2 vs -0.64 ± 1.07, P = 0.049). Combined subtype was most frequent in the epilepsy group. Oppositional defiant disorders were more prevalent in those having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatric assistance had only been provided to one third of our patients with epilepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder at the time of study. There was a negative correlation between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder scores and age of seizure onset. A positive correlation was observed between the number of antiepileptic drugs and the inattentive subscale score. The impact of various correlates on individual subtypes was not identical. Independent risk factors associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were medical comorbidities (odds ratio = 12.82, 95% confidence interval 4.44, 37.03, P Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is overrepresented in adolescents with epilepsy; screening for its symptoms should be an integral part of management in adolescents with epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Borderline personality traits and adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms: A genetic analysis of comorbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Distel, M.A.; Carlier, A.; Middeldorp, C.M.; Derom, C.A.; Lubke, G.H.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has established the comorbidity of adult Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with different personality disorders including Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). The association between adult ADHD and BPD has primarily been investigated at the phenotypic level and not

  12. Borderline personality traits and adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms: a genetic analysis of comorbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Distel, Marijn A.; Carlier, Angela; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Derom, Catherine A.; Lubke, Gitta H.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has established the comorbidity of adult Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with different personality disorders including Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). The association between adult ADHD and BPD has primarily been investigated at the phenotypic level and not

  13. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Korean Juvenile Delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Paul Kyuman; Jung, Hyun-Oak; Noh, Kyung-Sun

    2001-01-01

    Identifies attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) in Korean juvenile delinquents. Intelligence tests, Test of Variables of Attention, Teacher Report form, Youth Self-Report, and Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale were administered to 98 incarcerated youth and 84 nondelinquent youth. In the delinquent youth, 42.2% of the adolescents were…

  14. Experimental Training of Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscalkiene, Viktorija

    2009-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) negatively affects the cognitive and psychomotoric spheres of the pupil's social behavior and social adaptation. The review of many studies states that pupils with AD/HD achieve worse learning results because of insufficiently functioning cognitive processes, such as attention, (work) memory,…

  15. Does Restless Legs Syndrome increase cardiovascular risk in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angriman, Marco; Bruni, Oliviero; Cortese, Samuele

    2013-01-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests a possible association between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Restless Legs Syndrome with or without Periodic Limb Movements during Sleep. When comorbid, Restless Legs Syndrome/Periodic Limb Movements during Sleep might aggravate Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms. Pharmacological treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder may be associated, at least in some cases, with adverse cardiovascular events, including clinically significant elevation in heart rate and systemic blood pressure. However, the characteristics of patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder at risk for cardiovascular events during pharmacological treatment are poorly understood. Here, we hypothesize that Restless Legs Syndrome and/or Periodic Limb Movements during Sleep comorbid with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder increase cardiovascular risk via imbalance in activity of the autonomic nervous system. Such an imbalance of the could be related to alterations of sleep microarchitecture also detected by cyclic alternating pattern analysis. If empirical studies confirm our hypothesis, the clinician would be advised to systematically screen for and effectively treat Restless Legs Syndrome/Periodic Limb Movements during Sleep even before starting treatment with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder drugs. The management of Restless Legs Syndrome/Periodic Limb Movements during Sleep might reduce cardiovascular risk during pharmacological treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Psychostimulants on Distinct Attentional Parameters in Attentional Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    JAVIER LÓPEZ; VLADIMIR LÓPEZ; DANIEL ROJAS; XIMENA CARRASCO; PAULA ROTHHAMMER; RICARDO GARCÍA; FRANCISCO ROTHHAMMER; FRANCISCO ABOITIZ

    2004-01-01

    Although there is extensive literature about the effects of stimulants on sustained attention tasks in attentional deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), little is known about the effect of these drugs on other attentional tasks involving different neural systems. In this study we measured the effect of stimulants on ADHD children, both in the electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during sustained attentional tasks and in psychometric performance during selective attentional tasks. These tas...

  17. Cognitive Neuroscience of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Current Status and Working Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Chandan J.; Stollstorff, Melanie

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience studies of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) suggest multiple loci of pathology with respect to both cognitive domains and neural circuitry. Cognitive deficits extend beyond executive functioning to include spatial, temporal, and lower-level "nonexecutive" functions. Atypical functional anatomy extends beyond…

  18. Adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder - a brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dramsdahl, Margaretha; Ersland, Lars; Plessen, Kerstin J

    2011-01-01

    Background: Impaired cognitive control in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be related to a prefrontal cortical glutamatergic deficit. We assessed the glutamate level in the left and the right midfrontal region including the anterior cingulate cortex in adults...

  19. Attention deficit and attention training in early twentieth-century Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Toshinobu; Ando, Mizuho; Kumagai, Keiko

    2015-06-01

    Yuzero Motora (1856-1912), regarded as the first professional Japanese psychologist, tried to address students' attention difficulties through attention training methods of his own design. His reports contain the first description of ADHD-like symptoms in the history of Japan. Motora viewed "distractibility" as the irregular transition of attention. Students with low scores and attention difficulties who participated in Motora's exercises showed improvement in arithmetic, psychological testing, and certain aspects of daily life. This article describes Motora's theoretical conception of attention and attention training methodology, the history of attention deficit and attention training, and the significance of Motora's experiments.

  20. Visual Attention and Academic Performance in Children with Developmental Disabilities and Behavioural Attention Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Hannah E.; Gray, Kylie; Riby, Deborah M.; Taffe, John; Cornish, Kim M.

    2017-01-01

    Despite well-documented attention deficits in children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), distinctions across types of attention problems and their association with academic attainment has not been fully explored. This study examines visual attention capacities and inattentive/hyperactive behaviours in 77 children aged 4 to…

  1. Methylphenidate use in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Salles Neves Machado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A Brazilian Health Technology Assessment Bulletin (BRATS article regarding scientific evidence of the efficacy and safety of methylphenidate for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD has caused much controversy about its methods. Considering the relevance of BRATS for public health in Brazil, we critically reviewed this article by remaking the BRATS search and discussing its methods and results. Two questions were answered: did BRATS include all references available in the literature? Do the conclusions reflect the reviewed articles? The results indicate that BRATS did not include all the references from the literature on this subject and also that the proposed conclusions are different from the results of the articles chosen by the BRATS authors themselves. The articles selected by the BRATS authors showed that using methylphenidate is safe and effective. However, the BRATS final conclusion does not reflect the aforementioned and should not be used to support decisions on the use of methylphenidate.

  2. Oculomotor Anomalies in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Evidence for Deficits in Response Preparation and Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahone, E. Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Lasker, Adrian G.; Zee, David; Denckla, Martha B.

    2009-01-01

    Girls, but not boys, with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have significantly longer visually guided saccades latencies. It is found that sex differences in children with ADHD extend beyond symptom presentation to the development of oculomotor control.

  3. Color perception deficits in co-existing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and chronic tic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roessner, V.; Banaschewski, T.; Fillmer-Otte, A.; Becker, A.; Albrecht, B.; Uebel, H.; Sergeant, J.A.; Tannock, R.; Rothenberger, A.

    2008-01-01

    Preliminary findings suggest that color perception, particularly of blue-yellow stimuli, is impaired in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as in chronic tic disorders (CTD). However, these findings have been not replicated and it is unclear what these deficits mean for the

  4. Oculomotor Performance Identifies Underlying Cognitive Deficits in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loe, Irene M.; Feldman, Heidi M.; Yasui, Enami; Luna, Beatriz

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of the cognitive control in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder through the use of oculomotor tests reveal that this group showed susceptibility to peripheral distractors and deficits in response inhibition. All subjects were found to have intact sensorimotor function and working memory.

  5. Parenting experiences of living with a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Britt; Grønkjær, Mette

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is the most prevalent mental disorder among children and adolescents worldwide. Parenting a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is challenging and parents find it difficult to raise the child and struggle to get professional...... support. Research has shown how living with a child with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder influences the families' daily life. This includes how the parents manage to maintain a bearable family life, supportive or not supportive factors as well as parents' experiences of collaboration...... with professionals in diverse settings. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic review was to identify and synthesize the best available evidence on parenting experiences of living with a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, including their experiences of health care and other services. INCLUSION...

  6. The Effect of Neurofeedback Therapy on Reducing Symptoms Associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Case Series Study

    OpenAIRE

    Deilami, Mostafa; Jahandideh, Asghar; Kazemnejad, Yousef; Fakour, Yousef; Alipoor, Shiva; Rabiee, Fatemeh; Pournesaie, Ghazal Saadat; Heidari, Rosemarie Noot; Mosavi, Seyed Aliasghar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of neurofeedback on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study without a control group. The study population included all children aged 5 to 12 years old affected with attention deficit hyperactivity disorders in Tehran, Iran who were referred to psychiatric clinics and given the diagnosis. The sample included 12 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder who were selected based...

  7. Utility of the electroencephalogram in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millichap, J Gordon; Millichap, John J; Stack, Cynthia V

    2011-07-01

    An electroencephalogram (EEG) has not been routinely utilized in the evaluation of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The utility of the EEG in ADHD is unclear. A recent study in our laboratory using sleep and sleep deprivation routinely found one in four non-epileptic children evaluated for attention deficit disorder has epileptiform discharges in the EEG, more than half focal. The majority of abnormalities (97.5%) occur in sleep and sleep-deprived records compared to 7% in prior wake only records. A review of eight publications showed that laboratories using awake only as routine EEG recordings report a relatively low prevalence of epileptiform discharges, whereas the higher prevalence of epileptiform discharges is seen in those with more prolonged sleep recordings. We have determined that sleep deprivation and sleep are essential to rule out an abnormal EEG in attention deficit disorder. In patients with attention deficit disorder complicated by epilepsy, stimulant therapy is generally safe, provided seizures are controlled by antiepileptic medication. Patients with epilepsy or subclinical electrographic abnormalities not treated with anticonvulsants are at increased risk of seizures when stimulant therapy is introduced, especially extended-release methylphenidate. Apart from an increase in risk of seizures and need for caution in use of stimulants, studies show that epileptiform discharges in the electroencephalogram are linked to a better response of attention deficit to methylphenidate and a higher cognitive performance. Transient cognitive impairment related to subclinical electrographic abnormalities responds to antiepileptic medication. An EEG is important in selected cases of attention deficit disorder and is useful in choice of medication, especially in children with lack of awareness and transient cognitive impairment.

  8. Brain differences between persistent and remitted attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattfeld, Aaron T; Gabrieli, John D E; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas; Brown, Ariel; Kotte, Amelia; Kagan, Elana; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan

    2014-09-01

    Previous resting state studies examining the brain basis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have not distinguished between patients who persist versus those who remit from the diagnosis as adults. To characterize the neurobiological differences and similarities of persistence and remittance, we performed resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in individuals who had been longitudinally and uniformly characterized as having or not having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in childhood and again in adulthood (16 years after baseline assessment). Intrinsic functional brain organization was measured in patients who had a persistent diagnosis in childhood and adulthood (n = 13), in patients who met diagnosis in childhood but not in adulthood (n = 22), and in control participants who never had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 17). A positive functional correlation between posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortices, major components of the default-mode network, was reduced only in patients whose diagnosis persisted into adulthood. A negative functional correlation between medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices was reduced in both persistent and remitted patients. The neurobiological dissociation between the persistence and remittance of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder may provide a framework for the relation between the clinical diagnosis, which indicates the need for treatment, and additional deficits that are common, such as executive dysfunctions. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and adverse health outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is defined by extreme levels of inattention–disorganization and/or hyperactivity–impulsivity. In DSM-IV, the diagnostic criteria required impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning. With DSM-5 publication imminent in 2013, further evaluation of impairment in ADHD is timely. This article reviews the current state of knowledge on health-related impairments of ADHD, including smoking, drug abuse, accidental injury, sleep, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and suicidal behavior. It concludes by suggesting the need for new avenues of research on mechanisms of association and the potential for ADHD to be an early warning sign for secondary prevention of some poor health outcomes. PMID:23298633

  10. Handwriting performance in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Marie Brossard; Majnemer, Annette; Shevell, Michael; Snider, Laurie

    2008-04-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurobehavioral condition of childhood. Consequences are multifaceted and include activity limitations in daily-living skills, academic challenges, diminished socialization skills, and motor difficulties. Poor handwriting performance is an example of an affected life skill that has been anecdotally observed by educators and clinicians for this population and can negatively impact academic performance and self-esteem. To guide health and educational service delivery needs, the authors reviewed the evidence in the literature on handwriting difficulties in children with ADHD. Existing evidence would suggest that children with ADHD have impaired handwriting performance, characterized by illegible written material and/or inappropriate speed of execution compared to children without ADHD. Studies with larger sample sizes using standardized measures of handwriting performance are needed to evaluate the prevalence of the problem and to better understand the nature of handwriting difficulties and their impact in this population.

  11. Attentional Profiles and White Matter Correlates in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predominantly Inattentive Type

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Adriana Suzart Ungaretti; Moura, Luciana Monteiro de; Mello, Claudia Berlim de; Souza, Altay Alves Lino de; Muszkat, Mauro; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a widely studied neurodevelopmental disorder. It is a highly heterogeneous condition, encompassing different types of expression. The predominantly inattentive type is the most prevalent and the most stable over the lifetime, yet it is the least-studied presentation. To increase understanding of its cognitive profile, 29 children with Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder of predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I) and 29 matched controls, ...

  12. Gender differences in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucklidge, Julia J

    2010-06-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is recognized to exist in males and females although the literature supports a higher prevalence in males. However, when girls are diagnosed with ADHD, they are more often diagnosed as predominantly inattentive than boys with ADHD. This article provides a review of gender differences noted across the lifespan. Males and females with ADHD are more similar than different, and generally ADHD profiles are not sex specific. Small gender differences have been found: adolescent girls with ADHD have lower self-efficacy and poorer coping strategies than adolescent boys with ADHD; rates of depression and anxiety may be higher, and physical aggression and other externalizing behaviors lower in girls and women with ADHD. Men with ADHD seem to be incarcerated more often than women with ADHD. However, many studies suffer from small sample sizes, referral biases, differences in diagnostic procedures, and possible rater influences. Treatments are reviewed and discussed with reference to the reported gender differences in functioning and the global deficits noted in all samples. The data available so far suggest that treatments are likely to be equally effective in males and females. However, referral bias is a problem, in that females with ADHD are less likely to be referred for treatment than males with ADHD. Future research should include equal representation of both sexes in samples such that sex by treatment analyses can be routinely conducted. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: From parents to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez-van-Meerbeke, A; Talero-Gutiérrez, C; Zamora-Miramón, I; Guzmán-Ramírez, G M

    2017-04-01

    Multiple studies of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have recognised a heritability factor in that a higher frequency of the disorder is observed in children with an affected relative. Our aim was to determine the association between ADHD symptoms in young children enrolled in five schools in Bogota and a history of ADHD symptoms in their parents using the Wender-Utah Rating Scale. Case-control study of participants selected according to DSM-IV criteria for ADHD and the Behavioral Assessment System for Children (BASC) completed by parents and teachers; the WISC-IV scale was used to exclude children with cognitive deficit. Parents completed the Wender-Utah Rating Scale to retrospectively identify any ADHD symptoms in childhood. A score of 36 was used as a cutoff point. The study included 202 children: 117 cases and 85 controls. A positive history of ADHD symptoms in childhood was identified for 16% of 175 mothers and 20.6% of 141 fathers. The presence of symptoms in either parent, especially the mother, constitutes a significant risk factor for ADHD in children and this relationship persists after controlling for different variables. If both parents have the disorder, the risk tends to increase. Although ADHD has been linked to a genetic component, other environmental factors may be involved in the disorder. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Rydén, Eleonore

    2010-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder, i.e., it is by definition present from childhood. The main features characterizing ADHD are the difficulties to regulate attention, activity level, and impulses. The hallmark of bipolar disorder is episodic mood alterations with restitution between episodes. Although debut in childhood may occur, bipolar disorder typically debuts in late adolescence or early adulthood. The overarching aim with this ...

  15. A chaotic model of sustaining attention problem in attention deficit disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdadi, G.; Jafari, S.; Sprott, J. C.; Towhidkhah, F.; Hashemi Golpayegani, M. R.

    2015-01-01

    The problem of keeping an attention level is one of the common symptoms of attention deficit disorder. Dopamine deficiency is introduced as one of the causes of this disorder. Based on some physiological facts about the attention control mechanism and chaos intermittency, a behavioral model is presented in this paper. This model represents the problem of undesired alternation of attention level, and can also suggest different valuable predictions about a possible cause of attention deficit disorder. The proposed model reveals that there is a possible interaction between different neurotransmitters which help the individual to adaptively inhibit the attention switching over time. The result of this study can be used to examine and develop a new practical and more appropriate treatment for the problem of sustaining attention.

  16. Pay Attention!: Sluggish Multisensory Attentional Shifting as a Core Deficit in Developmental Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Margaret B

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this review is to provide a background on the neurocognitive aspects of the reading process and review neuroscientific studies of individuals with developmental dyslexia, which provide evidence for amodal processing deficits. Hari, Renvall, and Tanskanen (2001) propose amodal sluggish attentional shifting (SAS) as a causal factor for temporal processing deficits in dyslexia. Undergirding this theory is the notion that when dyslexics are faced with rapid sequences of stimuli, their automatic attentional systems fail to disengage efficiently, which leads to difficulty when moving from one item to the next (Lallier et al., ). This results in atypical perception of rapid stimulus sequences. Until recently, the SAS theory, particularly the examination of amodal attentional deficits, was studied solely through the use of behavioural measures (Facoetti et al., ; Facoetti, Lorusso, Cattaneo, Galli, & Molteni, ). This paper examines evidence within the literature that provides a basis for further exploration of amodal SAS as an underlying deficit in developmental dyslexia. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Persistence of attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder into adulthood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-02-14

    Feb 14, 2006 ... Introduction. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), which is marked by inattention, distractibility and impulsivity, has long been known as a childhood disorder. ADHD is the most common emotional, cognitive and behavioural disorder treated in children affecting an estimated 4-12% of school aged ...

  18. Classroom Discipline with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Edward A.; Kirby, Sandra H.

    1994-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often discipline problems, but their disruptive behavior is usually not willful or intentional. After describing the educational history of one person with ADHD, the article makes suggestions for disciplining children with ADHD in the classroom. (SM)

  19. Interference Control in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mourik, Rosa; Papanikolau, Alky; van Gellicum-Bijlhout, Joyce; van Oostenbruggen, Janneke; Veugelers, Diane; Post-Uiterweer, Annebeth; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2009-01-01

    The view that Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with a diminished ability to control interference is controversial and based exclusively on results of (verbal)-visual interference tasks, primarily the Stroop Color Word task. The present study compares medication-naive children with ADHD (n = 35 and n = 51 in Experiments…

  20. Developmental Dyslexia: The Visual Attention Span Deficit Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Marie-Line; Tainturier, Marie Josephe; Valdois, Sylviane

    2007-01-01

    The visual attention (VA) span is defined as the amount of distinct visual elements which can be processed in parallel in a multi-element array. Both recent empirical data and theoretical accounts suggest that a VA span deficit might contribute to developmental dyslexia, independently of a phonological disorder. In this study, this hypothesis was…

  1. DSM-5 Further Inflates Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batstra, Laura; Frances, Allen

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) prevalence and medication use unexpectedly increased significantly. In this article, we explore the DSM-5 proposals for ADHD that are likely to further increase its prevalence. We also address the possible

  2. Language Impairment in the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Sean M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a ubiquitous designation that affects the identification, assessment, treatment, and study of pediatric language impairments (LIs). Method: Current literature is reviewed in 4 areas: (a) the capacity of psycholinguistic, neuropsychological, and socioemotional behavioral indices to…

  3. Parents Psychopathology of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margari, Francesco; Craig, Francesco; Petruzzelli, Maria Giuseppina; Lamanna, Annalinda; Matera, Emilia; Margari, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder with extremely complex etiology, not yet well defined but certainly multi-factorial. This study investigated the possible etiopathogenetic role of ADHD symptoms and psychopathology disorders in parents of children with ADHD. We present a case-control study of parents of 50 children…

  4. Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Participating in Recess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Matthew D.; Justice, Michael J.; Rosko, Kelly M.

    2014-01-01

    The participation of a student with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in recess can often be both challenging and rewarding for the student and teacher. This paper will address common characteristics of children with ADHD and present basic solutions to improve the experience of these children in the recess setting. Initially, the…

  5. School Experiences of Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Judith; Daniels, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative study of the school experiences of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the context of quantitative research on teacher attitudes and practices, adolescent self-appraisals, and social and family relationships. Twelve adolescents with ADHD participated in in-depth, semistructured…

  6. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms mediate early-onset smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, A.C.; Van Lier, P.A.C.; Crijnen, A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have often been associated with early-onset smoking. We hypothesize that reductions in ADHD symptoms due to an intervention have a mediating effect on early-onset smoking. Methods: In a universal, school-based, randomized

  7. Exploring five common assumptions on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batstra, Laura; Nieweg, Edo H.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    The number of children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and treated with medication is steadily increasing. The aim of this paper was to critically discuss five debatable assumptions on ADHD that may explain these trends to some extent. These are that ADHD (i) causes

  8. Discovering Focus: Helping Students with ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkenburg, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a neurological disorder which effects learning and that has a confusing set of diagnostic symptoms and an even more confusing set of remedies ranging from medication to meditation to nothing at all. Current neurological research suggests, however, that there are strategies that the individual with ADD can use to…

  9. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Functional Defecation Disorders in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuizenga-Wessel, Sophie; Koppen, Ilan J. N.; Vriesman, Mana H.; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; van Dijk, Marieke; Beelen, Maureen L. R.; Groeneweg, Michael; Stoffelsen, Reino J.; Benninga, Marc A.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children presenting with functional defecation disorders (FDDs) and to assess the prevalence of FDDs in children with ADHD. Methods: A cross-sectional cohort study was carried out

  10. Neurocognitive psychotherapy for adult attention deficit hyperactive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susmita Halder

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously thought as a childhood disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is reported to be spreading at an increasing rate and affecting 4% to 5% of the adult population. It is characterized by persistent problems of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. We present the case of an adult ADHD patient intervened with neurocognitive psychotherapy.

  11. School-Based Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Brandon K.; Storer, Jennifer; Watabe, Yuko; Sadler, Joanna; Evans, Steven W.

    2011-01-01

    The authors review the research literature regarding school-based treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Students with ADHD often do not receive access to special services, even though the impairments associated with the disorder often compromise learning and cause concerns for classroom teachers, school administrators, and…

  12. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and social dysfunctioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijmeijer, Judith S.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Mulligan, Aisling; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with functional impairments in different areas of daily life. One such area is social functioning. The purpose of this paper is to critically review research on social dysfunctioning in children with ADHD. Children with ADHD often have

  13. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and social dysfunctioning.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijmeijer, J.S.; Minderaa, R.B.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Mulligan, A.; Hartman, C.A.; Hoekstra, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with functional impairments in different areas of daily life. One such area is social functioning. The purpose of this paper is to critically review research on social dysfunctioning in children with ADHD. Children with ADHD often have

  14. GAME BIOFEEDBACK TECHNOLOGY IN ATTENTION DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Stoller

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We continue the study of students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder when using betastimulating game neurofeedback. The dynamics of segmental characteristics of the alpha rhythm and θ/β ratio for different groups of successful training. Evaluate the effectiveness of training in terms of the number of ADHD symptoms (at the beginning and end of the training.

  15. Measurement of Stigmatization towards Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Mueller, Anna K.; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: In general, assessment tools for stigma in mental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are lacking. Moreover, misbeliefs and misconceptions about ADHD are common, in particular with regard to the adult form of ADHD. The aim of the present study was to develop

  16. Study Of thyroid Function In Children With Attention Deficit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a well recognized psychiatric disorder of childhood. Its cause is ... and overactivity.2 The treatment of ADHD requires expertise in many different treatment modalities. ..... that low IQ was related to antisocial behavior and chronically high levels of aggression.

  17. 309 Counselling for Facilitating Learning for the AttentionDeficit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Abstract. The study investigated the extent of counsellor's identification of the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and the counselling strategies the counsellors use to facilitate learning for such learners. Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The design of the study was survey.

  18. Emotional intelligence in learners with Attention Deficit Disorder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to analyse and evaluate the nature and quality of emotional intelligence in learners with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), and to investigate whether their emotional intelligence was enhanced, and whether the symptoms and behaviour of these learners improved, after exposure to a programme ...

  19. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: Why should we pay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder, with a chronic, costly and debilitating course if untreated. Limited access to diagnosis and treatment for adults with ADHD contributes to the cost of the disorder and the burden of disease. Aim: This study aims to identify ...

  20. Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder among school children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and determinants of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms among school children in Kinshasa, an African urban setting. Methods: The 18-items of the Disruptive Behaviour Disorder rating scale (DBD), which is based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for ...

  1. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A database analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic, costly and debilitating disorder. In South Africa (SA), access to funding for care and treatment of ADHD is limited, and research is lacking. Aim: This study aimed to establish the current situation with regard to the psychiatric management of and ...

  2. Community survey of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood neuro-developmental condition with early onset. ADHD affects children worldwide. However, there is a variation in the prevalence across different countries. In Nigeria, there is paucity of information on the prevalence. To provide the ...

  3. The medical management of attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses specifically on the medical management of attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the options currently available in South Africa. References are made to current thinking on the etiology of this disorder and the pharmacological principles involved in its treatment. This review will not try to ...

  4. Study of Thyroid Function in Children with Attention Deficit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a well recognized psychiatric disorder of childhood. Its cause is unknown, but there is evidence of familial predisposition. Symptoms suggestive of the disorder have been reported in patients with generalized resistance to thyroid hormones (GRTH), a disease ...

  5. Very Low Birth Weight and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meere, Jaap; Börger, Norbert A.; Potgieter, Stephanus Theron; Pirila, Silja; De Cock, Paul

    2009-01-01

    It is well recognized that reaction time performance of term-born children with a normal birth weight (NBW > 2500 g) who fulfill the DSM-IV criteria for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the primary school age is sensitive for the presentation rate of stimuli. They have been found

  6. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and bipolar mood disorder in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and bipolar mood disorder in children and adolescents. L Scribante. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajpsychiatry.v15i2.205 · AJOL African Journals ...

  7. Counselling for Facilitating Learning for the AttentionDeficit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the extent of counsellor's identification of the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and the counselling strategies the counsellors use to facilitate learning for such learners. Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The design of the study was survey. The area of the ...

  8. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder | du Plessis | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a common neurobehavioural disorder that compromises the core symptoms of developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. Many patients are still not diagnosed, or do not receive appropriate sustained treatment, in spite of a general greater ...

  9. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom self-report among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of self-reported attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms among medical students in Eldoret, Kenya. Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study of all medical students who gave consent to participate in the study. Undertaken at Moi University's School of Medicine in ...

  10. Wildland firefighters and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles G. Palmer; Steven Gaskill; Joe Domitrovich; Marcy McNamara; Brian Knutson; Alysha. Spear

    2011-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common disorders of childhood, affecting 3 to 7 percent of the population (American Psychiatric Association 2000). Research has indicated that the prevalence rate of ADHD in adult populations is approximately 4.4 percent and that the majority of those cases go untreated (Kessler et al. 2006). To date,...

  11. Study Of thyroid Function In Children With Attention Deficit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a well recognized psychiatric disorder of childhood. Its cause is unknown, but there is evidence of familial predisposition. Symptoms suggestive of the disorder have been reported in patients with generalized resistance to thyroid hormones. (GRTH), a disease ...

  12. Hippocampus and amygdala morphology in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Bansal, Ravi; Zhu, Hongtu

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Limbic structures are implicated in the genesis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by the presence of mood and cognitive disturbances in affected individuals and by elevated rates of mood disorders in family members of probands with ADHD. OBJECTIVE: To study the morphology...

  13. The Relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Child Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Marie; McClowry, Sandra Graham; Castellanos, Francisco X.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined empirical and theoretical differences and similarities between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and child temperament in 32 ADHD children aged 6-11 years, and a comparison group of 23 children with similar sociodemographic characteristics. Children were assessed for ADHD symptoms (hyperactivity, impulsivity, and…

  14. Emotional Intelligence in Learners with Attention Deficit Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton, Carol Anne; Roets, H. E.

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to analyse and evaluate the nature and quality of emotional intelligence in learners with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), and to investigate whether their emotional intelligence was enhanced, and whether the symptoms and behaviour of these learners improved, after exposure to a programme on emotional intelligence.…

  15. Language impairment in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Safaa Refaat El Sady

    2013-06-06

    Jun 6, 2013 ... Abstract Language impairment (Li) is a highly prevalent comorbidity in children with psychiatric disorders and behavioral problems. The most common psychiatric diagnosis among children with. Li is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and conversely, Li is a frequent comorbidity found in children ...

  16. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: key conceptual issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asherson, P.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Faraone, S.V; Rohde, L.A.

    2016-01-01

    For many years, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was thought to be a childhood-onset disorder that has a limited effect on adult psychopathology. However, the symptoms and impairments that define ADHD often affect the adult population, with similar responses to drugs such as

  17. Source Discrimination in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Weisbrod, Matthias; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The context of memory experiences is referred to as source memory and can be distinguished from the content of episodic item memory. Source memory represents a crucial part of biographic events and elaborate memory experiences. Whereas individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity

  18. Caffeine improves attention deficit in neonatal 6-OHDA lesioned rats, an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Miguel; Núñez, Fabiana; Ahern, Siobhán; Cuffí, Maria L; Carbonell, Lourdes; Sánchez, Silvia; Fernández-Dueñas, Víctor; Ciruela, Francisco

    2011-04-20

    Nowadays the pharmacological treatment of the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is based on amphetamine derivatives (i.e. methylphenidate). However, these drugs induce a large array of adverse side effects, thus less aggressive psychostimulant drugs (i.e. caffeine) are being proposed in the management of ADHD. Following this tendency, we decided to study the possible therapeutic use of caffeine in an animal model of ADHD, namely the neonatal 6-hydroxy-dopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rat. Therefore, at postnatal day 7 rats were lesioned at the left striatum with 6-OHDA or with saline. Thereafter, at postnatal day 25 their activity and attention were measured with the Olton maze before caffeine was administered ad libitum in the drinking water. Next, after 14 days of caffeine treatment, we repeated these measurements to assess the effect of caffeine on motor activity and attention deficit. Interestingly, while no changes in the motor activity measurements were observed before and after caffeine administration, a significant improvement in the attention deficit of the 6-OHDA lesioned rats was achieved after caffeine treatment. Thus, our results led us to hypothesize that caffeine might be useful to manage the attention deficit during the prepubertal period of ADHD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Driving behaviour in adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Madeleine J; van Loon, Editha; Daley, David; Chapman, Peter; Hollis, Chris

    2015-07-28

    Little is known about the impact of cognitive impairments on driving in adults with ADHD. The present study compared the performance of adults with and without ADHD in a driving simulator on two different routes: an urban route which we hypothesised would exacerbate weak impulse control in ADHD and a motorway route, to challenge deficits in sustained attention. Adults with (n = 22, 16 males) and without (n = 21, 18 males) ADHD completed a simulated driving session while eye movement data were recorded simultaneously. Participants also completed the Manchester Driving Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) and the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS). Measures of driving performance included average speed, proportion distance travelled over speed limit (speeding) and lane deviation. These variables and the eye movement measures (spread of fixations, mean fixation duration) were compared between groups and routes. Also, driving behaviours, including responses to programmed events, were categorised and the frequencies within categories were compared between groups. Finally, speech analysis was performed to compare emotional verbal expressions during driving between groups. ADHD participants reported significantly more Violations and Lapses on the DBQ than control participants and significantly more accidents. Average speed and speeding were also higher but did not interact with route type. ADHD participants showed poorer vehicle control, greater levels of frustration with other road users (including greater frequencies of negative comments) and a trend for less safe driving when changing lanes/overtaking on the motorway. These effects were predicted by hyperactive/impulsive CAARS scores. They were also more likely to cause a crash/near miss when an event occurred on the urban route. The results suggest that difficulty regulating and controlling impulsive behavior, reflected in speeding, frustration with other road users, less safety when changing lanes on the

  20. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or Attention Seeking? Ways of Distinguishing Two Common Childhood Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    Nigel Mellor recently retired from his work with the educational psychology service in North Tyneside. In this article, he proposes that attention-seeking behaviour may lead to major difficulties at home and school and indicates the ways in which recent research is beginning to clarify the area. Attention deficit disorders also cause great…

  1. Sustained Attention and Response Inhibition in Young Children at Risk for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwid, Olga G.; Curko Kera, Elizabeth A.; Marks, David J.; Santra, Amita; Bender, Heidi A.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Studies of school-aged children, adolescents, and adults with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have variably shown ADHD-related impairment in both inhibitory control and sustained attention. However, few studies have examined ADHD-associated patterns of performance on these tasks among younger children (below age 7…

  2. Developmental Changes in Attention and Comprehension among Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Ursula L.; Lorch, Elizabeth P.; Milich, Richard; Charnigo, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Changes in visual attention and story comprehension for children (N = 132) with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comparison peers were examined. Between the ages of 7 and 9 (Phase 1) and approximately 21 months later (Phase 2), children viewed 2 televised stories: 1 in the presence of toys and 1 in their absence. Both groups of…

  3. Differential Effects of Methylphenidate on Attentional Functions in Children with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Kerstin; Gunther, Thomas; Hanisch, Charlotte; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of methylphenidate on different attentional functions and behavior in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: A total of 60 ADHD children aged between 8 and 12 years completed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject crossover trial with two doses of…

  4. Mindfulness Meditation Improves Mood, Quality of Life, and Attention in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Viviane Freire; Kozasa, Elisa H; da Silva, Maria Aparecida; Alves, Tânia Maria; Louzã, Mario Rodrigues; Pompéia, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) display affective problems and impaired attention. Mood in ADHD can be improved by mindful awareness practices (MAP), but results are mixed regarding the enhancement of attentional performance. Here we evaluated MAP-induced changes in quality of life (QoL), mood, and attention in adult ADHD patients and controls using more measures of attention than prior studies. Twenty-one ADHD patients and 8 healthy controls underwent 8 weekly MAP sessions; 22 similar patients and 9 controls did not undergo the intervention. Mood and QoL were assessed using validated questionnaires, and attention was evaluated using the Attentional Network Test (ANT) and the Conners Continuous Performance Test (CPT II), before and after intervention. MAP enhanced sustained attention (ANT) and detectability (CPT II) and improved mood and QoL of patients and controls. MAP is a complementary intervention that improves affect and attention of adults with ADHD and controls.

  5. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and/or bipolar disorder?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Fonseca, D; Adida, M; Belzeaux, R; Azorin, J-M

    2014-12-01

    The attention deficit disorder and the bipolar disorder maintain a complex relation. Indeed, these two syndromes share numerous symptoms that engender numerous diagnostic difficulties. According to several studies, it seems that these two disorders are really different with significant differences at the functional and anatomical level. However, there are common cognitive deficits as well as relatively frequent co-morbidity which is necessary to know in order to adjust the treatment. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  6. Initial Orientation of Attention towards Emotional Faces in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Ahmadi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Early recognition of negative emotions is considered to be of vital importance. It seems that children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have some difficulties recognizing facial emotional expressions, especially negative ones. This study investigated the preference of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder for negative (angry, sad facial expressions compared to normal children.Method: Participants were 35 drug naive boys with ADHD, aged between 6-11 years ,and 31 matched healthy children. Visual orientation data were recorded while participants viewed face pairs (negative-neutral pairs shown for 3000ms. The number of first fixations made to each expression was considered as an index of initial orientation. Results: Group comparisons revealed no difference between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder group and their matched healthy counterparts in initial orientation of attention. A tendency towards negative emotions was found within the normal group, while no difference was observed between initial allocation of attention toward negative and neutral expressions in children with ADHD .Conclusion: Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder do not have significant preference for negative facial expressions. In contrast, normal children have a significant preference for negative facial emotions rather than neutral faces.

  7. Chemosensory processing in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Anna; Scholz-Hehn, Deborah; Wiesner, Christian D; Wolff, Stephan; Bergmann, Til O; van Eimeren, Thilo; Lentfer, Luisa; Baving, Lioba; Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    In attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) not only deficits in dopamine-related cognitive functioning have been found but also a lower dopamine-sensitive olfactory threshold. The aim of the present study was to proof that only olfactory but not trigeminal sensitivity is increased in ADHD. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to show increased olfactory bulb (OB) volume- a structure which is strongly shaped by olfactory performance through the mechanism of neuroplasticity (e.g. synaptogenesis). To elucidate whether cortical mechanisms are involved in altered olfaction in ADHD, functional MRI (fMRI) was introduced. A total of 18 boys with ADHD and 17 healthy controls (aged 7-12) were included in the study. Olfactory as well as trigeminal detection thresholds were examined. OB sizes were measured by means of structural MRI and an analysis of effective functional (fMRI) coupling of primary olfactory cortex was conducted. The frontal piriform cortex (fPIR) was chosen as seed region because of its importance in processing both trigeminal and olfactory stimuli as well as having profound influence on inner OB-signaling. Increased olfactory sensitivity as well as an increase in OB volume was found in ADHD. There were no group differences in sensitivity towards a trigeminal stimulus. Compared to healthy controls, the fPIR in ADHD was more positively coupled with structures belonging to the salience network during olfactory and, to a lesser extent, during trigeminal stimulation. Olfactory functioning is superior in subjects with ADHD. The observed increase in OB volume may relate to higher olfactory sensitivity in terms of neuroplasticity. During the processing of chemosensory stimuli, the primary olfactory cortex in ADHD is differently coupled to higher cortical structures which might indicate an altered top-down influence on OB structure and function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Disentangling the adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder endophenotype: parametric measurement of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, Kathrin; Schwarzkopf, Wolfgang; Müller, Ulrich; Frodl, Thomas; Müller, Hermann J; Schneider, Werner X; Engel, Rolf R; Riedel, Michael; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Hennig-Fast, Kristina

    2011-11-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) persists frequently into adulthood. The decomposition of endophenotypes by means of experimental neuro-cognitive assessment has the potential to improve diagnostic assessment, evaluation of treatment response, and disentanglement of genetic and environmental influences. We assessed four parameters of attentional capacity and selectivity derived from simple psychophysical tasks (verbal report of briefly presented letter displays) and based on a "theory of visual attention." These parameters are mathematically independent, quantitative measures, and previous studies have shown that they are highly sensitive for subtle attention deficits. Potential reductions of attentional capacity, that is, of perceptual processing speed and working memory storage capacity, were assessed with a whole report paradigm. Furthermore, possible pathologies of attentional selectivity, that is, selection of task-relevant information and bias in the spatial distribution of attention, were measured with a partial report paradigm. A group of 30 unmedicated adult ADHD patients and a group of 30 demographically matched healthy controls were tested. ADHD patients showed significant reductions of working memory storage capacity of a moderate to large effect size. Perceptual processing speed, task-based, and spatial selection were unaffected. The results imply a working memory deficit as an important source of behavioral impairments. The theory of visual attention parameter working memory storage capacity might constitute a quantifiable and testable endophenotype of ADHD.

  9. Color naming deficits and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A retinal dopaminergic hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tannock Rosemary

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD have unexplained difficulties on tasks requiring speeded processing of colored stimuli. Color vision mechanisms, particularly short-wavelength (blue-yellow pathways, are highly sensitive to various diseases, toxins and drugs that alter dopaminergic neurotransmission. Thus, slow color processing might reflect subtle impairments in the perceptual encoding stage of stimulus color, which arise from hypodopaminergic functioning. Presentation of hypotheses 1 Color perception of blue-yellow (but not red-green stimuli is impaired in ADHD as a result of deficient retinal dopamine; 2 Impairments in the blue-yellow color mechanism in ADHD contribute to poor performance on speeded color naming tasks that include a substantial proportion of blue-yellow stimuli; and 3 Methylphenidate increases central dopamine and is also believed to increase retinal dopamine, thereby normalizing blue-yellow color perception, which in turn improves performance on the speeded color naming tasks. Testing the hypothesis Requires three approaches, including:1 direct assessment of color perception in individuals with ADHD to determine whether blue-yellow color perception is selectively impaired; 2 determination of relationship between performance on neuropsychological tasks requiring speeded color processing and color perception; and 3 randomized, controlled pharmacological intervention with stimulant medication to examine the effects of enhancing central dopamine on color perception and task performance Implications of hypothesis If substantiated, the findings of color perception problems would necessitate a re-consideration of current neuropsychological models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, guide psycho-education, academic instruction, and require consideration of stimulus color in many of the widely used neuropsychological tests.

  10. Color perception deficits in co-existing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and chronic tic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessner, V; Banaschewski, T; Fillmer-Otte, A; Becker, A; Albrecht, B; Uebel, H; Sergeant, J; Tannock, R; Rothenberger, A

    2008-01-01

    Preliminary findings suggest that color perception, particularly of blue-yellow stimuli, is impaired in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as in chronic tic disorders (CTD). However, these findings have been not replicated and it is unclear what these deficits mean for the comorbidity of ADHD + CTD. Four groups (ADHD, CTD, ADHD + CTD, controls) of children with similar age, IQ and gender distribution were investigated with the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue Test (FMT) and the Stroop-Color-Word Task using a factorial design. Color perception deficits, as indexed by the FMT, were found for both main factors (ADHD and CTD), but there were no interaction effects. A preponderance of deficits on the blue-yellow compared to the red-green axis was detected for ADHD. In the Stroop task only the 'pure' ADHD group showed impairments in interference control and other parameters of Stroop performance. No significant correlations between any FMT parameter and color naming in the Stroop task were found. Basic color perception deficits in both ADHD and CTD could be found. Beyond that, it could be shown that these deficits are additive in the case of comorbidity (ADHD + CTD). Performance deficits on the Stroop task were present only in the 'pure' ADHD group. Hence, the latter may be compensated in the comorbid group by good prefrontal capabilities of CTD. The influence of color perception deficits on Stroop task performance might be negligible.

  11. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Eugen; Gastpar, Markus

    2005-07-01

    To evaluate the association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adulthood, a systematic review of published follow-up data, mainly from observational studies was done. Electronic databases Medline, PsychInfo and PSYNDEXplus were searched from their earliest entries. All studies suggested significant relationships between ADHD and BPD. From a phenomenological point of view there seem to exist some similarities between these two disorders: deficits in affect regulation and impulse control, substance abuse, low self esteem and disturbed interpersonal relationship are common in both conditions. From a neuropsychological point of view dissociation in BPD might be regarded as a special form of behavioral inhibition and sustained attention comparable to ADHD. Possible therapeutic strategies of comorbid ADHD and BPD are discussed.

  12. Effect of Psychostimulants on Distinct Attentional Parameters in Attentional Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIER LÓPEZ

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there is extensive literature about the effects of stimulants on sustained attention tasks in attentional deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, little is known about the effect of these drugs on other attentional tasks involving different neural systems. In this study we measured the effect of stimulants on ADHD children, both in the electroencephalographic (EEG activity during sustained attentional tasks and in psychometric performance during selective attentional tasks. These tasks are known to rely on different cortical networks. Our results in children medicated with 10 mg of d-amphetamine administered 60 min before the study indicate (i a significant increase in amplitude but not latency of the P300 component of the event-related potential (ERP during the sustained attentional task and (ii a significant improvement in the reaction times and correct responses in the selective attentional task. In addition to supporting the use of stimulants in children with attentional deficit/hyperactivity disorder, these results show a multifocal activity improvement of cortical structures linked to dopamine, and interestingly, to attention. All these analyses are framed in a wider study of diverse attentional functions in this syndrome.

  13. The origins and consequences of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, and is the most common neurodevelopmental disorder of childhood. This highly prevalent disorder is estimated to affect about 5% of school-age children worldwide, with a substantial degree of persistence over time. Although the specific cause of ADHD is still largely unknown, despite a long history of research, it is believed to involve multip...

  14. Psychotherapy of Adults With Attention-Deficit Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    BEMPORAD, JULES; ZAMBENEDETTI, MAURIZIO

    1996-01-01

    The multimodal treatment of adults with attention-deficit disorder (ADD) is described as consisting of a sequence of overlapping therapeutic measures. The initial objective is symptom amelioration through adequate pharmacotherapy. Once this has been accomplished, a period of psychoeducational therapy is recommended to teach the individual to live successfully with a chronic disorder. These two aspects of treatment may suffice for some ADD adults, but many others may requi...

  15. Motor development of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Neto, Francisco; Goulardins, Juliana B.; Rigoli, Daniela; Piek, Jan P.; Oliveira, Jorge A. de

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To compare both global and specific domains of motor development of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with that of typically developing children.Methods:Two hundred children (50 children with clinical diagnoses of ADHD, according to the DSM-IV-TR and 150 typically developing controls), aged 5 to 10 years, participated in this cross-sectional study. The Motor Development Scale was used to assess fine and global motricity, balance, body schema, and spatial ...

  16. Stigmatization in teachers towards adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Fuermaier, Anselm BM; Tucha, Lara; Mueller, Anna K; Koerts, Janneke; Hauser, Joachim; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is understood as a developmental disorder which shares common characteristics between childhood, adolescence and adulthood. However, ADHD is widely associated with misconceptions and misbeliefs which can lead to stigmatization. Teachers have an important role for the individual development as they accompany students for a long period of time. The aim of the present study was to explore stigmatizing attitudes in teachers towards adults...

  17. Measurement of Stigmatization towards Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Mueller, Anna K.; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In general, assessment tools for stigma in mental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are lacking. Moreover, misbeliefs and misconceptions about ADHD are common, in particular with regard to the adult form of ADHD. The aim of the present study was to develop a questionnaire measuring stigma in adults with ADHD and to demonstrate its sensitivity. METHODS: A questionnaire initially containing 64 items associated with stigma in adults with ADHD was devel...

  18. Are Eating Disorders Related to Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    OpenAIRE

    Reinblatt, Shauna P.

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder characterized by impulsivity, hyperactivity, and inattention. Binge-eating behavior is often impulsive and is the hallmark of the two eating disorders, binge-eating disorder (BED) and bulimia nervosa (BN), both of which are associated with significant health impairment. Bingeing behavior is also seen in the binge purge subtype of anorexia nervosa. Individuals with AN of the binge purge subtypes, BN and BED, have been found to exhib...

  19. Sleep disorders in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Medina Permatawati; Agung Triono; Mei Neni Sitaresmi

    2018-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral abnormality that commonly occurs among children. Sleep disorders are comorbid with ADHD. Sleep disorders in Indonesian children with ADHD have not been widely studied. Objective To understand the proportion and factors that influence sleep disorders in children with ADHD. Methods This cross-sectional study involved 54 children aged 3-14 years who had been diagnosed with ADHD by a pediatric growth and develo...

  20. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in postsecondary students

    OpenAIRE

    Nugent, Kevin; Smart, Wallace

    2014-01-01

    Kevin Nugent,1 Wallace Smart2,3 1Kinark Child and Family Services, Trent University and Sir Sanford Fleming College, Peterborough, ON, Canada; 2Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada; 3University of Lethbridge Health Centre, Lethbridge, AB, Canada Abstract: A PubMed review was conducted for papers reporting on attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in postsecondary students. The review was performed in order to determ...

  1. Cognitive control in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dramsdahl, Margaretha; Westerhausen, René; Haavik, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the ability of adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) to direct their attention and exert cognitive control in a forced instruction dichotic listening (DL) task. The performance of 29 adults with ADHD was compared with 58......-forced condition), or to focus and report either the right- or left-ear syllable (forced-right and forced-left condition). This procedure is presumed to tap distinct cognitive processes: perception (non-forced condition), orienting of attention (forced-right condition), and cognitive control (forced-left condition......). Adults with ADHD did not show significant impairment in the conditions tapping perception and attention orientation, but were significantly impaired in their ability to report the left-ear syllable during the forced-left instruction condition, whereas the control group showed the expected left...

  2. Living in a family with a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a phenomenographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Øyfrid Larsen; Hall-Lord, Marie Louise; Hedelin, Birgitta

    2014-11-01

    To describe experiences of everyday life in families with a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a highly prevalent, clinically heterogeneous disorder characterised by behavioural symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity that creates impairments for the child and affects the family life. The impairments vary with age and context, and the same symptoms do not necessarily have the same effects in different contexts and persons. A qualitative design with a phenomenographic approach. Family members, mothers, fathers, siblings and children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 17) were interviewed individually. The findings include two descriptive categories 'safeguarding a functioning family' and 'fighting for acceptance and inclusion'. To create a stable and structured family life to avoid conflicts within the family and manage their daily life were crucial. The child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and their parents developed special skills and strategies to live with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in the family sphere and the social context. To apply for help before the problems in the family become too severe and to share responsibility with professionals, who have competence, to meet the families in their worries were stressed. The striving in the family strengthened the companionship in the families, and they conceived growth. This study contributes to knowledge of the parents, siblings and children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder experiences of everyday life with a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. All family members need support before their problems become too severe. There is a need of family-focused approach with a dialogue with family members to share the view of their situation and identify their individual resources and needs. Nurses should help these families with family supervision.

  3. Comorbidity of Social Anxiety Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Koyuncu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite high rates of reported comorbidity in patients with social anxiety disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder comorbidity was not evaluated in these studies. Studies, investigating the prevalence of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD comorbidity in social anxiety disorder are limited and little is known about it. The reason for this may be the fact that, ADHD have been seen as a childhood disease over a period of time. In the prospective studies ,it is reported that ADHD is often observed in the adulthood and effects persist . On the other hand, studies on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, higher rates of social anxiety disorder comorbidity have been reported. The presence of comorbid anxiety disorder increases the risk of impulsive feature in ADHD, causes problems in functionality, impaired compliance and resistance to the treatment. The aim of this article is to investigate the the status of social anxiety disorder and ADHD comorbidity and to discuss the hypothesis of antidepressant-associated hypomanic shift due to antidepressant treatment in social anxiety disorder patients. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(1.000: 10-21

  4. Sleep Restores Daytime Deficits in Procedural Memory in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Molzow, Ina; Munz, Manuel; Wilhelm, Ines; Muller, Kathrin; Freytag, Damaris; Wiesner, Christian D.; Baving, Lioba

    2011-01-01

    Sleep supports the consolidation of declarative and procedural memory. While prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity supports the consolidation of declarative memory during sleep, opposite effects of PFC activity are reported with respect to the consolidation of procedural memory during sleep. Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)…

  5. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Obesity: Update 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Samuele; Tessari, Luca

    2017-01-01

    While psychiatric comorbidities of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been extensively explored, less attention has been paid to somatic conditions possibly associated with this disorder. However, mounting evidence in the last decade pointed to a possible significant association between ADHD and certain somatic conditions, including obesity. This papers provides an update of a previous systematic review on the relationship between obesity and ADHD (Cortese and Vincenzi, Curr Top Behav Neurosci 9:199-218, 2012), focusing on pertinent peer-reviewed empirical papers published since 2012. We conducted a systematic search in PubMed, Ovid, and Web of Knowledge databases (search dates: from January 1st, 2012, to July 16th, 2016). We retained a total of 41 studies, providing information on the prevalence of obesity in individuals with ADHD, focusing on the rates of ADHD in individuals with obesity, or reporting data useful to gain insight into possible mechanisms underlying the putative association between ADHD and obesity. Overall, over the past 4 years, an increasing number of studies have assessed the prevalence of obesity in individuals with ADHD or the rates of ADHD in patients with obesity. Although findings are mixed across individual studies, meta-analytic evidence shows a significant association between ADHD and obesity, regardless of possible confounding factors such as psychiatric comorbidities. An increasing number of studies have also addressed possible mechanisms underlying the link between ADHD and obesity, highlighting the role, among others, of abnormal eating patterns, sedentary lifestyle, and possible common genetic alterations. Importantly, recent longitudinal studies support a causal role of ADHD in contributing to weight gain. The next generation of studies in the field should explore if and to which extent the treatment of comorbid ADHD in individuals with obesity may lead to long-term weight loss, ultimately improving their

  6. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children undergoing peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Sharafkhah, Mojtaba; Vazirian, Shams; Seyedzadeh, Abolhasan; Rafeie, Mohammad; Salehi, Bahman; Amiri, Mohammad; Ebrahimimonfared, Mohsen

    2015-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common childhood psychiatric disorder. This disorder is more prevalent in some chronic disease. The aim of this study was to investigate ADHD in children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and to compare the results with those of healthy children. This case-control study was conducted for six months (December 22, 2013 to June 21, 2014) on five to 16-year-old children, visiting the Pediatric Dialysis Unit of Amirkabir Hospital, Arak, Iran, and Taleghani Hospital, Kermanshah, Iran. A total of 100 children with ESRD who had undergone CAPD for at least six months and 100 healthy children were included in this study as case and control groups, respectively. ADHD was diagnosed by Conner's Parent Rating Scale-48 (CPRS-48) and DSM-IV-TR criteria, and was confirmed through consultation by psychologist. Data were analyzed by Binomial test in SPSS 18. The ADHD inattentive type was observed in 16 cases (16%) with CAPD and five controls (5%) (P = 0.01). Moreover, ADHD hyperactive-impulsive type was observed in 27 cases (27%) with CAPD and seven controls (9%) (P = 0.002). Despite these significant differences, no children were diagnosed with ADHD combined type among all subjects. Inattentive type and hyperactive-impulsive type of ADHD are more prevalent in children with ESRD undergoing CAPD. Therefore screening methods for ADHD is necessary in these patients.

  7. Sleep Structure in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinci, Gulcin; Oztura, Ibrahim; Hiz, Semra; Akdogan, Ozlem; Karaarslan, Dilay; Ozek, Handan; Akay, Aynur

    2015-10-01

    The authors evaluated basic sleep architecture and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep alterations in drug-naïve attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children without psychiatric or other comorbidities. This cross-sectional case-control study included 28 drug-naïve children with ADHD and 15 healthy controls. This subjective studies revealed that children with ADHD had a worse sleep quality and increased daytime sleepiness. Polysomnography data showed that the sleep macrostructure was not significantly different in children with ADHD. Sleep microstructure was altered in ADHD children by means of reduced total cyclic alternating pattern rate and duration of cyclic alternating pattern sequences. This reduction was associated with a selective decrease of A1 index during stage 2 NREM. SpO2 in total sleep was slightly decreased; however, the incidence of sleep disordered breathing showed no significant difference. The authors suggest that cyclic alternating pattern scoring would provide a further insight to obtain a better understanding of the sleep structure in children with ADHD. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Measurement of stigmatization towards adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm B M Fuermaier

    Full Text Available In general, assessment tools for stigma in mental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD are lacking. Moreover, misbeliefs and misconceptions about ADHD are common, in particular with regard to the adult form of ADHD. The aim of the present study was to develop a questionnaire measuring stigma in adults with ADHD and to demonstrate its sensitivity.A questionnaire initially containing 64 items associated with stigma in adults with ADHD was developed. A total number of 1261 respondents were included in the analyses. The psychometric properties were investigated on a sample of 1033 participants. The sensitivity of the questionnaire was explored on 228 participants consisting of teachers, physicians and control participants.Thirty-seven items were extracted due to exploratory factor analysis (EFA and the internal consistency of items. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA revealed good psychometric properties of a 6-factor structure. Teachers and physicians differed significantly in their stigmatizing attitudes from control participants.The present data shed light on various dimensions of stigma in adult ADHD. Reliability and Social Functioning, Malingering and Misuse of Medication, Ability to Take Responsibility, Norm-violating and Externalizing Behavior, Consequences of Diagnostic Disclosure and Etiology represent critical aspects associated with stigmatization.

  9. Measurement of stigmatization towards adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Mueller, Anna K; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    In general, assessment tools for stigma in mental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are lacking. Moreover, misbeliefs and misconceptions about ADHD are common, in particular with regard to the adult form of ADHD. The aim of the present study was to develop a questionnaire measuring stigma in adults with ADHD and to demonstrate its sensitivity. A questionnaire initially containing 64 items associated with stigma in adults with ADHD was developed. A total number of 1261 respondents were included in the analyses. The psychometric properties were investigated on a sample of 1033 participants. The sensitivity of the questionnaire was explored on 228 participants consisting of teachers, physicians and control participants. Thirty-seven items were extracted due to exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and the internal consistency of items. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) revealed good psychometric properties of a 6-factor structure. Teachers and physicians differed significantly in their stigmatizing attitudes from control participants. The present data shed light on various dimensions of stigma in adult ADHD. Reliability and Social Functioning, Malingering and Misuse of Medication, Ability to Take Responsibility, Norm-violating and Externalizing Behavior, Consequences of Diagnostic Disclosure and Etiology represent critical aspects associated with stigmatization.

  10. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a chronic care paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culpepper, Larry; Fried, Ronna

    2013-07-01

    The prevalence and disease burden of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggests that primary care physicians (PCPs) have an opportunity to improve the functioning and quality of life of a significant number of adult patients. The American Academy of Pediatrics provides evidence-based clinical practice guidelines that recognize ADHD as a chronic condition, and a large proportion of children with ADHD continue to meet diagnostic criteria as adults. Therefore, the management of ADHD should incorporate principles common to the management of other chronic conditions, including proactive planning for continuity of treatment across the life span and integrated, multidisciplinary health care teams for optimal disease management. This article describes a clinical approach whereby adult ADHD is treated within a chronic care paradigm that prominently features the involvement of the PCP. If PCPs envision ADHD as a chronic illness, similar to asthma or diabetes, they may be less likely to refer individuals to be managed by specialists, and more likely to see their role in coordinating and monitoring adult ADHD care, knowing when and how to bring other resources into play, and when and how to educate patients.

  11. Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is associated with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halmøy Anne

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is increasingly recognized as a common disorder not only in children, but also in the adult population. Similarly, asthma also has a substantial prevalence among adults. Previous studies concerning a potential relationship between ADHD and asthma have not presented consistent results. Methods A cross-sectional study of 594 adult patients diagnosed with ADHD, compared with 719 persons from the general population. Information was collected between 1997 and 2005 using auto-questionnaires rating past and present symptoms of ADHD, co-morbid conditions, including asthma, and work status. Results The prevalence of asthma was significantly higher in the ADHD patient group compared to the controls, 24.4% vs. 11.3% respectively (OR = 2.54, 95% CI 1.89-3.44, and controls with asthma scored higher on ratings of both past and present symptoms of ADHD. Female ADHD patients had a significantly higher prevalence of asthma compared to male ADHD patients (30.9% vs. 18.2%, OR = 2.01, CI 1.36-2.95, but in controls a slight female preponderance was not statistically significant. In both ADHD patients and controls, having asthma was associated with an increased prevalence of symptoms of mood- and anxiety disorders. Conclusions The present findings point to a co-morbidity of ADHD and asthma, and these patients may represent a clinical and biological subgroup of adult patients with ADHD.

  12. School-based assessment of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, M S; Pelham, W E

    1991-04-01

    Schools are uniquely situated to provide information relevant to the assessment and treatment of Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) across a variety of tasks, settings, and observers. The importance of the school setting to the assessment and treatment of ADHD has resulted in the development of numerous measures appropriate for such assessment, but few guidelines for their use. The purpose of this article is to describe school-based assessment procedures and their relationship to ADHD. These procedures include teacher rating measures, direct observations in classrooms and on playgrounds, peer rating and sociometric measures, and permanent product measures such as academic performance. It is recommended that school-based assessment of ADHD involve the concurrent use of multiple measures to assess adequately the wide variety of symptoms associated with this disorder. It is further recommended that assessment serve the purpose of determining treatment efficacy to avoid unwarranted preoccupation with diagnostic issues that are as yet unresolved. The components of a comprehensive school-based assessment of ADHD are described, and their relationship to school-based treatment is discussed.

  13. Overview of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajay; Yeh, Chia Jung; Verma, Nidhi; Das, Ajay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex disorder, which can be seen as a disorder of life time, developing in preschool years and manifesting symptoms (full and/or partial) throughout the adulthood; therefore, it is not surprising that there are no simple solutions. The aim of this paper is to provide a short and concise review which can be used to inform affected children and adults; family members of affected children and adults, and other medical, paramedical, non-medical, and educational professionals about the disorder. This paper has also tried to look into the process of how ADHD develops; what are the associated problems; and how many other children and adults are affected by such problems all over the world basically to understand ADHD more precisely in order to develop a better medical and or non-medical multimodal intervention plan. If preschool teachers and clinicians are aware of what the research tells us about ADHD, the varying theories of its cause, and which areas need further research, the knowledge will assist them in supporting the families of children with ADHD. By including information in this review about the connection between biological behavior, it is hoped that preschool teachers and clinicians at all levels will feel more confident about explaining to parents of ADHD children, and older ADHD children themselves about the probable causes of ADHD. PMID:26973960

  14. Visual attention and academic performance in children with developmental disabilities and behavioural attention deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Hannah E; Gray, Kylie; Riby, Deborah M; Taffe, John; Cornish, Kim M

    2017-11-01

    Despite well-documented attention deficits in children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), distinctions across types of attention problems and their association with academic attainment has not been fully explored. This study examines visual attention capacities and inattentive/hyperactive behaviours in 77 children aged 4 to 11 years with IDD and elevated behavioural attention difficulties. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 23), Down syndrome (DS; n = 22), and non-specific intellectual disability (NSID; n = 32) completed computerized visual search and vigilance paradigms. In addition, parents and teachers completed rating scales of inattention and hyperactivity. Concurrent associations between attention abilities and early literacy and numeracy skills were also examined. Children completed measures of receptive vocabulary, phonological abilities and cardinality skills. As expected, the results indicated that all groups had relatively comparable levels of inattentive/hyperactive behaviours as rated by parents and teachers. However, the extent of visual attention deficits varied as a result of group; namely children with DS had poorer visual search and vigilance abilities than children with ASD and NSID. Further, significant associations between visual attention difficulties and poorer literacy and numeracy skills were observed, regardless of group. Collectively the findings demonstrate that in children with IDD who present with homogenous behavioural attention difficulties, at the cognitive level, subtle profiles of attentional problems can be delineated. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder and reward deficiency syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Blum

    2008-11-01

    form of a gene (DRD2 A1 allele that prevents the expression of the normal laying down of dopamine receptors in brain reward sites. This gene, and others involved in neurophysiological processing of specific neurotransmitters, have been associated with defi cient functions and predispose individuals to have a high risk for addictive, impulsive, and compulsive behavioral propensities. It has been proposed that genetic variants of dopaminergic genes and other “reward genes” are important common determinants of reward deficiency syndrome (RDS, which we hypothesize includes ADHD as a behavioral subtype. We further hypothesize that early diagnosis through genetic polymorphic identification in combination with DNA-based customized nutraceutical administration to young children may attenuate behavioral symptoms associated with ADHD. Moreover, it is concluded that dopamine and serotonin releasers might be useful therapeutic adjuncts for the treatment of other RDS behavioral subtypes, including addictions.Keywords: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, genes, reward dependence, reward deficiency syndrome, treatment, neuropsychological deficits

  16. Progress and Promise of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Pharmacogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Tanya E.; McGough, James J.; Stein, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    One strategy for understanding variability in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication response, and therefore redressing the current trial-and-error approach to ADHD medication management, is to identify genetic moderators of treatment. This article summarizes ADHD pharmacogenetic investigative efforts to date, which have primarily focused on short-term response to methylphenidate and largely been limited by modest sample sizes. The most well studied genes include the dopamine transporter and dopamine D4 receptor, with additional genes that have been significantly associated with stimulant medication response including the adrenergic α2A-receptor, catechol-O-methyltransferase, D5 receptor, noradrenaline (norepinephrine) transporter protein 1 and synaptosomal-associated protein 25 kDa. Unfortunately, results of current ADHD pharmacogenetic studies have not been entirely consistent, possibly due to differences in study design, medication dosing regimens and outcome measures. Future directions for ADHD pharmacogenetics investigations may include examination of drug-metabolizing enzymes and a wider range of stimulant and non-stimulant medications. In addition, researchers are increasingly interested in going beyond the individual candidate gene approach to investigate gene-gene interactions or pathways, effect modification by additional environmental exposures and whole genome approaches. Advancements in ADHD pharmacogenetics will be facilitated by multi-site collaborations to obtain larger sample sizes using standardized protocols. Although ADHD pharmacogenetic efforts are still in a relatively early stage, their potential clinical applications may include the development of treatment efficacy and adverse effect prediction algorithms that incorporate the interplay of genetic and environmental factors, as well as the development of novel ADHD treatments. PMID:20088618

  17. Prevalence of motor problems in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, K W; Lai, Kelly Y C; Lee, Marshall M C; Shea, Caroline K S; Tong, Luke C T

    2016-04-01

    Local data on the occurrence of motor problems in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are not available but an understanding of this important issue may enable better planning of medical services. We aimed to determine the prevalence of motor problems in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in a local population. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, children aged 6 to 9 years diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder over a period of 6 months from 1 July to 31 December 2011 were recruited from the Joint Paediatric and Child Psychiatric ADHD Program in New Territories East Cluster in Hong Kong. Movement Assessment Battery for Children and Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire-Chinese version were used to determine the presence of motor problems. Data from 95 participants were included in the final analysis. The number of children who had no, borderline, or definite motor problems was 63, 15, and 17, respectively. It is estimated that up to one third of local children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder might have developmental coordination disorder. Motor problems are common in local children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and figures are comparable with those from other parts of the world. Despite the various limitations of this study, the magnitude of the problem should not be overlooked.

  18. Adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder - a brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dramsdahl, Margaretha; Ersland, Lars; Plessen, Kerstin J

    2011-01-01

    Background: Impaired cognitive control in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be related to a prefrontal cortical glutamatergic deficit. We assessed the glutamate level in the left and the right midfrontal region including the anterior cingulate cortex in adults...... groups. Results: The ADHD group showed a significant reduction of Glu/Cre in the left midfrontal region compared to the controls. Conclusion: The reduction of Glu/Cre in the left midfrontal region in the ADHD group may reflect a glutamatergic deficit in prefrontal neuronal circuitry in adults with ADHD...

  19. Emotion perception in adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisch, Jeanne; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Bretscher, Johannes; Wildgruber, Dirk; Fallgatter, Andreas; Ethofer, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    This study examined identification of emotional information in facial expression, prosody, and their combination in 23 adult patients with combined attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) versus 31 healthy controls (HC) matched for gender, age, and education. We employed a stimulus set which was carefully balanced for valence as well as recognizability of the expressed emotions as determined in an independent sample of HC to avoid potential biases due to different levels of task difficulty. ADHD patients were characterized by impaired recognition of all employed categories (neutral, happiness, eroticism, disgust, anger). Basic cognitive functions as assessed by neuropsychological testing, such as sustained attention, constancy of alertness, and verbal intelligence partially explained lower recognition rates. Removal of the correlated variance by means of regression analyses did not abolish lower performance in ADHD indicating deficits in social cognition independent of these neuropsychological factors (p emotional intelligence (r = 0.38, p emotion perception. ADHD patients could partly compensate their deficit in unimodal emotion perception by audiovisual integration as revealed by larger gains in emotion recognition accuracy during bimodal presentation (p perception of emotional information in adult ADHD.

  20. The Dance of Attention: Toward an Aesthetic Dimension of Attention-Deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Kasper

    2018-03-01

    What role does the aesthetics of bodily movement play in the understanding of attention among children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? This article animates a phenomenological approach to attention and embodiment with a special focus on the relation between aesthetic or expressive bodily movement and behavioral awareness in children diagnosed with ADHD. However, beyond this it is argued that the aesthetic aspect of movement calls for an expansion of the phenomenological perspective. In this context Gilles Deleuze's notion of aesthetics as a "science of the sensible" is activated and discussed in relation to the phenomenological concept of perception. Empirically the article takes point of departure in a qualitative study conducted with a group of children with attention-deficit practicing the Afro-Brazilian marital art, capoeira. Combining ethnographic and phenomenological methods, it is demonstrated that capoeira can be considered a form of aesthetic movement that offers a transition of attention-deficit into a productive force of expression that changes the notions of sensation and movement in ADHD.

  1. Prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in elementary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    parisa namdari

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is one of the most prevalent psychiadric disorders starting from Childhood and is considered as an important mental health problem of a society. Behavioral disorders including ADHD may have distractive effects on peoples social, educational, personality, and behavioral relationship in their childhood and adulthood. Therefore, we decided to conduct the present research for ADHD in elementary school students of Khoramabad year 2004. Materials and methods: This research was a cross-sectional study. Its statistical community includes all the students studing in grades one to five at elementary school in Khorramabad (N=945. Some 16 state and private schools (8 girls and 8 boys schools were selected in a cluster and multi-stage method. The standardized questionnaire Child symptom inventories – 4 (CSI4 has been used to collect data, which was a means for the prevalens of children’s psychiatric disorders. Owing to their scoring. The cases which showed ADHD were undergone clinical examination by psychiatrist. Then, the results were analyzed using descriptive statistic and X2 test. Results: The total sample was 945 children There were 50.7% and 49.3% girls and boys respectively. Some 3.17 per cent of them were reported to suffer from ADHD the most percentages of which were of inattention (40%, overactivens (33.3%, and mixed type (26.6%. ADHD was reported to be more prevalent in boys than girls (4.9% VS. 1.5%. The students in grade 5 showed the lowest, and those in grade 2 and 3 showed the highest prevalence rate of suffering from ADHD. There was also a significant relationship between children’s sex and ADHD (P<0.005. However, there seemed no significant relationship between parents age, education, job, income, grade, and the family psychiatric problems. Conclusion: Due to the high prevalence of the disorder including ADHD, and lack of enough attention to their consequences in children and

  2. [Textual pragmatics in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: argument].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Paúls, B; Gimeno-Martínez, M; Moreno-Campos, V

    2010-03-03

    Clinical linguistics involves a study of linguistic deficits which focuses on a series of aspects that range from strictly formal, grammatical points to the effective and contextualised use of language. Thus, it is also inevitably concerned with the cognitive, i.e. mental, correlate of such language use, whose basic textual dimensions are narration and argument. To describe the argumentative skills in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to examine their relationship with academic achievement and sociability. We analysed 79 argumentative texts written by adolescents with ADHD, using a methodology from cognitive linguistics and from theories of argumentation with a dialogical foundation. Adolescents with ADHD provided a greater number of arguments than those in the control group, but with a higher predominance of emotional and negative sanction strategies compared with a greater use of fallacious or circular arguments in those in the control group; the difference between the use of rational arguments in the two groups is not significant.

  3. Autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: assessing attention and response control with the integrated visual and auditory continuous performance test.

    OpenAIRE

    Corbett, Blythe A; Constantine, Laura J

    2006-01-01

    Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been widely reported in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The current study investigated attention and response control in children with ASD, ADHD, and typical development using the Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test. Results indicate that many children with ASD show significant deficits in visual and auditory attention and greater deficits in impulsivity than children with ADHD or typical dev...

  4. [Attention deficits in the school aged stuttering child: constituent trait or comorbidity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfrais-Pfauwadel, M C; Lacombe, I

    2002-01-01

    A first account of a prospective study of attention deficit disorders among school-age stutterers--in the settings of a fluency clinic newly opened in a large general hospice--has led to the evidence of a significant association between impulsivity and stuttering. It seems therefore necessary to include attention tests among the subtests of our assessment protocols. Ways of helping the young stutterers with ADD are later thoroughly described.

  5. Computer games for user engagement in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) monitoring and therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Craven, Michael P.; Groom, Madeleine J.

    2015-01-01

    State-of-the-art computer games and psychological tests for symptom monitoring and therapy in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are explored and reviewed. Three foci for research studies are identified: task (human performance) focus; educational focus; medical/clinical focus. \\ud \\ud It is found that game designs in the literature include a variety of tests of cognition mostly dependent on attention and executive functions (inhibitory motor control, working memory, interference...

  6. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder at work: Does it impact job performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Nikos Bozionelos; Giorgos Bozionelos

    2013-01-01

    Avaible online: http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/amp.2013.0107; International audience; The article focuses on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), which affects a substantial proportion of the adult population and it often remains undiagnosed. Because of its symptoms, which include inability to focus and maintain attention, problems in time management and procrastination, ADHD is suspected as a cause of poor performance in the workplace. A recent contemplation suggests a mechanism for t...

  7. Behavioral and Neural Sustained Attention Deficits in Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliaccio, David; Wiggins, Jillian Lee; Adleman, Nancy E; Curhan, Alexa; Zhang, Susan; Towbin, Kenneth E; Brotman, Melissa A; Pine, Daniel S; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2017-05-01

    Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD), characterized by severe irritability, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are highly comorbid. This is the first study to characterize neural and behavioral similarities and differences in attentional functioning across these disorders. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers, 31 patients with DMDD, and 25 patients with ADHD (8 to 18 years old) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging attention task. Group differences in intra-subject variability in reaction time (RT) were examined. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging analytic approach precisely quantified trial-wise associations between RT and brain activity. Group differences manifested in the relation between RT and brain activity (all regions: p  2.54, partial eta-squared [η p 2 ] > 0.06). Patients with DMDD showed specific alterations in the right paracentral lobule, superior parietal lobule, fusiform gyrus, and cerebellar culmen. In contrast, patients with DMDD and those with ADHD exhibited blunted compensatory increases in activity on long RT trials. In addition, youth with DMDD exhibited increased activity in the postcentral gyrus, medial frontal gyrus, and cerebellar tonsil and declive (all regions: p  2.46, η p 2 > 0.06). Groups in the imaging sample did not differ significantly in intra-subject variability in RT (F 2,79  = 2.664, p = .076, η p 2  = 0.063), although intra-subject variability in RT was significantly increased in youth with DMDD and ADHD when including those not meeting strict motion and accuracy criteria for imaging analysis (F 2,96  = 4.283, p = .017, η p 2  = 0.083). Patients with DMDD exhibited specific alterations in the relation between pre-stimulus brain activity and RT. Patients with DMDD and those with ADHD exhibited similar blunting of compensatory neural activity in frontal, parietal, and other regions. In addition, patients with DMDD showed increased RT variability compared with healthy

  8. Dansk standardisering af attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder-ratingskalaen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lotte; Jørgensen, Siv Lykke; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. The diagnostic classification is based on developmental anamnesis, objective examination, neuropsychological tests, observation of the child, and evaluation of the symptoms...... were calculated for both girls and boys in three age-groups, for parent answers and teacher answers separately. CONCLUSION: There were significant variations in ratings of ADHD and behavioural symptoms as a function of gender and age. It is crucial, during an evaluation of a child, to compare his......, measure symptom-load and evaluate outcome of treatment of ADHD. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Apr-27...

  9. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and substance abuse - A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Søren; Madsen, Anders G.; Bikic, Aida

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the history of the studies of mental health problems and substance use disorder (SUD) and the neurobiology and etiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and SUD. Additionally, we review the literature on the associations between ADHD and SUD......, the association between stimulant treatment in patients with ADHD and the risk of SUD and the guidelines for clinical assessment and treatment of adolescents with ADHD and comorbid SUD. There is substantial evidence suggesting that patients with ADHD are at increased risk of SUD, and that comorbid conduct...

  10. Hippocampus and amygdala morphology in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Bansal, Ravi; Zhu, Hongtu

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Limbic structures are implicated in the genesis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by the presence of mood and cognitive disturbances in affected individuals and by elevated rates of mood disorders in family members of probands with ADHD. OBJECTIVE: To study the morphology...... of disturbances in the perception of time, temporal processing (eg, delay aversion), and stimulus seeking associated with ADHD. Disrupted connections between the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex may contribute to behavioral disinhibition. Our findings suggest involvement of the limbic system...

  11. Living with symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Merete B; Pedersen, Preben U; Larsen, Palle

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) relates to four dimensions of behavior: inattentiveness, restlessness, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. Symptoms affect multiple areas of daily life such as academic performance and social functioning. Despite the negative effects of ADHD....... Medication has proven to be very useful as it leads to less hyperactivity and enhances ability to stay focused and be more organized. Finally, insight into ADHD has a positive impact on the ability to manage the consequences of ADHD.Health professionals should, when advising adults with ADHD, fundamentally...

  12. Associations Between Autoimmune Diseases and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Philip Finn Rising; Benros, Michael Eriksen; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2017-01-01

    attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD: A cohort was formed of all singletons born in Denmark from 1990 to 2007, resulting in a study population of 983,680 individuals followed from 1995 to 2012. Information on autoimmune diseases was obtained from the Danish National Hospital Register......OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have suggested that autoimmune diseases and immune activation play a part in the pathogenesis of different neurodevelopmental disorders. This study investigated the association between a personal history and a family history of autoimmune disease and the risk of developing...

  13. Diagnosis and treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this NIH Consensus Statement is to inform the biomedical research and clinical practice communities of the results of the NIH Consensus Development Conference on Diagnosis and Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The statement provides state-of-the-art information regarding effective treatments for ADHD and presents the conclusions and recommendations of the consensus panel regarding these issues. In addition, the statement identifies those areas of study that deserve further investigation. Upon completion of this educational activity, the reader should possess a clear working clinical knowledge of the state of the art regarding this topic. The target audience of clinicians for this statement includes, but is not limited to, psychiatrists, family practitioners, pediatricians, internists, neurologists psychologists, and behavioral medicine specialists. Participants were a non-Federal, nonadvocate, 13-member panel representing the fields of psychology, psychiatry, neurology, pediatrics, epidemiology, biostatistics, education and the public. In addition, 31 experts from these same fields presented data to the panel and a conference audience of 1215. The literature was searched through Medline and an extensive bibliography of references was provided to the panel and the conference audience. Experts prepared abstracts with relevant citations from the literature. Scientific evidence was given precedence over clinical anecdotal experience. The panel, answering predefined questions, developed their conclusions based on the scientific evidence presented in open forum and the scientific literature. The panel composed a draft statement that was read in its entirety and circulated to the experts and the audience for comment. Thereafter, the panel resolved conflicting recommendations and released a revised statement at the end of the conference. The panel finalized the revisions within a few weeks after the conference. The draft

  14. Meta-Analysis: Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children with Comorbod Tic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Michael H.; Panza, Kaitlyn E.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Leckman, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Methylphenidate appears to provide the greatest and most immediate improvement of the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and does not appear to worsen tic symptoms based on a meta-analysis study. The meta-analysis included nine studies with 477 subjects.

  15. Students Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Collaborative Strategies for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillingford-Butler, M. Ann; Theodore, Lea

    2013-01-01

    The school setting can be a difficult place for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The core symptoms of ADHD, which include inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, make meeting the curriculum demands of the classroom challenging. That ADHD negatively impacts not only academic performance but also social and…

  16. Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Its Behavioral, Neurological, and Genetic Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Kathryn L.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common developmental disorder often associated with other developmental disorders including speech, language, and reading disorders. Here, we review the principal features of ADHD and current diagnostic standards for the disorder. We outline the ADHD subtypes, which are based upon the dimensions…

  17. Interventions for High School Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Considerations for Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is now widely conceptualized as a life course-persistent disorder, present from early childhood, and it results in pronounced impairment in functioning within educational settings, including high school. Current intervention approaches are briefly reviewed, and an approach to framing interventions within a…

  18. Swimming and Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactive Disorder: A Winning Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dail, Teresa; Smith, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of swimming for children with disabilities include improved motor skills, physical fitness, executive brain function and improved social skills. Swimming can also be an activity that provides a positive environment for children suffering from attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD). This article provides an overview of ADHD and…

  19. Italian Teachers' Knowledge and Perception of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigerio, Alessandra; Montali, Lorenzo; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2014-01-01

    Teachers' perceptions of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can influence the diagnostic rates of the disorder and the management of children in schools. This study investigated the knowledge and perceptions of ADHD in a sample of 589 Italian primary school teachers using a self-report questionnaire that included the ADHD perceptions…

  20. Caregiver Survey of Pharmacotherapy to Treat Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Individuals with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Marilee A.; Seyfer, Daisha L.; Andridge, Rebecca R.; Foster, Jessica E. A.; McClure, Kelsey E.; Coury, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic condition characterized by a unique neurocognitive and behavioral profile, including increased incidence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The purpose of the present study was to examine the perceived helpfulness and side effects of medications used to treat ADHD (methylphenidate class,…

  1. Identifying and Treating Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Resource for School and Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This resource guide designed for families and educators provides information on how attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is identified and treated. The resource includes sections on legal requirements, treatment options, educational and medical evaluations, how ADHD affects school performance, and evidence-based hints on how to improve…

  2. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Asian American Families: Challenges in Assessment and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Andy V.

    2013-01-01

    Studies addressing assessment and treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have primarily been focused on Caucasian populations, although a growing number of studies have included ethnic minority populations, particularly Hispanic and African American children. Findings regarding the relationship between ADHD diagnosis and race…

  3. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Handbook for Diagnosis and Treatment. Fourth Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, Russell A., Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Widely regarded as the standard clinical reference, this volume provides the best current knowledge about attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents, and adults. The field's leading authorities address all aspects of assessment, diagnosis, and treatment, including psychological therapies and pharmacotherapy. Core…

  4. Anxiety in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciberras, Emma; Lycett, Kate; Efron, Daryl; Mensah, Fiona; Gerner, Bibi; Hiscock, Harriet

    2014-05-01

    Although anxiety is common in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), it is unclear how anxiety influences the lives of these children. This study examined the association between anxiety comorbidities and functioning by comparing children with ADHD and no, 1, or ≥2 anxiety comorbidities. Differential associations were examined by current ADHD presentation (subtype). Children with diagnostically confirmed ADHD (N = 392; 5-13 years) were recruited via 21 pediatrician practices across Victoria, Australia. Anxiety was assessed by using the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children-IV. Functional measures included parent-reported: quality of life (QoL; Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0), behavior and peer problems (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire), daily functioning (Daily Parent Rating of Evening and Morning Behavior), and school attendance. Teacher-reported behavior and peer problems (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) were also examined. Linear and logistic regression controlled for ADHD severity, medication use, comorbidities, and demographic factors. Children with ≥2 anxiety comorbidities (n = 143; 39%) had poorer QoL (effect size: -0.8) and more difficulties with behavior (effect size: 0.4) and daily functioning (effect size: 0.3) than children without anxiety (n = 132; 36%). Poorer functioning was not observed for children with 1 anxiety comorbidity (n = 95; 26%). Two or more anxiety comorbidities were associated with poorer functioning for children with both ADHD-Inattentive and ADHD-Combined presentation. Children with ADHD demonstrate poorer QoL, daily functioning and behavior when ≥2 anxiety comorbidities are present. Future research should examine whether treating anxiety in children with ADHD improves functional outcomes. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Atomoxetine treatment in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Daniel J; Mason, Oren; Clemow, David B; Day, Kathleen A

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a CNS disorder that has its onset in childhood, but often persists into adulthood. There is growing recognition that adult ADHD can result in multiple negative consequences for individuals. ADHD is also often associated with a number of comorbid psychiatric disorders. Atomoxetine (ATX), a nonstimulant, selective noradrenergic reuptake inhibitor, was approved in the United States in 2002 for the treatment of ADHD in children and adolescents, as well as adults. We review here the safety and efficacy of ATX in adults with ADHD, including data in special populations, functional outcomes, as well as provider and patient real-world perceptions. We searched the databases Embase, MEDLINE and PsycINFO using the terms 'ADHD' and 'adult' and 'ATX' capturing publications from January 1, 1998, to March 27, 2014. Only publications in English were considered. ATX demonstrated significantly greater improvement than placebo (PBO) on the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale-Investigator rated:Screening Version (CAARS-Inv:SV) in all trials (N = 6; total score difference ranged from -3.5 to -5.5). For long-term trials using the CAARS-Inv:SV, ATX demonstrated significantly greater improvement than PBO in three of four trials (total score differences ranged from -0.1 to -6.0). In short-term studies, ATX showed significantly greater improvement than PBO on the Adult ADHD Quality-of-Life scale total score in three of three studies, but results were mixed on the Sheehan Disability Scale. Three studies of ATX have reported statistically significant improvement (compared with PBO) on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version Self Report scale. The most common adverse events (occurring in ≥ 10% of patients taking ATX) were nausea, dry mouth, decreased appetite, insomnia and fatigue. ATX is an important treatment option for the right patient. ATX can provide long-term, consistent symptom relief and functional improvement

  6. Stigmatization in teachers towards adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuermaier, Anselm Bm; Tucha, Lara; Mueller, Anna K; Koerts, Janneke; Hauser, Joachim; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver

    2014-01-14

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is understood as a developmental disorder which shares common characteristics between childhood, adolescence and adulthood. However, ADHD is widely associated with misconceptions and misbeliefs which can lead to stigmatization. Teachers have an important role for the individual development as they accompany students for a long period of time. The aim of the present study was to explore stigmatizing attitudes in teachers towards adults with ADHD, thereby focusing on the developmental trajectory of the condition. Furthermore, it was aimed to identify factors contributing to prevention and intervention of stigmatization in ADHD. Stigma responses of 170 teachers and 170 comparison participants were measured and compared with a recently developed tool for the assessment of stigmatization towards adults with ADHD. Furthermore, the contribution of knowledge about ADHD and the frequency of contact with adults with ADHD to stigmatization were explored. Teachers showed significantly less stigmatizing attitudes than comparison participants in various dimensions, including Reliability and Social Functioning, Malingering and Misuse of Medication and the total scale. With regard to teachers, frequency of contact with adults with ADHD was not related to stigma. However, knowledge about the disorder was negatively correlated with stigma in teachers, indicating lower expressed stigma with increasing knowledge about adult ADHD. Teachers demonstrated more sensitized attitudes towards stigma in adults with ADHD than comparison participants. Since the present results indicate that knowledge about ADHD increase the sensitivity towards the disorder, special education programs for the community may have the potential to reduce stigmatization towards adults with ADHD. Possibilities for intervention strategies of stigmatization in educational settings were discussed.

  7. Attentional Selection and Suppression in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Encong; Sun, Li; Sun, Meirong; Huang, Jing; Tao, Ye; Zhao, Xixi; Wu, Zhanliang; Ding, Yulong; Newman, Daniel P; Bellgrove, Mark A; Wang, Yufeng; Song, Yan

    2016-07-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder with prominent impairments in directing and sustaining attention. The aim of this study was to identify the neurophysiologic bases of attention deficits in ADHD, focusing on electroencephalography markers of attentional selection (posterior contralateral N2 [N2pc]) and suppression (distractor positivity [P D ]). The electroencephalography data were collected from 135 children 9-15 years old with and without ADHD while they searched for a shape target in either the absence (experiment 1) or the presence (experiment 2) of a salient but irrelevant color distractor. In experiment 1, the shape target elicited a smaller N2pc in children with ADHD (n = 38) compared with typically developing children (n = 36). The smaller N2pc amplitude predicted higher levels of inattentive symptoms in children with ADHD. Moreover, the target-elicited N2pc was followed by a positivity in typically developing children but not in children with ADHD. In experiment 2, the salient but irrelevant color distractor elicited a smaller P D component in children with ADHD (n = 32) compared with typically developing children (n = 29). The smaller P D predicted higher inattentive symptom severity as well as lower behavioral accuracy in children with ADHD. The correlation between N2pc/P D amplitudes and ADHD symptom severity suggests that these signals of attentional selection and suppression may serve as potential candidates for neurophysiologic markers of ADHD. Our findings provide a neurophysiologic basis for the subjective reports of attention deficits in children with ADHD and highlight the importance of spatial attention impairments in ADHD. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Attention deficits after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage measured using the test of variables of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallmark, Svante; Lundström, Erik; Wikström, Johan; Ronne-Engström, Elisabeth

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to assess attention deficits in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage using the test of variables of attention (TOVA). This is a computer-based continuous performance test providing objective measures of attention. We also compared the TOVA results with the attention and concentration domains of Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale and Montreal cognitive assessment, 2 examiner-administrated neuropsychological instruments. Nineteen patients with moderate to good recovery (Glasgow outcome scale, 4-5) were assessed using the TOVA, Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, and Montreal cognitive assessment. The measurements were done when the patients visited the hospital for a routine magnetic resonance imaging control of the aneurysm. TOVA performance was pathological in 58%. The dominating pattern was a worsening of performance in the second half of the test, commonly a failing to react to correct stimuli. We found no correlation between TOVA and the performance in concentration and attention domains of Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale and Montreal cognitive assessment. Attention deficits, measured by the TOVA, were common after subarachnoid hemorrhage. This should be further studied to improve outcome. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Modafinil Dependence: A Case with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alacam, Huseyin; Basay, Omer; Tumkaya, Selim; Mart, Mehmet; Kar, Gokce

    2018-03-30

    Modafinil is generally known as a drug with low addiction potential. There are few case reports in the literature demonstrating that Modafinil, stated being capable of diminishing symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), causes addiction. In the present article a Modafinil addicted ADHD case, consuming usurious doses (5,000 mg/per day) of Modafinil is presented. The case presented to our psychiatry outpatient clinic due to: requirement of in taking high dose Modafinil in order to achieve the initial effects, difficulty in obtaining the drug, irritability, anxiousness, sleep irregularities, fatigue and unpleasant vivid dreams when he did not use the drug. It was realized that the patient, himself increased doses of Modafinil incrementally, in order to keep its effects on attention symptoms at the same level. It has to be kept in mind that ADHD patients can develop Modafinil addiction. It is necessary to carry out systemic studies on this subject.

  10. Hypnosis and attention deficits after closed head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, T M

    1993-04-01

    In a controlled study of patients attending a concussion clinic because of ongoing postconcussion symptoms, attention deficits were recorded in the head-injured group for the aspects of alertness, assessed by the Continuous Performance Test (CPT), and processing capacity, assessed by a version of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT). Selective attention was intact. Hypnotizability was assessed by the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS:A), with normal means and standard deviations found in both the concussed and control groups. There was a significant correlation, however, between HGSHS:A scores and PASAT scores in the concussed group only. The results of this preliminary study suggest that slower processing capacity after a closed head injury may predict higher hypnotizability and that hypnosis could be an appropriate rehabilitation technique for these patients who present with postconcussion symptoms.

  11. Sleep in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kanwaljit; Zimmerman, Andrew W

    2015-06-01

    Sleep problems are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Sleep problems in these disorders may not only worsen daytime behaviors and core symptoms of ASD and ADHD but also contribute to parental stress levels. Therefore, the presence of sleep problems in ASD and ADHD requires prompt attention and management. This article is presented in 2 sections, one each for ASD and ADHD. First, a detailed literature review about the burden and prevalence of different types of sleep disorders is presented, followed by the pathophysiology and etiology of the sleep problems and evaluation and management of sleep disorders in ASD and ADHD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Intervention for executive functions in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder

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    Amanda Menezes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate if an executive functions (EF intervention could promote these skills in individuals with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Eighteen children and adolescents, 7-13 years old, divided into experimental (EG, N = 8 and control (CG, N = 10 groups, were assessed in the Block Design and Vocabulary subtests of the WISC III and seven tests of EF. Parents answered two scales, measuring EF and inattention and hyperactivity signs. EG children participated in a program to promote EF in twice-weekly group sessions of one hour each. After 8 months of intervention, groups were assessed again. ANCOVA, controlling for age, intelligence quotient and pretest performance, revealed gains in attention/inhibition and auditory working memory measures for the EG. No effect was found for scales or measures of more complex EF. Results are not conclusive, but they illustrate some promising data about EF interventions in children and adolescents with ADHD.

  13. Common Cognitive Deficits in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism: Working Memory and Visual-Motor Integration

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    Englund, Julia A.; Decker, Scott L.; Allen, Ryan A.; Roberts, Alycia M.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in working memory (WM) are characteristic features of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and autism. However, few studies have investigated cognitive deficits using a wide range of cognitive measures. We compared children with ADHD ("n" = 49) and autism ("n" = 33) with a demographically matched…

  14. [Attention characteristics of children with different clinical subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Long; Zhao, Xu; Tan, Jian-Hui; Wang, Juan

    2014-09-01

    To explore the attention characteristics of children with different clinical subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to provide a basis for clinical intervention. A total of 345 children diagnosed with ADHD were selected and the subtypes were identified. Attention assessment was performed by the intermediate visual and auditory continuous performance test at diagnosis, and the visual and auditory attention characteristics were compared between children with different subtypes. A total of 122 normal children were recruited in the control group and their attention characteristics were compared with those of children with ADHD. The scores of full scale attention quotient (AQ) and full scale response control quotient (RCQ) of children with all three subtypes of ADHD were significantly lower than those of normal children (Pattention function of children with ADHD is worse than that of normal children, and the impairment of visual attention function is severer than that of auditory attention function. The degree of functional impairment of visual or auditory attention shows no significant differences between three subtypes of ADHD.

  15. Mindfulness Meditation Improves Mood, Quality of Life, and Attention in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

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    Viviane Freire Bueno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD display affective problems and impaired attention. Mood in ADHD can be improved by mindful awareness practices (MAP, but results are mixed regarding the enhancement of attentional performance. Here we evaluated MAP-induced changes in quality of life (QoL, mood, and attention in adult ADHD patients and controls using more measures of attention than prior studies. Methods. Twenty-one ADHD patients and 8 healthy controls underwent 8 weekly MAP sessions; 22 similar patients and 9 controls did not undergo the intervention. Mood and QoL were assessed using validated questionnaires, and attention was evaluated using the Attentional Network Test (ANT and the Conners Continuous Performance Test (CPT II, before and after intervention. Results. MAP enhanced sustained attention (ANT and detectability (CPT II and improved mood and QoL of patients and controls. Conclusion. MAP is a complementary intervention that improves affect and attention of adults with ADHD and controls.

  16. Attentional Profiles and White Matter Correlates in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predominantly Inattentive Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Adriana Suzart Ungaretti; de Moura, Luciana Monteiro; de Mello, Claudia Berlim; de Souza, Altay Alves Lino; Muszkat, Mauro; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a widely studied neurodevelopmental disorder. It is a highly heterogeneous condition, encompassing different types of expression. The predominantly inattentive type is the most prevalent and the most stable over the lifetime, yet it is the least-studied presentation. To increase understanding of its cognitive profile, 29 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder of predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I) and 29 matched controls, aged 7-15 years, had their attentional abilities assessed through the Conners' continuous performance test. Diffusion tensor imaging data were collected for all of the participants using a 3.0-T MRI system. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values were obtained for 20 fiber tracts, and brain-behavior correlations were calculated for 42 of the children. The ADHD-I children differed significantly from the typically developing (TD) children with respect to attentional measures, such as the ability to maintain response-time consistency throughout the task (Hit RT SE and Variability), vigilance (Hit RT ISI and Hit RT ISI SE), processing speed (Hit RT), selective attention (Omissions), sustained attention (Hit RT Block Change), error profile (Response Style), and inhibitory control (Perseverations). Evidence of significant differences between the ADHD-I and the TD participants was not found with respect to the mean FA values in the fiber tracts analyzed. Moderate and strong correlations between performance on the attention indicators and the tract-average FA values were found for the ADHD-I group. Our results contribute to a better characterization of the attentional profile of ADHD-I individuals and suggest that in children and adolescents with ADHD-I, attentional performance is mainly associated with the white matter structure of the long associative fibers that connect anterior-posterior brain areas.

  17. Attentional profiles and white matter correlates in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder predominantly inattentive type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Suzart Ungaretti Rossi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a widely studied neurodevelopmental disorder. It is a highly heterogeneous condition, encompassing different types of expression. The predominantly inattentive type is the most prevalent and the most stable over the lifetime, yet it is the least-studied presentation. To increase understanding of its cognitive profile, 29 children with Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder of predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I and 29 matched controls, aged 7 to 15 years, had their attentional abilities assessed through the Conners’ Continuous Performance Test. Diffusion tensor imaging data were collected for all of the participants using a 3.0 Tesla MRI system. Fractional anisotropy values were obtained for 20 fibre tracts, and brain-behaviour correlations were calculated for 42 of the children. The ADHD-I children differed significantly from the typically developing children with respect to attentional measures, such as the ability to maintain response-time consistency throughout the task (Hit RT SE and Variability, vigilance (Hit RT ISI and Hit RT ISI SE, processing speed (Hit RT, selective attention (Omissions, sustained attention (Hit RT Block Change, error profile (Response Style and inhibitory control (Perseverations. Evidence of significant differences between the ADHD-I and the typically developing participants was not found with respect to the mean FA values in the fibre tracts analysed. Moderate and strong correlations between performance on the attention indicators and the tract-average fractional anisotropy values were found for the ADHD-I group. Our results contribute to a better characterization of the attentional profile of ADHD-I individuals and suggest that in children and adolescents with ADHD-I, attentional performance is mainly associated with the white-matter structure of the long associative fibres that connect anterior-posterior brain areas.

  18. The effect of different stimulus attributes on the attentional performance of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and dyslexia.

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    Wang, Li-Chih; Tsai, Huang-Ju; Yang, Hsien-Ming

    2013-11-01

    While teachers have traditionally used the interesting objects to increase student attention in the classroom, evidence supporting the effectiveness of this method is lacking. The present study investigated the influence of different stimulus attributes for typical developing students and for students with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and dyslexia. Thirty children with ADHD, 30 children with dyslexia, and 30 typical developing students were tested using a measuring tool that was constructed by the authors to assess their sustained attention and selective attention on the geometric-figure assessment and the interesting-figure assessment. The geometric-figure assessment included a square, circle, trapezium, and triangle; and the interesting-figure assessment included a house, cat, hand, and tree. While the typical developing group showed better selective attention on the geometric-figure assessment, there was no difference between the dyslexic group and the ADHD group with respect to selective attention. Furthermore, the typical developing and dyslexic groups did not differ in the geometric-figure assessment in sustained attention and were both better in this area than the ADHD group. In the interesting-figure assessment, the typical developing and dyslexic groups performed similarly in sustained attention, but selective attention of the dyslexic group improved more than the ADHD group, similar to the typical developing group. Both selective attention of the dyslexic group and sustained attention of the ADHD group showed positive significant differences in the interesting-figure assessment, but sustained attention of the dyslexic group and selective attention of the ADHD group showed little difference in the interesting-figure assessment. Surprisingly, the typical developing group did not show any significant difference in the interesting-figure assessment, possibly because they had previously demonstrated a ceiling effect in the geometric

  19. [Executive function training in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Mas, Luis; Ruiz-Andrés, Rosalía; Moreno-Madrid, Francisca; Sirera-Conca, M Angeles; Cornesse, Marcel; Delgado-Mejía, Iván D; Etchepareborda, Máximo C

    2011-03-01

    A number of different treatments have been proposed to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), yet little material has been published in the literature to improve the performance of the mechanisms behind attention, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility and working memory in these children. We think that a working model that is effective in the treatment of persons with ADHD can only be consolidated by means of a thorough understanding of the syndromes involved in this deficit. In addition to reviewing the latest and most significant proposals aimed at improving the cognitive under-standing of the disorder, this work also refers to three neurobiological syndromes that are recognised as forming part of ADHD, i.e. medial cingulate syndrome, dorsolateral syndrome and orbitofrontal syndrome. Advances in neuroscientific research and the design of computerised treatment materials offer extremely valuable data that will undoubtedly help to improve the results of psychopedagogical and neuropsychological interventions in ADHD, since they provide information about the temporal and spatial equation.

  20. Functional imaging of neurocognitive dysfunction in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, I.; Tost, H.; Ruf, M.; Ende, G.

    2005-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurobiological disorder of early childhood onset. Defining symptoms are chronic impairments of attention, impulse control and motor hyperactivity that frequently persist until adulthood. Miscellaneous causes of the disorder have been discussed. Accumulating evidence from imaging- and molecular genetic studies strengthened the theory of ADHS being a predominantly inherited disorder of neurobiological origin. In the last 15 years, non-invasive brain imaging methods were successfully implemented in pediatric research. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies gave major insight into the neurobiological correlates of executive malfunction, inhibitory deficits and psychomotoric soft signs. These findings are in good accordance with brain morphometric data indicating a significant volumetric decrease of major components of striato-thalamo-cortical feedback loops, primarily influencing prefrontal executive functioning (e.g. basal ganglia). Empirical evidence points to a broad array of associated behavioral disturbances like deficient visuomotor abilities and oculomotor dysfunctions. This paper reviews the current empirical evidence derived from prior imaging studies. Special emphasis is given to the relevance of oculomotor dysfunctions in clinical and research settings, as well as their assessment in the MR environment. (orig.) [de

  1. Brief experimental analysis of reading deficits for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fienup, Daniel M; Reyes-Giordano, Kimberly; Wolosik, Katarzyna; Aghjayan, Anto; Chacko, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Reading difficulties are especially high among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although there are a number of empirically supported reading interventions for children with ADHD, there is little data to guide the selection of the most efficacious reading intervention for a specific child. Brief experimental analysis (BEA) is a procedure that directly compares the efficacy of various academic interventions with the goal of guiding the selection of the intervention that results in optimal efficacy. The current proof of concept study examined the efficacy of the BEA methodology for determining the relative effectiveness of seven reading interventions for children with ADHD. The seven interventions included empirically supported ADHD interventions as well as traditional interventions found in the BEA literature. Six children diagnosed with ADHD completed the proof of concept study. Results indicated that the BEA successfully determined an efficacious intervention for each participant. The efficacy of the interventions and the optimal intervention based on BEA procedures varied for each child, suggesting the importance of a BEA approach when comparing various interventions for reading in children with ADHD. Implications and future directions for selecting effective reading interventions for children with ADHD are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Lisdexamfetamine in the treatment of adolescents and children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

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    Najib J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Jadwiga Najib1–31Division of Pharmacy Practice, Arnold and Marie Schwartz College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Long Island University, Brooklyn, 2Department of Pharmacy, 3Department of Psychiatry, St Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders defined by developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Symptoms begin in childhood and may persist into adolescence and adulthood. Currently available pharmacological treatment options for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents include stimulants that are efficacious and well tolerated; however, many of these preparations require multiple daily dosing and have the potential for abuse. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, the first prodrug stimulant, was developed to provide a longer duration of effect. It demonstrates a predictable delivery of the active drug, d-amphetamine, with low interpatient variability, and has a reduced potential for abuse. A literature search of the MEDLINE database and clinical trials register from 1995–2011, as well as relevant abstracts presented at annual professional meetings, on lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in children and adolescents were included for review. This article presents the pharmacokinetic profile, efficacy, and safety of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and, more recently, in adolescents.Keywords: lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, prodrug stimulant, attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorders, safety, efficacy, children, adolescents

  3. Lead and PCBs as Risk Factors for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubig, Paul A.; Aguiar, Andréa; Schantz, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most frequently diagnosed neurobehavioral disorder of childhood, yet its etiology is not well understood. In this review we present evidence that environmental chemicals, particularly polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and lead, are associated with deficits in many neurobehavioral functions that are also impaired in ADHD. Data sources Human and animal studies of developmental PCB or lead exposures that assessed specific functional domains shown to be impaired in ADHD children were identified via searches of PubMed using “lead” or “PCB exposure” in combination with key words, includingattention,” “working memory,” “response inhibition,” “executive function,” “cognitive function,” “behavior,” and “ADHD.” Data synthesis Children and laboratory animals exposed to lead or PCBs show deficits in many aspects of attention and executive function that have been shown to be impaired in children diagnosed with ADHD, including tests of working memory, response inhibition, vigilance, and alertness. Studies conducted to date suggest that lead may reduce both attention and response inhibition, whereas PCBs may impair response inhibition to a greater degree than attention. Low-level lead exposure has been associated with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD in several recent studies. Similar studies of PCBs have not been conducted. Conclusions We speculate that exposures to environmental contaminants, including lead and PCBs, may increase the prevalence of ADHD. PMID:20829149

  4. Psychometric properties of Persian version of the Sustained Auditory Attention Capacity Test in children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanparast, Sanaz; Jafari, Zahra; Sameni, Seyed Jalal; Salehi, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties (validity and reliability) of the Persian version of the Sustained Auditory Attention Capacity Test in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The Persian version of the Sustained Auditory Attention Capacity Test was constructed to assess sustained auditory attention using the method provided by Feniman and colleagues (2007). In this test, comments were provided to assess the child's attentional deficit by determining inattention and impulsiveness error, the total scores of the sustained auditory attention capacity test and attention span reduction index. In the present study for determining the validity and reliability of in both Rey Auditory Verbal Learning test and the Persian version of the Sustained Auditory Attention Capacity Test (SAACT), 46 normal children and 41 children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity (ADHD), all right-handed and aged between 7 and 11 of both genders, were evaluated. In determining convergent validity, a negative significant correlation was found between the three parts of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning test (first, fifth, and immediate recall) and all indicators of the SAACT except attention span reduction. By comparing the test scores between the normal and ADHD groups, discriminant validity analysis showed significant differences in all indicators of the test except for attention span reduction (pAttention Capacity test has good validity and reliability, that matches other reliable tests, and it can be used for the identification of children with attention deficits and if they suspected to have Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

  5. Cortisol Response to Stress in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas-Roso, Margarida; Palomar, Gloria; Ferrer, Roser; Real, Alberto; Nogueira, Mariana; Corrales, Montserrat; Casas, Miguel; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni

    2015-03-17

    Differences in the cortisol response have been reported between children exhibiting the inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, there is no such information about adults. The aim of the present study was to determine the possible differences between the combined and inattentive subtypes in the cortisol response to stress. Ninety-six adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 38 inattentive and 58 combined, without any medical or psychiatric comorbidities and 25 healthy controls were included. The Trier Social Stress Test was used to assess physiological stress responses. Clinical data and subjective stress levels, including the Perceived Stress Scale, were also recorded. No significant differences in the cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test were found between patients and controls. However, albeit there were no basal differences, lower cortisol levels at 15 (P=.015), 30 (P=.015), and 45 minutes (P=.045) were observed in the combined compared with the inattentive subtype after the stress induction; these differences disappeared 60 minutes after the stress. In contrast, the subjective stress responses showed significant differences between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients and controls (Pattention deficit hyperactivity disorder subtypes. In turn, subjective stress measures, such as the Perceived Stress Scale, positively correlated with the whole cortisol stress response (Pattention deficit hyperactivity disorder adults exhibited a normal cortisol response to stress when challenged. Nevertheless, the inattentive patients displayed a higher level of cortisol after stress compared with the combined patients. Despite the differences in the cortisol response, adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder reported high levels of subjective stress in their every-day life. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  6. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Social Anxiety in İstanbul Heavy Metal Bar Patrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özalp Ekinci

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to examine the heavy metal bar patrons in Istanbul by means of self-reported questionnaires for psychiatric disorder symptoms.Material and Methods: Seventy-one volunteers from 4 popular heavy metal bars were included to the study. The Beck Depression Inventory, the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS, the Adult Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD/ADHD Scale and the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST were administered to the participants. Results: One fourth of the participants (25.4% were under high risk for a depressive episode (BDI>17, 22 (32.3% reported significant social anxiety (LSAS>30, and 41 (57.7% showed moderate ADHD symptoms (Adult ADD/ADHD scale: 20-59. According to BDI score participants who were under the risk for depression showed higher scores in Adult ADD/ADHD scale scores than that of participants who were not under a risk for depression (p=0.001 for attention deficit; p=0.003 for hyperactivity; p=0.002 for impulsivity; p=0.001 for total score. In the study group, ADD/ADHD scale attention deficit score was positively correlated with the total fear, total avoidence and the total scores of LSAS (r=.359 p<0.01; r=.332 p<0.01; r=.358 p<0.01, respectively. Conclusion: Heavy metal bar patrons appear to be a particular social group with an increased risk of psychopathology.

  7. Attentional Lapses in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Blank Rather Than Wandering Thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Driessche, Charlotte; Bastian, Mikaël; Peyre, Hugo; Stordeur, Coline; Acquaviva, Éric; Bahadori, Sara; Delorme, Richard; Sackur, Jérôme

    2017-10-01

    People with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have difficulties sustaining their attention on external tasks. Such attentional lapses have often been characterized as the simple opposite of external sustained attention, but the different types of attentional lapses, and the subjective experiences to which they correspond, remain unspecified. In this study, we showed that unmedicated children (ages 6-12) with ADHD, when probed during a standard go/no-go task, reported more mind blanking (a mental state characterized by the absence of reportable content) than did control participants. This increase in mind blanking happened at the expense of both focused and wandering thoughts. We also found that methylphenidate reverted the level of mind blanking to baseline (i.e., the level of mind blanking reported by control children without ADHD). However, this restoration led to mind wandering more than to focused attention. In a second experiment, we extended these findings to adults who had subclinical ADHD. These results suggest that executive functions impaired in ADHD are required not only to sustain external attention but also to maintain an internal train of thought.

  8. Neurological soft signs are associated with attentional dysfunction in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzianti, Mariabernarda; D'Agati, Elisa; Casarelli, Livia; Pontis, Marco; Kaunzinger, Ivo; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver; Curatolo, Paolo; Pasini, Augusto

    2016-11-01

    Inattention is one of the core symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Most of patients with ADHD show motor impairment, consisting in the persistence of neurological soft signs (NSS). Our aim was to evaluate attentional and motor functioning in an ADHD sample and healthy children (HC) and possible link between attentional dysfunction and motor impairment in ADHD. Twenty-seven drug-naive patients with ADHD and 23 HC were tested with a test battery, measuring different aspects of attention. Motor evaluation has provided three primary variables: overflow movements (OM), dysrhythmia and total speed of timed activities. Compared to HC, patients were impaired in a considerable number of attentional processes and showed a greater number of NSS. Significant correlations between disturbances of attention and motor abnormalities were observed in ADHD group. Our findings suggest that attentional processes could be involved in the pathophysiology of the NSS and add scientific evidence to the predictive value of NSS as indicators of the severity of functional impairment in ADHD. Given the marked improvement or complete resolution of NSS following treatment with methylphenidate, we suggest that evaluation of NSS is useful to monitor the effectiveness of pharmacological treatment with MPH in ADHD.

  9. Effectiveness of a Computer-Facilitated, Interactive Social Skills Training Program for Boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenstermacher, Kevin; Olympia, Daniel; Sheridan, Susan M.

    2006-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at significant risk for a variety of comorbid conditions, including social skills deficits. Although interventions addressing various aspects of social difficulties with these children have been developed, few researchers have integrated new technology with existing social skills…

  10. [Electroencephalographic alterations in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelio-Nieto, José O; Borbolla-Sala, Manuel E; Gallegos-Dimas, Arturo

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this work was to analyse and determine the electroencephalographic alterations presented in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) between 4 and 14 years of age. The research consisted in a prospective observation-based analytical study, conducted between January and July 2010, to detect electroencephalographic abnormalities in the population of children diagnosed with ADHD who visited the Doctor Rodolfo Nieto Padron Children's Hospital. The Latin-American ADHD questionnaire and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, were administered, together with a survey for detecting risk factors. An electroencephalogram (EEG) was later performed and a database was set up to record information about age, sex, perinatal asphyxia, family history of seizures, medicine used to control ADHD, the presence of tics and itemised findings from the EEG. A note was made of whether the EEG trace was normal or abnormal and, in the case of the latter, the location of the EEG phenomenon was stated. A total of 50 patients with EEG findings were included, with an average of 7.3 years; there was a predominance of male patients, with 36 males (72%) versus 14 females (28%). We found 21 children with motor tics (42%) and four with a history of having had seizures (8%), two of whom had previously been diagnosed with epilepsy. The total number of EEG within normal limits was 31 (34.5%) and there were 19 that could be considered abnormal (15.5%). Although the presence of abnormal EEG patterns existed in a significant group, it was not related to the presence of tics in the patients. Moreover, a direct relationship was found between the presence of seizures and EEG abnormalities. No correlation was observed between poor educational achievement and an abnormal EEG. EEG is the best study for determining whether there are epileptogenic foci, although there is no clinical correlation. The most frequent location of the abnormalities

  11. Attentional Performance in Children and Adolescents with Tic Disorder and Co-Occurring Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder: New Insights from a 2 x 2 Factorial Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greimel, Ellen; Wanderer, Sina; Rothenberger, Aribert; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin; Roessner, Veit

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of both tic disorder (TD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on attentional functions. N = 96 children and adolescents participated in the study, including n = 21 subjects with TD, n = 23 subjects with ADHD, n = 25 subjects with TD+ADHD, and n = 27 controls. Attentional…

  12. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Rashid

    2015-09-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder, which affects children as well as adults and leads to significant impairment in educational, social and occupational functioning and has associated personal and societal costs. Whilst there are effective medications (mostly stimulants) as well as some psychobehavioural treatments that help alleviate symptoms of ADHD, there is still need to improve our understanding of its neurobiology as well as explore other treatment options. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) are safe and non-invasive investigative and therapeutic tools respectively. In this short article, I will explore their potential for improving our understanding of the neurobiology of ADHD as well consider its as a possible treatment option.

  13. Children's accounts of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Judy; Hatton, Diane; Beckett, Ann; Leo, Michael

    2003-01-01

    As a postmodern illness, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is embedded in controversy, reflective of the cultural times in which we live. Within this debate, 2 perspectives, ADHD as myth and ADHD as behavioral disorder, are most frequently voiced. This article describes these 2 differing perspectives and reports qualitative data from 39 children and adolescents with a diagnosis of ADHD regarding their perceptions, meanings,and experiences of living with this disorder. None of the participants in this study denied that they had difficulties and many of the difficulties they described corresponded to DSM-IV-R criteria and the scientific literature. Given these discoveries, the continual debate about the authenticity of ADHD only further victimizes families who are in desperate need of services.

  14. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity: epidemiological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Samuele; Faraone, Stephen V.; Bernardi, Silvia; Wang, Shuai; Blanco, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Background A significant association between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity has been reported. This study addresses unexplored aspects of this relationship. Aims To evaluate the association between adult obesity and: (a) persistent, remitted or lifetime ADHD; (b) number of childhood ADHD symptoms, controlling for socioeconomic status and mood, anxiety and substance use disorders. Method Face-to-face psychiatric interviews in 34 653 US adults from the National Epidemiologic Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Obesity was defined as a body mass index ⩾30. Results Persistent, lifetime or remitted ADHD were not associated with obesity after controlling for confounders. The number of childhood ADHD symptoms was significantly associated with adult obesity, even after adjustment, in women. Conclusions Childhood ADHD symptoms are associated with obesity in women even after comorbid psychiatric disorders are accounted for. This provides a rationale for longitudinal studies assessing the impact of the treatment of childhood ADHD symptoms on obesity in women. PMID:23661765

  15. Hippocampus and amygdala morphology in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Bansal, Ravi; Zhu, Hongtu

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Limbic structures are implicated in the genesis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by the presence of mood and cognitive disturbances in affected individuals and by elevated rates of mood disorders in family members of probands with ADHD. OBJECTIVE: To study the morphology...... of the hippocampus and amygdala in children with ADHD. DESIGN: A cross-sectional case-control study of the hippocampus and amygdala using anatomical magnetic resonance imaging. SETTINGS: University research institute. PATIENTS: One hundred fourteen individuals aged 6 to 18 years, 51 with combined-type ADHD and 63...... healthy controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Volumes and measures of surface morphology for the hippocampus and amygdala. RESULTS: The hippocampus was larger bilaterally in the ADHD group than in the control group (t = 3.35; P

  16. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and the behavior of "Che" Guevara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teive, Hélio A G; Zavala, Jorge A; Munhoz, Renato P; Lara, Diogo R; Lima, Pedro; Palmini, André

    2009-09-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood onset neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. ADHD is related to several co-morbidities, such as opposition defiant disorder, conduct disorder, mood and anxiety disturbances, as well as tics and Tourette's syndrome. The objective of this report is to shed an alternative light on the personality of Ernesto "Che" Guevara, discussing whether he might have had ADHD. Several published biographies of Che Guevara were reviewed. Established ADHD criteria (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition), were used as a framework to evaluate Che's behaviour. In addition, we compared the main features of Che's reported behaviour to the set of abnormalities leading to the diagnosis of ADHD in adults proposed by Wender and colleagues and known as the UTAH ADHD criteria. Analysis of the most renowned biographies of Ernesto "Che" Guevara suggests that he may have had ADHD.

  17. Attention deficit disorder, alcoholism, and drug abuse: MMPI correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaeth, J M; Horton, A M; Ahadpour, M

    1992-03-01

    Earlier research had demonstrated that alcoholics with attention deficit disorder residual type (ADDRT) differ from other alcoholics on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of drug abuse on the relationship of ADDRT and alcoholism as reflected on the MMPI. Groups of 48 male alcoholics, 28 ADDRT alcoholics, 25 ADDRT alcohol and drug abusers and 18 alcohol and drug abusers were all administered the MMPI. Significant differences were found between the alcoholic and ADDRT alcoholic groups on scales Pd, Sc, Si, F, and K. For the ADDRT alcohol and drug abusers versus the alcohol and drug abuser groups, they differed on scales K, Hs, D, Pd, Pa, Pt, Sc, Si, F, K, and L.

  18. Evidence-based pharmacotherapy for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas; Wilens, Timothy

    2004-03-01

    There is a substantial body of literature documenting the efficacy of multiple unrelated pharmacological agents in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) individuals throughout the life-cycle. The available literature indicates the important role of psychopharmacological agents in the reduction of the core symptoms of ADHD and associated impairments. The literature documents that stimulants not only improve abnormal behaviours of ADHD, but also improves self-esteem, cognition, and social and family function. However, response varied in different age groups and with certain comorbidities. In addition there is a large body of literature documenting the efficacy of atomoxetine which shows improvement in these same domains. More research is needed on alternative pharmacological treatments and to further evaluate established therapeutics beyond school-aged Caucasian boys. Further, more research is needed on the efficacy of treatment for comorbid ADHD, use of combined medications, and the combination of medication and psychosocial treatment.

  19. Internet Addiction and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Among Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Aviv; Yaacov, Yafa; Manning, Michal; Danon, Pinhas; Weizman, Abraham

    2015-12-01

    Use of the internet and videogames by children and adolescents has risen dramatically over the last decade. Increasing evidence of internet and videogame addiction among children is causing concern due to its harmful physical, emotional and social consequences. There is also emerging evidence for an association between computer and videogame addiction and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To investigate the relationship between ADHD and internet addiction. We compared 50 male schoolchildren, mean age 13 years, diagnosed with ADHD to 50 male schoolchildren without ADHD on measures of internet addiction, internet use and sleep patterns. Children with ADHD had higher scores on the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), used the internet for longer hours, and went to sleep later than those without ADHD. These findings indicate an association of ADHD, sleep disorders and internet/videogame addiction.

  20. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: associations with overeating and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Caroline

    2010-10-01

    In the past decade, we have become increasingly aware of strong associations between overweight/obesity and symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents, and adults. This review addresses the prevalence of the comorbidity and discusses some of the mechanisms that could account for their relationship. It is suggested that the inattentive and impulsive behaviors that characterize ADHD could contribute to overeating in our current food environment, with its emphasis on fast food consumption and its many food temptations. It is also proposed-based on the compelling evidence that foods high in fat, sugar, and salt are as addictive as some drugs of abuse-that excessive food consumption could be a form of self-medication. This view conforms with the well-established evidence that drug use and abuse are substantially higher among those with ADHD than among the general population.

  1. Striatal dysfunction in attention deficit and hyperkinetic disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lou, H.C.; Henriksen, L.; Bruhn, P.; Borner, H.; Nielsen, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    We have previously reported that periventricular structures are hypoperfused in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study has expanded the number of patients, who were divided into two groups: six patients with pure ADHD, and 13 patients with ADHD in combination with other neurologic symptoms. By using xenon 133 inhalation and emission tomography, the regional cerebral blood flow distribution was determined and compared with a control group. Striatal regions were found to be hypoperfused and, by inference, hypofunctional in both groups. This hypoperfusion was statistically significant in the right striatum in ADHD, and in both striatal regions in ADHD with other neuropsychologic and neurologic symptoms. The primary sensory and sensorimotor cortical regions were highly perfused. Methylphenidate increased flow to striatal and posterior periventricular regions, and tended to decrease flow to primary sensory regions. Low striatal activity, partially reversible with methylphenidate, appears to be a cardinal feature in ADHD.

  2. Striatal dysfunction in attention deficit and hyperkinetic disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, H.C.; Henriksen, L.; Bruhn, P.; Borner, H.; Nielsen, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    We have previously reported that periventricular structures are hypoperfused in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study has expanded the number of patients, who were divided into two groups: six patients with pure ADHD, and 13 patients with ADHD in combination with other neurologic symptoms. By using xenon 133 inhalation and emission tomography, the regional cerebral blood flow distribution was determined and compared with a control group. Striatal regions were found to be hypoperfused and, by inference, hypofunctional in both groups. This hypoperfusion was statistically significant in the right striatum in ADHD, and in both striatal regions in ADHD with other neuropsychologic and neurologic symptoms. The primary sensory and sensorimotor cortical regions were highly perfused. Methylphenidate increased flow to striatal and posterior periventricular regions, and tended to decrease flow to primary sensory regions. Low striatal activity, partially reversible with methylphenidate, appears to be a cardinal feature in ADHD

  3. Pharmacological treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatkoff, Joshua; Greenfield, Brian

    2006-06-01

    With increased awareness that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can persist beyond childhood, pharmacological treatment options for adults have expanded. Short-acting stimulants continue to be the first-line approach, demonstrating clinical efficacy and few adverse events in well-controlled trials, with long-acting stimulants also showing promise. Atomoxetine has also been reported to improve ADHD symptoms and associated dysfunction, although longer-term, head-to-head studies with stimulants are needed. Several antidepressants (e.g., desipramine and buproprion) appear to be effective in the treatment of adult ADHD, but to a lesser extent than stimulants. Data are limited in evaluating the impact of combining pharmacological treatments for ADHD and comorbid conditions. This paper describes the safety and efficacy of medications for treating the core symptoms, psychosocial features and cognitive dysfunctions associated with adult ADHD.

  4. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity: epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Samuele; Faraone, Stephen V; Bernardi, Silvia; Wang, Shuai; Blanco, Carlos

    2013-07-01

    A significant association between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity has been reported. This study addresses unexplored aspects of this relationship. To evaluate the association between adult obesity and: (a) persistent, remitted or lifetime ADHD; (b) number of childhood ADHD symptoms, controlling for socioeconomic status and mood, anxiety and substance use disorders. Face-to-face psychiatric interviews in 34 653 US adults from the National Epidemiologic Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥30. Persistent, lifetime or remitted ADHD were not associated with obesity after controlling for confounders. The number of childhood ADHD symptoms was significantly associated with adult obesity, even after adjustment, in women. Childhood ADHD symptoms are associated with obesity in women even after comorbid psychiatric disorders are accounted for. This provides a rationale for longitudinal studies assessing the impact of the treatment of childhood ADHD symptoms on obesity in women.

  5. Ginkgo biloba treating patients with attention-deficit disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederhofer, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    Various medications such as clonidine facilitate calming, enhance frustration tolerance and reduce aggression in attention-deficit disorder (ADD) patients. The use of Ginkgo biloba was studied as an herbal alternative. Six psychiatric outpatients diagnosed with ADD were rated at baseline and while taking Ginkgo biloba to determine its efficacy as a treatment for ADD. Comparisons of Wender Utah ratings within subject were used to measure behavioral changes in the subjects. During Ginkgo biloba treatment, the patients' mean scores improved significantly overall and in hyperactivity, inattention, and immaturity factors. This preliminary study indicates that Ginkgo biloba might be a beneficial and useful treatment of ADD, with minimal side effects. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Motor development of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rosa Neto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To compare both global and specific domains of motor development of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD with that of typically developing children.Methods:Two hundred children (50 children with clinical diagnoses of ADHD, according to the DSM-IV-TR and 150 typically developing controls, aged 5 to 10 years, participated in this cross-sectional study. The Motor Development Scale was used to assess fine and global motricity, balance, body schema, and spatial and temporal organization.Results:Between-group testing revealed statistically significant differences between the ADHD and control groups for all domains. The results also revealed a deficit of nearly two years in the motor development of children with ADHD compared with the normative sample.Conclusion:The current study shows that ADHD is associated with a delay in motor development when compared to typically developing children. The results also suggested difficulties in certain motor areas for those with ADHD. These results may point to plausible mechanisms underlying the relationship between ADHD and motor difficulties.

  7. Motor development of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa Neto, Francisco; Goulardins, Juliana B; Rigoli, Daniela; Piek, Jan P; Oliveira, Jorge A de

    2015-01-01

    To compare both global and specific domains of motor development of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with that of typically developing children. Two hundred children (50 children with clinical diagnoses of ADHD, according to the DSM-IV-TR and 150 typically developing controls), aged 5 to 10 years, participated in this cross-sectional study. The Motor Development Scale was used to assess fine and global motricity, balance, body schema, and spatial and temporal organization. Between-group testing revealed statistically significant differences between the ADHD and control groups for all domains. The results also revealed a deficit of nearly two years in the motor development of children with ADHD compared with the normative sample. The current study shows that ADHD is associated with a delay in motor development when compared to typically developing children. The results also suggested difficulties in certain motor areas for those with ADHD. These results may point to plausible mechanisms underlying the relationship between ADHD and motor difficulties.

  8. Source discrimination in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm B M Fuermaier

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The context of memory experiences is referred to as source memory and can be distinguished from the content of episodic item memory. Source memory represents a crucial part of biographic events and elaborate memory experiences. Whereas individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD were shown to have inefficient item memory, little is known about the context of memory experiences. METHODS: The present study compared 37 adult patients with a diagnosed ADHD with 40 matched healthy participants on a word list paradigm. Memory functions of encoding, retention and source discrimination were assessed. Furthermore, standardized measures of memory and executive control were applied in order to explore a qualitative differentiation of memory components. RESULTS: Adult patients with ADHD showed impaired performance in encoding of new information whereas the retention of encoded items was found to be preserved. The most pronounced impairment of patients with ADHD was observed in source discrimination. Regression models of cognitive functions on memory components supported some qualitative differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: Data analysis suggests a differential pattern of memory impairment in adults suffering from ADHD with a particular deficit in source discrimination. Inefficient source discrimination in adults with ADHD can affect daily functioning by limiting biographic awareness and disturbing general cognitive processes.

  9. Source discrimination in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Weisbrod, Matthias; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The context of memory experiences is referred to as source memory and can be distinguished from the content of episodic item memory. Source memory represents a crucial part of biographic events and elaborate memory experiences. Whereas individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were shown to have inefficient item memory, little is known about the context of memory experiences. The present study compared 37 adult patients with a diagnosed ADHD with 40 matched healthy participants on a word list paradigm. Memory functions of encoding, retention and source discrimination were assessed. Furthermore, standardized measures of memory and executive control were applied in order to explore a qualitative differentiation of memory components. Adult patients with ADHD showed impaired performance in encoding of new information whereas the retention of encoded items was found to be preserved. The most pronounced impairment of patients with ADHD was observed in source discrimination. Regression models of cognitive functions on memory components supported some qualitative differentiation. Data analysis suggests a differential pattern of memory impairment in adults suffering from ADHD with a particular deficit in source discrimination. Inefficient source discrimination in adults with ADHD can affect daily functioning by limiting biographic awareness and disturbing general cognitive processes.

  10. Oral and Dental Health Problems of Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders, and Solution Proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceylan Çağıl Yetiş

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most common childhood onset behavioral disorder characterized by a developmentally inappropriate attention deficit, hyperactivity-impulsivity or a combination of these. Genetic and environmental factors play a role in the etiology. Because of the behavioral problems sourced from the disease itself and side effects of the drugs used in therapy, children with ADHD take place in the risk group in terms of oral and dental health problems and they are included in the group of patients who need special attention in pediatric dentistry. Drugs used in the treatment are known to cause dry mouth. Children with ADHD have been reported to have low oral hygiene habits and a high prevalence of dental caries. Also, parafunctional habits such as bruxism and dental trauma are observed more frequently in these children. In this review, oral health and behavior management problems in children with ADHD are pointed out, and solutions are suggested.

  11. Cortisol responses in children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a possible marker of inhibition deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas, M; Ramos-Quiroga, J A; Ferrer, M; Sáez-Francàs, N; Palomar, G; Bosch, R; Casas, M

    2012-06-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous disease whose neurobiological background is not completely understood. It has been proposed that deficits of the inhibitory function with an underactive behavioral inhibition system (BIS) may be in the core of ADHD. In this regard, this review summarizes all studies that examine the involvement of cortisol in ADHD. Differences in cortisol responses from different ADHD subtypes, hyperactive/impulsive, inattentive, and combined, are analyzed. In addition, we examine the role of comorbidities as confounding factors in the study of cortisol in ADHD, including comorbid disruptive behavioral disorder (DBD), as well as anxiety and depressive disorders. Because ADHD is a neurodevelopmental condition and approximately half of the children enter adulthood with the disorder, we review cortisol studies in adults and children separately. Two diverse patterns of cortisol have been reported both in children and adults with ADHD. Blunted cortisol responses to stress are associated with comorbid DBD, whereas high cortisol responses are associated to comorbid anxiety disorders. Nevertheless, the inhibitory deficits in ADHD do not appear to be related directly to cortisol deficits in either children or adults. This review increases our understanding of the heterogeneity of ADHD and could help in determining new strategies for the treatment of these patients. Future studies including gender and a more systematic methodology to study the cortisol response are needed.

  12. ["Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in forensic psychiatry: A review"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galland, D; Tisserant, I; Notardonato, L

    2017-05-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common and challenging childhood neurobehavioral disorders. ADHD may have behavioral consequences and involvements in minor and serious crimes. Our work aims to establish links between ADHD and forensic psychiatry. A review of international scientific literature concerning the relationship between ADHD and forensic psychiatry was conducted using the PudMed electronic database. We used the Mesh terms: "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder" and "forensic psychiatry". We also used the "related articles" function of PubMed, the bibliography of selected articles and the Google Scholar database to identify possible additional papers. The prevalence of ADHD in prison populations may vary but remain higher than those found in the general population. Violence committed by a person with ADHD seems to be against other persons rather than property offences. Reactive-impulsive violence seems to be more prevalent than pro-active instrumental violence. The existence of ADHD does not appear as a risk factor of recidivism. The violence risk may be increased by the occurrence of comorbidities as conduct disorders and mental deficiency. There may exist a preferential association between ADHD and antisocial personality disorder or substance abuse which both increase the risk of violence. To put in perspective forensic psychiatry and ADHD allowed us to identify typology of violence, epidemiological aspect of ADHD in a prison environment and comorbidities involved in the risk of violence. This research permits to precise elements of prevention, diagnosis and assistance in the management of violent behaviour in ADHD and in expert practice. Copyright © 2016 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. No lower cognitive functioning in older adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semeijn, E.J.; Korten, N.C.M.; Comijs, H.; Michielsen, M.M.; Deeg, D.; Beekman, A.; Kooij, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research illustrates cognitive deficits in children and younger adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Few studies have focused on the cognitive functioning in older adults. This study investigates the association between ADHD and cognitive functioning in older

  14. White matter abnormalities and their impact on attentional performance in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Andreas; Dielentheis, Thomas F; El Masri, Dschamil; Dellani, Paulo R; Stoeter, Peter; Vucurevic, Goran; Winterer, Georg

    2012-06-01

    Inattention is the most important behavioral feature of adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Neuroimaging studies in ADHD have demonstrated abnormalities primarily in the frontostriatal circuitry and were mostly conducted in children. We investigated white matter (WM) integrity in adult ADHD patients and the correlation of WM microstructure and neuropsychological parameters in 37 (21 men) never-medicated adult ADHD patients and 34 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. All subjects underwent clinical interviews, rating scales, and neuropsychological tests of attentional performance. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was acquired, and 12 WM regions-of-interest (ROIs) within the attentional network were chosen. Group differences of mean fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) values were calculated for each ROI, and patients' DTI measures were then correlated with measures of attentional performance. FA values in ADHD patients were significantly reduced in the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), while MD values were significantly increased in ADHD patients in the frontal portion of the left frontooccipital fasciculus (IFO). In ADHD patients, MD values were negatively correlated with attentional performance in the left ILF. Our findings provide further support for disturbed frontostriatal structural connectivity and also point to an involvement of the left temporal white matter with an impact on attentional performance.

  15. Stigmatization and self-perception of youth with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Bussing, Regina; Metha,

    2013-01-01

    Regina Bussing, Anuja S Mehta Department of Psychiatry, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Abstract: Increasing numbers of families must learn to manage their child's attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) through multimodal interventions that may include psychosocial, educational, and medication treatments. Like others with mental disorders, youth with ADHD face significant stigma in its various forms, including public (expressed as prejudice and discrimination), c...

  16. Attention and Other Cognitive Deficits in Aphasia: Presence and Relation to Language and Communication Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Laura L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to further elucidate the relationship between cognition and aphasia, with a focus on attention. It was hypothesized that individuals with aphasia would display variable deficit patterns on tests of attention and other cognitive functions and that their attention deficits, particularly those of complex attention…

  17. Sleep disturbances in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruyt, Karen; Gozal, David

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we advocate the need for better understanding and treatment of children exhibiting inattentive, hyperactive, impulsive behaviors, by in-depth questioning on sleepiness, sleep-disordered breathing or problematic behaviors at bedtime, during the night and upon awakening, as well as night-to-night sleep duration variability. The relationships between sleep and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are complex and are routinely overlooked by practitioners. Motricity and somnolence, the most consistent complaints and objectively measured sleep problems in children with ADHD, may develop as a consequence of multidirectional and multifactorial pathways. Therefore, subjectively perceived or reported restless sleep should be evaluated with specific attention to restless legs syndrome or periodic limb movement disorder, and awakenings should be queried with regard to parasomnias, dyssomnias and sleep-disordered breathing. Sleep hygiene logs detailing sleep onset and offset quantitatively, as well as qualitatively, are required. More studies in children with ADHD are needed to reveal the 24-h phenotype, or its sleep comorbidities. PMID:21469929

  18. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in postsecondary students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugent K

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Kevin Nugent,1 Wallace Smart2,3 1Kinark Child and Family Services, Trent University and Sir Sanford Fleming College, Peterborough, ON, Canada; 2Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada; 3University of Lethbridge Health Centre, Lethbridge, AB, Canada Abstract: A PubMed review was conducted for papers reporting on attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in postsecondary students. The review was performed in order to determine the prevalence and symptomatology of ADHD in postsecondary students, to examine its effects on academic achievement, and discuss appropriate management. The prevalence of ADHD symptoms among postsecondary students ranges from 2% to 12%. Students with ADHD have lower grade point averages and are more likely to withdraw from courses, to indulge in risky behaviors, and to have other psychiatric comorbidities than their non-ADHD peers. Ensuring that students with ADHD receive appropriate support requires documented evidence of impairment to academic and day-to-day functioning. In adults with ADHD, stimulants improve concentration and attention, although improved academic productivity remains to be demonstrated. ADHD negatively impacts academic performance in students and increases the likelihood of drug and alcohol problems. Affected students may therefore benefit from disability support services, academic accommodations, and pharmacological treatment. Keywords: adults, academic performance, stimulants, treatment

  19. [Concordances between autism spectrum disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulas, F; Roca, P

    2018-03-01

    The current literature acknowledges an overlap of genetic, clinical and neuropsychological aspects between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), suggesting that there may be a common pattern that covers features ranging from the common genetic and structural aetiology to shared patterns of symptoms. To review the current advances in these common aspects. Several studies have pointed out preschool attentional difficulties as the basis of both disorders. From the genetic perspective, it is estimated that 50-72% of the genetic factors overlap between the two disorders. They also share a decrease in the volume of the corpus callosum and left frontal grey matter, as well as functional alterations such as dorsolateral prefrontal, striato-thalamic and superior parietal hypoactivation. Results are also found regarding executive functioning, with differential profiles for the two conditions, and also concerning the relationship between the repetitive and impulsive behaviours in the early stages of ASD and ensuing problems of hyperactivity. This new conception of the ASD-ADHD continuum, with a common neurodevelopmental basis and associated clinical features, could be of great use in clinical practice. It is suggested that this association should be taken into account when it comes to deciding on the treatment.

  20. Decreased Callosal Thickness in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luders, Eileen; Narr, Katherine L.; Hamilton, Liberty S.; Phillips, Owen R.; Thompson, Paul M.; Valle, Jessica S.; Del'Homme, Melissa; Strickland, Tony; McCracken, James T.; Toga, Arthur W.; Levitt, Jennifer G.

    2009-01-01

    Background Neuroimaging studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have revealed structural abnormalities in the brains of affected individuals. One of the most replicated alterations is a significantly smaller corpus callosum (CC), for which conflicting reports exist with respect to the affected callosal segments. Methods We applied novel surface-based geometrical modeling methods to establish the presence, direction, and exact location of callosal alterations in ADHD at high spatial resolution. For this purpose, we calculated the thickness of the CC at 100 equidistant midsagittal points in an age-matched male sample of 19 individuals with ADHD and 19 typically developing control subjects. Results In close agreement with many prior observations, the CC was shown to be significantly thinner in ADHD subjects in anterior and, particularly, posterior callosal sections. Covarying for intelligence did not significantly alter the observed ADHD effects. However, group differences were no longer present in anterior sections when covarying for brain volume and after excluding ADHD subjects comorbid for oppositional defiant disorder. Conclusions Decreased callosal thickness may be associated with fewer fibers or a decrease in the myelination of fibers connecting the parietal and prefrontal cortices. This might affect interhemispheric communication channels that are necessary to sustain attention or motor control, thus contributing to symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity, or inattention, observed in ADHD. Future studies are necessary to determine whether callosal abnormalities reflect maturational delays or persist into adulthood. PMID:18842255

  1. Adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder – a brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaretha eDramsdahl

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundImpaired cognitive control in individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD may be related to a prefrontal cortical glutamatergic deficit. We assessed the glutamate level in the left and the right midfrontal region including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC in adults with ADHD and healthy controls. MethodsTwenty-nine adults with ADHD and 38 healthy controls were included. We used Proton Magnetic Resonance Imaging with single-voxel point-resolved spectroscopy to measure the ratio of glutamate to creatine (Glu/Cre in the left and the right midfrontal region in the two groups. ResultsThe ADHD group showed a significant reduction of Glu/Cre in the left midfrontal region compared to the controls. ConclusionsThe reduction of Glu/Cre in the left midfrontal region in the ADHD group may reflect a glutamatergic deficit in prefrontal neuronal circuitry in adults with ADHD, resulting in problems with cognitive control.

  2. Subtyping of Toddlers with ASD Based on Patterns of Social Attention Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0179 TITLE: “Subtyping of Toddlers with ASD Based on Patterns of Social Attention Deficits ” PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...SUBTITLE “Subtyping of Toddlers with ASD Based on Patterns of Social Attention Deficits ” 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0179 5c...understand the mechanisms underlying these social attention deficits and predictors of outcome, as well as guide the development of individualized

  3. No objectively measured sleep disturbances in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergwerff, Catharina E; Luman, Marjolein; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2016-10-01

    The main goal of this study was to gain more insight into sleep disturbances in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, using objective measures of sleep quality and quantity. The evidence for sleep problems in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder thus far is inconsistent, which might be explained by confounding influences of comorbid internalizing and externalizing problems and low socio-economic status. We therefore investigated the mediating and moderating role of these factors in the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and sleep problems. To control for the effects of stimulant medication use, all participants were tested free of medication. Sixty-three children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and 61 typically developing children, aged 6-13 years, participated. Sleep was monitored for one to three school nights using actigraphy. Parent and teacher questionnaires assessed symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, internalizing behaviour, oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. Results showed no differences between the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing group in any sleep parameter. Within the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder group, severity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms was not related to sleep quality or quantity. Moderation analyses in the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder group showed an interaction effect between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and internalizing and externalizing behaviour on total sleep time, time in bed and average sleep bout duration. The results of our study suggest that having attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is not a risk factor for sleep problems. Internalizing and externalizing behaviour moderate the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and sleep, indicating a complex interplay between psychiatric symptoms and sleep.

  4. A brain-computer interface based attention training program for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon Guan Lim

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD symptoms can be difficult to treat. We previously reported that a 20-session brain-computer interface (BCI attention training programme improved ADHD symptoms. Here, we investigated a new more intensive BCI-based attention training game system on 20 unmedicated ADHD children (16 males, 4 females with significant inattentive symptoms (combined and inattentive ADHD subtypes. This new system monitored attention through a head band with dry EEG sensors, which was used to drive a feed forward game. The system was calibrated for each user by measuring the EEG parameters during a Stroop task. Treatment consisted of an 8-week training comprising 24 sessions followed by 3 once-monthly booster training sessions. Following intervention, both parent-rated inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms on the ADHD Rating Scale showed significant improvement. At week 8, the mean improvement was -4.6 (5.9 and -4.7 (5.6 respectively for inattentive symptoms and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms (both p<0.01. Cohen's d effect size for inattentive symptoms was large at 0.78 at week 8 and 0.84 at week 24 (post-boosters. Further analysis showed that the change in the EEG based BCI ADHD severity measure correlated with the change ADHD Rating Scale scores. The BCI-based attention training game system is a potential new treatment for ADHD.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01344044.

  5. Update on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and tic disorders: a review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Heather A; Jung, Leah; Murphy, Tanya K

    2011-10-01

    Tic disorders impact quality of life, but when they are co-occurring with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, the combined impact takes a toll on psychosocial functioning and adds another layer of complexity to treatment approaches. A review of the current literature supports evidence of a unique relationship between comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and tic disorders, emphasizing the intricate phenotype and impairment associated with these co-occurring conditions. The complexity of these symptoms requires careful diagnosis and appropriate treatment as determined by the level of impairment and can include pharmacotherapy, behavioral interventions, or a combination of therapies. To achieve the greatest benefits in improving quality of life and eliminating further comorbidity, an ideal treatment plan would include a comprehensive evaluation as well as a hierarchical treatment approach involving education of the child, family, and teachers; careful medication management; and cognitive and behavioral training.

  6. MULTIVITAMINS AND POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS IN THE TREATMENT OF ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Kuzenkova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic effect of Multi-tabs Intello Kids with Omega-3 and Multi-tabs Teenager has been assessed in the open controlled study included 70 patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, aged from 6 to 10 years . Group I and group II (20 +20 patients received Multi-tabs Intello Kids with Omega-3/or Multi-tabs Teenager as a mono therapy of cognitive dis functions (СF for 2 monthes. No pharmacological therapy was conducted in group of a control which included 30 patients with ADHD. Utilising the computer testing systems, basic of parameters CF were analyzed before and after the course of therapy. Statistically relevant positive effect of the vitaminis on cognitive functions was demonstrated.Key words: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, therapy, multivitamins.

  7. Sleep, attention, and executive functioning in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Vincent; Rouleau, Nancie; Morin, Charles M

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate potential relationships between two measures of sleep impairments (i.e., sleep duration and sleep efficiency [SE]) and attention and executive functioning in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Parents of 43 children (mean age = 10 ± 1.8 years) with ADHD completed sleep and behavioral questionnaires. Children also wore a wrist actigraph for seven nights and were subsequently assessed with the Conners' continuous performance test (CPT)-2. A significant relationship was found between lower SE and increased variability in reaction time on the CPT. Shorter sleep duration was associated with a range of executive functioning problems as reported by the parents. The relationships between sleep duration and the executive functioning measures held even after controlling for age, gender, and use of medication, but not the relationships with SE. These results suggest that sleep quantity is an important correlate of executive functioning in children with ADHD.

  8. Attentional control activation relates to working memory in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Gregory C; Depue, Brendan E; Ruzic, Luka; Willcutt, Erik G; Du, Yiping P; Banich, Marie T

    2010-04-01

    Attentional control difficulties in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) might reflect poor working memory (WM) ability, especially because WM ability and attentional control rely on similar brain regions. The current study examined whether WM ability might explain group differences in brain activation between adults with ADHD and normal control subjects during attentional demand. Participants were 20 adults with ADHD combined subtype with no comorbid psychiatric or learning disorders and 23 control subjects similar in age, IQ, and gender. The WM measures were obtained from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised. Brain activation was assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing a Color-Word Stroop task. Group differences in WM ability explained a portion of the activation in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), which has been related to the creation and maintenance of an attentional set for task-relevant information. In addition, greater WM ability predicted increased activation of brain regions related to stimulus-driven attention and response selection processes in the ADHD group but not in the control group. The inability to maintain an appropriate task set in young adults with combined type ADHD, associated with decreased activity in left DLPFC, might in part be due to poor WM ability. Furthermore, in individuals with ADHD, higher WM ability might relate to increased recruitment of stimulus-driven attention and response selection processes, perhaps as a compensatory strategy. Copyright 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Social skills deficits and their association with Internet addiction and activities in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Chou, Wen-Jiun; Huang, Mei-Feng; Chang, Yu-Ping; Chen, Yu-Min; Hu, Huei-Fan; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims The aims of this study were to examine the association between social skills deficits and Internet addiction and activities in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as the moderators for this association. Methods A total of 300 adolescents, aged between 11 and 18 years, who had been diagnosed with ADHD participated in this study. Their Internet addiction levels, social skills deficits, ADHD, parental characteristics, and comorbidities wer...

  10. Measurement of Impairment among Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder as Part of Evaluating Treatment Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Ansari, Ahmed M.

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the impairment and treatment outcome of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in an outpatient child psychiatry clinic, using multiple sources, including the Children Global Assessment Scale (C-GAS). Methods: A total of 20 children, aged 4 to 16 years, were recruited serially in 2010 from the Child Psychiatric Unit of the Psychiatric Hospital, Manama, Bahrain. The children received a diagnosis of ADHD using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of M...

  11. Current State and Model for Development of Technology-Based Care for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Benyakorn, Songpoom; Riley, Steven J.; Calub, Catrina A.; Schweitzer, Julie B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Care (i.e., evaluation and intervention) delivered through technology is used in many areas of mental health services, including for persons with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Technology can facilitate care for individuals with ADHD, their parents, and their care providers. The adoption of technological tools for ADHD care requires evidence-based studies to support the transition from development to integration into use in the home, school, or work for pers...

  12. Systematic review of risk factors associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kathleen Kalil; Jenny Gregory; Melissa Makled

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is complex in its etiology and its manifestations. This systematic review will critically analyze the latest research regarding risk factors associated with ADHD such as environmental, including preterm birth, smoking, and prenatal alcohol use. Furthermore reviewed, will be articles researching genetics, such as dopamine active transporter (DAT1), LPHN3, as well as genetic-environmental interaction for precursors of ADHD. Discussio...

  13. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Conduct Disorder in Children of Drug Dependent Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Parvaresh, Nooshin; Ziaaddini, Hassan; Kheradmand, Ali; Bayati, Hamidreza

    2010-01-01

    Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder are amongrelatively prevalent disorders during childhood and adolescence.Considering the negative impact of the parents' drug dependency andbipolar disorder, the present study aimed to determine the prevalence ofADHD and conduct disorder in children of drug-dependent and bipolar parents. Methods In this case-control study, the case group included two groups ofpatients with drug dependency and bipolar disorder hospitalize...

  14. Underdiagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adult Patients: A Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Ginsberg, Ylva; Quintero, Javier; Anand, Ernie; Casillas, Marta; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To raise awareness of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as an underdiagnosed, undertreated, often comorbid, and debilitating condition in adults. Data Sources: PubMed was searched using combinations of keywords, including ADHD, adult, diagnosis, identify, prevalence, and comorbid, to find articles published between 1976 and 2013. Study Selection: In total, 99 articles were selected for inclusion on the basis of their relevance to the objective and importance to and re...

  15. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in the European adult population: prevalence, disease awareness, and treatment guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Montoya, Alonso; Kutzelnigg, Alexandra; Deberdt, Walter; Sobanski, Esther

    2013-09-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurobiological disorder with childhood onset and persistence into adolescence and adulthood. Our literature review reports scientific publications and guidelines on the treatment of adult ADHD, with a particular focus on European countries, identified by literature searches in Medline and Embase. The final literature search was performed in July 2012, incorporating literature from 1974 to 2012. The primary research parameters were 'Europe' (including single European countries), 'ADHD', 'attention deficit disorder', 'attention deficit', 'attention disorder', and 'hyperactivity'. Secondary search parameters were 'comorbid', 'epidemiology' or 'prevalence', 'disease management', 'drug therapy', or 'therapy'. The main searches were also limited to adults and English language publications. The papers identified by this literature review were selected for inclusion by consensus of the authors based on clinical relevance. Appropriate resources for the diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD in Europe are scarce, and many cases go untreated, particularly because of the frequent presence of psychiatric comorbidities. Apart from atomoxetine, and an extended-release form of methylphenidate in Germany, no other medications have been approved for starting treatment in adult ADHD patients in the European Union. However, a variety of stimulant and non-stimulant medications are used off-label, and a number of studies have confirmed that these medications are well tolerated and effective in adult patients with ADHD. Our results emphasize the need for broader access to effective treatments for adult ADHD patients in Europe.

  16. Impact of Executive Function Deficits and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on Academic Outcomes in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Joseph; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Doyle, Alysa E.; Seidman, Larry J.; Wilens, Timothy E.; Ferrero, Frances; Morgan, Christie L.; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2004-01-01

    The association between executive function deficits (EFDs) and functional outcomes were examined among children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were children and adolescents with (n = 259) and without (n = 222) ADHD, as ascertained from pediatric and psychiatric clinics. The authors defined EFD as…

  17. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Fatal Accidents in Aviation Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukkala, Tanja; Bor, Robert; Budowle, Bruce; Sajantila, Antti; Navathe, Pooshan; Sainio, Markku; Vuorio, Alpo

    2017-09-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with symptoms of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interfere with functioning and/or development. ADHD occurs in about 2.5% of adults. ADHD can be an excluding medical condition among pilots due to the risk of attentional degradation and therefore impact on flight safety. Diagnosis of ADHD is complex, which complicates aeromedical assessment. This study highlights fatal accident cases among pilots with ADHD and discusses protocols to detect its presence to help to assess its importance to flight safety. To identify fatal accidents in aviation (including airplanes, helicopters, balloons, and gliders) in the United States between the years 2000 to 2015, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database was searched with the terms ADHD, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and attention deficit disorder (ADD). The NTSB database search for fatal aviation accidents possibly associated with ADHD yielded four accident cases of interest in the United States [4/4894 (0.08%)]. Two of the pilots had ADHD diagnosed by a doctor, one was reported by a family member, and one by a flight instructor. An additional five cases were identified searching for ADD [5/4894 (0.1%)]. Altogether, combined ADHD and ADD cases yielded nine accident cases of interest (0.18%). It is generally accepted by aviation regulatory authorities that ADHD is a disqualifying neurological condition. Yet FAA and CASA provide specific protocols for tailor-made pilot assessment. Accurate evaluation of ADHD is essential because of its potential negative impact on aviation safety.Laukkala T, Bor R, Budowle B, Sajantila A, Navathe P, Sainio M, Vuorio A. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and fatal accidents in aviation medicine. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(9):871-875.

  18. Social skills training for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children aged 5 to 18 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Skoog, Maria; Damm, Dorte

    2011-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children is associated with hyperactivity and impulsitivity, attention problems, and difficulties with social interactions. Pharmacological treatment may alleviate symptoms of ADHD but seldom solves difficulties with social interactions. Social s...

  19. Functional disconnection of frontal cortex and visual cortex in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazaheri, A.; Coffey-Corina, S.; Mangun, G.R.; Bekker, E.M.; Berry, A.S.; Corbett, B.A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current pathophysiologic models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest that impaired functional connectivity within brain attention networks may contribute to the disorder. In this electroencephalographic (EEG) study, we analyzed cross-frequency amplitude correlations

  20. Helping adolescents with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder transition toward adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotlieb, Edward M; Gotlieb, Jaquelin S

    2009-04-01

    Pediatricians can help adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder prepare to enter post-high school training and the workforce. In this article peer-reviewed studies and other resources for informing patients of the issues ahead are identified. We discuss preventive counseling, including long-term monitoring, adherence to treatment, driving, tobacco, alcohol, and other drug usage, career planning, and intimacy. The current status of insurance coverage for young adults and federal programs to assist students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder are reviewed also. Consideration is given for applying for precollege testing and college accommodations and traveling abroad with medications. Pediatricians and young adults are directed to Web-based and other self-management information and tools.

  1. [Heritability and genetic comorbidity of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puddu, Giannina; Rothhammer, Paula; Carrasco, Ximena; Aboitiz, Francisco; Rothhammer, Francisco

    2017-03-01

    This review aims to summarize information about the genetic etiology of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADHD), with particular reference to the contributions of our research group. We also discuss the genetic comorbidity estimated from genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP´s) between ADHD and major psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia (E), major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A high genetic comorbidity was found between E and BD (46%), a moderate comorbidity between MDD and E, MDD and BD and MDD and ADHD (18%, 22% and 10% respectively) and a low comorbidity between E and ASD (2.5%). Furthermore, we show evidence concerning the genetic determination of psychiatric diseases, which is significantly lower when it is estimated from genome-wide SNP´s rather than using traditional quantitative genetic methodology (ADHD = E = 23%, BD = 25%, MDD = 21% and ASD = 17%). From an evolutionary perspective, we suggest that behavioral traits such as hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity, which play a role in ADHD and perhaps also other hereditary traits which are part of major psychiatric disorders, could have had a high adaptive value during the early stages of the evolution of Homo sapiens. However, they became progressively less adaptive and definitively disadvantageous, to the extreme that they are involved in frequently diagnosed major psychiatric disorders.

  2. Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Parenting Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbalaei Sabagh, Ali; Khademi, Mojgan; Noorbakhsh, Simasadat; Razjooyan, Katayoon; Arabgol, Fariba

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the parenting styles in parents with and without adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who had children with ADHD. It was a case-control study with convenience sampling strategy. Participants were recruited from the parents of previously diagnosed children with ADHD referred to Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran/ Iran. Ninety parents with adult ADHD and 120 normal parents were chosen by Conner's Adult ADHD Screening Scale (CAARS) and psychiatrist interview. Using Baumrind Parenting Styles Questionnaire and Arnold Parenting Scale, parenting styles were assessed in both the groups. Results from independent samples t-test indicated that Authoritarian parenting style (F = 0.576, p 0.022) and Over reacting style (F = 7.976, p 0.045) were significantly higher in cases. On the other hand, controls were using Permissive style (F = 0.131, p 0.044) more than cases. The results are consistent with prior studies; these findings can improve the content of parent training for children with ADHD, who have adult ADHD themselves.

  3. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and complementary/alternative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawni, Anju

    2008-08-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has increased both by parents and health care providers. Despite scientific evidence supporting the effectiveness of stimulants in the treatment of ADHD, the use of stimulants has received negative publicity and, for many parents, is worrisome. Concerns regarding adverse effects and the prospect of long-term use of pharmacologic treatments make many parents uncomfortable thus they seek "alternative treatments." With the information explosion produced by the Internet, marketing for alternative therapies such as herbal remedies, elimination diets, and food supplements for ADHD has increased. Many people use CAM because they are attracted to the CAM philosophies and health beliefs, dissatisfied with the process or results of conventional treatments, or concerned about adverse effects of stimulants. Although some scientific evidence exists regarding some CAM therapies, for most there are key questions regarding safety and efficacy of these treatments in children. The aim of this article is to provide a general overview and focus on the evidence-based studies of CAM modalities that are commonly used for ADHD.

  4. Addressing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkis, Elias

    2014-09-01

    Although generally considered a childhood disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can persist into adulthood and impede achievement in the workplace. Core ADHD symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity can be associated with poor organization, time management, and interpersonal relationships. Employment levels, earning power, and productivity are reduced among individuals with ADHD compared with those without ADHD. Furthermore, the costs of employing individuals with ADHD are higher because of work absences and lost productivity. The primary care provider plays an integral role in managing ADHD symptoms and providing the necessary resources that will help individuals with ADHD succeed in the workplace. Pharmacotherapy can reduce ADHD symptoms and improve functioning; however, it is also important to consider how positive traits associated with ADHD, such as creative thinking, can be used in the workplace. Workplace accommodations and behavioral therapies, such as coaching, can also enhance time management and organizational skills. This review describes how ADHD symptoms affect workplace behaviors, the effect of ADHD on employment and workplace performance, and the management of ADHD in working adults.

  5. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a prebariatric surgery sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruss, Barbara; Mueller, Astrid; Horbach, Thomas; Martin, Alexandra; de Zwaan, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that obese children, adolescents and adults frequently suffer from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The aim of the current study was to estimate the prevalence of adult ADHD in a group of patients with grade 3 obesity (body mass index ≥40 kg/m(2)) prior to bariatric surgery. We assessed 116 patients for childhood and adult ADHD, co-occurring psychiatric disorders, severity of depression and daytime sleepiness. Fourteen participants (12.1%) screened positive for adult ADHD. Even though this rate is higher compared with prevalence rates in representative population samples, it was not elevated compared with a group of morbidly obese individuals in a German general population sample (14.3%). Adult ADHD was associated with greater severity of depressive symptoms and more psychotherapy contact in the past but not with binge eating disorder or daytime sleepiness. As ADHD appears to be a common condition in morbidly obese individuals, the impact of adult ADHD on postsurgical weight loss needs to be examined. Besides, the causal link between obesity and ADHD in adults should be further investigated. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  6. ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER: COMORBIDITIES, EMPHASIS ON CONCURRENCE WITH EPILEPSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Pylaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most common cause of behavioral disorders and learning problems at preschool and school ages. Patients with ADHD are frequently found to have comorbidities that present additional diagnostic and therapeutic problems and result in an even greater decrease in quality of life in patients. Thus, ADHD is frequently concurrent with epilepsy; in this case, not only the manifestations of ADHD are more common in epilepsy, but the latter is more often encountered in patients with ADHD than in those as a whole. The authors consider the epidemiological factors and causes, which may lead to a concurrence of these two diseases in the same patient, the principles of diagnosis and differential diagnosis of ADHD in epileptic patients, the specific features of treatment in this patient category. At the same time, the authors place emphasis on the fact that some antiepileptic drugs, such as barbiturates, may cause symptoms that mimic ADHD (in these cases, inattention and hyperactivity are adverse reactions of therapy and lessen or disappear after drug discontinuation or enhance the manifestations of ADHD in patients with a concurrence of these two diseases. On the other hand, care should be also taken to choose drugs for the treatment of ADHD due to the possible higher frequency of seizures. So preference should be given to the drugs having no negative effect on the course of comorbidities or those having a positive therapeutic effect against both diseases. 

  7. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and drug addiction rehabilitation patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Ferreira Camargo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention or hyperactivity. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between ADHD and drug dependence. Methods The presence and severity of ADHD and substance use were evaluated through questionnaires in 80 adult patients in therapeutic communities. Results No difference in drug use or dependence prevalence between ADHD and non-ADHD patients was found. However, ADHD patients had lower ages on admission (p = 0.004 and at first contact with cocaine (p = 0.033. In ADHD patients, there was a negative correlation between the age at first use of cannabis and the subsequent severity of cannabis use (p = 0.017 and cocaine use (p = 0.033. Conclusions Though there was no difference in prevalence of drug use among groups, results show that ADHD in patients in therapeutic communities may cause different addiction patterns, such as earlier use of cocaine and admission, and a more severe use of cocaine correlated to earlier contact with cannabis.

  8. Evaluation of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Golmirzaei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders among children. The aim of this study was to evaluate risk factors for ADHD in children. Method. In this case-control study, 404 children between 4 and 11 years old were selected by cluster sampling method from preschool children (208 patients as cases and 196 controls. All the participants were interviewed by a child and adolescent psychiatrist to survey risk factors of ADHD. Results. Among cases, 59.3% of children were boys and 38.4% were girls, which is different to that in control group with 40.7% boys and 61.6% girls. The chi-square showed statistically significance (P value < 0.0001. The other significant factors by chi-square were fathers' somatic or psychiatric disease (P value < 0.0001, history of trauma and accident during pregnancy (P value = 0.039, abortion proceeds (P value < 0.0001, unintended pregnancy (P value < 0.0001, and history of head trauma (P value < 0.0001. Conclusions. Findings of our study suggest that maternal and paternal adverse events were associated with ADHD symptoms, but breast feeding is a protective factor.

  9. Maternal Anxiety and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roohallah Mirzaaghas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim:  According to the previous studies, anxiety along with some other psychiatric disorders is common among mothers of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Since maternal anxiety affects mother-child interactions, early treatment plays an important role in the prognosis of ADHD in children. This study aimed to determine the relationship between maternal anxiety and hyperactivity in children. Methods: This study was conducted on 112 mothers of ADHD children (aged 6-12 years, selected via convenience sampling from October to December 2012. The subjects lived in districts 2 and 6 of Tehran and were referred to consultation centers. Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 42 (DASS-42 and Swanson, Nolan and Pelham (SNAP-IV questionnaires were completed by the subjects. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used for the analysis of the relationship between variables. Results: A positive correlation was found between maternal anxiety and children’s hyperactivity (P=0.05. In fact, high levels of maternal anxiety are accounted for various child-rearing problems such as children’s hyperactivity. Conclusion: High levels of maternal anxiety lead to child rearing problems, which in turn cause various disorders such as hyperactivity in children.

  10. [Usefulness of the Stroop test in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Villalobos, José Antonio; Serrano-Pintado, Isabel; Andrés-De Llano, Jesús María; Sánchez-Mateos, Juan Delgado; Alberola-López, Susana; Sánchez-Azón, María Isabel

    2010-03-16

    The aim of this study is to analyse the differences in the Stroop effect between cases with attention deficit hyper-activity disorder (ADHD) and controls. It also seeks to find the best model based on the third task of the colours and words test (Stroop-CW) for predicting ADHD and to analyse the validity of the Stroop-CW test for diagnosing the disorder. The sample studied consisted of 100 cases of ADHD -according to Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV) criteria- and 100 controls, between 7 and 11 years of age, who were evaluated using the Stroop test. The controls were recruited at random and paired by age, sex and sociodemographic area with the cases. The cases present a mean cognitive style that is significantly less flexible (d = -1.06) and they also display a lower capacity to inhibit or control automatic responses than the controls at all ages (7 years: d = 1.67; 8 years: d = 1.02; 9 years: d = 1.32; 10 years: d = 2.04; 11 years: d = 0.89). The model of logistic regression analysis that best predicts ADHD is made up of age and Stroop-CW. The formulation derived from the model offers a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 72%, taking the criteria of the DSM-IV for ADHD as the reference test. The Stroop-CW test presents usefulness and complementary criteria validity for the diagnosis of ADHD.

  11. Functional MRI studies in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lei; Jin Zhen; Zeng Yawei; Wang Yan; Zang Yufeng

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the brain activation map during Go-NoGo tasks in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and matched controls using functional MRI. Methods: Block designed BOLD functional MRI scan covering the whole brain was performed on 10 boys having ADHD and 11 healthy boys. The 2 groups were matched by age, sex, and handedness. Executing advanced inhibitory Go-NoGo tasks served as stimuli for all subjects. The fMRI data was analyzed by SPM99 (Statistical Parametric Mapping) software with statistic t-test to generate the activation map. Results: (1) The normal children showed significant activations in left thalamus and right cingulate gyrus and fewer activations in right middle frontal gyrus during stimulate controlled Go task, but the children with ADHD showed less activations in left thalamus. (2) In response controlled Go task, the normal children showed activations in right insula, cingulate gyrus and left frontal gyrus, while the ADHD children showed lower power of response in the right middle frontal gyrus.(3) In NoGo task, right middle frontal gyrus was the dominant activated regions, and left anterior cingulate, left middle frontal gyrus and right thalamus also had some activations in normal children, while the activations of right prefrontal decreased and the thalamus increased in ADHD boys. Conclusion: In children with ADHD, some dysfunctional brain areas, mainly the prefrontal lobe and anterior cingulate gyrus were found. Thalamus was also involved according to the brain activation map

  12. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: key conceptual issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asherson, Philip; Buitelaar, Jan; Faraone, Stephen V; Rohde, Luis A

    2016-06-01

    For many years, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was thought to be a childhood-onset disorder that has a limited effect on adult psychopathology. However, the symptoms and impairments that define ADHD often affect the adult population, with similar responses to drugs such as methylphenidate, dexamphetamine, and atomoxetine, and psychosocial interventions, to those seen in children and adolescents. As a result, awareness of ADHD in adults has rapidly increased and new clinical practice has emerged across the world. Despite this progress, treatment of adult ADHD in Europe and many other regions of the world is not yet common practice, and diagnostic services are often unavailable or restricted to a few specialist centres. This situation is remarkable given the strong evidence base for safe and effective treatments. Here we address some of the key conceptual issues surrounding the diagnosis of ADHD relevant to practising health-care professionals working with adult populations. We conclude that ADHD should be recognised in the same way as other common adult mental health disorders, and that failure to recognise and treat ADHD is detrimental to the wellbeing of many patients seeking help for common mental health problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetics of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Sally I; McQuillin, Andrew; Gurling, Hugh M D

    2009-12-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous syndrome which is comorbid with childhood conduct disorder, alcoholism, substance abuse, dis-social personality disorder, and affective disorders. A small but consistent overlap with autistic symptoms has also been established. Twin and family studies of ADHD show a substantial genetic heritability with little or no family environmental effect. Linkage and association studies have conclusively implicated the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1). DAT1 has also been confirmed as being associated with bipolar disorder. Remarkably, and for the first time in psychiatry, genetic markers at the DAT1 locus appear to be able to predict clinical heterogeneity because the non-conduct disordered subgroup of ADHD is associated with DAT1 whereas other subgroups do not appear to be associated. The second most well replicated susceptibility gene encodes the DRD4 dopamine receptor and many other dopamine related genes appear to be implicated. It is becoming increasingly clear that genes causing bipolar mania overlap with genes for a subtype of ADHD. The key to understanding the genetics of ADHD is to accept very considerable heterogeneity with different genes having effects in different families and in different individuals. It is too early to interpret the new wave of genome-wide association and copy number variant studies but preliminary data support the overlap with affective disorder genes and also with CNS connectivity genes likely to be involved in autism and affective disorders.

  14. Childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder features in adult mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Eun-Jeong; Lee, Kyu Young; Choi, Kyeong-Sook; Kim, Se Hyun; Song, Joo Youn; Bang, Yang Weon; Ahn, Yong Min; Kim, Yong Sik

    2012-04-01

    A significant overlap between childhood mood disorders and many aspects of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been established. High rates of co-occurrence, familial aggregation, and more severe clinical manifestations of the illnesses when they are comorbid suggest that common genetic and environmental factors may contribute to the development of both disorders. Research on the co-occurrence of childhood ADHD and mood disorders in childhood has been conducted. We retrospectively investigated childhood ADHD features in adults with mood disorders. Childhood ADHD features were measured with the Korean version of the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS). The sample consisted of 1305 subjects: 108 subjects were diagnosed with bipolar disorder type I, 41 with bipolar disorder type II, 101 with major depressive disorder, and 1055 served as normal controls. We compared total WURS scores as well as scores on 3 factors (impulsivity, inattention, and mood instability and anxiety) among the 4 different diagnostic groups. The 4 groups differed significantly from one another on all scores. The group with bipolar disorder type II obtained the highest total scores on the WURS. The impulsivity and inattention associated with childhood ADHD were more significantly related to bipolar disorder type II than with bipolar disorder type I. The mood instability and anxiety associated with childhood ADHD seem to be significantly related to major depressive disorder in adulthood. In conclusion, multifactorial childhood ADHD features were associated with mood disorders of adulthood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Multisensory Spatial Attention Deficits Are Predictive of Phonological Decoding Skills in Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facoetti, Andrea; Trussardi, Anna Noemi; Ruffino, Milena; Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Cattaneo, Carmen; Galli, Raffaella; Molteni, Massimo; Zorzi, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Although the dominant approach posits that developmental dyslexia arises from deficits in systems that are exclusively linguistic in nature (i.e., phonological deficit theory), dyslexics show a variety of lower level deficits in sensory and attentional processing. Although their link to the reading disorder remains contentious, recent empirical…

  16. Neuropsychological Functioning in Children with Tourette Syndrome with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Scahill, Lawrence; Leckman, James F.; Schultz, Robert T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Neuropsychological functioning in children with Tourette syndrome (TS) has been characterized by subtle deficits in response inhibition, visual-motor integration, and fine-motor coordination. The association of these deficits with the tics of the TS versus co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not been well…

  17. Lisdexamfetamine in the treatment of adolescents and children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib, Jadwiga

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders defined by developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Symptoms begin in childhood and may persist into adolescence and adulthood. Currently available pharmacological treatment options for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents include stimulants that are efficacious and well tolerated; however, many of these preparations require multiple daily dosing and have the potential for abuse. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, the first prodrug stimulant, was developed to provide a longer duration of effect. It demonstrates a predictable delivery of the active drug, d-amphetamine, with low interpatient variability, and has a reduced potential for abuse. A literature search of the MEDLINE database and clinical trials register from 1995-2011, as well as relevant abstracts presented at annual professional meetings, on lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in children and adolescents were included for review. This article presents the pharmacokinetic profile, efficacy, and safety of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and, more recently, in adolescents.

  18. Prevalence of adulthood attention deficit / hyperactivity symptoms in students of Sistan and Balouchestan University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourmohammad Bakhshani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder in students of Sistan and Balouchestan University.Materials and Method: This cross sectional study was performed during second educational semester (2010. The sample included 403 students of Sistan and Balouchestan university who were selected by non random sampling after filling two questionnaires, including the demographic characteristics questionnaire and the Canner′s adult attentiondeficit/hyperactivity (CAARS-S:OV questionnaire. To analyze data we used SPSS-16 software.Results: Based on test scores of Canner′s adult test, results showed about 39 students (9.7% in inattention-memory index and 32 students (7.9% in the hyperactivity index had higher or much higher scores than average. In addition, 27 students (6.7% and 38 others (9.4% had higher or much higher scores in impulsivity-emotional index and problem with self concept, respectively. Conclusion: According to the results, we suggest that the symptoms of hyperactivity and attention deficit are common among university students of Sistan and Balouchestan. For preventing educational problems and high risk behaviors such as drug use, further studies and appropriate preventive and treatment programs highly recommended

  19. Attention lapses in children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus and children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Torre, Gabriel G; Martin, Alba; Cervantes, Elizabeth; Guil, Rocio; Mestre, Jose M

    2017-08-01

    Attentional lapses are usually defined as temporary and often brief shifts of attention away from some primary task to unrelated internal information processing. This study addressed the incidence of attention lapses and differences in attentional functioning in 30 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 26 healthy children, and 29 children with spina bifida myelomeningocele and hydrocephalus (SBH). Assessments were conducted using computerized tonic and phasic attention tests, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), and the Trail Making Test Form B (TMT-B). The group with SBH differed from normal controls on cognitive measures of attention and executive functions. The ADHD group obtained lower scores than the SBH group and healthy children. ANOVA results showed that there was an effect of shunt revisions and shunt-related infections on neuropsychological performance. Lapses of attention together with reaction time may thus represent important factors for the understanding of cognitive deficits in SBH.

  20. Evaluating executive function in schoolchildren with symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez-van-Meerbeke, A; Zamora, I P; Guzmán, G; Figueroa, B; López Cabra, C A; Talero-Gutiérrez, C

    2013-01-01

    To identify impairment of executive functions (EF) in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A case-control study was performed on a sample of schoolchildren with low socioeconomic levels in Bogota, Colombia. ADHD was diagnosed using the DSM IV checklist and the Behavior Assessment System for Children scale. Children with cognitive deficits were excluded. We evaluated scores from six measurements of executive function (EF). We conducted a bivariate statistical analysis to compare the variables, a multivariate study controlled by sex and age, and a logistic regression analysis. The study sample included 119 children with ADHD and 85 controls, all aged between 6 and 12 years. Controlling by sex, age, and type of school showed that EF measurements in children with ADHD were significantly more impaired than in controls, especially for measurements of verbal and graphic fluency, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure, and cognitive flexibility. Comparison of ADHD subgroups showed that results in children with multiple deficits were similar to those in the global ADHD group. Graphic fluency impairment was the sole impairment in cases with only attention deficit or only hyperactivity-impulsivity manifestations. EF measures in children with ADHD revealed more problems, particularly those having to do within planning, inhibition, working memory and cognitive control. Age and sex may affect the degree of EF impairment. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Attentional Control and Subjective Executive Function in Treatment-Naive Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grane, Venke Arntsberg; Endestad, Tor; Pinto, Arnfrid Farbu; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin

    2014-01-01

    We investigated performance-derived measures of executive control, and their relationship with self- and informant reported executive functions in everyday life, in treatment-naive adults with newly diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 36) and in healthy controls (n = 35). Sustained attentional control and response inhibition were examined with the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.). Delayed responses, increased reaction time variability, and higher omission error rate to Go signals in ADHD patients relative to controls indicated fluctuating levels of attention in the patients. Furthermore, an increment in NoGo commission errors when Go stimuli increased relative to NoGo stimuli suggests reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant stimuli in conditions demanding frequent responding. The ADHD group reported significantly more cognitive and behavioral executive problems than the control group on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A). There were overall not strong associations between task performance and ratings of everyday executive function. However, for the ADHD group, T.O.V.A. omission errors predicted self-reported difficulties on the Organization of Materials scale, and commission errors predicted informant reported difficulties on the same scale. Although ADHD patients endorsed more symptoms of depression and anxiety on the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) than controls, ASEBA scores were not significantly associated with T.O.V.A. performance scores. Altogether, the results indicate multifaceted alteration of attentional control in adult ADHD, and accompanying subjective difficulties with several aspects of executive function in everyday living. The relationships between the two sets of data were modest, indicating that the measures represent non-redundant features of adult ADHD. PMID:25545156

  2. Neurofeedback and cognitive attention training for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Naomi J; Frenette, Elizabeth C; Rene, Kirsten M; Brennan, Robert T; Perrin, Ellen C

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of 2 computer attention training systems administered in school for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Children in second and fourth grade with a diagnosis of ADHD (n = 104) were randomly assigned to neurofeedback (NF) (n = 34), cognitive training (CT) (n = 34), or control (n = 36) conditions. A 2-point growth model assessed change from pre-post intervention on parent reports (Conners 3-Parent [Conners 3-P]; Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function [BRIEF] rating scale), teacher reports (Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn and Pelham scale [SKAMP]; Conners 3-Teacher [Conners 3-T]), and systematic classroom observations (Behavioral Observation of Students in Schools [BOSS]). Paired t tests and an analysis of covariance assessed change in medication. Children who received NF showed significant improvement compared with those in the control condition on the Conners 3-P Attention, Executive Functioning and Global Index, on all BRIEF summary indices, and on BOSS motor/verbal off-task behavior. Children who received CT showed no improvement compared to the control condition. Children in the NF condition showed significant improvements compared to those in the CT condition on Conners 3-P Executive Functioning, all BRIEF summary indices, SKAMP Attention, and Conners 3-T Inattention subscales. Stimulant medication dosage in methylphenidate equivalencies significantly increased for children in the CT (8.54 mg) and control (7.05 mg) conditions but not for those in the NF condition (0.29 mg). Neurofeedback made greater improvements in ADHD symptoms compared to both the control and CT conditions. Thus, NF is a promising attention training treatment intervention for children with ADHD.

  3. Attentional control and subjective executive function in treatment-naive adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grane, Venke Arntsberg; Endestad, Tor; Pinto, Arnfrid Farbu; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin

    2014-01-01

    We investigated performance-derived measures of executive control, and their relationship with self- and informant reported executive functions in everyday life, in treatment-naive adults with newly diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 36) and in healthy controls (n = 35). Sustained attentional control and response inhibition were examined with the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.). Delayed responses, increased reaction time variability, and higher omission error rate to Go signals in ADHD patients relative to controls indicated fluctuating levels of attention in the patients. Furthermore, an increment in NoGo commission errors when Go stimuli increased relative to NoGo stimuli suggests reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant stimuli in conditions demanding frequent responding. The ADHD group reported significantly more cognitive and behavioral executive problems than the control group on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A). There were overall not strong associations between task performance and ratings of everyday executive function. However, for the ADHD group, T.O.V.A. omission errors predicted self-reported difficulties on the Organization of Materials scale, and commission errors predicted informant reported difficulties on the same scale. Although ADHD patients endorsed more symptoms of depression and anxiety on the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) than controls, ASEBA scores were not significantly associated with T.O.V.A. performance scores. Altogether, the results indicate multifaceted alteration of attentional control in adult ADHD, and accompanying subjective difficulties with several aspects of executive function in everyday living. The relationships between the two sets of data were modest, indicating that the measures represent non-redundant features of adult ADHD.

  4. Attentional control and subjective executive function in treatment-naive adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venke Arntsberg Grane

    Full Text Available We investigated performance-derived measures of executive control, and their relationship with self- and informant reported executive functions in everyday life, in treatment-naive adults with newly diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 36 and in healthy controls (n = 35. Sustained attentional control and response inhibition were examined with the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.. Delayed responses, increased reaction time variability, and higher omission error rate to Go signals in ADHD patients relative to controls indicated fluctuating levels of attention in the patients. Furthermore, an increment in NoGo commission errors when Go stimuli increased relative to NoGo stimuli suggests reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant stimuli in conditions demanding frequent responding. The ADHD group reported significantly more cognitive and behavioral executive problems than the control group on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A. There were overall not strong associations between task performance and ratings of everyday executive function. However, for the ADHD group, T.O.V.A. omission errors predicted self-reported difficulties on the Organization of Materials scale, and commission errors predicted informant reported difficulties on the same scale. Although ADHD patients endorsed more symptoms of depression and anxiety on the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA than controls, ASEBA scores were not significantly associated with T.O.V.A. performance scores. Altogether, the results indicate multifaceted alteration of attentional control in adult ADHD, and accompanying subjective difficulties with several aspects of executive function in everyday living. The relationships between the two sets of data were modest, indicating that the measures represent non-redundant features of adult ADHD.

  5. Altered brain structural networks in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children revealed by cortical thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tian; Chen, Yanni; Li, Chenxi; Li, Youjun; Wang, Jue

    2017-07-04

    This study investigated the cortical thickness and topological features of human brain anatomical networks related to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Data were collected from 40 attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children and 40 normal control children. Interregional correlation matrices were established by calculating the correlations of cortical thickness between all pairs of cortical regions (68 regions) of the whole brain. Further thresholds were applied to create binary matrices to construct a series of undirected and unweighted graphs, and global, local, and nodal efficiencies were computed as a function of the network cost. These experimental results revealed abnormal cortical thickness and correlations in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and showed that the brain structural networks of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder subjects had inefficient small-world topological features. Furthermore, their topological properties were altered abnormally. In particular, decreased global efficiency combined with increased local efficiency in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children led to a disorder-related shift of the network topological structure toward regular networks. In addition, nodal efficiency, cortical thickness, and correlation analyses revealed that several brain regions were altered in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients. These findings are in accordance with a hypothesis of dysfunctional integration and segregation of the brain in patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and provide further evidence of brain dysfunction in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients by observing cortical thickness on magnetic resonance imaging.

  6. A Meta-Analysis of Behavioral Parent Training for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pei-chin; Niew, Wern-ing; Yang, Hao-jan; Chen, Vincent Chin-hung; Lin, Keh-chung

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined the effect of behavioral parent training on child and parental outcomes for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Meta-analytic procedures were used to estimate the effect of behavioral parent training on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Variables moderating the intervention…

  7. An Exploratory Study of the Relationship between Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Youth Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Blake

    2014-01-01

    A 1997 study by Lomas and Garside suggests a 62% prevalence rate of ADHD [Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder] amongst homeless, which prompts a need for further elucidation of this relationship. This study sought to examine the relationship between Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and the homeless youth population aged 18-24. The…

  8. Subtypes versus Severity Differences in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in the Northern Finnish Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubke, Gitta H.; Muthen, Bengt; Moilanen, Irma K.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.; Swanson, James M.; Yang, May H.; Taanila, Anja; Hurtig, Tuula; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Smalley, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    A study aims to analyze whether behaviors of attention-deficit, hyperactivity among adolescents in Northern Finland reflect distinct subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The results conclude that the majority of the Cohort falls into low-scoring groups of unaffecteds while a high-scoring minority group reflects an ADHD…

  9. Career Beliefs and Job Satisfaction in Adults with Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Carol A.; Prevatt, Frances; Welles, Theresa

    2008-01-01

    The authors evaluated dysfunctional career beliefs and subsequent low job satisfaction in adults reporting significant symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants (N = 81) completed the Adult Attention Deficit Disorders Evaluation Scale (S. B. McCarney & P. D. Anderson, 1996), the Career Thoughts Inventory (J. P.…

  10. Pupil Size Tracks Attentional Performance In Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainstein, G; Rojas-Líbano, D; Crossley, N A; Carrasco, X; Aboitiz, F; Ossandón, T

    2017-08-15

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis is based on reported symptoms, which carries the potential risk of over- or under-diagnosis. A biological marker that helps to objectively define the disorder, providing information about its pathophysiology, is needed. A promising marker of cognitive states in humans is pupil size, which reflects the activity of an 'arousal' network, related to the norepinephrine system. We monitored pupil size from ADHD and control subjects, during a visuo-spatial working memory task. A sub group of ADHD children performed the task twice, with and without methylphenidate, a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor. Off-medication patients showed a decreased pupil diameter during the task. This difference was no longer present when patients were on-medication. Pupil size correlated with the subjects' performance and reaction time variability, two vastly studied indicators of attention. Furthermore, this effect was modulated by medication. Through pupil size, we provide evidence of an involvement of the noradrenergic system during an attentional task. Our results suggest that pupil size could serve as a biomarker in ADHD.

  11. Too Little and Too Much: Hypoactivation and Disinhibition of Medial Prefrontal Cortex Cause Attentional Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarrity, Stephanie; Mason, Rob; Fone, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    Attentional deficits are core symptoms of schizophrenia, contributing strongly to disability. Prefrontal dysfunction has emerged as a candidate mechanism, with clinical evidence for prefrontal hypoactivation and disinhibition (reduced GABAergic inhibition), possibly reflecting different patient subpopulations. Here, we tested in rats whether imbalanced prefrontal neural activity impairs attention. To induce prefrontal hypoactivation or disinhibition, we microinfused the GABA-A receptor agonist muscimol (C4H6N2O2; 62.5, 125, 250 ng/side) or antagonist picrotoxin (C30H34O13; 75, 150, 300 ng/side), respectively, into the medial prefrontal cortex. Using the five-choice serial reaction time (5CSRT) test, we showed that both muscimol and picrotoxin impaired attention (reduced accuracy, increased omissions). Muscimol also impaired response control (increased premature responses). In addition, muscimol dose dependently reduced open-field locomotor activity, whereas 300 ng of picrotoxin caused locomotor hyperactivity; sensorimotor gating (startle prepulse inhibition) was unaffected. Therefore, infusion effects on the 5CSRT test can be dissociated from sensorimotor effects. Combining microinfusions with in vivo electrophysiology, we showed that muscimol inhibited prefrontal firing, whereas picrotoxin increased firing, mainly within bursts. Muscimol reduced and picrotoxin enhanced bursting and both drugs changed the temporal pattern of bursting. Picrotoxin also markedly enhanced prefrontal LFP power. Therefore, prefrontal hypoactivation and disinhibition both cause attentional deficits. Considering the electrophysiological findings, this suggests that attention requires appropriately tuned prefrontal activity. Apart from attentional deficits, prefrontal disinhibition caused additional neurobehavioral changes that may be relevant to schizophrenia pathophysiology, including enhanced prefrontal bursting and locomotor hyperactivity, which have been linked to psychosis

  12. Visual attention deficits in Alzheimer's disease--a fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Jing; Li Kuncheng; Wang Wei; Yang Yanhui; Zhang Dexuan; Wang Yan; Li Ke; Yan Bin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the attention level and p robe the neuro-anatomic basis of visual attention deficits, and to identify its essential causes in AD patients by using functional MRI. Methods: Thirteen patients with AD and 13 healthy subjects of similar age and gender ratio participated in the experiment designed with two visual search tasks. The first was a conjunction task, where two features were presented in the array and spatial attention and feature binding were required. The second task was subset search, where two features were also presented but only one of them was needed in order to group stimuli together (the subset) without the need for feature binding. The fMRI data were collected on a Siemens 1.5 T Sonata MRI system and analyzed by statistical parametric mapping software (SPM 99) to generate the activation map. Results: Although two groups revealed similar networks engaged in different search tasks, including the parietal lobe, frontal lobe, occipital regions, primary visual cortex, and some subcortical structures, there were remarkable differences in the extent of activation of these brain regions between patients and controls. The less activation was demonstrated in the bilateral parietal lobes and left frontal regions, especially in the subset search, in AD patients. Conclusion: The attention deficits in AD patients were caused by 'feature binding' problem and 'grouping' inefficiency. The less activation mainly located in the parietal cortex (unable to switch the focus of their attention 'window' in different spatial locations) , with anterior cingulate and the frontal lobes dysfunction. (authors)

  13. Neuregulin 3 is associated with attention deficits in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Sandra; Strohmaier, Jana; Breuer, Rene; Mattheisen, Manuel; Degenhardt, Franziska; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Schulze, Thomas G; Nöthen, Markus M; Cichon, Sven; Rietschel, Marcella; Wüst, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    Linkage and fine mapping studies have established that the neuregulin 3 gene (NRG3) is a susceptibility locus for schizophrenia. Association studies of this disorder have implicated NRG3 variants in both psychotic symptoms and attention performance. Psychotic symptoms and cognitive deficits are also frequent features of bipolar disorder. The aims of the present study were to extend analysis of the association between NRG3 and psychotic symptoms and attention in schizophrenia and to determine whether these associations also apply to bipolar disorder. A total of 358 patients with schizophrenia and 111 patients with bipolar disorder were included. Psychotic symptoms were evaluated using the Operational Criteria Checklist for Psychotic Illness (OPCRIT) and attention performance was assessed using the Trail Making Test (TMT). Symptoms and performance scores were then tested for association with the NRG3 variant rs6584400. A significant association was found between the number of rs6584400 minor alleles and the total OPCRIT score for psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Moreover, in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients, minor allele carriers of rs6584400 outperformed homozygous major allele carriers in the TMT. The results suggest that rs6584400 is associated with psychotic symptoms and attention performance in schizophrenia. The finding of a significant association between rs6584400 and attention performance in bipolar disorder supports the hypothesis that this NRG3 variant confers genetic susceptibility to cognitive deficits in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

  14. Parental happiness and strain among young adult parents diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Rhiannon A

    2018-03-01

    This study used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) to examine whether young adult parents diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder experience less parental happiness and/or more parental strain than their counterparts not diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Results from logistic regression models indicated that young adult parents ever diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder have significantly greater odds of feeling overwhelmed as parents and significantly lower odds of feeling close to their children or happy in their role as parents compared to those never diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Potential implications of these results for scholars as well as health professionals treating adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder patients with children are discussed.

  15. [The course of behaviour changes in children with attention deficit and hyperactivity after drug treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselló, B; Pitarch, I; Abad, L

    2002-02-01

    Several studies have reported differences in behaviour in patients with various subtypes of attention deficit with hyperactivity and the benefits of psychostimulant medication in the treatment of behaviour problems of patients with the attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome (TDAH). 1. To determine possible differences in behaviour between patients with subtypes of the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; 2. To analyze the efficacy of methylphenidate on behaviour in three subtypes of TDAH, evaluated on the opinions of patients and teachers. A total of 90 children were studied: 39 children with TDAH-C; 36 with TDAH-1 and 15 with TDAH-H/I. All patients were given 0.5 mg/kg of methylphenidate for a period of three months, once in the morning and once in the afternoon. The results show that the children with the three subtypes of TDAH have significant differences in all the behaviour variables studied except for the variable timidity anxiety, in which no differences were observed between the subtypes of TDAH. Statistical analysis also showed that children with all three subtypes of TDAH improved significantly with regard to most of the aspects of behaviour studied after psychostimulant medication, in the opinions of parents and teachers. Our findings are similar to those of other studies and give fresh data on the behaviour and advantages of methylphenidate in the new subtype included in the DSM-1V, the predominantly hyperactive impulsive type.

  16. Electroencephalography signatures of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: clinical utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba G

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Guzmán Alba,1 Ernesto Pereda,2 Soledad Mañas,3 Leopoldo D Méndez,3 Almudena González,1 Julián J González1 1Physiology Unit, Health Sciences Faculty (S Medicine, 2Department of Industrial Engineering, School of Engineering and Technology, University of La Laguna, 3Clinical Neurophysiology Unit, University Hospital La Candelaria, Tenerife, Spain Abstract: The techniques and the most important results on the use of electroencephalography (EEG to extract different measures are reviewed in this work, which can be clinically useful to study subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. First, we discuss briefly and in simple terms the EEG analysis and processing techniques most used in the context of ADHD. We review techniques that both analyze individual EEG channels (univariate measures and study the statistical interdependence between different EEG channels (multivariate measures, the so-called functional brain connectivity. Among the former ones, we review the classical indices of absolute and relative spectral power and estimations of the complexity of the channels, such as the approximate entropy and the Lempel-Ziv complexity. Among the latter ones, we focus on the magnitude square coherence and on different measures based on the concept of generalized synchronization and its estimation in the state space. Second, from a historical point of view, we present the most important results achieved with these techniques and their clinical utility (sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy to diagnose ADHD. Finally, we propose future research lines based on these results. Keywords: EEG, ADHD, power spectrum, functional connectivity, clinical assessment

  17. [Comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in different age group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Ji, Ning; Guan, Li-li; Chen, Yun; Qian, Qiu-jin; Wang, Yu-feng

    2007-06-18

    To study age distribution of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) comorbidities in a relatively large sample, and exam the hypothesis of bad prognosis for ADHD. Using semi-structured clinical diagnosis interview scale, we investigated comorbidities of 1,002 ADHD children and adolescents from psychiatric out-patient clinic, and compared comorbidity frequency in 4 age groups. The comorbidity frequencies of disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), mood disorder, tics disorder and learning disorder (LD) in different age groups of ADHD patients differed significantly (Pdisorder in the age group of 12-14 years (124 cases,51.5%;18 cases,7.5%, respectively) were more than those in the 6-8 years group (160 cases,41.7%;9 cases,2.3%, respectively; PTics disorder in the 12-14 years group (50 cases,20.8%)was more than those in the two age groups of less than 12 years group (for the 6-8 years group, 51 cases,13.4%;for the 9-11 years group , 42 cases,12.5%; Pdisorder grew up with age. The comorbidity frequency of the 9-11 years group (106 cases,31.5%) was significantly higher than that of the 6-8 years group (80 cases,20.9%; PADHD patients without any comorbidities in the two age groups more than 12 years (for the 12-14 years group, 29 cases,12.0%;for the 15-17 years group, 4 cases,10.0%)were less than those in the two age groups of less than 12 years (for the 6-8 years group, 126 cases,32.8%;for the 9-11 years group, 110 cases,32.6%; Pdisorders increase as the ADHD children become adolescents. The situation is severer in late adolescence. Therefore, ADHD children should accept appropriate treatment as early as possible, and adopt the second degree prevention actively.

  18. Pharmacotherapy of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: nonstimulant medication approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2007-02-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common chronic health conditions and mental disorders affecting school-aged children. Prevalence with a conservative estimate is reported to be 3-5% of this population. Boys are approximately three-times more likely to be diagnosed than girls. The diagnosis refers to a family of related chronic neurobiological disorders that interfere with an individual's capacity to regulate activity level, inhibit behavior and attend to tasks in developmentally appropriate ways. Signs and symptoms of ADHD are typically present during the preschool period or in the early elementary school years, and the diagnosis requires that difficulties were present at or before age 7 years and create problems or impairment in at least two areas of the child's life (e.g., at school, on the playground, on the bus, at home or socially with peers). Stimulants are the first-line medication in the psychopharmacological treatment of ADHD. Between 10 and 30% of those affected with ADHD may not respond to stimulants or may not be able to tolerate associated side effects, such as appetite suppression, sleep disturbance, mood difficulties or exacerbation of comorbid tic disorders. In such instances, or when families are unwilling to consider a stimulant, nonstimulant medications may be appealing. Several nonstimulant medications that affect noradrenergic and/or dopaminergic pathways have demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of ADHD, although effect sizes are comparable with methylphenidate, fewer data have accumulated regarding the safety profile of nonstimulants in general. This review focuses on etiology, assessment and treatment of ADHD, in particular alternative treatment approaches with various nonstimulant agents, especially atomoxetine.

  19. Neurophysiological Correlates of Attentional Fluctuation in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Celeste H M; McLoughlin, Gráinne; Brandeis, Daniel; Banaschewski, Tobias; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2017-05-01

    Cognitive performance in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterised, in part, by frequent fluctuations in response speed, resulting in high reaction time variability (RTV). RTV captures a large proportion of the genetic risk in ADHD but, importantly, is malleable, improving significantly in a fast-paced, rewarded task condition. Using the temporal precision offered by event-related potentials (ERPs), we aimed to examine the neurophysiological measures of attention allocation (P3 amplitudes) and preparation (contingent negative variation, CNV), and their associations with the fluctuating RT performance and its improvement in ADHD. 93 participants with ADHD and 174 controls completed the baseline and fast-incentive conditions of a four-choice reaction time task, while EEG was simultaneously recorded. Compared to controls, individuals with ADHD showed both increased RTV and reduced P3 amplitudes during performance on the RT task. In the participants with ADHD, attenuated P3 amplitudes were significantly associated with high RTV, and the increase in P3 amplitudes from a slow baseline to a fast-paced, rewarded condition was significantly associated with the RTV decrease. Yet, the individuals with ADHD did not show the same increase in CNV from baseline to fast-incentive condition as observed in controls. ADHD is associated both with a neurophysiological impairment of attention allocation (P3 amplitudes) and an inability to adjust the preparatory state (CNV) in a changed context. Our findings suggest that both neurophysiological and cognitive performance measures of attention are malleable in ADHD, which are potential targets for non-pharmacological interventions.

  20. Attention network functioning in children with anxiety disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and non-clinical anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogg, K; Salum, G A; Bradley, B P; Gadelha, A; Pan, P; Alvarenga, P; Rohde, L A; Pine, D S; Manfro, G G

    2015-01-01

    Research with adults suggests that anxiety is associated with poor control of executive attention. However, in children, it is unclear (a) whether anxiety disorders and non-clinical anxiety are associated with deficits in executive attention, (b) whether such deficits are specific to anxiety versus other psychiatric disorders, and (c) whether there is heterogeneity among anxiety disorders (in particular, specific phobia versus other anxiety disorders). We examined executive attention in 860 children classified into three groups: anxiety disorders (n = 67), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 67) and no psychiatric disorder (n = 726). Anxiety disorders were subdivided into: anxiety disorders excluding specific phobia (n = 43) and specific phobia (n = 21). The Attention Network Task was used to assess executive attention, alerting and orienting. Findings indicated heterogeneity among anxiety disorders, as children with anxiety disorders (excluding specific phobia) showed impaired executive attention, compared with disorder-free children, whereas children with specific phobia showed no executive attention deficit. Among disorder-free children, executive attention was less efficient in those with high, relative to low, levels of anxiety. There were no anxiety-related deficits in orienting or alerting. Children with ADHD not only had poorer executive attention than disorder-free children, but also higher orienting scores, less accurate responses and more variable response times. Impaired executive attention in children (reflected by difficulty inhibiting processing of task-irrelevant information) was not fully explained by general psychopathology, but instead showed specific associations with anxiety disorders (other than specific phobia) and ADHD, as well as with high levels of anxiety symptoms in disorder-free children.

  1. Attention Mechanisms in Children with Anxiety Disorders and in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Implications for Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Adam S.; Chu, Brian C.; Reddy, Linda A.; Mohlman, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Inattention is among the most commonly referred problems for school-aged youth. Research suggests distinct mechanisms may contribute to attention problems in youth with anxiety disorders versus youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study compared children (8-17 years) with anxiety disorders (n = 24) and children (8-16…

  2. More attention, less deficit:wearable eeg-based serious game for focus improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Alchalabi, Alaa Eddin; Eddin, Amer Nour; Shirmohammadi, Shervin

    2017-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Attention Deficit Disorders (ADD) are two of the most spread mental disorders characterized by the lack of attention and focus. One way to measure focus is through Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals that can be read using the new wireless EEG reading devices often used by Brain-computer Interface (BCI) researchers. In parallel, serious games have been recently providing opportunities for the rehabilitation of various cognitive and emotional ...

  3. Cingulate, Frontal and Parietal Cortical Dysfunction in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, George

    2011-01-01

    Functional and structural neuroimaging have identified abnormalities of the brain that are likely to contribute to the neuropathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In particular, hypofunction of the brain regions comprising the cingulo-frontal-parietal (CFP) cognitive-attention network have been consistently observed across studies. These are major components of neural systems that are relevant to ADHD, including cognitive/attention networks, motor systems and reward/feedback-based processing systems. Moreover, these areas interact with other brain circuits that have been implicated in ADHD, such as the “default mode” resting state network. ADHD imaging data related to CFP network dysfunction will be selectively highlighted here to help facilitate its integration with the other information presented in this special issue. Together, these reviews will help shed light on the neurobiology of ADHD. PMID:21489409

  4. Attention deficit associated with early life interictal spikes in a rat model is improved with ACTH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda E Hernan

    Full Text Available Children with epilepsy often present with pervasive cognitive and behavioral comorbidities including working memory impairments, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and autism spectrum disorder. These non-seizure characteristics are severely detrimental to overall quality of life. Some of these children, particularly those with epilepsies classified as Landau-Kleffner Syndrome or continuous spike and wave during sleep, have infrequent seizure activity but frequent focal epileptiform activity. This frequent epileptiform activity is thought to be detrimental to cognitive development; however, it is also possible that these IIS events initiate pathophysiological pathways in the developing brain that may be independently associated with cognitive deficits. These hypotheses are difficult to address due to the previous lack of an appropriate animal model. To this end, we have recently developed a rat model to test the role of frequent focal epileptiform activity in the prefrontal cortex. Using microinjections of a GABA(A antagonist (bicuculline methiodine delivered multiple times per day from postnatal day (p 21 to p25, we showed that rat pups experiencing frequent, focal, recurrent epileptiform activity in the form of interictal spikes during neurodevelopment have significant long-term deficits in attention and sociability that persist into adulthood. To determine if treatment with ACTH, a drug widely used to treat early-life seizures, altered outcome we administered ACTH once per day subcutaneously during the time of the induced interictal spike activity. We show a modest amelioration of the attention deficit seen in animals with a history of early life interictal spikes with ACTH, in the absence of alteration of interictal spike activity. These results suggest that pharmacological intervention that is not targeted to the interictal spike activity is worthy of future study as it may be beneficial for preventing or ameliorating adverse

  5. A Comparative Study on the Visual Perceptions of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmetoglu, Emine; Aral, Neriman; Butun Ayhan, Aynur

    This study was conducted in order to (a) compare the visual perceptions of seven-year-old children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with those of normally developing children of the same age and development level and (b) determine whether the visual perceptions of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder vary with respect to gender, having received preschool education and parents` educational level. A total of 60 children, 30 with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and 30 with normal development, were assigned to the study. Data about children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and their families was collected by using a General Information Form and the visual perception of children was examined through the Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception. The Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis variance analysis was used to determine whether there was a difference of between the visual perceptions of children with normal development and those diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and to discover whether the variables of gender, preschool education and parents` educational status affected the visual perceptions of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The results showed that there was a statistically meaningful difference between the visual perceptions of the two groups and that the visual perceptions of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were affected meaningfully by gender, preschool education and parents` educational status.

  6. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder medication and seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggs, Kelsey K; Chang, Zheng; Quinn, Patrick D; Hur, Kwan; Gibbons, Robert; Dunn, David; Brikell, Isabell; Larsson, Henrik; D'Onofrio, Brian M

    2018-02-23

    Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk of seizures, but there is uncertainty about whether ADHD medication treatment increases risk among patients with and without preexisting seizures. We followed a sample of 801,838 patients with ADHD who had prescribed drug claims from the Truven Health MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters databases to examine whether ADHD medication increases the likelihood of seizures among ADHD patients with and without a history of seizures. First, we assessed overall risk of seizures among patients with ADHD. Second, within-individual concurrent analyses assessed odds of seizure events during months when a patient with ADHD received ADHD medication compared with when the same individual did not, while adjusting for antiepileptic medications. Third, within-individual long-term analyses examined odds of seizure events in relation to the duration of months over the previous 2 years patients received medication. Patients with ADHD were at higher odds for any seizure compared with non-ADHD controls (odds ratio [OR] = 2.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.24-2.42 males; OR = 2.31, 95% CI = 2.22-2.42 females). In adjusted within-individual comparisons, ADHD medication was associated with lower odds of seizures among patients with (OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.60-0.85) and without (OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.62-0.82) prior seizures. Long-term within-individual comparisons suggested no evidence of an association between medication use and seizures among individuals with (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.59-1.30) and without (OR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.80-1.28) a seizure history. Results reaffirm that patients with ADHD are at higher risk of seizures. However, ADHD medication was associated with lower risk of seizures within individuals while they were dispensed medication, which is not consistent with the hypothesis that ADHD medication increases risk of seizures. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.

  7. Attentional functions in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with and without comorbid tic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greimel, E; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B; Günther, T; Vitt, C; Konrad, K

    2008-01-01

    Although the coexistence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tic disorder (TD) is common, the nature of association is yet not fully understood. Thus, the aim of the present study was to explore attentional dysfunction in children with pure ADHD compared to children with comorbid ADHD + TD. Three groups of 20 children each, aged 8-15 years with either ADHD, ADHD + chronic tic disorder or Tourette syndrome (ADHD + TD) and a healthy control group were compared in their performance on three computerized attention tasks. Tasks of sustained attention, selective attention and interference control were employed. In addition, parental ratings of ADHD symptom severity and behaviour problems were obtained. Both clinical groups were rated as equally inattentive, however, externalising symptoms were more severe in the ADHD group. Objective measures of attentional performance revealed differences between the groups: whereas the ADHD group was markedly impaired in sustaining attention and selective attention/inhibitory control, the ADHD + TD group only showed marginal deficits in selective attention/inhibitory control. Possible explanations for the superior performance of the comorbid group are discussed: In particular, the results may indicate that in some patients, the tic disorder produces behavioural symptoms of ADHD, but not the broad neurocognitive deficits that usually are associated with ADHD. Alternatively, compensatory neural mechanisms of TD patients may result in a better neuropsychological performance of comorbid patients relative to patients suffering from pure ADHD.

  8. Evaluating reading and metacognitive deficits in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Jesús Ma; Puente, Aníbal; Jiménez, Virginia; Arrebillaga, Lorena

    2011-05-01

    The reading achievement of children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has scarcely been explored in research conducted in the Spanish language and when it has, the results have been contradictory. The focus of the present research is to analyze participants' reading competency and metacognitive strategies as they carry out reading comprehension tasks. The sample was comprised of 187 Argentine schoolchildren aged 9 to 13 years old. 94 constituted the control group and the clinical group consisted of 93 schoolchildren diagnosed with ADHD. The metacognitive assessment was made up of two metacognitive tests, the Reading Awareness Scale (ESCOLA; acronym in Spanish) and a Spanish adaptation of Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory (MARSI), and one test of reading comprehension, the Evaluation of Reading Processes for Secondary Education Students (PROLEC-SE; acronym in Spanish). Students with ADHD had lower achievement on tests o reading comprehension compared to the control group. Nevertheless, our results suggest their difficulties did not stem from readin comprehension problems, but rather from alterations in their Executive Functions, because when subjects' reading comprehensio was equalized, students with ADHD still exhibited a lower level of Metacognition, particularly when it came to planning.

  9. Differential diagnosis of sensory modulation disorder (SMD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): participation, sensation, and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yochman, Aviva; Alon-Beery, Osnat; Sribman, Ahuva; Parush, Shula

    2013-01-01

    Differential diagnosis between sensory modulation disorder (SMD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often challenging, since these disorders occur at a high rate of co-morbidity and share several clinical characteristics. Preliminary studies providing evidence that these are distinct disorders have focused solely on body functions, using sophisticated laboratory measurements. Moreover, no studies have compared participation profiles of these populations. This study is the first to compare the profiles of these populations regarding both "body functions" (attention and sensation) and "participation," using measures applicable for clinical use. The study included 19 children with ADHD without SMD and 19 with SMD without ADHD (diagnosed by both pediatric neurologists and occupational therapists), aged 6-9, and matched by age and gender. All children underwent a broad battery of evaluations: the Evaluation of Sensory Processing, Fabric Prickliness Test (FPT) and Von Frey Test to evaluate sensory processing, and Test of Everyday Attention to evaluate attention components. The Participation in Childhood Occupations Questionnaire was used to evaluate participation. Results support significant group differences in all sensory components, including pain intensity to suprathreshold stimuli and pain "after sensation," as well as in tactile, vestibular, taste, and olfactory processing. No differences were found in attention components and participation. This study has both theoretical and clinical importance, inter alia, providing further evidence of two distinct disorders as well as indications of specific clinical instruments that might enable clinicians to implement differential diagnoses. In addition, results accord with other previous statements, which indicate that the clinical diagnosis of children with disabilities may not be a major factor in determining their participation profile.

  10. Differential diagnosis of sensory modulation dysfunction (SMD and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD: participation, sensation and attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviva eYochman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Differential diagnosis between sensory modulation disorder (SMD and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is often challenging, since these disorders occur at a high rate of co-morbidity and share several clinical characteristics. Preliminary studies providing evidence that these are distinct disorders have focused solely on body functions, using sophisticated laboratory measurements. Moreover, no studies have compared participation profiles of these populations. This study is the first to compare the profiles of these populations regarding both ‘body functions’(attention and sensation and ‘participation,’ using measures applicable for clinical use. The study included 19 children with ADHD without SMD and 19 with SMD without ADHD (diagnosed by both pediatric neurologists and occupational therapists, aged 6 to 9, and matched by age and gender. All children underwent a broad battery of evaluations: The Evaluation of Sensory Processing, Fabric Prickliness Test and Von Frey Test to evaluate sensory processing, and Test of Everyday Attention to evaluate attention components. The Participation in Childhood Occupations Questionnaire was used to evaluate participation. Results support significant group differences in all sensory components, including pain intensity to suprathreshold stimuli and pain 'after sensation', as well as in tactile, vestibular, taste and olfactory processing. No differences were found in attention components and participation. This study has both theoretical and clinical importance, inter alia, providing further evidence of two distinct disorders as well as indications of specific clinical instruments that might enable clinicians to implement differential diagnoses. In addition, results accord with other previous statements, which indicate that the clinical diagnosis of children with disabilities may not be a major factor in determining their participation profile.

  11. Do attention deficits influence IQ assessment in children and adolescents with ADHD?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jens Richardt M; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the relationship between IQ and attention deficits in children with ADHD and to estimate the inattention-related mean influence on IQ when children are tested before stimulant drug treatment has been initiated. METHOD: Studies of various methodologies are reviewed....... RESULTS: Correlation studies show mostly weak associations between IQ scores and attention deficits. Meta-analyses report the average short-term stimulant treatment effect on IQ in children with ADHD to be 2 to 7 IQ points. CONCLUSION: The associations between IQ and attention deficits in ADHD...

  12. Could I Have Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)? Finding an Answer to ADHD as an Adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ADHD? For More Information Share Could I Have Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)? Download PDF Download ePub ... organized? Have you wondered whether you might have attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? Our society has become ...

  13. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Children Aged 5-17 Years in the United States, 1998-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Aged 5–17 ... 2009 The percentage of children ever diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) increased from 7% to ...

  14. Family-genetic study of executive functioning in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Evidence for an endophenotype?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaats-Willemse, D.I.E.; Swaab-Barneveld, H.J.; Sonneville, L.M. de; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined familiality of attentional control and mental flexibility in multiplex attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) families. The authors hypothesized that siblings of ADHD probands, although not behaviorally expressing ADHD, have deficits in these executive functions and that

  15. Understanding and Working with Attention Deficit Disorder Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttery, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    From a holistic perspective the term attention refers to a student's capacity to focus, direct and sustain their attention on a particular stimulus within their environment for a significant period of time. The development of students' attention spans develops progressively from the time they enter school. From the beginning some students have…

  16. Selective Attention and Inhibitory Deficits in ADHD: Does Subtype or Comorbidity Modulate Negative Priming Effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Verena E.; Neumann, Ewald; Rucklidge, Julia J.

    2008-01-01

    Selective attention has durable consequences for behavior and neural activation. Negative priming (NP) effects are assumed to reflect a critical inhibitory component of selective attention. The performance of adolescents with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) was assessed across two conceptually based NP tasks within a selective…

  17. Attention deficits in children with intellectual and developmental disabilities: evaluating the potential of computerised cognitive training

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk, Hannah

    2017-01-01

    Attention skills are strongly associated with academic attainment, social inclusion, peer relationships and mental health. Attention difficulties are commonly reported in children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), consequently increasing the already heightened risk of cognitive difficulties, behavioural problems and learning impairments. Despite acknowledgement of the core deficits in attention that characterise children with IDD, limited research has attempted to stre...

  18. Extinction learning deficit in a rodent model of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brackney Ryan J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deficient operant extinction has been hypothesized to be constitutive of ADHD dysfunction. In order to elucidate the behavioral mechanisms underlying this deficit, the performance of an animal model of ADHD, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR, was compared against the performance of a control strain, the Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY during extinction. Method Following extensive training of lever pressing under variable interval schedules of food reinforcement (reported previously, SHR and WKY rats were exposed to two sessions of extinction training. Extinction data was analyzed using the Dynamic Bi-Exponential Refractory Model (DBERM of operant performance. DBERM assumes that operant responses are organized in bouts separated by pauses; during extinction, bouts may decline across multiple dimensions, including frequency and length. DBERM parameters were estimated using hierarchical Bayesian modeling. Results SHR responded more than WKY during the first extinction session. DBERM parameter estimates revealed that, at the onset of extinction, SHR produced more response bouts than WKY. Over the course of extinction, response bouts progressively shortened for WKY but not for SHR. Conclusions Based on prior findings on the sensitivity of DBERM parameters to motivational and schedule manipulations, present data suggests that (1 more frequent response bouts in SHR are likely related to greater incentive motivation, and (2 the persistent length of bouts in SHR are likely related to a slower updating of the response-outcome association. Overall, these findings suggest specific motivational and learning deficits that may explain ADHD-related impairments in operant performance.

  19. Prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among School Children and Associated Co-morbidities - A Hospital Based Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimal, H; Pokharel, A

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is the most common neuro- developmental disorders of childhood characterized by the core symptoms including inattentiveness and distractibility and frequently involve impairments in executive functioning, increased impulsivity, and restlessness. Objective To find out the prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among school aged children Presented to Pediatric clinic and also to investigate associated comorbidities. Method This study was conducted at Nobel Medical College Teaching Hospital, Biratnagar during April 2014 - March 2015. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder was diagnosed by the developmental Pediatrician after taking relevant history and the clinical assessment using Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder rating scale with diagnostic criteria consistent with Diagnostic Statistical Manual - IV classification. Spence anxiety scale child and parent rated version and Strength and Difficulty Questionnaire were also used. Result Result showed the yearly prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder being 41(11.7%) with male: female ratio of 4:1. The study reported that Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder combined type was the commonest type that was 26(63%) cases followed by Inattentive type 9(22%) cases and 6(15%) were hyperactive type. The mean age for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder was 7 years and 5 months. The most common co-morbidities were sleep problem 12(29.3%), Learning difficulty 10(24.4%), Anxiety disorder 10(24.4), Oppositional Defiant Disorder 9(22%), Autism Spectrum Disorder 5(12%), speech delay 6(14.6%), and 4(10%) had associated tics. There was abnormal SDQ prevalence of 29.3% across the area of emotional distress. The mean abnormal SDQ score in total difficulty area 8 (20.7%), socializing with peer 9(22%), behavioral difficulty 11(26.8%), hyperactivity/inattention 23(56.1%) and impact of difficulties in young person's life being 5(12.2%). Conclusion There is

  20. Social and leadership abilities in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: relation with cognitive-attentional capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Jaén, Alberto; Martín Fernández-Mayoralas, Daniel; López-Arribas, Sonia; Pardos-Véglia, Alexandra; Muñiz-Borrega, Blanca; García-Savaté, Carolina; Prados-Parra, Baldomero; Calleja-Pérez, Beatriz; Muñoz-Jareño, Nuria; Fernández-Perrone, Ana L

    2012-01-01

    We have analyzed social and leadership abilities in children with ADHD and their relationship with execution of tasks involving sustained attention and inhibitory control. A retrospective analysis of 170 patients with ADHD was performed. We evaluated leadership and social abilities, measured through the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC) and their relations with the results of different neuropsychological tests, including Wechsler scale for children (WISC-IV) and Conners' continuous performance (CPT II). In the differential analysis between the IQ, results of the tests and their relation to BASC scores, a statistically significant relation was observed between attentional capacity expected according to the patient's intelligence and social skills scores (according to BASC filled out by mothers and teachers) and leadership (according to all informants) sections. Attentional difficulties are closely related to social competence in patients with ADHD, either by a direct cause-effect relationship or a shared dysexecutive substrate of this disorder.

  1. Social skills deficits and their association with Internet addiction and activities in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Wen-Jiun; Huang, Mei-Feng; Chang, Yu-Ping; Chen, Yu-Min; Hu, Huei-Fan; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2017-03-01

    Background and aims The aims of this study were to examine the association between social skills deficits and Internet addiction and activities in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as the moderators for this association. Methods A total of 300 adolescents, aged between 11 and 18 years, who had been diagnosed with ADHD participated in this study. Their Internet addiction levels, social skills deficits, ADHD, parental characteristics, and comorbidities were assessed. The various Internet activities that the participants engaged in were also examined. Results The associations between social skills deficits and Internet addiction and activities and the moderators of these associations were examined using logistic regression analyses. Social skills deficits were significantly associated with an increased risk of Internet addiction after adjustment for the effects of other factors [odds ratio (OR) = 1.049, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.030-1.070]. Social skills deficits were also significantly associated with Internet gaming and watching movies. The maternal occupational socioeconomic levels of the participants moderated the association between social skills deficits and Internet addiction. Conclusions Social skills deficits should be considered targets in prevention and intervention programs for treating Internet addiction among adolescents with ADHD.

  2. Attentional Bias towards Emotional Scenes in Boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishyareh, Ebrahim; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi; Mahmoodi-Gharaie, Javad; Khorrami, Anahita; Joudi, Mitra; Ahmadi, Mehrnoosh

    2012-01-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) react explosively and inappropriately to emotional stimuli. It could be hypothesized that these children have some impairment in attending to emotional cues. Based on this hypothesis, we conducted this study to evaluate visual directions of children with ADHD towards paired emotional scenes. Thirty boys between the ages of 6 and 11 years diagnosed with ADHD were compared with 30 age-matched normal boys. All participants were presented paired emotional and neutral scenes in the four following categories: pleasant-neutral; pleasant-unpleasant; unpleasant-neutral; and neutral - neutral. Meanwhile, their visual orientations towards these pictures were evaluated using the eye tracking system. The number and duration of first fixation and duration of first gaze were compared between the two groups using the MANOVA analysis. The performance of each group in different categories was also analyzed using the Friedman test. With regards to duration of first gaze, which is the time taken to fixate on a picture before moving to another picture, ADHD children spent less time on pleasant pictures compared to normal group, while they were looking at pleasant - neutral and unpleasant - pleasant pairs. The duration of first gaze on unpleasant pictures was higher while children with ADHD were looking at unpleasant - neutral pairs (P<0.01). Based on the findings of this study it could be concluded that children with ADHD attend to unpleasant conditions more than normal children which leads to their emotional reactivity.

  3. Deficits in Interval Timing Measured by the Dual-Task Paradigm among Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shoou-Lian; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Hsu, Wen-Yau; Wu, Yu-Yu

    2010-01-01

    Background: The underlying mechanism of time perception deficit in long time intervals in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is still unclear. This study used the time reproduction dual task to explore the role of the attentional resource in time perception deficits among children and adolescents with ADHD. Methods: Participants…

  4. Comparing Attentional Networks in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and the inattentive and combined subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooistra, Libbe; Crawford, Susan; Gibbard, Ben; Kaplan, Bonnie J; Fan, Jin

    2011-01-01

    The Attention Network Test (ANT) was used to examine alerting, orienting, and executive control in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) versus attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were 113 children aged 7 to 10 years (31 ADHD-Combined, 16 ADHD-Primarily Inattentive, 28 FASD, 38 controls). Incongruent flanker trials triggered slower responses in both the ADHD-Combined and the FASD groups. Abnormal conflict scores in these same two groups provided additional evidence for the presence of executive function deficits. The ADHD-Primarily Inattentive group was indistinguishable from the controls on all three ANT indices, which highlights the possibility that this group constitutes a pathologically distinct entity.

  5. Assessing Treatment Outcomes in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Narrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Margaret D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To review measures used to assess treatment response in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) across the life span. Data Sources: Keyword searches of English-language articles in the PubMed database up to and including the May 4, 2011, index date were performed with the search strings (1) (attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity [MeSH] OR ADHD) AND (outcome assessment [MeSH] OR adaptation of life skills OR executive function [MeSH]) and (2) (attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity [MeSH] OR ADHD) AND (function OR functioning OR quality of life [MeSH]). Study Selection: Articles found through this search were then selected based on relevance to the topic area; no specific quality criteria were applied. Data Extraction: Narrative review. Results: The vast majority of studies assessing ADHD treatments have measured treatment response using ADHD symptom measures. Additional domains relevant for assessing treatment response among children and adults with ADHD include functional impairment, quality of life, adaptive life skills, and executive function. Validated rating scales exist for assessing these additional domains, but there has been minimal research evaluating the sensitivity of these instruments for detecting treatment response in pediatric and adult samples. Conclusions: Assessment of treatment outcomes in ADHD should move beyond symptom assessment to incorporate measures of functioning, quality of life, adaptive skills, and executive function, especially when assessing long-term treatment response. The authors recommend a potential battery and schedule of measures that could be used to more comprehensively assess treatment response in patients with ADHD. PMID:23585986

  6. Gendering attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a discursive analysis of UK newspaper stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton-Salway, Mary

    2013-08-01

    Discursive psychology is used to study the gendering of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in UK national newspapers in the period of 2009-2011. The analysis examines how gendering is embedded in causal attributions and identity constructions. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is portrayed as a predominantly male phenomenon with representations of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder being gendered through extreme stories about victims, villains or heroes that depict boys and men as marginalised, exceptional or dangerous. There is also a focus on mothers as the spokespersons and caretakers for parenting and family health while fathers are rendered more invisible. This contributes to our understanding of how attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is constructed in the media using a range of gendered representations that draw on cultural stereotypes familiar in Western societies.

  7. Narrative Intervention: A School-Based Counseling Strategy for Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Khosrow; Yoosefi Looyeh, Majid

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a group narrative intervention for improving the behavior of 8- to 11-year-old children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder at home and school. (Contains 2 tables and 1 note.)

  8. Living with symptoms of Attention DeficitHyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauge Berring, Lene; Bjerrum, Merete Bender; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) relates to four dimensions of behavior: inattentiveness, restlessness, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. Symptoms affect multiple areas of daily life such as academic performance and social functioning. Despite the negative effects of ADHD, people...

  9. Subclinical symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are associated with specific creative processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, N.; Nevicka, B.; Baas, M.

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by distractibility, hyperactivity, and impulsive behavior. Although ADHD generally associates with a range of cognitive impairments, evidence suggests that people with ADHD may be more creative than people

  10. Preschool Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity and Oppositional Defiant Problems as Antecedents of School Bullying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlinden, Marina; Jansen, Pauline W.; Veenstra, Rene; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; Shaw, Philip; Tiemeier, Henning

    Objective: To examine whether early manifestations of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) increase children's later risk of bullying or victimization. Method: Using a population-based, prospective cohort, our multi-informant approach comprised

  11. Structural Brain Abnormalities of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder With Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordermeer, S.D.; Luman, M.; Greven, C.U.; Veroude, K.; Faraone, S.V.; Hartman, C.A.; Hoekstra, P.J.; Franke, B.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Heslenfeld, D.J.; Oosterlaan, J.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with structural abnormalities in total gray matter, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Findings of structural abnormalities in frontal and temporal lobes, amygdala, and insula are less consistent. Remarkably, the impact of

  12. Circadian rhythm disruption as a link between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and obesity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, S.W.; Bijlenga, D.; Tanke, M.; Bron, T.I.; van der Heijden, K.B.; Swaab, H.; Beekman, A.T.; Kooij, J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have a high prevalence of obesity. This is the first study to investigate whether circadian rhythmdisruption is a mechanismlinking ADHD symptoms to obesity. Methods: ADHD symptoms and two manifestations of circadian

  13. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and personality characteristics in older adults in the general Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, M.; Comijs, H.C.; Semeijn, E.J.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Kooij, J.J.S

    2014-01-01

    Objective The authors wanted to examine the association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and personality characteristics and the potential mediating role of these characteristics in the relationship between ADHD and depression in older adults in the general Dutch population.

  14. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children with benign epilepsy and their siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett-Back, Odeya; Keren, Amit; Zelnik, Nathanel

    2011-03-01

    This prospective study explores the prevalence and characteristics of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children with benign epilepsy, compared with its prevalence in their siblings. Among 40 patients with benign epilepsy, 28 (70%) were diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: 19 with the inattentive type, one with the hyperactive type, and eight with the combined type. In the control group of 12 siblings, only two (16.7%) were diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (Pattentional difficulties was evident in children whose seizures were more resistant and required more than one antiepileptic drug for seizure control. Children with more epileptiform features in their electroencephalograms were also more subject to signs of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Larger scale studies are required to validate our findings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Baroreflex sensitivity during rest and executive functioning in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The TRAILS study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietrich, A.; Althaus, M.; Hartman, C.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Mindera, R.B.; Hoofdakker, B.J. van den; Hoekstra, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often show executive function (EF) problems and neurophysiological hypoarousal. Baroreceptor activation, as part of the baroreflex short-term blood pressure regulatory mechanism, has been linked to cortical inhibition and attenuated

  16. Methylphenidate for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole J; Simonsen, Erik; Gluud, Christian

    2016-01-01

    CLINICAL QUESTION: Is treatment with methylphenidate associated with benefits or harms for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? BOTTOM LINE: Methylphenidate is associated with improvement in ADHD symptoms, general behavior, and quality of life; however, due...

  17. Baroreflex sensitivity during rest and executive functioning in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietrich, A.; Althaus, M.; Hartman, C.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Minderaa, R.B.; van den Hoofdakker, B.J.; Hoekstra, P.J.

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often show executive function (EF) problems and neurophysiological hypoarousal. Baroreceptor activation, as part of the baroreflex short-term blood pressure regulatory mechanism, has been linked to cortical inhibition and attenuated

  18. Rapid Processing of Letters, Digits and Symbols: What Purely Visual-Attentional Deficit in Developmental Dyslexia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Johannes C.; Pech-Georgel, Catherine; Dufau, Stephane; Grainger, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Visual-attentional theories of dyslexia predict deficits for dyslexic children not only for the perception of letter strings but also for non-alphanumeric symbol strings. This prediction was tested in a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm with letters, digits, and symbols. Children with dyslexia showed significant deficits for letter and digit…

  19. A Meta-Analysis of Working Memory Impairments in Children with Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinussen, Rhonda; Hayden, Jill; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Tannock, Rosemary

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the empirical evidence for deficits in working memory (WM) processes in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Exploratory meta-analytic procedures were used to investigate whether children with ADHD exhibit WM impairments. Twenty-six empirical research studies published from…

  20. Executive Functioning among Finnish Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Sandra K.; Humphrey, Lorie A.; Tapio, Terttu; Moilanen, Irma K.; McGough, James J.; McCracken, James T.; Yang, May H.; Dang, Jeff; Taanila, Anja; Ebeling, Hanna; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Smalley, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    A study aims to examine cognitive functioning in a sample of adolescents with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) from the North Finnish Birth Cohort 1986. The results conclude that executive function deficit (EFD) was more frequent in ADHD groups than in those without ADHD.

  1. Quality of Life of Adolescent Males with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolski, Tari D.; Edwards, Todd C.; Patrick, Donald L.; Varley, Patti; Way, Margaret E.; Buesching, Don P.

    2004-01-01

    Most psychosocial research on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has focused on deficits in school, family, or behavioral functioning without incorporating perceived quality of life (QoL) or the adolescents' perspective. The Youth Quality of Life Instrument-Research Version (YQOL-R), was used to assess self-perceived QoL in a…

  2. Neural correlates of visuospatial working memory in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ewijk, H. van; Weeda, W.D.; Heslenfeld, D.J.; Luman, M.; Hartman, C.A.; Hoekstra, P.J.; Faraone, S.V.; Franke, B.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Oosterlaan, J.

    2015-01-01

    Impaired visuospatial working memory (VSWM) is suggested to be a core neurocognitive deficit in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), yet the underlying neural activation patterns are poorly understood. Furthermore, it is unclear to what extent age and gender effects may play a role in

  3. Smell Identification Function in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Bahrani, Maryam; Miri, Ramin; Sahraian, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Objective Deficits in olfactory function are common features in neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. Olfactory processing is related to dopamine metabolism and orbitofrontal cortex functioning, both known to be involved in the neurobiology of ADHD. Some investigations suggested alterations in olfactory processing (identification and detection threshold) in patients with ADHD. Despite increasing knowledge, controversy about this topic still exists regarding children with ADHD. Thi...

  4. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and bipolar mood disorder in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-06-19

    Jun 19, 2009 ... neurocognitive domains of motor control and working memory, difficulties with time perception, difficulties with inhibiting or delaying behavioural responses and ongoing processing and naming speed deficits.1 Adult literature regarding BMD indicates neuropsychological problems experienced in the ...

  5. A comparison of phenylketonuria with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: do markedly different aetiologies deliver common phenotypes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, M; McNaughton, N

    2013-10-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a well-defined metabolic disorder arising from a mutation that disrupts phenylalanine metabolism and so produces a variety of neural changes indirectly. Severe cognitive impairment can be prevented by dietary treatment; however, residual symptoms may be reported. These residual symptoms appear to overlap a more prevalent childhood disorder: Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, the aetiology of ADHD is a vast contrast to PKU: it seems to arise from a complex combination of genes; and it has a substantial environmental component. We ask whether these two disorders result from two vastly different genotypes that converge on a specific core phenotype that includes similar dysfunctions of Gray's (Gray, 1982) Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS), coupled with other disorder-specific dysfunctions. If so, we believe comparison of the commonalities will allow greater understanding of the neuropsychology of both disorders. We review in detail the aetiology, treatment, neural pathology, cognitive deficits and electrophysiological abnormalities of PKU; and compare this with selected directly matching aspects of ADHD. The biochemical and neural pathologies of PKU and ADHD are quite distinct in their causes and detail; but they result in the disorder in the brain of large amino acid levels, dopamine and white matter that are very similar and could explain the overlap of symptoms within and between the PKU and ADHD spectra. The common deficits affect visual function, motor function, attention, working memory, planning, and inhibition. For each of PKU and ADHD separately, a subset of deficits has been attributed to a primary dysfunction of behavioural inhibition. In the case of ADHD (excluding the inattentive subtype) this has been proposed to involve a specific failure of the BIS; and we suggest that this is also true of PKU. This accounts for a substantial proportion of the parallels in the superficial symptoms of both disorders and

  6. Social isolation induces deficit of latent learning performance in mice: a putative animal model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchi, Hirofumi; Ono, Kazuya; Murakami, Yukihisa; Matsumoto, Kinzo

    2013-02-01

    Social isolation of rodents (SI) elicits a variety of stress responses such as increased aggressiveness, hyper-locomotion, and reduced susceptibility to pentobarbital. To obtain a better understanding of the relevance of SI-induced behavioral abnormalities to psychiatric disorders, we examined the effect of SI on latent learning as an index of spatial attention, and discussed the availability of SI as an epigenetic model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Except in specially stated cases, 4-week-old male mice were housed in a group or socially isolated for 3-70 days before experiments. The animals socially isolated for 1 week or more exhibited spatial attention deficit in the water-finding test. Re-socialized rearing for 5 weeks after 1-week SI failed to attenuate the spatial attention deficit. The effect of SI on spatial attention showed no gender difference or correlation with increased aggressive behavior. Moreover, SI had no effect on cognitive performance elucidated in a modified Y-maze or an object recognition test, but it significantly impaired contextual and conditional fear memory elucidated in the fear-conditioning test. Drugs used for ADHD therapy, methylphenidate (1-10 mg/kg, i.p.) and caffeine (0.5-1 mg/kg, i.p.), improved SI-induced latent learning deficit in a manner reversible with cholinergic but not dopaminergic antagonists. Considering the behavioral features of SI mice together with their susceptibility to ADHD drugs, the present findings suggest that SI provides an epigenetic animal model of ADHD and that central cholinergic systems play a role in the effect of methylphenidate on SI-induced spatial attention deficit. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Disentangling the Role of Cortico-Basal Ganglia Loops in Top-Down and Bottom-Up Visual Attention: An Investigation of Attention Deficits in Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasi, Giorgio; Fiorio, Mirta; Yelnik, Jérôme; Krack, Paul; Sala, Francesca; Schmitt, Emmanuelle; Fraix, Valérie; Bertolasi, Laura; Le Bas, Jean-François; Ricciardi, Giuseppe Kenneth; Fiaschi, Antonio; Theeuwes, Jan; Pollak, Pierre; Chelazzi, Leonardo

    2015-06-01

    It is solidly established that top-down (goal-driven) and bottom-up (stimulus-driven) attention mechanisms depend on distributed cortical networks, including prefrontal and frontoparietal regions. On the other hand, it is less clear whether the BG also contribute to one or the other of these mechanisms, or to both. The current study was principally undertaken to clarify this issue. Parkinson disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder primarily affecting the BG, has proven to be an effective model for investigating the contribution of the BG to different brain functions; therefore, we set out to investigate deficits of top-down and bottom-up attention in a selected cohort of PD patients. With this objective in mind, we compared the performance on three computerized tasks of two groups of 12 parkinsonian patients (assessed without any treatment), one otherwise pharmacologically treated and the other also surgically treated, with that of a group of controls. The main behavioral tool for our study was an attentional capture task, which enabled us to tap the competition between top-down and bottom-up mechanisms of visual attention. This task was suitably combined with a choice RT and a simple RT task to isolate any specific deficit of attention from deficits in motor response selection and initiation. In the two groups of patients, we found an equivalent increase of attentional capture but also comparable delays in target selection in the absence of any salient distractor (reflecting impaired top-down mechanisms) and movement initiation compared with controls. In contrast, motor response selection processes appeared to be prolonged only in the operated patients. Our results confirm that the BG are involved in both motor and cognitive domains. Specifically, damage to the BG, as it occurs in PD, leads to a distinct deficit of top-down control of visual attention, and this can account, albeit indirectly, for the enhancement of attentional capture, reflecting weakened

  8. An iPad-Based Tool for Improving the Skills of Children with Attention Deficit Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Wrońska, Natalia; Garcia-Zapirain, Begonya; Mendez-Zorrilla, Amaia

    2015-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), with a worldwide prevalence of 5.29%–7.1%, is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders among children and adolescents. Apart from typical symptoms like inattention, hyperactivity and impulsiveness, patients also evidence attention deficit problems with reading comprehension. This in turn causes poor school performance and widens the gap with peers without ADHD. This paper presents a novel and interactive tool based on Serious Games...

  9. Oral and Dental Health Problems of Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders, and Solution Proposals

    OpenAIRE

    Ceylan Çağıl Yetiş; Zuhal Kırzıoğlu

    2017-01-01

    Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common childhood onset behavioral disorder characterized by a developmentally inappropriate attention deficit, hyperactivity-impulsivity or a combination of these. Genetic and environmental factors play a role in the etiology. Because of the behavioral problems sourced from the disease itself and side effects of the drugs used in therapy, children with ADHD take place in the risk group in terms of oral and dental health problems ...

  10. Neurofibromatosis type 1 and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a case study and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel CS; Chaim-Avancini TM; Silva MA; Louzã MR

    2015-01-01

    Carmen Sílvia Miguel, Tiffany M Chaim-Avancini, Maria Aparecida Silva, Mario Rodrigues LouzãAdult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Program (PRODATH), Institute of Psychiatry, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, BrazilBackground: The cognitive profile of children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been well characterized, but few studies have evaluated the cognitive abilities o...

  11. The Effect of Neurofeedback Therapy on Reducing Symptoms Associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Case Series Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deilami, Mostafa; Jahandideh, Asghar; Kazemnejad, Yousef; Fakour, Yousef; Alipoor, Shiva; Rabiee, Fatemeh; Pournesaie, Ghazal Saadat; Heidari, Rosemarie Noot; Mosavi, Seyed Aliasghar

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of neurofeedback on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. This is a quasi-experimental study without a control group. The study population included all children aged 5 to 12 years old affected with attention deficit hyperactivity disorders in Tehran, Iran who were referred to psychiatric clinics and given the diagnosis. The sample included 12 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder who were selected based on their availability (non-random sampling). They received 30 sessions of neurofeedback treatment, 2 times per week. Before and after neurofeedback training, the children were evaluated and compared with the use of cognitive assessment system test. Data were analyzed using dependent T-test. The total mean score for pretest was 88.81 while the total mean score for the post test was 82.23. The mean in pretest for attention hyperactivity disorder was higher than the mean in the post test. Moreover, The difference of pretest and post test scores of children affected with learning disorder associated with ADHD was calculated that showed significant (P=0.003). Neurofeedback is effective in the improvement of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  12. Meta-Analysis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Restriction Diet, and Synthetic Food Color Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Joel T.; Lewis, Kara; Edinger, Tracy; Falk, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The role of diet and of food colors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or its symptoms warrants updated quantitative meta-analysis, in light of recent divergent policy in Europe and the United States. Method: Studies were identified through a literature search using the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and PsycNET databases…

  13. Information Processing Deficits in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Inattentive Type, and Children with Reading Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Michael David; Bernstein, Jane Holmes; Bellinger, David; Waber, Deborah P.

    2002-01-01

    This study compared children with either attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n=24), reading disability (RD) (n=33), both (n=9), or controls. Children with ADHD were characterized by difficulty with a visual search task whereas children with RD had difficulty with an auditory processing task. Specifically, children with ADHD…

  14. Altered white matter tract property related to impaired focused attention, sustained attention, cognitive impulsivity and vigilance in attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Huey-Ling; Chen, Yu-Jen; Lo, Yu-Chun; Tseng, Wen-Yih I; Gau, Susan S

    2015-09-01

    The neural substrate for clinical symptoms and neuropsychological performance in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has rarely been studied and has yielded inconsistent results. We sought to compare the microstructural property of fibre tracts associated with the prefrontal cortex and its association with ADHD symptoms and a wide range of attention performance in youth with ADHD and healthy controls. We assessed youths with ADHD and age-, sex-, handedness-, coil- and intelligence-matched controls using the Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CCPT) for attention performance and MRI. The 10 target tracts, including the bilateral frontostriatal tracts (caudate to dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and orbitofrontal cortex), superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and cingulum bundle were reconstructed using diffusion spectrum imaging tractography. We computed generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA) values to indicate tract-specific microstructural property. We included 50 youths with ADHD and 50 healthy controls in our study. Youths with ADHD had lower GFA in the left frontostriatal tracts, bilateral SLF and right cingulum bundle and performed worse in the CCPT than controls. Furthermore, alteration of the right SLF GFA was most significantly associated with the clinical symptom of inattention in youths with ADHD. Finally, youths with ADHD had differential association patterns of the 10 fibre tract GFA values with attention performance compared with controls. Ten of the youths with ADHD were treated with methylphenidate, which may have long-term effects on microstructural property. Our study highlights the importance of the SLF, cingulum bundle and frontostriatal tracts for clinical symptoms and attention performance in youths with ADHD and demonstrates the involvement of different fibre tracts in attention performance in these individuals.

  15. Emotional Lability in Patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Impact of Pharmacotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Ann C; Sallee, Floyd R

    2015-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral disorder defined by persistent inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity. These symptoms occur more frequently and are more severe in individuals with ADHD compared with those at a similar developmental level without ADHD, and can be conceptualized as deficits in executive functioning (EF). EF includes domains of metacognition and inhibition, which influence the ability to regulate responses elicited by emotional stimuli. EF deficits can lead to emotional lability (EL), which is characterized by sudden changes in emotion and behaviors of inappropriately high intensity that may include sudden bouts of anger, dysphoria, sadness, or euphoria. EL is common and estimated to occur in about 3.3-10% of the population. Recent estimates of EL prevalence in children and adolescents with ADHD range from 38 to 75%. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition does not include EL in diagnostic criteria for ADHD, but does include ADHD-associated features of low frustration tolerance, irritability, or mood lability. The neurobiological basis of EL is not well understood, but brain imaging studies support dividing EF into "cool" cognitive networks encompassing attention and planning activities, and "hot" motivational networks involved in temporal discounting, reward processing, and reward anticipation. Dysfunction in "hot" networks is thought to be related to EL. EL symptoms are associated with more severe ADHD and co-morbidities, have significant impact on functioning, and may respond to treatment with medications frequently used to treat ADHD. Treatment outcomes and areas for future research are discussed.

  16. Inverse associations between cord vitamin D and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms: A child cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossin, Mats H; Aaby, Jens B; Dalgård, Christine; Lykkedegn, Sine; Christesen, Henrik T; Bilenberg, Niels

    2017-07-01

    To examine the association between cord 25-hydroxyvitamin D 2+3 (25(OH)D) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in toddlers, using Child Behaviour Checklist for ages 1.5-5. In a population-based birth cohort, a Child Behaviour Checklist for ages 1.5-5 questionnaire was returned from parents of 1233 infants with mean age 2.7 (standard deviation 0.6) years. Adjusted associations between cord 25(OH)D and Child Behaviour Checklist-based attention deficit hyperactivity disorder problems were analysed by multiple regression. Results The median cord 25(OH)D was 44.1 (range: 1.5-127.1) nmol/L. Mean attention deficit hyperactivity disorder problem score was 2.7 (standard deviation 2.1). In adjusted analyses, cord 25(OH)D levels >25 nmol/L and >30 nmol/L were associated with lower attention deficit hyperactivity disorder scores compared to levels ⩽25 nmol/L ( p = 0.035) and ⩽30 nmol/L ( p = 0.043), respectively. The adjusted odds of scoring above the 90th percentile on the Child Behaviour Checklist-based attention deficit hyperactivity disorder problem scale decreased by 11% per 10 nmol/L increase in cord 25(OH)D. An inverse association between cord 25(OH)D and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in toddlers was found, suggesting a protective effect of prenatal vitamin D.

  17. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in ancient Greece: The Obtuse Man of Theophrastus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Marcelo M; S da Silva, Bruna; Kappel, Djenifer B; Bau, Claiton Hd; Grevet, Eugenio H

    2018-04-01

    We present an ancient Greek description written by the philosopher Theophrastus in his classic book ' Characters' comparable with modern attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The arguments are based in one chapter of this book-The Obtuse Man-presenting features of a character closely resembling the modern description of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. In a free comparative exercise, we compared Theophrastus descriptions with modern Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms. The sentences describing The Obtuse Man written by Theophrastus are similar to several symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and he would probably be currently diagnosed with this disorder as an adult. To our knowledge, this is the oldest description compatible with the current conception of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults in the Western literature. Differently than the moralistic view of ancient Greece regarding those symptoms, the medical attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder conception may be advantageous to patients since it might reduce prejudice and allow individuals to seek treatment.

  18. Vitamin D Status at Birth and Future Risk of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Peik; Rylander, Lars; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo A G; Ode, Amanda; Olofsson, Per; Ivarsson, Sten A; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Haglund, Nils; Källén, Karin

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder have lower levels of Vitamin D3 at birth than matched controls. Umbilical cord blood samples collected at birth from 202 children later diagnosed with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder were analysed for vitamin D content and compared with 202 matched controls. 25-OH vitamin D3 was analysed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. No differences in cord blood vitamin D concentration were found between children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (median 13.0 ng/ml) and controls (median 13.5 ng/ml) (p = 0.43). In a logistic regression analysis, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder showed a significant association with maternal age (odds ratio: 0.96, 95% confidence interval: 0.92-0.99) but not with vitamin D levels (odds ratio: 0.99, 95% confidence interval: 0.97-1.02). We found no difference in intrauterine vitamin D levels between children later developing Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and matched control children. However, the statistical power of the study was too weak to detect an eventual small to medium size association between vitamin D levels and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

  19. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder symptoms in school-age children born very preterm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröring, Tinka; Oostrom, Kim J.; van Dijk-Lokkart, Elisabeth M.; Lafeber, Harrie N.; Brugman, Anniek; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2018-01-01

    Very preterm (VP) children face a broad range of neurodevelopmental sequelae, including behavioral problems. To investigate prevalence, pervasiveness and co-occurrence of symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in school-age children born very

  20. Neurofeedback as a Treatment for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review of Evidence for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, W. Grant; Weyandt, Lisa L.; Lubiner, Anna G.; Schubart, Chelsea D.

    2011-01-01

    Neurofeedback training is being offered with increasing frequency as a treatment for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). School psychologists are in a unique position to educate teachers, parents, students, and others about a variety of disorders including ADHD, and it is important for them to be properly informed about the validity…

  1. The Impact of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder on Preadolescent Adjustment May Be Greater for Girls than for Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Irene J.; Malone, Steve; Keyes, Margaret; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Whether gender differences exist in the impairment associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is still largely unknown, because most samples have few affected girls or include only one sex. The current study evaluated whether ADHD affects adjustment differently for girls than boys in a population-based cohort of 11-year-olds…

  2. Attention Deficits in Chronic Methamphetamine Users as a Potential Target for Enhancing Treatment Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Alam Mehrjerdi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (MA is a potent, addictive psychostimulant that has dramatic effects on the central nervous system (CNS. The onset of methamphetamine use has been linked to heightened attention, and chronic methamphetamine use has been associated with deficits in different aspects of attention that can significantly persist into abstinence. Attention deficits in chronic methamphetamine users may be associated with severity of methamphetamine use, craving, relapse, and as a result, poor treatment outcomes. This review summarizes evidence that the continuity of attention deficits, especially during abstinence, should be considered as a potential target during methamphetamine use treatment. Implementing attention rehabilitation techniques during treatment may enhance motivation for treatment in chronic methamphetamine users, and may facilitate treatment adherence, craving control and promote relapse prevention. This issue has important clinical implications for enhancing treatment efficacy and as a result, increasing treatment outcomes.

  3. Dissociable attentional and affective circuits in medication-naïve children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Jonathan; Rauh, Virginia; Gruber, Allison; Gat, Inbal; Wang, Zhishun; Peterson, Bradley S

    2013-07-30

    Current neurocognitive models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest that neural circuits involving both attentional and affective processing make independent contributions to the phenomenology of the disorder. However, a clear dissociation of attentional and affective circuits and their behavioral correlates has yet to be shown in medication-naïve children with ADHD. Using resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) in a cohort of medication naïve children with (N=22) and without (N=20) ADHD, we demonstrate that children with ADHD have reduced connectivity in two neural circuits: one underlying executive attention (EA) and the other emotional regulation (ER). We also demonstrate a double dissociation between these two neural circuits and their behavioral correlates such that reduced connectivity in the EA circuit correlates with executive attention deficits but not with emotional lability, while on the other hand, reduced connectivity in the ER circuit correlates with emotional lability but not with executive attention deficits. These findings suggest potential avenues for future research such as examining treatment effects on these two neural circuits as well as the potential prognostic and developmental significance of disturbances in one circuit vs the other. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Attentional Bias towards Emotional Scenes in Boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Pishyareh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Children with attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD react explosively and inappropriately to emotional stimuli. It could be hypothesized that these children have some impairment in attending to emotional cues. Based on this hypothesis, we conducted this study to evaluate visual directions of children with ADHD towards paired emotional scenes.Method: thirty boys between the ages of 6 and 11 years diagnosed with ADHD were compared with 30 age-matched normal boys. All participants were presented paired emotional and neutral scenes in the four following categories: pleasant-neutral; pleasant-unpleasant; unpleasant-neutral; and neutral – neutral. Meanwhile, their visual orientations towards these pictures were evaluated using the eye tracking system. The number and duration of first fixation and duration of first gaze were compared between the two groups using the MANOVA analysis. The performance of each group in different categories was also analyzed using the Friedman test.Results: With regards to duration of first gaze, which is the time taken to fixate on a picture before moving to another picture, ADHD children spent less time on pleasant pictures compared to normal group ,while they were looking at pleasant – neutral and unpleasant – pleasant pairs. The duration of first gaze on unpleasant pictures was higher while children with ADHD were looking at unpleasant – neutral pairs (P<0.01.Conclusion: based on the findings of this study it could be concluded that children with ADHD attend to unpleasant conditions more than normal children which leads to their emotional reactivity.

  5. Motor dysfunction in NF1: Mediated by attention deficit or inherent to the disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas-Lude, Karin; Heimgärtner, Magdalena; Winter, Sarah; Mautner, Victor-Felix; Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Lidzba, Karen

    2018-01-01

    Attention deficit and compromised motor skills are both prevalent in Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), but the relationship is unclear. We investigated motor function in children with NF1 and in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and explored if, in patients with NF1, attention deficit influences motor performance. Motor performance was measured using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC) in 71 children (26 with NF1 plus ADHD, 14 with NF1 without ADHD, and 31 with ADHD without NF1) aged 6-12 years. There was a significant effect of group on motor performance. Both NF1 groups scored below children with ADHD without NF1. Attention performance mediated motor performance in children with ADHD without NF1, but not in children with NF1. Motor function is not mediated by attention performance in children with NF1. While in ADHD, attention deficit influences motor performance, motor problems in NF1 seem to be independent from attention deficit. This argues for different pathomechanisms in these two groups of developmental disorders. Copyright © 2017 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children With Sickle Cell Disease Referred for an Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquazzino, Melissa A; Miller, Meghan; Myrvik, Matthew; Newby, Robert; Scott, John Paul

    2017-07-01

    Neuropsychological deficits, including difficulties with attention, are well described in children with sickle cell disease (SCD). Very little is known about attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with SCD. The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of ADHD in children with SCD referred for neuropsychological evaluation. This prospective, cross-sectional study included patients (age, 4 to 18 y) with SCD and completion of a neuropsychological evaluation between December 2013 and March 2016. Patients were referred for neuropsychological evaluation because of concern regarding school performance, development, and/or behavior. The diagnosis of ADHD was made by a neuropsychologist on the basis of the diagnostic criteria in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual-Fourth or Fifth Editions. ADHD medication usage rate was obtained by medical record review. Of the 89 patients with SCD referred for neuropsychological evaluation, 25% (95% confidence interval, 16%-35%) met diagnostic criteria for ADHD. Only 21% of the patients with SCD and ADHD were prescribed an ADHD medication. Our study supports routine ADHD screening in children with SCD who have poor school performance or behavioral concerns. Despite the benefits of pharmacologic treatment, the majority of patients with SCD and ADHD did not receive a medication for management of their ADHD.

  7. Influence of Methylphenidate on Motor Performance and Attention in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Orit; Daniel, Liron; Dan, Orrie; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) often have coexisting developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The positive therapeutic effect of methylphenidate on ADHD symptoms is well documented, but its effects on motor coordination are less studied. We assessed the influence of methylphenidate on motor performance in children…

  8. Sex differences in attentional performance and their modulation by methylphenidate in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Thomas; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin

    2010-06-01

    Still little is known about neuropsychological differences between boys and girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and whether there are sex-specific differences in the modulation of attentional performance by methylphenidate (MPH). In this study, 27 males and 27 females between 8-12 years old and with ADHD were investigated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial on five computerized attention tests (0.25 vs. 0.5 mg/kg MPH as a single dose, versus placebo). Boys and girls with ADHD did not differ with respect to age, intelligence quotient (IQ), symptom severity, co-morbidity patterns, and ADHD subtype. However, ADHD boys were more impulsive on a sustained attention task, whereas girls with ADHD had more deficits on tasks measuring selective attention. Attentional performance increased differentially as a function of MPH dose, with some tasks showing linear improvement with higher dosage whereas more complex tasks in particular showed inverse U-shaped patterns of MPH effects. However, these effects were comparable between girls and boys. Our data suggest that there are some gender differences in attentional performance in subjects with ADHD in a clinical sample, even if symptom severity and co-morbidity are controlled; however, modulation of attention by MPH does not seem to differ between sexes.

  9. Stimulants improve theory of mind in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoz, Hagai; Tsviban, Lior; Gvirts, Hila Z; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G; Levkovitz, Yechiel; Watemberg, Nathan; Bloch, Yuval

    2014-03-01

    Impairments in 'theory of mind' (ToM) were linked to social cognition and reciprocal relationships deficits in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Twenty-four children with ADHD (13 with inattentive type and 11 with combined type, mean age 10.2 years) completed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), a self-reported empathy questionnaire. All children performed the 'faux pas' task and a computerized ToM task in two different sessions either with or without administration of methylphenidate (MPH). Administration of MPH was associated with an improvement in cognitive and affective ToM. Children with ADHD-combined type had significantly lower scores in total IRI and the fantasy scale compared to children with ADHD-inattentive type. We conclude that deficits in empathy and ToM may play an important role in the impairments in social cognition and peer relationship in children with ADHD, especially children a hyperactive component. Stimulants may improve ToM and empathic functions. Future studies including larger samples and additional cognitive tasks are warranted in order to generalize these results and to identify possible underlying mechanisms for improvement in ToM following the administration of MPH.

  10. Executive functions and adaptive functioning in young adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavro, Gillian M; Ettenhofer, Mark L; Nigg, Joel T

    2007-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with impairments in occupational, social, and educational functioning in adults. This study examined relations of adaptive impairment to ADHD symptom domains (inattentive-disorganized and hyperactive-impulsive) and to deficits in executive functioning (EF) in 195 well-characterized adults (105 ADHD, 90 non-ADHD, between ages 18 and 37). Participants completed a battery of EF measures as well as assessments of adaptive functioning. Confirmatory factor analyses were used to validate latent factors for adaptive functioning and EF. In a measurement model, weaker EF was associated with poorer adaptive functioning (r = -.30). When multi-informant composite variables for current inattentive-disorganized and hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms were included in the structural model, EF no longer predicted adaptive functioning. While both symptom composites were similarly related to EF (inattentive-disorganized r = .36; hyperactive-impulsive r = .29), inattentive-disorganized symptoms accounted for more variance in adaptive functioning (67.2% vs. 3.6%). Furthermore, for retrospectively reported childhood symptoms of ADHD, only the inattentive-disorganized symptom domain was related to EF or adaptive impairment. These results suggest that, in adults with ADHD, inattentive-disorganized symptoms may be the primary contributor to key aspects of poorer adaptive function and may be the behavioral path through which EF deficits lead to adaptive impairment.

  11. Smell identification function in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Bahrani, Maryam; Miri, Ramin; Sahraian, Ali

    2012-06-01

    Deficits in olfactory function are common features in neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. Olfactory processing is related to dopamine metabolism and orbitofrontal cortex functioning, both known to be involved in the neurobiology of ADHD. Some investigations suggested alterations in olfactory processing (identification and detection threshold) in patients with ADHD. Despite increasing knowledge, controversy about this topic still exists regarding children with ADHD. This study was conducted to help elucidate some of this controversy. 50 participants (8-15 years, mean=10.70±1.77) with ADHD were compared to 50 controls. The two groups were well matched for age, gender and Mean School Scores (MSS). We assessed odor identification and threshold through a smell test composed of two tests of identification and detection threshold. Odor detection threshold was assessed with the odorant phenyl ethyl alcohol solved in propylene glycol using a single staircase method. Odor identification was assessed with chemical essences of five common odorants. The mean Sensory Identification Score for children with ADHD and the control groups were 3.76 (1.06) and 4.46 (0.76), respectively (pSensory Threshold Score for ADHD and control group was 6.4 (3.35) and 9.75 (2.16), respectively (p<0.001). This study replicated altered olfactory performance in ADHD. Substantial olfactory deficits across the two domains of identification and detection threshold are observed in children with ADHD. These deficits do not seem to be a result of olfactory task difficulty and are not influenced by age, gender and MSS. Further studies are required to investigate whether olfactory function can be used as a biological marker for early diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of ADHD.

  12. Attentional performance in children and adolescents with tic disorder and co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: new insights from a 2 × 2 factorial design study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greimel, Ellen; Wanderer, Sina; Rothenberger, Aribert; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin; Roessner, Veit

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of both tic disorder (TD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on attentional functions. N=96 children and adolescents participated in the study, including n=21 subjects with TD, n=23 subjects with ADHD, n=25 subjects with TD+ADHD, and n=27 controls. Attentional performance was tested based on four computerized attention tasks (sustained attention, divided attention, go/nogo and set shifting). The effect of TD as well as ADHD on attentional performance was tested using a 2 × 2 factorial approach. A diagnosis of TD had no negative impact on attentional functions but was associated with improved performance in the set shifting task. By contrast, regardless of a diagnosis of TD, subjects with ADHD were found to perform worse in the sustained attention, divided attention and go/nogo task. No interaction effect between the factors TD and ADHD was revealed for any of the attention measures. Our results add to findings from other areas of research, showing that in subjects with TD and ADHD, ADHD psychopathology is often the main source of impairment, whereas a diagnosis of TD has little or no impact on neuropsychological performance in most cases and even seems to be associated with adaptive mechanisms.

  13. Assessment of Attention Deficits in Adolescent Offspring Exposed to Maternal Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bytoft, Birgitte; Knorr, Sine; Vlachova, Zuzana

    2017-01-01

    , vigilance, hyperactivity/impulsivity, sustained attention and response style. Results: A higher frequency of the exposed offspring had a parent/self-reported use of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) medication compared to the control group (2.2% vs. 0.0%, p = 0.01). Clinical significant...

  14. The Use of Trauma Counseling for Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottinger, Audrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at risk for behavioral problems and so are frequently brought to the attention of counselors. The literature is limited, however, in examining specific counseling techniques for this population, and particularly in discussing counseling in a developing country where children do not…

  15. NEUROMYOPATHIES IN THE CORRECTION OF ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER AND HYPERACTIVITY IN SCHOOLCHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Jafarova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The proposed correction procedure in educational technology for children suffering from attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. The analysis of the correlation of the results of psychological testing of the properties of attention and the dynamics of EEG with the efficiency of the educational process.

  16. Girls with Social and/or Attention Deficits: A Descriptive Study of 100 Clinic Attenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Svenny; Kelly, Kristina Berg; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Examine clinical correlates and distinguishing features of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), ADHD, and tic disorders in girls referred for social impairment, attention/academic deficits, and/or tics. Method: One hundred 3- to 18-year-old girls referred for social impairment and attention symptoms were assessed in detail. Sixty of these…

  17. Sensation-to-cognition cortical streams in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona, Susana; Hoekzema, E; Castellanos, Francisco X; García-García, David; Lage-Castellanos, Agustín; Van Dijk, Koene R A; Navas-Sánchez, Francisco J; Martínez, Kenia; Desco, Manuel; Sepulcre, Jorge

    We sought to determine whether functional connectivity streams that link sensory, attentional, and higher-order cognitive circuits are atypical in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We applied a graph-theory method to the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data of 120

  18. Written Composition Performance of Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Ana Miranda; Ferrer, Manuel Soriano; Fortea, Inmaculada Baixauli

    2013-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently associated with learning disabilities. The present study examined the written composition of children with ADHD, which depends to a large degree on continuous self-regulation and attentional control skills for organizing information and maintaining the level of effort. Fifty children…

  19. Detrimental effects of gum chewing on vigilance in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucha, Lara; Simpson, William; Evans, Lynsay; Birrel, Laura; Sontag, Thomas A.; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    Impairments of attention are cardinal features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and can seriously affect the daily life of children with ADHD. Despite effective treatment strategies, there is a need of further treatment options that can be added to available and well established

  20. Does Response Variability Predict Distractibility among Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Zachary W.; Roberts, Walter M.; Milich, Richard; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2011-01-01

    Increased intraindividual variability in response time (RTSD) has been observed reliably in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and has often been used as a measure of inattention. RTSD is assumed to reflect attentional lapses and distractibility, though evidence for the validity of this connection is lacking. We assessed whether RTSD…

  1. Study of Attention Deficit in Patients with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM Kafi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Attention deficit has significant effect on the life of patients suffering from schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to assess the attention deficit in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: In the present post-hoc study, 132 patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder were selected via non-randomized sampling at Shafa Hospital (Rasht, Iran and then divided into four equal groups: chronic schizophrenia patients, first-episode patients, chronic bipolar patients, and first-episode bipolar patients. Thirty-three healthy individuals were selected as the control group. Subjects were evaluated by Stroop color-word test. The gathered Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results: Attention deficit among chronic schizophrenics and patients suffering from bipolar disease was higher than the control group (p <1. Chronic schizophrenic patients compared with schizophrenia bipolar disease and first round schizophrenia showed more attention deficit. There was no significant difference among the first bipolar disease and schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, as well as the first round schizophrenia (p<0.05. Conclusion: Attention deficit is more severe in schizophrenic patients than bipolar disorder, and chronicity is more effective in schizophrenic patients. Key words: Attention, Schizophrenia, Chronicity

  2. Autonomic correlates at rest and during evoked attention in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and effects of methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrao, Bianca Lee; Bipath, Priyesh; van der Westhuizen, Deborah; Viljoen, Margaretha

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess autonomic nervous system functioning in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to examine the effects of methylphenidate and focussed attention. Children with ADHD (n = 19) were tested while they were stimulant free and during a period in which they were on stimulants. On both occasions, autonomic nervous system functioning was tested at baseline and during focussed attention. Autonomic nervous system functioning of control subjects was also tested at baseline and during focussed attention. Autonomic nervous system activity was determined by means of heart rate variability (HRV) and skin conductivity analyses. Attention was evoked by means of the BioGraph Infiniti biofeedback apparatus. HRV was determined by time domain, frequency domain and Poincaré analysis of RR interval data. Skin conductivity was determined by the BioGraph Infiniti biofeedback apparatus. The main findings of this study were (a) that stimulant-free children with ADHD showed a sympathetic underarousal and parasympathetic overarousal of the sympathovagal balance relative to control subjects; (b) methylphenidate shifted the autonomic balance of children with ADHD towards normal levels; however, a normal autonomic balance was not reached, and (c) stimulant-free children with ADHD exhibited a shift in the sympathovagal balance towards the sympathetic nervous system from baseline to focussed attention; however, methylphenidate appeared to abolish this shift. Stimulant-free children with ADHD have a parasympathetic dominance of the autonomic balance, relative to control subjects. Methylphenidate attempts to restore the normal autonomic balance in children with ADHD, but inhibits the normal autonomic nervous system response to a cognitive challenge. These results indicate that methylphenidate may have a suppressive effect on the normal stress response. Although this may be of benefit to those who interact with children who suffer from ADHD

  3. The Report on 2 Cases of Fragile X Syndrome Comorbid with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayoun Khoushabi

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The term “fragile X syndrome” is named after a constriction recognizable on chromosome (at Xq 27.3 cultured at chromosome media without folic acid. The unstable part includes repetition of 3 nucleotides which is intensified at subsequent generation (DNA amplification and gives rise to a more severe phenotype in the individual. About 20% of males have normal fragile X syndrome. The daughters of these individuals have abnormal chromosomes (carrier and their grandchildren will be marked. In typical syndrome, the boys will suffer from mental retardation, macrocephalia, large or protruding ears, elongated face, and macroorchidism. In terms of behavioral comorbidity, symptoms are similar to pervasive developmental disorder such as autism and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The impairments in cognitive abilities are manifested as learning difficulties to severe problems. Our patients were 2 boys (6 and 7 years old referred due to their hyperactivity. In physical examination, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder as well as fragile X syndrome were confirmed. In chromosome culture test, the constriction at Xq 27.3 was specified.

  4. Does Severity of Attention Deficit /Hyperactivity Disorder impact Trauma in Children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Shafiee-Kandjani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder with high heritability. It is the most common childhood mental disorder. The key aspects of ADHD may put the affected children at risk for different traumatic experiences. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the severity of trauma and ADHD symptoms in children. Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, the target population included 90 children aged 6-12 years old, visiting Imam Reza, Children, Sina, and Shohada Hospitals in Tabriz, Iran. The severity of trauma was assessed, using placebo transdermal system (PTS, and the ADHD symptoms were evaluated, using Conners' Parent Rating Scale. To rule out other psychiatric disorders, the Child Symptoms Inventory-4 (CSI-4 was employed. Results: Results showed a significant positive correlation between the severity of trauma and ADHD, hyperactivity, oppositional/impulsivity, and attention-deficit scores (P < 0.01. In addition, results from the independent t-test suggested a significance difference between the ADHD and non-ADHD children in terms of the severity of trauma. Conclusion: There was a significant relationship between the symptoms of ADHD and the severity of trauma in children, in a way that the scores of the aforementioned variables improved with increasing the severity of trauma. Regarding the profound effects of trauma on human and financial resources, required measures should be taken for making house and school settings safe for such children.

  5. Development of a Family-School Intervention for Young Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mautone, Jennifer A; Marshall, Stephen A; Sharman, Jaclyn; Eiraldi, Ricardo B; Jawad, Abbas F; Power, Thomas J

    2012-01-01

    Although numerous studies have evaluated the effectiveness of multi-modal psychosocial interventions for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, these programs are limited in that there has not beeti an explicit focus on the connection between fatnily and school. This study was designed to develop and pilot test a family-school ititervention, Family-School Success-Early Elementary (FSS-EE), for kindergarten and first-grade studetits with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Key components of FSS-EE were family-school behavioral consultatioti, daily report cards, and strategies to improve parent-child relationships atid family involvement in educatioti. FSS-EE was developed using a multistep iterative process. The piloted version consisted of 12 weekly sessions including 6 group meetings, 4 individualized family sessions, and 2 school-based consultations. Families participating in the study were given the choice of placing their childreti on medication; 25% of children were on medication at the time of random assignmetit. Childreti ( n = 61) were randomly assigned to FSS-EE or a comparison group controlling for nonspecific treatment effects. Outcomes were assessed at post interventioti and 2-month follow-up. Study findings indicated that FSS-EE was feasible to implement and acceptable to paretits atid teachers. In addition, the findings provided preliminary evidence that FSS-EE is effective in improving parenting practices, child behavior at school, and the student-teacher relationship.

  6. Association of attention-deficit disorder and the dopamine transporter gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, E.H. Jr.; Stein, M.A.; Krasowski, M.D.; Cox, N.J.; Olkon, D.M.; Kieffer, J.E.; Leventhal, B.L. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been shown to be familial and heritable, in previous studies. As with most psychiatric disorders, examination of pedigrees has not revealed a consistent Mendelian mode of transmission. The response of ADHD patients to medications that inhibit the dopamine transporter, including methylphenidate, amphetamine, pemoline, and bupropion, led us to consider the dopamine transporter as a primary candidate gene for ADHD. To avoid effects of population stratification and to avoid the problem of classification of relatives with other psychiatric disorders as affected or unaffected, we used the haplotype-based haplotype relative risk (HHRR) method to test for association between a VNTR polymorphism at the dopamine transporter locus (DAT1) and DSM-III-R-diagnosed ADHD (N = 49) and undifferentiated attention-deficit disorder (UADD) (N = 8) in trios composed of father, mother, and affected offspring. HHRR analysis revealed significant association between ADHS/UADD and the 480-bp DAT1 allele (X{sup 2} 7.51, 1 df, P = .006). When cases of UADD were dropped from the analysis, similar results were found (X{sup 2} 7.29, 1 df, P = .007). If these findings are replicated, molecular analysis of the dopamine transporter gene may identify mutations that increase susceptibility to ADHD/UADD. Biochemical analysis of such mutations may lead to development of more effective therapeutic interventions. 36 refs., 4 tabs.

  7. The prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder following neonatal aortic arch repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sistino, Joseph J; Atz, Andrew M; Simpson, Kit N; Ellis, Charles; Ikonomidis, John S; Bradley, Scott M

    2015-04-01

    We sought to determine the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a population of children who underwent neonatal heart surgery involving repair of the aortic arch for Norwood Stage I, interrupted aortic arch, and combined repair of aortic coarctation with ventricular septal defect. Children between the ages of 5 and 16 were surveyed using the ADHD-IV and the Child Heath Questionnaire-50. Classification as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was defined for this study as either a parent-reported diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder or ADHD-IV inattention score of ⩾93 percentile. Of the 134 surveys, 57 (43%) were returned completed. A total of 25 (44%) children either had a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and/or ADHD-IV inattention score ⩾93 percentile. Eleven of the 13 (85%) children with interrupted aortic arch, 3 of the 7 (42.9%) children with combined coarctation/ventricular septal defect repair, and 9 of the 33 (27.3%) children with hypoplastic left-heart syndrome were classified as having attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Only 7 of the 25 (28%) children received medical treatment for this condition. Quality of life indicators in the Child Heath Questionnaire-50 Questionnaire were highly correlated with the ADHD-IV scores. The risks for the development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder are multifactorial but are significantly increased in this post-surgical population. This study revealed a low treatment rate for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and a significant impact on the quality of life in these children.

  8. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults: diagnostic imperatives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The level of diagnostic confidence can be enhanced via a semi-structured interview, confirming the early onset, longitudinal persistence and multidimensional impairments. Obtaining collateral information to consolidate the retrospective symptomatology is mandatory, since individuals with chronic attentional problems are ...

  9. White matter tract integrity of frontostriatal circuit in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: association with attention performance and symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Huan; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Lo, Yu-Chun; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac

    2014-01-01

    The frontostriatal circuit has been postulated to account for the core symptoms such as inattention in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study investigated the white matter integrity of frontostriatal fiber tracts using diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) tractography and its correlations with measures of multi-dimensional aspects of inattention based on psychiatric interview and attention tasks in 25 children with ADHD and 25 matched typically developing (TD) children. All the subjects were assessed with comprehensive psychiatric interviews and the Conner's Continuous Performance Test (CCPT). DSI data were acquired on a 3-Tesla MRI system. The frontostriatal fiber pathways were reconstructed by deterministic tractography, and generalized fractional anisotropy values were measured along individual targeted tracts to investigate alterations in microstructure integrity. Children with ADHD performed worse than TD children in the dimensions of focused attention, sustained attention, impulsivity, and vigilance of the CCPT, and showed impaired integrity in four bilateral frontostriatal tracts, namely the dorsolateral-caudate, medial prefrontal-caudate, orbitofrontal-caudate, and ventrolateral-caudate tracts, and in global white matter as well. The integrity of the left orbitofronto-caudate tract was associated with the symptom of inattention in children with ADHD, compatible with the attention deficit and motivational dysfunction theories in ADHD. The integrity of the frontostriatal tracts was associated with the attention performance only in TD children, suggestive of possible recruitment of tracts other than the frontostriatal tracts implicated in attention deficits in children with ADHD. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the functional involvement of the frontostriatal circuit with respect to clinical symptoms and attention performance. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Brain activity in predominantly-inattentive subtype attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder during an auditory oddball attention task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orinstein, Alyssa J; Stevens, Michael C

    2014-08-30

    Previous functional neuroimaging studies have found brain activity abnormalities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on numerous cognitive tasks. However, little is known about brain dysfunction unique to the predominantly-inattentive subtype of ADHD (ADHD-I), despite debate as to whether DSM-IV-defined ADHD subtypes differ in etiology. This study compared brain activity of 18 ADHD-I adolescents (ages 12-18) and 20 non-psychiatric age-matched control participants on a functional magnetic resonance image (fMRI) auditory oddball attention task. ADHD-I participants had significant activation deficits to infrequent target stimuli in bilateral superior temporal gyri, bilateral insula, several midline cingulate/medial frontal gyrus regions, right posterior parietal cortex, thalamus, cerebellum, and brainstem. To novel stimuli, ADHD-I participants had reduced activation in bilateral lateral temporal lobe structures. There were no brain regions where ADHD-I participants had greater hemodynamic activity to targets or novels than controls. Brain activity deficits in ADHD-I participants were found in several regions important to attentional orienting and working memory-related cognitive processes involved in target identification. These results differ from those in previously studied adolescents with combined-subtype ADHD, who had a lesser magnitude of activation abnormalities in frontoparietal regions and relatively more discrete regional deficits to novel stimuli. The divergent findings suggest different etiological factors might underlie attention deficits in different DSM-IV-defined ADHD subtypes, and they have important implications for the DSM-V reconceptualization of subtypes as varying clinical presentations of the same core disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Managing childhood and adolescent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with exercise: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Qin Xiang; Ho, Collin Yih Xian; Chan, Hwei Wuen; Yong, Bob Zheng Jie; Yeo, Wee-Song

    2017-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting some 8-10% of children worldwide. Increasing research has shed light on the life course of the disorder, suggesting that majority of children with ADHD will continue to have persistent symptoms into adulthood. The mainstay of ADHD management has been pharmacologic and behavioural/psychological interventions, with little attention paid to exercise as a potential management strategy. A systematic review, examining both the short-term and long-term effects of exercise on children with ADHD, is timely and necessary to guide further research in this area. Using the keywords [exercise OR physical OR activity OR sport] AND [attention deficit hyperactivity disorder OR ADHD OR ADDH], a preliminary search on the PubMed and Ovid database yielded 613 papers published in English between 1-Jan-1980 and 1-July-2016. Full articles were also reviewed for references of interest. A total of 30 studies were included in this systematic review. Both short-term and long-term studies support the clinical benefits of physical activity for individuals with ADHD. Cognitive, behavioural and physical symptoms of ADHD were alleviated in most instances, and the largest intervention effects were reported for mixed exercise programs. No adverse effects arising from physical exercise were reported in any of the studies, suggesting that exercise is a well-tolerated intervention. Physical activity, in particular moderate-to-intense aerobic exercise, is a beneficial and well-tolerated intervention for children and adolescents with ADHD. Future research should include more adequately-powered trials and investigate the ideal exercise prescription. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Attentional-Shaping as a Means to Improve Emotion Perception Deficits in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Combs, Dennis R.; Tosheva, Aneta; Penn, David L.; Basso, Michael R.; Wanner, Jill L.; Laib, Kristen

    2008-01-01

    Inability to recognize emotional expressions of others (emotion perception) is one of the most common impairments observed among individuals with schizophrenia. Such deficits presumably contribute much to the social dysfunction characteristic of schizophrenia. This study examined the efficacy of a novel attentional-shaping intervention to improve emotion perception abilities. Sixty participants with schizophrenia were randomly assigned to one of three intervention conditions: 1) attentional-s...

  13. Attentional set-shifting deficit in Parkinson's disease is associated with prefrontal dysfunction: an FDG-PET study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichi Sawada

    Full Text Available The attentional set-shifting deficit that has been observed in Parkinson's disease (PD has long been considered neuropsychological evidence of the involvement of meso-prefrontal and prefrontal-striatal circuits in cognitive flexibility. However, recent studies have suggested that non-dopaminergic, posterior cortical pathologies may also contribute to this deficit. Although several neuroimaging studies have addressed this issue, the results of these studies were confounded by the use of tasks that required other cognitive processes in addition to set-shifting, such as rule learning and working memory. In this study, we attempted to identify the neural correlates of the attentional set-shifting deficit in PD using a compound letter task and 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG positron emission tomography during rest. Shift cost, which is a measure of attentional set-shifting ability, was significantly correlated with hypometabolism in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, including the putative human frontal eye field. Our results provide direct evidence that dysfunction in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex makes a primary contribution to the attentional set-shifting deficit that has been observed in PD patients.

  14. Current and Investigational Medication Delivery Systems for Treating Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rakesh; Katic, Alain

    2016-08-18

    To review currently available formulations and emphasize unmet needs in the pharmacologic management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Publications and clinical trials were identified through PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov, respectively. A Web-based search identified prescribing information for approved agents for treating ADHD, along with relevant guidelines and diagnostic criteria. The following search terms were used: (1) ADHD or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder or ADD or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and/or (2) amphetamine or methylphenidate or atomoxetine or guanfacine or clonidine. Additional searches were performed using product brand names, and clinical trial was applied as a filter. Relevant studies were only included if published in English-language peer-reviewed journals and if involved agents were currently available (or pursuing approval) in the United States. Reviews of literature prior to 2005 and from 2005 to 2008 have been published previously; therefore, the present search focused on studies published from January 2009 through May 2016. In addition, reference lists of review articles and relevant studies were also examined to help identify additional studies. A total of 578 publications were identified from the PubMed search, from which 426 publications were initially excluded based on review of the title and abstract. Reasons for exclusion included a focus on comorbid disorders, specific subpopulations, endpoints unrelated to improving ADHD symptomatology (eg, executive function, cognition, substance use), or quality of life measures. A more thorough assessment of the remaining citations, including publications and prescribing information, produced the final 219. Pharmacotherapy with stimulant and nonstimulant options is the most common approach for treating ADHD in adults and children. Stimulants are mostly formulated as either tablets or capsules; however, the newer generation includes transdermal patches

  15. Caffeine improves spatial learning deficits in an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) -- the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prediger, Rui D S; Pamplona, Fabrício A; Fernandes, Daniel; Takahashi, Reinaldo N

    2005-12-01

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is generally considered to be a suitable genetic model for the study of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), since it displays hyperactivity, impulsivity, poorly sustained attention, and deficits in learning and memory processes. Converging evidence suggests a primary role of disturbance in the dopaminergic neurotransmission in ADHD patients and in SHR, and in addition, some studies have also demonstrated alterations in adenosinergic neurotransmission in SHR. In the present study, adult female Wistar (WIS) and SHR rats received caffeine (1-10 mg/kg i.p.) 30 min before training, immediately after training, or 30 min before a test session in the spatial version of the Morris water maze. The effect of caffeine administration on WIS and SHR blood pressure was also measured. SHR needed significantly more trials in the training session to acquire the spatial information, but they displayed a similar profile to that of WIS rats in the test session (48 h later), demonstrating a selective deficit in spatial learning. Pre-training administration of caffeine (1-10 mg/kg i.p.) improved this spatial learning deficit in SHR, but did not alter the WIS performance. In contrast, post-training administration of caffeine (3 mg/kg i.p.) did not alter the SHR test performance, but increased memory retention in WIS rats. No dose of caffeine tested altered the mean blood pressure of WIS or SHR. These results demonstrate a selective spatial learning deficit in SHR which can be attenuated by pre-training administration of caffeine. In addition, the present findings indicate that the spatial learning deficit in SHR is not directly related to hypertension.

  16. Use of complementary medicine in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross-Tsur, Varda; Lahad, Amnon; Shalev, Ruth S

    2003-07-01

    We retrospectively studied use of complementary medicine in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, epilepsy, and controls. Parents of patients with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (n = 120; mean age 11.0 +/- 3.1 years), epilepsy (n = 115; 10.9 +/- 5.5), and healthy children seen in the emergency room during an acute illness (n = 115; 5.0 +/- 4.9) were individually interviewed regarding past and present use of complementary medicine. We found that 34 children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, 37 with epilepsy, and 24 controls had, at some time during their life, received complementary medicine: diet (n = 50), homeopathy (n = 46), acupuncture (n = 23), and biofeedback (n = 9). Current use was significantly less: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder- 7.5%, epilepsy-14%, and controls-7%. No differences among groups were found for either past use or method of complementary medicine employed. However, the most significant predictor for current use of complementary medicine was past use (OR 3.2, P epilepsy (OR = 1.7) and children from religious families (OR = 1.51) to be currently receiving complementary medicine. In summary, only a small minority of patients with either Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder or epilepsy used complementary medicine as part of their current medical regimen, although during their lifetime a third had received complementary medicine. Complementary medicine was more consistently used in children who had previously received complementary medicine, regardless of their medical diagnosis.

  17. Effects of methylphenidate on attentional set-shifting in a genetic model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ai-hua; Yu, Lin; Wang, Yu-wei; Wang, Jun-mei; Yang, Le-jin; Lei, Ge-Fei

    2012-02-28

    Although deficits of attentional set-shifting have been reported in individuals with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), it is rarely examined in animal models. This study compared spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs; a genetic animal model of ADHD) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (normoactive control strains), on attentional set-shifting task (ASST) performance. Furthermore, the dose-effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on attentional set-shifting of SHR were investigated. In experiment 1, ASST procedures were conducted in SHR, WKY and SD rats of 8 each at the age of 5 weeks. Mean latencies at the initial phase, error types and numbers, and trials to criteria at each stage were recorded. In experiment 2, 24 SHR rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups of 8 each-- MPH-L (lower dose), MPH-H (higher dose), and SHR-vehicle groups. From 3 weeks, they were administered 2.5 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg MPH or saline respectively for 14 consecutive days. All rats were tested in the ASST at the age of 5 weeks. The SHRs generally exhibited poorer performance on ASST than the control WKY and SD rats. Significant strain effects on mean latency [F (2, 21) = 639.636, p attentional set-shifting. Our study provides evidence that MPH may improve the SHR's performance on attentional set-shifting and lower dose is more effective than higher dose.

  18. Gastrointestinal adverse events during methylphenidate treatment of children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmskov, Mathilde; Storebø, Ole Jakob; Moreira-Maia, Carlos R

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study in more depth the relationship between type, dose, or duration of methylphenidate offered to children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and their risks of gastrointestinal adverse events based on our Cochrane systematic review. METHODS AND FINDINGS......: We use data from our review including 185 randomised clinical trials. Randomised parallel-group trials and cross-over trials reporting gastrointestinal adverse events associated with methylphenidate were included. Data were extracted and quality assessed according to Cochrane guidelines. Data were...... summarised as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using the inverse variance method. Bias risks were assessed according to domains. Trial Sequential Analysis (TSA) was used to control random errors. Eighteen parallel group trials and 43 cross-over trials reported gastrointestinal adverse...

  19. [Atomoxetine and piracetam in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavadenko, N N; Suvorinova, N Iu

    2008-01-01

    Therapeutic effect of atomoxetine and piracetam has been assessed in the open controlled study included 42 patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), aged from 6 to 13 years. Group 1 (16 patients) received atomoxetine (strattera) in daily dosage 0,8-1,2 mg/kg as a monotherapy for 6 weeks. Patients of group 2 (14 children) received piracetam as a monotherapy in daily dosage 50-70 mg/kg for 6 weeks. No pharmacological therapy was conducted in group 3 (a control one) which included 12 patients with ADHD. The high effectiveness of both atomoxetine and piracetam has been shown. However, comparing to piracetam, the therapeutic effect of atomoxetine was reached earlier (two weeks after the beginning of therapy) and was more pronounced for all components of syndromes.

  20. Review of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder comorbid with oppositional defiant disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazell, Philip

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to conduct a practitioner review of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) co-occurring with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) encompassing aetiological factors, associated factors, assessment, treatment and prognosis. ADHD and ODD have both shared and unique genetic influences. Persistence of ADHD and ODD in adolescence is linked with an increased risk of delinquent behaviour, substance dependence, anxiety, depression, and possibly bipolar disorder. The diagnostic work up for ADHD must include screening for ODD, which may be achieved through targeted questioning or the use of standard symptom checklists. Treatment requires management of the core symptoms of ADHD plus, in many cases, augmentation with other treatment to address the ODD. Mild cases may respond to behaviour management alone, or monotherapy with stimulant medication or atomoxetine. Moderate to severe cases usually require a combination of pharmacotherapy, which may include clonidine, and behaviour management. Severe or refractory cases may require the introduction of an atypical antipsychotic such as risperidone.

  1. Evaluation of Knowledge and Attitude of Parents of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Children towards Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Clinical Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Dodangi, Nasrin; Vameghi, Roshanak; Habibi, Nastaran

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Knowledge and attitude of parents about attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an important factor in management of the disorder in children. This study investigates the parents’ knowledge and attitude towards ADHD, its symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.Method: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, the subjects were 150 parents (120 mother and 30 father) of ADHD children who were referred to a child psychiatry clinic affiliated in university of social we...

  2. Overweight in children and adolescents in relation to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: results from a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Molly E; Lapane, Kate L

    2008-07-01

    As the prevalence of childhood obesity increases, identifying groups of children who are at increased risk of overweight is important. The current study estimated the prevalence of overweight in children and adolescents in relation to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and medication use. This study was a cross-sectional analysis of 62 887 children and adolescents aged 5 to 17 years from the 2003-2004 National Survey of Children's Health, a nationally representative sample of children and adolescents in the United States. Attention-deficit disorder/attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was determined by response to the question "Has a doctor or health professional ever told you that your child has attention-deficit disorder or attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder, that is, ADD or ADHD?" Children and adolescents were classified as underweight, normal weight, at risk of overweight, or overweight according to BMI for age and gender. After adjustment for age, gender, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and depression/anxiety, children and adolescents with attention-deficit disorder/attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder not currently using medication had approximately 1.5 times the odds of being overweight, and children and adolescents currently medicated for attention-deficit disorder/attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder had approximately 1.6 times the odds of being underweight compared with children and adolescents without either diagnosis. This study provides heightened awareness for pediatric providers about the relationship between attention-deficit disorder/attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, medication use, and weight status. Future work is needed to better understand the longitudinal and pharmacologic factors that influence the relationship between attention-deficit disorder/attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and weight status in children and adolescents.

  3. Creative thinking in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Anna; Windmann, Sabine; Siefen, Rainer; Daum, Irene; Güntürkün, Onur

    2006-04-01

    A widened attentional focus, that is typically associated with ADHD, has been postulated to be accompanied by enhanced creative ability. However, creativity has been only limitedly examined in ADHD. Performance across several creativity measures were investigated in three groups: adolescents with ADHD, those with conduct disorder, and a healthy control sample. The ADHD group exhibited selective cognitive advantages and disadvantages by demonstrating an enhanced ability in overcoming the constraining influence of examples, but a reduced capacity to generate a functional invention during an imagery task. These findings are interpreted with reference to inhibitory control mechanisms and the contextual modulation of creative cognition.

  4. An iPad-Based Tool for Improving the Skills of Children with Attention Deficit Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Wrońska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, with a worldwide prevalence of 5.29%–7.1%, is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders among children and adolescents. Apart from typical symptoms like inattention, hyperactivity and impulsiveness, patients also evidence attention deficit problems with reading comprehension. This in turn causes poor school performance and widens the gap with peers without ADHD. This paper presents a novel and interactive tool based on Serious Games for Health, whose aim is not only to improve comprehension, but also hold the user’s attention. This tool is geared towards assessing reading quality and is intended for iPad devices. Preliminary results obtained from the experiment performed to evaluate the game are included in this report. A group of six typically developing children from Colegio Vizcaya aged between 8 and 12 took part in the evaluation of motivation, satisfaction and usability of the same therapy in the new media. Results obtained by participants playing the game were analysed together with questionnaires concerning the usability of the system. Game evaluation resulted in relatively good statistics-average score was 3 points out of 4 and average time for completing the exercise was 59 seconds. A SUS questionnaire with an average score of 92.75 out of 100 indicates that the game presented is user-friendly and an effective tool. Moreover, based on the feedback obtained from participants, the game had been improved and additional functionality introduced. Older participants completed the first game faster than the younger ones, but age was not influential in subsequent games.

  5. An iPad-Based Tool for Improving the Skills of Children with Attention Deficit Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrońska, Natalia; Garcia-Zapirain, Begonya; Mendez-Zorrilla, Amaia

    2015-06-02

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), with a worldwide prevalence of 5.29%-7.1%, is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders among children and adolescents. Apart from typical symptoms like inattention, hyperactivity and impulsiveness, patients also evidence attention deficit problems with reading comprehension. This in turn causes poor school performance and widens the gap with peers without ADHD. This paper presents a novel and interactive tool based on Serious Games for Health, whose aim is not only to improve comprehension, but also hold the user's attention. This tool is geared towards assessing reading quality and is intended for iPad devices. Preliminary results obtained from the experiment performed to evaluate the game are included in this report. A group of six typically developing children from Colegio Vizcaya aged between 8 and 12 took part in the evaluation of motivation, satisfaction and usability of the same therapy in the new media. Results obtained by participants playing the game were analysed together with questionnaires concerning the usability of the system. Game evaluation resulted in relatively good statistics-average score was 3 points out of 4 and average time for completing the exercise was 59 seconds. A SUS questionnaire with an average score of 92.75 out of 100 indicates that the game presented is user-friendly and an effective tool. Moreover, based on the feedback obtained from participants, the game had been improved and additional functionality introduced. Older participants completed the first game faster than the younger ones, but age was not influential in subsequent games.

  6. Associations Between Core Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Both Binge and Restrictive Eating

    OpenAIRE

    Panagiota Kaisari; Colin T. Dourish; Pia Rotshtein; Suzanne Higgs

    2018-01-01

    IntroductionIt is unclear whether core symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) relate to specific types of disordered eating and little is known about the mediating mechanisms. We investigated associations between core symptoms of ADHD and binge/disinhibited eating and restrictive eating behavior and assessed whether negative mood and/or deficits in awareness and reliance on internal hunger/satiety cues mediate these relationships.MethodsIn two independent studies, we used...

  7. Methylphenidate Normalizes Frontocingulate Underactivation During Error Processing in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Rubia, Katya; Halari, Rozmin; Mohammad, Abdul-Majeed; Taylor, Eric; Brammer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have deficits in performance monitoring often improved with the indirect catecholamine agonist methylphenidate (MPH). We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the effects of single-dose MPH on activation of error processing brain areas in medication-naive boys with ADHD during a stop task that elicits 50% error rates. Methods Twelve medication-naive boys with ADHD were scanned twice, under either a si...

  8. Psychological compensation in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder - application of a theoretical framework

    OpenAIRE

    Merkt, Anne Christine Julia (Dr.)

    2014-01-01

    The term compensation is widely used in every-day language, in psychological research, and also discussed in the context of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, few studies have looked at psychological compensation in ADHD systematically and theory based. Compensation can be inferred if a deficit (i.e., a mismatch between skill and environmental demand) is counterbalanced by the investment of more effort, the utilization of latent or the acquisition of new skills. Based o...

  9. Predicting Substance Abuse from Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaber Alizadeh G

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study is aimed to predict substance abuse from child and adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms. Method: To this purpose 361 students were selected via stratified random sampling from different faculties of Tabriz University and completed Canners Adult ADHD Rating scale-self report Form & Subscale Questionnaire, Wender Utah Rating Scale, Addiction Acknowledgment Scale & Mac Andrew Alcoholism-Revised Scale. Findings: To analyze the data Pearson correlation and multiple regressions (step by step were used. Results indicated that there is significant relation between addiction acknowledgment and alcoholism via child and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms. Also, results indicated that child and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms predicted addiction acknowledgment and alcoholism. Conclusion: According to this results these can be explained that behavioral disorders, especially ADHD have effect in tendency to drug and therefore primary treatments of behavioral disorders can prevent drug abuse.

  10. Living with a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugesen, Britt; Lauritsen, Marlene Briciet; Jørgensen, Rikke; Sørensen, Erik Elgaard; Rasmussen, Philippa; Grønkjær, Mette

    2016-12-01

    This systematic review is aimed to identify and synthesize the best available evidence on parenting experiences of living with a child with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, including their experiences of healthcare and other services. A meta-synthesis was conducted following the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) guidelines. Qualitative research articles were considered for inclusion in the review and the meta-aggregative approach to synthesizing qualitative evidence from JBI was followed. An extensive search for relevant literature was undertaken in scientific databases. Data were extracted from the included research articles, and qualitative research findings were pooled using the Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument. This involved categorization of findings on the basis of similarity of meaning and aggregation of these categories to produce a comprehensive set of synthesized findings. A total of 21 research articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. The review process resulted in 129 study findings that were aggregated into 15 categories. The categories generated six synthesized findings: an emotional roller coaster between hope and hopelessness; mothers as advocates in a battlefield within the system and family; parental experiences in a crossfire of blame, self-blame, and stigmatization; shuttling between supportive and nonsupportive services and professionals; routines, structures and strategies within everyday life; and despite multiple challenges, it is not all bad. The findings illustrate the complexity of parental experiences that are influenced by guilt, hope, blame, stigmatization, exhaustion, reconciliation, and professional collaboration. The findings address the impact that attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder has on everyday family life, and how parents seem to adapt to their life situation in the process of accepting their child's disorder.

  11. [Therapeutic efficacy of nootropil different doses in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavadenko, N N; Suvorinova, S Iu

    2004-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most common cause of behavioral and learning problems in childhood. Therapeutic efficiency of nootropil (piracetam) in two different doses has been evaluated in the open control study of 80 children with ADHD, 70 boys and 10 girls, aged 6-11 years, being divided into 3 groups. Two groups received nootropil, as a monotherapy, for a month: 1st group (30 patients)--in the dosage of 70 mg/kg daily and 2nd group (30 patients)--40 mg/kg daily orally. The control group of 20 patients did not receive any treatment. All children were examined twice with one month interval. A procedure of assessment included of structured questionnaire to parents, neurological examination with scored evaluation of subtle signs and psychological testing. Nootropil therapy in ADHD children resulted in the improvement of behavioral characteristics, motor coordination as well as continuous, selective and divided attention. A response rate was 60% in patients received 70 mg/kg of nootropil and 43% for nootropil dosage of 40 mg/kg. The results of the study suggest more considerable positive therapeutic effects of nootropil higher dose on behavioral, motor and attention characteristics in children with ADHD.

  12. Neurofeedback as an Intervention to Improve Reading Achievement in Students with Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Inattentive Subtype

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca, Jeffry P.; O'Connor, Rollanda E.

    2016-01-01

    Research consistently demonstrates that attention deficits have a deleterious effect on academic achievement. Impairments in attention, and not hyperactivity/impulsivity, are associated with learning difficulties and academic problems in students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To date, most studies have focused on symptoms…

  13. Disrupted functional connectivity of cerebellar default network areas in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucyi, Aaron; Hove, Michael J; Biederman, Joseph; Van Dijk, Koene R A; Valera, Eve M

    2015-09-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is increasingly understood as a disorder of spontaneous brain-network interactions. The default mode network (DMN), implicated in ADHD-linked behaviors including mind-wandering and attentional fluctuations, has been shown to exhibit abnormal spontaneous functional connectivity (FC) within-network and with other networks (salience, dorsal attention and frontoparietal) in ADHD. Although the cerebellum has been implicated in the pathophysiology of ADHD, it remains unknown whether cerebellar areas of the DMN (CerDMN) exhibit altered FC with cortical networks in ADHD. Here, 23 adults with ADHD and 23 age-, IQ-, and sex-matched controls underwent resting state fMRI. The mean time series of CerDMN areas was extracted, and FC with the whole brain was calculated. Whole-brain between-group differences in FC were assessed. Additionally, relationships between inattention and individual differences in FC were assessed for between-group interactions. In ADHD, CerDMN areas showed positive FC (in contrast to average FC in the negative direction in controls) with widespread regions of salience, dorsal attention and sensorimotor networks. ADHD individuals also exhibited higher FC (more positive correlation) of CerDMN areas with frontoparietal and visual network regions. Within the control group, but not in ADHD, participants with higher inattention had higher FC between CerDMN and regions in the visual and dorsal attention networks. This work provides novel evidence of impaired CerDMN coupling with cortical networks in ADHD and highlights a role of cerebro-cerebellar interactions in cognitive function. These data provide support for the potential targeting of CerDMN areas for therapeutic interventions in ADHD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Ipsilesional deficit of selective attention in left homonymous hemianopia and left unilateral spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokron, Sylvie; Peyrin, Carole; Perez, Céline

    2018-03-15

    Patients with homonymous hemianopia may present a subtle ipsilesional deficit, recently referred to as 'sightblindness' in addition to the contralesional visual field defect. We recently demonstrated that this deficit could be worse in right brain-damaged patients with left hemianopia than in left brain-damaged patients with right hemianopia, confirming right hemisphere dominance for visuo-spatial and attentional capacities. In the present study we investigate whether this ipsilesional deficit could be attentional in nature and to what extent it is comparable in right brain-damaged (RBD) patients with left hemianopia and in RBD patients with left neglect. The study was also conducted in RBD patients with neither left hemianopia nor left neglect signs in order to test if a right hemisphere lesion per se could be responsible for subtle ipsilesional attentional deficit. To reach this aim, we tested selective attentional capacities in both visual fields of 10 right brain-damaged patients with left neglect (LN), 8 right brain-damaged patients with left homonymous hemianopia (LHH), 8 right brain-damaged patients with no signs of left neglect or left hemianopia (RBD controls), and 17 healthy age-matched participants (Normal controls). A lateralized letter-detection task was used to test if right-brain damaged patients with LN or LH may present a deficit of selective attention in their right, ipsilesional visual field, in comparison to Normal and RBD controls. Participants were asked to detect a target letter in either a single large stimulus (low attentional load) or a small stimulus surrounded by flankers (high attentional load). Stimuli were displayed either in the left or in the right visual field. Accuracy and reaction times were recorded. Results on accuracy showed that both LN and LH patients exhibited lower correct responses than Normal controls in their ipsilesional right visual field, suggesting an attentional deficit in their ipsilesional, supposed healthy

  15. Positive association between attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder medication use and academic achievement during elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Richard M; Brown, Timothy T; Fulton, Brent D; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Levine, Peter; Stone, Susan

    2009-05-01

    Approximately 4.4 million (7.8%) children in the United States have been diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and 56% of affected children take prescription medications to treat the disorder. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is strongly linked with low academic achievement, but the association between medication use and academic achievement in school settings is largely unknown. Our objective was to determine if reported medication use for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is positively associated with academic achievement during elementary school. To estimate the association between reported medication use and standardized mathematics and reading achievement scores for a US sample of 594 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, we used 5 survey waves between kindergarten and fifth grade from the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 to estimate a first-differenced regression model, which controlled for time-invariant confounding variables. Medicated children had a mean mathematics score that was 2.9 points higher than the mean score of unmedicated peers with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Children who were medicated for a longer duration (at >2 waves) had a mean reading score that was 5.4 points higher than the mean score of unmedicated peers with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The medication-reading association was lower for children who had an individualized education program than for those without such educational accommodation. The finding of a positive association between medication use and standardized mathematics and reading test scores is important, given the high prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and its association with low academic achievement. The 2.9-point mathematics and 5.4-point reading score differences are comparable with score gains of 0.19 and 0.29 school years, respectively, but these gains are

  16. Parental rating of sleep in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvolby, Allan; Jørgensen, Jan; Bilenberg, Niels

    2009-01-01

    parents. The ADHD group report problems with bedtime resistance, problems with sleep onset latency, unsettled sleep and nightmares more often than the control groups. It may therefore be relevant for clinicians to initiate a closer examination of those cases reporting sleep difficulties.......OBJECTIVE: Sleep problems have often been associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Parents of those with ADHD and children with ADHD report sleep difficulties more frequently than healthy children and their parents. The primary objective of this paper is to describe sleep...... patterns and problems of 5 to 11-year-old children suffering from ADHD as described by parental reports and sleep questionnaires. METHOD: The study included 321 children aged 5-11 years (average age 8.4 years); 45 were diagnosed with ADHD, 64 had other psychiatric diagnoses, and 212 were healthy. One...

  17. Maternal Depression Predicts Maternal Use of Corporal Punishment in Children with Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose We sought to determine if maternal depression contributed to the use of corporal punishment in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Patients and Methods The data were gathered through chart review of clinic-referred children with ADHD and their mothers who were evaluated at a psychiatric clinic located in a large academic medical center in Seoul, Korea. Daily records kept by parents and 13 items from the Physical Assault of the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales (CTSPC) were used to assess corporal punishment. Ninety-one children with ADHD and their mothers were included in this study. Results Mothers who used corporal punishment showed significantly higher scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (t = - 2.952, df = 89, p corporal punishment in ADHD children (Nagelkerke R2 = 0.102, p corporal punishment with children with ADHD. Assessment and management of the maternal depression should be an important focus of evaluation of children with ADHD. PMID:18729299

  18. Rethinking Intelligence Quotient Exclusion Criteria Practices in the Study of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Genevieve B.; Wonders, Elif

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with lower than average intelligence quotient (IQ) scores. However, research done on this disorder often excludes participants based on lower than average IQ’s (i.e., between 70 and 85). The purpose of this paper is to alert researchers to the consequences of excluding participants based on IQ’s within this range and to highlight the importance of providing a clear rationale when choosing to exclude participants based on IQ. Next, we offer recommendations for researching ADHD and their relative benefits and drawbacks of these approaches. Overall this paper emphasizes that including participants who have lower than average IQ in research on ADHD may promote a more realistic understanding of the condition and in turn improve our ability to treat it. PMID:27303350

  19. [Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders: diagnosis and pharmacological treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paslakis, G; Schredl, M; Alm, B; Sobanski, E

    2013-08-01

    Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterised by inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity and is a frequent psychiatric disorder with childhood onset. In addition to core symptoms, patients often experience associated symptoms like emotional dysregulation or low self-esteem and suffer from comorbid disorders, particularly depressive episodes, substance abuse, anxiety or sleep disorders. It is recommended to include associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders in the diagnostic set-up and in the treatment plan. Comorbid psychiatric disorders should be addressed with disorder-specific therapies while associated symptoms also often improve with treatment of the ADHD core symptoms. The most impairing psychiatric disorder should be treated first. This review presents recommendations for differential diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD with associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders with respect to internationally published guidelines, clinical trials and expert opinions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. The Association Between Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Abigail Emma; Ford, Tamsin; Williams, Rebecca; Russell, Ginny

    2016-06-01

    This systematic review examines associations between parental socioeconomic disadvantage and childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured by parental income, education, occupation and marital status. Results were mixed by measure of SES with no one aspect being differentially related to ADHD. 42 studies were included in the review, of which 35 found a significant univariate association between socioeconomic disadvantage and ADHD. Meta-analyses of dimensions of SES and their association with ADHD indicate that children in families of low SES are on average 1.85-2.21 more likely to have ADHD than their peers in high SES families. In spite of substantial between-study heterogeneity, there is evidence for an association between socioeconomic disadvantage and risk of ADHD measured in different ways. This is likely mediated by factors linked to low SES such as parental mental health and maternal smoking during pregnancy.

  1. Prevention of serious conduct problems in youth with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villodas, Miguel T; Pfiffner, Linda J; McBurnett, Keith

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss issues in the prevention of serious conduct problems among children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The authors began by reviewing research on the common genetic and environmental etiological factors, developmental trajectories, characteristics and impairments associated with ADHD and comorbid oppositional defiant and conduct disorders. Next, the authors presented empirically based models for intervention with children and adolescents with ADHD that are at risk of developing serious conduct problems and detailed the evidence supporting these models. Researchers have demonstrated the utility of medication and psychosocial intervention approaches to treat youth with these problems, but current evidence appears to support the superiority of multimodal treatments that include both approaches. Future directions for researchers are discussed.

  2. Adaptation of Vanderbilt Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Diagnostic Parent Scale in Turkish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tüba KÜÇÜK DOĞAROĞLU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to adaptation of Vanderbilt Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder Diagnostic Parent Rating Scale (Vanderbilt ADHD PRS to Turkish. This study was done 343 mother whose children with DEHB and 7 – 9 years old. Gender of mothers’ children is 132 girls and 211 boys. Age of children is that 82 children are 7 years old, 141 children are 8 years old and 120 children are 9 years old. Datas are gathering by Vanderbilt ADHD PRS and data form. Validity and reliability of scale was examined exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach Alpha. Results reveal that adaptation of Vanderbilt ADHD PRS to Turkish included 45 items which had 4 factors (inattention / hyperactivity / oppositional and conduct disorder / depression – anxiety. Results indicated that adaptation of Vanderbilt ADHD PRS to Turkish is valid and reliable scale

  3. Maternal depression predicts maternal use of corporal punishment in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong-Won; Stein, Mark A

    2008-08-30

    We sought to determine if maternal depression contributed to the use of corporal punishment in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The data were gathered through chart review of clinic-referred children with ADHD and their mothers who were evaluated at a psychiatric clinic located in a large academic medical center in Seoul, Korea. Daily records kept by parents and 13 items from the Physical Assault of the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales (CTSPC) were used to assess corporal punishment. Ninety-one children with ADHD and their mothers were included in this study. Mothers who used corporal punishment showed significantly higher scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (t = -2.952, df = 89, p corporal punishment in ADHD children (Nagelkerke R2 = 0.102, p corporal punishment with children with ADHD. Assessment and management of the maternal depression should be an important focus of evaluation of children with ADHD.

  4. Methylphenidate for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Krogh, Helle; Ramstad, Erica

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is methylphenidate beneficial or harmful for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents? METHODS: Electronic databases were searched up to February 2015 for parallel and crossover randomised clinical trials comparing methylphenidate...... with placebo or no intervention in children and adolescents with ADHD. Meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses (TSA) were conducted. Quality was assessed using GRADE. Teachers, parents, and observers rated ADHD symptoms and general behaviour. STUDY ANSWER AND LIMITATIONS: The analyses included 38 parallel......) -0.77, n=1698), corresponding to a mean difference of -9.6 points on the ADHD rating scale. There was no evidence that methylphenidate was associated with an increase in serious adverse events (risk ratio 0.98, nine trials, n=1532; TSA adjusted intervention effect RR 0.91). Methylphenidate...

  5. TOP TEN RESEARCH PRIORITIES FOR ATTENTION DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER TREATMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Stella; Östlund, Pernilla; Wallgren, Lena; Österberg, Marie; Tranæus, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this project was to identify the ten most important research questions for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment as identified by people with ADHD together with personnel involved in the treatment of ADHD in school, health, and correction services. A working group consisting of consumers and personnel was established. The method for prioritization was primarily based on James Lind Alliance's guidebook, consisting of an interim priority setting exercise and a workshop. The top ten list includes the risk of drug dependency later in life when treated with methylphenidate as a child, teacher support, multimodal therapy, comparisons between atomoxetine and methylphenidate, methylphenidate treatment in substance abusers, parental support programmes, supported conversation, computer-aided working memory training, psychoeducative treatment, and melatonin. We have shown that consumers and personnel can reach consensus on research priorities for treatments for ADHD. We encourage researchers and funders to consider the list for future studies.

  6. A Review of Pharmacological Management of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briars, Leslie; Todd, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychological diagnosis in children. This disorder impacts children and adolescents in all areas of life, including academic performance, extracurricular activities, and social interactions. ADHD can continue into adulthood where unemployment and substance abuse has been described. Although behavioral therapy is recommended for all patients with ADHD, medication management typically is initiated soon after diagnosis. Psychostimulants remain the primary medication of choice. This review focuses on the clinical use of psychostimulant medication in children and adolescents. The pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic differences between the newest long-acting formulations as well as commonly encountered adverse drug reactions, with suggested management strategies, will be highlighted. Non-stimulant therapy with atomoxetine or alpha2-adrenergic agonists is also reviewed. These agents may be warranted for patients who cannot tolerate psychostimulant therapy or have a comorbid condition. Finally, the 8-year multimodal treatment study results are also discussed.

  7. Psychotherapy in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: implications for treatment and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipsen, Alexandra

    2012-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a risk factor for co-occurring psychiatric disorders and negative psychosocial consequences in adulthood. Previous trials of psychotherapeutic programs for adult ADHD were based on cognitive behavioral psychotherapeutic approaches and showed significant effects. Targets of psychotherapeutic interventions include not only coping with the core symptoms and associated problems such as depression and anxiety, but also probable consequences such as low self-esteem. Improvements in ADHD symptomatology and associated symptoms have been reported after psychotherapeutic treatment. The support of other participants is strongly regarded as helpful by patients in group therapy. This manuscript provides an overview of psychotherapy approaches and results of studies evaluating programs developed to treat adults with ADHD. Finally, the specific requirements of psychotherapy for adult ADHD as well as further research questions will be discussed.

  8. The efficacy, safety, and practicality of treatments for adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B H; Waschbusch, D A; Willoughby, M T; Evans, S

    2000-12-01

    Studies examining interventions for adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were reviewed to evaluate their efficacy. These efficacy findings were supplemented with a preliminary system for judging safety and practicality. Results suggest that the stimulant drug methylphenidate (MPH) is safe and well-established empirically, but has some problems with inconvenience and noncompliance. Preliminary research supports the efficacy, safety, and practicality of some psychotherapeutic interventions, including behavioral classroom interventions, note-taking training, and family therapy. Treatment with tricyclic antidepressants was judged to have minimal empirical support and debatable safety. Very little is known about long-term effectiveness of treatments, long-term compliance, or multimodal treatments for adolescents such as stimulants plus behavior therapy.

  9. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder on YouTube: Framing, Anchoring, and Objectification in Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seok; Ha, Jae-Sik; Velasco, Teresa

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated videos about Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on YouTube in terms of issues, sources, and episodic-thematic aspects. A total of 685 videos uploaded onto YouTube between 2006 and 2014 were content analyzed. Results demonstrated that the top three key issues about ADHD were symptom, child, and treatment. Doctor, patient, and supporter were the three most interviewed sources. Videos from the public sector including the government, company representative, and public organizations were relatively rare compared to other sources suggesting the potential for a greater role for the government and public sector contributions to YouTube to provide credible information relevant to public awareness, campaigns, and policy announcements. Meanwhile, many personal videos in the episodic frame advocated social solutions. This result implies that YouTube videos about health information from the private sectors have the potential to affect change at the social level.

  10. Rethinking Intelligence Quotient Exclusion Criteria Practices in the Study of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Brooke Mackenzie

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is associated with lower than average intelligence quotient (IQ scores. However, research done on this disorder often excludes participants based on lower than average IQ’s (i.e. between 70 and 85. The purpose of this paper is to alert researchers to the consequences of excluding participants based on IQ’s within this range and to highlight the importance of providing a clear rationale when choosing to exclude participants based on IQ. Next, we offer recommendations for researching ADHD and their relative benefits and drawbacks of these approaches. Overall this paper emphasizes that including participants who have lower than average IQ in research on ADHD may promote a more realistic understanding of the condition and in turn improve our ability to treat it.

  11. Early childhood temperament in pediatric bipolar disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Amy E; Schenkel, Lindsay S; Pavuluri, Mani N

    2008-04-01

    Recent theories suggest that children with pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) may exhibit more difficult temperaments premorbidly, including traits such as behavioral disinhibition and difficulty with emotion regulation. We investigated temperament characteristics retrospectively during infancy and toddlerhood in subjects with PBD (n=25), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n=25), and healthy controls (n=25). Children with PBD were reported to experience increased difficult temperament in both infancy and toddlerhood compared to children with ADHD. Several characteristics of difficult temperament were associated with residual symptoms of mania and depression. Difficult premorbid temperament characteristics may be a specific indicator of a bipolar diathesis, or might signal underlying dysfunction in affective processes that significantly increase risk for a mood disorder.

  12. Review of Omega-3 Fatty Acids for the Treatment of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie N. Brown

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To review the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Data Souces Literature was accessed via MEDLINE (1950–February 2009 and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1960–2009 using the medical subject heading terms omega-3 fatty acids and attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. Additional references were found by searching bibliographic references of resulting citations. Study Selection and Data Extraction All English-language, placebo controlled publications identified were analyzed for significance. Studies relevant to the objective were used, including eight studies evaluating the use of omega-3 fatty acid in the treatment of children with symptoms of ADHD. Data Synthesis Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation has been found to have variable efficacy in the treatment of patients with ADHD. Of the eight studies evaluated, three demonstrated no significant improvements in any evaluation criteria, with five studies reporting positive effects in at least one outcome measure. All positive efficacy studies included concomitant supplementation with omega-6 fatty acids. No clinically significant adverse effects were identified in the reviewed studies. Conclusions Based on the available data, current fatty acid supplementation techniques do not appear to be a consistant method of controlling ADHD symptoms. Without better evidence to determine the true value of fatty acids in the treatment of ADHD, omega-3 fatty acid use should be isolated to adjuvant supplementation or used in patients unable or unwilling to take stimulant medications. If recommended, there does not appear to be clinically significant adverse events associated with omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and this would be a safe treatment modality.

  13. Melatonin treatment for insomnia in pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendz, Lisa M; Scates, Ann C

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of melatonin for the treatment of insomnia in pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Literature was accessed through MEDLINE (1948-August 2009), EMBASE (1950-August 2009), and Scopus (1960-August 2009) using the terms melatonin, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), pediatric, insomnia, sleep disorder, and sleep. In addition, reference citations from publications identified were reviewed for relevant information. All English-language articles and human studies were identified and evaluated. Results from all identified randomized trials (n = 5), safety studies (n = 1), long-term follow-up studies (n = 1), post hoc retrospective analyses (n = 1), meta-analyses (n = 2), review articles (n = 9), and letters (n = 1) were summarized. Pediatric insomnia is prevalent in children with ADHD and impacts academic performance, social functioning, overall health, and family life. First-line therapy includes ruling out differential diagnoses, optimizing ADHD stimulant treatment, and initiating good sleep hygiene and behavioral therapy. Adjuvant pharmacotherapy is then an option and melatonin is often prescribed. Melatonin regulates circadian rhythm sleep disorders such as sleep-onset insomnia (SOI) in children with ADHD. Four studies in children with ADHD and insomnia showed improvement in sleep onset and sleep latency. Studies included children 6-14 years old and melatonin doses ranged from 3 to 6 mg administered within a few hours of a scheduled bedtime. In all studies, adverse events were transient and mild. The available melatonin studies are limited by small size and short duration; variable SOI criteria, ADHD criteria, and treatment assessments; and lack of generalizability. Available data suggest that melatonin is a well-tolerated and efficacious treatment option for pediatric patients with chronic SOI and ADHD. Regulated melatonin products and larger, well-designed trials to establish optimal

  14. Comorbidity of Adult Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder in Bipolar and Unipolar Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmanci, Hatice; Çam Çelikel, Feryal; Etikan, İlker

    2016-09-01

    The co-occurrence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in affective disorder patients is considerably high. The aims of the present study were to search for the frequency and impact of ADHD co-occurrence on the clinical features of affective disorders and to examine the relationship between the dominant affective temperaments and ADHD. In total, 100 patients with bipolar disorder (BD), 100 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), and 100 healthy controls (HC) were included. All diagnoses were assigned according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. The Adult Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Self-Report Scale (ASRS); Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS); and Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) were applied to all participants. The percentage of BD patients meeting the criteria for a diagnosis of current ADHD was 48% compared with the percentage of MDD patients and HCC subjects, i.e., 25% and 12%, respectively. ADHD was significantly more frequent in bipolar adults than in not only HC but also depressive patients. In the BD group, patients with a comorbid ADHD diagnosis had significantly more suicidal history than those without ADHD. The scores of the temperament traits, namely depressive, cyclothymic, irritable, and anxious, were significantly higher in subjects with ADHD in all groups, including in HC. The most important findings of the present study were the observations that (1) the frequency of ADHD is considerably high among bipolar patients; (2) the frequency of suicide attempts is high in the bipolar patient group with comorbid ADHD; and (3) depressive, cyclothymic, irritable, and anxious temperaments are significantly associated with ADHD comorbidity in bipolar and depressive patients as well as in HC. The high comorbidity and chronic course of ADHD and its possible negative influence on the course of both disorders increase the importance of screening for adult ADHD.

  15. Prospective memory in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Karley-Dale S; Müller, Ulrich; Kerns, Kimberly A

    2017-10-24

    The objective of the paper is to synthesize the research on prospective memory (PM) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Research on PM and ADHD in youth was synthesized according to the PRISMA guidelines and a summary of the types of PM deficits typically seen in these children, as well as the methods currently available to assess and treat these deficits is provided. Suggestions on ways to better manage PM deficits in children's everyday lives are also discussed. Six studies have investigated PM in children with ADHD. The majority of these studies found a deficit in time-based PM, but not event-based PM. The mechanisms underlying this deficit, however, are still unknown. There are currently no specific measures available to clinically assess PM in children and there are no specific evidence-based interventions available that specifically target PM deficits in children with ADHD. Remediation strategies aimed at compensating for these PM deficits in daily life may be most useful. Nevertheless, more research is necessary to better understand PM in children with ADHD.

  16. Cognitive complaints of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Weisbrod, Matthias; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Executive dysfunction of adults with ADHD is often associated with poor self-awareness of problems, such as in emotional competence, emotional recognition, and driving competence. However, with regard to cognitive functioning, little is known about how adults with ADHD evaluate their own cognitive performance. A total of 77 adults with ADHD and 116 healthy adults were assessed with self-report scales measuring several aspects of cognition. Significance and effect sizes as well as the proportion of patients perceiving impairments were calculated. Further analysis was carried out on the frequency of patients perceiving various types of impairments. Adults with ADHD perceived themselves to have significant and severe dysfunction in all areas of cognition assessed as a group. Furthermore, the majority of patients reported multiple impairments in attention, memory and executive functioning. The present study demonstrated that adults with ADHD are aware of problems in cognitive functioning as shown by considerable perceived neuropsychological impairment in the majority of patients. Patients with ADHD tended to report cognitive impairments in multiple domains rather than impairments in specific functions.

  17. Mothers' experiences of parenting a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Kathleen; Jackson, Debra

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a report of a study to explore the perceptions and experiences of mothers parenting a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Previous quantitative studies have focussed on parenting styles and treatments, and highlight that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder has a negative impact on family functioning. However, fewer researchers have explored maternal experiences of parenting a child with this disorder. A narrative-based feminist approach can provide greater insights into complex issues related to mothering a child with this disorder. Data were collected in 2007 with a volunteer sample of 11 mothers of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder via in-depth interviews. Analysis was completed by listening for self-evaluative statements, paying attention to meta-statements and by identifying both consistencies and incongruities within participant's narratives. Dominant issues identified were: It's been 10 years of being on edge: The caring responsibility as overwhelming; If I had my time over again, I wouldn't tell the truth: Stigmatized, scrutinized and criticized; What have I done? What did I do? How come I've got this child: Guilt and self-blame and He doesn't stand a chance: Mother as advocate. Mothering a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is stressful and demanding, and mothers felt marginalized. Media portrayal of this disorder contributes to confusion related to causes, diagnosis and treatment choices. More education for healthcare professionals is needed to enable them to give appropriate guidance and support to enhance outcomes for children and their parents.

  18. Poor response inhibition: at the nexus between substance abuse and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groman, Stephanie M; James, Alex S; Jentsch, J David

    2009-05-01

    The co-morbidity between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance abuse and dependence disorders may have multiple causes and consequences. In this review, we will describe neurobehavioral, genetic and animal model studies that support the notion that a common, genetically determined failure of response inhibition function is an endophenotype for both disorders. Through an impairment in the ability to cognitively control pre-potent behaviors, subjects can exhibit a collection of ADHD-like traits (impulsivity and hyperactivity), as well as susceptibility for the initiation of drug taking and its ultimate progression to an inflexible, uncontrollable form. At the neural level, dysfunction within circuitry that includes the ventrolateral frontal and cingulate cortices, as well as in associated basal ganglia zones, contributes to a common pattern of behavioral impairment, explaining aspects of co-morbidity. Animal models of substance abuse/dependence and ADHD that exhibit deficits in response inhibition have substantiated the role of this endophenotype in both disorders and their co-morbidity and should provide a testing ground for interventions targeting it. New directions for research that will further explore this hypothesis and begin to reveal the underlying biological mechanisms will be proposed.

  19. Abnormal surface morphology of the central sulcus in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyu eLi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The central sulcus (CS divides the primary motor and somatosensory areas, and its three-dimensional (3D anatomy reveals the structural changes of the sensorimotor regions. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is associated with sensorimotor and executive function deficits. However, it is largely unknown whether the morphology of the CS alters due to inappropriate development in the ADHD brain. Here, we employed the sulcus-based morphometry approach to investigate the 3D morphology of the CS in 42 children whose ages spanned from 8.8 to 13.5 years (21 with ADHD and 21 controls. After automatic labeling of each CS, we computed 7 regional shape metrics for each CS, including the global average length, average depth, maximum depth, average span, surface area, average cortical thickness and local sulcal profile. We found that the average depth and maximum depth of the left CS as well as the average cortical thickness of bilateral CS in the ADHD group were significantly larger than those in the healthy children. Moreover, significant between-group differences in the sulcal profile had been found in middle sections of the CSs bilaterally, and these changes were positively correlated with the hyperactivity-impulsivity scores in the children with ADHD. Altogether, our results provide evidence for the abnormity of the CS anatomical morphology in children with ADHD due to the structural changes in the motor cortex, which significantly contribute to the clinical symptomatology of the disorder.

  20. Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder on adaptive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Ashley L; Glass, Leila; Crocker, Nicole; Deweese, Benjamin N; Coles, Claire D; Kable, Julie A; May, Philip A; Kalberg, Wendy O; Sowell, Elizabeth R; Jones, Kenneth L; Riley, Edward P; Mattson, Sarah N

    2014-05-01

    Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are associated with adaptive behavior deficits. This study examined the interaction between these 2 factors on parent ratings of adaptive behavior. As part of a multisite study, primary caregivers of 317 children (8 to 16 years, M = 12.38) completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Second Edition (VABS-II). Four groups of subjects were included: children with prenatal alcohol exposure with ADHD (AE+, n = 82), children with prenatal alcohol exposure without ADHD (AE-, n = 34), children with ADHD (ADHD, n = 71), and control children (CON, n = 130). VABS-II domain scores (Communication, Daily Living Skills, Socialization) were examined using separate 2 (Alcohol Exposure [AE]) × 2 (ADHD diagnosis) between-subjects analyses of covariance. There were significant main effects of AE (p 0.27). Follow-up analyses in the Communication domain indicated the effects of ADHD were stronger in comparison subjects (ADHD vs. CON) than exposed subjects (AE+ vs. AE-), and the effects of alcohol exposure were stronger in subjects without ADHD (AE- vs. CON) than in subjects with ADHD (AE+ vs. As found previously, both prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD increase adaptive behavior deficits in all domains. However, these 2 factors interact to cause the greatest impairment in children with both prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD for communication abilities. These results further demonstrate the deleterious effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and broaden our understanding of how ADHD exacerbates behavioral outcomes in this population. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  1. Sleep disorder investigation might be considered to be mandatory in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder guideline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Azeredo Henriques Filho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To determine the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA in children with attention deficit/hyperactive disorder (ADHD and compare amplitude and latency of the P300 potential among children with and without OSA. Method Sixty-one children with ADHD underwent oddball auditory attention tests for detection of P300 (ERPs followed by an all-night polysomnography. The children were divided in two groups, those with and without OSA. Results Significant decreased amplitude of the P300 potential was observed in children with OSA when compared with children without OSA. Conclusion The study showed that sleep fragmentation as a result of OSA can exacerbate the attention disorder that characterizes ADHD, and highlights the importance of assessing the presence of OSA in the differential diagnosis of children with attention deficits.

  2. Neurocognitive functioning in children with developmental dyslexia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Multiple deficits and diagnostic accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Octávio; Pereira, Marcelino; Alfaiate, Cláudia; Fernandes, Eva; Fernandes, Boavida; Nogueira, Susana; Moreno, Joana; Simões, Mário R

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the neurocognitive functioning of children with developmental dyslexia (DD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Four groups of children between the ages of 8 and 10 years participated in the study: typically developing children (TDC; N = 34), children with DD-only (N = 32), children with ADHD-only (N = 32), and children with DD+ADHD (N = 18). Children with DD and ADHD exhibited significant weaknesses on almost all neurocognitive measures compared with TDC. Large effect sizes were observed for naming speed and phonological awareness. The comorbid group showed deficits consistent with both DD and ADHD without additional impairments. Results from binary logistic regression and receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses suggested that some neurocognitive measures revealed an adequate sensitivity for the clinical diagnosis of both neurodevelopmental disorders. Specifically, naming speed and phonological awareness were the strongest predictors to correctly discriminate both disorders. Taken together, the results lend support to the multiple cognitive deficit hypothesis showing a considerable overlap of neurocognitive deficits between both disorders.

  3. Attention deficits revealed by passive auditory change detection for pure tones and lexical tones in ADHD children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Tao; Hsu, Chun-Hsien; Yeh, Pei-Wen; Lee, Wang-Tso; Liang, Jao-Shwann; Fu, Wen-Mei; Lee, Chia-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Inattention (IA) has been a major problem in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), accounting for their behavioral and cognitive dysfunctions. However, there are at least three processing steps underlying attentional control for auditory change detection, namely pre-attentive change detection, involuntary attention orienting, and attention reorienting for further evaluation. This study aimed to examine whether children with ADHD would show deficits in any of these subcomponents by using mismatch negativity (MMN), P3a, and late discriminative negativity (LDN) as event-related potential (ERP) markers, under the passive auditory oddball paradigm. Two types of stimuli-pure tones and Mandarin lexical tones-were used to examine if the deficits were general across linguistic and non-linguistic domains. Participants included 15 native Mandarin-speaking children with ADHD and 16 age-matched controls (across groups, age ranged between 6 and 15 years). Two passive auditory oddball paradigms (lexical tones and pure tones) were applied. The pure tone oddball paradigm included a standard stimulus (1000 Hz, 80%) and two deviant stimuli (1015 and 1090 Hz, 10% each). The Mandarin lexical tone oddball paradigm's standard stimulus was /yi3/ (80%) and two deviant stimuli were /yi1/ and /yi2/ (10% each). The results showed no MMN difference, but did show attenuated P3a and enhanced LDN to the large deviants for both pure and lexical tone changes in the ADHD group. Correlation analysis showed that children with higher ADHD tendency, as indexed by parents' and teachers' ratings on ADHD symptoms, showed less positive P3a amplitudes when responding to large lexical tone deviants. Thus, children with ADHD showed impaired auditory change detection for both pure tones and lexical tones in both involuntary attention switching, and attention reorienting for further evaluation. These ERP markers may therefore be used for the evaluation of anti-ADHD drugs that aim to

  4. Attention deficits revealed by passive auditory change detection for pure tones and lexical tones in ADHD children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Tao eYang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Inattention has been a major problem in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, accounting for their behavioral and cognitive dysfunctions. However, there are at least three processing steps underlying attentional control for auditory change detection, namely pre-attentive change detection, involuntary attention orienting, and attention reorienting for further evaluation. This study aimed to examine whether children with ADHD would show deficits in any of these subcomponents by using mismatch negativity (MMN, P3a, and late discriminative negativity (LDN as event-related potential (ERP markers, under the passive auditory oddball paradigm. Two types of stimuli - pure tones and Mandarin lexical tones - were used to examine if the deficits were general across linguistic and non-linguistic domains. Participants included 15 native Mandarin-speaking children with ADHD and 16 age-matched controls (across groups, age ranged between 6 and 15 years. Two passive auditory oddball paradigms (lexical tones and pure tones were applied. Pure tone paradigm included standard stimuli (1000 Hz, 80% and two deviant stimuli (1015 Hz and 1090 Hz, 10% each. The Mandarin lexical tone paradigm’s standard stimuli was /yi3/ (80% and two deviant stimuli were /yi1/ and /yi2/ (10% each. The results showed no MMN difference, but did show attenuated P3a and enhanced LDN to the large deviants for both pure and lexical tone changes in the ADHD group. Correlation analysis showed that children with higher ADHD tendency, as indexed by parents’ and teachers’ rating on ADHD symptoms, showed less positive P3a amplitudes when responding to large lexical tone deviants. Thus, children with ADHD showed impaired auditory change detection for both pure tones and lexical tones in both involuntary attention switching, and attention reorienting for further evaluation. These ERP markers may therefore be used for evaluation of anti-ADHD drugs that aim to alleviate these

  5. Nutritional Status of Korean Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Bo Young; Bu, So Young

    2017-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been associated with an elevated risk for obesity but this seems to be paradoxical to the fact that many youths with ADHD have symptoms of hyperactivity. People diagnosed with ADHD tend to have a high risk of developing undesirable diet habits and consequently have health related problems. However, less attention has been paid to obesity in ADHD while many efforts have been devoted to the prevention of childhood obesity in mentally normal pe...

  6. Sleep Problems in Children with Anxiety and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Berit Hjelde

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this thesis is to examine sleep problems in a clinical sample of children with anxiety and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The more specific aims are to investigate the frequency, the associations with behavioral and attentional functioning, and the persistence of sleep problems (both overall sleep problems and types of sleep problems). The sleep problems of children in the clinical sample are compared to those of a group of nonreferred children. The the...

  7. Sleep disorder investigation might be considered to be mandatory in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder guideline

    OpenAIRE

    Henriques Filho,Paulo Sérgio Azeredo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To determine the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children with attention deficit/hyperactive disorder (ADHD) and compare amplitude and latency of the P300 potential among children with and without OSA. Method Sixty-one children with ADHD underwent oddball auditory attention tests for detection of P300 (ERPs) followed by an all-night polysomnography. The children were divided in two groups, those with and without OSA. Results Significant decreased amplit...

  8. Cognitive computer training in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) versus no intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bikic, Aida; Leckman, J. F.; Lindschou, Jane

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention and impulsivity and/or hyperactivity and a range of cognitive dysfunctions. Pharmacological treatment may be beneficial; however, many affected individuals...... of cognition, mostly on the working memory or attention but with poor generalization of training on other cognitive functions and functional outcome. Children with ADHD have a variety of cognitive dysfunctions, and it is important that cognitive training target multiple cognitive functions. METHODS...

  9. Imaging functional and structural brain connectomics in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Miao; Shu, Ni; Cao, Qingjiu; Wang, Yufeng; He, Yong

    2014-12-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurodevelopment disorders in childhood. Clinically, the core symptoms of this disorder include inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Previous studies have documented that these behavior deficits in ADHD children are associated with not only regional brain abnormalities but also changes in functional and structural connectivity among regions. In the past several years, our understanding of how ADHD affects the brain's connectivity has been greatly advanced by mapping topological alterations of large-scale brain networks (i.e., connectomes) using noninvasive neurophysiological and neuroimaging techniques (e.g., electroencephalograph, functional MRI, and diffusion MRI) in combination with graph theoretical approaches. In this review, we summarize the recent progresses of functional and structural brain connectomics in ADHD, focusing on graphic analysis of large-scale brain systems. Convergent evidence suggests that children with ADHD had abnormal small-world properties in both functional and structural brain networks characterized by higher local clustering and lower global integrity, suggesting a disorder-related shift of network topology toward regular configurations. Moreover, ADHD children showed the redistribution of regional nodes and connectivity involving the default-mode, attention, and sensorimotor systems. Importantly, these ADHD-associated alterations significantly correlated with behavior disturbances (e.g., inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms) and exhibited differential patterns between clinical subtypes. Together, these connectome-based studies highlight brain network dysfunction in ADHD, thus opening up a new window into our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of this disorder. These works might also have important implications on the development of imaging-based biomarkers for clinical diagnosis and treatment evaluation in ADHD.

  10. Psychopathology, symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and risk factors in juvenile offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margari F

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Margari,1 Francesco Craig,2 Lucia Margari,2 Emilia Matera,2 Anna Linda Lamanna,2 Paola Alessandra Lecce,2 Donatella La Tegola,3 Felice Carabellese3 1Psychiatry Unit, 2Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sense Organs of the Aldo Moro University of Bari, 3Section of Criminology and Forensic Psychiatry, Department of Internal Medicine and Public Medicine, University of Bari, Bari, Italy Background: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of potential environmental and psychopathological risk factors, with special focus on symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, in a sample of adolescent offenders in relation to the type of crime committed.Methods: The assessment included data collection and administration of clinical standardized scales such as the Youth Self-Report and Conners’ Adolescent Self-Report Scale. A total of 135 juvenile offenders participated in the study. In relation to the type of crime committed, we identified three groups matched for age and sex (crimes against people, property crimes, and alcohol-drug-related crimes.Results: Fifty-two percent of juvenile offenders reported educational achievement problems and 34% reported a family history of psychiatric disorders. We detected a statistically significant difference between the three groups with regard to ADHD (P=0.01 and conduct problems (P=0.034. Juvenile offenders who had committed crimes against people showed more ADHD symptoms (18% and conduct problems (20% than adolescents who had committed property crimes and alcohol-drug-related crimes. Sixty percent of the juvenile offenders who had committed property crimes and 54% of those who had committed alcohol-drug-related crimes showed problems in academic achievement.Conclusion: These findings suggest the need to implement specific interventions for prevention and treatment of specific criminal behavior. Keywords: juvenile offenders

  11. Inattention Predicts Increased Thickness of Left Occipital Cortex in Men with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörös, Peter; Bachmann, Katharina; Lam, Alexandra P; Kanat, Manuela; Hoxhaj, Eliza; Matthies, Swantje; Feige, Bernd; Müller, Helge H O; Thiel, Christiane; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood is a serious and frequent psychiatric disorder with the core symptoms inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. The principal aim of this study was to investigate associations between brain morphology, i.e., cortical thickness and volumes of subcortical gray matter, and individual symptom severity in adult ADHD. Surface-based brain morphometry was performed in 35 women and 29 men with ADHD using FreeSurfer. Linear regressions were calculated between cortical thickness and the volumes of subcortical gray matter and the inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity subscales of the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS). Two separate analyses were performed. For the first analysis, age was included as additional regressor. For the second analysis, both age and severity of depression were included as additional regressors. Study participants were recruited between June 2012 and January 2014. Linear regression identified an area in the left occipital cortex of men, covering parts of the middle occipital sulcus and gyrus, in which the score on the CAARS inattention subscale predicted increased mean cortical thickness [ F (1,27) = 26.27, p  attentional networks in male adult ADHD patients.

  12. Mediating effect of anxiety and depression on the relationship between Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and smoking/drinking

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Lian; Shi, Hui-Jing; Zhang, Zhe; Yuan, Yuan; Xia, Zhi-Juan; Jiang, Xiao-Xiao; Xiong, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been often found to be comorbid with other disorders, including anxiety, depression, and unhealthy behaviors such as drinking alcohol and smoking. These factors were often discussed separately, and the mediating effects of mental health on substance use are unknown. To study the mediating effects of anxiety and depression on the relationship between ADHD and drinking/smoking behaviors, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 1870 college stu...

  13. Evaluation of the Prevalence of Drug Abuse and Smoking in Parents of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Parvaresh, Nooshin; Mazhari, Shahrzad; Mohamadi, Neda; Mohamadi, Najmeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects 5% of children. In addition to pharmacotherapy, non-drug treatments such as appropriate parenting are also very important in the treatment of these children. Diagnosis and treatment of parents with psychiatric disorders and substance abuse and evaluation of the frequency of these disorders in parents is critical. Methods In this case-control study, 200 parents were studied. The target population included parents of 7 to 12 yea...

  14. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: the impact of methylphenidate on working memory, inhibition capacity and mental flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    Bolfer, Cristiana; Pacheco, Sandra Pasquali; Tsunemi, Miriam Harumi; Carreira, Walter Souza; Casella, Beatriz Borba; Casella, Erasmo Barbante

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To compare children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), before and after the use of methylphenidate, and a control group, using tests of working memory, inhibition capacity and mental flexibility. Methods Neuropsychological tests were administrated to 53 boys, 9–12 years old: the WISC-III digit span backward, and arithmetic; Stroop Color; and Trail Making Tests. The case group included 23 boys with ADHD, who were combined type, treatment-naive, and wit...

  15. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) should be addressed in early childhood public policy-making in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez-Álvarez, Consuelo; Vidarte Claros, José A

    2012-06-01

    The following document was aimed at offering reflection about the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a true public health problem in Colombian children, involving very large challenges for childhood policy regarding this problem. This (in addition to all treatment protocols advanced to date) should include approaches implicitly involving motricity since one of this pathology's comorbid disorders becomes manifest in motor difficulties in the first instance, integrally involving family and school for success in managing the event.

  16. Testosterone and attention deficits as possible mechanisms underlying impaired emotion recognition in intimate partner violence perpetrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Romero-Martínez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported impairments in decoding emotional facial expressions in intimate partner violence (IPV perpetrators. However, the mechanisms that underlie these impaired skills are not well known. Given this gap in the literature, we aimed to establish whether IPV perpetrators (n = 18 differ in their emotion decoding process, attentional skills, and testosterone (T, cortisol (C levels and T/C ratio in comparison with controls (n = 20, and also to examine the moderating role of the group and hormonal parameters in the relationship between attention skills and the emotion decoding process. Our results demonstrated that IPV perpetrators showed poorer emotion recognition and higher attention switching costs than controls. Nonetheless,they did not differ in attention to detail and hormonal parameters. Finally, the slope predicting emotion recognition from deficits in attention switching became steeper as T levels increased, especially in IPV perpetrators, although the basal C and T/C ratios were unrelated to emotion recognition and attention deficits for both groups. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying emotion recognition deficits. These factors therefore constitute the target for future interventions.

  17. Impact of executive function deficits and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on academic outcomes in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Joseph; Monuteaux, Michael C; Doyle, Alysa E; Seidman, Larry J; Wilens, Timothy E; Ferrero, Frances; Morgan, Christie L; Faraone, Stephen V

    2004-10-01

    The association between executive function deficits (EFDs) and functional outcomes were examined among children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were children and adolescents with (n = 259) and without (n = 222) ADHD, as ascertained from pediatric and psychiatric clinics. The authors defined EFD as at least 2 executive function measures impaired. Significantly more children and adolescents with ADHD had EFDs than did control participants. ADHD with EFDs was associated with an increased risk for grade retention and a decrease in academic achievement relative to (a) ADHD alone, (b) controlled socioeconomic status, (c) learning disabilities, and (d) IQ. No differences were noted in social functioning or psychiatric comorbidity. Children and adolescents with ADHD and EFDs were found to be at high risk for significant impairments in academic functioning. These results support screening children with ADHD for EFDs to prevent academic failure.

  18. The Speed of Visual Attention and Motor-Response Decisions in Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cross-Villasana, Fernando; Finke, Kathrin; Hennig-Fast, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Adults with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) exhibit slowed reaction times (RTs) in various attention tasks. The exact origins of this slowing, however, have not been yet established. Potential candidates are early sensory processes mediating the deployment...... of focal-attention, stimulus-response translation processes deciding upon the appropriate motor-response, and motor processes generating the response. Methods: We combined mental chronometry (RT) measures of adult ADHD (n = 15) and healthy control (n = 15) participants with their lateralized event......-related potentials (ERP) during the performance of a visual-search task to differentiate potential sources of slowing at separable levels of processing: the posterior contralateral negativity (PCN) was used to index focalattentional selection times, while the lateralized readiness potentials synchronized to stimulus...

  19. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder presenting as dermatitis artefacta

    OpenAIRE

    Patra, Suravi; Sirka, Chandra Sekhar

    2016-01-01

    Dermatitis artefacta, a self-inflicted intentional dermatosis is a very rare diagnosis in childhood. In a large proportion, the underlying psychiatric disorders go unidentified due to lack of collaboration between dermatologist and psychiatrist. The underlying psychological reasons for childhood dermatitis artefacta include emotional distress and interpersonal conflicts. A multitude of psychosocial factors interact to precipitate this disorder. Here, we report a child with dermatitis artefact...

  20. Aberrant brain activation of error processing among adults with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiao-Yun Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD have a deficit in their cognitive control. The aim of this study was to reveal the brain correlates of the deficits in response inhibition or error processing in adult ADHD. A total of 29 adults with ADHD and 25 control individuals were recruited. They completed an event-related-design Go/No-go task under functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Both the ADHD group and the control group exhibited activation of the frontostriatal network when processing response inhibition. They also exhibited activation of the frontoinsula cortex and anterior cingulate in error processing. Adults with ADHD have a lower brain activation of error processing over the right inferior frontal lobe adjacent to the insula than control individuals. The altered frontoinsula cortex activation may represent the mechanism of error processing deficit among adults with ADHD.