WorldWideScience

Sample records for include analyzing drug

  1. Low Gravity Drug Stability Analyzer, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of this proposed program (through Phase III) is to build a space-worthy Drug Stability Analyzer that can determine the extent of drug degradation....

  2. Drug delivery device including electrolytic pump

    KAUST Repository

    Foulds, Ian G.; Buttner, Ulrich; Yi, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods are provided for a drug delivery device and use of the device for drug delivery. In various aspects, the drug delivery device combines a “solid drug in reservoir” (SDR) system with an electrolytic pump. In various aspects an improved electrolytic pump is provided including, in particular, an improved electrolytic pump for use with a drug delivery device, for example an implantable drug delivery device. A catalytic reformer can be incorporated in a periodically pulsed electrolytic pump to provide stable pumping performance and reduced actuation cycle.

  3. Drug delivery device including electrolytic pump

    KAUST Repository

    Foulds, Ian G.

    2016-03-31

    Systems and methods are provided for a drug delivery device and use of the device for drug delivery. In various aspects, the drug delivery device combines a “solid drug in reservoir” (SDR) system with an electrolytic pump. In various aspects an improved electrolytic pump is provided including, in particular, an improved electrolytic pump for use with a drug delivery device, for example an implantable drug delivery device. A catalytic reformer can be incorporated in a periodically pulsed electrolytic pump to provide stable pumping performance and reduced actuation cycle.

  4. Quality Performance of Drugs Analyzed in the Drug Analysis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ICT TEAM

    performance of drug samples analyzed therein. Previous reports have ... wholesalers, non-governmental organizations, hospitals, analytical ..... a dispute concerning discharge of waste water ... Healthcare Industry in Kenya, December. 2008.

  5. NASTRAN thermal analyzer: Theory and application including a guide to modeling engineering problems, volume 1. [thermal analyzer manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H. P.

    1977-01-01

    The NASTRAN Thermal Analyzer Manual describes the fundamental and theoretical treatment of the finite element method, with emphasis on the derivations of the constituent matrices of different elements and solution algorithms. Necessary information and data relating to the practical applications of engineering modeling are included.

  6. Analyzing research trends on drug safety using topic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Chen

    2018-04-06

    Published drug safety data has evolved in the past decade due to scientific and technological advances in the relevant research fields. Considering that a vast amount of scientific literature has been published in this area, it is not easy to identify the key information. Topic modeling has emerged as a powerful tool to extract meaningful information from a large volume of unstructured texts. Areas covered: We analyzed the titles and abstracts of 4347 articles in four journals dedicated to drug safety from 2007 to 2016. We applied Latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) model to extract 50 main topics, and conducted trend analysis to explore the temporal popularity of these topics over years. Expert Opinion/Commentary: We found that 'benefit-risk assessment and communication', 'diabetes' and 'biologic therapy for autoimmune diseases' are the top 3 most published topics. The topics relevant to the use of electronic health records/observational data for safety surveillance are becoming increasingly popular over time. Meanwhile, there is a slight decrease in research on signal detection based on spontaneous reporting, although spontaneous reporting still plays an important role in benefit-risk assessment. The topics related to medical conditions and treatment showed highly dynamic patterns over time.

  7. A novel algorithm for analyzing drug-drug interactions from MEDLINE literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yin; Shen, Dan; Pietsch, Maxwell; Nagar, Chetan; Fadli, Zayd; Huang, Hong; Tu, Yi-Cheng; Cheng, Feng

    2015-11-27

    Drug-drug interaction (DDI) is becoming a serious clinical safety issue as the use of multiple medications becomes more common. Searching the MEDLINE database for journal articles related to DDI produces over 330,000 results. It is impossible to read and summarize these references manually. As the volume of biomedical reference in the MEDLINE database continues to expand at a rapid pace, automatic identification of DDIs from literature is becoming increasingly important. In this article, we present a random-sampling-based statistical algorithm to identify possible DDIs and the underlying mechanism from the substances field of MEDLINE records. The substances terms are essentially carriers of compound (including protein) information in a MEDLINE record. Four case studies on warfarin, ibuprofen, furosemide and sertraline implied that our method was able to rank possible DDIs with high accuracy (90.0% for warfarin, 83.3% for ibuprofen, 70.0% for furosemide and 100% for sertraline in the top 10% of a list of compounds ranked by p-value). A social network analysis of substance terms was also performed to construct networks between proteins and drug pairs to elucidate how the two drugs could interact.

  8. Polymerase chain reaction system using magnetic beads for analyzing a sample that includes nucleic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasarabadi, Shanavaz [Livermore, CA

    2011-01-11

    A polymerase chain reaction system for analyzing a sample containing nucleic acid includes providing magnetic beads; providing a flow channel having a polymerase chain reaction chamber, a pre polymerase chain reaction magnet position adjacent the polymerase chain reaction chamber, and a post pre polymerase magnet position adjacent the polymerase chain reaction chamber. The nucleic acid is bound to the magnetic beads. The magnetic beads with the nucleic acid flow to the pre polymerase chain reaction magnet position in the flow channel. The magnetic beads and the nucleic acid are washed with ethanol. The nucleic acid in the polymerase chain reaction chamber is amplified. The magnetic beads and the nucleic acid are separated into a waste stream containing the magnetic beads and a post polymerase chain reaction mix containing the nucleic acid. The reaction mix containing the nucleic acid flows to an analysis unit in the channel for analysis.

  9. A perspective of nanotechnology in hypersensitivity reactions including drug allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montañez, Maria Isabel; Ruiz-Sanchez, Antonio J; Perez-Inestrosa, Ezequiel

    2010-08-01

    We provide an overview of the application of the concepts of nanoscience and nanotechnology as a novel scientific approach to the area of nanomedicine related to the domain of the immune system. Particular emphasis will be paid to studies on drug allergy reactions. Several well defined chemical structures arranged in the dimension of the nanoscale are currently being studied for biomedical purposes. By interacting with the immune system, some of these show promising applications as vaccines, diagnostic tools and activators/effectors of the immune response. Even a brief listing of some key applications of nanostructured materials shows how broad and intense this area of nanomedicine is. As a result of the development of nanoscience and nanotechnology applied to medicine, new approaches can be envisioned for problems related to the modulation of the immune response, as well as in immunodiagnosis, and to design new tools to solve related medical challenges. Nanoparticles offer unique advantages with which to exploit new properties and for materials to play a major role in new diagnostic techniques and therapies. Fullerene-C60 and multivalent functionalized gold nanoparticles of various sizes have led to new tools and opened up new ways to study and interact with the immune system. Some of the most versatile nanostructures are dendrimers. In their interaction with the immune system they can naturally occurring macromolecules, taking advantage of the fact that dendrimers can be synthesized into nanosized structures. Their multivalence can be successfully exploited in vaccines and diagnostic tests for allergic reactions.

  10. Data Mining FAERS to Analyze Molecular Targets of Drugs Highly Associated with Stevens-Johnson Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Burkhart, Keith K.; Abernethy, Darrell; Jackson, David

    2015-01-01

    Drug features that are associated with Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) have not been fully characterized. A molecular target analysis of the drugs associated with SJS in the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) may contribute to mechanistic insights into SJS pathophysiology. The publicly available version of FAERS was analyzed to identify disproportionality among the molecular targets, metabolizing enzymes, and transporters for drugs associated with SJS. The FAERS in-house version was al...

  11. Data Mining FAERS to Analyze Molecular Targets of Drugs Highly Associated with Stevens-Johnson Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Keith K; Abernethy, Darrell; Jackson, David

    2015-06-01

    Drug features that are associated with Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) have not been fully characterized. A molecular target analysis of the drugs associated with SJS in the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) may contribute to mechanistic insights into SJS pathophysiology. The publicly available version of FAERS was analyzed to identify disproportionality among the molecular targets, metabolizing enzymes, and transporters for drugs associated with SJS. The FAERS in-house version was also analyzed for an internal comparison of the drugs most highly associated with SJS. Cyclooxygenases 1 and 2, carbonic anhydrase 2, and sodium channel 2 alpha were identified as disproportionately associated with SJS. Cytochrome P450 (CYPs) 3A4 and 2C9 are disproportionately represented as metabolizing enzymes of the drugs associated with SJS adverse event reports. Multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP-1), organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1), and PEPT2 were also identified and are highly associated with the transport of these drugs. A detailed review of the molecular targets identifies important roles for these targets in immune response. The association with CYP metabolizing enzymes suggests that reactive metabolites and oxidative stress may have a contributory role. Drug transporters may enhance intracellular tissue concentrations and also have vital physiologic roles that impact keratinocyte proliferation and survival. Data mining FAERS may be used to hypothesize mechanisms for adverse drug events by identifying molecular targets that are highly associated with drug-induced adverse events. The information gained may contribute to systems biology disease models.

  12. Detection of illicit drugs in impaired driver saliva by a field-usable SERS analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shende, Chetan; Huang, Hermes; Farquharson, Stuart

    2014-05-01

    One of the greatest dangers of drug use is in combination with driving. According to the most recent National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) studies, more than 11% of drivers tested positive for illicit drugs, while 18% of drivers killed in accidents tested positive for illicit, prescription or over-the-counter drugs. Consequently, there is a need for a rapid, noninvasive, roadside drug testing device, similar to the breathalyzers used by law enforcement officials to estimate blood alcohol levels of impaired drivers. In an effort to satisfy this need we have been developing a sampling kit that allows extraction of drugs from 1 mL of saliva and detection by surfaceenhanced Raman spectroscopy using a portable Raman analyzer. Here we describe the development of the sampling kit and present measurements of diazepam at sub μg/mL concentrations measured in ~15 minutes.

  13. Recent updates on drug abuse analyzed by neuroproteomics studies: Cocaine, Methamphetamine and MDMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas Kobeissy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, drug abuse and addiction represent a global public health concern with about 13.6 million people using illicit drugs in the USA alone. Substance abuse intervenes in normal brain functioning, causing alterations in memory, behavior and neuronal physiology. Although many studies have been conducted to elucidate the mode of action of different drugs, the heterogeneous modes of drug intake led to a complicated profile of drug-induced brain changes involving neurotoxicity and addiction. Given the complex interplay of genes and proteins in mediating these effects, neuroproteomics analysis has been considered among the methods of choice to complement what has already been discovered and to create targeted therapies. In this review, we will focus on three drugs, namely cocaine, methamphetamine (METH and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA. In the context of neuroproteomics, these drugs have been extensively studied by utilizing different experimental models, including primate and non-primate animals along with postmortem human samples. Even though there are many variations in the results, these drugs were shown to employ common pathways in eliciting their effects. Neuroproteomics analysis of these drugs has led to the identification of differentially expressed proteins involved in metabolism, oxidative stress, cell signaling, cytoskeleton, cell death and synaptic plasticity. Finally, this work will discuss recent findings from our laboratory by looking at a model of chronic methamphetamine abuse and its effect on different brain regions.

  14. Prediction and Factor Extraction of Drug Function by Analyzing Medical Records in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Min; Nohara, Yasunobu; Nakamura, Masafumi; Nakashima, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organization has declared Bangladesh one of 58 countries facing acute Human Resources for Health (HRH) crisis. Artificial intelligence in healthcare has been shown to be successful for diagnostics. Using machine learning to predict pharmaceutical prescriptions may solve HRH crises. In this study, we investigate a predictive model by analyzing prescription data of 4,543 subjects in Bangladesh. We predict the function of prescribed drugs, comparing three machine-learning approaches. The approaches compare whether a subject shall be prescribed medicine from the 21 most frequently prescribed drug functions. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) were selected as a way to evaluate and assess prediction models. The results show the drug function with the best prediction performance was oral hypoglycemic drugs, which has an average AUC of 0.962. To understand how the variables affect prediction, we conducted factor analysis based on tree-based algorithms and natural language processing techniques.

  15. A Comprehensive List of Items to be Included on a Pediatric Drug Monograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Lauren E; Ito, Shinya; Woods, David; Nunn, Anthony J; Taketomo, Carol; de Hoog, Matthijs; Offringa, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Children require special considerations for drug prescribing. Drug information summarized in a formulary containing drug monographs is essential for safe and effective prescribing. Currently, little is known about the information needs of those who prescribe and administer medicines to children. Our primary objective was to identify a list of important and relevant items to be included in a pediatric drug monograph. Following the establishment of an expert steering committee and an environmental scan of adult and pediatric formulary monograph items, 46 participants from 25 countries were invited to complete a 2-round Delphi survey. Questions regarding source of prescribing information and importance of items were recorded. An international consensus meeting to vote on and finalize the items list with the steering committee followed. Pediatric formularies are most commonly the first resource consulted for information on medication used in children by 31 Delphi participants. After the Delphi rounds, 116 items were identified to be included in a comprehensive pediatric drug monograph, including general information, adverse drug reactions, dosages, precautions, drug-drug interactions, formulation, and drug properties. Health care providers identified 116 monograph items as important for prescribing medicines for children by an international consensus-based process. This information will assist in setting standards for the creation of new pediatric drug monographs for international application and for those involved in pediatric formulary development.

  16. NASTRAN thermal analyzer: Theory and application including a guide to modeling engineering problems, volume 2. [sample problem library guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, C. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A sample problem library containing 20 problems covering most facets of Nastran Thermal Analyzer modeling is presented. Areas discussed include radiative interchange, arbitrary nonlinear loads, transient temperature and steady-state structural plots, temperature-dependent conductivities, simulated multi-layer insulation, and constraint techniques. The use of the major control options and important DMAP alters is demonstrated.

  17. Comparison and clinical utility evaluation of four multiple allergen simultaneous tests including two newly introduced fully automated analyzers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hoon Rim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: We compared the diagnostic performances of two newly introduced fully automated multiple allergen simultaneous tests (MAST analyzers with two conventional MAST assays. Methods: The serum samples from a total of 53 and 104 patients were tested for food panels and inhalant panels, respectively, in four analyzers including AdvanSure AlloScreen (LG Life Science, Korea, AdvanSure Allostation Smart II (LG Life Science, PROTIA Allergy-Q (ProteomeTech, Korea, and RIDA Allergy Screen (R-Biopharm, Germany. We compared not only the total agreement percentages but also positive propensities among four analyzers. Results: Evaluation of AdvanSure Allostation Smart II as upgraded version of AdvanSure AlloScreen revealed good concordance with total agreement percentages of 93.0% and 92.2% in food and inhalant panel, respectively. Comparisons of AdvanSure Allostation Smart II or PROTIA Allergy-Q with RIDA Allergy Screen also showed good concordance performance with positive propensities of two new analyzers for common allergens (Dermatophagoides farina and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. The changes of cut-off level resulted in various total agreement percentage fluctuations among allergens by different analyzers, although current cut-off level of class 2 appeared to be generally suitable. Conclusions: AdvanSure Allostation Smart II and PROTIA Allergy-Q presented favorable agreement performances with RIDA Allergy Screen, although positive propensities were noticed in common allergens. Keywords: Multiple allergen simultaneous test, Automated analyzer

  18. [Data-mining characteristics of adverse drug reactions and pharmacovi-gilance of Chinese patent drugs including Aconitum herbs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Meng; Li, Fan; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Xiao-Fen; Piao, Jing-Zhu

    2018-01-01

    The common Aconitum herbs in clinical application mainly include Aconiti Radix(Chuanwu), Aconiti Kusnezoffii Radix(Caowu) and Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparaia(Fuzi), all of which have toxicity. Therefore, the safety of using Chinese patent drugs including Aconitum herbs has become an hot topic in clinical controversy. Based on the data-mining methods, this study explored the characteristics and causes of adverse drug reactions/events (ADR/ADE) of the Chinese patent drugs including Aconitum, in order to provide pharmacovigilance and rational drug use suggestions for clinical application. The detailed ADR/ADE reports about the Chinese patent drugs including Aconitum herbs were retrieved in the domestic literature databases since 1984 to now. The information extraction and data-mining were conducted based on the platforms of Microsoft office Excel 2016, Clementine 12.0 and Cytoscape 3.3.0. Finally, 78 detailed ADR/ADE reports involving a total of 30 varieties were included. 92.31% ADR/ADE were surely or likely led by the Chinese patent drugs including Aconitum, mostly involving multiple system/organ damages with good prognosis, and even 1 case of death. The incidence of included ADRs/ADEs was associated with various factors such as the patient idiosyncratic, drug toxicity, as well as clinical medication. The patient age was most closely related to ADR/ADEs, and those aged from 60 to 69 were more easily suffered from the ADRs/ADEs of Chinese patent drugs including Aconitum. The probability of ADR/ADEs for the drugs including Chuanwu or Caowu was greater than that of Fuzi, and the using beyond the instructions dose was the most important potential safety hazard in the clinical medication process. For the regular and characteristics of ADR/ADEs led by Chinese patent drugs including Aconitum, special attention shall be paid to the elder patients or with the patients with allergies; strictly control the dosage and course of treatment, strengthen the safety medication

  19. 43 CFR 43.215 - What must I include in my drug-free awareness program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What must I include in my drug-free awareness program? 43.215 Section 43.215 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Requirements for Recipients Other Than Individuals § 43.215 What must I...

  20. 29 CFR 1472.215 - What must I include in my drug-free awareness program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I include in my drug-free awareness program? 1472.215 Section 1472.215 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Requirements for Recipients Other Than Individuals § 1472.215...

  1. Performance evaluation of enzyme immunoassay for voriconazole therapeutic drug monitoring with automated clinical chemistry analyzers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongbum Jeon

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Voriconazole is a triazole antifungal developed for the treatment of fungal infectious disease, and the clinical utility of its therapeutic drug monitoring has been evaluated. Recently, a new assay for analyzing the serum voriconazole concentration with an automated clinical chemistry analyzer was developed. We evaluated the performance of the new assay based on standardized protocols. Methods: The analytical performance of the assay was evaluated according to its precision, trueness by recovery, limit of quantitation, linearity, and correlation with results from liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. The evaluation was performed with the same protocol on two different routine chemistry analyzers. All evaluations were performed according to CLSI Guidelines EP15, EP17, EP6, and EP9 [1–4]. Results: Coefficients of variation for within-run and between-day imprecision were 3.2–5.1% and 1.5–3.0%, respectively, on the two different analyzers for pooled serum samples. The recovery rates were in the range of 95.4–102.2%. The limit of blank was 0.0049 μg/mL, and the limit of detection of the samples was 0.0266–0.0376 μg/mL. The percent recovery at three LoQ levels were 67.9–74.6% for 0.50 μg/mL, 75.5–80.2% for 0.60 μg/mL, and 89.9–96.6% for 0.70 μg/mL. A linear relationship was demonstrated between 0.5 μg/mL and 16.0 μg/mL (R2=0.9995–0.9998. The assay correlated well with LC-MS/MS results (R2=0.9739–0.9828. Conclusions: The assay showed acceptable precision, trueness, linearity, and limit of quantification, and correlated well with LC-MS/MS. Therefore, its analytical performance is satisfactory for monitoring the drug concentration of voriconazole. Keywords: Voriconazole, Antifungal agents, Therapeutic drug monitoring

  2. DNA sequence analyses of blended herbal products including synthetic cannabinoids as designer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Jun; Uchiyama, Nahoko; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Goda, Yukihiro

    2013-04-10

    In recent years, various herbal products adulterated with synthetic cannabinoids have been distributed worldwide via the Internet. These herbal products are mostly sold as incense, and advertised as not for human consumption. Although their labels indicate that they contain mixtures of several potentially psychoactive plants, and numerous studies have reported that they contain a variety of synthetic cannabinoids, their exact botanical contents are not always clear. In this study, we investigated the origins of botanical materials in 62 Spice-like herbal products distributed on the illegal drug market in Japan, by DNA sequence analyses and BLAST searches. The nucleotide sequences of four regions were analyzed to identify the origins of each plant species in the herbal mixtures. The sequences of "Damiana" (Turnera diffusa) and Lamiaceae herbs (Mellissa, Mentha and Thymus) were frequently detected in a number of products. However, the sequences of other plant species indicated on the packaging labels were not detected. In a few products, DNA fragments of potent psychotropic plants were found, including marijuana (Cannabis sativa), "Diviner's Sage" (Salvia divinorum) and "Kratom" (Mitragyna speciosa). Their active constituents were also confirmed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), although these plant names were never indicated on the labels. Most plant species identified in the products were different from the plants indicated on the labels. The plant materials would be used mainly as diluents for the psychoactive synthetic compounds, because no reliable psychoactive effects have been reported for most of the identified plants, with the exception of the psychotropic plants named above. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Analyzing user-generated online content for drug discovery: development and use of MedCrawler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfenstein, Andreas; Tammela, Päivi

    2017-04-15

    Ethnopharmacology, or the scientific validation of traditional medicine, is a respected starting point in drug discovery. Home remedies and traditional use of plants are still widespread, also in Western societies. Instead of perusing ancient pharmacopeias, we developed MedCrawler, which we used to analyze blog posts for mentions of home remedies and their applications. This method is free and accessible from the office computer. We developed MedCrawler, a data mining tool for analyzing user-generated blog posts aiming to find modern 'traditional' medicine or home remedies. It searches user-generated blog posts and analyzes them for correlations between medically relevant terms. We also present examples and show that this method is capable of delivering both scientifically validated uses as well as not so well documented applications, which might serve as a starting point for follow-up research. Source code is available on GitHub at {{ https://github.com/a-hel/medcrawler }}. paivi.tammela@helsinki.fi. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. Implementation of Data Mining to Analyze Drug Cases Using C4.5 Decision Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuni, Sri

    2018-03-01

    Data mining was the process of finding useful information from a large set of databases. One of the existing techniques in data mining was classification. The method used was decision tree method and algorithm used was C4.5 algorithm. The decision tree method was a method that transformed a very large fact into a decision tree which was presenting the rules. Decision tree method was useful for exploring data, as well as finding a hidden relationship between a number of potential input variables with a target variable. The decision tree of the C4.5 algorithm was constructed with several stages including the selection of attributes as roots, created a branch for each value and divided the case into the branch. These stages would be repeated for each branch until all the cases on the branch had the same class. From the solution of the decision tree there would be some rules of a case. In this case the researcher classified the data of prisoners at Labuhan Deli prison to know the factors of detainees committing criminal acts of drugs. By applying this C4.5 algorithm, then the knowledge was obtained as information to minimize the criminal acts of drugs. From the findings of the research, it was found that the most influential factor of the detainee committed the criminal act of drugs was from the address variable.

  5. Performance evaluation of enzyme immunoassay for voriconazole therapeutic drug monitoring with automated clinical chemistry analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Yongbum; Han, Minje; Han, Eun Young; Lee, Kyunghoon; Song, Junghan; Song, Sang Hoon

    2017-08-01

    Voriconazole is a triazole antifungal developed for the treatment of fungal infectious disease, and the clinical utility of its therapeutic drug monitoring has been evaluated. Recently, a new assay for analyzing the serum voriconazole concentration with an automated clinical chemistry analyzer was developed. We evaluated the performance of the new assay based on standardized protocols. The analytical performance of the assay was evaluated according to its precision, trueness by recovery, limit of quantitation, linearity, and correlation with results from liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The evaluation was performed with the same protocol on two different routine chemistry analyzers. All evaluations were performed according to CLSI Guidelines EP15, EP17, EP6, and EP9 [1-4]. Coefficients of variation for within-run and between-day imprecision were 3.2-5.1% and 1.5-3.0%, respectively, on the two different analyzers for pooled serum samples. The recovery rates were in the range of 95.4-102.2%. The limit of blank was 0.0049 μg/mL, and the limit of detection of the samples was 0.0266-0.0376 μg/mL. The percent recovery at three LoQ levels were 67.9-74.6% for 0.50 μg/mL, 75.5-80.2% for 0.60 μg/mL, and 89.9-96.6% for 0.70 μg/mL. A linear relationship was demonstrated between 0.5 μg/mL and 16.0 μg/mL ( R 2 =0.9995-0.9998). The assay correlated well with LC-MS/MS results ( R 2 =0.9739-0.9828). The assay showed acceptable precision, trueness, linearity, and limit of quantification, and correlated well with LC-MS/MS. Therefore, its analytical performance is satisfactory for monitoring the drug concentration of voriconazole.

  6. [Uniform analyzes of drugs in urine needed for rule of law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Therese; Helander, Anders; Beck, Olof; Elmgren, Anders; Kugelberg, Fredrik; Kronstrand, Robert

    2015-09-22

    Drugs of abuse testing is used in various areas of society for detection and follow-up of drug use. In routine laboratory drug testing, immunoassays are employed for initial screening of specimens to indicate the presence of drugs. To confirm a positive screening test, a secondary analysis by mass spectrometry is performed. The "cut-off" is the pre-defined concentration threshold of a drug or drug metabolite above which the sample is considered positive. A reading below this level implies a negative test result. Swedish drug testing laboratories currently employ varying cut-offs to distinguish between a positive and a negative test result. Because a positive drug test may have serious legal consequences to the individual, it is of importance that testing is performed and judged equally, regardless of where it is performed. A national harmonization of cut-offs is therefore warranted. Based on data from four major Swedish drug testing laboratories, and considering the recommendations in international guidelines, a proposal for national harmonization of urine cut-offs for the most common set of drugs of abuse is presented.

  7. SynergyFinder: a web application for analyzing drug combination dose-response matrix data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianevski, Aleksandr; He, Liye; Aittokallio, Tero; Tang, Jing

    2017-08-01

    Rational design of drug combinations has become a promising strategy to tackle the drug sensitivity and resistance problem in cancer treatment. To systematically evaluate the pre-clinical significance of pairwise drug combinations, functional screening assays that probe combination effects in a dose-response matrix assay are commonly used. To facilitate the analysis of such drug combination experiments, we implemented a web application that uses key functions of R-package SynergyFinder, and provides not only the flexibility of using multiple synergy scoring models, but also a user-friendly interface for visualizing the drug combination landscapes in an interactive manner. The SynergyFinder web application is freely accessible at https://synergyfinder.fimm.fi ; The R-package and its source-code are freely available at http://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/synergyfinder.html . jing.tang@helsinki.fi. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. 2L-PCA: a two-level principal component analyzer for quantitative drug design and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Qi-Shi; Wang, Shu-Qing; Xie, Neng-Zhong; Wang, Qing-Yan; Huang, Ri-Bo; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2017-09-19

    A two-level principal component predictor (2L-PCA) was proposed based on the principal component analysis (PCA) approach. It can be used to quantitatively analyze various compounds and peptides about their functions or potentials to become useful drugs. One level is for dealing with the physicochemical properties of drug molecules, while the other level is for dealing with their structural fragments. The predictor has the self-learning and feedback features to automatically improve its accuracy. It is anticipated that 2L-PCA will become a very useful tool for timely providing various useful clues during the process of drug development.

  9. 13 CFR 147.215 - What must I include in my drug-free awareness program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., rehabilitation, and employee assistance programs; and (d) The penalties that you may impose upon them for drug...-free awareness program? 147.215 Section 147.215 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... establish an ongoing drug-free awareness program to inform employees about— (a) The dangers of drug abuse in...

  10. Hallucinogens and Dissociative Drugs, Including LSD, PCP, Ketamine, Dextromethorphan. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    Research is developing a clearer picture of the dangers of mind-altering drugs. The goal of this report is to present the latest information to providers to help them strengthen their prevention and treatment efforts. A description is presented of dissociative drugs, and consideration is given as to why people take hallucinogens. The physical…

  11. [Affective bipolar disorder and ambivalence in relation to the drug treatment: analyzing the causal conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miasso, Adriana Inocenti; Cassiani, Silvia Helena De Bortoli; Pedrão, Luiz Jorge

    2011-04-01

    This study was performed with an aim to understand the conditions causing the ambivalence of the person with bipolar affective disorder (BAD) regarding following the drug treatment. A qualitative approach was used, with the Grounded Theory as the methodology framework, under the light of Symbolic Interactionism. Participants were 14 individuals with BAD who were being followed at an Outpatient Clinic for Mood Disorders of a university hospital and 14 relatives they indicated. Interviews and observation were the main forms of obtaining data. Results revealed three categories that described the referred causal conditions: experiencing the crises of the disorder; needing the drug; and living with the side effects of the drugs. It was found that there is a need to change the attitude of some health professionals from blaming the patient for interrupting the treatment to one of listening, valuing their symbolic and affective universe as well as the partnership in the treatment.

  12. Merkel Cell Carcinomas Arising in Autoimmune Disease Affected Patients Treated with Biologic Drugs, Including Anti-TNF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotondo, John Charles; Bononi, Ilaria; Puozzo, Andrea; Govoni, Marcello; Foschi, Valentina; Lanza, Giovanni; Gafà, Roberta; Gaboriaud, Pauline; Touzé, Françoise Antoine; Selvatici, Rita; Martini, Fernanda; Tognon, Mauro

    2017-07-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to characterize Merkel cell carcinomas (MCC) arisen in patients affected by autoimmune diseases and treated with biologic drugs. Experimental Design: Serum samples from patients with MCC were analyzed for the presence and titer of antibodies against antigens of the oncogenic Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). IgG antibodies against the viral oncoproteins large T (LT) and small T (ST) antigens and the viral capsid protein-1 were analyzed by indirect ELISA. Viral antigens were recombinant LT/ST and virus-like particles (VLP), respectively. MCPyV DNA sequences were studied using PCR methods in MCC tissues and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses were carried out in MCC tissues to reveal MCPyV LT oncoprotein. Results: MCPyV DNA sequences identified in MCC tissues showed 100% homology with the European MKL-1 strain. PBMCs from patients tested MCPyV-negative. Viral DNA loads in the three MCC tissues were in the 0.1 to 30 copy/cell range. IgG antibodies against LT/ST were detected in patients 1 and 3, whereas patient 2 did not react to the MCPyV LT/ST antigen. Sera from the three patients with MCC contained IgG antibodies against MCPyV VP1. MCC tissues tested MCPyV LT-antigen-positive in IHC assays, with strong LT expression with diffuse nuclear localization. Normal tissues tested MCPyV LT-negative when employed as control. Conclusions: We investigated three new MCCs in patients affected by rheumatologic diseases treated with biologic drugs, including TNF. A possible cause-effect relationship between pharmacologic immunosuppressive treatment and MCC onset is suggested. Indeed, MCC is associated with MCPyV LT oncoprotein activity. Clin Cancer Res; 23(14); 3929-34. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Analyzing collaboration networks and developmental patterns of nano-enabled drug delivery (NEDD for brain cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Huang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of new and emerging science & technologies (NESTs brings unprecedented challenges, but also opportunities. In this paper, we use bibliometric and social network analyses, at country, institution, and individual levels, to explore the patterns of scientific networking for a key nano area – nano-enabled drug delivery (NEDD. NEDD has successfully been used clinically to modulate drug release and to target particular diseased tissues. The data for this research come from a global compilation of research publication information on NEDD directed at brain cancer. We derive a family of indicators that address multiple facets of research collaboration and knowledge transfer patterns. Results show that: (1 international cooperation is increasing, but networking characteristics change over time; (2 highly productive institutions also lead in influence, as measured by citation to their work, with American institutes leading; (3 research collaboration is dominated by local relationships, with interesting information available from authorship patterns that go well beyond journal impact factors. Results offer useful technical intelligence to help researchers identify potential collaborators and to help inform R&D management and science & innovation policy for such nanotechnologies.

  14. Analyzing a potential drug target N-myristoyltransferase of Plasmodium falciparum through in silico approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Banerjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite concerted global efforts to combat malaria, malaria elimination is still a remote dream. Fast evolution rate of malarial parasite along with its ability to respond quickly to any drug resulting in partial or complete resistance has been a cause of concern among researcher communities. Materials and Methods: Molecular modeling approach was adopted to gain insight about the structure and various analyses were performed. Modeller 9v3, Protparam, Protscale, MEME, NAMD and other tools were employed for this study. PROCHECK and other tools were used for stereo-chemical quality evaluation. Results and Conclusion: It was observed during the course of study that this protein contains 32.2% of aliphatic amino acids among which Leucine (9.5% is predominant. Theoretical pI of 8.39 identified the protein as basic in nature and most of the amino acids present in N-Myristoyltransferase are hydrophobic (46.1%. Secondary structure analysis shows predominance of alpha helices and random coils. Motif analyses revealed that this target protein contains 2 signature motifs, i.e., EVNFLCVHK and KFGEGDG. Apart from motif search, three-dimensional model was generated and validated and the stereo-chemical quality check confirmed that 97.7% amino acid residues fall in the core region of Ramachandran plot. Molecular dynamics simulation resulted in maximum 1.3 Å Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD between the initial structure and the trajectories obtained later on. The template and the target molecule has shown 1.5 Å RMSD for the C alpha trace. A docking study was also conducted with various ligand molecules among which specific benzofuran compounds turned out to be effective. This derived information will help in designing new inhibitor molecules for this target protein as well in better understanding the parasite protein.

  15. Preparation and its drug release property of radiation-polymerized poly(methyl methacrylate) capsule including potassium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Masaru; Kumakura, Minoru; Kaetsu, Isao

    1979-01-01

    Porous flat circular capsules including KCl as a drug were prepared by radiation-induced polymerization of methyl methacrylate at room temperature in the presence of polyethylene glycol No. 600. The porous structure can be controlled by the methyl methacrylate-polyethylene glycol No. 600 composition. The amount of drug released was linearly related to the square root of time. The magnitude of drug release increased roughly in proportional to the water content of capsule, which can be related to porosity in the capsule. (author)

  16. HIV Model Parameter Estimates from Interruption Trial Data including Drug Efficacy and Reservoir Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Rutao; Piovoso, Michael J.; Martinez-Picado, Javier; Zurakowski, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical models based on ordinary differential equations (ODE) have had significant impact on understanding HIV disease dynamics and optimizing patient treatment. A model that characterizes the essential disease dynamics can be used for prediction only if the model parameters are identifiable from clinical data. Most previous parameter identification studies for HIV have used sparsely sampled data from the decay phase following the introduction of therapy. In this paper, model parameters are identified from frequently sampled viral-load data taken from ten patients enrolled in the previously published AutoVac HAART interruption study, providing between 69 and 114 viral load measurements from 3–5 phases of viral decay and rebound for each patient. This dataset is considerably larger than those used in previously published parameter estimation studies. Furthermore, the measurements come from two separate experimental conditions, which allows for the direct estimation of drug efficacy and reservoir contribution rates, two parameters that cannot be identified from decay-phase data alone. A Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo method is used to estimate the model parameter values, with initial estimates obtained using nonlinear least-squares methods. The posterior distributions of the parameter estimates are reported and compared for all patients. PMID:22815727

  17. 41 CFR 105-74.205 - What must I include in my drug-free workplace statement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I include in my drug-free workplace statement? 105-74.205 Section 105-74.205 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION...

  18. 41 CFR 105-74.215 - What must I include in my drug-free awareness program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I include in my drug-free awareness program? 105-74.215 Section 105-74.215 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION...

  19. Hydrogels synthesised through photoinitiator-free photopolymerisation technique for delivering drugs including a tumour-tracing porphyrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Loo-Teck; Swami, Salesh; Gordon-Thomson, Clare

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogels were synthesised using the photoinitiator-free photopolymerisation technique involving interactions between donor/acceptor pairs for delivering drugs of different molecular weights including a porphyrin used as a tumour-tracing agent. N-(5-hydroxy) pentylmaleimide, an acceptor, formed hydrogels with N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and N-vinylcaprolactum. Glucosamine, an effective H-donor in enhancing polymerisation as shown by Differential Photocalorimetric results, was found unsuitable for hydrogel preparation. Drugs of different molecular weights releasing at the same rate was discussed. The hydrogels were found to have no toxic effects and were biocompatible with a human keratinocyte cell line

  20. Applicability of bioanalysis of multiple analytes in drug discovery and development: review of select case studies including assay development considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2006-05-01

    The development of sound bioanalytical method(s) is of paramount importance during the process of drug discovery and development culminating in a marketing approval. Although the bioanalytical procedure(s) originally developed during the discovery stage may not necessarily be fit to support the drug development scenario, they may be suitably modified and validated, as deemed necessary. Several reviews have appeared over the years describing analytical approaches including various techniques, detection systems, automation tools that are available for an effective separation, enhanced selectivity and sensitivity for quantitation of many analytes. The intention of this review is to cover various key areas where analytical method development becomes necessary during different stages of drug discovery research and development process. The key areas covered in this article with relevant case studies include: (a) simultaneous assay for parent compound and metabolites that are purported to display pharmacological activity; (b) bioanalytical procedures for determination of multiple drugs in combating a disease; (c) analytical measurement of chirality aspects in the pharmacokinetics, metabolism and biotransformation investigations; (d) drug monitoring for therapeutic benefits and/or occupational hazard; (e) analysis of drugs from complex and/or less frequently used matrices; (f) analytical determination during in vitro experiments (metabolism and permeability related) and in situ intestinal perfusion experiments; (g) determination of a major metabolite as a surrogate for the parent molecule; (h) analytical approaches for universal determination of CYP450 probe substrates and metabolites; (i) analytical applicability to prodrug evaluations-simultaneous determination of prodrug, parent and metabolites; (j) quantitative determination of parent compound and/or phase II metabolite(s) via direct or indirect approaches; (k) applicability in analysis of multiple compounds in select

  1. Isolation and identification of flavonoids, including flavone rotamers, from the herbal drug 'Crataegi folium cum flore' (hawthorn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayyan, S; Fossen, T; Solheim Nateland, H; Andersen, O M

    2005-01-01

    Twelve flavonoids, including seven flavones, four flavonols and one flavanone, were isolated from methanolic extract of the herbal drug 'Crataegi folium cum flore' (hawthorn leaves and flowers) by a combination of CC (over Amberlite XAD-7 and Sephadex LH-20) and preparative HPLC. Their structures, including that of the novel flavonol 8-methoxykaempferol 3-O-(6"-malonyl-beta-glucopyranoside), were elucidated by homo- and heteronuclear NMR and electrospray/MS. The 1H- and 13C-NMR of all compounds, including rotameric pairs of five flavone C-glycosides, were assigned. The presence and relative proportion of each rotamer was shown by various NMR experiments, including two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser and exchange spectroscopy, to depend on solvent, linkage position and structure of the C-glycosyl substituent.

  2. Screening tests in toxicity or drug effect studies with use of centrifichem general-purpose spectrophotometeric analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, B.; Bercz, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    CentrifiChem System 400 general-purpose spectrophotometric analyzer which can process simultaneously 30 samples and reads the reactions within milliseconds was used for toxicity studies. Organic and inorganic chemicals were screened for inhibitory action of the hydrolytic activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca,Mg-ATPase and that of the sacrolemmal (SL) Na,K-ATPase, or mitochondrial ATPase (M). SR and SL were prepared from rabbit muscles, Na,K-ATPase from pig kidneys, M from pig hearts. Pseudosubstrates of paranitrophenyl phosphate and 2,4-dinitrophenyl phosphate, both proven high energy phosphate substitutes for ATPase coupled ion transfer were used. The reaction rates were followed spectrophotometrically at 405 nm measuring the accumulation of yellow nitrophenolate ions. The reported calcium transfer coupling ratio to hydrolysis of 2:1 was ascertained with use of 45 Ca in case of SR. Inhibition constants (pI) on SR, SL, and M for the pseudosubstrate hydrolysis will be given for over 20 chemicals tested. The applicability of the system to general toxicity testing and to general cardio-effective drug screening will be presented

  3. Using Statistics and Data Mining Approaches to Analyze Male Sexual Behaviors and Use of Erectile Dysfunction Drugs Based on Large Questionnaire Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Zhi; Li, Xiang; Liu, Haifeng; Zhang, Lei; Cao, Junyang; Xie, Guotong; Qin, Nan; Jiang, Hui; Lin, Haocheng

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) has been extensively studied worldwide. Erectile dysfunction drugs has shown great efficacy in preventing male erectile dysfunction. In order to help doctors know drug taken preference of patients and better prescribe, it is crucial to analyze who actually take erectile dysfunction drugs and the relation between sexual behaviors and drug use. Existing clinical studies usually used descriptive statistics and regression analysis based on small volume of data. In this paper, based on big volume of data (48,630 questionnaires), we use data mining approaches besides statistics and regression analysis to comprehensively analyze the relation between male sexual behaviors and use of erectile dysfunction drugs for unravelling the characteristic of patients who take erectile dysfunction drugs. We firstly analyze the impact of multiple sexual behavior factors on whether to use the erectile dysfunction drugs. Then, we explore to mine the Decision Rules for Stratification to discover patients who are more likely to take drugs. Based on the decision rules, the patients can be partitioned into four potential groups for use of erectile dysfunction: high potential group, intermediate potential-1 group, intermediate potential-2 group and low potential group. Experimental results show 1) the sexual behavior factors, erectile hardness and time length to prepare (how long to prepares for sexual behaviors ahead of time), have bigger impacts both in correlation analysis and potential drug taking patients discovering; 2) odds ratio between patients identified as low potential and high potential was 6.098 (95% confidence interval, 5.159-7.209) with statistically significant differences in taking drug potential detected between all potential groups.

  4. A luciferase-based assay for rapid assessment of drug activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis including monitoring of macrophage viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Marie C; Lerm, Maria; Ängeby, Kristian; Nordvall, Michaela; Juréen, Pontus; Schön, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    The intracellular (IC) effect of drugs against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is not well established but increasingly important to consider when combining current and future multidrug regimens into the best possible treatment strategies. For this purpose, we developed an IC model based on a genetically modified Mtb H37Rv strain, expressing the Vibrio harvei luciferase (H37Rv-lux) infecting the human macrophage like cell line THP-1. Cells were infected at a low multiplicity of infection (1:1) and subsequently exposed to isoniazid (INH), ethambutol (EMB), amikacin (AMI) or levofloxacin (LEV) for 5days in a 96-well format. Cell viability was evaluated by Calcein AM and was maintained throughout the experiment. The number of viable H37Rv-lux was determined by luminescence and verified by a colony forming unit analysis. The results were compared to the effects of the same drugs in broth cultures. AMI, EMB and LEV were significantly less effective intracellularly (MIC90: >4mg/L, 8mg/L and 2mg/L, respectively) compared to extracellularly (MIC90: 0.5mg/L for AMI and EMB; 0.25mg/L for LEV). The reverse was the case for INH (IC: 0.064mg/L vs EC: 0.25mg/L). In conclusion, this luciferase based method, in which monitoring of cell viability is included, has the potential to become a useful tool while evaluating the intracellular effects of anti-mycobacterial drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Mapping and Analyzing Stakeholders in China's Essential Drug System by Using a Circular Model: Who We Should Deal with Next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Hui; Li, Shixue; Xu, Lingzhong; Yang, Shuang; Thomas, Nicholas J; Mir, Mohammed Umer; Guo, Zhen; Ning, Bo; Shi, Lizheng

    2015-05-01

    To predict the prospects of the essential drug system by using the Stakeholder Impact Index (SII) and evaluate the current performance of each main stakeholder and suggested dangerous stakeholders and dormant stakeholders. A Delphi method was used, involving 36 experts with experience in implementation and evaluation of the essential drug policy, to construct the circular model as well as evaluate the performance of each stakeholder. The central government was a dominant stakeholder of the whole essential drug system. The provincial governments were definitive stakeholders, whereas local governments and medical institutions were dependent stakeholders. Furthermore, media and drug stores were dormant stakeholders and pharmaceutical manufacturers and delivery enterprises were dangerous stakeholders. Patients, community residents, and medical insurance programs were discretionary stakeholders. The SII for the essential drug system was positive (SII proj ⁎ = 2.72). The overall anticipation of the essential drug policy is optimistic. Letting definitive stakeholders (provincial governments) having more autonomy can efficiently accelerate the pace of implementation of the essential drug policy in the current situation. Central government, however, also needs to construct an experience exchange platform with the aim of building versatile methods for running the essential drug system in all provinces. Pharmaceutical manufacturers and delivery enterprises were dangerous stakeholders for the essential drug policy. Because of their potential threat to the implementation of the policy, the central government should motivate them to support the construction of the essential drug system spontaneously. In that case, provincial governments need to construct a fair, balanced, and self-stabilized bidding platform. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The use of real-time cell analyzer technology in drug discovery: defining optimal cell culture conditions and assay reproducibility with different adherent cellular models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atienzar, Franck A; Tilmant, Karen; Gerets, Helga H; Toussaint, Gaelle; Speeckaert, Sebastien; Hanon, Etienne; Depelchin, Olympe; Dhalluin, Stephane

    2011-07-01

    The use of impedance-based label-free technology applied to drug discovery is nowadays receiving more and more attention. Indeed, such a simple and noninvasive assay that interferes minimally with cell morphology and function allows one to perform kinetic measurements and to obtain information on proliferation, migration, cytotoxicity, and receptor-mediated signaling. The objective of the study was to further assess the usefulness of a real-time cell analyzer (RTCA) platform based on impedance in the context of quality control and data reproducibility. The data indicate that this technology is useful to determine the best coating and cellular density conditions for different adherent cellular models including hepatocytes, cardiomyocytes, fibroblasts, and hybrid neuroblastoma/neuronal cells. Based on 31 independent experiments, the reproducibility of cell index data generated from HepG2 cells exposed to DMSO and to Triton X-100 was satisfactory, with a coefficient of variation close to 10%. Cell index data were also well reproduced when cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts were exposed to 21 compounds three times (correlation >0.91, p technology appears to be a powerful and reliable tool in drug discovery because of the reasonable throughput, rapid and efficient performance, technical optimization, and cell quality control.

  7. Including adverse drug events in economic evaluations of anti-tumour necrosis factor-α drugs for adult rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review of economic decision analytic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather, Eleanor M; Payne, Katherine; Harrison, Mark; Symmons, Deborah P M

    2014-02-01

    Anti-tumour necrosis factor-α drugs (anti-TNFs) have revolutionised the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). More effective than standard non-biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (nbDMARDs), anti-TNFs are also substantially more expensive. Consequently, a number of model-based economic evaluations have been conducted to establish the relative cost-effectiveness of anti-TNFs. However, anti-TNFs are associated with an increased risk of adverse drug events (ADEs) such as serious infections relative to nbDMARDs. Such ADEs will likely impact on both the costs and consequences of anti-TNFs, for example, through hospitalisations and forced withdrawal from treatment. The aim of this review was to identify and critically appraise if, and how, ADEs have been incorporated into model-based cost-effectiveness analyses of anti-TNFs for adult patients with RA. A systematic literature review was performed. Electronic databases (Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid EMBASE; Web of Science; NHS Economic Evaluations Database) were searched for literature published between January 1990 and October 2013 using electronic search strategies. The reference lists of retrieved studies were also hand searched. In addition, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence technology appraisals were searched to identify economic models used to inform UK healthcare decision making. Only full economic evaluations that had used an economic model to evaluate biological DMARDs (bDMARDs) (including anti-TNFs) for adult patients with RA and had incorporated the direct costs and/or consequences of ADEs were critically appraised. To be included, studies also had to be available as a full text in English. Data extracted included general study characteristics and information concerning the methods used to incorporate ADEs and any associated assumptions made. The extracted data were synthesised using a tabular and narrative format. A total of 43 model-based economic evaluations of bDMARDs for adult RA

  8. Use of fatal real-life crashes to analyze a safe road transport system model, including the road user, the vehicle, and the road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigson, Helena; Krafft, Maria; Tingvall, Claes

    2008-10-01

    To evaluate if the Swedish Road Administration (SRA) model for a safe road transport system, which includes the interaction between the road user, the vehicle, and the road, could be used to classify fatal car crashes according to some safety indicators. Also, to present a development of the model to better identify system weakness. Real-life crashes with a fatal outcome were classified according to the vehicle's safety rating by Euro NCAP (European Road Assessment Programme) and fitment of ESC (Electronic Stability Control). For each crash, the road was also classified according to EuroRAP (European Road Assessment Programme) criteria, and human behavior in terms of speeding, seat belt use, and driving under the influence of alcohol. Each crash was compared with the model criteria, to identify components that might have contributed to fatal outcome. All fatal crashes where a car occupant was killed that occurred in Sweden during 2004 were included: in all, 215 crashes with 248 fatalities. The data were collected from the in-depth fatal crash data of the Swedish Road Administration (SRA). It was possible to classify 93% of the fatal car crashes according to the SRA model. A number of shortcomings in the criteria were identified since the model did not address rear-end or animal collisions or collisions with stationary/parked vehicles or trailers (18 out of 248 cases). Using the further developed model, it was possible to identify that most of the crashes occurred when two or all three components interacted (in 85 of the total 230 cases). Noncompliance with safety criteria for the road user, the vehicle, and the road led to fatal outcome in 43, 27, and 75 cases, respectively. The SRA model was found to be useful for classifying fatal crashes but needs to be further developed to identify how the components interact and thereby identify weaknesses in the road traffic system. This developed model might be a tool to systematically identify which of the components are

  9. Transient analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, M.D.

    1975-01-01

    The design and design philosophy of a high performance, extremely versatile transient analyzer is described. This sub-system was designed to be controlled through the data acquisition computer system which allows hands off operation. Thus it may be placed on the experiment side of the high voltage safety break between the experimental device and the control room. This analyzer provides control features which are extremely useful for data acquisition from PPPL diagnostics. These include dynamic sample rate changing, which may be intermixed with multiple post trigger operations with variable length blocks using normal, peak to peak or integrate modes. Included in the discussion are general remarks on the advantages of adding intelligence to transient analyzers, a detailed description of the characteristics of the PPPL transient analyzer, a description of the hardware, firmware, control language and operation of the PPPL transient analyzer, and general remarks on future trends in this type of instrumentation both at PPPL and in general

  10. Evaluation of three rapid oral fluid test devices on the screening of multiple drugs of abuse including ketamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Magdalene H Y; Ching, C K; Poon, Simon; Chan, Suzanne S S; Ng, W Y; Lam, M; Wong, C K; Pao, Ronnie; Lau, Angus; Mak, Tony W L

    2018-05-01

    Rapid oral fluid testing (ROFT) devices have been extensively evaluated for their ability to detect common drugs of abuse; however, the performance of such devices on simultaneous screening for ketamine has been scarcely investigated. The present study evaluated three ROFT devices (DrugWipe ® 6S, Ora-Check ® and SalivaScreen ® ) on the detection of ketamine, opiates, methamphetamine, cannabis, cocaine and MDMA. A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS) assay was firstly established and validated for confirmation analysis of the six types of drugs and/or their metabolites. In the field test, the three ROFT devices were tested on subjects recruited from substance abuse clinics/rehabilitation centre. Oral fluid was also collected using Quantisal ® for confirmation analysis. A total of 549 samples were collected in the study. LCMS analysis on 491 samples revealed the following drugs: codeine (55%), morphine (49%), heroin (40%), methamphetamine (35%), THC (8%), ketamine (4%) and cocaine (2%). No MDMA-positive cases were observed. Results showed that the overall specificity and accuracy were satisfactory and met the DRUID standard of >80% for all 3 devices. Ora-Check ® had poor sensitivities (ketamine 36%, methamphetamine 63%, opiates 53%, cocaine 60%, THC 0%). DrugWipe ® 6S showed good sensitivities in the methamphetamine (83%) and opiates (93%) tests but performed relatively poorly for ketamine (41%), cocaine (43%) and THC (22%). SalivaScreen ® also demonstrated good sensitivities in the methamphetamine (83%) and opiates (100%) tests, and had the highest sensitivity for ketamine (76%) and cocaine (71%); however, it failed to detect any of the 28 THC-positive cases. The test completion rate (proportion of tests completed with quality control passed) were: 52% (Ora-Check ® ), 78% (SalivaScreen ® ) and 99% (DrugWipe ® 6S). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Advantages of analyzing postmortem brain samples in routine forensic drug screening—case series of three non-natural deaths tested positive for lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardal, Marie; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Thomsen, Ragnar

    2017-01-01

    Three case reports are presented, including autopsy findings and toxicological screening results, which were tested positive for the potent hallucinogenic drug lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). LSD and its main metabolites were quantified in brain tissue and femoral blood, and furthermore hematoma...

  12. Despite 2007 law requiring FDA hotline to be included in print drug ads, reporting of adverse events by consumers still low.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Dongyi; Goldsmith, John; Aikin, Kathryn J; Encinosa, William E; Nardinelli, Clark

    2012-05-01

    In 2007 the federal government began requiring drug makers to include in their print direct-to-consumer advertisements information for consumers on how to contact the Food and Drug Administration directly, either by phone or through the agency's website, to report any adverse events that they experienced after taking a prescription drug. Adverse events can range from minor skin problems like itching to serious injuries or illness that result in hospitalization, permanent disability, or even death. Even so, current rates of adverse event reporting are low. We studied adverse event reports about 123 drugs that came from patients before and after the enactment of the print advertising requirement and estimated that requirement's impact with model simulations. We found that if monthly spending on print direct-to-consumer advertising increased from zero to $7.7 million per drug, the presence of the Food and Drug Administration contact information tripled the increase in patient-reported adverse events, compared to what would have happened in the absence of the law. However, the absolute monthly increase was fewer than 0.24 reports per drug, suggesting that the public health impact of the increase was small and that the adverse event reporting rate would still be low. The study results suggest that additional measures, such as more publicity about the Adverse Event Reporting System or more consumer education, should be considered to promote patient reporting of adverse events.

  13. Radiometric analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arima, S.; Oda, M.; Miyashita, K.; Takada, M.

    1977-01-01

    A radiometric analyzer for measuring the characteristic values of a sample by radiation includes a humer of radiation measuring subsystems having different ratios of sensitivities to the elements of the sample and linearizing circuits having inverse function characteristics of calibration functions which correspond to the radiation measuring subsystems. A weighing adder operates a desirable linear combination of the outputs of the linearizing circuits. Operators for operating between two or more different linear combinations are included

  14. Electrodes for high-definition transcutaneous DC stimulation for applications in drug-delivery and electrotherapy, including tDCS

    OpenAIRE

    Minhas, Preet; Bansal, Varun; Patel, Jinal; Ho, Johnson S.; Diaz, Julian; Datta, Abhishek; Bikson, Marom

    2010-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical stimulation is applied in a range of biomedical applications including Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS). tDCS is a non-invasive procedure where a weak direct current (

  15. Advantages of analyzing postmortem brain samples in routine forensic drug screening-Case series of three non-natural deaths tested positive for lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardal, Marie; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Thomsen, Ragnar; Linnet, Kristian

    2017-09-01

    Three case reports are presented, including autopsy findings and toxicological screening results, which were tested positive for the potent hallucinogenic drug lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). LSD and its main metabolites were quantified in brain tissue and femoral blood, and furthermore hematoma and urine when available. LSD, its main metabolite 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD (oxo-HO-LSD), and iso-LSD were quantified in biological samples according to a previously published procedure involving liquid-liquid extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). LSD was measured in the brain tissue of all presented cases at a concentration level from 0.34-10.8μg/kg. The concentration level in the target organ was higher than in peripheral blood. Additional psychoactive compounds were quantified in blood and brain tissue, though all below toxic concentration levels. The cause of death in case 1 was collision-induced brain injury, while it was drowning in case 2 and 3 and thus not drug intoxication. However, the toxicological findings could help explain the decedent's inability to cope with brain injury or drowning incidents. The presented findings could help establish reference concentrations in brain samples and assist in interpretation of results from forensic drug screening in brain tissue. This is to the author's knowledge the first report of LSD, iso-LSD, and oxo-HO-LSD measured in brain tissue samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Inadequate recording of alcohol-drinking, tobacco-smoking and discharge diagnosis in medical in-patients: failure to recognize risks including drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairstow, B M; Burke, V; Beilin, L J; Deutscher, C

    1993-11-01

    The records of 62 men and 43 women, 14-88 years old, admitted to general medical wards in a public teaching hospital during 1991 were examined for discharge medications and for the recording of alcohol-drinking, tobacco-smoking and discharge diagnosis. Drinking and smoking status was unrecorded in 22.9% and 21.9% of patients respectively. Twenty-four patients had 31 potential drug interactions which were related to the number of drugs prescribed and to drinking alcohol; 10.5% of the patients had interactions involving alcohol and 2.9% tobacco. Six patients received relatively or absolutely contraindicated drugs, including one asthmatic given two beta-blockers. The drugs prescribed indicated that some patients had conditions such as gastro-oesophageal disorders, diabetes and obstructive airways disease which had not been recorded. Inadequate recording of diagnoses, alcohol and smoking status creates risks to patients and may cause opportunities for preventive care to be missed. This study provides the basis for the development of undergraduate and postgraduate education programmes to address these issues and so decrease risks to patients which arise from inadequate recording practices. Incomplete diagnoses also adversely affect hospital funding where this depends on case-mix diagnostic groups. Quality assurance programmes and other strategies are being implemented to improve medical recording and prescribing habits.

  17. The association of antidepressant drug usage with cognitive impairment or dementia, including Alzheimer disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraros, John; Nwankwo, Chijioke; Patten, Scott B; Mousseau, Darrell D

    2017-03-01

    To determine if antidepressant drug usage is associated with cognitive impairment or dementia, including Alzheimer disease (AD). We conducted a systematic search of Medline, PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Embase, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library. An initial screen by abstracts and titles was performed, and relevant full articles were then reviewed and assessed for their methodologic quality. Crude effect estimates were extracted from the included articles and a pooled estimate was obtained using a random effects model. Five articles were selected from an initial pool of 4,123 articles. Use of antidepressant drugs was associated with a significant twofold increase in the odds of some form of cognitive impairment or dementia (OR = 2.17). Age was identified as a likely modifier of the association between antidepressant use and some form of cognitive impairment or AD/dementia. Studies that included participants with an average age equal to or greater than 65 years showed an increased odds of some form of cognitive impairment with antidepressant drug usage (OR = 1.65), whereas those with participants less than age 65 revealed an even stronger association (OR = 3.25). Antidepressant drug usage is associated with AD/dementia and this is particularly evident if usage begins before age 65. This association may arise due to confounding by depression or depression severity. However, biological mechanisms potentially linking antidepressant exposure to dementia have been described, so an etiological effect of antidepressants is possible. With this confirmation that an association exists, clarification of underlying etiologic pathways requires urgent attention. © 2016 The Authors. Depression and Anxiety published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The association of antidepressant drug usage with cognitive impairment or dementia, including Alzheimer disease: A systematic review and meta‐analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraros, John; Nwankwo, Chijioke; Patten, Scott B.

    2016-01-01

    1 Objective To determine if antidepressant drug usage is associated with cognitive impairment or dementia, including Alzheimer disease (AD). 2 Method We conducted a systematic search of Medline, PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Embase, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library. An initial screen by abstracts and titles was performed, and relevant full articles were then reviewed and assessed for their methodologic quality. Crude effect estimates were extracted from the included articles and a pooled estimate was obtained using a random effects model. 3 Results Five articles were selected from an initial pool of 4,123 articles. Use of antidepressant drugs was associated with a significant twofold increase in the odds of some form of cognitive impairment or dementia (OR = 2.17). Age was identified as a likely modifier of the association between antidepressant use and some form of cognitive impairment or AD/dementia. Studies that included participants with an average age equal to or greater than 65 years showed an increased odds of some form of cognitive impairment with antidepressant drug usage (OR = 1.65), whereas those with participants less than age 65 revealed an even stronger association (OR = 3.25). 4 Conclusions Antidepressant drug usage is associated with AD/dementia and this is particularly evident if usage begins before age 65. This association may arise due to confounding by depression or depression severity. However, biological mechanisms potentially linking antidepressant exposure to dementia have been described, so an etiological effect of antidepressants is possible. With this confirmation that an association exists, clarification of underlying etiologic pathways requires urgent attention. PMID:28029715

  19. Performance of the linear ion trap Orbitrap mass analyzer for qualitative and quantitative analysis of drugs of abuse and relevant metabolites in sewage water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijlsma, Lubertus; Emke, Erik; Hernández, Félix; de Voogt, Pim

    2013-03-20

    This work illustrates the potential of liquid chromatography coupled to a hybrid linear ion trap Fourier Transform Orbitrap mass spectrometer for the simultaneous identification and quantification of 24 drugs of abuse and relevant metabolites in sewage water. The developed methodology consisted of automatic solid-phase extraction using Oasis HLB cartridges, chromatographic separation of the targeted drugs, full-scan accurate mass data acquisition under positive electrospray ionization mode over an m/z range of 50-600Da at a resolution of 30,000 FWHM and simultaneous MS(n) measurements to obtain information of fragment ions generated in the linear ion trap. Accurate mass of the protonated molecule, together with at least one nominal mass product ion and retention time allowed the confident identification of the compounds detected in these complex matrices. In addition to the highly reliable qualitative analysis, Orbitrap analyzer also proved to have satisfactory potential for quantification at sub-ppb analyte levels, a possibility that has been very little explored in the literature until now. The limits of quantification ranged from 4 to 68ngL(-1) in influent sewage water, and from 2 to 35ngL(-1) in effluent, with the exception of MDA, morphine and THC that presented higher values as a consequence of the high ionization suppression in this type of samples. Satisfactory recoveries (70-120%) and precision (abuse could be identified and quantified, mainly MDMA, benzoylecgonine, codeine, oxazepam and temazepam. Orbitrap also showed potential for retrospective investigation of ketamine metabolites in the samples without the need of additional analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Advantages of analyzing postmortem brain samples in routine forensic drug screening—case series of three non-natural deaths tested positive for lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardal, Marie; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Thomsen, Ragnar

    2017-01-01

    Three case reports are presented, including autopsy findings and toxicological screening results, which were tested positive for the potent hallucinogenic drug lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). LSD and its main metabolites were quantified in brain tissue and femoral blood, and furthermore hematoma...... and urine when available. LSD, its main metabolite 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD (oxo-HO-LSD), and iso-LSD were quantified in biological samples according to a previously published procedure involving liquid-liquid extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography − tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC......-MS/MS). LSD was measured in the brain tissue of all presented cases at a concentration level from 0.34 −10.8 μg/kg. The concentration level in the target organ was higher than in peripheral blood. Additional psychoactive compounds were quantified in blood and brain tissue, though all below toxic concentration...

  1. Novel Approaches for Visualizing and Analyzing Dose-Timing Data from Electronic Drug Monitors, or "How the 'Broken Window' Theory Pertains to ART Adherence".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Christopher J; DeSilva, Mary Bachman; Hamer, Davidson H; Keyi, Xu; Wilson, Ira B; Sabin, Lora

    2015-11-01

    Adherence to antiretroviral medications is usually expressed in terms of the proportion of doses taken. However, the timing of doses taken may also be an important dimension to overall adherence. Little is known about whether patients who mistime doses are also more likely to skip doses. Using data from the completed Adherence for Life randomized controlled trial, we created visual and statistical models to capture and analyze dose timing data collected longitudinally with electronic drug monitors (EDM). From scatter plots depicting dose time versus calendar date, we identified dominant patterns of dose taking and calculated key features [slope of line over calendar date; residual mean standard error (RMSE)]. Each was assessed for its ability to categorize subjects with 'sub-optimal' (<95 % of doses taken) using area under the receiver operating characteristic (AROC) curve analysis. Sixty eight subjects contributed EDM data, with ~300 to 400 observations/subject. While regression line slopes did not predict 'sub-optimal' adherence (AROC 0.51, 95 % CI 0.26-0.75), the variability in dose timing (RMSE) was strongly predictive (AROC 0.79, 95 % CI 0.62-0.97). Compared with the lowest quartile of RMSE (minimal dose time variability), each successive quartile roughly doubled the odds of 'sub-optimal' adherence (OR 2.1, 95 % CI 1.3-3.4). Patterns of dose timing and mistiming are strongly related to overall adherence behavior. Notably, individuals who skip doses are more likely to mistime doses, with the degree of risk positively correlated with the extent of dose timing variability.

  2. Mathematical model to analyze the dissolution behavior of metastable crystals or amorphous drug accompanied with a solid-liquid interface reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Daiki; Iwao, Yasunori; Kimura, Shin-Ichiro; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2017-04-30

    Metastable crystals and the amorphous state of poorly water-soluble drugs in solid dispersions (SDs), are subject to a solid-liquid interface reaction upon exposure to a solvent. The dissolution behavior during the solid-liquid interface reaction often shows that the concentration of drugs is supersaturated, with a high initial drug concentration compared with the solubility of stable crystals but finally approaching the latter solubility with time. However, a method for measuring the precipitation rate of stable crystals and/or the potential solubility of metastable crystals or amorphous drugs has not been established. In this study, a novel mathematical model that can represent the dissolution behavior of the solid-liquid interface reaction for metastable crystals or amorphous drug was developed and its validity was evaluated. The theory for this model was based on the Noyes-Whitney equation and assumes that the precipitation of stable crystals at the solid-liquid interface occurs through a first-order reaction. Moreover, two models were developed, one assuming that the surface area of the drug remains constant because of the presence of excess drug in the bulk and the other that the surface area changes in time-dependency because of agglomeration of the drug. SDs of Ibuprofen (IB)/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were prepared and their dissolution behaviors under non-sink conditions were fitted by the models to evaluate improvements in solubility. The model assuming time-dependent surface area showed good agreement with experimental values. Furthermore, by applying the model to the dissolution profile, parameters such as the precipitation rate and the potential solubility of the amorphous drug were successfully calculated. In addition, it was shown that the improvement in solubility with supersaturation was able to be evaluated quantitatively using this model. Therefore, this mathematical model would be a useful tool to quantitatively determine the supersaturation

  3. Dynamics of Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Joan H.; Holden, Raymond H.

    1977-01-01

    This paper analyzes data from interviews with 167 drug users in the community, including age, sex, birth order, education, family constellation, and circumstances of first drug use. The majority of subjects had tried to stop using drugs, but most had been unsuccessful at the time of the interview. (Author)

  4. Antibacterial and antibiotic resistance modifying activity of the extracts from Allanblackia gabonensis, Combretum molle and Gladiolus quartinianus against Gram-negative bacteria including multi-drug resistant phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fankam, Aimé G; Kuiate, Jules R; Kuete, Victor

    2015-06-30

    Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is becoming a serious problem worldwide. The discovery of new and effective antimicrobials and/or resistance modulators is necessary to tackle the spread of resistance or to reverse the multi-drug resistance. We investigated the antibacterial and antibiotic-resistance modifying activities of the methanol extracts from Allanblackia gabonensis, Gladiolus quartinianus and Combretum molle against 29 Gram-negative bacteria including multi-drug resistant (MDR) phenotypes. The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of the samples meanwhile the standard phytochemical methods were used for the preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant extracts. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols and tannins in all studied extracts. Other chemical classes of secondary metabolites were selectively presents. Extracts from A. gabonensis and C. molle displayed a broad spectrum of activity with MICs varying from 16 to 1024 μg/mL against about 72.41% of the tested bacteria. The extract from the fruits of A. gabonensis had the best activity, with MIC values below 100 μg/mL on 37.9% of tested bacteria. Percentages of antibiotic-modulating effects ranging from 67 to 100% were observed against tested MDR bacteria when combining the leaves extract from C. molle (at MIC/2 and MIC/4) with chloramphenicol, kanamycin, streptomycin and tetracycline. The overall results of the present study provide information for the possible use of the studied plant, especially Allanblackia gabonensis and Combretum molle in the control of Gram-negative bacterial infections including MDR species as antibacterials as well as resistance modulators.

  5. On-Demand Urine Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan

    2010-01-01

    A lab-on-a-chip was developed that is capable of extracting biochemical indicators from urine samples and generating their surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) so that the indicators can be quantified and identified. The development was motivated by the need to monitor and assess the effects of extended weightlessness, which include space motion sickness and loss of bone and muscle mass. The results may lead to developments of effective exercise programs and drug regimes that would maintain astronaut health. The analyzer containing the lab-on-a- chip includes materials to extract 3- methylhistidine (a muscle-loss indicator) and Risedronate (a bone-loss indicator) from the urine sample and detect them at the required concentrations using a Raman analyzer. The lab-on- a-chip has both an extractive material and a SERS-active material. The analyzer could be used to monitor the onset of diseases, such as osteoporosis.

  6. Biomedical HIV Prevention Including Pre-exposure Prophylaxis and Opiate Agonist Therapy for Women Who Inject Drugs: State of Research and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Kimberly; Tsui, Judith; Maher, Lisa; Choopanya, Kachit; Vanichseni, Suphak; Mock, Philip A; Celum, Connie; Martin, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Women who inject drugs (WWID) are at higher risk of HIV compared with their male counterparts as a result of multiple factors, including biological, behavioral, and sociostructural factors, yet comparatively little effort has been invested in testing and delivering prevention methods that directly target this group. In this article, we discuss the need for expanded prevention interventions for WWID, focusing on 2 safe, effective, and approved, yet underutilized biomedical prevention methods: opiate agonist therapy (OAT) and oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Although both interventions are well researched, they have not been well examined in the context of gender. We discuss the drivers of women injectors' higher HIV risk, review the effectiveness of OAT and PrEP interventions among women, and explain why these new HIV prevention tools should be prioritized for WWID. There is substantial potential for impact of OAT and PrEP programs for WWID in the context of broader gender-responsive HIV prevention initiatives. Although awaiting efficacy data on other biomedical approaches in the HIV prevention research "pipeline," we propose that the scale-up and implementation of these proven, safe, and effective interventions are needed now.

  7. Performance of the linear ion trap Orbitrap mass analyzer for qualitative and quantitative analysis of drugs of abuse and relevant metabolites in sewage water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, L.; Emke, E.; Hernández, F.; de Voogt, P.

    2013-01-01

    This work illustrates the potential of liquid chromatography coupled to a hybrid linear ion trap Fourier Transform Orbitrap mass spectrometer for the simultaneous identification and quantification of 24 drugs of abuse and relevant metabolites in sewage water. The developed methodology consisted of

  8. Contamination Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Measurement of the total organic carbon content in water is important in assessing contamination levels in high purity water for power generation, pharmaceutical production and electronics manufacture. Even trace levels of organic compounds can cause defects in manufactured products. The Sievers Model 800 Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Analyzer, based on technology developed for the Space Station, uses a strong chemical oxidizing agent and ultraviolet light to convert organic compounds in water to carbon dioxide. After ionizing the carbon dioxide, the amount of ions is determined by measuring the conductivity of the deionized water. The new technique is highly sensitive, does not require compressed gas, and maintenance is minimal.

  9. Five-year examination of utilization and drug cost outcomes associated with benefit design changes including reference pricing for proton pump inhibitors in a state employee health plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jill T; Neill, Kathryn K; Davis, Dwight A

    2011-04-01

    The Arkansas State Employee Benefits Division (EBD) is a self-insured program comprising public school and other state employees, their spouses, and dependents. Previous research published in JMCP (2006) showed drug cost savings of $2.20 per member per month (PMPM; 37.6%) or annualized savings of $3.4 million associated with a benefit design change and coverage of the proton pump inhibitor (PPI) omeprazole over-the-counter (OTC) beginning in March 2004. On May 1, 2005, brand esomeprazole was excluded from coverage, with current users grandfathered for 4 months until September 2005. Reference pricing for PPIs, including esomeprazole but excluding generic omeprazole, was implemented on September 1, 2005, and the beneficiary cost share for all PPIs except generic omeprazole was determined from comparison of the PPI actual price to the $0.90 omeprazole OTC reference price per unit. To examine PPI utilization and drug costs before and after (a) excluding esomeprazole from coverage (with grandfathering current users) and (b) implementing a therapeutic maximum allowable cost (TMAC), or reference-pricing benefit design, for the PPI class in a large state employee health plan with fairly stable enrollment of approximately 127,500 members in 2005 through 2008 and approximately 128,000 members in 2009 Q1. The pharmacy claims database for the EBD was used to examine utilization and cost data for PPIs in a longitudinal analysis for the 61-month period from March 1, 2004, through March 31, 2009. Pharmacy claims data were compared for the period 14 months prior to esomeprazole exclusion (preperiod), 4 months during the esomeprazole exclusion (postperiod 1), and the ensuing 43 months of PPI reference pricing (postperiod 2). PPI cost and utilization data for the intervention group of approximately 127,500 beneficiaries were compared with a group of 122 self-insured employers with a total of nearly 1 million beneficiaries whose pharmacy benefits did not include reference pricing for

  10. Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cocaine Heroin Inhalants Marijuana Prescription drugs, including opioids Drug abuse also plays a role in many major social problems, such as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to ...

  11. X-ray microfluorescence as a tool to analyze elemental changes in femur head induced by chemotherapy drugs for the treatment of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickler, A.; Mota, C. L.; Mantuano, A.; Salata, C.; Nogueira, L. P.; Almeida, A. P.; Alessio, R.; Sena, G.; Braz, D.; de Almeida, C. E. V.; Barroso, R. C.

    2015-11-01

    Recently some developments in a large number of investigative techniques have been made with the objective to obtain a micrometer spatial resolution imaging of elemental concentrations. The X-ray microfluorescence analysis (μXRF) is one of those techniques which is based on the localized excitation of a small area on the surface of sample, providing information of all elements contained in the material under study. Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in Brazilian women. The main treatment strategies for the breast cancer are surgery and chemotherapy. As bone loss is one of the possible chemotherapy side effects, in this work was used μXRF technique on femoral head samples of female Wistar rats to evaluate Ca, Fe and Zn concentrations in order to investigate possible elemental changes in bone caused by the chemotherapy. Fifteen female rats were divided randomly in groups (five rats each). G1 group received doses of doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide drugs and G2 group was treated with docetaxel/cyclophosphamide drugs. μXRF measurements were carried out at the X-ray XRF beamline in the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory. The results showed significant decrease especially in Ca concentrations when comparing the treated groups with the control group.

  12. Factors for incomplete adherence to antiretroviral therapy including drug refill and clinic visits among older adults living with human immunodeficiency virus - cross-sectional study in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Abbie; Ford, Nathan; El-Khatib, Ziad

    2018-03-01

    To assess adherence outcomes to antiretroviral therapy (ART) of recipients ≥50 years in Soweto, South Africa. This was a secondary data analysis for a cross-sectional study at two HIV clinics in Soweto. Data on ART adherence and covariates were gathered through structured interviews with HIV 878 persons living with HIV (PLHIV) receiving ART. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations. PLHIV ≥50 years (n = 103) were more likely to miss clinic visits during the last six months than PLHIV aged 25-49 (OR 2.15; 95%CI 1.10-4.18). PLHIV ≥50 years with no or primary-level education were less likely to have missed a clinic visit during the last six months than PLHIV with secondary- or tertiary-level education in the same age category (OR 0.3; 95%CI 0.1-1.1), as were PLHIV who did not disclose their status (OR 0.2; 95%CI 0-1.1). There was no evidence of increased risk for non-adherence to ART pills and drug refill visits among older PLHIV. Missing a clinic visit was more common among older PLHIV who were more financially vulnerable. Further studies are needed to verify these findings and identify new risk factors associated with ART adherence. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Simplifying sample pretreatment: application of dried blood spot (DBS) method to blood samples, including postmortem, for UHPLC-MS/MS analysis of drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoardi, Sara; Anzillotti, Luca; Strano-Rossi, Sabina

    2014-10-01

    The complexity of biological matrices, such as blood, requires the development of suitably selective and reliable sample pretreatment procedures prior to their instrumental analysis. A method has been developed for the analysis of drugs of abuse and their metabolites from different chemical classes (opiates, methadone, fentanyl and analogues, cocaine, amphetamines and amphetamine-like substances, ketamine, LSD) in human blood using dried blood spot (DBS) and subsequent UHPLC-MS/MS analysis. DBS extraction required only 100μL of sample, added with the internal standards and then three droplets (30μL each) of this solution were spotted on the card, let dry for 1h, punched and extracted with methanol with 0.1% of formic acid. The supernatant was evaporated and the residue was then reconstituted in 100μL of water with 0.1% of formic acid and injected in the UHPLC-MS/MS system. The method was validated considering the following parameters: LOD and LOQ, linearity, precision, accuracy, matrix effect and dilution integrity. LODs were 0.05-1ng/mL and LOQs were 0.2-2ng/mL. The method showed satisfactory linearity for all substances, with determination coefficients always higher than 0.99. Intra and inter day precision, accuracy, matrix effect and dilution integrity were acceptable for all the studied substances. The addition of internal standards before DBS extraction and the deposition of a fixed volume of blood on the filter cards ensured the accurate quantification of the analytes. The validated method was then applied to authentic postmortem blood samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact assessment of the European Clinical Trials Directive: a longitudinal, prospective, observational study analyzing patterns and trends in clinical drug trial applications submitted since 2001 to regulatory agencies in six EU countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmann Markus

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shifts in clinical trial application rates over time indicate if the attractiveness of a country or region for the conduct of clinical trials is growing or decreasing. The purpose of this observational study was to track changes in drug trial application patterns across several EU countries in order to analyze the medium-term impact of the EU Clinical Trials Directive 2001/20/EC on the conduct of drug trials. Methods Rates of Clinical Trial Applications (CTA for studies with medicinal products in those six countries in the EU, which authorize on average more than 500 trials per year, were analyzed. Publicly available figures on the number of annually submitted CTA, the distribution of trials per phase and the type of sponsorship were tracked; missing data were provided by national drug agencies. Results Since 2001, the number of CTA in Italy and Spain increased significantly (5.0 and 2.5% average annual growth. For Italy, the gain was driven by a strong increase of applications from academic trial sponsors; Spain's growth was due to a rise in trials run by commercial sponsors. The Netherlands, Germany, France and the UK saw a decline (1.9, 2.3, 3.0 and 5.3% average annual diminution; significant (P Conclusions The EU Clinical Trials Directive 2001/20/EC did not achieve the harmonization of clinical trial requirements across Europe. Rather, it resulted in the leveling of clinical trial activities caused by a continuing decrease in CTA rates in the Netherlands, Germany, France and the UK. Southern European countries, Italy and Spain, benefited to some extent from policy changes introduced by the Directive. In Italy's case, national funding measures helped to considerably promote the conduct of non-commercial trials. On the other hand, the EU Directive-driven transition from liberal policy environments, based on non-explicit trial approval through notifications, towards red-taped processes of trial authorization, contributed to

  15. Analyzing Political Television Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burson, George

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan to help students understand that political advertisements often mislead, lie, or appeal to emotion. Suggests that the lesson will enable students to examine political advertisements analytically. Includes a worksheet to be used by students to analyze individual political advertisements. (DK)

  16. Centrifugal analyzer development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtis, C.A.; Bauer, M.L.; Bostick, W.D.

    1976-01-01

    The development of the centrifuge fast analyzer (CFA) is reviewed. The development of a miniature CFA with computer data analysis is reported and applications for automated diagnostic chemical and hematological assays are discussed. A portable CFA system with microprocessor was adapted for field assays of air and water samples for environmental pollutants, including ammonia, nitrates, nitrites, phosphates, sulfates, and silica. 83 references

  17. The anti-hepatitis drug use effect and inventory management optimization from the perspective of hospital drug supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhanyu

    2017-09-01

    By analyzing the current hospital anti hepatitis drug use, dosage, indications and drug resistance, this article studied the drug inventory management and cost optimization. The author used drug utilization evaluation method, analyzed the amount and kind distribution of anti hepatitis drugs and made dynamic monitoring of inventory. At the same time, the author puts forward an effective scheme of drug classification management, uses the ABC classification method to classify the drugs according to the average daily dose of drugs, and implements the automatic replenishment plan. The design of pharmaceutical services supply chain includes drug procurement platform, warehouse management system and connect to the hospital system through data exchange. Through the statistical analysis of drug inventory, we put forward the countermeasures of drug logistics optimization. The results showed that drug replenishment plan can effectively improve drugs inventory efficiency.

  18. KWU Nuclear Plant Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennewitz, F.; Hummel, R.; Oelmann, K.

    1986-01-01

    The KWU Nuclear Plant Analyzer is a real time engineering simulator based on the KWU computer programs used in plant transient analysis and licensing. The primary goal is to promote the understanding of the technical and physical processes of a nuclear power plant at an on-site training facility. Thus the KWU Nuclear Plant Analyzer is available with comparable low costs right at the time when technical questions or training needs arise. This has been achieved by (1) application of the transient code NLOOP; (2) unrestricted operator interaction including all simulator functions; (3) using the mainframe computer Control Data Cyber 176 in the KWU computing center; (4) four color graphic displays controlled by a dedicated graphic computer, no control room equipment; and (5) coupling of computers by telecommunication via telephone

  19. Exploring drug-target interaction networks of illicit drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atreya, Ravi V; Sun, Jingchun; Zhao, Zhongming

    2013-01-01

    Drug addiction is a complex and chronic mental disease, which places a large burden on the American healthcare system due to its negative effects on patients and their families. Recently, network pharmacology is emerging as a promising approach to drug discovery by integrating network biology and polypharmacology, allowing for a deeper understanding of molecular mechanisms of drug actions at the systems level. This study seeks to apply this approach for investigation of illicit drugs and their targets in order to elucidate their interaction patterns and potential secondary drugs that can aid future research and clinical care. In this study, we extracted 188 illicit substances and their related information from the DrugBank database. The data process revealed 86 illicit drugs targeting a total of 73 unique human genes, which forms an illicit drug-target network. Compared to the full drug-target network from DrugBank, illicit drugs and their target genes tend to cluster together and form four subnetworks, corresponding to four major medication categories: depressants, stimulants, analgesics, and steroids. External analysis of Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) second sublevel classifications confirmed that the illicit drugs have neurological functions or act via mechanisms of stimulants, opioids, and steroids. To further explore other drugs potentially having associations with illicit drugs, we constructed an illicit-extended drug-target network by adding the drugs that have the same target(s) as illicit drugs to the illicit drug-target network. After analyzing the degree and betweenness of the network, we identified hubs and bridge nodes, which might play important roles in the development and treatment of drug addiction. Among them, 49 non-illicit drugs might have potential to be used to treat addiction or have addictive effects, including some results that are supported by previous studies. This study presents the first systematic review of the network

  20. Polypharmacy and the risk of drug-drug interactions among Danish elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, J U; Bjerrum, L; Hallas, J

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the use of all subsidized prescription drugs with special attention to the elderly (> or = 70 years of age), including their use of drug combination generally accepted as carrying a risk of severe interactions. DESIGN: Descriptive prevalence study. SETTING: Odense...... accepted as carrying a risk of severe interactions. RESULTS: Among persons less than 70 years, 67.9% used none, 16.5% used one drug and 15.6% used two or more prescription drugs. The corresponding prevalences for the elderly were 35.7%, 15.9% and 48.4%. The 26,337 elderly patients with at least two drugs...... used 21,293 different combinations. Of the elderly patients who had purchased > or = two drugs, 4.4% had combinations of drugs carrying a risk of severe interactions. CONCLUSIONS: Most elderly use drugs and usually several drugs concomitantly. The elderly form a heterogeneous group of drug users. Drug...

  1. Drugs Approved for Neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for neuroblastoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  2. Drugs Approved for Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the FDA for use in leukemia. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  3. Drugs Approved for Retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for retinoblastoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  4. PDA: Pooled DNA analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chin-Yu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association mapping using abundant single nucleotide polymorphisms is a powerful tool for identifying disease susceptibility genes for complex traits and exploring possible genetic diversity. Genotyping large numbers of SNPs individually is performed routinely but is cost prohibitive for large-scale genetic studies. DNA pooling is a reliable and cost-saving alternative genotyping method. However, no software has been developed for complete pooled-DNA analyses, including data standardization, allele frequency estimation, and single/multipoint DNA pooling association tests. This motivated the development of the software, 'PDA' (Pooled DNA Analyzer, to analyze pooled DNA data. Results We develop the software, PDA, for the analysis of pooled-DNA data. PDA is originally implemented with the MATLAB® language, but it can also be executed on a Windows system without installing the MATLAB®. PDA provides estimates of the coefficient of preferential amplification and allele frequency. PDA considers an extended single-point association test, which can compare allele frequencies between two DNA pools constructed under different experimental conditions. Moreover, PDA also provides novel chromosome-wide multipoint association tests based on p-value combinations and a sliding-window concept. This new multipoint testing procedure overcomes a computational bottleneck of conventional haplotype-oriented multipoint methods in DNA pooling analyses and can handle data sets having a large pool size and/or large numbers of polymorphic markers. All of the PDA functions are illustrated in the four bona fide examples. Conclusion PDA is simple to operate and does not require that users have a strong statistical background. The software is available at http://www.ibms.sinica.edu.tw/%7Ecsjfann/first%20flow/pda.htm.

  5. Web server attack analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Mižišin, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Web server attack analyzer - Abstract The goal of this work was to create prototype of analyzer of injection flaws attacks on web server. Proposed solution combines capabilities of web application firewall and web server log analyzer. Analysis is based on configurable signatures defined by regular expressions. This paper begins with summary of web attacks, followed by detection techniques analysis on web servers, description and justification of selected implementation. In the end are charact...

  6. Electron attachment analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, P.; Grosse, H.J.; Leonhardt, J.; Mothes, S.; Oppermann, G.

    1984-01-01

    The invention concerns an electron attachment analyzer for detecting traces of electroaffine substances in electronegative gases, especially in air. The analyzer can be used for monitoring working places, e. g., in operating theatres. The analyzer consists of two electrodes inserted in a base frame of insulating material (quartz or ceramics) and a high-temperature resistant radiation source ( 85 Kr, 3 H, or 63 Ni)

  7. Nuclear power plant analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stritar, A.

    1986-01-01

    The development of Nuclear Power Plant Analyzers in USA is described. There are two different types of Analyzers under development in USA, the forst in Idaho and Los Alamos national Lab, the second in brookhaven National lab. That one is described in detail. The computer hardware and the mathematical models of the reactor vessel thermalhydraulics are described. (author)

  8. Analyzing Peace Pedagogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haavelsrud, Magnus; Stenberg, Oddbjorn

    2012-01-01

    Eleven articles on peace education published in the first volume of the Journal of Peace Education are analyzed. This selection comprises peace education programs that have been planned or carried out in different contexts. In analyzing peace pedagogies as proposed in the 11 contributions, we have chosen network analysis as our method--enabling…

  9. Analyzing in the present

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbæk, Line; Tanggaard, Lene

    2015-01-01

    The article presents a notion of “analyzing in the present” as a source of inspiration in analyzing qualitative research materials. The term emerged from extensive listening to interview recordings during everyday commuting to university campus. Paying attention to the way different parts of vari...

  10. Gearbox vibration diagnostic analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Gearbox Vibration Diagnostic Analyzer installed in the NASA Lewis Research Center's 500 HP Helicopter Transmission Test Stand to monitor gearbox testing. The vibration of the gearbox is analyzed using diagnostic algorithms to calculate a parameter indicating damaged components.

  11. Digital Microfluidics Sample Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Michael G.; Srinivasan, Vijay; Eckhardt, Allen; Paik, Philip Y.; Sudarsan, Arjun; Shenderov, Alex; Hua, Zhishan; Pamula, Vamsee K.

    2010-01-01

    Three innovations address the needs of the medical world with regard to microfluidic manipulation and testing of physiological samples in ways that can benefit point-of-care needs for patients such as premature infants, for which drawing of blood for continuous tests can be life-threatening in their own right, and for expedited results. A chip with sample injection elements, reservoirs (and waste), droplet formation structures, fluidic pathways, mixing areas, and optical detection sites, was fabricated to test the various components of the microfluidic platform, both individually and in integrated fashion. The droplet control system permits a user to control droplet microactuator system functions, such as droplet operations and detector operations. Also, the programming system allows a user to develop software routines for controlling droplet microactuator system functions, such as droplet operations and detector operations. A chip is incorporated into the system with a controller, a detector, input and output devices, and software. A novel filler fluid formulation is used for the transport of droplets with high protein concentrations. Novel assemblies for detection of photons from an on-chip droplet are present, as well as novel systems for conducting various assays, such as immunoassays and PCR (polymerase chain reaction). The lab-on-a-chip (a.k.a., lab-on-a-printed-circuit board) processes physiological samples and comprises a system for automated, multi-analyte measurements using sub-microliter samples of human serum. The invention also relates to a diagnostic chip and system including the chip that performs many of the routine operations of a central labbased chemistry analyzer, integrating, for example, colorimetric assays (e.g., for proteins), chemiluminescence/fluorescence assays (e.g., for enzymes, electrolytes, and gases), and/or conductometric assays (e.g., for hematocrit on plasma and whole blood) on a single chip platform.

  12. Miniature mass analyzer

    CERN Document Server

    Cuna, C; Lupsa, N; Cuna, S; Tuzson, B

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the concept of different mass analyzers that were specifically designed as small dimension instruments able to detect with great sensitivity and accuracy the main environmental pollutants. The mass spectrometers are very suited instrument for chemical and isotopic analysis, needed in environmental surveillance. Usually, this is done by sampling the soil, air or water followed by laboratory analysis. To avoid drawbacks caused by sample alteration during the sampling process and transport, the 'in situ' analysis is preferred. Theoretically, any type of mass analyzer can be miniaturized, but some are more appropriate than others. Quadrupole mass filter and trap, magnetic sector, time-of-flight and ion cyclotron mass analyzers can be successfully shrunk, for each of them some performances being sacrificed but we must know which parameters are necessary to be kept unchanged. To satisfy the miniaturization criteria of the analyzer, it is necessary to use asymmetrical geometries, with ion beam obl...

  13. How Many Drugs Are Catecholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Peng Yang

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available By examination of the 8659 drugs recorded in the Comprehensive Medicinal Chemistry (CMC database, 78 catecholics (including five pyrogallolics were identified, of which 17 are currently prescribed by FDA. Through analyzing the substitutent patterns, ClogPs and O-H bond dissociation enthalpies(BDEs of the catecholic drugs, some molecular features that may benefit circumventing the toxicity of catecholics were revealed: i strong electron-donating substituents are excluded; ii ClogP 3; iii an energy penalty exists for quinone formation. Besides, the present analyses also suggest that the clinical usage and dosage of currently prescribed catecholic drugs are of importance in designing or screening catecholic antioxidants.

  14. Being Included and Excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural...... politics. It analyzes how formal education and mobility either challenge or reinforce traditional gendered norms which dictate a lowly position for young married women in the household and their absence from community politics. The article concludes that women are simultaneously excluded and included from...... community politics. On the one hand, their mobility and decision-making powers decrease with the increase in the labor mobility of men and their newly gained education is politically devalued when compared to the informal education that men gain through mobility, but on the other hand, schooling strengthens...

  15. A Categorization of Dynamic Analyzers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujan, Michelle R.

    1997-01-01

    Program analysis techniques and tools are essential to the development process because of the support they provide in detecting errors and deficiencies at different phases of development. The types of information rendered through analysis includes the following: statistical measurements of code, type checks, dataflow analysis, consistency checks, test data,verification of code, and debugging information. Analyzers can be broken into two major categories: dynamic and static. Static analyzers examine programs with respect to syntax errors and structural properties., This includes gathering statistical information on program content, such as the number of lines of executable code, source lines. and cyclomatic complexity. In addition, static analyzers provide the ability to check for the consistency of programs with respect to variables. Dynamic analyzers in contrast are dependent on input and the execution of a program providing the ability to find errors that cannot be detected through the use of static analysis alone. Dynamic analysis provides information on the behavior of a program rather than on the syntax. Both types of analysis detect errors in a program, but dynamic analyzers accomplish this through run-time behavior. This paper focuses on the following broad classification of dynamic analyzers: 1) Metrics; 2) Models; and 3) Monitors. Metrics are those analyzers that provide measurement. The next category, models, captures those analyzers that present the state of the program to the user at specified points in time. The last category, monitors, checks specified code based on some criteria. The paper discusses each classification and the techniques that are included under them. In addition, the role of each technique in the software life cycle is discussed. Familiarization with the tools that measure, model and monitor programs provides a framework for understanding the program's dynamic behavior from different, perspectives through analysis of the input

  16. Short and long-term safety and efficacy of polymer-free vs. durable polymer drug-eluting stents. A comprehensive meta-analysis of randomized trials including 6178 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navarese, E.P.; Kowalewski, M.; Cortese, B.; Kandzari, D.; Dias, S.; Wojakowski, W.; Buffon, A.; Lansky, A.; Angelini, P.; Torguson, R.; Kubica, J.; Kelm, M.; Boer, M.J. de; Waksman, R.; Suryapranata, H.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of polymer-free drug-eluting stents (DESs) in clinical practice is currently subject of debate; randomized trials (RCTs) conducted so far provided conflicting results or were underpowered to definitively address this question; we aimed to investigate the efficacy

  17. Loviisa nuclear power plant analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porkholm, K.; Nurmilaukas, P.; Tiihonen, O.; Haenninen, M.; Puska, E.

    1992-12-01

    The APROS Simulation Environment has been developed since 1986 by Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) and the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). It provides tools, solution algorithms and process components for use in different simulation systems for design, analysis and training purposes. One of its main nuclear applications is the Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant Analyzer (LPA). The Loviisa Plant Analyzer includes all the important plant components both in the primary and in the secondary circuits. In addition, all the main control systems, the protection system and the high voltage electrical systems are included. (orig.)

  18. Extraction spectrophotometric analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batik, J.; Vitha, F.

    1985-01-01

    Automation is discussed of extraction spectrophotometric determination of uranium in a solution. Uranium is extracted from accompanying elements in an HCl medium with a solution of tributyl phosphate in benzene. The determination is performed by measuring absorbance at 655 nm in a single-phase ethanol-water-benzene-tributyl phosphate medium. The design is described of an analyzer consisting of an analytical unit and a control unit. The analyzer performance promises increased productivity of labour, improved operating and hygiene conditions, and mainly more accurate results of analyses. (J.C.)

  19. Drugs Approved for Rhabdomyosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for rhabdomyosarcoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries. There may be drugs used in rhabdomyosarcoma that are not listed here.

  20. Information for Consumers (Drugs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... approved drugs Drugs@FDA Information on FDA-approved brand name and generic drugs including labeling and regulatory history Drugs with Approved Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS) REMS is a risk management plan required by FDA for certain prescription drugs, ...

  1. Americal options analyzed differently

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    In this note we analyze in a discrete-time context and with a finite outcome space American options starting with the idea that every tradable should be a martingale under a certain measure. We believe that in this way American options become more understandable to people with a good working

  2. Soft Decision Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdowne, Chatwin; Steele, Glen; Zucha, Joan; Schlesinger, Adam

    2013-01-01

    We describe the benefit of using closed-loop measurements for a radio receiver paired with a counterpart transmitter. We show that real-time analysis of the soft decision output of a receiver can provide rich and relevant insight far beyond the traditional hard-decision bit error rate (BER) test statistic. We describe a Soft Decision Analyzer (SDA) implementation for closed-loop measurements on single- or dual- (orthogonal) channel serial data communication links. The analyzer has been used to identify, quantify, and prioritize contributors to implementation loss in live-time during the development of software defined radios. This test technique gains importance as modern receivers are providing soft decision symbol synchronization as radio links are challenged to push more data and more protocol overhead through noisier channels, and software-defined radios (SDRs) use error-correction codes that approach Shannon's theoretical limit of performance.

  3. Analyzed Using Statistical Moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oltulu, O.

    2004-01-01

    Diffraction enhanced imaging (DEl) technique is a new x-ray imaging method derived from radiography. The method uses a monorheumetten x-ray beam and introduces an analyzer crystal between an object and a detector Narrow angular acceptance of the analyzer crystal generates an improved contrast over the evaluation radiography. While standart radiography can produce an 'absorption image', DEl produces 'apparent absorption' and 'apparent refraction' images with superior quality. Objects with similar absorption properties may not be distinguished with conventional techniques due to close absorption coefficients. This problem becomes more dominant when an object has scattering properties. A simple approach is introduced to utilize scattered radiation to obtain 'pure absorption' and 'pure refraction' images

  4. Emission spectrometric isotope analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauersberger, K.; Meier, G.; Nitschke, W.; Rose, W.; Schmidt, G.; Rahm, N.; Andrae, G.; Krieg, D.; Kuefner, W.; Tamme, G.; Wichlacz, D.

    1982-01-01

    An emission spectrometric isotope analyzer has been designed for determining relative abundances of stable isotopes in gaseous samples in discharge tubes, in liquid samples, and in flowing gaseous samples. It consists of a high-frequency generator, a device for defined positioning of discharge tubes, a grating monochromator with oscillating slit and signal converter, signal generator, window discriminator, AND connection, read-out display, oscillograph, gas dosing device and chemical conversion system with carrier gas source and vacuum pump

  5. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Why Is It So Hard to Quit Drugs? Effects of Drugs Drug Use and Other People Drug ... Unborn Children Drug Use and Your Health Other Effects on the Body Drug Use Hurts Brains Drug ...

  6. PhosphoSiteAnalyzer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennetzen, Martin V; Cox, Jürgen; Mann, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    an algorithm to retrieve kinase predictions from the public NetworKIN webpage in a semiautomated way and applies hereafter advanced statistics to facilitate a user-tailored in-depth analysis of the phosphoproteomic data sets. The interface of the software provides a high degree of analytical flexibility......Phosphoproteomic experiments are routinely conducted in laboratories worldwide, and because of the fast development of mass spectrometric techniques and efficient phosphopeptide enrichment methods, researchers frequently end up having lists with tens of thousands of phosphorylation sites...... and is designed to be intuitive for most users. PhosphoSiteAnalyzer is a freeware program available at http://phosphosite.sourceforge.net ....

  7. Electrodynamic thermogravimetric analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spjut, R.E.; Bar-Ziv, E.; Sarofim, A.F.; Longwell, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    The design and operation of a new device for studying single-aerosol-particle kinetics at elevated temperatures, the electrodynamic thermogravimetric analyzer (EDTGA), was examined theoretically and experimentally. The completed device consists of an electrodynamic balance modified to permit particle heating by a CO 2 laser, temperature measurement by a three-color infrared-pyrometry system, and continuous weighing by a position-control system. In this paper, the position-control, particle-weight-measurement, heating, and temperature-measurement systems are described and their limitations examined

  8. Analyzing Chinese Financial Reporting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SABRINA; ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    If the world’s capital markets could use a harmonized accounting framework it would not be necessary for a comparison between two or more sets of accounting standards. However,there is much to do before this becomes reality.This article aims to pres- ent a general overview of China’s General Accepted Accounting Principles(GAAP), U.S.General Accepted Accounting Principles and International Financial Reporting Standards(IFRS),and to analyze the differ- ences among IFRS,U.S.GAAP and China GAAP using fixed assets as an example.

  9. Inductive dielectric analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agranovich, Daniel; Popov, Ivan; Ben Ishai, Paul; Feldman, Yuri; Polygalov, Eugene

    2017-01-01

    One of the approaches to bypass the problem of electrode polarization in dielectric measurements is the free electrode method. The advantage of this technique is that, the probing electric field in the material is not supplied by contact electrodes, but rather by electromagnetic induction. We have designed an inductive dielectric analyzer based on a sensor comprising two concentric toroidal coils. In this work, we present an analytic derivation of the relationship between the impedance measured by the sensor and the complex dielectric permittivity of the sample. The obtained relationship was successfully employed to measure the dielectric permittivity and conductivity of various alcohols and aqueous salt solutions. (paper)

  10. The drug-minded protein interaction database (DrumPID) for efficient target analysis and drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Meik; Liang, Chunguang; Nilla, Santosh; Cecil, Alexander; Dandekar, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The drug-minded protein interaction database (DrumPID) has been designed to provide fast, tailored information on drugs and their protein networks including indications, protein targets and side-targets. Starting queries include compound, target and protein interactions and organism-specific protein families. Furthermore, drug name, chemical structures and their SMILES notation, affected proteins (potential drug targets), organisms as well as diseases can be queried including various combinations and refinement of searches. Drugs and protein interactions are analyzed in detail with reference to protein structures and catalytic domains, related compound structures as well as potential targets in other organisms. DrumPID considers drug functionality, compound similarity, target structure, interactome analysis and organismic range for a compound, useful for drug development, predicting drug side-effects and structure-activity relationships.Database URL:http://drumpid.bioapps.biozentrum.uni-wuerzburg.de. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. 4-IBP, a σ1 Receptor Agonist, Decreases the Migration of Human Cancer Cells, Including Glioblastoma Cells, In Vitro and Sensitizes Them In Vitro and In Vivo to Cytotoxic Insults of Proapoptotic and Proautophagic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique Mégalizzi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the molecular function of cr receptors has not been fully defined and the natural ligand(s is still not known, there is increasing evidence that these receptors and their ligands might play a significant role in cancer biology. 4-(N-tibenzylpiperidin-4-yl-4iodobenzamide (4-IBP, a selective σ1, agonist, has been used to investigate whether this compound is able to modify: 1 in vitro the migration and proliferation of human cancer cells; 2 in vitro the sensitivity of human glioblastoma cells to cytotoxic drugs; and 3 in vivo in orthotopic glioblastoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC models the survival of mice coadministered cytotoxic agents. 4-IBP has revealed weak anti proliferative effects on human U373-MG glioblastoma and C32 melanoma cells but induced marked concentration-dependent decreases in the growth of human A549 NSCLC and PC3 prostate cancer cells. The compound was also significantly antimigratory in all four cancer cell lines. This may result, at least in U373-MG cells, from modifications to the actin cytoskeleton. 4-IBP modified the sensitivity of U373-MG cells in vitro to proapoptotic lomustin and proautophagic temozolomide, and markedly decreased the expression of two proteins involved in drug resistance: glucosylceramide synthase and Rho guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor. In vivo, 4-IBP increased the antitumor effects of temozolomide and irinotecan in immunodeficient mice that were orthotopically grafted with invasive cancer cells.

  12. Drugs Approved for Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for esophageal cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  13. Drugs Approved for Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for liver cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  14. Drugs Approved for Kaposi Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for Kaposi sarcoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  15. Drugs Approved for Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to prevent vaginal cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  16. Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for skin cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  17. Drugs Approved for Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for vulvar cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  18. Drugs Approved for Wilms Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for Wilms tumor and other childhood kidney cancers. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  19. Drugs Approved for Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for bone cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  20. Drugs Approved for Malignant Mesothelioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for malignant mesothelioma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  1. Drugs Approved for Penile Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for penile cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  2. Drugs Approved for Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for endometrial cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  3. Plutonium solution analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    A fully automated analyzer has been developed for plutonium solutions. It was assembled from several commercially available modules, is based upon segmented flow analysis, and exhibits precision about an order of magnitude better than commercial units (0.5%-O.05% RSD). The system was designed to accept unmeasured, untreated liquid samples in the concentration range 40-240 g/L and produce a report with sample identification, sample concentrations, and an abundance of statistics. Optional hydraulics can accommodate samples in the concentration range 0.4-4.0 g/L. Operating at a typical rate of 30 to 40 samples per hour, it consumes only 0.074 mL of each sample and standard, and generates waste at the rate of about 1.5 mL per minute. No radioactive material passes through its multichannel peristaltic pump (which remains outside the glovebox, uncontaminated) but rather is handled by a 6-port, 2-position chromatography-type loop valve. An accompanying computer is programmed in QuickBASIC 4.5 to provide both instrument control and data reduction. The program is truly user-friendly and communication between operator and instrument is via computer screen displays and keyboard. Two important issues which have been addressed are waste minimization and operator safety (the analyzer can run in the absence of an operator, once its autosampler has been loaded)

  4. Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovichi, N.J.; Zhang, J.Z.

    1995-08-08

    A multiple capillary analyzer allows detection of light from multiple capillaries with a reduced number of interfaces through which light must pass in detecting light emitted from a sample being analyzed, using a modified sheath flow cuvette. A linear or rectangular array of capillaries is introduced into a rectangular flow chamber. Sheath fluid draws individual sample streams through the cuvette. The capillaries are closely and evenly spaced and held by a transparent retainer in a fixed position in relation to an optical detection system. Collimated sample excitation radiation is applied simultaneously across the ends of the capillaries in the retainer. Light emitted from the excited sample is detected by the optical detection system. The retainer is provided by a transparent chamber having inward slanting end walls. The capillaries are wedged into the chamber. One sideways dimension of the chamber is equal to the diameter of the capillaries and one end to end dimension varies from, at the top of the chamber, slightly greater than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries to, at the bottom of the chamber, slightly smaller than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries. The optical system utilizes optic fibers to deliver light to individual photodetectors, one for each capillary tube. A filter or wavelength division demultiplexer may be used for isolating fluorescence at particular bands. 21 figs.

  5. Plutonium solution analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    A fully automated analyzer has been developed for plutonium solutions. It was assembled from several commercially available modules, is based upon segmented flow analysis, and exhibits precision about an order of magnitude better than commercial units (0.5%-O.05% RSD). The system was designed to accept unmeasured, untreated liquid samples in the concentration range 40-240 g/L and produce a report with sample identification, sample concentrations, and an abundance of statistics. Optional hydraulics can accommodate samples in the concentration range 0.4-4.0 g/L. Operating at a typical rate of 30 to 40 samples per hour, it consumes only 0.074 mL of each sample and standard, and generates waste at the rate of about 1.5 mL per minute. No radioactive material passes through its multichannel peristaltic pump (which remains outside the glovebox, uncontaminated) but rather is handled by a 6-port, 2-position chromatography-type loop valve. An accompanying computer is programmed in QuickBASIC 4.5 to provide both instrument control and data reduction. The program is truly user-friendly and communication between operator and instrument is via computer screen displays and keyboard. Two important issues which have been addressed are waste minimization and operator safety (the analyzer can run in the absence of an operator, once its autosampler has been loaded).

  6. Analyzing Pseudophosphatase Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Shantá D

    2016-01-01

    Pseudophosphatases regulate signal transduction cascades, but their mechanisms of action remain enigmatic. Reflecting this mystery, the prototypical pseudophosphatase STYX (phospho-serine-threonine/tyrosine-binding protein) was named with allusion to the river of the dead in Greek mythology to emphasize that these molecules are "dead" phosphatases. Although proteins with STYX domains do not catalyze dephosphorylation, this in no way precludes their having other functions as integral elements of signaling networks. Thus, understanding their roles in signaling pathways may mark them as potential novel drug targets. This chapter outlines common strategies used to characterize the functions of pseudophosphatases, using as an example MK-STYX [mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phospho-serine-threonine/tyrosine binding], which has been linked to tumorigenesis, apoptosis, and neuronal differentiation. We start with the importance of "restoring" (when possible) phosphatase activity in a pseudophosphatase so that the active mutant may be used as a comparison control throughout immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analyses. To this end, we provide protocols for site-directed mutagenesis, mammalian cell transfection, co-immunoprecipitation, phosphatase activity assays, and immunoblotting that we have used to investigate MK-STYX and the active mutant MK-STYXactive. We also highlight the importance of utilizing RNA interference (RNAi) "knockdown" technology to determine a cellular phenotype in various cell lines. Therefore, we outline our protocols for introducing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression plasmids into mammalians cells and quantifying knockdown of gene expression with real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). A combination of cellular, molecular, biochemical, and proteomic techniques has served as powerful tools in identifying novel functions of the pseudophosphatase MK-STYX. Likewise, the information provided here should be a helpful guide to elucidating the

  7. Trace impurity analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, W.J.; Edwards, D. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The desirability for long-term reliability of large scale helium refrigerator systems used on superconducting accelerator magnets has necessitated detection of impurities to levels of a few ppM. An analyzer that measures trace impurity levels of condensable contaminants in concentrations of less than a ppM in 15 atm of He is described. The instrument makes use of the desorption temperature at an indicated pressure of the various impurities to determine the type of contaminant. The pressure rise at that temperature yields a measure of the contaminant level of the impurity. A LN 2 cryogenic charcoal trap is also employed to measure air impurities (nitrogen and oxygen) to obtain the full range of contaminant possibilities. The results of this detector which will be in use on the research and development helium refrigerator of the ISABELLE First-Cell is described

  8. Analyzing Water's Optical Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A cooperative agreement between World Precision Instruments (WPI), Inc., and Stennis Space Center has led the UltraPath(TM) device, which provides a more efficient method for analyzing the optical absorption of water samples at sea. UltraPath is a unique, high-performance absorbance spectrophotometer with user-selectable light path lengths. It is an ideal tool for any study requiring precise and highly sensitive spectroscopic determination of analytes, either in the laboratory or the field. As a low-cost, rugged, and portable system capable of high- sensitivity measurements in widely divergent waters, UltraPath will help scientists examine the role that coastal ocean environments play in the global carbon cycle. UltraPath(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc. LWCC(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc.

  9. Analyzer for gamma cameras diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oramas Polo, I.; Osorio Deliz, J. F.; Diaz Garcia, A.

    2013-01-01

    This research work was carried out to develop an analyzer for gamma cameras diagnostic. It is composed of an electronic system that includes hardware and software capabilities, and operates from the acquisition of the 4 head position signals of a gamma camera detector. The result is the spectrum of the energy delivered by nuclear radiation coming from the camera detector head. This system includes analog processing of position signals from the camera, digitization and the subsequent processing of the energy signal in a multichannel analyzer, sending data to a computer via a standard USB port and processing of data in a personal computer to obtain the final histogram. The circuits are composed of an analog processing board and a universal kit with micro controller and programmable gate array. (Author)

  10. 21 CFR 868.1720 - Oxygen gas analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... gases by techniques such as mass spectrometry, polarography, thermal conductivity, or gas chromatography... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxygen gas analyzer. 868.1720 Section 868.1720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...

  11. 21 CFR 868.1075 - Argon gas analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... thermal conductivity. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Argon gas analyzer. 868.1075 Section 868.1075 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL...

  12. 21 CFR 868.1670 - Neon gas analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... patient. The device may use techniques such as mass spectrometry or thermal conductivity. (b... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neon gas analyzer. 868.1670 Section 868.1670 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL...

  13. 21 CFR 868.1640 - Helium gas analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... mixture during pulmonary function testing. The device may use techniques such as thermal conductivity, gas... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Helium gas analyzer. 868.1640 Section 868.1640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...

  14. 21 CFR 868.1620 - Halothane gas analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... infrared or ultraviolet radiation. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Halothane gas analyzer. 868.1620 Section 868.1620 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...

  15. 21 CFR 864.5680 - Automated heparin analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated heparin analyzer. 864.5680 Section 864.5680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology Devices § 864...

  16. A neutron activation analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, G.P.; Lemmel, H.; Grass, F.; De Regge, P.P.; Burns, K.; Markowicz, A.

    2005-01-01

    Dubbed 'Analyzer' because of its simplicity, a neutron activation analysis facility for short-lived isomeric transitions is based on a low-cost rabbit system and an adaptive digital filter which are controlled by a software performing irradiation control, loss-free gamma-spectrometry, spectra evaluation, nuclide identification and calculation of concentrations in a fully automatic flow of operations. Designed for TRIGA reactors and constructed from inexpensive plastic tubing and an aluminum in-core part, the rabbit system features samples of 5 ml and 10 ml with sample separation at 150 ms and 200 ms transport time or 25 ml samples without separation at a transport time of 300 ms. By automatically adapting shaping times to pulse intervals the preloaded digital filter gives best throughput at best resolution up to input counting rates of 10 6 cps. Loss-free counting enables quantitative correction of counting losses of up to 99%. As a test of system reproducibility in sample separation geometry, K, Cl, Mn, Mg, Ca, Sc, and V have been determined in various reference materials at excellent agreement with consensus values. (author)

  17. Downhole Fluid Analyzer Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Turner

    2006-11-28

    A novel fiber optic downhole fluid analyzer has been developed for operation in production wells. This device will allow real-time determination of the oil, gas and water fractions of fluids from different zones in a multizone or multilateral completion environment. The device uses near infrared spectroscopy and induced fluorescence measurement to unambiguously determine the oil, water and gas concentrations at all but the highest water cuts. The only downhole components of the system are the fiber optic cable and windows. All of the active components--light sources, sensors, detection electronics and software--will be located at the surface, and will be able to operate multiple downhole probes. Laboratory testing has demonstrated that the sensor can accurately determine oil, water and gas fractions with a less than 5 percent standard error. Once installed in an intelligent completion, this sensor will give the operating company timely information about the fluids arising from various zones or multilaterals in a complex completion pattern, allowing informed decisions to be made on controlling production. The research and development tasks are discussed along with a market analysis.

  18. Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungwon; Pan, Lei; Zhai, Chengxing; Tang, Benyang; Kubar, Terry; Zhang, Zia; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The comprehensive and innovative evaluation of climate models with newly available global observations is critically needed for the improvement of climate model current-state representation and future-state predictability. A climate model diagnostic evaluation process requires physics-based multi-variable analyses that typically involve large-volume and heterogeneous datasets, making them both computation- and data-intensive. With an exploratory nature of climate data analyses and an explosive growth of datasets and service tools, scientists are struggling to keep track of their datasets, tools, and execution/study history, let alone sharing them with others. In response, we have developed a cloud-enabled, provenance-supported, web-service system called Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA). CMDA enables the physics-based, multivariable model performance evaluations and diagnoses through the comprehensive and synergistic use of multiple observational data, reanalysis data, and model outputs. At the same time, CMDA provides a crowd-sourcing space where scientists can organize their work efficiently and share their work with others. CMDA is empowered by many current state-of-the-art software packages in web service, provenance, and semantic search.

  19. Analyzing Visibility Configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachsbacher, C

    2011-04-01

    Many algorithms, such as level of detail rendering and occlusion culling methods, make decisions based on the degree of visibility of an object, but do not analyze the distribution, or structure, of the visible and occluded regions across surfaces. We present an efficient method to classify different visibility configurations and show how this can be used on top of existing methods based on visibility determination. We adapt co-occurrence matrices for visibility analysis and generalize them to operate on clusters of triangular surfaces instead of pixels. We employ machine learning techniques to reliably classify the thus extracted feature vectors. Our method allows perceptually motivated level of detail methods for real-time rendering applications by detecting configurations with expected visual masking. We exemplify the versatility of our method with an analysis of area light visibility configurations in ray tracing and an area-to-area visibility analysis suitable for hierarchical radiosity refinement. Initial results demonstrate the robustness, simplicity, and performance of our method in synthetic scenes, as well as real applications.

  20. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Get Addicted to Drugs? Does Addiction Run in Families? Why Is It So Hard to Quit Drugs? ... Drug Use and Other People Drug Use and Families Drug Use and Kids Drug Use and Unborn ...

  1. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Facts Search form Search Menu Home Drugs That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, ... Drugs? Effects of Drugs Drug Use and Other People Drug Use and Families Drug Use and Kids ...

  2. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... People Drug Use and Families Drug Use and Kids Drug Use and Unborn Children Drug Use and ... Children and Teens Stay Drug-Free Talking to Kids About Drugs: What to Say if You Used ...

  3. Analyzing MER Uplink Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin, Stephen C.

    2005-01-01

    The MER project includes two rovers working simultaneously on opposite sides of Mars each receiving commands only once a day. Creating this uplink is critical, since a failed uplink means a lost day and a waste of money. Examining the process of creating this uplink, I tracked the use of the system developed for requesting observations as well as the development, from stage to stage, in forming an activity plan. I found the system for requesting observations was commonly misused, if used at all. There are half a dozen reports to document the creation of the uplink plan and often there are discrepancies among them. Despite this, the uplink process worked very well and MER has been one of the most successful missions for NASA in recent memory. Still it is clear there is room for improvement.

  4. The security analyzer: A security analyzer program written in Prolog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, B.D.; Densley, P.J.

    1986-09-01

    The Security Analyzer is a software tool capable of analyzing the effectiveness of a facility's security system. It is written in the Prolog logic programming computer language, using entity-relationship data modeling techniques. The program performs the following functions: (1) provides descriptive, locational and operational status information about intrusion detectors and assessment devices (i.e., ''sensors'' and ''cameras'') upon request; (2) provides for storage and retrieval of maintenance history information for various components of the security system (including intrusion detectors), and allows for changing that information as desired; (3) provides a ''search'' mode, wherein all paths are found from any specified physical location to another specified location which satisfy user chosen ''intruder detection'' probability and elapsed time criteria (i.e., the program finds the ''weakest paths'' from a security point of view). The first two of these functions can be provided fairly easily with a conventional database program; the third function could be provided using Fortran or some similar language, though with substantial difficulty. In the Security Analyzer program, all these functions are provided in a simple and straight-forward manner. This simplicity is possible because the program is written in the symbolic (as opposed to numeric) processing language Prolog, and because the knowledge base is structured according to entity-relationship modeling principles. Also, the use of Prolog and the entity-relationship modeling technique allows the capabilities of the Security analyzer program, both for knowledge base interrogation and for searching-type operations, to be easily expanded in ways that would be very difficult for a numeric and more algorithmically deterministic language such as Fortran to duplicate. 4 refs

  5. HPTLC in Herbal Drug Quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Devanand B.; Chavan, Machindra J.; Wakte, Pravin S.

    For the past few decades, compounds from natural sources have been gaining importance because of the vast chemical diversity they offer. This has led to phenomenal increase in the demand for herbal medicines in the last two decades and need has been felt for ensuring the quality, safety, and efficacy of herbal drugs. Phytochemical evaluation is one of the tools for the quality assessment, which include preliminary phytochemical screening, chemoprofiling, and marker compound analysis using modern analytical techniques. High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) has been emerged as an important tool for the qualitative, semiquantitative, and quantitative phytochemical analysis of the herbal drugs and formulations. This includes developing TLC fingerprinting profiles and estimation of biomarkers. This review has an attempt to focus on the theoretical considerations of HPTLC and some examples of herbal drugs and formulations analyzed by HPTLC.

  6. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Treatment and Recovery Resources? Prevention Help Children and Teens Stay Drug-Free Talking to Kids About Drugs: What to Say if You Used Drugs in the Past Drug Use ... Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol ...

  7. Drug Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss of consciousness Other conditions resulting from drug allergy Less common drug allergy reactions occur days or ... you take the drug. Drugs commonly linked to allergies Although any drug can cause an allergic reaction, ...

  8. International Drug Control Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-24

    Common illegal drugs include cannabis, cocaine, opiates, and synthetic drugs. International trade in these drugs represents a lucrative and what...into effect, decriminalizing “personal use” amounts of marijuana , heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other internationally sanctioned drugs.15 While...President Calls for Legalizing Marijuana ,”CNN.com, May 13, 2009. 15 “Mexico Legalizes Drug Possession,” Associated Press, August 21, 2009. 16 In support

  9. Drug Release Mechanism of Slightly Soluble Drug from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    theophylline (THP) as drug in drug to clay ratios of 1:2, 3:4 and 1:1. The formulations were characterized for drug release and loading. Dependent and independent kinetic models were employed to analyze the drug release data. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used for the structural characterization of ...

  10. 21 CFR 870.3640 - Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer... Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. (a) Identification. An indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer is an electrically powered device that is used to determine pacemaker function or...

  11. 21 CFR 870.3630 - Pacemaker generator function analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pacemaker generator function analyzer. 870.3630... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3630 Pacemaker generator function analyzer. (a) Identification. A pacemaker generator function analyzer is a device that is...

  12. 21 CFR 868.1700 - Nitrous oxide gas analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nitrous oxide gas analyzer. 868.1700 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1700 Nitrous oxide gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A nitrous oxide gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of nitrous oxide...

  13. 21 CFR 862.2500 - Enzyme analyzer for clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enzyme analyzer for clinical use. 862.2500 Section... Instruments § 862.2500 Enzyme analyzer for clinical use. (a) Identification. An enzyme analyzer for clinical use is a device intended to measure enzymes in plasma or serum by nonkinetic or kinetic measurement of...

  14. Drugs@FDA Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Information about FDA-approved brand name and generic prescription and over-the-counter human drugs and biological therapeutic products. Drugs@FDA includes most of...

  15. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include opioids, sedatives, ...

  16. Multichannel analyzer development in CAMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, J.Z.; Zarandy, A.

    1988-01-01

    The data acquisition in TOKAMAK experiments some CAMAC modules have been developed. The modules are the following: 64 K analyzer memory, 32 K analyzer memory, 6-channel pulse peak analyzer memory which contains the 32 K analyzer memory and eight AD-converters

  17. New seismograph includes filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-02

    The new Nimbus ES-1210 multichannel signal enhancement seismograph from EG and G geometrics has recently been redesigned to include multimode signal fillers on each amplifier. The ES-1210F is a shallow exploration seismograph for near subsurface exploration such as in depth-to-bedrock, geological hazard location, mineral exploration, and landslide investigations.

  18. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Totero Gongora, Juan Sebastian; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Candeloro, Patrizio; Cuda, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  19. Saskatchewan resources. [including uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    The production of chemicals and minerals for the chemical industry in Saskatchewan are featured, with some discussion of resource taxation. The commodities mentioned include potash, fatty amines, uranium, heavy oil, sodium sulfate, chlorine, sodium hydroxide, sodium chlorate and bentonite. Following the successful outcome of the Cluff Lake inquiry, the uranium industry is booming. Some developments and production figures for Gulf Minerals, Amok, Cenex and Eldorado are mentioned.

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or reduce their drug use and related risk behaviors, including drug injection and unsafe sexual practices. Drug use disorder treatment programs also serve an important role in providing ...

  1. Drugs Approved for Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for pancreatic cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  2. Drugs Approved for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for lung cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  3. Drugs Approved for Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for bladder cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or reduce their drug use and related risk behaviors, including drug injection and unsafe sexual practices. Drug use disorder treatment programs also serve an important role in ...

  5. Updates on drug-target network; facilitating polypharmacology and data integration by growth of DrugBank database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barneh, Farnaz; Jafari, Mohieddin; Mirzaie, Mehdi

    2016-11-01

    Network pharmacology elucidates the relationship between drugs and targets. As the identified targets for each drug increases, the corresponding drug-target network (DTN) evolves from solely reflection of the pharmaceutical industry trend to a portrait of polypharmacology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potentials of DrugBank database in advancing systems pharmacology. We constructed and analyzed DTN from drugs and targets associations in the DrugBank 4.0 database. Our results showed that in bipartite DTN, increased ratio of identified targets for drugs augmented density and connectivity of drugs and targets and decreased modular structure. To clear up the details in the network structure, the DTNs were projected into two networks namely, drug similarity network (DSN) and target similarity network (TSN). In DSN, various classes of Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs with distinct therapeutic categories were linked together based on shared targets. Projected TSN also showed complexity because of promiscuity of the drugs. By including investigational drugs that are currently being tested in clinical trials, the networks manifested more connectivity and pictured the upcoming pharmacological space in the future years. Diverse biological processes and protein-protein interactions were manipulated by new drugs, which can extend possible target combinations. We conclude that network-based organization of DrugBank 4.0 data not only reveals the potential for repurposing of existing drugs, also allows generating novel predictions about drugs off-targets, drug-drug interactions and their side effects. Our results also encourage further effort for high-throughput identification of targets to build networks that can be integrated into disease networks. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Persistence of antimuscarinic drug use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brostrøm, Søren; Hallas, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Evidence suggests antimuscarinic drugs for the overactive-bladder syndrome only confer modest improvements in quality of life. We wanted to describe the persistence of therapy, including an extended analysis beyond the 1-year follow-up employed in other studies. METHODS: All prescriptions...... for drugs in ATC category G04BD were retrieved for the period 1999-2006 from a regional database with complete capture of all reimbursed prescriptions. Kaplan-Meyer curves were generated for duration of treatment for each substance and analyzed for determinants of termination. RESULTS: With the exception...... of trospium chloride, all drugs had continuation rates of less than 50% at 6 months, less than 25% at 1 year, and less than 10% at 2 years and longer. Trospium chloride, however, exhibited continuation rates of 46% at 6 months, 36% at 1 year, 22% at 2 years, and 16% at 3 years. CONCLUSIONS: In a setting...

  7. Drugs Approved for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for cervical cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  8. Drugs Approved for Multiple Myeloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for multiple myeloma and other plasma cell neoplasms. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  9. Drugs Approved for Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for testicular cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  10. Drugs Approved for Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for Hodgkin lymphoma. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  11. Drugs Approved for Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for myeloproliferative neoplasms. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  12. Drug Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over-the-counter drug. The FDA evaluates the safety of a drug by looking at Side effects ... clinical trials The FDA also monitors a drug's safety after approval. For you, drug safety means buying ...

  13. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Use and Unborn Children Drug Use and Your Health Other Effects on the Body Drug Use Hurts Brains Drug Use and Mental Health Problems Often Happen Together The Link Between Drug ...

  14. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drug Use and Kids Drug Use and Unborn Children Drug Use and Your Health Other Effects on ... Someone Find Treatment and Recovery Resources? Prevention Help Children and Teens Stay Drug-Free Talking to Kids ...

  15. Club Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... uses. Other uses of these drugs are abuse. Club drugs are also sometimes used as "date rape" drugs, to make someone unable to say no to or fight back against sexual assault. Abusing these drugs can ...

  16. A tandem parallel plate analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Y.; Fujisawa, A.; Iguchi, H.; Nishizawa, A.; Kawasumi, Y.

    1996-11-01

    By a new modification of a parallel plate analyzer the second-order focus is obtained in an arbitrary injection angle. This kind of an analyzer with a small injection angle will have an advantage of small operational voltage, compared to the Proca and Green analyzer where the injection angle is 30 degrees. Thus, the newly proposed analyzer will be very useful for the precise energy measurement of high energy particles in MeV range. (author)

  17. Projecting future drug expenditures--2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, James M; Shah, Nilay D; Vermeulen, Lee C; Doloresco, Fred; Martin, Patrick K; Blake, Sharon; Matusiak, Linda; Hunkler, Robert J; Schumock, Glen T

    2009-02-01

    Drug expenditure trends in 2007 and 2008, projected drug expenditures for 2009, and factors likely to influence drug expenditures are discussed. Various factors are likely to influence drug expenditures in 2009, including drugs in development, the diffusion of new drugs, drug safety concerns, generic drugs, Medicare Part D, and changes in the drug supply chain. The increasing availability of important generic drugs and drug safety concerns continue to moderate growth in drug expenditures. The drug supply chain remains dynamic and may influence drug expenditures, particularly in specialized therapeutic areas. Initial data suggest that the Medicare Part D benefit has influenced drug expenditures, but the ultimate impact of the benefit on drug expenditures remains unclear. From 2006 to 2007, total U.S. drug expenditures increased by 4.0%, with total spending rising from $276 billion to $287 billion. Drug expenditures in clinics continue to grow more rapidly than in other settings, with a 9.9% increase from 2006 to 2007. Hospital drug expenditures increased at a moderate rate of only 1.6% from 2006 to 2007; through the first nine months of 2008, hospital drug expenditures increased by only 2.8% compared with the same period in 2007. In 2009, we project a 0-2% increase in drug expenditures in outpatient settings, a 1-3% increase in expenditures for clinic-administered drugs, and a 1-3% increase in hospital drug expenditures.

  18. Drugs of Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Donald E., Ed.

    This Drug Enforcement Administration publication delivers clear, scientific information about drugs in a factual, straightforward way, combined with precise photographs shot to scale. The publication is intended to serve as an A to Z guide for drug history, effects, and identification information. Chapters are included on the Controlled Substances…

  19. Drug Enforcement Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet contains information relating to drug abuse and abusers; drug traffic legislation; law enforcement; and descriptions of commonly used narcotics, stimulants, depressants, and hallucinogens. Also included is a short but explicit listing of audiovisual aids, an annotated bibliography, and drug identification pictures. The booklet…

  20. Mathematical modeling of coupled drug and drug-encapsulated nanoparticle transport in patient-specific coronary artery walls

    KAUST Repository

    Hossain, Shaolie S.

    2011-08-20

    The majority of heart attacks occur when there is a sudden rupture of atherosclerotic plaque, exposing prothrombotic emboli to coronary blood flow, forming clots that can cause blockages of the arterial lumen. Diseased arteries can be treated with drugs delivered locally to vulnerable plaques. The objective of this work was to develop a computational tool-set to support the design and analysis of a catheter-based nanoparticulate drug delivery system to treat vulnerable plaques and diffuse atherosclerosis. A threedimensional mathematical model of coupled mass transport of drug and drug-encapsulated nanoparticles was developed and solved numerically utilizing isogeometric finite element analysis. Simulations were run on a patient-specific multilayered coronary artery wall segment with a vulnerable plaque and the effect of artery and plaque inhomogeneity was analyzed. The method captured trends observed in local drug delivery and demonstrated potential for optimizing drug design parameters, including delivery location, nanoparticle surface properties, and drug release rate. © Springer-Verlag 2011.

  1. Drugs in sport

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, D

    2007-01-01

    This new edition includes fresh information regarding drugs use and abuse in sport and the updated worldwide anti-doping laws, and changes to the prohibited and therapeutic use exemption lists. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on drugs in sport by considering i) actions of drugs and hormones, ii) medication and nutritional supplements in sport, iii) the latest doping control regulations of the WADA, iv) the use of banned therapeutic drugs in sport, v) an...

  2. Rings in drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard D; MacCoss, Malcolm; Lawson, Alastair D G

    2014-07-24

    We have analyzed the rings, ring systems, and frameworks in drugs listed in the FDA Orange Book to understand the frequency, timelines, molecular property space, and the application of these rings in different therapeutic areas and target classes. This analysis shows that there are only 351 ring systems and 1197 frameworks in drugs that came onto the market before 2013. Furthermore, on average six new ring systems enter drug space each year and approximately 28% of new drugs contain a new ring system. Moreover, it is very unusual for a drug to contain more than one new ring system and the majority of the most frequently used ring systems (83%) were first used in drugs developed prior to 1983. These observations give insight into the chemical novelty of drugs and potentially efficient ways to assess compound libraries and develop compounds from hit identification to lead optimization and beyond.

  3. [Drug-Drug Interactions with Consideration of Pharmacogenetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Shogo

    2018-01-01

     Elderly patients often suffer from a variety of diseases and therefore may be prescribed several kinds of drugs. Interactions between these drugs may cause problems in some patients. Guidelines for drug interactions were released on July 8, 2014 "Drug Interaction Guideline for Drug Development and Labeling Recommendations (Final Draft)". These guidelines include the theoretical basis for evaluating the mechanisms of drug interaction, the possible extent of drug interactions, and take into consideration special populations (e.g., infants, children, elderly patients, patients with hepatic or renal dysfunction, and subjects with minor deficient alleles for drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters). In this symposium article, I discuss this last special population: altered drug metabolism and drug interactions in subjects with minor alleles of genes encoding deficient drug metabolizing enzymes. I further discuss a drug label for eliglustat (Cerdelga) with instructions for patients with ultra-rapid, extensive, intermediate, and poor metabolizer phenotypes that arise from different CYP2D6 gene alleles.

  4. Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for stomach (gastric) cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  5. Drugs Approved for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  6. Drugs Approved for Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for soft tissue sarcoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  7. Drugs Approved for Head and Neck Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for head and neck cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  8. Drugs Approved for Gestational Trophoblastic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for gestational trophoblastic disease. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  9. Digital Multi Channel Analyzer Enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonen, E.; Marcus, E.; Wengrowicz, U.; Beck, A.; Nir, J.; Sheinfeld, M.; Broide, A.; Tirosh, D.

    2002-01-01

    A cement analyzing system based on radiation spectroscopy had been developed [1], using novel digital approach for real-time, high-throughput and low-cost Multi Channel Analyzer. The performance of the developed system had a severe problem: the resulted spectrum suffered from lack of smoothness, it was very noisy and full of spikes and surges, therefore it was impossible to use this spectrum for analyzing the cement substance. This paper describes the work carried out to improve the system performance

  10. PM 3655 PHILIPS Logic analyzer

    CERN Multimedia

    A logic analyzer is an electronic instrument that captures and displays multiple signals from a digital system or digital circuit. A logic analyzer may convert the captured data into timing diagrams, protocol decodes, state machine traces, assembly language, or may correlate assembly with source-level software. Logic Analyzers have advanced triggering capabilities, and are useful when a user needs to see the timing relationships between many signals in a digital system.

  11. IMPROVING ACCESS TO DRUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Joseph Herman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Although essentially not all therapies need drug intervention, drugs is still an important components in health sector, either in preventive, curative, rehabilitative or promotion efforts. Hence the access to drugs is a main problem, either in international or national scale even to the smallest unit. The problem on access to drugs is very complicated and cannot be separated especially from pharmacy management problems; moreover in general from the overall lack of policy development and effective of health policy, and also the implementation process. With the policy development and effective health policy, rational drug uses, sufficient health service budget so a country can overcome the health problems. Besides infrastructures, regulations, distribution and cultural influences; the main obstacles for drug access is drugs affordability if the price of drugs is an important part and determined by many factors, especially the drug status whether is still patent orgenerics that significantly decrease cost of health cares and enhance the drugs affordability. The determination of essential drug prices in developing countries should based on equity principal so that poor people pay cheaper and could afford the essential drugs. WHO predicts two third of world population can not afford the essential drugs in which in developing countries, some are because of in efficient budget allocation in consequence of drug distribution management, including incorrect selection and allocation and also irrational uses. In part these could be overcome by enhancing performances on the allocation pharmacy needs, including the management of information system, inventory management, stock management and the distribution. Key words: access, drugs, essential drugs, generic drugs

  12. Antiretroviral Drug Use in a Cohort of HIV-Uninfected Women in the United States: HIV Prevention Trials Network 064.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Chen

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral (ARV drug use was analyzed in HIV-uninfected women in an observational cohort study conducted in 10 urban and periurban communities in the United States with high rates of poverty and HIV infection. Plasma samples collected in 2009-2010 were tested for the presence of 16 ARV drugs. ARV drugs were detected in samples from 39 (2% of 1,806 participants: 27/181 (15% in Baltimore, MD and 12/179 (7% in Bronx, NY. The ARV drugs detected included different combinations of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors (1-4 drugs/sample. These data were analyzed in the context of self-reported data on ARV drug use. None of the 39 women who had ARV drugs detected reported ARV drug use at any study visit. Further research is needed to evaluate ARV drug use by HIV-uninfected individuals.

  13. Fast analysis of narcotic drugs by optical chemical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, Michal; Bulatov, Vallery; Schechter, Israel

    2003-01-01

    A new technique is proposed for fast detection, identification and imaging of narcotic drugs in their solid phase. This technique, which requires only a tiny sample of a few microns, is based on microscopic chemical imaging. Minor sample preparation is required, and results are obtained within seconds. As far as we know, this is the most sensitive detection system available today for solid drugs. The technique can be applied for fast analysis of minute drug residues, and therefore is of considerable importance for forensic applications. It is shown that identification of drug traces in realistic matrixes is possible. Two main methods were applied in this study for detection of drugs and drug derivatives. The first method was based on direct detection and chemical imaging of the auto-fluorescence of the analyzed drugs. This method is applicable when the analyzed drug emits fluorescence under the experiment conditions, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (known as LSD). The second method was used for obtaining chemical imaging of drugs that do not fluoresce under the experiment conditions. In these cases fluorescent labeling dyes were applied to the examined samples (including the drug and the matrix). Both methods are simple and rapid, and require minor or no sample preparation at all. Detection limits are very low in the picogram range

  14. Multichannel analyzer type CMA-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czermak, A.; Jablonski, J.; Ostrowicz, A.

    1978-01-01

    Multichannel analyzer CMA-3 is designed for two-parametric analysis with operator controlled logical windows. It is implemented in CAMAC standard. A single crate contains all required modules and is controlled by the PDP-11/10 minicomputer. Configuration of CMA-3 is shown. CMA-3 is the next version of the multichannel analyzer described in report No 958/E-8. (author)

  15. Analyzing data files in SWAN

    CERN Document Server

    Gajam, Niharika

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally analyzing data happens via batch-processing and interactive work on the terminal. The project aims to provide another way of analyzing data files: A cloud-based approach. It aims to make it a productive and interactive environment through the combination of FCC and SWAN software.

  16. Drugs and drug policy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuw, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    The Dutch parliament enacted the revised Opium Act in 1976. This penal law is part of the Dutch drug policy framework that includes tolerance for nonconforming lifestyles, risk reduction in regard to the harmful health and social consequences of drug taking, and penal measures directed against

  17. Illicit Drug Markets Among New Orleans Evacuees Before and Soon After Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Eloise; Johnson, Bruce D; Morse, Edward

    2007-09-01

    This paper analyzes illicit drug markets in New Orleans before and after Hurricane Katrina and access to drug markets following evacuation at many locations and in Houston. Among New Orleans arrestees pre-Katrina, rates of crack and heroin use and market participation was comparable to New York and higher than in other southern cities. Both cities have vigorous outdoor drug markets. Over 100 New Orleans evacuees provide rich accounts describing the illicit markets in New Orleans and elsewhere. The flooding of New Orleans disrupted the city's flourishing drug markets, both during and immediately after the storm. Drug supplies, though limited, were never completely unavailable. Subjects reported that alcohol or drugs were not being used in the Houston Astrodome, and it was a supportive environment. Outside the Astrodome, they were often approached by or could easily locate middlemen and drug sellers. Evacuees could typically access illegal drug markets wherever they went. This paper analyzes the impact of a major disaster upon users of illegal drugs and the illegal drug markets in New Orleans and among the diaspora of New Orleans evacuees following Hurricane Katrina. This analysis includes data from criminal justice sources that specify what the drug markets were like before this disaster occurred. This analysis also includes some comparison cities where no disaster occurred, but which help inform the similarities and differences in drug markets in other cities. The data presented also include an initial analysis of ethnographic interview data from over 100 New Orleans Evacuees recruited in New Orleans and Houston.

  18. Statin drug-drug interactions in a Romanian community pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiu, Raluca; Bucsa, Camelia; Mogosan, Cristina; Dumitrascu, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Statins are frequently prescribed for patients with dyslipidemia and have a well-established safety profile. However, when associated with interacting dugs, the risk of adverse effects, especially muscular toxicity, is increased. The objective of this study was to identify, characterize and quantify the prevalence of the potential drug-drug interactions (pDDIs) of statins in reimbursed prescriptions from a community pharmacy in Bucharest. We analyzed the reimbursed prescriptions including statins collected during one month in a community pharmacy. The online program Medscape Drug Interaction Checker was used for checking the drug interactions and their classification based on severity: Serious - Use alternative, Significant - Monitor closely and Minor. 132 prescriptions pertaining to 125 patients were included in the analysis. Our study showed that 25% of the patients who were prescribed statins were exposed to pDDIs: 37 Serious and Significant interactions in 31 of the statins prescriptions. The statins involved were atorvastatin, simvastatin and rosuvastatin. Statin pDDIs have a high prevalence and patients should be monitored closely in order to prevent the development of adverse effects that result from statin interactions.

  19. Drug allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allergic reaction - drug (medication); Drug hypersensitivity; Medication hypersensitivity ... A drug allergy involves an immune response in the body that produces an allergic reaction to a medicine. The first time ...

  20. Study Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to quit, they may have withdrawal symptoms like depression, thoughts of suicide, intense drug cravings, sleep problems, and fatigue. The health risks aren't the only downside to study drugs. Students caught with illegal prescription drugs may get suspended ...

  1. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... symptoms of someone with a drug use problem? How Does Drug Use Become an Addiction? What Makes Someone More Likely to Get Addicted to Drugs? Does Addiction Run in Families? Why Is It So Hard to ...

  2. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Other Effects on the Body Drug Use Hurts Brains Drug Use and Mental Health Problems Often Happen ... to prescription drugs. The addiction slowly took over his life. I need different people around me. To ...

  3. Drug Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problem is interactions, which may occur between Two drugs, such as aspirin and blood thinners Drugs and food, such as statins and grapefruit Drugs and supplements, such as ginkgo and blood thinners ...

  4. Drug Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Makes Someone More Likely to Get Addicted to Drugs? Does Addiction Run in Families? Why Is It So Hard ... the text to you. This website talks about drug abuse, addiction, and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol ...

  5. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA ( ... materials include print PSAs, Web banner PSAs, promo cards, and posters. Videos The campaign includes the "After ...

  6. 28 CFR 20.32 - Includable offenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.32 Includable offenses. (a) Criminal history record... vehicular manslaughter, driving under the influence of drugs or liquor, and hit and run), when unaccompanied by a § 20.32(a) offense. These exclusions may not be applicable to criminal history records...

  7. [Automated analyzer of enzyme immunoassay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, S

    1995-09-01

    Automated analyzers for enzyme immunoassay can be classified by several points of view: the kind of labeled antibodies or enzymes, detection methods, the number of tests per unit time, analytical time and speed per run. In practice, it is important for us consider the several points such as detection limits, the number of tests per unit time, analytical range, and precision. Most of the automated analyzers on the market can randomly access and measure samples. I will describe the recent advance of automated analyzers reviewing their labeling antibodies and enzymes, the detection methods, the number of test per unit time and analytical time and speed per test.

  8. Delays in clinical development of neurological drugs in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Masayuki

    2017-06-28

    The delays in the approval and development of neurological drugs between Japan and other countries have been a major issue for patients with neurological diseases. The objective of this study was to analyze factors contributing to the delay in the launching of neurological drugs in Japan. We analyzed data from Japan and the US for the approval of 42 neurological drugs, all of which were approved earlier in the US than in Japan, and examined the potential factors that may cause the delay of their launch. Introductions of the 42 drugs in Japan occurred at a median of 87 months after introductions in the US. The mean review time of new drug applications for the 20 drugs introduced in Japan in January 2011 or later (15 months) was significantly shorter than that for the other 22 drugs introduced in Japan in December 2010 or earlier (24 months). The lag in the Japan's review time behind the US could not explain the approval delays. In the 31 of the 42 drugs, the application data package included overseas data. The mean review time of these 31 drugs (17 months) was significantly shorter than that of the other 11 drugs without overseas data (26 months). The mean approval lag behind the US of the 31 drugs (78 months) was also significantly shorter than that of the other 11 drugs (134 months). These results show that several important reforms in the Japanese drug development and approval system (e.g., inclusion of global clinical trial data) have reduced the delays in the clinical development of neurological drugs.

  9. Risk of Clinically Relevant Pharmacokinetic-based Drug-drug Interactions with Drugs Approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Between 2013 and 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jingjing; Zhou, Zhu; Tay-Sontheimer, Jessica; Levy, Rene H; Ragueneau-Majlessi, Isabelle

    2018-03-23

    A total of 103 drugs (including 14 combination drugs) were approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration from 2013 to 2016. Pharmacokinetic-based drug interaction profiles were analyzed using the University of Washington Drug Interaction Database and the clinical relevance of these observations was characterized based on information from New Drug Application reviews. CYP3A was identified as a major contributor to clinical drug-drug interactions (DDIs), involved in approximately 2/3 of all interactions. Transporters (alone or with enzymes) were found to participate in about half of all interactions, although most of these were weak-to-moderate interactions. When considered as victims, eight new molecular entities (NMEs; cobimetinib, ibrutnib, isavuconazole, ivabradine, naloxegol, paritaprevir, simeprevir, and venetoclax) were identified as sensitive substrates of CYP3A, two NMEs (pirfenidone and tasimelteon) were sensitive substrates of CYP1A2, one NME (dasabuvir) was a sensitive substrate of CYP2C8, one NME (eliglustat) was a sensitive substrate of CYP2D6, and one NME (grazoprevir) was a sensitive substrate of OATP1B1/3 (with changes in exposure greater than 5-fold when co-administered with a strong inhibitor). Interestingly, approximately 75% of identified CYP3A substrates were also substrates of P-gp. As perpetrators, most clinical DDIs involved weak-to-moderate inhibition or induction, with only two drugs (Viekira Pak and idelalisib) showing strong inhibition of CYP3A, and one NME (lumacaftor) considered as a strong CYP3A inducer. Among drugs with large changes in exposure (≥ 5-fold), whether as victim or perpetrator, the most represented therapeutic classes were antivirals and oncology drugs, suggesting a significant risk of clinical DDIs in these patient populations. The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  10. DEMorphy, German Language Morphological Analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Altinok, Duygu

    2018-01-01

    DEMorphy is a morphological analyzer for German. It is built onto large, compactified lexicons from German Morphological Dictionary. A guesser based on German declension suffixed is also provided. For German, we provided a state-of-art morphological analyzer. DEMorphy is implemented in Python with ease of usability and accompanying documentation. The package is suitable for both academic and commercial purposes wit a permissive licence.

  11. CSTT Update: Fuel Quality Analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosha, Eric L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lujan, Roger W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rockward, Tommy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Christopher J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Williams, Stefan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wilson, Mahlon S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-02-06

    These are slides from a presentation. The following topics are covered: project background (scope and approach), developing the prototype (timeline), update on intellectual property, analyzer comparisons (improving humidification, stabilizing the baseline, applying clean-up strategy, impact of ionomer content and improving clean-up), proposed operating mode, considerations for testing in real-world conditions (Gen 1 analyzer electronics development, testing partner identified, field trial planning), summary, and future work.

  12. Novel opportunities for computational biology and sociology in drug discovery☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lixia; Evans, James A.; Rzhetsky, Andrey

    2013-01-01

    Current drug discovery is impossible without sophisticated modeling and computation. In this review we outline previous advances in computational biology and, by tracing the steps involved in pharmaceutical development, explore a range of novel, high-value opportunities for computational innovation in modeling the biological process of disease and the social process of drug discovery. These opportunities include text mining for new drug leads, modeling molecular pathways and predicting the efficacy of drug cocktails, analyzing genetic overlap between diseases and predicting alternative drug use. Computation can also be used to model research teams and innovative regions and to estimate the value of academy–industry links for scientific and human benefit. Attention to these opportunities could promise punctuated advance and will complement the well-established computational work on which drug discovery currently relies. PMID:20349528

  13. Novel opportunities for computational biology and sociology in drug discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lixia

    2009-01-01

    Drug discovery today is impossible without sophisticated modeling and computation. In this review we touch on previous advances in computational biology and by tracing the steps involved in pharmaceutical development, we explore a range of novel, high value opportunities for computational innovation in modeling the biological process of disease and the social process of drug discovery. These opportunities include text mining for new drug leads, modeling molecular pathways and predicting the efficacy of drug cocktails, analyzing genetic overlap between diseases and predicting alternative drug use. Computation can also be used to model research teams and innovative regions and to estimate the value of academy-industry ties for scientific and human benefit. Attention to these opportunities could promise punctuated advance, and will complement the well-established computational work on which drug discovery currently relies. PMID:19674801

  14. Drug-Target Kinetics in Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonge, Peter J

    2018-01-17

    The development of therapies for the treatment of neurological cancer faces a number of major challenges including the synthesis of small molecule agents that can penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Given the likelihood that in many cases drug exposure will be lower in the CNS than in systemic circulation, it follows that strategies should be employed that can sustain target engagement at low drug concentration. Time dependent target occupancy is a function of both the drug and target concentration as well as the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters that describe the binding reaction coordinate, and sustained target occupancy can be achieved through structural modifications that increase target (re)binding and/or that decrease the rate of drug dissociation. The discovery and deployment of compounds with optimized kinetic effects requires information on the structure-kinetic relationships that modulate the kinetics of binding, and the molecular factors that control the translation of drug-target kinetics to time-dependent drug activity in the disease state. This Review first introduces the potential benefits of drug-target kinetics, such as the ability to delineate both thermodynamic and kinetic selectivity, and then describes factors, such as target vulnerability, that impact the utility of kinetic selectivity. The Review concludes with a description of a mechanistic PK/PD model that integrates drug-target kinetics into predictions of drug activity.

  15. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drug Use Hurts Brains Drug Use and Mental Health Problems Often Happen Together The Link Between Drug Use and HIV/AIDS Treatment & Recovery Why Does a Person Need Treatment? Does Drug Treatment Work? What Are the Treatment Options? What Is Recovery? ...

  16. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 4357) at any time to find drug treatment centers near you. I want my daughter to avoid drugs. "Debbie" has been drug-free for years. She wants her daughter to stay away from drugs. But she's afraid ...

  17. Device for analyzing a solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchand, Joseph.

    1978-01-01

    The device enables a solution containing an antigen to be analyzed by the radio-immunology technique without coming up against the problems of antigen-antibody complex and free antigen separation. This device, for analyzing a solution containing a biological compound capable of reacting with an antagonistic compound specific of the biological compound, features a tube closed at its bottom end and a component set and immobilized in the bottom of the tube so as to leave a capacity between the bottom of the tube and its lower end. The component has a large developed surface and is so shaped that it allows the solution to be analyzed to have access to the bottom of the tube; it is made of a material having some elastic deformation and able to take up a given quantity of the biological compound or of the antagonistic compound specific of the biological compound [fr

  18. Multichannel analyzer embedded in FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia D, A.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R.; Ordaz G, O. O.; Bravo M, I.

    2017-10-01

    Ionizing radiation has different applications, so it is a very significant and useful tool, which in turn can be dangerous for living beings if they are exposed to uncontrolled doses. However, due to its characteristics, it cannot be perceived by any of the senses of the human being, so that in order to know the presence of it, radiation detectors and additional devices are required to quantify and classify it. A multichannel analyzer is responsible for separating the different pulse heights that are generated in the detectors, in a certain number of channels; according to the number of bits of the analog to digital converter. The objective of the work was to design and implement a multichannel analyzer and its associated virtual instrument, for nuclear spectrometry. The components of the multichannel analyzer were created in VHDL hardware description language and packaged in the Xilinx Vivado design suite, making use of resources such as the ARM processing core that the System on Chip Zynq contains and the virtual instrument was developed on the LabView programming graphics platform. The first phase was to design the hardware architecture to be embedded in the FPGA and for the internal control of the multichannel analyzer the application was generated for the ARM processor in C language. For the second phase, the virtual instrument was developed for the management, control and visualization of the results. The data obtained as a result of the development of the system were observed graphically in a histogram showing the spectrum measured. The design of the multichannel analyzer embedded in FPGA was tested with two different radiation detection systems (hyper-pure germanium and scintillation) which allowed determining that the spectra obtained are similar in comparison with the commercial multichannel analyzers. (Author)

  19. Searching online to buy commonly prescribed psychiatric drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Scott; Glenn, Tasha

    2018-02-01

    The use of online pharmacies to purchase prescription drugs is increasing. The patient experience when searching to buy commonly prescribed psychiatric drugs was investigated. Using the search term "buy [drug name] online" in Google, 38 frequently prescribed drugs, including 13 with a high potential for abuse, were searched by brand and generic names. The first page of results were analyzed, including with pharmacy certification checkers and ICANN WHOIS. Search results for all drugs yielded 167 pharmacies, of which 147 (88%) did not require a prescription. Considering all searches, the average number of pharmacies requiring a prescription was 2.7 for a brand name drug and 2.4 for a generic name. A phrase like "buy without a prescription" usually appeared on the search results page. All results for drugs with a high potential for abuse were for illegal pharmacies. Information from certification agencies was often conflicting. Most pharmacies were registered internationally. Patients searching online to purchase prescription psychiatric drugs are presented predominantly with illegal pharmacies, and find conflicting certification data. Patient education should address typical search results. Societal pressures may increase the use of online pharmacies including prescription drug costs, stigma, loss of trust in expert opinion, and the changing patient role. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Methods of analyzing crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Jjunju, Fred Paul Mark; Li, Anyin; Rogan, Iman S.

    2017-08-15

    The invention generally relates to methods of analyzing crude oil. In certain embodiments, methods of the invention involve obtaining a crude oil sample, and subjecting the crude oil sample to mass spectrometry analysis. In certain embodiments, the method is performed without any sample pre-purification steps.

  1. Therapy Talk: Analyzing Therapeutic Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Margaret M.

    2004-01-01

    Therapeutic discourse is the talk-in-interaction that represents the social practice between clinician and client. This article invites speech-language pathologists to apply their knowledge of language to analyzing therapy talk and to learn how talking practices shape clinical roles and identities. A range of qualitative research approaches,…

  2. The Convertible Arbitrage Strategy Analyzed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loncarski, I.; Ter Horst, J.R.; Veld, C.H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes convertible bond arbitrage on the Canadian market for the period 1998 to 2004.Convertible bond arbitrage is the combination of a long position in convertible bonds and a short position in the underlying stocks. Convertible arbitrage has been one of the most successful strategies

  3. Analyzing the complexity of nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de M.J.; Schummer, J.; Baird, D.

    2006-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a highly complex technological development due to many uncertainties in our knowledge about it. The Dutch philosopher Herman Dooyeweerd has developed a conceptual framework that can be used (1) to analyze the complexity of technological developments and (2) to see how priorities

  4. Proton-beam energy analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belan, V.N.; Bolotin, L.I.; Kiselev, V.A.; Linnik, A.F.; Uskov, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe a magnetic analyzer for measurement of proton-beam energy in the range from 100 keV to 25 MeV. The beam is deflected in a uniform transverse magnetic field and is registered by photographing a scintillation screen. The energy spectrum of the beam is constructed by microphotometry of the photographic film

  5. Differences between Drug-Induced and Contrast Media-Induced Adverse Reactions Based on Spontaneously Reported Adverse Drug Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, JiHyeon; Lee, HeeYoung; Suh, JinUk; Yang, MyungSuk; Kang, WonKu; Kim, EunYoung

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed differences between spontaneously reported drug-induced (not including contrast media) and contrast media-induced adverse reactions. Adverse drug reactions reported by an in-hospital pharmacovigilance center (St. Mary's teaching hospital, Daejeon, Korea) from 2010-2012 were classified as drug-induced or contrast media-induced. Clinical patterns, frequency, causality, severity, Schumock and Thornton's preventability, and type A/B reactions were recorded. The trends among causality tools measuring drug and contrast-induced adverse reactions were analyzed. Of 1,335 reports, 636 drug-induced and contrast media-induced adverse reactions were identified. The prevalence of spontaneously reported adverse drug reaction-related admissions revealed a suspected adverse drug reaction-reporting rate of 20.9/100,000 (inpatient, 0.021%) and 3.9/100,000 (outpatients, 0.004%). The most common adverse drug reaction-associated drug classes included nervous system agents and anti-infectives. Dermatological and gastrointestinal adverse drug reactions were most frequently and similarly reported between drug and contrast media-induced adverse reactions. Compared to contrast media-induced adverse reactions, drug-induced adverse reactions were milder, more likely to be preventable (9.8% vs. 1.1%, p contrast media-induced adverse reactions (56.6%, p = 0.066). Causality patterns differed between the two adverse reaction classes. The World Health Organization-Uppsala Monitoring Centre causality evaluation and Naranjo algorithm results significantly differed from those of the Korean algorithm version II (p contrast media-induced adverse reactions. The World Health Organization-Uppsala Monitoring Centre and Naranjo algorithm causality evaluation afforded similar results.

  6. Vaccine and Drug Ontology Studies (VDOS 2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Cui; He, Yongqun; Arabandi, Sivaram

    2016-01-01

    The "Vaccine and Drug Ontology Studies" (VDOS) international workshop series focuses on vaccine- and drug-related ontology modeling and applications. Drugs and vaccines have been critical to prevent and treat human and animal diseases. Work in both (drugs and vaccines) areas is closely related - from preclinical research and development to manufacturing, clinical trials, government approval and regulation, and post-licensure usage surveillance and monitoring. Over the last decade, tremendous efforts have been made in the biomedical ontology community to ontologically represent various areas associated with vaccines and drugs - extending existing clinical terminology systems such as SNOMED, RxNorm, NDF-RT, and MedDRA, developing new models such as the Vaccine Ontology (VO) and Ontology of Adverse Events (OAE), vernacular medical terminologies such as the Consumer Health Vocabulary (CHV). The VDOS workshop series provides a platform for discussing innovative solutions as well as the challenges in the development and applications of biomedical ontologies for representing and analyzing drugs and vaccines, their administration, host immune responses, adverse events, and other related topics. The five full-length papers included in this 2014 thematic issue focus on two main themes: (i) General vaccine/drug-related ontology development and exploration, and (ii) Interaction and network-related ontology studies.

  7. Evaluation of automated enzyme immunoassays for five anticonvulsants and theophylline adapted to a centrifugal analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, N; Godolphin, W; Campbell, D J

    1979-05-01

    We report a clinical evaluation of the enzyme immunoassay (EMIT) performed with the GEMSAEC centrifugal analyzer as compared to gas-liquid and liquid chromatography for anticonvulsant drugs and theophylline, respectively. A good correlation was obtained for all drugs, although some difficulties were experienced with one lot of reagent for ethosuximide. The analyzer has an economic advantage if many samples are being analyzed for few drugs in each sample.

  8. Drug target ontology to classify and integrate drug discovery data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu; Mehta, Saurabh; Küçük-McGinty, Hande; Turner, John Paul; Vidovic, Dusica; Forlin, Michele; Koleti, Amar; Nguyen, Dac-Trung; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Guha, Rajarshi; Mathias, Stephen L; Ursu, Oleg; Stathias, Vasileios; Duan, Jianbin; Nabizadeh, Nooshin; Chung, Caty; Mader, Christopher; Visser, Ubbo; Yang, Jeremy J; Bologa, Cristian G; Oprea, Tudor I; Schürer, Stephan C

    2017-11-09

    One of the most successful approaches to develop new small molecule therapeutics has been to start from a validated druggable protein target. However, only a small subset of potentially druggable targets has attracted significant research and development resources. The Illuminating the Druggable Genome (IDG) project develops resources to catalyze the development of likely targetable, yet currently understudied prospective drug targets. A central component of the IDG program is a comprehensive knowledge resource of the druggable genome. As part of that effort, we have developed a framework to integrate, navigate, and analyze drug discovery data based on formalized and standardized classifications and annotations of druggable protein targets, the Drug Target Ontology (DTO). DTO was constructed by extensive curation and consolidation of various resources. DTO classifies the four major drug target protein families, GPCRs, kinases, ion channels and nuclear receptors, based on phylogenecity, function, target development level, disease association, tissue expression, chemical ligand and substrate characteristics, and target-family specific characteristics. The formal ontology was built using a new software tool to auto-generate most axioms from a database while supporting manual knowledge acquisition. A modular, hierarchical implementation facilitate ontology development and maintenance and makes use of various external ontologies, thus integrating the DTO into the ecosystem of biomedical ontologies. As a formal OWL-DL ontology, DTO contains asserted and inferred axioms. Modeling data from the Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures (LINCS) program illustrates the potential of DTO for contextual data integration and nuanced definition of important drug target characteristics. DTO has been implemented in the IDG user interface Portal, Pharos and the TIN-X explorer of protein target disease relationships. DTO was built based on the need for a formal semantic

  9. Specialty Drug Spending Trends Among Medicare And Medicare Advantage Enrollees, 2007–11

    OpenAIRE

    Trish, Erin; Joyce, Geoffrey; Goldman, Dana P.

    2014-01-01

    Specialty pharmaceuticals include most injectable and biologic agents used to treat complex conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and cancer. We analyzed trends in specialty drug spending among Medicare beneficiaries ages sixty-five and older using 2007–11 pharmacy claims data from a 20 percent sample of Medicare beneficiaries. Annual specialty drug spending per beneficiary who used specialty drugs increased considerably during the study period, from $2,641 to $8,976. H...

  10. Radiopharmaceutical drug review process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankel, R.

    1985-01-01

    To ensure proper radioactive drug use (such as quality, diagnostic improvement, and minimal radioactive exposure), the Food and Drug Administration evaluates new drugs with respect to safety, effectiveness, and accuracy and adequacy of the labeling. The IND or NDA process is used for this purpose. A brief description of the process, including the Chemical Classification System and the therapeutic potential classification, is presented as it applies to radiopharmaceuticals. Also, the status of the IND or NDA review of radiopharmaceuticals is given

  11. Methods for Analyzing Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Linaa

    2013-01-01

    Social media is becoming increasingly attractive for users. It is a fast way to communicate ideas and a key source of information. It is therefore one of the most influential mediums of communication of our time and an important area for audience research. The growth of social media invites many...... new questions such as: How can we analyze social media? Can we use traditional audience research methods and apply them to online content? Which new research strategies have been developed? Which ethical research issues and controversies do we have to pay attention to? This book focuses on research...... strategies and methods for analyzing social media and will be of interest to researchers and practitioners using social media, as well as those wanting to keep up to date with the subject....

  12. New approach to analyzing vulnerability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Callaghan, P.B.; Carlson, R.L.; Riedeman, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has recently completed construction of the Fuel Cycle Plant (FCP) at Richland, Washington. At start-up the facility will fabricate driver fuel for the Fast Flux Test Facility in the Secure Automated Fabrication line. After construction completion, but before facility certification, the Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operation Office requested that a vulnerability analysis be performed which assumed multiple insiders as a threat to the security system. A unique method of analyzing facility vulnerabilities was developed at the Security Applications Center (SAC), which is managed by WHC for DOE. The method that was developed verifies a previous vulnerability assessment, as well as introducing a modeling technique which analyzes security alarms in relation to delaying factors and possible insider activities. With this information it is possible to assess the relative strength or weakness of various possible routes to and from a target within a facility

  13. Substance use - prescription drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance use disorder - prescription drugs; Substance abuse - prescription drugs; Drug abuse - prescription drugs; Drug use - prescription drugs; Narcotics - substance use; Opioid - substance use; Sedative - substance ...

  14. Profit-driven drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collen, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Random drug testing of people being treated for chronic pain has become more common. Physicians may drug test patients on opioid therapy as a result of concerns over prosecution, drug misuse, addiction, and overdose. However, profit motive has remained unexplored. This article suggests profits also drive physician drug-testing behavior and evidence is offered, including an exploration of Medicare reimbursement incentives and kickbacks for drug testing.

  15. Analyzing the Facebook Friendship Graph

    OpenAIRE

    Catanese, Salvatore; De Meo, Pasquale; Ferrara, Emilio; Fiumara, Giacomo

    2010-01-01

    Online Social Networks (OSN) during last years acquired a huge and increasing popularity as one of the most important emerging Web phenomena, deeply modifying the behavior of users and contributing to build a solid substrate of connections and relationships among people using the Web. In this preliminary work paper, our purpose is to analyze Facebook, considering a significant sample of data reflecting relationships among subscribed users. Our goal is to extract, from this platform, relevant ...

  16. Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springston, Stephen R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer measures sulfur dioxide based on absorbance of UV light at one wavelength by SO2 molecules which then decay to a lower energy state by emitting UV light at a longer wavelength. Specifically, SO2 + hυ1 →SO2 *→SO2 + hυ2 The emitted light is proportional to the concentration of SO2 in the optical cell. External communication with the analyzer is available through an Ethernet port configured through the instrument network of the AOS systems. The Model 43i-TLE is part of the i-series of Thermo Scientific instruments. The i-series instruments are designed to interface with external computers through the proprietary Thermo Scientific iPort Software. However, this software is somewhat cumbersome and inflexible. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has written an interface program in National Instruments LabView that both controls the Model 43i-TLE Analyzer AND queries the unit for all measurement and housekeeping data. The LabView vi (the software program written by BNL) ingests all raw data from the instrument and outputs raw data files in a uniform data format similar to other instruments in the AOS and described more fully in Section 6.0 below.

  17. Remote Laser Diffraction PSD Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batcheller, T.A.; Huestis, G.M.; Bolton, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    Particle size distribution (PSD) analysis of radioactive slurry samples were obtained using a modified off-the-shelf classical laser light scattering particle size analyzer. A Horiba Instruments Inc. Model La-300 PSD analyzer, which has a 0.1 to 600 micron measurement range, was modified for remote application in a hot cell (gamma radiation) environment. The general details of the modifications to this analyzer are presented in this paper. This technology provides rapid and simple PSD analysis, especially down in the fine and microscopic particle size regime. Particle size analysis of these radioactive slurries down in this smaller range was not achievable - making this technology far superior than the traditional methods used previously. Remote deployment and utilization of this technology is in an exploratory stage. The risk of malfunction in this radiation environment is countered by gaining of this tremendously useful fundamental engineering data. Successful acquisition of this data, in conjunction with other characterization analyses, provides important information that can be used in the myriad of potential radioactive waste management alternatives

  18. A new uranium automatic analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Buyun; Zhu Yaokun; Wang Bin; Cong Peiyuan; Zhang Lan

    1993-01-01

    A new uranium automatic analyzer based on the flow injection analysis (FIA) principle has been developed. It consists of a multichannel peristaltic pump, an injection valve, a photometric detector, a single-chip microprocessor system and electronic circuit. The new designed multifunctional auto-injection valve can automatically change the injection volume of the sample and the channels so that the determination ranges and items can easily be changed. It also can make the instrument vary the FIA operation modes that it has functions of a universal instrument. A chromatographic column with extractant-containing resin was installed in the manifold of the analyzer for the concentration and separation of trace uranium. The 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethyl-aminophenol (Br-PADAP) was used as colour reagent. Uranium was determined in the aqueous solution by adding cetyl-pyridium bromide (CPB). The uranium in the solution in the range 0.02-500 mg · L -1 can be directly determined without any pretreatment. A sample throughput rate of 30-90 h -1 and reproducibility of 1-2% were obtained. The analyzer has been satisfactorily applied to the laboratory and the plant

  19. Remote Laser Diffraction PSD Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas; Huestis, Gary Michael; Bolton, Steven Michael

    2000-01-01

    Particle size distribution (PSD) analysis of radioactive slurry samples were obtained using a modified ''off-the-shelf'' classical laser light scattering particle size analyzer. A Horiba Instruments Inc. Model La-300 PSD analyzer, which has a 0.1 to 600 micron measurement range, was modified for remote application in a ''hot cell'' (gamma radiation) environment. The general details of the modifications to this analyzer are presented in this paper. This technology provides rapid and simple PSD analysis, especially down in the fine and microscopic particle size regime. Particle size analysis of these radioactive slurries down in this smaller range was not achievable--making this technology far superior than the traditional methods used previously. Remote deployment and utilization of this technology is in an exploratory stage. The risk of malfunction in this radiation environment is countered by gaining of this tremendously useful fundamental engineering data. Successful acquisition of this data, in conjunction with other characterization analyses, provides important information that can be used in the myriad of potential radioactive waste management alternatives

  20. Analyzing Big Data in Psychology: A Split/Analyze/Meta-Analyze Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike W.-L. Cheung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Big data is a field that has traditionally been dominated by disciplines such as computer science and business, where mainly data-driven analyses have been performed. Psychology, a discipline in which a strong emphasis is placed on behavioral theories and empirical research, has the potential to contribute greatly to the big data movement. However, one challenge to psychologists – and probably the most crucial one – is that most researchers may not have the necessary programming and computational skills to analyze big data. In this study we argue that psychologists can also conduct big data research and that, rather than trying to acquire new programming and computational skills, they should focus on their strengths, such as performing psychometric analyses and testing theories using multivariate analyses to explain phenomena. We propose a split/analyze/meta-analyze approach that allows psychologists to easily analyze big data. Two real datasets are used to demonstrate the proposed procedures in R. A new research agenda related to the analysis of big data in psychology is outlined at the end of the study.

  1. Analyzing Big Data in Psychology: A Split/Analyze/Meta-Analyze Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Mike W-L; Jak, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Big data is a field that has traditionally been dominated by disciplines such as computer science and business, where mainly data-driven analyses have been performed. Psychology, a discipline in which a strong emphasis is placed on behavioral theories and empirical research, has the potential to contribute greatly to the big data movement. However, one challenge to psychologists-and probably the most crucial one-is that most researchers may not have the necessary programming and computational skills to analyze big data. In this study we argue that psychologists can also conduct big data research and that, rather than trying to acquire new programming and computational skills, they should focus on their strengths, such as performing psychometric analyses and testing theories using multivariate analyses to explain phenomena. We propose a split/analyze/meta-analyze approach that allows psychologists to easily analyze big data. Two real datasets are used to demonstrate the proposed procedures in R. A new research agenda related to the analysis of big data in psychology is outlined at the end of the study.

  2. Pharmacogenomics of GPCR Drug Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Alexander Sebastian; Chavali, Sreenivas; Masuho, Ikuo

    2018-01-01

    Natural genetic variation in the human genome is a cause of individual differences in responses to medications and is an underappreciated burden on public health. Although 108 G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the targets of 475 (∼34%) Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs...... and account for a global sales volume of over 180 billion US dollars annually, the prevalence of genetic variation among GPCRs targeted by drugs is unknown. By analyzing data from 68,496 individuals, we find that GPCRs targeted by drugs show genetic variation within functional regions such as drug......- and effector-binding sites in the human population. We experimentally show that certain variants of μ-opioid and Cholecystokinin-A receptors could lead to altered or adverse drug response. By analyzing UK National Health Service drug prescription and sales data, we suggest that characterizing GPCR variants...

  3. The security analyzer, a security analyzer program written in Prolog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, B.D.; Densley, P.J.; Carlson, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    A technique has been developed to characterize a nuclear facility and measure the strengths and weaknesses of the physical protection system. It utilizes the artificial intelligence capabilities available in the prolog programming language to probe a facility's defenses and find potential attack paths that meet designated search criteria. As sensors or barriers become inactive due to maintenance, failure, or inclement weather conditions, the protection system can rapidly be reanalyzed to discover weaknesses that would need to be strengthened by alternative means. Conversely, proposed upgrades and enhancements can be easily entered into the database and their effect measured against a variety of potential adversary attacks. Thus the security analyzer is a tool that aids the protection planner as well as the protection operations staff

  4. Drugs, Alcohol & Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Christina

    Expectant parents are introduced to the effects of a variety of drugs on the unborn baby. Material is divided into seven sections. Section 1 deals with the most frequently used recreational drugs, including alcohol, marijuana, narcotics, depressants, stimulants, inhalants, and hallucinogens. Sections 2 and 3 focus on the effects of prescription…

  5. Drug Impact Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Center for Drug-Free Schools and Communities.

    The Drug Impact Index provides a set of indicators designed to determine the extent of the local drug problem in a community. Each indicator includes a technical note on the data sources, a graph showing comparative statistics on that indicator for the Portland area and for the State of Oregon, and brief remarks on the implications of the data.…

  6. [Health and drug consumption profile in Cameroon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commeyras, Christophe; Ndo, Jean Rolin; Merabet, Omar; Kone, Hamidou; Rakotondrabe, Faraniaina Patricia

    2006-01-01

    To begin a renewal of national health policy in Cameroon, a steering committee from the Cameroon Ministry of Health and its partners sought to analyze health demand through a national population survey and supply capacity through a national survey of retail drug stores. A survey of healthcare consumers was also conducted. The present publication describes the results of the consumer survey. Their socioeconomic profile of these consumers was much higher than that of the general population. This indicates that the poorest do not use health facilities or even self-medication. Within the population of healthcare consumers, women and children used private for-profit (60 %) and nonprofit (65 %) private health facilities most often, while men used mainly private pharmacies (60 %) and street drug (medication) sellers (62 %). In all, 85 % of the users of formal drug retailers had had a consultation with a healthcare provider. The average consultation cost was 1,440 CFA Francs, but the 7 % who paid the provider directly had an average cost of 1,794 CFA Francs. In all, 22 % did not pay at all, because of free consultations in some health facilities (40 %), personal relationships with prescribers, or other reasons. Hospitalization costs averaged 4,800 CFA Francs, and medical examinations 4,534 CFA Francs. These two categories had the highest percentage of insured patients (12 % and 5 %). Drug costs were 5,067 CFA Francs from pharmacies and 1,308 CFA Francs in the street. Total healthcare costs per person averaged 14,990 CFA Francs. Weighted, drugs accounted for the largest share, followed by hospitalisation, medical examinations, consultations, and transportation. In the formal sector, less than 10 % reported paying fees directly to the healthcare providers rather than to the HF cashier. Except for consultation in the public sector, paying providers was associated with a lower bill. However, 24 % purchased drugs from the healthcare workers, which indicates that drug sales are

  7. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abuse, addiction, and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs You can ...

  8. Prescription Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... different competition is going on: the National Football League (NFL) vs. drug use. Read More » 92 Comments ... Future survey highlights drug use trends among the Nation’s youth for marijuana, alcohol, cigarettes, e-cigarettes (e- ...

  9. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abuse, addiction, and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth ... 662-HELP (4357) at any time to find drug treatment centers near you. I want my daughter ...

  10. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... form Search Menu Home Drugs That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts ... addiction, and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain ...

  11. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ice) Facts Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts Spice (K2) Facts Tobacco and Nicotine Facts Other Drugs of ... Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs You can call 1- ...

  12. Drug Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviton, Harvey S.

    1975-01-01

    This article attempts to assemble pertinent information about the drug problem, particularily marihuana. It also focuses on the need for an educational program for drug control with the public schools as the main arena. (Author/HMV)

  13. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Crank, Ice) Facts Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts Spice (K2) Facts Tobacco and Nicotine Facts Other Drugs ... Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs You can call ...

  14. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nicotine Facts Other Drugs of Abuse What is Addiction? What are some signs and symptoms of someone ... use problem? How Does Drug Use Become an Addiction? What Makes Someone More Likely to Get Addicted ...

  15. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Numbers and Websites Search Share Listen English Español Information about this page Click on the button that ... about drug abuse, addiction, and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana ...

  16. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Drugs That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) ... treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice ( ...

  17. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... call 1-800-662-HELP (4357) at any time to find drug treatment centers near you. I ... The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) , the ...

  18. The Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, Charles

    2015-04-01

    As population growth and economic growth take place, and as climate change accelerates, many regions across the globe are finding themselves increasingly vulnerable to flooding. A recent OECD study of the exposure of the world's large port cities to coastal flooding found that 40 million people were exposed to a 1 in 100 year coastal flood event in 2005, and the total value of exposed assets was about US 3,000 billion, or 5% of global GDP. By the 2070s, those numbers were estimated to increase to 150 million people and US 35,000 billion, or roughly 9% of projected global GDP. Impoverished people in developing countries are particularly at risk because they often live in flood-prone areas and lack the resources to respond. WRI and its Dutch partners - Deltares, IVM-VU University Amsterdam, Utrecht University, and PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency - are in the initial stages of developing a robust set of river flood and coastal storm surge risk measures that show the extent of flooding under a variety of scenarios (both current and future), together with the projected human and economic impacts of these flood scenarios. These flood risk data and information will be accessible via an online, easy-to-use Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer. We will also investigate the viability, benefits, and costs of a wide array of flood risk reduction measures that could be implemented in a variety of geographic and socio-economic settings. Together, the activities we propose have the potential for saving hundreds of thousands of lives and strengthening the resiliency and security of many millions more, especially those who are most vulnerable. Mr. Iceland will present Version 1.0 of the Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer and provide a preview of additional elements of the Analyzer to be released in the coming years.

  19. Fuel analyzer; Analisador de combustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzolino, Roberval [RS Motors, Indaiatuba, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The current technology 'COMBUSTIMETRO' aims to examine the fuel through performance of the engine, as the role of the fuel is to produce energy for the combustion engine in the form of which is directly proportional to the quality and type of fuel. The 'COMBUSTIMETRO' has an engine that always keeps the same entry of air, fuel and fixed point of ignition. His operation is monitored by sensors (Sonda Lambda, RPM and Gases Analyzer) connected to a processor that performs calculations and records the information, generate reports and graphs. (author)

  20. [Users sceptical about generic drugs: an anthropological approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarradon-Eck, A; Blanc, M-A; Faure, M

    2007-06-01

    Since the enactment of the 2002 legislative measures favoring the prescription of generic drugs, various quantitative studies have shown that approval by prescribers and users has risen in France. Nevertheless, scepticism remains as well as distrust towards these drugs focusing on their effectiveness compared with brand-name drugs, on potential dangers, and on the interruption they cause in prescription and consumption habits. Using a comprehensive approach, this article analyzes the social and cultural logic behind the negative image of generic drugs. The materials issued from an ethnographic study on the prescription of drugs for high blood pressure. Sixty-eight interviews were undertaken between April 2002 and October 2004 with people (39 women and 29 men, between the age of 40 and 95, 52 over the age of 60) treated for over a year for high blood pressure in rural areas in the Southeast of France. Thirteen people provided unsolicited opinions about generic drugs. Analysis of the information collected shows that users have various representations of generic drugs, including the idea of counterfeited and foreign drugs. These representations interfere with the adjustment process and the development of consumer loyalty. They are part of a set of social representations about drugs which form and express the user's reality. In these representations, the drug is an ambivalent object, carrier of both biological effectiveness and toxicity; it is also the metonymical extension of the prescriber, bestowing upon the prescription a symbolic value. By placing the generic drug in its network of symbolic and social meaning, this study highlights the coherence of the scepticism towards generic drugs by consumers (and prescribers) with a system of common opinion in which drugs are everyday things, personalized and compatible with users, symbolic exchange carriers in the physician-patient relationship, and in which confidence in the drug is also that given to the health care

  1. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... affect judgment and can lead to unsafe sexual practices, which put people at risk for getting HIV ... risk behaviors, including drug injection and unsafe sexual practices. Drug use disorder treatment programs also serve an ...

  2. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... intoxication affect judgment and can lead to unsafe sexual practices, which put people at risk for getting ... related risk behaviors, including drug injection and unsafe sexual practices. Drug use disorder treatment programs also serve ...

  3. The drug target genes show higher evolutionary conservation than non-target genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wenhua; Xu, Yongdeng; Guo, Yiying; Yu, Ziqi; Feng, Guanglong; Liu, Panpan; Luan, Meiwei; Zhu, Hongjie; Liu, Guiyou; Zhang, Mingming; Lv, Hongchao; Duan, Lian; Shang, Zhenwei; Li, Jin; Jiang, Yongshuai; Zhang, Ruijie

    2016-01-26

    Although evidence indicates that drug target genes share some common evolutionary features, there have been few studies analyzing evolutionary features of drug targets from an overall level. Therefore, we conducted an analysis which aimed to investigate the evolutionary characteristics of drug target genes. We compared the evolutionary conservation between human drug target genes and non-target genes by combining both the evolutionary features and network topological properties in human protein-protein interaction network. The evolution rate, conservation score and the percentage of orthologous genes of 21 species were included in our study. Meanwhile, four topological features including the average shortest path length, betweenness centrality, clustering coefficient and degree were considered for comparison analysis. Then we got four results as following: compared with non-drug target genes, 1) drug target genes had lower evolutionary rates; 2) drug target genes had higher conservation scores; 3) drug target genes had higher percentages of orthologous genes and 4) drug target genes had a tighter network structure including higher degrees, betweenness centrality, clustering coefficients and lower average shortest path lengths. These results demonstrate that drug target genes are more evolutionarily conserved than non-drug target genes. We hope that our study will provide valuable information for other researchers who are interested in evolutionary conservation of drug targets.

  4. Orphan drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Goločorbin-Kon, Svetlana; Vojinović, Aleksandra; Lalić-Popović, Mladena; Pavlović, Nebojša; Mikov, Momir

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Drugs used for treatment of rare diseases are known worldwide under the term of orphan drugs because pharmaceutical companies have not been interested in ”adopting” them, that is in investing in research, developing and producing these drugs. This kind of policy has been justified by the fact that these drugs are targeted for small markets, that only a small number of patients is available for clinical trials, and that large investments are required for the development of ...

  5. Human basophil degranulation test in drug allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre Domínguez, J; Sastre Castillo, A

    1986-01-01

    We have evaluated the usefulness of HBDT as an in vitro method for the diagnosis of drug allergy. Two hundred and thirty six patients with suspected drug sensitization to penicillin, streptomycin, sulfamides, pyrazolones and A.S.A. were analyzed. Seventy-nine of them were allergic; in 43 cases it was confirmed by in vivo methods. Other patients were diagnosed by clinical history only if they had more than two reactions to the same drug. In order to be included in this group patients with reactions to pyrazolones and A.S.A. had to have tolerated other NSAI, therefore these patients were allergic to one compound only. All patients were considered non-allergic were determined by a negative provocation test. In the group of allergic patients we obtained 63 (79%) positive degranulations and 16 (21%) negative. One hundred and thirty two (84%) negative degranulations and 25 (16%) positive were obtained in the group of non-allergic patients. Once having analyzed 10 statistical parameters with each drug, the HBOT appears to be a useful method for these drugs except for streptomycin. In 16 (80%) out of 20 aspirin sensitive asthmatic patients we found that their basophils were degranulated. In 7 patients with urticaria and/or angioedema by A.S.A. and other NSAI the degranulation was negative, confirming the absence of the involvement of basophils in this reactions.

  6. Towards a sustainable system of drug development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moors, Ellen H.M.; Cohen, Adam F.; Schellekens, Huub

    2014-01-01

    Drug development has become the exclusive activity of large pharmaceutical companies. However, the output of new drugs has been decreasing for the past decade and the prices of new drugs have risen steadily, leading to access problems for many patients. By analyzing the history of drug development

  7. Drug Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... testing, substance abuse testing, toxicology screen, tox screen, sports doping tests What is it used for? Drug screening is used to find out whether or not a person has taken a certain drug or drugs. It ... Sports organizations. Professional and collegiate athletes usually need to ...

  8. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to main content Easy-to-Read Drug Facts Search form Search Menu Home Drugs That People Abuse Alcohol Facts ... Past Drug Use Prevention Phone Numbers and Websites Search Share Listen English Español Information about this page ...

  9. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... can call 1-800-662-HELP (4357) at any time to find drug treatment centers near you. I want my daughter to avoid drugs. "Debbie" has been drug-free for years. She wants her daughter to stay away from ...

  10. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the computer will read the text to you. This website talks about drug abuse, addiction, and treatment. Watch Videos ... I want my daughter to avoid drugs. "Debbie" has been drug-free for years. She wants her daughter to stay away from ...

  11. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the text to you. This website talks about drug abuse, addiction, and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs ... adicción. English Español About the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) | About This Website Tools and Resources | Contact ...

  12. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drug Use and Mental Health Problems Often Happen Together The Link Between Drug Use and HIV/AIDS Treatment & Recovery Why Does a Person Need Treatment? Does Drug Treatment Work? What Are the Treatment Options? What Is Recovery? ...

  13. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Makes Someone More Likely to Get Addicted to Drugs? Does Addiction Run in Families? Why Is It So Hard ... the text to you. This website talks about drug abuse, addiction, and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol ...

  14. Swedish high-school pupils’ attitudes towards drugs in relation to drug usage, impulsiveness and other risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Mousavi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Illicit drug use influences people’s lives and elicits unwanted behaviour. Current research shows that there is an increase in young people’s drug use in Sweden. The aim was to investigate Swedish high-school pupils’ attitudes, impulsiveness and gender differences linked to drug use. Risk and protective factors relative to drug use were also a focus of interest.Method. High school pupils (n = 146 aged 17–21 years, responded to the Adolescent Health and Development Inventory, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and Knowledge, and the Attitudes and Beliefs. Direct logistic, multiple regression analyses, and Multivariate Analysis of Variance were used to analyze the data.Results. Positive Attitudes towards drugs were predicted by risk factors (odds ratio = 37.31 and gender (odds ratio = .32. Risk factors (odds ratio = 46.89, positive attitudes towards drugs (odds ratio = 4.63, and impulsiveness (odds ratio = 1.11 predicted drug usage. Risk factors dimensions Family, Friends and Individual Characteristic were positively related to impulsiveness among drug users. Moreover, although boys reported using drugs to a greater extent, girls expressed more positive attitude towards drugs and even reported more impulsiveness than boys.Conclusion. This study reinforces the notion that research ought to focus on gender differences relative to pro-drug attitudes along with testing for differences in the predictors of girls’ and boys’ delinquency and impulsiveness. Positive attitudes towards drugs among adolescents seem to be part of a vicious circle including risk factors, such as friendly drug environments (e.g., friends who use drugs and unsupportive family environments, individual characteristics, and impulsiveness.

  15. Environmental applications of the centrifugal fast analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, G.; Strain, J.E.; Bowling, J.L.

    1975-12-01

    The centrifugal fast analyzer (GeMSAEC Fast Analyzer) was applied to the analysis of pollutants in air and water. Since data acquisition and processing are computer controlled, considerable effort went into devising appropriate software. A modified version of the standard FOCAL interpreter was developed which includes special machine language functions for data timing, acquisition, and storage, and also permits chaining together of programs stored on a disk. Programs were written and experimental procedures developed to implement spectrophotometric, turbidimetric, kinetic (including initial-rate, fixed-time, and variable-time techniques), and chemiluminescence methods of analysis. Analytical methods were developed for the following elements and compounds: SO 2 , O 3 , Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Se(IV), Zn, Cl - , I - , NO 2 - , PO 4 -3 , S -2 , and SO 4 -2 . In many cases, standard methods could be adapted to the centrifugal analyzer, in others new methods were employed. In general, analyses performed with the centrifugal fast analyzer were faster, more precise, and more accurate than with conventional instrumentation

  16. Grapefruit and drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Since the late 1980s, grapefruit juice has been known to affect the metabolism of certain drugs. Several serious adverse effects involving drug interactions with grapefruit juice have been published in detail. The components of grapefruit juice vary considerably depending on the variety, maturity and origin of the fruit, local climatic conditions, and the manufacturing process. No single component accounts for all observed interactions. Other grapefruit products are also occasionally implicated, including preserves, lyophylised grapefruit juice, powdered whole grapefruit, grapefruit seed extract, and zest. Clinical reports of drug interactions with grapefruit juice are supported by pharmacokinetic studies, each usually involving about 10 healthy volunteers, in which the probable clinical consequences were extrapolated from the observed plasma concentrations. Grapefruit juice inhibits CYP3A4, the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme most often involved in drug metabolism. This increases plasma concentrations of the drugs concerned, creating a risk of overdose and dose-dependent adverse effects. Grapefruit juice also inhibits several other cytochrome P450 isoenzymes, but they are less frequently implicated in interactions with clinical consequences. Drugs interacting with grapefruit and inducing serious clinical consequences (confirmed or very probable) include: immunosuppressants, some statins, benzodiazepines, most calcium channel blockers, indinavir and carbamazepine. There are large inter-individual differences in enzyme efficiency. Along with the variable composition of grapefruit juice, this makes it difficult to predict the magnitude and clinical consequences of drug interactions with grapefruit juice in a given patient. There is increasing evidence that transporter proteins such as organic anion transporters and P-glycoprotein are involved in interactions between drugs and grapefruit juice. In practice, numerous drugs interact with grapefruit juice. Although only a few

  17. Risk Factors Associated with Mortality and Increased Drug Costs in Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mingliang; Sun, Gang; Zhang, Xiu-li; Zhang, Xiao-mei; Liu, Qing-sen; Huang, Qi-yang; Lau, James W Y; Yang, Yun-sheng

    2015-06-01

    To determine risk factors associated with mortality and increased drug costs in patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We retrospectively analyzed data from patients hospitalized with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding between January 2001-December 2011. Demographic and clinical characteristics and drug costs were documented. Univariate analysis determined possible risk factors for mortality. Statistically significant variables were analyzed using a logistic regression model. Multiple linear regression analyzed factors influencing drug costs. p study included data from 627 patients. Risk factors associated with increased mortality were age > 60, systolic blood pressurebleeding rate is 11.20% and mortality is 5.74%. The mortality risk in patients with comorbidities was higher than in patients without comorbidities, and was higher in patients requiring blood transfusion than in patients not requiring transfusion. Rebleeding was associ-ated with mortality. Rebleeding, blood transfusion, and prolonged hospital stay were associated with increased drug costs, whereas bleeding from lesions in the esophagus and duodenum was associated with lower drug costs.

  18. WAr on DrugS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-04-12

    Apr 12, 2009 ... ABStrAct. Since drugs became both a public and social issue in Nigeria, fear about both the real and .... drugs as being morally reprehensible, and ..... tice system (see for instance, Shaw, 1995; ..... A cut throat business:.

  19. Compact Microwave Fourier Spectrum Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry

    2009-01-01

    A compact photonic microwave Fourier spectrum analyzer [a Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer, (FTMWS)] with no moving parts has been proposed for use in remote sensing of weak, natural microwave emissions from the surfaces and atmospheres of planets to enable remote analysis and determination of chemical composition and abundances of critical molecular constituents in space. The instrument is based on a Bessel beam (light modes with non-zero angular momenta) fiber-optic elements. It features low power consumption, low mass, and high resolution, without a need for any cryogenics, beyond what is achievable by the current state-of-the-art in space instruments. The instrument can also be used in a wide-band scatterometer mode in active radar systems.

  20. Drug delivery and formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitkreutz, Jörg; Boos, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Paediatric drug delivery is a major challenge in drug development. Because of the heterogeneous nature of the patient group, ranging from newborns to adolescents, there is a need to use appropriate excipients, drug dosage forms and delivery devices for different age groups. So far, there is a lack of suitable and safe drug formulations for children, especially for the very young and seriously ill patients. The new EU legislation will enforce paediatric clinical trials and drug development. Current advances in paediatric drug delivery include interesting new concepts such as fast-dissolving drug formulations, including orodispersible tablets and oral thin strips (buccal wafers), and multiparticulate dosage forms based on mini-tabletting or pelletization technologies. Parenteral administration is likely to remain the first choice for children in the neonatal period and for emergency cases. Alternative routes of administration include transdermal, pulmonary and nasal drug delivery systems. A few products are already available on the market, but others still need further investigations and clinical proof of concept.

  1. Drug involvement in fatal overdoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Ruhm

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Death certificate data from the Multiple Cause of Death (MCOD files were analyzed to better understand the drug categories most responsible for the increase in fatal overdoses occurring between 1999 and 2014. Statistical adjustment methods were used to account for the understatement in reported drug involvement occurring because death certificates frequently do not specify which drugs were involved in the deaths. The frequency of combination drug use introduced additional uncertainty and so a distinction was made between any versus exclusive drug involvement. Many results were sensitive to the starting and ending years chosen for examination. Opioid analgesics played a major role in the increased drug deaths for analysis windows starting in 1999 but other drugs, particularly heroin, became more significant for recent time periods. Combination drug use was important for all time periods and needs to be accounted for when designing policies to slow or reverse the increase in overdose deaths.

  2. Real time speech formant analyzer and display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, George E.; Struve, Walter S.; Homer, John F.

    1987-01-01

    A speech analyzer for interpretation of sound includes a sound input which converts the sound into a signal representing the sound. The signal is passed through a plurality of frequency pass filters to derive a plurality of frequency formants. These formants are converted to voltage signals by frequency-to-voltage converters and then are prepared for visual display in continuous real time. Parameters from the inputted sound are also derived and displayed. The display may then be interpreted by the user. The preferred embodiment includes a microprocessor which is interfaced with a television set for displaying of the sound formants. The microprocessor software enables the sound analyzer to present a variety of display modes for interpretive and therapeutic used by the user.

  3. Miniature multichannel analyzer for process monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Russo, P.A.; Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Stephens, M.M.; Wiig, L.G.; Ianakiev, K.D.

    1993-01-01

    A new, 4,000-channel analyzer has been developed for gamma-ray spectroscopy applications. A design philosophy of hardware and software building blocks has been combined with design goals of simplicity, compactness, portability, and reliability. The result is a miniature, modular multichannel analyzer (MMMCA), which offers solution to a variety of nondestructive assay (NDA) needs in many areas of general application, independent of computer platform or operating system. Detector-signal analog electronics, the bias supply, and batteries are included in the virtually pocket-size, low-power MMMCA unit. The MMMCA features digital setup and control, automated data reduction, and automated quality assurance. Areas of current NDA applications include on-line continuous (process) monitoring, process material holdup measurements, and field inspections

  4. Real-time airborne particle analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Peter T.A.

    2012-10-16

    An aerosol particle analyzer includes a laser ablation chamber, a gas-filled conduit, and a mass spectrometer. The laser ablation chamber can be operated at a low pressure, which can be from 0.1 mTorr to 30 mTorr. The ablated ions are transferred into a gas-filled conduit. The gas-filled conduit reduces the electrical charge and the speed of ablated ions as they collide and mix with buffer gases in the gas-filled conduit. Preferably, the gas filled-conduit includes an electromagnetic multipole structure that collimates the nascent ions into a beam, which is guided into the mass spectrometer. Because the gas-filled conduit allows storage of vast quantities of the ions from the ablated particles, the ions from a single ablated particle can be analyzed multiple times and by a variety of techniques to supply statistically meaningful analysis of composition and isotope ratios.

  5. Drugs Approved for Colon and Rectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in colon cancer and rectal cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  6. Drug-induced immune hemolytic anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immune hemolytic anemia secondary to drugs; Anemia - immune hemolytic - secondary to drugs ... Drugs that can cause this type of hemolytic anemia include: Cephalosporins (a class of antibiotics), most common ...

  7. Index to Drug-Specific Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Postmarket Drug Safety Information for Patients and Providers Index to Drug-Specific Information Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Note: This Index does not include all FDA approved drugs. It ...

  8. Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Systemically Administered Antileishmanial Drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kip, Anke E; Schellens, Jan H M; Beijnen, Jos H; Dorlo, Thomas P C

    This review describes the pharmacokinetic properties of the systemically administered antileishmanial drugs pentavalent antimony, paromomycin, pentamidine, miltefosine and amphotericin B (AMB), including their absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion and potential drug-drug interactions.

  9. Neuropathy secondary to drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Paclitaxel Suramin Vincristine Drugs used to fight infections: Chloroquine Dapsone Isoniazid (INH), used against tuberculosis Metronidazole (Flagyl) ... to treat gout) Disulfiram (used to treat alcohol use) Arsenic Gold Symptoms Symptoms may include any of ...

  10. Medicaid Drug Claims Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicaid Drug Claims Statistics CD is a useful tool that conveniently breaks up Medicaid claim counts and separates them by quarter and includes an annual count.

  11. HIV Genetic Diversity and Drug Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, André F.; Soares, Marcelo A.

    2010-01-01

    Most of the current knowledge on antiretroviral (ARV) drug development and resistance is based on the study of subtype B of HIV-1, which only accounts for 10% of the worldwide HIV infections. Cumulative evidence has emerged that different HIV types, groups and subtypes harbor distinct biological properties, including the response and susceptibility to ARV. Recent laboratory and clinical data highlighting such disparities are summarized in this review. Variations in drug susceptibility, in the emergence and selection of specific drug resistance mutations, in viral replicative capacity and in the dynamics of resistance acquisition under ARV selective pressure are discussed. Clinical responses to ARV therapy and associated confounding factors are also analyzed in the context of infections by distinct HIV genetic variants. PMID:21994646

  12. Women who doctor shop for prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Julie; Thomas, Sandra P

    2014-04-01

    Doctor shopping is a term used to describe a form of diversion of prescription drugs when patients visit numerous prescribers to obtain controlled drugs for illicit use. Gender differences exist in regard to prescription drug abuse and methods of diversion. The purpose of this phenomenological study guided by the existential philosophy of Merleau-Ponty was to understand the lived experience of female doctor shoppers. Interviews were conducted with 14 women, which were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. Included in the findings are figural aspects of the participants' experience of doctor shopping related to the existential grounds of world, time, body, and others. Four themes emerged from the data: (a) feeding the addiction, (b) networking with addicts, (c) playing the system, and (d) baiting the doctors. The findings suggest several measures that nurses can take to reduce the incidence of doctor shopping and to provide better care for female doctor shoppers.

  13. Charge Analyzer Responsive Local Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Linda Habash; Thornton, Gary

    2015-01-01

    The first transatlantic radio transmission, demonstrated by Marconi in December of 1901, revealed the essential role of the ionosphere for radio communications. This ionized layer of the upper atmosphere controls the amount of radio power transmitted through, reflected off of, and absorbed by the atmospheric medium. Low-frequency radio signals can propagate long distances around the globe via repeated reflections off of the ionosphere and the Earth's surface. Higher frequency radio signals can punch through the ionosphere to be received at orbiting satellites. However, any turbulence in the ionosphere can distort these signals, compromising the performance or even availability of space-based communication and navigations systems. The physics associated with this distortion effect is analogous to the situation when underwater images are distorted by convecting air bubbles. In fact, these ionospheric features are often called 'plasma bubbles' since they exhibit some of the similar behavior as underwater air bubbles. These events, instigated by solar and geomagnetic storms, can cause communication and navigation outages that last for hours. To help understand and predict these outages, a world-wide community of space scientists and technologists are devoted to researching this topic. One aspect of this research is to develop instruments capable of measuring the ionospheric plasma bubbles. Figure 1 shows a photo of the Charge Analyzer Responsive to Local Oscillations (CARLO), a new instrument under development at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). It is a frequency-domain ion spectrum analyzer designed to measure the distributions of ionospheric turbulence from 1 Hz to 10 kHz (i.e., spatial scales from a few kilometers down to a few centimeters). This frequency range is important since it focuses on turbulence scales that affect VHF/UHF satellite communications, GPS systems, and over-the-horizon radar systems. CARLO is based on the flight-proven Plasma Local

  14. Methodology for analyzing risk at nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Hosik; Lee, Nayoung; Ham, Taekyu; Seo, Janghoon

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new methodology for evaluating the risk at nuclear facilities was developed. • Five measures reflecting all factors that should be concerned to assess risk were developed. • The attributes on NMAC and nuclear security culture are included as attributes for analyzing. • The newly developed methodology can be used to evaluate risk of both existing facility and future nuclear system. - Abstract: A methodology for evaluating risks at nuclear facilities is developed in this work. A series of measures is drawn from the analysis of factors that determine risks. Five measures are created to evaluate risks at nuclear facilities. These include the legal and institutional framework, material control, physical protection system effectiveness, human resources, and consequences. Evaluation attributes are developed for each measure and specific values are given in order to calculate the risk value quantitatively. Questionnaires are drawn up on whether or not a state has properly established a legal and regulatory framework (based on international standards). These questionnaires can be a useful measure for comparing the status of the physical protection regime between two countries. Analyzing an insider threat is not an easy task and no methodology has been developed for this purpose. In this study, attributes that could quantitatively evaluate an insider threat, in the case of an unauthorized removal of nuclear materials, are developed by adopting the Nuclear Material Accounting & Control (NMAC) system. The effectiveness of a physical protection system, P(E), could be analyzed by calculating the probability of interruption, P(I), and the probability of neutralization, P(N). In this study, the Tool for Evaluating Security System (TESS) code developed by KINAC is used to calculate P(I) and P(N). Consequence is an important measure used to analyze risks at nuclear facilities. This measure comprises radiological, economic, and social damage. Social and

  15. How do researchers categorize drugs, and how do drug users categorize them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juliet P; Antin, Tamar M J

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers drug classifications and terms widely used in US survey research, and compares these to classifications and terms used by drug users. We begin with a critical review of drug classification systems, including those oriented to public policy and health services as well as survey research. We then consider the results of a pile sort exercise we conducted with 76 respondents within a mixed method study of Southeast Asian American adolescent and young adult drug users in urban Northern California, USA. We included the pile sort to clarify how respondents handled specific terms which we understood to be related to Ecstasy and methamphetamines. Results of the pile sort were analyzed using graphic layout algorithms as well as content analysis of pile labels. Similar to the national surveys, our respondents consistently differentiated Ecstasy terms from methamphetamine terms. We found high agreement between some specific local terms ( thizz , crystal ) and popular drug terms, while other terms thought to be mainstream ( crank , speed ) were reported as unknown by many respondents. In labeling piles, respondents created taxonomies based on consumption method (in particular, pill ) as well as the social contexts of use. We conclude by proposing that divergences between drug terms utilized in survey research and those used by drug users may reflect two opposing tendencies: the tendency of survey researchers to utilize standardized language that constructs persons and experiences as relatively homogeneous, varying only within measurable degrees, and the tendency of drug users to utilize specialized language (argot) that reflects their understandings of their experiences as hybrid and diverse. The findings problematize the validity of drug terms and categories used in survey research.

  16. Radiation energy detector and analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, T.G.

    1981-01-01

    A radiation detector array and a method for measuring the spectral content of radiation. The radiation sensor or detector is an array or stack of thin solid-electrolyte batteries. The batteries, arranged in a stack, may be composed of independent battery cells or may be arranged so that adjacent cells share a common terminal surface. This common surface is possible since the polarity of the batteries with respect to an adjacent battery is unrestricted, allowing a reduction in component parts of the assembly and reducing the overall stack length. Additionally, a test jig or chamber for allowing rapid measurement of the voltage across each battery is disclosed. A multichannel recorder and display may be used to indicate the voltage gradient change across the cells, or a small computer may be used for rapidly converting these voltage readings to a graph of radiation intensity versus wavelength or energy. The behavior of the batteries when used as a radiation detector and analyzer are such that the voltage measurements can be made at leisure after the detector array has been exposed to the radiation, and it is not necessary to make rapid measurements as is now done

  17. Nuclear plant analyzer desktop workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beelman, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    In 1983 the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) commissioned the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop a Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA). The NPA was envisioned as a graphical aid to assist reactor safety analysts in comprehending the results of thermal-hydraulic code calculations. The development was to proceed in three distinct phases culminating in a desktop reactor safety workstation. The desktop NPA is now complete. The desktop NPA is a microcomputer based reactor transient simulation, visualization and analysis tool developed at INEL to assist an analyst in evaluating the transient behavior of nuclear power plants by means of graphic displays. The NPA desktop workstation integrates advanced reactor simulation codes with online computer graphics allowing reactor plant transient simulation and graphical presentation of results. The graphics software, written exclusively in ANSI standard C and FORTRAN 77 and implemented over the UNIX/X-windows operating environment, is modular and is designed to interface to the NRC's suite of advanced thermal-hydraulic codes to the extent allowed by that code. Currently, full, interactive, desktop NPA capabilities are realized only with RELAP5

  18. The melding of drug markets in Houston after Katrina: dealer and user perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarba, Joseph A; Fackler, Jennifer; Johnson, Bruce D; Dunlap, Eloise

    2010-07-01

    In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, the majority of routine activities in New Orleans were disrupted, including the illegal drug market. The large-scale relocation of New Orleans evacuees (NOEs), including many illegal drug users and sellers, to host cities led to a need for new sources of illegal drugs. This need was quickly satisfied by two initially distinct drug markets (1) drug dealers from New Orleans who were themselves evacuees and (2) established drug dealers in the host cities. To be expected, the two markets did not operate indefinitely in parallel fashion. This paper describes the evolving, operational relationship between these two drug markets over time, with a focus on Houston. We analyze the reciprocal evolution of these two markets at two significant points in time: at the beginning of the relocation (2005) and two years later (2007). The overall trend is towards a melding of the two drug markets, as evidenced primarily by decreases in drug-related violence and the cross-fertilization of drug tastes. We describe the process by which the two drug markets are melded over time, in order to seek a better understanding of the social processes by which drug markets in general evolve.

  19. Abuse of antiretroviral drugs combined with addictive drugs by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reports of the use of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) to produce a highly addictive drug called nyaope or whoonga are of major concern as ARVs are easily accessible in sub-Saharan Africa, including to pregnant women. Use of illicit drugs by pregnant women may result in serious adverse effects in their infants. We have ...

  20. Prediction of Effective Drug Combinations by an Improved Naïve Bayesian Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Li-Yue; Dai, Hao; Xu, Qin; Junaid, Muhammad; Peng, Shao-Liang; Zhu, Xiaolei; Xiong, Yi; Wei, Dong-Qing

    2018-02-05

    Drug combinatorial therapy is a promising strategy for combating complex diseases due to its fewer side effects, lower toxicity and better efficacy. However, it is not feasible to determine all the effective drug combinations in the vast space of possible combinations given the increasing number of approved drugs in the market, since the experimental methods for identification of effective drug combinations are both labor- and time-consuming. In this study, we conducted systematic analysis of various types of features to characterize pairs of drugs. These features included information about the targets of the drugs, the pathway in which the target protein of a drug was involved in, side effects of drugs, metabolic enzymes of the drugs, and drug transporters. The latter two features (metabolic enzymes and drug transporters) were related to the metabolism and transportation properties of drugs, which were not analyzed or used in previous studies. Then, we devised a novel improved naïve Bayesian algorithm to construct classification models to predict effective drug combinations by using the individual types of features mentioned above. Our results indicated that the performance of our proposed method was indeed better than the naïve Bayesian algorithm and other conventional classification algorithms such as support vector machine and K-nearest neighbor.

  1. Prediction of Effective Drug Combinations by an Improved Naïve Bayesian Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Yue Bai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Drug combinatorial therapy is a promising strategy for combating complex diseases due to its fewer side effects, lower toxicity and better efficacy. However, it is not feasible to determine all the effective drug combinations in the vast space of possible combinations given the increasing number of approved drugs in the market, since the experimental methods for identification of effective drug combinations are both labor- and time-consuming. In this study, we conducted systematic analysis of various types of features to characterize pairs of drugs. These features included information about the targets of the drugs, the pathway in which the target protein of a drug was involved in, side effects of drugs, metabolic enzymes of the drugs, and drug transporters. The latter two features (metabolic enzymes and drug transporters were related to the metabolism and transportation properties of drugs, which were not analyzed or used in previous studies. Then, we devised a novel improved naïve Bayesian algorithm to construct classification models to predict effective drug combinations by using the individual types of features mentioned above. Our results indicated that the performance of our proposed method was indeed better than the naïve Bayesian algorithm and other conventional classification algorithms such as support vector machine and K-nearest neighbor.

  2. Prescribing patterns and perceptions of health care professionals about rational drug use in a specialist hospital clinic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses A. Ojo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Irrational drug use is associated with adverse consequences including drug resistance and avoidable adverse drug reactions. Studies of rational drug use in psychiatric facilities are scanty. This study evaluated prescription practices and perception of health care professionals regarding causes of irrational drug use. A retrospective study conducted at the outpatient clinic of Federal Neuro- psychiatric Hospital, Yaba, Lagos. Data on drug use indicators were analyzed. A cross-sectional assessment of perception of prescribers and dispensers regarding rational drug use was conducted. A total of 600 prescriptions were analyzed. Mean number of drugs per encounter was 3.5 and percentage generic prescribed was 58.5%. Poly-pharmacy (P=0.024, 95% CI=1.082-1.315 and non-generic prescribing (P=0.032, 95% CI=1.495-1.821 were significantly associated with young prescribers. Factors associated with irrational drug use include demand from patients, patients’ beliefs about injection drugs and influence of pharmaceutical sale representatives. Certain aspect of prescribers indicators are still poor in the hospital studied. Health care professionals identified possible associated factors for irrational drug use. Concerted efforts are required to ensure rational drug use especially in psychiatric facilities in Nigeria.

  3. COPD - control drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - control drugs; Bronchodilators - COPD - control drugs; Beta agonist inhaler - COPD - control drugs; Anticholinergic inhaler - COPD - control drugs; Long-acting inhaler - COPD - control drugs; ...

  4. Role of drug transporters and drug accumulation in the temporal acquisition of drug resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hembruff, Stacey L; Laberge, Monique L; Villeneuve, David J; Guo, Baoqing; Veitch, Zachary; Cecchetto, Melanie; Parissenti, Amadeo M

    2008-01-01

    resistance cannot be attributed solely to changes in drug accumulation or the activity of drug transporters. The identities of these additional drug-transporter-independent mechanisms are discussed, including their likely clinical relevance

  5. [Orphan drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golocorbin Kon, Svetlana; Vojinović, Aleksandra; Lalić-Popović, Mladena; Pavlović, Nebojsa; Mikov, Momir

    2013-01-01

    Drugs used for treatment of rare diseases are known worldwide under the term of orphan drugs because pharmaceutical companies have not been interested in "adopting" them, that is in investing in research, developing and producing these drugs. This kind of policy has been justified by the fact that these drugs are targeted for small markets, that only a small number of patients is available for clinical trials, and that large investments are required for the development of drugs meant to treat diseases whose pathogenesis has not yet been clarified in majority of cases. The aim of this paper is to present previous and present status of orphan drugs in Serbia and other countries. THE BEGINNING OF ORPHAN DRUGS DEVELOPMENT: This problem was first recognized by Congress of the United States of America in January 1983, and when the "Orphan Drug Act" was passed, it was a turning point in the development of orphan drugs. This law provides pharmaceutical companies with a series of reliefs, both financial ones that allow them to regain funds invested into the research and development and regulatory ones. Seven years of marketing exclusivity, as a type of patent monopoly, is the most important relief that enables companies to make large profits. There are no sufficient funds and institutions to give financial support to the patients. It is therefore necessary to make health professionals much more aware of rare diseases in order to avoid time loss in making the right diagnosis and thus to gain more time to treat rare diseases. The importance of discovery, development and production of orphan drugs lies in the number of patients whose life quality can be improved significantly by administration of these drugs as well as in the number of potential survivals resulting from the treatment with these drugs.

  6. Cardioprotection by Conditioning Mimetic Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillo, Elpidio; Migale, Monica; Postacchini, Demetrio; Balestrini, Fabrizio; Incalzi, Raffaele Antonelli

    2016-01-01

    At present, ischemic heart disease (IHD) is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality world-wide. An important insight into both IHD pathophysiology and cardioprotection was achieved in 1986 when Murry et al. described for the first time the ischemic preconditioning (IP). IP can be defined as an innate phenomenon by which brief episodes of ischemia confer protection to a tissue from a subsequent more protracted ischemic insult. Suggested mechanisms explaining IP comprise the action of circulating substances (e.g. adenosine, bradykinin, nitric oxide). These mediators are released after a prolonged ischemic stress, causing activation of molecular pathways that induce favorable posttranslational changes of proteins and adaptive modifications in genetic expression. Briefly review evidences from clinical studies on drugs that exert their effects by mimicking IP, discussing their therapeutic properties and the potential clinical employment in order to obtain cardioprotection. Literature regarding IP mimicking pharmacological agents was searched in Medline and Google Scholar. Authors reviewed relevant researches in English language including both clinical studies and reviews of clinical studies published from 1986 to 2016. Several pharmacological agents reproducing IP protective actions have been evaluated in many clinical trials. Examined molecules include adenosine, nicorandil and atrial natriuretic peptide. Interestingly IP mimicking effects of drugs have been also analyzed perioperatively in the context of ischaemia-reperfusion heart injury. Moreover evidences suggest that also some anaesthetic drugs (especially volatile agents) are able to provide myocardial protection by inducing IP. Drugs capable of mimicking IP exhibit a high therapeutic potential because of their properties of eliciting an effective cardioprotective signaling. Future studies should clarify the optimal doses and timing of administration of IP mimetic agents in order to favor the advent of

  7. Comparative Survey of Mental Disorders and Personality Characteristics in Persons With Drug Dependent and Non Drug Dependent in Hamadan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghaleiha

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The influence of genetic, biological, psychological, social and cultural factors on drug dependency and high rate comorbidity of this phenomenon with psychiatric disorders for example anxiety, depression and characteristics and personality disorders is emphasized. The aim of this study was the comparative investigation of mental disorders and personality traits in persons with drug dependent and non drug dependent in Hamadan city in 2001-2003 .Materials & Methods: Present research was a descriptive comparison and subjects were 100 drug dependent persons and 100 non drug dependent individuals .Case group was chosen through available sampling among persons who call on psychiatrist and control group was chosen through randomly simple sampling from general population. Measurement and diagnostic tools includes questionnaire for examining demographic characteristics, designed by researchers and MMPI, SCL90-R tests and DSM IV criteria diagnostic and also T test that was used for analyzing data.Results: Between two groups in clinical and validity scales of MMPI test expect for hypochondriasis and hysteria and scales of SCL 90-R test expect somatization and interpersonal sensitivity differences were statistically significant (P<0.05.Conclusion: We can conclude that persons with drug dependent display more signs of psychopathology and mental disorders in comparison with non drug dependent people and Major depressive disorder and personality disorder were frequent among drug dependent groups. Depression and personal disorders were frequent in non drug dependent persons too. Our results support the results of previous studies.

  8. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... related risk behaviors, including drug injection and unsafe sexual practices. Drug use disorder treatment programs also serve an important role in ... increasingly at risk for HIV infection through risky sexual behaviors. NIDA ... of the disease. Since the epidemic began, injection drug use has ...

  9. Drug Abuse in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorzelli, James F.

    This report examines the incidence of drug abuse and the methods of treatment and prevention of drug abuse used in Southeast Asia. Countries studied include Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Because of Malaysia's intensive effort to eliminate its drug abuse problem, emphasis is placed on this country's treatment and…

  10. Herb-drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugh-Berman, A

    2000-01-08

    Concurrent use of herbs may mimic, magnify, or oppose the effect of drugs. Plausible cases of herb-drug interactions include: bleeding when warfarin is combined with ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), garlic (Allium sativum), dong quai (Angelica sinensis), or danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza); mild serotonin syndrome in patients who mix St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) with serotonin-reuptake inhibitors; decreased bioavailability of digoxin, theophylline, cyclosporin, and phenprocoumon when these drugs are combined with St John's wort; induction of mania in depressed patients who mix antidepressants and Panax ginseng; exacerbation of extrapyramidal effects with neuroleptic drugs and betel nut (Areca catechu); increased risk of hypertension when tricyclic antidepressants are combined with yohimbine (Pausinystalia yohimbe); potentiation of oral and topical corticosteroids by liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra); decreased blood concentrations of prednisolone when taken with the Chinese herbal product xaio chai hu tang (sho-salko-to); and decreased concentrations of phenytoin when combined with the Ayurvedic syrup shankhapushpi. Anthranoid-containing plants (including senna [Cassia senna] and cascara [Rhamnus purshiana]) and soluble fibres (including guar gum and psyllium) can decrease the absorption of drugs. Many reports of herb-drug interactions are sketchy and lack laboratory analysis of suspect preparations. Health-care practitioners should caution patients against mixing herbs and pharmaceutical drugs.

  11. AIDSinfo Drug Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content Drugs Home Drugs Find information on FDA-approved HIV/ ... infection drugs and investigational HIV/AIDS drugs. Search Drugs Search drug Search Icon What's this? Close Popup ...

  12. Metabonomics and drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramana, Pranov; Adams, Erwin; Augustijns, Patrick; Van Schepdael, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Metabolites as an end product of metabolism possess a wealth of information about altered metabolic control and homeostasis that is dependent on numerous variables including age, sex, and environment. Studying significant changes in the metabolite patterns has been recognized as a tool to understand crucial aspects in drug development like drug efficacy and toxicity. The inclusion of metabonomics into the OMICS study platform brings us closer to define the phenotype and allows us to look at alternatives to improve the diagnosis of diseases. Advancements in the analytical strategies and statistical tools used to study metabonomics allow us to prevent drug failures at early stages of drug development and reduce financial losses during expensive phase II and III clinical trials. This chapter introduces metabonomics along with the instruments used in the study; in addition relevant examples of the usage of metabonomics in the drug development process are discussed along with an emphasis on future directions and the challenges it faces.

  13. Drug therapy of leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kubanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy (Hansen’s disease is a chronic granulomatous bacterial infection mainly affecting the skin and peripheral nervous system yet also involving other organs and systems as a result of a pathological process. The causative agent of leprosy - Mycobacterium leprae - is an obligate intracellular microorganism. Despite the removal of a threat of a leprosy epidemic, European countries still record outbreaks of the disease mainly among migrants coming from endemic areas. A golden standard of the treatment of leprosy is a WHO-recommended combined drug therapy comprising drugs such as dapsone, clofazimine and rifampicin. The article provides current data on the mechanisms of action, efficacy and safety of these drugs and their combined scheme of treatment obtained as a result of clinical trials. Moreover, it also reviews new regimens of the drug therapy of leprosy including those with the use of drugs from the group of fluoroquinols as well as immunotherapy of the disease.

  14. [Drug induced diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morard, Isabelle; Hadengue, Antoine

    2008-09-03

    Diarrhea is a frequent adverse event involving the most frequently antibiotics, laxatives and NSAI. Drug induced diarrhea may be acute or chronic. It may be due to expected, dose dependant properties of the drug, to immuno-allergic or bio-genomic mechanisms. Several pathophysiological mechanisms have been described resulting in osmotic, secretory or inflammatory diarrhea, shortened transit time, or malabsorption. Histopathological lesions sometimes associated with drug induced diarrhea are usually non specific and include ulcerations, inflammatory or ischemic lesions, fibrous diaphragms, microscopic colitis and apoptosis. The diagnosis of drug induced diarrhea, sometimes difficult to assess, relies on the absence of other obvious causes and on the rapid disappearance of the symptoms after withdrawal of the suspected drug.

  15. Pelvimetry revisited: Analyzing cephalopelvic disproportion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenhard, Miriam S. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, 81377 Munich (Germany); Johnson, Thorsten R.C., E-mail: thorsten.johnson@med.uni-muenchen.d [Department of Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Weckbach, Sabine; Nikolaou, Konstantin [Department of Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Friese, Klaus; Hasbargen, Uwe [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, 81377 Munich (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the clinical value of pelvimetry to predict dystocia due to cephalopelvic disproportion. 63 patients who had received an abdominal CT scan postpartum were included. Pelvimetry was performed retrospectively with these datasets on a 3D workstation; there were no CT examinations performed solely for pelvimetry, and there was no radiation exposure for study purposes. Patients were divided into three groups by the course of birth, i.e. normal vaginal delivery (A), dystocia due to cephalopelvic disproportion (B) and other patients (C). Previously described methods were evaluated for their accuracy in diagnosing cephalopelvic disproportion. The pelvimetric parameters did not show significant differences between groups A (n = 20) and B (n = 20) except for the sagittal mid-pelvic diameter (q) with 12.7 {+-} 0.6 cm vs. 11.9 {+-} 0.6 cm (p = 0.0001). The ROC analysis of the previously described methods showed areas under the curve between 0.50 and 0.67. The ROC curves for q had an area of 0.88, providing 85% sensitivity with 85% specificity. In conclusion, the sagittal mid-pelvic diameter shows potential to detect cephalopelvic disproportion with acceptable accuracy. With the information gained on the CT data, a prospective trial based on MR imaging can be set up to validate the diagnostic accuracy.

  16. Pelvimetry revisited: Analyzing cephalopelvic disproportion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenhard, Miriam S.; Johnson, Thorsten R.C.; Weckbach, Sabine; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Friese, Klaus; Hasbargen, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the clinical value of pelvimetry to predict dystocia due to cephalopelvic disproportion. 63 patients who had received an abdominal CT scan postpartum were included. Pelvimetry was performed retrospectively with these datasets on a 3D workstation; there were no CT examinations performed solely for pelvimetry, and there was no radiation exposure for study purposes. Patients were divided into three groups by the course of birth, i.e. normal vaginal delivery (A), dystocia due to cephalopelvic disproportion (B) and other patients (C). Previously described methods were evaluated for their accuracy in diagnosing cephalopelvic disproportion. The pelvimetric parameters did not show significant differences between groups A (n = 20) and B (n = 20) except for the sagittal mid-pelvic diameter (q) with 12.7 ± 0.6 cm vs. 11.9 ± 0.6 cm (p = 0.0001). The ROC analysis of the previously described methods showed areas under the curve between 0.50 and 0.67. The ROC curves for q had an area of 0.88, providing 85% sensitivity with 85% specificity. In conclusion, the sagittal mid-pelvic diameter shows potential to detect cephalopelvic disproportion with acceptable accuracy. With the information gained on the CT data, a prospective trial based on MR imaging can be set up to validate the diagnostic accuracy.

  17. What Are Youth Asking about Drugs? A Report of NIDA Drug Facts Chat Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Cory M.; Hoefinger, Heidi; Linn-Walton, Rebecca; Aikins, Ross; Falkin, Gregory P.

    2015-01-01

    The current study analyzes a sample of questions about drugs asked online by youth who participated in the National Institute on Drug Abuse's (NIDA) "Drug Facts Chat Day." The types of drugs youth asked about were coded into 17 substance categories, and the topics they raised were coded into seven thematic categories. The top five…

  18. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts Spice (K2) Facts Tobacco and Nicotine Facts Other Drugs of Abuse What ... Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs You can call 1-800- ...

  19. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oxy, Vike) Facts Spice (K2) Facts Tobacco and Nicotine Facts Other Drugs of Abuse What is Addiction? ... Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs You can call 1-800-662- ...

  20. Antineoplastic Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadée, Wolfgang; El Sayed, Yousry Mahmoud

    The limited scope of therapeutic drug-level monitoring in cancer chemotherapy results from the often complex biochemical mechanisms that contribute to antineoplastic activity and obscure the relationships among drug serum levels and therapeutic benefits. Moreover, new agents for cancer chemotherapy are being introduced at a more rapid rate than for the treatment of other diseases, although the successful application of therapeutic drug-level monitoring may require several years of intensive study of the significance of serum drug levels. However, drug level monitoring can be of considerable value during phase I clinical trials of new antineoplastic agents in order to assess drug metabolism, bioavailability, and intersubject variability; these are important parameters in the interpretation of clinical studies, but have no immediate benefit to the patient. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) probably represents the most versatile and easily adaptable analytical technique for drug metabolite screening (1). HPLC may therefore now be the method of choice during phase I clinical trials of antineoplastic drugs. For example, within a single week we developed an HPLC assay—using a C18 reverse-phase column, UV detection, and direct serum injection after protein precipitation—for the new radiosensitizer, misonidazole (2).

  1. Drugged Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Survey Results Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Unpredictable Danger Drug and Alcohol Use in College-Age Adults in 2016 Monitoring the Future 2016 Survey Results Drug and Alcohol Use in College-Age Adults in 2015 View All NIDA Home ...

  2. Human drug metabolism: an introduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coleman, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    .... Completely revised and updated throughout, the new edition focuses only on essential chemical detail and includes patient case histories to illustrate the clinical consequences of changes in drug...

  3. Sex as a biological variable: Drug use and abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Anthony L; Hempel, Briana J; Clasen, Matthew M

    2018-04-01

    The study of sex as a biological variable is a necessary emphasis across a wide array of endpoints, including basic neuroscience, medicine, mental health, physiology and behavior. The present review summarizes work from clinical and preclinical populations on sex differences in drug use and abuse, ranging from initiation to escalation/dysregulation and from drug cessation/abstinence to relapse. These differences are analyzed in the context of the addiction cycle conceptualization of Koob and his colleagues and address patterns of drug use (binge/intoxication), motivation underlying its use (withdrawal/negative affect) and likelihood and causes of craving and relapse of drug taking (preoccupation/anticipation). Following this overview, an assessment of the basis for the reported sex differences is discussed in the context of the affective (rewarding and aversive) properties of drugs of abuse and how such properties and their balance vary with sex and contribute to drug intake. Finally, the interaction of sex with several experiential (drug history) and subject (age) factors and how these interactions affect reward and aversion are discussed to highlight the importance of understanding such interactions in predicting drug use and abuse. We note that sex as a biological variable remains one of critical evaluation and that such investigations of sex differences in drug use and abuse continue and be expanded to assess all facets of their mediation, including these affective properties, how their balance may be impacted by the multiple conditions under which drugs are taken and how this overall balance affects drug use and addiction vulnerability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Drug Information in Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayuse, Tina M.

    2009-01-01

    Published drug information is widely available for terrestrial conditions. However, information on dosing, administration, drug interactions, stability, and side effects is scant as it relates to use in Space Medicine. Multinational crews on board the International Space Station present additional challenges for drug information because medication nomenclature, information available for the drug as well as the intended use for the drug is not standard across countries. This presentation will look at unique needs for drug information and how the information is managed in Space Medicine. A review was conducted of the drug information requests submitted to the Johnson Space Center Pharmacy by Space Medicine practitioners, astronaut crewmembers and researchers. The information requested was defined and cataloged. A list of references used was maintained. The wide range of information was identified. Due to the information needs for the medications in the on-board medical kits, the Drug Monograph Project was created. A standard method for answering specific drug information questions was generated and maintained by the Johnson Space Center Pharmacy. The Drug Monograph Project will be presented. Topic-centered requests, including multinational drug information, drug-induced adverse reactions, and medication events due to the environment will be highlighted. Information management of the drug information will be explained. Future considerations for drug information needs will be outlined.

  5. [Drugs and light].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tønnesen, H H

    1997-06-30

    The number of drugs that are found to be photochemically unstable or able to induce phototoxic side-effects is steadily increasing. It can be difficult, however, to obtain relevant information on the photoreactivity of drugs or drug products from the commonly used handbooks. This is because of lack of standard methods of evaluation or a requirement for official specifications for a given product. The author points to the main problems connected with interactions between drugs and light in vitro and in vivo. The most obvious result of exposure to light is reduced potency of the drug because of photodecomposition. Adverse effects due to the formation of photodegradation products during storage and use have also been reported. The drug substance can further cause light-induced side-effects after administration to the patient, e.g. phototoxicity and photoallergy. More data on photoreactivity are needed in order to minimize the side-effects of frequently used drugs. The article includes a list of potential photosensitizing drug substances on the Norwegian market.

  6. Drugs in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, J C; Cowan, D A

    2008-06-01

    This themed issue of the British Journal of Pharmacology has been compiled and edited by Ian McGrath, Regius Professor of Physiology at University of Glasgow and David Cowan, Director of the Drug Control Centre at King's College London. It contains 11 articles covering the mechanisms of action of the major groups of drugs used illicitly in sport. The articles, written by experts in how drugs work, set out where drugs can or cannot affect sporting performance, how this relates to their legitimate medicinal use, their other detrimental effects and how they can be detected. Publication coincides with Olympic year, when sport is highlighted in the public mind and much speculation is made concerning the use of drugs. The articles provide a framework of expert, accurate knowledge to inform and facilitate these debates and to help to overcome the ill-informed and dangerous anecdotal information by which sports men and women are persuaded to misuse drugs in the mistaken belief that this will improve their performance without present or future ill effects. A unique article is included by the Spedding brothers, Mike with a long career in drug discovery and Charlie, the 1984 Los Angeles Olympic Marathon Bronze Medallist and still the English National Marathon record holder. From their unique experience, they describe the insidious and unfair way that drug-assisted performance undermines the ethos of sport and endangers the vital place of sport in maintaining the health of the population.

  7. Thermo Scientific Ozone Analyzer Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springston, S. R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The primary measurement output from the Thermo Scientific Ozone Analyzer is the concentration of the analyte (O3) reported at 1-s resolution in units of ppbv in ambient air. Note that because of internal pneumatic switching limitations the instrument only makes an independent measurement every 4 seconds. Thus, the same concentration number is repeated roughly 4 times at the uniform, monotonic 1-s time base used in the AOS systems. Accompanying instrument outputs include sample temperatures, flows, chamber pressure, lamp intensities and a multiplicity of housekeeping information. There is also a field for operator comments made at any time while data is being collected.

  8. DRUGS IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Mottram

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This new edition includes fresh information regarding drugs use and abuse in sport and the updated worldwide anti-doping laws, and changes to the prohibited and therapeutic use exemption lists. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on drugs in sport by considering i actions of drugs and hormones, ii medication and nutritional supplements in sport, iii the latest doping control regulations of the WADA, iv the use of banned therapeutic drugs in sport, v an assessment of the prevalence of drug taking in sport. FEATURES A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. This textbook is composed of twelve parts with sub-sections in all of them. The topics of the parts are: i An introduction to drugs and their use in sport, ii Drug use and abuse in sport, iii Central nervous system stimulants, iv WADA regulations in relation to drugs used in the treatment of respiratory tract disorders, v Androgenic anabolic steroids, vi Peptide and glycoprotein hormones and sport, vii Blood boosting and sport, viii Drug treatment of inflammation in sports injuries, ix Alcohol, anti-anxiety drugs and sport, x Creatine, xi Doping control and sport, xii Prevalence of drug misuse in sport. Each specific chapter has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective, retrospective, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables and figures are numerous, helpful and very useful. AUDIENCE The book provides a very useful resource for students on sports related courses, coaches and trainers, researchers, nutritionists, exercise physiologists, pharmacologists, healthcare professionals in the fields of sports medicine and those involved in the management and administration side of sport. The readers are going to discover that this is an excellent reference book. Extensively revised new edition of this book is also a first-rate resource for

  9. Predicting drug?drug interactions through drug structural similarities and interaction networks incorporating pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Takeda, Takako; Hao, Ming; Cheng, Tiejun; Bryant, Stephen H.; Wang, Yanli

    2017-01-01

    Drug?drug interactions (DDIs) may lead to adverse effects and potentially result in drug withdrawal from the market. Predicting DDIs during drug development would help reduce development costs and time by rigorous evaluation of drug candidates. The primary mechanisms of DDIs are based on pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD). This study examines the effects of 2D structural similarities of drugs on DDI prediction through interaction networks including both PD and PK knowledge. Our a...

  10. Default Drug Doses in Anesthesia Information Management Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Luis I; Smaka, Todd J; Mahla, Michael; Epstein, Richard H

    2017-07-01

    In the United States, anesthesia information management systems (AIMS) are well established, especially within academic practices. Many hospitals are replacing their stand-alone AIMS during migration to an enterprise-wide electronic health record. This presents an opportunity to review choices made during the original implementation, based on actual usage. One area amenable to this informatics approach is the configuration in the AIMS of quick buttons for typical drug doses. The use of such short cuts, as opposed to manual typing of doses, simplifies and may improve the accuracy of drug documentation within the AIMS. We analyzed administration data from 3 different institutions, 2 of which had empirically configured default doses, and one in which defaults had not been set up. Our first hypothesis was that most (ie, >50%) of drugs would need at least one change to the existing defaults. Our second hypothesis was that for most (>50%) drugs, the 4 most common doses at the site lacking defaults would be included among the most common doses at the 2 sites with defaults. If true, this would suggest that having default doses did not affect the typical administration behavior of providers. The frequency distribution of doses for all drugs was determined, and the 4 most common doses representing at least 5% of total administrations for each drug were identified. The appropriateness of the current defaults was determined by the number of changes (0-4) required to match actual usage at the 2 hospitals with defaults. At the institution without defaults, the most frequent doses for the 20 most commonly administered drugs were compared with the default doses at the other institutions. At the 2 institutions with defaults, 84.7% and 77.5% of drugs required at least 1 change in the default drug doses (P default drug doses, 100% of the 20 most commonly administered doses (representing ≥5% of use for that drug) were included in the most commonly administered doses at the other 2

  11. [Prescription of drugs with ASMR V in patients over 65 years in a primary care ambulatory setting. Drug prescription analysis in the Midi-Pyrénées region (France)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bismuth, Serge; Chalvignac, Caroline; Bagheri, Haleh; Oustric, Stéphane

    2010-12-20

    In French patients over 65 years, drug intake is characterized by polytherapy, causing iatrogenic events. The general practitioner is the main actor in the follow-up and reassessment of drug prescriptions. To assess the proportion of ASMR V (Amélioration du service medical rendu - additional therapeutic benefit versus current standards) drugs [drugs producing no medical improvement] prescribed to patients over 65 years in the management of a chronic disease. In May 2009, 849 drug prescriptions were collected from 34 general practitioners in the Midi-Pyrénées region. Specialties with ASMR V were classified according to the anatomical therapeutic chemical (ATC) classification system. 58.8% of the prescriptions concerned female patients; 67.4% of the prescriptions contained at least one ASMR-V drug. Approximately 20% of the prescriptions in subjects over 65 years contained ASMR-V drugs. This study shows that older subjects are being prescribed a significant number of ASMR-V drugs. However, this classification combines several situations, including a product line extension, a fixed combination of preexisting drugs, an insufficient therapeutic benefit, the absence of additional therapeutic benefit versus a comparative drug, the absence of comparative study in some indications, or a less favorable benefit-risk ratio comparing to that of the reference drug.This classification includes as well the generic drugs prescribed using the international non proprietary names. This study did not analyze the influence of certain factors, such as treatment history, history of drug allergy or dose titration, which could influence the physician's decision. Following this study, it appears useful to extend this type of survey to other general practitioners in other French regions, and to analyze the reasons for prescribing ASMR-V drugs. These data would help increasing general practitioners' awareness of "proper drug use" to reduce the proportion of "inadequate" drugs prescribed to

  12. Drug abuse among the students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Drug abuse is the willful misuse of either licit or illicit drugs for the purpose of recreation, perceived necessity or convenience. Drug abuse is a more intense and often willful misuse of drugs often to the point of addiction. In the eastern world the incidence shows a decline or a static pattern but the number of drug addicts is still enormous.. The major drug of abuse are heroin and marijuana but designer drugs are shown to be on the increase. The aim of the study is to determine the ratio of the drug abuse in student. For this purpose we selected different institutions including “the university of Lahore”, “Forman Christian college”(private sector and Punjab university(Govt sector and conducted survey in 500 student. High proportion of students was found abusing drugs. From this study, we came across multiple factors which are the main cause of drug abuse in medical student including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, as well as personality disorder like antisocial personality disorder. The most commonly abused drugs include stimulants, opioids, and benzodiazepines, antihistamines. Although survey have indicated high rate of illicit and prescription drugs misuse among college students, few have assessed the negative consequences, personel concerns, or interest in intervention for drugs use. Drug abuse although regarded as a personality disorder, may also be seen as worldwide epidemic with evolutionary genetic, physiology and environmental influences Controlling and affecting human behavior. Globally, the use has reached all time high. The study showed males are more drug abusers as compared to females. The drug abuse ratio in students of private sector is more as compared to Govt sector.

  13. Computer aided drug design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A.

    2017-08-01

    Computer based method can help in discovery of leads and can potentially eliminate chemical synthesis and screening of many irrelevant compounds, and in this way, it save time as well as cost. Molecular modeling systems are powerful tools for building, visualizing, analyzing and storing models of complex molecular structure that can help to interpretate structure activity relationship. The use of various techniques of molecular mechanics and dynamics and software in Computer aided drug design along with statistics analysis is powerful tool for the medicinal chemistry to synthesis therapeutic and effective drugs with minimum side effect.

  14. Drug repurposing based on drug-drug interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Wang, Rong; Wu, Ping; Kong, De-Xin

    2015-02-01

    Given the high risk and lengthy procedure of traditional drug development, drug repurposing is gaining more and more attention. Although many types of drug information have been used to repurpose drugs, drug-drug interaction data, which imply possible physiological effects or targets of drugs, remain unexploited. In this work, similarity of drug interaction was employed to infer similarity of the physiological effects or targets for the drugs. We collected 10,835 drug-drug interactions concerning 1074 drugs, and for 700 of them, drug similarity scores based on drug interaction profiles were computed and rendered using a drug association network with 589 nodes (drugs) and 2375 edges (drug similarity scores). The 589 drugs were clustered into 98 groups with Markov Clustering Algorithm, most of which were significantly correlated with certain drug functions. This indicates that the network can be used to infer the physiological effects of drugs. Furthermore, we evaluated the ability of this drug association network to predict drug targets. The results show that the method is effective for 317 of 561 drugs that have known targets. Comparison of this method with the structure-based approach shows that they are complementary. In summary, this study demonstrates the feasibility of drug repurposing based on drug-drug interaction data. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. [Club drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Diogo Frasquilho; Carmo, Ana Lisa; da Silva, Joaquim Alves; Navarro, Rita; Góis, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Club drugs are the following substances: Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA); Methamphetamine; Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD); Ketamine; Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and Flunitrazepam. These substances are mainly used by adolescents and young adults, mostly in recreational settings like dance clubs and rave parties. These drugs have diverse psychotropic effects, are associated with several degrees of toxicity, dependence and long term adverse effects. Some have been used for several decades, while others are relatively recent substances of abuse. They have distinct pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, are not easy to detect and, many times, the use of club drugs is under diagnosed. Although the use of these drugs is increasingly common, few health professionals feel comfortable with the diagnosis and treatment. The authors performed a systematic literature review, with the goal of synthesising the existing knowledge about club drugs, namely epidemiology, mechanism of action, detection, adverse reactions and treatment. The purpose of this article is creating in Portuguese language a knowledge data base on club drugs, that health professionals of various specialties can use as a reference when dealing with individual with this kind of drug abuse.

  16. Microfabrication for Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Brendan; Rubino, Ilaria; Quan, Fu-Shi; Yoo, Bongyoung; Choi, Hyo-Jick

    2016-01-01

    This review is devoted to discussing the application of microfabrication technologies to target challenges encountered in life processes by the development of drug delivery systems. Recently, microfabrication has been largely applied to solve health and pharmaceutical science issues. In particular, fabrication methods along with compatible materials have been successfully designed to produce multifunctional, highly effective drug delivery systems. Microfabrication offers unique tools that can tackle problems in this field, such as ease of mass production with high quality control and low cost, complexity of architecture design and a broad range of materials. Presented is an overview of silicon- and polymer-based fabrication methods that are key in the production of microfabricated drug delivery systems. Moreover, the efforts focused on studying the biocompatibility of materials used in microfabrication are analyzed. Finally, this review discusses representative ways microfabrication has been employed to develop systems delivering drugs through the transdermal and oral route, and to improve drug eluting implants. Additionally, microfabricated vaccine delivery systems are presented due to the great impact they can have in obtaining a cold chain-free vaccine, with long-term stability. Microfabrication will continue to offer new, alternative solutions for the development of smart, advanced drug delivery systems. PMID:28773770

  17. Relationship between drug interactions and drug-related negative clinical outcomes in two community pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo M

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug interactions may represent an iatrogenic risk that should be controlled in community pharmacies at the dispensing level. Aim: We analyzed the association between potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs and negative clinical outcomes.Methods: We used dispensing data from two community pharmacies: instances where drug dispensing was associated with a potential DDI and a comparison group of randomized dispensing operations with no potential DDI. In cases where potential DDIs were detected, we analyzed the underlying negative clinical outcomes. Age and gender data were included in the analysis.Results: During the study period, we registered 417 potential DDIs. The proportion of women and age were higher in the study group than in the comparison group. The average potential DDIs per patient was 1.31 (SD=0.72. The Consejo General de Colegios Oficiales de Farmacéuticos (CGCOF database did not produce an alert in 2.4% of the cases. Over-the-counter medication use was observed in 5% of the potential DDI cases. The drugs most frequently involved in potential DDIs were acenocoumarol, calcium salts, hydrochlorothiazide, and alendronic acid, whereas the most predominant potential DDIs were calcium salts and bisphosphonates, oral antidiabetics and thiazide diuretics, antidiabetics and glucose, and oral anticoagulant and paracetamol. The existence of a drug-related negative clinical outcome was observed only in 0.96% of the potential DDI cases (50% safety cases and 50% effectiveness cases. Conclusions: Only a small proportion of the detected potential DDIs lead to medication negative outcomes. Considering the drug-related negative clinical outcomes encountered, tighter control would be recommended in potential DDIs with NSAIDs or benzodiazepines.

  18. Emerging drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael E; Bryant, Sean M; Aks, Steven E

    2014-02-01

    Many new emerging drugs of abuse are marketed as legal highs despite being labeled "not for human consumption" to avoid regulation. The availability of these substances over the Internet and in "head shops" has lead to a multitude of emergency department visits with severe complications including deaths worldwide. Despite recent media attention, many of the newer drugs of abuse are still largely unknown by health care providers. Slight alterations of the basic chemical structure of substances create an entirely new drug no longer regulated by current laws and an ever-changing landscape of clinical effects. The purity of each substance with exact pharmacokinetic and toxicity profiles is largely unknown. Many of these substances can be grouped by the class of drug and includes synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, phenethylamines, as well as piperazine derivatives. Resultant effects generally include psychoactive and sympathomimetic-like symptoms. Additionally, prescription medications, performance enhancing medications, and herbal supplements are also becoming more commonly abused. Most new drugs of abuse have no specific antidote and management largely involves symptom based goal directed supportive care with benzodiazepines as a useful adjunct. This paper will focus on the history, epidemiology, clinical effects, laboratory analysis, and management strategy for many of these emerging drugs of abuse. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Analyzing rare diseases terms in biomedical terminologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Pasceri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Rare disease patients too often face common problems, including the lack of access to correct diagnosis, lack of quality information on the disease, lack of scientific knowledge of the disease, inequities and difficulties in access to treatment and care. These things could be changed by implementing a comprehensive approach to rare diseases, increasing international cooperation in scientific research, by gaining and sharing scientific knowledge about and by developing tools for extracting and sharing knowledge. A significant aspect to analyze is the organization of knowledge in the biomedical field for the proper management and recovery of health information. For these purposes, the sources needed have been acquired from the Office of Rare Diseases Research, the National Organization of Rare Disorders and Orphanet, organizations that provide information to patients and physicians and facilitate the exchange of information among different actors involved in this field. The present paper shows the representation of rare diseases terms in biomedical terminologies such as MeSH, ICD-10, SNOMED CT and OMIM, leveraging the fact that these terminologies are integrated in the UMLS. At the first level, it was analyzed the overlap among sources and at a second level, the presence of rare diseases terms in target sources included in UMLS, working at the term and concept level. We found that MeSH has the best representation of rare diseases terms.

  20. Compliance with national guidelines for the management of drug-drug interactions in Dutch community pharmacies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurma, H.; Schalekamp, T.; Egberts, A.C.G.; Smet, P.A.G.M. de

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pharmacists contribute to the detection and prevention of drug therapy-related problems, including drug-drug interactions. Little is known about compliance with pharmacy practice guidelines for the management of drug-drug interaction alerts. OBJECTIVE: To measure the compliance of

  1. Drugs in Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottram, David

    2012-01-01

    Drugs may be used by athletes for a number of reasons, including performance enhancement. The role of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) is vital to ensure a winning performance has been achieved by fair means. Substances and methods that are included on the WADA Prohibited List are described. The procedures for testing banned substances are…

  2. Drug-drug interactions and adverse drug reactions in polypharmacy among older adults: an integrative review 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Maria Cristina Soares; de Oliveira, Cesar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to identify and summarize studies examining both drug-drug interactions (DDI) and adverse drug reactions (ADR) in older adults polymedicated. Methods: an integrative review of studies published from January 2008 to December 2013, according to inclusion and exclusion criteria, in MEDLINE and EMBASE electronic databases were performed. Results: forty-seven full-text studies including 14,624,492 older adults (≥ 60 years) were analyzed: 24 (51.1%) concerning ADR, 14 (29.8%) DDI, and 9 studies (19.1%) investigating both DDI and ADR. We found a variety of methodological designs. The reviewed studies reinforced that polypharmacy is a multifactorial process, and predictors and inappropriate prescribing are associated with negative health outcomes, as increasing the frequency and types of ADRs and DDIs involving different drug classes, moreover, some studies show the most successful interventions to optimize prescribing. Conclusions: DDI and ADR among older adults continue to be a significant issue in the worldwide. The findings from the studies included in this integrative review, added to the previous reviews, can contribute to the improvement of advanced practices in geriatric nursing, to promote the safety of older patients in polypharmacy. However, more research is needed to elucidate gaps. PMID:27598380

  3. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MDMA (Ecstasy, Molly) Facts Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts Spice (K2) Facts Tobacco ... Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs You ...

  4. Drug Facts

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  7. Drug Metabolism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 3. Drug Metabolism: A Fascinating Link Between Chemistry and Biology. Nikhil Taxak Prasad V Bharatam. General Article Volume 19 Issue 3 March 2014 pp 259-282 ...

  8. Drugged Driving

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  9. Club Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

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  10. Drug Metabolism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    behind metabolic reactions, importance, and consequences with several ... required for drug action. ... lism, which is catalyzed by enzymes present in the above-men- ... catalyze the transfer of one atom of oxygen to a substrate produc-.

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    Full Text Available ... Together The Link Between Drug Use and HIV/AIDS Treatment & Recovery Why Does a Person Need Treatment? ... of Health (NIH) , the principal biomedical and behavioral research agency of the United States Government. NIH is ...

  15. Drug Reactions

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    ... Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men Seniors Your Health Resources Healthcare Management End-of-Life Issues Insurance & Bills Self Care Working With Your Doctor Drugs, Procedures & Devices Over-the- ...

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  17. Drug Resistance

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    ... Drug-resistance testing is also recommended for all pregnant women with HIV before starting HIV medicines and also in some pregnant women already taking HIV medicines. Pregnant women will work with their health ...

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  19. Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as hearing colors Impulsive behavior Rapid shifts in emotions Permanent mental changes in perception Rapid heart rate ... Drug use can negatively affect academic performance and motivation to excel in school. Legal issues. Legal problems ...

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  1. Data-driven prediction of adverse drug reactions induced by drug-drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruifeng; AbdulHameed, Mohamed Diwan M; Kumar, Kamal; Yu, Xueping; Wallqvist, Anders; Reifman, Jaques

    2017-06-08

    The expanded use of multiple drugs has increased the occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) induced by drug-drug interactions (DDIs). However, such reactions are typically not observed in clinical drug-development studies because most of them focus on single-drug therapies. ADR reporting systems collect information on adverse health effects caused by both single drugs and DDIs. A major challenge is to unambiguously identify the effects caused by DDIs and to attribute them to specific drug interactions. A computational method that provides prospective predictions of potential DDI-induced ADRs will help to identify and mitigate these adverse health effects. We hypothesize that drug-protein interactions can be used as independent variables in predicting ADRs. We constructed drug pair-protein interaction profiles for ~800 drugs using drug-protein interaction information in the public domain. We then constructed statistical models to score drug pairs for their potential to induce ADRs based on drug pair-protein interaction profiles. We used extensive clinical database information to construct categorical prediction models for drug pairs that are likely to induce ADRs via synergistic DDIs and showed that model performance deteriorated only slightly, with a moderate amount of false positives and false negatives in the training samples, as evaluated by our cross-validation analysis. The cross validation calculations showed an average prediction accuracy of 89% across 1,096 ADR models that captured the deleterious effects of synergistic DDIs. Because the models rely on drug-protein interactions, we made predictions for pairwise combinations of 764 drugs that are currently on the market and for which drug-protein interaction information is available. These predictions are publicly accessible at http://avoid-db.bhsai.org . We used the predictive models to analyze broader aspects of DDI-induced ADRs, showing that ~10% of all combinations have the potential to induce ADRs

  2. Off-label drug in the newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cuzzolin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The lack of specific drugs and labelling recommendations for the neonatal population is a long-standing problem throughout the world. With the introduction of the Paediatric Regulation in 2007, in Europe tangible steps have been made to increase clinical research in children, but only a limited number of clinical trials included neonates that remain therapeutic orphans. This leads to a widespread use of medicines outside the terms indicated in the product license (off-label as regards dose, route of administration, indication, age group or in an unlicensed manner (formulations modified, extemporaneous preparations, imported medicines, chemicals used as drugs. This use, often made on the basis of a consolidated clinical experience in absence of other authorized options, does not imply that a drug is contraindicated or disapproved, but simply means that insufficient data are available to grant approval status and the risks and benefits of using a drug in a particular situation have not been examined. Given the importance that neonatal population not be denied of drugs that are clearly beneficial, an updated overview of the worldwide situation of off-label and unlicensed drug use in the newborn will be presented, by analyzing also the impact of recent legislative initiatives and the well recognized problems (increased risk of ineffective or toxic treatments, adverse drug reactions and medication errors. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  3. Detection of drugs in 275 alcohol-positive blood samples of Korean drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunmi; Choe, Sanggil; Lee, Juseon; Jang, Moonhee; Choi, Hyeyoung; Chung, Heesun

    2016-08-01

    Since driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) is as dangerous as drink-driving, many countries regulate DUID by law. However, laws against the use of drugs while driving are not yet established in Korea. In order to investigate the type and frequency of drugs used by drivers in Korea, we analyzed controlled and non-controlled drugs in alcohol-positive blood samples. Total 275 blood samples were taken from Korean drivers, which were positive in roadside alcohol testing. The following analyses were performed: blood alcohol concentrations by GC; screening for controlled drugs by immunoassay and confirmation for positive samples by GC-MS. For the detection of DUID related drugs in blood samples, a total of 49 drugs were selected and were examined by GC-MS. For a rapid detection of these drugs, an automated identification software called "DrugMan" was used. Concentrations of alcohol in 275 blood samples ranged from 0.011 to 0.249% (average 0.119%). Six specimens showed positive results by immunoassay: one methamphetamine and five benzodiazepines I. By GC-MS confirmation, only benzodiazepines in four cases were identified, while methamphetamine and benzodiazepine in two cases were not detected from the presumptive positive blood samples. Using DrugMan, four drugs were detected; chlorpheniramine (5)*, diazepam (4), dextromethorphan (1) and doxylamine (1). In addition, ibuprofen (1), lidocaine (1) and topiramate (1) were also detected as general drugs in blood samples ('*' indicates frequency). The frequency of drug abuse by Korean drivers was relatively low and a total 14 cases were positive in 275 blood samples with a ratio of 5%. However it is necessary to analyze more samples including alcohol negative blood, and to expand the range of drug lists to get the detailed information. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Validity and representativeness of the "Disease Analyzer" patient database for use in pharmacoepidemiological and pharmacoeconomic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, H; Kostev, K; Schröder-Bernhardi, D

    2009-10-01

    Patient and health care databases are available in many countries. These are often based on routinely collected diagnosis and prescription data. Various research questions, such as those related to pharmacoepidemiological health services or drug supply, can be evaluated on the basis of these databases. In Germany, the Disease Analyzer patient database is the largest database of its kind. Using various validity criteria, the representativeness of this database is examined with respect to variables relevant to pharmacoepidemiological and pharmacoeconomic studies. The Disease Analyzer patient database contains data on diagnoses, prescriptions, risk factors (such as smoking and obesity), and laboratory values for approximately 10 million patients from Germany, the UK, France, and Austria. The database also contains data from various groups of specialist physicians as well as from general practitioners and specialists for internal medicine. Data from physicians' practices in Germany form the basis of this investigation. To check the validity and representativeness of the data, the distributions of several variables are analyzed. These variables refer partly to the physicians' practices participating in the study and partly to the patients in these practices. The factors observed include prescriptions for generic drugs, the distribution of diagnostic groups among participating physicians' practices, the distribution of patients according to health insurance fund, the most frequent products, the distribution of package sizes prescribed, and the age structure of patients with various incident cancer diagnoses. These factors were compared with available reference statistics. The sampling methods for the selection of physicians' practices appear to be appropriate. Prescription statistics for several drugs were very similar to available data from the pharmaceutical prescriptions report (Arzneimittelverordnungsreport). The age structures for given diagnoses in Disease Analyzer

  5. Drug abuse in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reardon CL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Claudia L Reardon, Shane Creado Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with “advances” in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. Keywords: doping, athletes, steroids, drug abuse, mental illness

  6. Combining automatic table classification and relationship extraction in extracting anticancer drug-side effect pairs from full-text articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rong; Wang, QuanQiu

    2015-02-01

    Anticancer drug-associated side effect knowledge often exists in multiple heterogeneous and complementary data sources. A comprehensive anticancer drug-side effect (drug-SE) relationship knowledge base is important for computation-based drug target discovery, drug toxicity predication and drug repositioning. In this study, we present a two-step approach by combining table classification and relationship extraction to extract drug-SE pairs from a large number of high-profile oncological full-text articles. The data consists of 31,255 tables downloaded from the Journal of Oncology (JCO). We first trained a statistical classifier to classify tables into SE-related and -unrelated categories. We then extracted drug-SE pairs from SE-related tables. We compared drug side effect knowledge extracted from JCO tables to that derived from FDA drug labels. Finally, we systematically analyzed relationships between anti-cancer drug-associated side effects and drug-associated gene targets, metabolism genes, and disease indications. The statistical table classifier is effective in classifying tables into SE-related and -unrelated (precision: 0.711; recall: 0.941; F1: 0.810). We extracted a total of 26,918 drug-SE pairs from SE-related tables with a precision of 0.605, a recall of 0.460, and a F1 of 0.520. Drug-SE pairs extracted from JCO tables is largely complementary to those derived from FDA drug labels; as many as 84.7% of the pairs extracted from JCO tables have not been included a side effect database constructed from FDA drug labels. Side effects associated with anticancer drugs positively correlate with drug target genes, drug metabolism genes, and disease indications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Drug-induced hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Hair loss can have major psychological consequences. It can be due to a wide variety of causes, including hormonal disorders, dietary factors, infections, inflammation, trauma, emotional factors, and cancer. Drugs can also induce hair loss, by interacting with the hair growth cycle. Drug-induced hair loss may be immediate or delayed, sudden or gradual, and diffuse or localised. It is usually reversible after drug discontinuation. The drugs most often implicated in hair loss are anticancer agents, interferon, azole antifungals, lithium, immunosuppressants, and many other drugs belonging to a variety of pharmacological classes.

  8. Microfluidic device for drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, David J. (Inventor); MacDonald, Michael J. (Inventor); Eddington, David T. (Inventor); Mensing, Glennys A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A microfluidic device is provided for delivering a drug to an individual. The microfluidic device includes a body that defines a reservoir for receiving the drug therein. A valve interconnects the reservoir to an output needle that is insertable into the skin of an individual. A pressure source urges the drug from the reservoir toward the needle. The valve is movable between a closed position preventing the flow of the drug from the reservoir to the output needle and an open position allowing for the flow of the drug from the reservoir to the output needle in response to a predetermined condition in the physiological fluids of the individual.

  9. 21 CFR 862.2160 - Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for... Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2160 Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use is a device intended to duplicate...

  10. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  11. 77 FR 6463 - Revisions to Labeling Requirements for Blood and Blood Components, Including Source Plasma...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... Blood Components, Including Source Plasma; Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION..., Including Source Plasma,'' which provided incorrect publication information regarding a 60-day notice that...

  12. [Renal patient's diet: Can fish be included?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro González, M I; Maafs Rodríguez, A G; Galindo Gómez, C

    2012-01-01

    Medical and nutritional treatment for renal disease, now a major public health issue, is highly complicated. Nutritional therapy must seek to retard renal dysfunction, maintain an optimal nutritional status and prevent the development of underlying pathologies. To analyze ten fish species to identify those that, because of their low phosphorus content, high biological value protein and elevated n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA, could be included in renal patient's diet. The following fish species (Litte tunny, Red drum, Spotted eagleray, Escolar, Swordfish, Big-scale pomfret, Cortez flounder, Largemouth blackbass, Periche mojarra, Florida Pompano) were analyzed according to the AOAC and Keller techniques to determine their protein, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, cholesterol, vitamins D(3) and E, and n-3 EPA+DHA content. These results were used to calculate relations between nutrients. The protein in the analyzed species ranged from 16.5 g/100 g of fillet (Largemouth black bass) to 27.2 g/100 g (Red drum); the lowest phosphorus value was 28.6 mg/100 g (Periche mojarra) and the highest 216.3 mg/100 g (Spotted eagle ray). 80% of the fish presented > 100 mg EPA + DHA in 100 g of fillet. By its Phosphorus/gProtein ratio, Escolar and Swordfish could not be included in the renal diet; Little tunny, Escolar, Big-scale pomfret, Largemouth black-bass, Periche mojarra and Florida Pompano presented a lower Phosphorus/EPA + DHA ratio. Florida pompano is the most recommended specie for renal patients, due to its optimal nutrient relations. However, all analyzed species, except Escolar and Swordfish, could be included in renal diets.

  13. New drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rech, Megan A; Donahey, Elisabeth; Cappiello Dziedzic, Jacqueline M; Oh, Laura; Greenhalgh, Elizabeth

    2015-02-01

    Drug abuse is a common problem and growing concern in the United States, and over the past decade, novel or atypical drugs have emerged and have become increasingly popular. Recognition and treatment of new drugs of abuse pose many challenges for health care providers due to lack of quantitative reporting and routine surveillance, and the difficulty of detection in routine blood and urine analyses. Furthermore, street manufacturers are able to rapidly adapt and develop new synthetic isolates of older drugs as soon as law enforcement agencies render them illegal. In this article, we describe the clinical and adverse effects and purported pharmacology of several new classes of drugs of abuse including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, salvia, desomorphine, and kratom. Because many of these substances can have severe or life-threatening adverse effects, knowledge of general toxicology is key in recognizing acute intoxication and overdose; however, typical toxidromes (e.g., cholinergic, sympathomimetic, opioid, etc.) are not precipitated by many of these agents. Medical management of patients who abuse or overdose on these drugs largely consists of supportive care, although naloxone may be used as an antidote for desomorphine overdose. Symptoms of aggression and psychosis may be treated with sedation (benzodiazepines, propofol) and antipsychotics (haloperidol or atypical agents such as quetiapine or ziprasidone). Other facets of management to consider include treatment for withdrawal or addiction, nutrition support, and potential for transmission of infectious diseases. © 2014 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  14. Micro-Analyzer: automatic preprocessing of Affymetrix microarray data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzi, Pietro Hiram; Cannataro, Mario

    2013-08-01

    A current trend in genomics is the investigation of the cell mechanism using different technologies, in order to explain the relationship among genes, molecular processes and diseases. For instance, the combined use of gene-expression arrays and genomic arrays has been demonstrated as an effective instrument in clinical practice. Consequently, in a single experiment different kind of microarrays may be used, resulting in the production of different types of binary data (images and textual raw data). The analysis of microarray data requires an initial preprocessing phase, that makes raw data suitable for use on existing analysis platforms, such as the TIGR M4 (TM4) Suite. An additional challenge to be faced by emerging data analysis platforms is the ability to treat in a combined way those different microarray formats coupled with clinical data. In fact, resulting integrated data may include both numerical and symbolic data (e.g. gene expression and SNPs regarding molecular data), as well as temporal data (e.g. the response to a drug, time to progression and survival rate), regarding clinical data. Raw data preprocessing is a crucial step in analysis but is often performed in a manual and error prone way using different software tools. Thus novel, platform independent, and possibly open source tools enabling the semi-automatic preprocessing and annotation of different microarray data are needed. The paper presents Micro-Analyzer (Microarray Analyzer), a cross-platform tool for the automatic normalization, summarization and annotation of Affymetrix gene expression and SNP binary data. It represents the evolution of the μ-CS tool, extending the preprocessing to SNP arrays that were not allowed in μ-CS. The Micro-Analyzer is provided as a Java standalone tool and enables users to read, preprocess and analyse binary microarray data (gene expression and SNPs) by invoking TM4 platform. It avoids: (i) the manual invocation of external tools (e.g. the Affymetrix Power

  15. IMPLEMENTATION OF DRUG ADDICTS RIGHT TO HEALTH PROTECTION (SEPARATE ASPECTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchuk, O; Rzhevska, O; Korop, O; Pyliuha, L

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of the research is to analyze specific problems of the realization of the right to protect the health of people who take narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances. To achieve this goal, statistics have been analyzed on the number of people using narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances (including drug-addicted children) placed on medical records and the number of their applications for medical care. It has been found out that people in this category often face a denial of medical care that causes extremely strong physical and mental suffering. The analysis of the understanding of the legal design of the «right to health care» in the scientific literature, national legislation and international legal documents was made. State institutions and local authorities providing «the right to health care» of people taking narcotic or psychotropic drugs are singled out. The absence of grounds for restricting the right to protect the health of people who take narcotic or psychotropic drugs who are not registered is justified. In the course of the research, it was found out that people who take narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances are more likely than other patients to need medical assistance and, when requesting the right to health care, face a number of problems that require immediate solution: incomplete provision of quality free medical care; unimplementation of rehabilitation programs for such categories of patients; the lack of the right of children who take narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances to make their own decisions at the age of 14 and apply to public health institutions for the treatment of drug addiction; violations of the continuity of SMT programs and their absence in penal institutions for drug dependent people. It was proposed to introduce a number of changes in the relevant normative legal acts.

  16. Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahamatullah Shaikh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucoadhesion is commonly defined as the adhesion between two materials, at least one of which is a mucosal surface. Over the past few decades, mucosal drug delivery has received a great deal of attention. Mucoadhesive dosage forms may be designed to enable prolonged retention at the site of application, providing a controlled rate of drug release for improved therapeutic outcome. Application of dosage forms to mucosal surfaces may be of benefit to drug molecules not amenable to the oral route, such as those that undergo acid degradation or extensive first-pass metabolism. The mucoadhesive ability of a dosage form is dependent upon a variety of factors, including the nature of the mucosal tissue and the physicochemical properties of the polymeric formulation. This review article aims to provide an overview of the various aspects of mucoadhesion, mucoadhesive materials, factors affecting mucoadhesion, evaluating methods, and finally various mucoadhesive drug delivery systems (buccal, nasal, ocular, gastro, vaginal, and rectal.

  17. DMET-analyzer: automatic analysis of Affymetrix DMET data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzi, Pietro Hiram; Agapito, Giuseppe; Di Martino, Maria Teresa; Arbitrio, Mariamena; Tassone, Pierfrancesco; Tagliaferri, Pierosandro; Cannataro, Mario

    2012-10-05

    Clinical Bioinformatics is currently growing and is based on the integration of clinical and omics data aiming at the development of personalized medicine. Thus the introduction of novel technologies able to investigate the relationship among clinical states and biological machineries may help the development of this field. For instance the Affymetrix DMET platform (drug metabolism enzymes and transporters) is able to study the relationship among the variation of the genome of patients and drug metabolism, detecting SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) on genes related to drug metabolism. This may allow for instance to find genetic variants in patients which present different drug responses, in pharmacogenomics and clinical studies. Despite this, there is currently a lack in the development of open-source algorithms and tools for the analysis of DMET data. Existing software tools for DMET data generally allow only the preprocessing of binary data (e.g. the DMET-Console provided by Affymetrix) and simple data analysis operations, but do not allow to test the association of the presence of SNPs with the response to drugs. We developed DMET-Analyzer a tool for the automatic association analysis among the variation of the patient genomes and the clinical conditions of patients, i.e. the different response to drugs. The proposed system allows: (i) to automatize the workflow of analysis of DMET-SNP data avoiding the use of multiple tools; (ii) the automatic annotation of DMET-SNP data and the search in existing databases of SNPs (e.g. dbSNP), (iii) the association of SNP with pathway through the search in PharmaGKB, a major knowledge base for pharmacogenomic studies. DMET-Analyzer has a simple graphical user interface that allows users (doctors/biologists) to upload and analyse DMET files produced by Affymetrix DMET-Console in an interactive way. The effectiveness and easy use of DMET Analyzer is demonstrated through different case studies regarding the analysis of

  18. DMET-Analyzer: automatic analysis of Affymetrix DMET Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzzi Pietro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical Bioinformatics is currently growing and is based on the integration of clinical and omics data aiming at the development of personalized medicine. Thus the introduction of novel technologies able to investigate the relationship among clinical states and biological machineries may help the development of this field. For instance the Affymetrix DMET platform (drug metabolism enzymes and transporters is able to study the relationship among the variation of the genome of patients and drug metabolism, detecting SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism on genes related to drug metabolism. This may allow for instance to find genetic variants in patients which present different drug responses, in pharmacogenomics and clinical studies. Despite this, there is currently a lack in the development of open-source algorithms and tools for the analysis of DMET data. Existing software tools for DMET data generally allow only the preprocessing of binary data (e.g. the DMET-Console provided by Affymetrix and simple data analysis operations, but do not allow to test the association of the presence of SNPs with the response to drugs. Results We developed DMET-Analyzer a tool for the automatic association analysis among the variation of the patient genomes and the clinical conditions of patients, i.e. the different response to drugs. The proposed system allows: (i to automatize the workflow of analysis of DMET-SNP data avoiding the use of multiple tools; (ii the automatic annotation of DMET-SNP data and the search in existing databases of SNPs (e.g. dbSNP, (iii the association of SNP with pathway through the search in PharmaGKB, a major knowledge base for pharmacogenomic studies. DMET-Analyzer has a simple graphical user interface that allows users (doctors/biologists to upload and analyse DMET files produced by Affymetrix DMET-Console in an interactive way. The effectiveness and easy use of DMET Analyzer is demonstrated through different

  19. In silico modeling to predict drug-induced phospholipidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sydney S.; Kim, Jae S.; Valerio, Luis G.; Sadrieh, Nakissa

    2013-01-01

    Drug-induced phospholipidosis (DIPL) is a preclinical finding during pharmaceutical drug development that has implications on the course of drug development and regulatory safety review. A principal characteristic of drugs inducing DIPL is known to be a cationic amphiphilic structure. This provides evidence for a structure-based explanation and opportunity to analyze properties and structures of drugs with the histopathologic findings for DIPL. In previous work from the FDA, in silico quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) modeling using machine learning approaches has shown promise with a large dataset of drugs but included unconfirmed data as well. In this study, we report the construction and validation of a battery of complementary in silico QSAR models using the FDA's updated database on phospholipidosis, new algorithms and predictive technologies, and in particular, we address high performance with a high-confidence dataset. The results of our modeling for DIPL include rigorous external validation tests showing 80–81% concordance. Furthermore, the predictive performance characteristics include models with high sensitivity and specificity, in most cases above ≥ 80% leading to desired high negative and positive predictivity. These models are intended to be utilized for regulatory toxicology applied science needs in screening new drugs for DIPL. - Highlights: • New in silico models for predicting drug-induced phospholipidosis (DIPL) are described. • The training set data in the models is derived from the FDA's phospholipidosis database. • We find excellent predictivity values of the models based on external validation. • The models can support drug screening and regulatory decision-making on DIPL

  20. IRISpy: Analyzing IRIS Data in Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Daniel; Christe, Steven; Mumford, Stuart; Baruah, Ankit; Timothy, Shelbe; Pereira, Tiago; De Pontieu, Bart

    2017-08-01

    IRISpy is a new community-developed open-source software library for analysing IRIS level 2 data. It is written in Python, a free, cross-platform, general-purpose, high-level programming language. A wide array of scientific computing software packages have already been developed in Python, from numerical computation (NumPy, SciPy, etc.), to visualization and plotting (matplotlib), to solar-physics-specific data analysis (SunPy). IRISpy is currently under development as a SunPy-affiliated package which means it depends on the SunPy library, follows similar standards and conventions, and is developed with the support of of the SunPy development team. IRISpy’s has two primary data objects, one for analyzing slit-jaw imager data and another for analyzing spectrograph data. Both objects contain basic slicing, indexing, plotting, and animating functionality to allow users to easily inspect, reduce and analyze the data. As part of this functionality the objects can output SunPy Maps, TimeSeries, Spectra, etc. of relevant data slices for easier inspection and analysis. Work is also ongoing to provide additional data analysis functionality including derivation of systematic measurement errors (e.g. readout noise), exposure time correction, residual wavelength calibration, radiometric calibration, and fine scale pointing corrections. IRISpy’s code base is publicly available through github.com and can be contributed to by anyone. In this poster we demonstrate IRISpy’s functionality and future goals of the project. We also encourage interested users to become involved in further developing IRISpy.

  1. Theory including future not excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagao, K.; Nielsen, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    We study a complex action theory (CAT) whose path runs over not only past but also future. We show that, if we regard a matrix element defined in terms of the future state at time T and the past state at time TA as an expectation value in the CAT, then we are allowed to have the Heisenberg equation......, Ehrenfest's theorem, and the conserved probability current density. In addition,we showthat the expectation value at the present time t of a future-included theory for large T - t and large t - T corresponds to that of a future-not-included theory with a proper inner product for large t - T. Hence, the CAT...

  2. Solar Probe ANalyzer for Ions - Laboratory Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livi, R.; Larson, D. E.; Kasper, J. C.; Korreck, K. E.; Whittlesey, P. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Parker Solar Probe (PSP) mission is a heliospheric satellite that will orbit the Sun closer than any prior mission to date with a perihelion of 35 solar radii (RS) and an aphelion of 10 RS. PSP includes the Solar Wind Electrons Alphas and Protons (SWEAP) instrument suite, which in turn consists of four instruments: the Solar Probe Cup (SPC) and three Solar Probe ANalyzers (SPAN) for ions and electrons. Together, this suite will take local measurements of particles and electromagnetic fields within the Sun's corona. SPAN-Ai has completed flight calibration and spacecraft integration and is set to be launched in July of 2018. The main mode of operation consists of an electrostatic analyzer (ESA) at its aperture followed by a Time-of-Flight section to measure the energy and mass per charge (m/q) of the ambient ions. SPAN-Ai's main objective is to measure solar wind ions within an energy range of 5 eV - 20 keV, a mass/q between 1-60 [amu/q] and a field of view of 2400x1200. Here we will show flight calibration results and performance.

  3. Analyzing Virtual Physics Simulations with Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, Tom

    2017-12-01

    In the physics teaching community, Tracker is well known as a user-friendly open source video analysis software, authored by Douglas Brown. With this tool, the user can trace markers indicated on a video or on stroboscopic photos and perform kinematic analyses. Tracker also includes a data modeling tool that allows one to fit some theoretical equations of motion onto experimentally obtained data. In the field of particle mechanics, Tracker has been effectively used for learning and teaching about projectile motion, "toss up" and free-fall vertical motion, and to explain the principle of mechanical energy conservation. Also, Tracker has been successfully used in rigid body mechanics to interpret the results of experiments with rolling/slipping cylinders and moving rods. In this work, I propose an original method in which Tracker is used to analyze virtual computer simulations created with a physics-based motion solver, instead of analyzing video recording or stroboscopic photos. This could be an interesting approach to study kinematics and dynamics problems in physics education, in particular when there is no or limited access to physical labs. I demonstrate the working method with a typical (but quite challenging) problem in classical mechanics: a slipping/rolling cylinder on a rough surface.

  4. Mixing pleasures: review of the effects of drugs on sex behavior in humans and animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohmader, Karla S; Pitchers, Kyle K; Balfour, Margaret E; Coolen, Lique M

    2010-06-01

    Drugs of abuse act on the brain circuits mediating motivation and reward associated with natural behaviors. There is ample evidence that drugs of abuse impact male and female sexual behavior. First, the current review discusses the effect of drugs of abuse on sexual motivation and performance in male and female humans. In particular, we discuss the effects of commonly abused drugs including psychostimulants, opiates, marijuana/THC, and alcohol. In general, drug use affects sexual motivation, arousal, and performance and is commonly associated with increased sexual risk behaviors. Second, studies on effects of systemic administration of drugs of abuse on sexual behavior in animals are reviewed. These studies analyze the effects on sexual performance and motivation but do not investigate the effects of drugs on risk-taking behavior, creating a disconnect between human and animal studies. For this reason, we discuss two studies that focus on the effects of alcohol and methamphetamine on inhibition of maladaptive sex-seeking behaviors in rodents. Third, this review discusses potential brain areas where drugs of abuse may be exerting their effect on sexual behavior with a focus on the mesolimbic system as the site of action. Finally, we discuss recent studies that have brought to light that sexual experience in turn can affect drug responsiveness, including a sensitized locomotor response to amphetamine in female and male rodents as well as enhanced drug reward in male rats. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Supraventricular Tachycardia Atackt Due to Losewieght Drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yalcin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is an important health problem. Treatment of obesity includes diet, exercise and drugs. Some of these drugs are out of prescription. Advers effects of these drugs have not been known. In this report; we present a case with supraventricular tachycardia attack due to loseweight drug containing mangostana (mango, hibiscus, citrus mate, L-karnitin, guarana.

  6. Relative costs of anesthesiologist prepared, hospital pharmacy prepared and outsourced anesthesia drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelacic, Srdjan; Craddick, Karen; Nair, Bala G; Bounthavong, Mark; Yeung, Kai; Kusulos, Dolly; Knutson, Jennifer A; Somani, Shabir; Bowdle, Andrew

    2017-02-01

    Anesthesia drugs can be prepared by anesthesia providers, hospital pharmacies or outsourcing facilities. The decision whether to outsource all or some anesthesia drugs is challenging since the costs associated with different anesthesia drug preparation methods remain poorly described. The costs associated with preparation of 8 commonly used anesthesia drugs were analyzed using a budget impact analysis for 4 different syringe preparation strategies: (1) all drugs prepared by anesthesiologist, (2) drugs prepared by anesthesiologist and hospital pharmacy, (3) drugs prepared by anesthesiologist and outsourcing facility, and (4) all drugs prepared by outsourcing facility. A strategy combining anesthesiologist and hospital pharmacy prepared drugs was associated with the lowest estimated annual cost in the base-case budget impact analysis with an annual cost of $225 592, which was lower than other strategies by a margin of greater than $86 000. A combination of anesthesiologist and hospital pharmacy prepared drugs resulted in the lowest annual cost in the budget impact analysis. However, the cost of drugs prepared by an outsourcing facility maybe lower if the capital investment needed for the establishment and maintenance of the US Pharmacopeial Convention Chapter compliant facility is included in the budget impact analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Analyzing Strategic Business Rules through Simulation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orta, Elena; Ruiz, Mercedes; Toro, Miguel

    Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) holds promise for business agility since it allows business process to change to meet new customer demands or market needs without causing a cascade effect of changes in the underlying IT systems. Business rules are the instrument chosen to help business and IT to collaborate. In this paper, we propose the utilization of simulation models to model and simulate strategic business rules that are then disaggregated at different levels of an SOA architecture. Our proposal is aimed to help find a good configuration for strategic business objectives and IT parameters. The paper includes a case study where a simulation model is built to help business decision-making in a context where finding a good configuration for different business parameters and performance is too complex to analyze by trial and error.

  8. Youth, drugs, and biopolitics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Jose Sanches Vergara

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we tackle the issue of youth and drugs as something linked to biopower and biopolitics, both concepts developed by Michael Foucault. Youth and drugs are taken and analyzed in situations involving the management of crime linked to the risks and deviations from the law, abuse and dependence. The youth; irreverent, courageous, healthy, idealistic, and that wanted to change the world for the better as we have seen in the past, is now strongly related to violence, dangerous activities, moral and social risks, drug addiction, criminality, and others negative images. To deal with these young people, tolerance and small punishments of yore are not enough anymore. The young people emerge as a segment of the population subject to various actions and programs. The drugs now are seen as matters of security and public health. There is a shifting and repositioning in the discourse about the young - from minor, drugged, and criminal to lawbreaker, user and drug addict. The change is subtle, but represents a modulation in the devices of social control. Beyond the consent of the young to get rid of drugs, there is a search for the creation of a wide area of monitoring of their behavior through the activation of community protection networks. The belief that the young are more impressionable and vulnerable, and that action on the cause of the problem or risk reduction are the most efficient ways of management, taking responsibility away from personal and family sphere and transferring it to the State, contributes to the increasing control of young people nowadays.

  9. Drug use trajectory patterns among older drug users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyndall B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Miriam Boeri, Thor Whalen, Benjamin Tyndall, Ellen BallardKennesaw State University, Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice, Kennesaw GA, USAAbstract: To better understand patterns of drug use trajectories over time, it is essential to have standard measures of change. Our goal here is to introduce measures we developed to quantify change in drug use behaviors. A secondary goal is to provide effective visualizations of these trajectories for applied use. We analyzed data from a sample of 92 older drug users (ages 45 to 65 to identify transition patterns in drug use trajectories across the life course. Data were collected for every year since birth using a mixed methods design. The community-drawn sample of active and former users were 40% female, 50% African American, and 60% reporting some college or greater. Their life histories provided retrospective longitudinal data on the diversity of paths taken throughout the life course and changes in drug use patterns that occurred over time. Bayesian analysis was used to model drug trajectories displayed by innovative computer graphics. The mathematical techniques and visualizations presented here provide the foundation for future models using Bayesian analysis. In this paper we introduce the concepts of transition counts, transition rates and relapse/remission rates, and we describe how these measures can help us better understand drug use trajectories. Depicted through these visual tools, measurements of discontinuous patterns provide a succinct view of individual drug use trajectories. The measures we use on drug use data will be further developed to incorporate contextual influences on the drug trajectory and build predictive models that inform rehabilitation efforts for drug users. Although the measures developed here were conceived to better examine drug use trajectories, the applications of these measures can be used with other longitudinal datasets.Keywords: drug use, trajectory patterns

  10. Legal Drugs Are Good Drugs and Illegal Drugs Are Bad Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Indrati, Dina; Prasetyo, Herry

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT : Labelling drugs are important issue nowadays in a modern society. Although it is generally believed that legal drugs are good drugs and illegal drugs are bad drugs, it is evident that some people do not aware about the side effects of drugs used. Therefore, a key contention of this philosophical essay is that explores harms minimisation policy, discuss whether legal drugs are good drugs and illegal drugs are bad drugs and explores relation of drugs misuse in a psychiatric nursing s...

  11. [Generic drugs: good or bad? Physician's knowledge of generic drugs and prescribing habits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, A J; Martos, F; Leiva, F; Sánchez de la Cuesta, F

    2003-01-01

    In this article we analyze the responses of 1220 Spanish physicians who participated in a survery about generic drugs. A previously validated questionnaire was sent to physicians through the Spanish Medical Councils of the different provinces. Four items were analyzed: what doctors know about generic drugs (knowledge); physicians' prescribing habits concerning these drugs (attitude and professional competence); how prescription of generic drugs effects pharmaceutical costs amd, finally, what doctors believe a generic drug should be. The influence of physician-related variables (age, type of contract, specialty, workload, etc.) on prescribing of generic drugs was also analyzed. In view of the results, we believe that to rationalize expenditure through and appropriate policy on generic drugs Spanish health authorities should offer more and better training and information (clear and independent) about what generic drugs are.

  12. Drugs@FDA: FDA Approved Drug Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cosmetics Tobacco Products Home Drug Databases Drugs@FDA Drugs@FDA: FDA Approved Drug Products Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Download Drugs@FDA Express for free Search by Drug Name, Active Ingredient, or Application Number Enter at ...

  13. Study Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Stephanie Phuong; Roosta, Natalie; Nielsen, Mikkel Fuhr; Meyer, Maria Holmgaard; Friis, Katrine Birk

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, students around the world, started to use preparations as Ritalin and Modafinil,also known as study drugs, to improve their cognitive abilities1. It is a common use among thestudents in United States of America, but it is a new tendency in Denmark. Our main focus is tolocate whether study drugs needs to be legalized in Denmark or not. To investigate this ourstarting point is to understand central ethical arguments in the debate. We have chosen twoarguments from Nick Bostrom a...

  14. Use of illicit drugs by adolescents and young adults of an urban settlement in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Rafael Alves; Souza, Márcia Maria de; Caetano, Karlla Antonieta Amorim; Teles, Sheila Araujo; Matos, Marcos André de

    2018-01-01

    Summary Objective: To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with illicit drug use by adolescents and young adults of a formal urban settlement. Method: Cross-sectional study including adolescents and young adults 12-24 years of an urban settlement in the Midwest Region of Brazil. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and analyzed using Stata, version 12.0. We used Poisson regression model to estimate the factors associated with illicit drug use. Results: Of the tota...

  15. Current position of high-resolution MS for drug quantification in clinical & forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Markus R; Helfer, Andreas G; Maurer, Hans H

    2014-08-01

    This paper reviews high-resolution MS approaches published from January 2011 until March 2014 for the quantification of drugs (of abuse) and/or their metabolites in biosamples using LC-MS with time-of-flight or Orbitrap™ mass analyzers. Corresponding approaches are discussed including sample preparation and mass spectral settings. The advantages and limitations of high-resolution MS for drug quantification, as well as the demand for a certain resolution or a specific mass accuracy are also explored.

  16. Drug interactions between common illicit drugs and prescription therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Wesley T; Stewart, David; Childress, Darrell

    2012-07-01

    The aim was to summarize the clinical literature on interactions between common illicit drugs and prescription therapies. Medline, Iowa Drug Information Service, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, EBSCO Academic Search Premier, and Google Scholar were searched from date of origin of database to March 2011. Search terms were cocaine, marijuana, cannabis, methamphetamine, amphetamine, ecstasy, N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine, heroin, gamma-hydroxybutyrate, sodium oxybate, and combined with interactions, drug interactions, and drug-drug interactions. This review focuses on established clinical evidence. All applicable full-text English language articles and abstracts found were evaluated and included in the review as appropriate. The interactions of illicit drugs with prescription therapies have the ability to potentiate or attenuate the effects of both the illicit agent and/or the prescription therapeutic agent, which can lead to toxic effects or a reduction in the prescription agent's therapeutic activity. Most texts and databases focus on theoretical or probable interactions due to the kinetic properties of the drugs and do not fully explore the pharmacodynamic and clinical implications of these interactions. Clinical trials with coadministration of illicit drugs and prescription drugs are discussed along with case reports that demonstrate a potential interaction between agents. The illicit drugs discussed are cocaine, marijuana, amphetamines, methylenedioxymethamphetamine, heroin, and sodium oxybate. Although the use of illicit drugs is widespread, there are little experimental or clinical data regarding the effects of these agents on common prescription therapies. Potential drug interactions between illicit drugs and prescription drugs are described and evaluated on the Drug Interaction Probability Scale by Horn and Hansten.

  17. [Hepatox: database on hepatotoxic drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinton, A; Latry, P; Biour, M

    1993-01-01

    Hepatox is a data base on the hepatotoxic drugs file published every year in Gastroentérologie Clinique et Biologique. The program was developed under Omnis 7 for Apple computers, and under Visual Basic Professional Toolkit and Code Base for IBM PC and compatibles computers. The data base includes forms of 866 drugs identified by their approved name and those of their 1,300 corresponding proprietary names in France; drugs are distributed among 104 pharmacological classes. It is possible to have instantaneously access to the card of a drug identified by its approved name. Acceding to a drug identified by its proprietary name gives a list of the approved name of its components; going from a name of this list to the correspondent card of hepatoxicity is immediate. It is easy to extract lists of drugs responsible of a type of hepatic injury, and a table of types of hepatic injuries induced by the drugs of a pharmacological class.

  18. Sustained, Controlled and Stimuli-Responsive Drug Release Systems Based on Nanoporous Anodic Alumina with Layer-by-Layer Polyelectrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta-i-Batalla, Maria; Eckstein, Chris; Xifré-Pérez, Elisabet; Formentín, Pilar; Ferré-Borrull, J.; Marsal, Lluis F.

    2016-08-01

    Controlled drug delivery systems are an encouraging solution to some drug disadvantages such as reduced solubility, deprived biodistribution, tissue damage, fast breakdown of the drug, cytotoxicity, or side effects. Self-ordered nanoporous anodic alumina is an auspicious material for drug delivery due to its biocompatibility, stability, and controllable pore geometry. Its use in drug delivery applications has been explored in several fields, including therapeutic devices for bone and dental tissue engineering, coronary stent implants, and carriers for transplanted cells. In this work, we have created and analyzed a stimuli-responsive drug delivery system based on layer-by-layer pH-responsive polyelectrolyte and nanoporous anodic alumina. The results demonstrate that it is possible to control the drug release using a polyelectrolyte multilayer coating that will act as a gate.

  19. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area......The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of the test sample by movement of the probe relative to the surface of the test sample into the specific orientation.; The probe may further comprise a contact detector (14) extending from the supporting body arranged so as to contact the surface of the test sample prior to any one of the plurality...

  20. Neoclassical transport including collisional nonlinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, J; Belli, E A

    2011-06-10

    In the standard δf theory of neoclassical transport, the zeroth-order (Maxwellian) solution is obtained analytically via the solution of a nonlinear equation. The first-order correction δf is subsequently computed as the solution of a linear, inhomogeneous equation that includes the linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator. This equation admits analytic solutions only in extreme asymptotic limits (banana, plateau, Pfirsch-Schlüter), and so must be solved numerically for realistic plasma parameters. Recently, numerical codes have appeared which attempt to compute the total distribution f more accurately than in the standard ordering by retaining some nonlinear terms related to finite-orbit width, while simultaneously reusing some form of the linearized collision operator. In this work we show that higher-order corrections to the distribution function may be unphysical if collisional nonlinearities are ignored.

  1. Slit-scanning technique using standard cell sorter instruments for analyzing and sorting nonacrocentric human chromosomes, including small ones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rens, W.; van Oven, C. H.; Stap, J.; Jakobs, M. E.; Aten, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the performance of two types of standard flow cell sorter instruments, a System 50 Cytofluorograph and a FACSTar PLUS cell sorter, for the on-line centromeric index (CI) analysis of human chromosomes. To optimize the results, we improved the detection efficiency for centromeres

  2. Antimalarial drug policy in India: past, present & future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anvikar, Anupkumar R; Arora, Usha; Sonal, G S; Mishra, Neelima; Shahi, Bharatendu; Savargaonkar, Deepali; Kumar, Navin; Shah, Naman K; Valecha, Neena

    2014-02-01

    The use of antimalarial drugs in India has evolved since the introduction of quinine in the 17 th century. Since the formal establishment of a malaria control programme in 1953, shortly after independence, treatments provided by the public sector ranged from chloroquine, the mainstay drug for many decades, to the newer, recently introduced artemisinin based combination therapy. The complexity of considerations in antimalarial treatment led to the formulation of a National Antimalarial Drug Policy to guide procurement as well as communicate best practices to both public and private healthcare providers. Challenges addressed in the policy include the use of presumptive treatment, the introduction of alternate treatments for drug-resistant malaria, the duration of primaquine therapy to prevent relapses of vivax malaria, the treatment of malaria in pregnancy, and the choice of drugs for chemoprophylaxis. While data on antimalarial drug resistance and both public and private sector treatment practices have been recently reviewed, the policy process of setting national standards has not. In this perspective on antimalarial drug policy, this review highlights its relevant history, analyzes the current policy, and examines future directions.

  3. Antimalarial drug policy in India: Past, present & future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupkumar R Anvikar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of antimalarial drugs in India has evolved since the introduction of quinine in the 17 th century. Since the formal establishment of a malaria control programme in 1953, shortly after independence, treatments provided by the public sector ranged from chloroquine, the mainstay drug for many decades, to the newer, recently introduced artemisinin based combination therapy. The complexity of considerations in antimalarial treatment led to the formulation of a National Antimalarial Drug Policy to guide procurement as well as communicate best practices to both public and private healthcare providers. Challenges addressed in the policy include the use of presumptive treatment, the introduction of alternate treatments for drug-resistant malaria, the duration of primaquine therapy to prevent relapses of vivax malaria, the treatment of malaria in pregnancy, and the choice of drugs for chemoprophylaxis. While data on antimalarial drug resistance and both public and private sector treatment practices have been recently reviewed, the policy process of setting national standards has not. In this perspective on antimalarial drug policy, this review highlights its relevant history, analyzes the current policy, and examines future directions.

  4. Mesenchymal change and drug resistance in neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiditch, Jessica A; Jie, Chunfa; Lautz, Timothy B; Yu, Songtao; Clark, Sandra; Voronov, Dimitry; Chu, Fei; Madonna, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic initiation has many phenotypic similarities to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, including loss of cell-cell adhesion, increased invasiveness, and increased cell mobility. We have previously demonstrated that drug resistance is associated with a metastatic phenotype in neuroblastoma (NB). The purpose of this project was to determine if the development of doxorubicin resistance is associated with characteristics of mesenchymal change in human NB cells. Total RNA was isolated from wild type (WT) and doxorubicin-resistant (DoxR) human NB cell lines (SK-N-SH and SK-N-BE(2)C) and analyzed using the Illumina Human HT-12 version 4 Expression BeadChip. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. Volcano plots and heat maps were generated. Genes of interest with a fold change in expression >1.5 and an adjusted P change via multiple pathways in the transition to a drug-resistant state. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Phone Numbers and Websites Search Share Listen English Español Information about this page Click on the button ... sobre el abuso de drogas, y adicción. English Español About the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) | ...

  6. Drugs reviews

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Angel_D

    tests (LFTs) to monitor hepatotoxicity (liver [hepatic] damage) is uncommon in many resource-poor ... cholesterol ester storage disease. ... The problem with many patients is that they are taking several drugs often ... Urine, saliva and other body fluids may be coloured orange-red: this can be very alarming to patients.

  7. Drug resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, J.A.; Potschka, H.; Noebels, J.L.; Avoli, M.; Rogawski, M.A.; Olsen, R.W.; Delgado-Escueta, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    Drug resistance remains to be one of the major challenges in epilepsy therapy. Identification of factors that contribute to therapeutic failure is crucial for future development of novel therapeutic strategies for difficult-to-treat epilepsies. Several clinical studies have shown that high seizure

  8. Capping Drugs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    preventing disease in human beings or in animals. In the process ... of requirement. In the process, they may cause toxic side effects. .... the liver to release the physiologically active drug. Similarly ... patients addicted to alcohol. However, it is a ...

  9. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Prevention Phone Numbers and Websites Search Share Listen English Español Information about this page Click on the ... información sobre el abuso de drogas, y adicción. English Español About the National Institute on Drug Abuse ( ...

  10. 40 CFR 86.327-79 - Quench checks; NOX analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... any flow rate into the reaction chamber. This includes, but is not limited to, sample capillary, ozone... Quench checks; NOX analyzer. (a) Perform the reaction chamber quench check for each model of high vacuum reaction chamber analyzer prior to initial use. (b) Perform the reaction chamber quench check for each new...

  11. Drug resistance patterns in pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoharo, H.K.; Shaikh, I.A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the resistance patterns of mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates among category I and II patients of pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted at the Department of Medicine, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences Jamshoro, from November 2008 to September 2009. Patients were divided into category I and II. The sputa were collected, stained with Ziehl-Nielsen (Z-N) staining and ultimately inoculated on Lowenstein-Jensen (L-J) media for six weeks. Out of 890 pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients, the growth was obtained in 285 cases. The Drug sensitivity testing (DST) for Isoniazid (INH), Rifampicin (RIF), Ethambutol (EMB) Pyrazinamide (PZA) and Streptomycin (SM) were performed. The data was analyzed on SPSS 10.0. A p-value of <0.05 was taken as significant. Result: Out of 285 cases, 176 (61.75%) were male and 109 (38.24%) female. The mean age was 37 +- 19.90 years. The DST showed drug sensitive and drug resistant isolates in 80 (28.05%) and 205 (71.92%) cases respectively (p=0.001). The drug resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) rates for individual drugs; INH, RIF, EMB, PZA and SM were 51,22%, 15.4%, 13.33%, 9%12, and 3.85% respectively (p=0.03). The MDR-TB isolates were detected in 120 (42.10%) cases, including 5 (5.88%) in category I and 115 (57.50%) in category II patients (p=0.0001). Conclusion: Drug resistant and multidrug resistant tuberculosis was observed mainly in category II patients. However, primary MDR was also observed in category I patients and reflects dissemination of MDR cases within the community. (author)

  12. Retracted publications in the drug literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samp, Jennifer C; Schumock, Glen T; Pickard, A Simon

    2012-07-01

    Recent studies have suggested an increase in the number of retracted scientific publications. It is unclear how broadly the issue of misleading and fraudulent publications pertains to retractions of drug therapy studies. Therefore, we sought to determine the trends and factors associated with retracted publications in drug therapy literature. A PubMed search was conducted to identify retracted drug therapy articles published from 2000-2011. Articles were grouped according to reason for retraction, which was classified as scientific misconduct or error. Scientific misconduct was further divided into data fabrication, data falsification, questions of data veracity, unethical author conduct, and plagiarism. Error was defined as duplicate publication, scientific mistake, journal error, or unstated reasons. Additional data were extracted from the retracted articles, including type of article, funding source, author information, therapeutic area, and retraction issue. A total of 742 retractions were identified from 2000-2011 in the general biomedical literature, and 102 drug studies met our inclusion criteria. Of these, 73 articles (72%) were retracted for a reason classified as scientific misconduct, whereas 29 articles (28%) were retracted for error. Among the 73 articles classified as scientific misconduct, those classified as unethical author conduct (32 articles [44%]) and data fabrication (24 articles [33%]) constituted the majority. The median time from publication of the original article to retraction was 31 months (range 1-130). Fifty percent of retracted articles did not state a funding source, whereas pharmaceutical manufacturer funding accounted for only 13 articles (13%) analyzed. Many retractions were due to repeat offenses by a small number of authors, with nearly 40% of the retracted studies associated with two individuals. We found that a greater proportion of drug therapy articles were retracted for reasons of misconduct and fraud compared with other

  13. Analyzing temozolomide medication errors: potentially fatal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letarte, Nathalie; Gabay, Michael P; Bressler, Linda R; Long, Katie E; Stachnik, Joan M; Villano, J Lee

    2014-10-01

    The EORTC-NCIC regimen for glioblastoma requires different dosing of temozolomide (TMZ) during radiation and maintenance therapy. This complexity is exacerbated by the availability of multiple TMZ capsule strengths. TMZ is an alkylating agent and the major toxicity of this class is dose-related myelosuppression. Inadvertent overdose can be fatal. The websites of the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) MedWatch database were reviewed. We searched the MedWatch database for adverse events associated with TMZ and obtained all reports including hematologic toxicity submitted from 1st November 1997 to 30th May 2012. The ISMP describes errors with TMZ resulting from the positioning of information on the label of the commercial product. The strength and quantity of capsules on the label were in close proximity to each other, and this has been changed by the manufacturer. MedWatch identified 45 medication errors. Patient errors were the most common, accounting for 21 or 47% of errors, followed by dispensing errors, which accounted for 13 or 29%. Seven reports or 16% were errors in the prescribing of TMZ. Reported outcomes ranged from reversible hematological adverse events (13%), to hospitalization for other adverse events (13%) or death (18%). Four error reports lacked detail and could not be categorized. Although the FDA issued a warning in 2003 regarding fatal medication errors and the product label warns of overdosing, errors in TMZ dosing occur for various reasons and involve both healthcare professionals and patients. Overdosing errors can be fatal.

  14. Analyzing compound and project progress through multi-objective-based compound quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissink, J Willem M; Degorce, Sébastien

    2013-05-01

    Compound-quality scoring methods designed to evaluate multiple drug properties concurrently are useful to analyze and prioritize output from drug-design efforts. However, formalized multiparameter optimization approaches are not widely used in drug design. We rank molecules synthesized in drug-discovery projects using simple and aggregated desirability functions reflecting medicinal chemistry 'rules'. Our quality score deals transparently with missing data, a key requirement in drug-hunting projects where data availability is often limited. We further estimate confidence in the interpretation of such a compound-quality measure. Scores and associated confidences provide systematic insight in the quality of emerging chemical equity. Tracking quality of synthetic output over time yields valuable insight into the progress of drug-design teams, with potential applications in risk and resource management of a drug portfolio.

  15. Drug abuse first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use of these drugs is a form of drug abuse. Medicines that are for treating a health problem ... about local resources. Alternative Names Overdose from drugs; Drug abuse first aid References Myck MB. Hallucinogens and drugs ...

  16. Drug hypersensitivity syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Kumari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug hypersensitivity syndrome (DHS is an adverse drug reaction commonly associated with the aromatic antiepileptic drugs (AEDs, viz., phenytoin (PHT, carbamazepine (CBZ, phenobarbital (PB, lamotrigine, primidone, etc. It can also be caused by other drugs, such as sulfonamides, dapsone, minocycline, gold derivatives, cyclosporine, captopril, diltiazem, terbinafine, azathioprine and allopurinol. Diagnosis of DHS may be difficult because of the variety of clinical and laboratory abnormalities and manifestations and because the syndrome may mimic infectious, neoplastic or collagen vascular disorders. The risk for developing hypersensitivity within 60 days of the first or second prescription in new users of PHT or CBZ was estimated to be 2.3-4.5 per 10,000 and 1-4.1 per 10,000, respectively. The syndrome is defined by the fever, skin rash, lymphadenopathy and internal organ involvement within the first 2-8 weeks after initiation of therapy. Internal manifestations include, among others, agranulocytosis, hepatitis, nephritis and myositis. Insufficient detoxification may lead to cell death or contribute to the formation of antigen that triggers an immune reaction. Cross-reactivity among PHT, CBZ and PB is as high as 70%-80%. Management mainly includes immediate withdrawal of the culprit drug, symptomatic treatment and systemic steroids or immunoglobulins.

  17. From Abstinence to Relapse: A Preliminary Qualitative Study of Drug Users in a Compulsory Drug Rehabilitation Center in Changsha, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Yang

    Full Text Available Relapse among abstinent drug users is normal. Several factors are related to relapse, but it remains unclear what individuals' actual life circumstances are during periods of abstinence, and how these circumstances facilitate or prevent relapse.To illuminate drug users' experiences during abstinence periods and explore the real-life catalysts and inhibitors contributing to drug use relapse.Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 drug users recruited from a compulsory isolated drug rehabilitation center in Changsha. The interviews were guided by open-ended questions on individuals' experiences in drug use initiation, getting addicted, treatment history, social environment, abstinence, and relapse. Participants were also encouraged to share their own stories. Interviews were digitally recorded and fully transcribed. The data of 18 participants who reported abstinence experiences before admission were included in the analyses. The data were analyzed using a thematic analysis with inductive hand coding to derive themes.Most drug users were able to successfully abstain from drugs. During abstinence, their lives were congested with challenges, such as adverse socioeconomic conditions, poor family/social support, interpersonal conflicts, and stigma and discrimination, all of which kept them excluded from mainstream society. Furthermore, the police's system of ID card registration, which identifies individuals as drug users, worsened already grave situations. Relapse triggers reported by the participants focused mainly on negative feelings, interpersonal conflicts, and stressful events. Craving was experienced but not perceived as a relapse trigger by most participants.This study of in-depth interview with drug users found evidence of situations and environments they live during abstinence appear rather disadvantaged, making it extremely difficult for them to remain abstinent. Comprehensive programs on relapse prevention that acknowledge

  18. Automated Root Tracking with "Root System Analyzer"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnepf, Andrea; Jin, Meina; Ockert, Charlotte; Bol, Roland; Leitner, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Crucial factors for plant development are water and nutrient availability in soils. Thus, root architecture is a main aspect of plant productivity and needs to be accurately considered when describing root processes. Images of root architecture contain a huge amount of information, and image analysis helps to recover parameters describing certain root architectural and morphological traits. The majority of imaging systems for root systems are designed for two-dimensional images, such as RootReader2, GiA Roots, SmartRoot, EZ-Rhizo, and Growscreen, but most of them are semi-automated and involve mouse-clicks in each root by the user. "Root System Analyzer" is a new, fully automated approach for recovering root architectural parameters from two-dimensional images of root systems. Individual roots can still be corrected manually in a user interface if required. The algorithm starts with a sequence of segmented two-dimensional images showing the dynamic development of a root system. For each image, morphological operators are used for skeletonization. Based on this, a graph representation of the root system is created. A dynamic root architecture model helps to determine which edges of the graph belong to an individual root. The algorithm elongates each root at the root tip and simulates growth confined within the already existing graph representation. The increment of root elongation is calculated assuming constant growth. For each root, the algorithm finds all possible paths and elongates the root in the direction of the optimal path. In this way, each edge of the graph is assigned to one or more coherent roots. Image sequences of root systems are handled in such a way that the previous image is used as a starting point for the current image. The algorithm is implemented in a set of Matlab m-files. Output of Root System Analyzer is a data structure that includes for each root an identification number, the branching order, the time of emergence, the parent

  19. Drugs Used in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on drugs used in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first.…

  20. Characterization of Schizophrenia Adverse Drug Interactions through a Network Approach and Drug Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingchun Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antipsychotic drugs are medications commonly for schizophrenia (SCZ treatment, which include two groups: typical and atypical. SCZ patients have multiple comorbidities, and the coadministration of drugs is quite common. This may result in adverse drug-drug interactions, which are events that occur when the effect of a drug is altered by the coadministration of another drug. Therefore, it is important to provide a comprehensive view of these interactions for further coadministration improvement. Here, we extracted SCZ drugs and their adverse drug interactions from the DrugBank and compiled a SCZ-specific adverse drug interaction network. This network included 28 SCZ drugs, 241 non-SCZs, and 991 interactions. By integrating the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC classification with the network analysis, we characterized those interactions. Our results indicated that SCZ drugs tended to have more adverse drug interactions than other drugs. Furthermore, SCZ typical drugs had significant interactions with drugs of the “alimentary tract and metabolism” category while SCZ atypical drugs had significant interactions with drugs of the categories “nervous system” and “antiinfectives for systemic uses.” This study is the first to characterize the adverse drug interactions in the course of SCZ treatment and might provide useful information for the future SCZ treatment.

  1. Increasing process understanding by analyzing complex interactions in experimental data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naelapaa, Kaisa; Allesø, Morten; Kristensen, Henning Gjelstrup

    2009-01-01

    understanding of a coating process. It was possible to model the response, that is, the amount of drug released, using both mentioned techniques. However, the ANOVAmodel was difficult to interpret as several interactions between process parameters existed. In contrast to ANOVA, GEMANOVA is especially suited...... for modeling complex interactions and making easily understandable models of these. GEMANOVA modeling allowed a simple visualization of the entire experimental space. Furthermore, information was obtained on how relative changes in the settings of process parameters influence the film quality and thereby drug......There is a recognized need for new approaches to understand unit operations with pharmaceutical relevance. A method for analyzing complex interactions in experimental data is introduced. Higher-order interactions do exist between process parameters, which complicate the interpretation...

  2. Drug Safety: Managing Multiple Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This series is produced by Consumers Union and Consumer Reports Best Buy Drugs , a public information project sup- ported by grants from the Engelberg Foundation and the National Library of Medicine of ... Consumer and Prescriber Education Grant Program which is funded ...

  3. Legal Drugs Are Good Drugs And Illegal Drugs Are Bad Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Indrati

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : Labelling drugs are important issue nowadays in a modern society. Although it is generally believed that legal drugs are good drugs and illegal drugs are bad drugs, it is evident that some people do not aware about the side effects of drugs used. Therefore, a key contention of this philosophical essay is that explores harms minimisation policy, discuss whether legal drugs are good drugs and illegal drugs are bad drugs and explores relation of drugs misuse in a psychiatric nursing setting and dual diagnosis.Key words: Legal, good drugs, illegal, bad drugs.

  4. Indolealkylamines: biotransformations and potential drug-drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ai-Ming

    2008-06-01

    Indolealkylamine (IAA) drugs are 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT or serotonin) analogs that mainly act on the serotonin system. Some IAAs are clinically utilized for antimigraine therapy, whereas other substances are notable as drugs of abuse. In the clinical evaluation of antimigraine triptan drugs, studies on their biotransformations and pharmacokinetics would facilitate the understanding and prevention of unwanted drug-drug interactions (DDIs). A stable, principal metabolite of an IAA drug of abuse could serve as a useful biomarker in assessing intoxication of the IAA substance. Studies on the metabolism of IAA drugs of abuse including lysergic acid amides, tryptamine derivatives and beta-carbolines are therefore emerging. An important role for polymorphic cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) in the metabolism of IAA drugs of abuse has been revealed by recent studies, suggesting that variations in IAA metabolism, pharmaco- or toxicokinetics and dynamics can arise from distinct CYP2D6 status, and CYP2D6 polymorphism may represent an additional risk factor in the use of these IAA drugs. Furthermore, DDIs with IAA agents could occur additively at the pharmaco/toxicokinetic and dynamic levels, leading to severe or even fatal serotonin toxicity. In this review, the metabolism and potential DDIs of these therapeutic and abused IAA drugs are described.

  5. Ketamine - A Multifaceted Drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingzhong; Li, Jian; Lu, Yi; Sun, Dajin; Tao, Yuan-Xiang; Liu, Renyu; Luo, Jin Jun

    There is a petition for tight control of ketamine from the Chinese government to classify ketamine as a Schedule I drug, which is defined as a drug with no currently accepted medical use but a high potential for abuse. However, ketamine has unique properties that can benefit different patient populations. Scholars from the Translational Perioperative and Pain Medicine and the International Chinese Academy of Anesthesiology WeChat groups had an interactive discussion on ketamine, including its current medical applications, future research priorities, and benefits versus risks. The discussion is summarized in this manuscript with some minor edits.

  6. Nuclear imaging drug development tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, L.; Jurek, P.; Redshaw, R.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the development of nuclear imaging as an enabling technology in the pharmaceutical industry. Molecular imaging is maturing into an important tool with expanding applications from validating that a drug reaches the intended target through to market launch of a new drug. Molecular imaging includes anatomical imaging of organs or tissues, computerized tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound.

  7. Microcontainers for Intestinal Drug Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tentor, Fabio; Mazzoni, Chiara; Keller, Stephan Sylvest

    Among all the drug administration routes, the oral one is the most preferred by the patients being less invasive, faster and easier. Oral drug delivery systems designed to target the intestine are produced by powder technology and capsule formulations. Those systems including micro- and nano...

  8. Drug-drug interactions in prescriptions for hospitalized elderly with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Aparecido Maschio de Lima

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to determine the rate of potential drug-drug interactions in prescriptions for elderly diagnosed with Acute Coronary Syndrome in a teaching hospital. This is an exploratory, descriptive study that analyzed 607 prescriptions through databases to identify and classify the interactions based on intensity (major, moderate or minor, the mechanism (pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamics and documentation relevance. We detected 10,162 drug-drug interactions, distributed in 554 types of different combinations within the prescribed drugs, and 99% of prescriptions presented at least one and a maximum of 53 interactions; highlighting the prevalence of major and moderates ones. There was a correlation between the number of drug-drug interactions and the number of prescribed drugs and the hospitalization time. This study contributes for the delimitation of a prevalence pattern in drug-drug interactions in prescriptions for Acute Coronary Syndrome, besides subsidizing the importance of the effective implementation of the Clinical Pharmacy in teaching hospitals.

  9. Negotiating place and gendered violence in Canada's largest open drug scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Ryan; Shannon, Kate; Shaver, Laura; Kerr, Thomas; Small, Will

    2014-05-01

    Vancouver's Downtown Eastside is home to Canada's largest street-based drug scene and only supervised injection facility (Insite). High levels of violence among men and women have been documented in this neighbourhood. This study was undertaken to explore the role of violence in shaping the socio-spatial relations of women and 'marginal men' (i.e., those occupying subordinate positions within the drug scene) in the Downtown Eastside, including access to Insite. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 23 people who inject drugs (PWID) recruited through the Vancouver Area Network of Drug Users, a local drug user organization. Interviews included a mapping exercise. Interview transcripts and maps were analyzed thematically, with an emphasis on how gendered violence shaped participants' spatial practices. Hegemonic forms of masculinity operating within the Downtown Eastside framed the everyday violence experienced by women and marginal men. This violence shaped the spatial practices of women and marginal men, in that they avoided drug scene milieus where they had experienced violence or that they perceived to be dangerous. Some men linked their spatial restrictions to the perceived 'dope quality' of neighbourhood drug dealers to maintain claims to dominant masculinities while enacting spatial strategies to promote safety. Environmental supports provided by health and social care agencies were critical in enabling women and marginal men to negotiate place and survival within the context of drug scene violence. Access to Insite did not motivate participants to enter into "dangerous" drug scene milieus but they did venture into these areas if necessary to obtain drugs or generate income. Gendered violence is critical in restricting the geographies of men and marginal men within the street-based drug scene. There is a need to scale up existing environmental interventions, including supervised injection services, to minimize violence and potential drug

  10. NEGOTIATING PLACE AND GENDERED VIOLENCE IN CANADA’S LARGEST OPEN DRUG SCENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Ryan; Shannon, Kate; Shaver, Laura; Kerr, Thomas; Small, Will

    2014-01-01

    Background Vancouver’s Downtown Eastside is home to Canada’s largest street-based drug scene and only supervised injection facility (Insite). High levels of violence among men and women have been documented in this neighbourhood. This study was undertaken to explore the role of violence in shaping the socio-spatial relations of women and ‘marginal men’ (i.e., those occupying subordinate positions within the drug scene) in the Downtown Eastside, including access to Insite. Methods Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 23 people who inject drugs (PWID) recruited through the Vancouver Area Network of Drug Users, a local drug user organization. Interviews included a mapping exercise. Interview transcripts and maps were analyzed thematically, with an emphasis on how gendered violence shaped participants’ spatial practices. Results Hegemonic forms of masculinity operating within the Downtown Eastside framed the everyday violence experienced by women and marginal men. This violence shaped the spatial practices of women and marginal men, in that they avoided drug scene milieus where they had experienced violence or that they perceived to be dangerous. Some men linked their spatial restrictions to the perceived 'dope quality' of neighbourhood drug dealers to maintain claims to dominant masculinities while enacting spatial strategies to promote safety. Environmental supports provided by health and social care agencies were critical in enabling women and marginal men to negotiate place and survival within the context of drug scene violence. Access to Insite did not motivate participants to enter into “dangerous” drug scene milieus but they did venture into these areas if necessary to obtain drugs or generate income. Conclusion Gendered violence is critical in restricting the geographies of men and marginal men within the street-based drug scene. There is a need to scale up existing environmental interventions, including supervised injection

  11. Drug Poisoning Mortality by State: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes drug poisoning deaths at the U.S. and state level by selected demographic characteristics, and includes age-adjusted death rates for drug...

  12. Ranking Adverse Drug Reactions With Crowdsourcing

    KAUST Repository

    Gottlieb, Assaf; Hoehndorf, Robert; Dumontier, Michel; Altman, Russ B

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is no publicly available resource that provides the relative severity of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Such a resource would be useful for several applications, including assessment of the risks and benefits of drugs

  13. Drug Poisoning Mortality by County: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes drug poisoning deaths at the U.S. and state level by selected demographic characteristics, and includes age-adjusted death rates for drug...

  14. Nuclear plant analyzer program for Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shier, W.; Kennett, R.

    1993-01-01

    An interactive nuclear plant analyzer(NPA) has been developed for use by the Bulgarian technical community in the training of plant personnel, the development and verification of plant operating procedures, and in the analysis of various anticipated operational occurrences and accident scenarios. The current NPA includes models for a VVER-440 Model 230 and a VVER-1000 Model 320 and is operational on an IBM RISC6000 workstation. The RELAP5/MOD2 computer code has been used for the calculation of the reactor responses to the interactive commands initiated by the NPA operator. The interactive capabilities of the NPA have been developed to provide considerable flexibility in the plant actions that can be initiated by the operator. The current capabilities for both the VVER-440 and VVER-1000 models include: (1) scram initiation; (2) reactor coolant pump trip; (3) high pressure safety injection system initiation; (4) low pressure safety injection system initiation; (5) pressurizer safety valve opening; (6) steam generator relief/safety valve opening; (7) feedwater system initiation and trip; (8) turbine trip; and (9) emergency feedwater initiation. The NPA has the capability to display the results of the simulations in various forms that are determined by the model developer. Results displayed on the reactor mask are shown through the user defined, digital display of various plant parameters and through color changes that reflect changes in primary system fluid temperatures, fuel and clad temperatures, and the temperature of other metal structures. In addition, changes in the status of various components and systems can be initiated and/or displayed both numerically and graphically on the mask. This paper provides a description of the structure of the NPA, a discussion of the simulation models used for the VVER-440 and the VVER-1000, and an overview of the NPA capabilities. Typical results obtained using both simulation models will be discussed

  15. Analyzing Spatiotemporal Anomalies through Interactive Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As we move into the big data era, data grows not just in size, but also in complexity, containing a rich set of attributes, including location and time information, such as data from mobile devices (e.g., smart phones, natural disasters (e.g., earthquake and hurricane, epidemic spread, etc. We are motivated by the rising challenge and build a visualization tool for exploring generic spatiotemporal data, i.e., records containing time location information and numeric attribute values. Since the values often evolve over time and across geographic regions, we are particularly interested in detecting and analyzing the anomalous changes over time/space. Our analytic tool is based on geographic information system and is combined with spatiotemporal data mining algorithms, as well as various data visualization techniques, such as anomaly grids and anomaly bars superimposed on the map. We study how effective the tool may guide users to find potential anomalies through demonstrating and evaluating over publicly available spatiotemporal datasets. The tool for spatiotemporal anomaly analysis and visualization is useful in many domains, such as security investigation and monitoring, situation awareness, etc.

  16. A framework to analyze emissions implications of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Future year emissions depend highly on the evolution of the economy, technology and current and future regulatory drivers. A scenario framework was adopted to analyze various technology development pathways and societal change while considering existing regulations and future uncertainty in regulations and evaluate resulting emissions growth patterns. The framework integrates EPA’s energy systems model with an economic Input-Output (I/O) Life Cycle Assessment model. The EPAUS9r MARKAL database is assembled from a set of technologies to represent the U.S. energy system within MARKAL bottom-up technology rich energy modeling framework. The general state of the economy and consequent demands for goods and services from these sectors are taken exogenously in MARKAL. It is important to characterize exogenous inputs about the economy to appropriately represent the industrial sector outlook for each of the scenarios and case studies evaluated. An economic input-output (I/O) model of the US economy is constructed to link up with MARKAL. The I/O model enables user to change input requirements (e.g. energy intensity) for different sectors or the share of consumer income expended on a given good. This gives end-users a mechanism for modeling change in the two dimensions of technological progress and consumer preferences that define the future scenarios. The framework will then be extended to include environmental I/O framework to track life cycle emissions associated

  17. Analyzing the Existing Undergraduate Engineering Leadership Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed M. Almalki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Studying and analyzing the undergraduate engineering students' leadership skills to discover their potential leadership strengths and weaknesses. This study will unveil potential ways to enhance the ways we teach engineering leadership. The research has great insights that might assist engineering programs to improve curricula for the purpose of better engineering preparation to meet industry's demands. Methodology and Findings: 441 undergraduate engineering students have been surveyed in two undergraduate engineering programs to discover their leadership skills. The results in both programs were revealing that undergraduate engineering students are lacking behind in the visionary leadership skills compared to directing, including and cultivating leadership styles. Recommendation: A practical framework has been proposed to enhance the lacking leadership skills by utilizing the Matrix of Change (MOC, and the Balanced Scorecard BSC to capture the best leadership scenarios to design virtual simulation environment as per the lacking leadership skills which is the visionary leadership skills in this case. After that, the virtual simulation will be used to provide an experiential learning by replacing human beings with avatars that can be managed or dramatized by real people to enable the creation of live, practical, measurable, and customizable leadership development programs.

  18. PSAIA – Protein Structure and Interaction Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlahoviček Kristian

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PSAIA (Protein Structure and Interaction Analyzer was developed to compute geometric parameters for large sets of protein structures in order to predict and investigate protein-protein interaction sites. Results In addition to most relevant established algorithms, PSAIA offers a new method PIADA (Protein Interaction Atom Distance Algorithm for the determination of residue interaction pairs. We found that PIADA produced more satisfactory results than comparable algorithms implemented in PSAIA. Particular advantages of PSAIA include its capacity to combine different methods to detect the locations and types of interactions between residues and its ability, without any further automation steps, to handle large numbers of protein structures and complexes. Generally, the integration of a variety of methods enables PSAIA to offer easier automation of analysis and greater reliability of results. PSAIA can be used either via a graphical user interface or from the command-line. Results are generated in either tabular or XML format. Conclusion In a straightforward fashion and for large sets of protein structures, PSAIA enables the calculation of protein geometric parameters and the determination of location and type for protein-protein interaction sites. XML formatted output enables easy conversion of results to various formats suitable for statistic analysis. Results from smaller data sets demonstrated the influence of geometry on protein interaction sites. Comprehensive analysis of properties of large data sets lead to new information useful in the prediction of protein-protein interaction sites.

  19. [Application of Imaging Mass Spectrometry for Drug Discovery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayasaka, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) can reveal the distribution of biomolecules on tissue sections. In this process, the biomolecules are directly ionized within tissue sections using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization, and then their distribution is visualized by pseudo-color based on the relative signal intensity. The biomolecules, such as fatty acids, phospholipids, glycolipids, peptides, proteins, and neurotransmitters, have been analyzed at a spatial resolution of 5 μm. A special instrument for IMS analysis was developed by Shimadzu. The IMS analysis does not require the labeling of biomolecules and is capable of analyzing all the ionized biomolecules. Interest in this method has expanded to many research fields, including biology, agriculture, medicine, and pharmacology. The technique is especially relevant to the drug discovery process. As practiced currently, drug discovery is expensive and time consuming, requiring the preparation of probes for each drug and its metabolites, followed by systematic probe tracking in animal models. The IMS technique is expected to overcome these drawbacks by revealing the distribution of drugs and their metabolites using only a single analysis. In this symposium, I introduced the methodology and applications of IMS and discussed the feasibility of its application to drug discovery in the near future.

  20. Toxins and drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Alan L

    2014-12-15

    Components from venoms have stimulated many drug discovery projects, with some notable successes. These are briefly reviewed, from captopril to ziconotide. However, there have been many more disappointments on the road from toxin discovery to approval of a new medicine. Drug discovery and development is an inherently risky business, and the main causes of failure during development programmes are outlined in order to highlight steps that might be taken to increase the chances of success with toxin-based drug discovery. These include having a clear focus on unmet therapeutic needs, concentrating on targets that are well-validated in terms of their relevance to the disease in question, making use of phenotypic screening rather than molecular-based assays, and working with development partners with the resources required for the long and expensive development process. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Applied metabolomics in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuperlovic-Culf, M; Culf, A S

    2016-08-01

    The metabolic profile is a direct signature of phenotype and biochemical activity following any perturbation. Metabolites are small molecules present in a biological system including natural products as well as drugs and their metabolism by-products depending on the biological system studied. Metabolomics can provide activity information about possible novel drugs and drug scaffolds, indicate interesting targets for drug development and suggest binding partners of compounds. Furthermore, metabolomics can be used for the discovery of novel natural products and in drug development. Metabolomics can enhance the discovery and testing of new drugs and provide insight into the on- and off-target effects of drugs. This review focuses primarily on the application of metabolomics in the discovery of active drugs from natural products and the analysis of chemical libraries and the computational analysis of metabolic networks. Metabolomics methodology, both experimental and analytical is fast developing. At the same time, databases of compounds are ever growing with the inclusion of more molecular and spectral information. An increasing number of systems are being represented by very detailed metabolic network models. Combining these experimental and computational tools with high throughput drug testing and drug discovery techniques can provide new promising compounds and leads.

  2. Quantitative decisions in drug development

    CERN Document Server

    Chuang-Stein, Christy

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a high-level treatise of evidence-based decisions in drug development. Because of the inseparable relationship between designs and decisions, a good portion of this book is devoted to the design of clinical trials. The book begins with an overview of product development and regulatory approval pathways. It then discusses how to incorporate prior knowledge into study design and decision making at different stages of drug development. The latter include selecting appropriate metrics to formulate decisions criteria, determining go/no-go decisions for progressing a drug candidate to the next stage and predicting the effectiveness of a product. Lastly, it points out common mistakes made by drug developers under the current drug-development paradigm. The book offers useful insights to statisticians, clinicians, regulatory affairs managers and decision-makers in the pharmaceutical industry who have a basic understanding of the drug-development process and the clinical trials conducted to support dru...

  3. ADAM: Analyzer for Dialectal Arabic Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Salloum

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While Modern Standard Arabic (MSA has many resources, Arabic Dialects, the primarily spoken local varieties of Arabic, are quite impoverished in this regard. In this article, we present ADAM (Analyzer for Dialectal Arabic Morphology. ADAM is a poor man’s solution to quickly develop morphological analyzers for dialectal Arabic. ADAM has roughly half the out-of-vocabulary rate of a state-of-the-art MSA analyzer and is comparable in its recall performance to an Egyptian dialectal morphological analyzer that took years and expensive resources to build.

  4. Drugs for rare disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremers, Serge; Aronson, Jeffrey K

    2017-08-01

    Estimates of the frequencies of rare disorders vary from country to country; the global average defined prevalence is 40 per 100 000 (0.04%). Some occur in only one or a few patients. However, collectively rare disorders are fairly common, affecting 6-8% of the US population, or about 30 million people, and a similar number in the European Union. Most of them affect children and most are genetically determined. Diagnosis can be difficult, partly because of variable presentations and partly because few clinicians have experience of individual rare disorders, although they may be assisted by searching databases. Relatively few rare disorders have specific pharmacological treatments (so-called orphan drugs), partly because of difficulties in designing trials large enough to determine benefits and harms alike. Incentives have been introduced to encourage the development of orphan drugs, including tax credits and research aids, simplification of marketing authorization procedures and exemption from fees, and extended market exclusivity. Consequently, the number of applications for orphan drugs has grown, as have the costs of using them, so much so that treatments may not be cost-effective. It has therefore been suggested that not-for-profit organizations that are socially motivated to reduce those costs should be tasked with producing them. A growing role for patient organizations, improved clinical and translational infrastructures, and developments in genetics have also contributed to successful drug development. The translational discipline of clinical pharmacology is an essential component in drug development, including orphan drugs. Clinical pharmacologists, skilled in basic pharmacology and its links to clinical medicine, can be involved at all stages. They can contribute to the delineation of genetic factors that determine clinical outcomes of pharmacological interventions, develop biomarkers, design and perform clinical trials, assist regulatory decision

  5. Transparency in Canadian public drug advisory committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg-Yunger, Zahava R S; Bayoumi, Ahmed M

    2014-11-01

    Transparency in health care resource allocation decisions is a criterion of a fair process. We used qualitative methods to explore transparency across 11 Canadian drug advisory committees. We developed seven criteria to assess transparency (disclosure of members' names, disclosure of membership selection criteria, disclosure of conflict of interest guidelines and members' conflicts, public posting of decisions not to fund drugs, public posting of rationales for decisions, stakeholder input, and presence of an appeals mechanism) and two sub-criteria for when rationales were posted (direct website link and readability). We interviewed a purposeful sample of key informants who were conversant in English and a current or past member of either a committee or a stakeholder group. We analyzed data using a thematic approach. Interviewing continued until saturation was reached. We examined documents from 10 committees and conducted 27 interviews. The median number of criteria addressed by committees was 2 (range 0-6). Major interview themes included addressing: (1) accessibility issues, including stakeholders' degree of access to the decision making process and appeal mechanisms; (2) communication issues, including improving internal and external communication and public access to information; and (3) confidentiality issues, including the use of proprietary evidence. Most committees have some mechanisms to address transparency but none had a fully transparent process. The most important ways to improve transparency include creating formal appeal mechanisms, improving communication, and establishing consistent rules about the use of, and public access to, proprietary evidence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Drug monitoring and individual dose optimization of antimicrobial drugs : oxazolidinones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cattaneo, Dario; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem; Neely, Michael

    INTRODUCTION: Oxazolidinones are synthetic antibiotics with bacteriostatic activity against Gram-positive pathogens. Linezolid, the first marketed oxazolidinone, has shown also activity against Mycobaterium tuberculosis, including multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant strains. Recently,

  7. Drug disposition and drug-drug interaction data in 2013 FDA new drug applications: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jingjing; Ritchie, Tasha K; Mulgaonkar, Aditi; Ragueneau-Majlessi, Isabelle

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present work was to perform a systematic review of drug metabolism, transport, pharmacokinetics, and DDI data available in the NDAs approved by the FDA in 2013, using the University of Washington Drug Interaction Database, and to highlight significant findings. Among 27 NMEs approved, 22 (81%) were well characterized with regard to drug metabolism, transport, or organ impairment, in accordance with the FDA drug interaction guidance (2012) and were fully analyzed in this review. In vitro, a majority of the NMEs were found to be substrates or inhibitors/inducers of at least one drug metabolizing enzyme or transporter. However, in vivo, only half (n = 11) showed clinically relevant drug interactions, with most related to the NMEs as victim drugs and CYP3A being the most affected enzyme. As perpetrators, the overall effects for NMEs were much less pronounced, compared with when they served as victims. In addition, the pharmacokinetic evaluation in patients with hepatic or renal impairment provided useful information for further understanding of the drugs' disposition. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  8. Engineering bioceramic microstructure for customized drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco Gomez, Hernando Jose

    One of the most efficient approaches to treat cancer and infection is to use biomaterials as a drug delivery system (DDS). The goal is for the material to provide a sustained release of therapeutic drug dose locally to target the ill tissue without affecting other organs. Silica Calcium Phosphate nano composite (SCPC) is a drug delivery platform that successfully demonstrated the ability to bind and release several therapeutics including antibiotics, anticancer drugs, and growth factors. The aim of the present work is to analyze the role of SCPC microstructure on drug binding and release kinetics. The main crystalline phases of SCPC are alpha-cristobalite (SiO2, Cris) and beta-rhenanite (NaCaPO4, Rhe); therefore, these two phases were prepared and characterized separately. Structural and compositional features of Cris, Rhe and SCPC bioceramics demonstrated a significant influence on the loading capacity and release kinetics profile of Vancomycin (Vanc) and Cisplatin (Cis). Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analyses demonstrated that the P-O functional group in Rhe and SCPC has high affinity to the (C=O and N-H) of Vanc and (N-H and O-H) of Cis. By contrast, a weak chemical interaction between the Si-O functional group in Cris and SCPC and the two drugs was observed. Vanc loading per unit surface area increased in the order 8.00 microg Vanc/m2 for Rhe > 4.49 microg Vanc /m2 for SCPC>3.01 microg Vanc /m2 for Cris (pproducts and the released drug did not cause measurable negative effects on the bioactivity of the tested drugs. The therapeutic effects of the SCPC-Cis hybrid were evaluated using a rat model of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Animals were treated by either systemic cisplatin injection (sCis), or with SCPC-Cis hybrid placed adjacent (ADJ) to, or within (IT), the tumor. Five days after implantation 50-55% of the total cisplatin loaded was released from the SCPC-Cis hybrids resulting in an approximately 50% decrease in tumor volume compared to

  9. Computational prediction of drug-drug interactions based on drugs functional similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdousi, Reza; Safdari, Reza; Omidi, Yadollah

    2017-06-01

    Therapeutic activities of drugs are often influenced by co-administration of drugs that may cause inevitable drug-drug interactions (DDIs) and inadvertent side effects. Prediction and identification of DDIs are extremely vital for the patient safety and success of treatment modalities. A number of computational methods have been employed for the prediction of DDIs based on drugs structures and/or functions. Here, we report on a computational method for DDIs prediction based on functional similarity of drugs. The model was set based on key biological elements including carriers, transporters, enzymes and targets (CTET). The model was applied for 2189 approved drugs. For each drug, all the associated CTETs were collected, and the corresponding binary vectors were constructed to determine the DDIs. Various similarity measures were conducted to detect DDIs. Of the examined similarity methods, the inner product-based similarity measures (IPSMs) were found to provide improved prediction values. Altogether, 2,394,766 potential drug pairs interactions were studied. The model was able to predict over 250,000 unknown potential DDIs. Upon our findings, we propose the current method as a robust, yet simple and fast, universal in silico approach for identification of DDIs. We envision that this proposed method can be used as a practical technique for the detection of possible DDIs based on the functional similarities of drugs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. School and work status, drug-free workplace protections, and prescription drug misuse among Americans ages 15-25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ted; Novak, Scott P; Galvin, Deborah M; Spicer, Rebecca S; Cluff, Laurie; Kasat, Sandeep

    2015-03-01

    We assessed the prevalence and characteristics of prescription drug misuse among youth ages 15-25 to examine differences by student and employment status, and associations with workplace antidrug policies and programs. Multivariate logistic regressions analyzed associations in weighted data on the 20,457 young adults in the combined 2004-2008 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Demographic controls included sex, race, community size, and age group. After we accounted for demographic controls, at ages 15-25, students were less likely than nonstudents to misuse prescription drugs. Segmenting student from nonstudent groups, working consistently was associated with a further reduction in misuse for those ages 18-25. When we controlled for demographics and substance use history, both Employee Assistance Program (EAP) services and awareness that one's employer had a drug-free workplace policy were associated with significantly lower misuse of prescription drugs (OR = 0.85 for each program, 95% CI [0.73, 1.00] and [0.72, 1.00]). Associations of workplace antidrug policies and programs with marijuana use and with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria for alcohol abuse and dependence contrasted sharply with these patterns. All four aspects were significantly associated with lower marijuana use. None was associated with problem drinking. Protective effects of drug-free workplace policy and EAPs persist after other substance use was controlled for. Comparing the effects of workplace programs on illicit drug use and problem drinking versus prescription misuse suggests that those protective associations do not result from selection bias. Thus, drug-free workplace policies and EAPs appear to help protect younger workers against prescription misuse. If workplace substance use disorder programs focused prevention messages and interventions on prescription drug misuse, their impact on misuse might increase.

  11. Drug product selection: legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, T P; Kirking, D M; Ascione, F J; Welage, L S; Gaither, C A

    2001-01-01

    To review the potential legal liability of the pharmacist in the drug product selection process. Published articles identified through MEDLINE, published law reviews identified through InfoTrac, and appellate court decisions. Search terms used included pharmacist liability, drug product selection, and generic substitution. Additional articles, books, and appellate court decisions were identified from the bibliographies of retrieved articles and citations in appellate court decisions. Pharmacists engaging in drug product selection are civilly liable under three legal theories: negligence, express or implied warranties, and strict product liability. Potential criminal liability includes prosecution for insurance fraud, deceptive business practices, and violation of state drug product selection laws and regulation. Pharmacists increase their liability when engaging in drug product selection, but the increase is small. Still, the law continues to evolve as pharmacists seek expanded roles and responsibilities. When courts give closer examination to pharmacists' expanded role, it is likely that pharmacists' liability will increase.

  12. Potential drug-drug and drug-disease interactions in well-functioning community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, J T; Perera, S; Newman, A B; Thorpe, J M; Donohue, J M; Simonsick, E M; Shorr, R I; Bauer, D C; Marcum, Z A

    2017-04-01

    There are few studies examining both drug-drug and drug-disease interactions in older adults. Therefore, the objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of potential drug-drug and drug-disease interactions and associated factors in community-dwelling older adults. This cross-sectional study included 3055 adults aged 70-79 without mobility limitations at their baseline visit in the Health Aging and Body Composition Study conducted in the communities of Pittsburgh PA and Memphis TN, USA. The outcome factors were potential drug-drug and drug-disease interactions as per the application of explicit criteria drawn from a number of sources to self-reported prescription and non-prescription medication use. Over one-third of participants had at least one type of interaction. Approximately one quarter (25·1%) had evidence of had one or more drug-drug interactions. Nearly 10·7% of the participants had a drug-drug interaction that involved a non-prescription medication. % The most common drug-drug interaction was non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) affecting antihypertensives. Additionally, 16·0% had a potential drug-disease interaction with 3·7% participants having one involving non-prescription medications. The most common drug-disease interaction was aspirin/NSAID use in those with history of peptic ulcer disease without gastroprotection. Over one-third (34·0%) had at least one type of drug interaction. Each prescription medication increased the odds of having at least one type of drug interaction by 35-40% [drug-drug interaction adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1·35, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1·27-1·42; drug-disease interaction AOR = 1·30; CI = 1·21-1·40; and both AOR = 1·45; CI = 1·34-1·57]. A prior hospitalization increased the odds of having at least one type of drug interaction by 49-84% compared with those not hospitalized (drug-drug interaction AOR = 1·49, 95% CI = 1·11-2·01; drug-disease interaction AOR = 1·69, CI = 1·15-2

  13. Analysis of Drugs Interaction among Pediatric Inpatients at Hospital in Palu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmed G. Sjahadat

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We performed drug interaction analyses in the pediatric inpatient unit at one of hospitals in Palu. In this study, those analysesstudy are important to prevent childhood morbidity, mortality and to improve patient’s safety. By using a cross-sectional descriptive study, we collected retrospective data from January until December 2012. We included patients at age of 0- 18 years old who were hospitalized during 2012 and received two or more drugs from a prescription sheet. In particular, we excluded pediatric inpatients in emergency and intensive care units who received topical medications (e.g., ointment, creams, eye drops, ear drops, and nasal drops. Each drug was analyzed by using Drug.Com software. In total, we minor interactions (44.78%. We found several drug interactions in the combination of rifampicin-isoniazid, dexamethasone-ibuprofen, acetaminophen-isoniazid, gentamicin-cefotaxime-ceftriaxone and diazepam- dexamethasone.

  14. Should Broca's area include Brodmann area 47?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo; Bernal, Byron; Rosselli, Monica

    2017-02-01

    Understanding brain organization of speech production has been a principal goal of neuroscience. Historically, brain speech production has been associated with so-called Broca’s area (Brodmann area –BA- 44 and 45), however, modern neuroimaging developments suggest speech production is associated with networks rather than with areas. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the connectivity of BA47 ( pars orbitalis) in relation to language . A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the language network in which BA47 is involved. The Brainmap database was used. Twenty papers corresponding to 29 experimental conditions with a total of 373 subjects were included. Our results suggest that BA47 participates in a “frontal language production system” (or extended Broca’s system). The BA47  connectivity found is also concordant with a minor role in language semantics. BA47 plays a central role in the language production system.

  15. Drug: D03803 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D03803 Drug Lidorestat (USAN) ... C18H11F3N2O2S. H2O D03803.gif ... Antidiabetic agent... ... DG01882 ... Aldose reductase inhibitor ... Treatment of diabetic complications, including neuropathy, retinopa

  16. Drugs for the paediatric heart

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Head, Paediatric Cardiology Service of the Western Cape, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, ... His interests also include the care of complex patients ... The pharmacy only has enalapril available – can you substitute this drug for the ...

  17. Types, frequencies, and burden of nonspecific adverse events of drugs: analysis of randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahr, Alfred; Golmard, Clara; Pham, Emilie; Iordache, Laura; Deville, Laure; Faure, Pierre

    2017-07-01

    Scarce studies analyzing adverse event (AE) data from randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials (RPCCTs) of selected illnesses suggested that a substantial proportion of collected AEs are unrelated to the drug taken. This study analyzed the nonspecific AEs occurring with active-drug exposure in RPCCTs for a large range of medical conditions. Randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials published in five prominent medical journals during 2006-2012 were searched. Only trials that evaluated orally or parenterally administered active drugs versus placebo in a head-to-head setting were selected. For AEs reported from ≥10 RPCCTs, Pearson's correlation coefficients (r) were calculated to determine the relationship between AE rates in placebo and active-drug recipients. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to compute proportions of nonspecific AEs, which were truncated at a maximum of 100%, in active-drug recipients. We included 231 trials addressing various medical domains or healthy participants. For the 88 analyzed AE variables, AE rates for placebo and active-drug recipients were in general strongly correlated (r > 0.50) or very strongly correlated (r > 0.80). The pooled proportions of nonspecific AEs for the active-drug recipients were 96.8% (95%CI: 95.5-98.1) for any AEs, 100% (97.9-100) for serious AEs, and 77.7% (72.7-83.2) for drug-related AEs. Results were similar for individual medical domains and healthy participants. The pooled proportion of nonspecificity of 82 system organ class and individual AE types ranged from 38% to 100%. The large proportion of nonspecific AEs reported in active-drug recipients of RPCCTs, including serious and drug-related AEs, highlights the limitations of clinical trial data to determine the tolerability of drugs. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Drug shortages in Israel: regulatory perspectives, challenges and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzberg, Eyal; Ainbinder, Denize; Vishkauzan, Alla; Gamzu, Ronni

    2017-01-01

    Pharmaceutical drug shortages (DSs) are a global problem which presents challenges to countries around the world. Shortages of pharmaceutical products may have a direct detrimental impact on public health and patients' wellbeing by causing delayed, or even lack of, treatment. Moreover, DSs may force both patients and caregivers to use unfamiliar drugs, which could lead to medication errors. The objective of our study was to analyze DSs in Israel during the years 2013-2015, assessing their etiology and exploring the steps taken for their mitigation and prevention. The database of the Israeli Ministry of Health (MoH) on drug shortages contains all the DSs recorded in Israel since 2013, detailing the cause of the DS, its duration, steps taken in its' management and the availability of generic or therapeutic alternatives. Selected examples of DSs from the database are described in this paper in order to identify the causes of DSs, the scope of the problem and possible solutions. Additionally, we have reviewed the recent activities performed by European Medicine Agency (EMA) and the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in their efforts to minimize this problem. Several factors contributing towards DSs in Israel were identified, including quality problems in both the final drug product and in the raw materials, upgrades and improvements of the manufacturing process required by the MoH, manufacturing by a sole supplier, dramatic price decrease in off-patent medications causing the manufacturer to discontinue the distribution of the product in Israel, just-in-time inventory control, and others. One of the most important steps in managing drug shortages was identified to be early notification of the shortage by the Marketing Authorization Holder (MAH) to the MoH. In 2013, the Israeli MoH updated the regulation on drug shortages instructing MAHs on their obligation of early notification to the MoH. Furthermore, various steps dealing with marketing withdrawal of drugs

  19. Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer Web Service System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Pan, L.; Zhai, C.; Tang, B.; Kubar, T. L.; Li, J.; Zhang, J.; Wang, W.

    2015-12-01

    Both the National Research Council Decadal Survey and the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Assessment Report stressed the need for the comprehensive and innovative evaluation of climate models with the synergistic use of global satellite observations in order to improve our weather and climate simulation and prediction capabilities. The abundance of satellite observations for fundamental climate parameters and the availability of coordinated model outputs from CMIP5 for the same parameters offer a great opportunity to understand and diagnose model biases in climate models. In addition, the Obs4MIPs efforts have created several key global observational datasets that are readily usable for model evaluations. However, a model diagnostic evaluation process requires physics-based multi-variable comparisons that typically involve large-volume and heterogeneous datasets, making them both computationally- and data-intensive. In response, we have developed a novel methodology to diagnose model biases in contemporary climate models and implementing the methodology as a web-service based, cloud-enabled, provenance-supported climate-model evaluation system. The evaluation system is named Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA), which is the product of the research and technology development investments of several current and past NASA ROSES programs. The current technologies and infrastructure of CMDA are designed and selected to address several technical challenges that the Earth science modeling and model analysis community faces in evaluating and diagnosing climate models. In particular, we have three key technology components: (1) diagnostic analysis methodology; (2) web-service based, cloud-enabled technology; (3) provenance-supported technology. The diagnostic analysis methodology includes random forest feature importance ranking, conditional probability distribution function, conditional sampling, and time-lagged correlation map. We have implemented the

  20. Adverse Drug Reactions Related to Drug Administration in Hospitalized Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallelli, Luca; Siniscalchi, Antonio; Palleria, Caterina; Mumoli, Laura; Staltari, Orietta; Squillace, Aida; Maida, Francesca; Russo, Emilio; Gratteri, Santo; De Sarro, Giovambattista

    2017-01-01

    Drug treatment may be related to the development of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). In this paper, we evaluated the ADRs in patients admitted to Catanzaro Hospital. After we obtained the approval by local Ethical Committee, we performed a retrospective study on clinical records from March 01, 2013 to April 30, 2015. The association between drug and ADR or between drug and drug-drug-interactions (DDIs) was evaluated using the Naranjo's probability scale and Drug Interaction Probability Scale (DIPS), respectively. During the study period, we analyzed 2870 clinical records containing a total of 11,138 prescriptions, and we documented the development of 770 ADRs. The time of hospitalization was significantly higher (P<0.05) in women with ADRs (12.6 ± 1.2 days) with respect to men (11.8± 0.83 days). Using the Naranjo score, we documented a probable association in 78% of these reactions, while DIPS revealed that about 22% of ADRs were related to DDIs. Patients with ADRs received 3052 prescriptions on 11,138 (27.4%) having a mean of 6.1±0.29 drugs that was significantly higher (P<0.01) with respect to patients not experiencing ADRs (mean of 3.4±0.13 drugs). About 19% of ADRs were not diagnosed and were treated as new diseases. Our results indicate that drug administration induces the development of ADRs also during the hospitalization, particularly in elderly women. Moreover, we also documented that ADRs in some patients are under-diagnosed, therefore, it is important to motivate healthcare to report the ADRs in order to optimize the patients' safety. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Technology for collecting and analyzing relational data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Fedorova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study. The scientific and educational organizations use traditionally e-mail with Microsoft Excel spreadsheets and Microsoft Word documents for operational data collection. The disadvantages of this approach include the lack of control of the correctness of the data input, the complexity of processing the information received due to non-relational data model, etc. There are online services that enable to organize the collection of data in a relational form. The disadvantages of these systems are: the absence of thesaurus support; a limited set of elements of data input control; the limited control the operation of the input form; most of the systems is shareware, etc. Thus, it is required the development of Internet data collection and analysis technology, which should allow to identify quickly model the data collected and automatically implement data collection in accordance with this model.Materials and methods. The article describes the technology developed and tested for operational data collection and analysis using "Faramant" system. System operation "Faramant" is based on a model document, which includes three components: description of the data structure; visualization; logic of form work. All stages of the technology are performed by the user using the browser. The main stage of the proposed technology is the definition of the data model as a set of relational tables. To create a table within the system it’s required to determine the name and a list of fields. For each field, you must specify its name and use the control to the data input and logic of his work. Controls are used to organize the correct input data depending on the data type. Based on a model system "Faramant" automatically creates a filling form, using which users can enter information. To change the form visualization, you can use the form template. The data can be viewed page by page in a table. For table rows, you can apply different filters. To

  2. Drugs Approved for Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for ovarian cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  3. Image-guided drug delivery: preclinical applications and clinical translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ojha, Tarun; Rizzo, Larissa; Storm, Gerrit; Kiessling, Fabian; Lammers, Twan Gerardus Gertudis Maria

    2015-01-01

    Image-guided drug delivery refers to the combination of drug targeting and imaging. Preclinically, image-guided drug delivery can be used for several different purposes, including for monitoring biodistribution, target site accumulation, off-target localization, drug release and drug efficacy.

  4. Reality Television Programs Are Associated With Illegal Drug Use and Prescription Drug Misuse Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Joshua; Shlivko, Alexander

    2016-01-02

    Reality television watching and social media use are popular activities. Reality television can include mention of illegal drug use and prescription drug misuse. To determine if reality television and social media use of Twitter are associated with either illegal drug use or prescription drug misuse. Survey of 576 college students in 2011. Independent variables included watching reality television (social cognitive theory), parasocial interaction (parasocial interaction theory), television hours watched (cultivation theory), following a reality television character on Twitter, and demographics. Outcome variables were illegal drug use and prescription drug misuse. Watching reality television and also identifying with reality TV program characters were each associated with greater odds for illegal drug use. Also, following a reality TV character on Twitter had greater odds for illegal drug use and also in one analytical model for prescription drug misuse. No support was seen for cultivation theory. Those born in the United States had greater odds for illegal drug use and prescription drug misuse. Women and Asians had lower odds for illegal drug use. African Americans and Asians had lower odds for prescription drug misuse. Physicians, psychologists, and other healthcare practitioners may find it useful to include questions in their clinical interview about reality television watching and Twitter use. Physician and psychology groups, public health practitioners, and government health agencies should consider discussing with television broadcasting companies the potential negative impact of including content with illegal drugs and prescription drug misuse on reality television programs.

  5. National Drug Code Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Listing Act of 1972 requires registered drug establishments to provide the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with a current list of all drugs manufactured,...

  6. Other Drugs of Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People Abuse » Other Drugs of Abuse Other Drugs of Abuse Listen There are many other drugs of abuse, ... and Rehab Resources About the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) | About This Website Tools and Resources | Contact ...

  7. Urine drug screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug screen - urine ... detect the presence of illegal and some prescription drugs in your urine. Their presence may indicate that you recently used these drugs. Some drugs may remain in your system for ...

  8. Time-delay analyzer with continuous discretization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayatyan, G.L.; Darbinyan, K.T.; Mkrtchyan, K.K.; Stepanyan, S.S.

    1988-01-01

    A time-delay analyzer is described which when triggered by a start pulse of adjustable duration performs continuous discretization of the analyzed signal within nearly 22 ns time intervals, the recording in a memory unit with following slow read-out of the information to the computer and its processing. The time-delay analyzer consists of four CAMAC-VECTOR systems of unit width. With its help one can separate comparatively short, small-amplitude rare signals against the background of quasistationary noise processes. 4 refs.; 3 figs

  9. Systems Analyze Water Quality in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    A water analyzer developed under Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Kennedy Space Center now monitors treatment processes at water and wastewater facilities around the world. Originally designed to provide real-time detection of nutrient levels in hydroponic solutions for growing plants in space, the ChemScan analyzer, produced by ASA Analytics Inc., of Waukesha, Wisconsin, utilizes spectrometry and chemometric algorithms to automatically analyze multiple parameters in the water treatment process with little need for maintenance, calibration, or operator intervention. The company has experienced a compound annual growth rate of 40 percent over its 15-year history as a direct result of the technology's success.

  10. A bioinformatics approach for precision medicine off-label drug drug selection among triple negative breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lijun; Schneider, Bryan P; Li, Lang

    2016-07-01

    Cancer has been extensively characterized on the basis of genomics. The integration of genetic information about cancers with data on how the cancers respond to target based therapy to help to optimum cancer treatment. The increasing usage of sequencing technology in cancer research and clinical practice has enormously advanced our understanding of cancer mechanisms. The cancer precision medicine is becoming a reality. Although off-label drug usage is a common practice in treating cancer, it suffers from the lack of knowledge base for proper cancer drug selections. This eminent need has become even more apparent considering the upcoming genomics data. In this paper, a personalized medicine knowledge base is constructed by integrating various cancer drugs, drug-target database, and knowledge sources for the proper cancer drugs and their target selections. Based on the knowledge base, a bioinformatics approach for cancer drugs selection in precision medicine is developed. It integrates personal molecular profile data, including copy number variation, mutation, and gene expression. By analyzing the 85 triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) patient data in the Cancer Genome Altar, we have shown that 71.7% of the TNBC patients have FDA approved drug targets, and 51.7% of the patients have more than one drug target. Sixty-five drug targets are identified as TNBC treatment targets and 85 candidate drugs are recommended. Many existing TNBC candidate targets, such as Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase 1 (PARP1), Cell division protein kinase 6 (CDK6), epidermal growth factor receptor, etc., were identified. On the other hand, we found some additional targets that are not yet fully investigated in the TNBC, such as Gamma-Glutamyl Hydrolase (GGH), Thymidylate Synthetase (TYMS), Protein Tyrosine Kinase 6 (PTK6), Topoisomerase (DNA) I, Mitochondrial (TOP1MT), Smoothened, Frizzled Class Receptor (SMO), etc. Our additional analysis of target and drug selection strategy is also fully

  11. Drug Policy in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnz-Różyk, Karina; Kawalec, Pawel; Malinowski, Krzysztof; Czok, Katarzyna

    2017-09-01

    We presented a general overview of the health care system as well as the pricing and reimbursement environment in Poland. Poland aims to ensure proper access to safe and effective medicines while reducing patients' share in treatment costs. Nevertheless, the co-payment for pharmacotherapy is still high (more than 60%). The key policymaker and regulator in the system is the Ministry of Health, which is supported by the Polish Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Tariff System (Agencja Oceny Technologii Medycznych i Taryfikacji), responsible for evaluating applicant drugs, and the Economic Commission, responsible for negotiating the official sales prices and conditions for reimbursement with pharmaceutical companies (e.g., level of reimbursement and risk-sharing scheme agreements). The Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Tariff System dossier is obligatory for reimbursement application and includes the analysis of clinical effectiveness, economic analysis (with the threshold of quality-adjusted life-year established as no more than 3 times the gross domestic product per capita), and the analysis of budget impact. In Poland, only a positive list of reimbursed drugs is published and it is updated every 2 months. The following levels of reimbursement are in use: 100%, 70%, 50%, and lump sum (about €0.8). The first reimbursement decision is given for a period of 2 years only, the second for 3 years, and the third for 5 years. There is no separate budget or special legal regulations for orphan drugs. Generic substitution of drugs is desired but not mandatory. Physicians are not assigned with pharmaceutical budgets. The access to real-world data is limited; the only registers available are for drugs used in drug programs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Drug Use, the Drug Environment, and Child Physical Abuse and Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freisthler, Bridget; Wolf, Jennifer Price; Wiegmann, Wendy; Kepple, Nancy J

    2017-08-01

    Although drug use is considered a risk factor for child maltreatment, very little work has examined how the drug environment may affect physical abuse and neglect by parents. Utilizing information from a telephone survey with 2,597 respondents from 43 cities with valid police data on narcotics incidents, we analyzed the relationship between drug use, drug availability, and child maltreatment using multilevel models. City-level rates of drug abuse and dependence were related to more frequent physical abuse. Parents who use drugs in areas with greater availability of drugs reported more physical abuse and physical neglect. Emotional support was protective of all types of maltreatment. While most child welfare interventions focus on reducing parental drug use in order to reduce child abuse, these findings suggest environmental prevention or neighborhood strengthening approaches designed to reduce the supply of illicit drugs may also reduce child abuse through multiple mechanisms.

  13. Understanding drugs and behaviour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parrott, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix xi Part I Drugs and Their Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Psychoactive drugs: introduction and overview . . . . . . . . 2 The brain...

  14. Digital Drug Dosing: Dosing in Drug Assays by Light-Defined Volumes of Hydrogels with Embedded Drug-Loaded Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faralli, Adele; Melander, Fredrik; Larsen, Esben Kjær Unmack

    2014-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based hydrogels are widely used for biomedical applications, including matrices for controlled drug release. We present a method for defining drug dosing in screening assays by light-activated cross-linking of PEG-diacrylate hydrogels with embedded drug-loaded liposome...

  15. Analysis of stimulant drugs in the wastewater of five Nordic capitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löve, Arndís Sue Ching; Baz-Lomba, Jose Antonio; Reid, Malcolm J; Kankaanpää, Aino; Gunnar, Teemu; Dam, Maria; Ólafsdóttir, Kristín; Thomas, Kevin V

    2018-06-15

    Wastewater-based epidemiology is an efficient way to assess illicit drug use, complementing currently used methods retrieved from different data sources. The aim of this study is to compare stimulant drug use in five Nordic capital cities that include for the first time wastewater samples from Torshavn in the Faroe Islands. Currently there are no published reports that compare stimulant drug use in these Nordic capitals. All wastewater samples were analyzed using solid phase extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The results were compared with data published by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction based on illicit drugs in wastewater from over 50 European cities. Confirming previous reports, the results showed high amphetamine loads compared with other European countries. Very little apparent abuse of stimulant drugs was detected in Torshavn. Methamphetamine loads were the highest from Helsinki of the Nordic countries, indicating substantial fluctuations in the availability of the drug compared with previous studies. Methamphetamine loads from Oslo confirmed that the use continues to be high. Estimated cocaine use was found to be in the lower range compared with other cities in the southern and western part of Europe. Ecstasy and cocaine showed clear variations between weekdays and weekends, indicating recreational use. This study further demonstrates geographical trends in the stimulant drug market in five Nordic capitals, which enables a better comparison with other areas of the continent. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Drug-resistant spinal tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K Jain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug-resistant spinal tuberculosis (TB is an emerging health problem in both developing and developed countries. In this review article, we aim to define management protocols for suspicion, diagnosis, and treatment of such patients. Spinal TB is a deep-seated paucibacillary lesion, and the demonstration of acid-fast bacilli on Ziehl-Neelsen staining is possible only in 10%–30% of cases. Drug resistance is suspected in patients showing the failure of clinicoradiological improvement or appearance of a fresh lesion of osteoarticular TB while on anti tubercular therapy (ATT for a minimum period of 5 months. The conventional culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains the gold standard for both bacteriological diagnosis and drug sensitivity testing (DST; however, the high turn around time of 2–6 weeks for detection with added 3 weeks for DST is a major limitation. To overcome this problem, rapid culture methods and molecular methods have been introduced. From a public health perspective, reducing the period between diagnosis and treatment initiation has direct benefits for both the patient and the community. For all patients of drug-resistant spinal TB, a complete Drug-O-Gram should be prepared which includes details of all drugs, their doses, and duration. Patients with confirmed multidrug-resistant TB strains should receive a regimen with at least five effective drugs, including pyrazinamide and one injectable. Patients with resistance to additional antitubercular drugs should receive individualized ATT as per their DST results.

  17. Drug therapy in spinal tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, S; Khandelwal, Gaurav

    2013-06-01

    Although the discovery of effective anti-tuberculosis drugs has made uncomplicated spinal tuberculosis a medical disease, the advent of multi-drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the co-infection of HIV with tuberculosis have led to a resurgence of the disease recently. The principles of drug treatment of spinal tuberculosis are derived from our experience in treating pulmonary tuberculosis. Spinal tuberculosis is classified to be a severe form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis and hence is included in Category I of the WHO classification. The tuberculosis bacilli isolated from patients are of four different types with different growth kinetics and metabolic characteristics. Hence multiple drugs, which act on the different groups of the mycobacteria, are included in each anti-tuberculosis drug regimen. Prolonged and uninterrupted chemotherapy (which may be 'short course' and 'intermittent' but preferably 'directly observed') is effective in controlling the infection. Spinal Multi-drug-resistant TB and spinal TB in HIV-positive patients present unique problems in management and have much poorer prognosis. Failure of chemotherapy and emergence of drug resistance are frequent due to the failure of compliance hence all efforts must be made to improve patient compliance to the prescribed drug regimen.

  18. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drug abuse. And it's illegal, just like taking street drugs. Why Do People Abuse Prescription Drugs? Some people abuse prescription drugs ... common risk of prescription drug abuse is addiction . People who abuse ... as if they were taking street drugs. That's one reason most doctors won't ...

  19. On-Demand Urine Analyzer, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of this program (through Phase III) is to develop an analyzer that can be integrated into International Space Station (ISS) toilets to measure key...

  20. New high voltage parallel plate analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Y.; Kawasumi, Y.; Masai, K.; Iguchi, H.; Fujisawa, A.; Abe, Y.

    1992-01-01

    A new modification on the parallel plate analyzer for 500 keV heavy ions to eliminate the effect of the intense UV and visible radiations, is successfully conducted. Its principle and results are discussed. (author)

  1. Analyzing the economic impacts of transportation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The main goal of the study is to explore methods, approaches and : analytical software tools for analyzing economic activity that results from largescale : transportation investments in Connecticut. The primary conclusion is that the : transportation...

  2. Drug abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, T.R.; Seastrunk, J.W.; Malone, G.; Knesevich, M.A.; Hickey, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that this study used SPECT to examine patients who have abused drugs to determine whether SPECT could identify abnormalities and whether these findings have clinical importance. Fifteen patients with a history of substance abuse (eight with cocaine, six with amphetamine, and one with organic solvent) underwent SPECT performed with a triple-headed camera and Tc-99m HMPAO both early for blood flow and later for functional information. These images were then processed into a 3D videotaped display used in group therapy. All 15 patients had multiple areas of decreased tracer uptake peppered throughout the cortex but mainly affecting the parietal lobes, expect for the organic solvent abuser who had a large parietal defect. The videotapes were subjectively described by a therapist as an exceptional tool that countered patient denial of physical damage from substance abuse. Statistical studies of recidivism between groups is under way

  3. Addressing Stillbirth in India Must Include Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lisa; Montgomery, Susanne; Ganesh, Gayatri; Kaur, Harinder Pal; Singh, Ratan

    2017-07-01

    Millennium Development Goal 4, to reduce child mortality, can only be achieved by reducing stillbirths globally. A confluence of medical and sociocultural factors contribute to the high stillbirth rates in India. The psychosocial aftermath of stillbirth is a well-documented public health problem, though less is known of the experience for men, particularly outside of the Western context. Therefore, men's perceptions and knowledge regarding reproductive health, as well as maternal-child health are important. Key informant interviews (n = 5) were analyzed and 28 structured interviews were conducted using a survey based on qualitative themes. Qualitative themes included men's dual burden and right to medical and reproductive decision making power. Wives were discouraged from expressing grief and pushed to conceive again. If not successful, particularly if a son was not conceived, a second wife was considered a solution. Quantitative data revealed that men with a history of stillbirths had greater anxiety and depression, perceived less social support, but had more egalitarian views towards women than men without stillbirth experience. At the same time fathers of stillbirths were more likely to be emotionally or physically abusive. Predictors of mental health, attitudes towards women, and perceived support are discussed. Patriarchal societal values, son preference, deficient women's autonomy, and sex-selective abortion perpetuate the risk for future poor infant outcomes, including stillbirth, and compounds the already higher risk of stillbirth for males. Grief interventions should explore and take into account men's perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors towards reproductive decision making.

  4. Self-Reported Drug and Alcohol Use and Attitudes toward Drug Testing in High Schools with Random Student Drug Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPont, Robert L.; Campbell, Michael D.; Campbell, Teresa G.; Shea, Corinne L.; DuPont, Helen S.

    2013-01-01

    Many schools implement random student drug testing (RSDT) programs as a drug prevention strategy. This study analyzes self-report surveys of students in eight secondary schools with well-established RSDT programs, comparing students who understood they were subject to testing and students who understood they were not subject to testing. Students…

  5. Digital dynamic amplitude-frequency spectra analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinnikov, V.A.; )

    2006-01-01

    The spectra analyzer is intended for the dynamic spectral analysis of signals physical installations and noise filtering. The recurrence Fourier transformation algorithm is used in the digital dynamic analyzer. It is realized on the basis of the fast logic FPGA matrix and the special signal ADSP microprocessor. The discretization frequency is 2 kHz-10 MHz. The number of calculated spectral coefficients is not less 512. The functional fast-action is 20 ns [ru

  6. FST Based Morphological Analyzer for Hindi Language

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak Kumar; Manjeet Singh; Seema Shukla

    2012-01-01

    Hindi being a highly inflectional language, FST (Finite State Transducer) based approach is most efficient for developing a morphological analyzer for this language. The work presented in this paper uses the SFST (Stuttgart Finite State Transducer) tool for generating the FST. A lexicon of root words is created. Rules are then added for generating inflectional and derivational words from these root words. The Morph Analyzer developed was used in a Part Of Speech (POS) Tagger based on Stanford...

  7. Control of a pulse height analyzer using an RDX workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montelongo, S.; Hunt, D.N.

    1984-12-01

    The Nuclear Chemistry Division of Lawrence Livermore National laboratory is in the midst of upgrading its radiation counting facilities to automate data acquisition and quality control. This upgrade requires control of a pulse height analyzer (PHA) from an interactive LSI-11/23 workstation running RSX-11M. The PHA is a micro-computer based multichannel analyzer system providing data acquisition, storage, display, manipulation and input/output from up to four independent acquisition interfaces. Control of the analyzer includes reading and writing energy spectra, issuing commands, and servicing device interrupts. The analyzer communicates to the host system over a 9600-baud serial line using the Digital Data Communications link level Protocol (DDCMP). We relieved the RSX workstation CPU from the DDCMP overhead by implementing a DEC compatible in-house designed DMA serial line board (the ISL-11) to communicate with the analyzer. An RSX I/O device driver was written to complete the path between the analyzer and the RSX system by providing the link between the communication board and an application task. The I/O driver is written to handle several ISL-11 cards all operating in parallel thus providing support for control of multiple analyzers from a single workstation. The RSX device driver, its design and use by application code controlling the analyzer, and its operating environment will be discussed

  8. Identifying novel drug indications through automated reasoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Tari

    Full Text Available With the large amount of pharmacological and biological knowledge available in literature, finding novel drug indications for existing drugs using in silico approaches has become increasingly feasible. Typical literature-based approaches generate new hypotheses in the form of protein-protein interactions networks by means of linking concepts based on their cooccurrences within abstracts. However, this kind of approaches tends to generate too many hypotheses, and identifying new drug indications from large networks can be a time-consuming process.In this work, we developed a method that acquires the necessary facts from literature and knowledge bases, and identifies new drug indications through automated reasoning. This is achieved by encoding the molecular effects caused by drug-target interactions and links to various diseases and drug mechanism as domain knowledge in AnsProlog, a declarative language that is useful for automated reasoning, including reasoning with incomplete information. Unlike other literature-based approaches, our approach is more fine-grained, especially in identifying indirect relationships for drug indications.To evaluate the capability of our approach in inferring novel drug indications, we applied our method to 943 drugs from DrugBank and asked if any of these drugs have potential anti-cancer activities based on information on their targets and molecular interaction types alone. A total of 507 drugs were found to have the potential to be used for cancer treatments. Among the potential anti-cancer drugs, 67 out of 81 drugs (a recall of 82.7% are indeed known cancer drugs. In addition, 144 out of 289 drugs (a recall of 49.8% are non-cancer drugs that are currently tested in clinical trials for cancer treatments. These results suggest that our method is able to infer drug indications (original or alternative based on their molecular targets and interactions alone and has the potential to discover novel drug indications for

  9. [New antithrombotic drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustonen, Pirjo; Puurunen, Marja

    2012-01-01

    Platelet inhibitors and anticoagulants are called antithrombotic drugs. New platelet inhibitors prasugrel and ticagrelor are more effective than the traditional clopidogrel, but their use is also accompanied by more frequent bleeding complications. Varfarin has gained true competitors; new oral anticoagulants include dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban. New anticoagulants are easier to use but clearly more expensive. The use of new anticoagulants is also accompanied by several potential problems that the clinician should be aware of.

  10. Smallpox Antiviral Drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Candida albicans] A G1L (590 aa) Flag VV(WR) 30/ENDIDEILGIAHLLEHLLISF/50 107/HIKELENEYYFRNEVFH/123 H41A 30/ENDIDEILGIAALLEHLLISF/50 107...RSV) (Table 1). Additional antiviral drug examples include the use of interferon for human papilloma virus ( HPV ) [Cantell, 1995]. Antivirals are most...low oral bioavailability, and quick elimination from plasma [Ghosn et al., 2004; Hostetler et al., 1994; Kempf et al., 1991; Matsumoto et al., 2001

  11. Pharmacodynamics and common drug-drug interactions of the third-generation antiepileptic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanović, Srđan; Janković, Slobodan M; Novaković, Milan; Milosavljević, Marko; Folić, Marko

    2018-02-01

    Anticonvulsants that belong to the third generation are considered as 'newer' antiepileptic drugs, including: eslicarbazepine acetate, lacosamide, perampanel, brivaracetam, rufinamide and stiripentol. Areas covered: This article reviews pharmacodynamics (i.e. mechanisms of action) and clinically relevant drug-drug interactions of the third-generation antiepileptic drugs. Expert opinion: Newer antiepileptic drugs have mechanisms of action which are not shared with the first and the second generation anticonvulsants, like inhibition of neurotransmitters release, blocking receptors for excitatory amino acids and new ways of sodium channel inactivation. New mechanisms of action increase chances of controlling forms of epilepsy resistant to older anticonvulsants. Important advantage of the third-generation anticonvulsants could be their little propensity for interactions with both antiepileptic and other drugs observed until now, making prescribing much easier and safer. However, this may change with new studies specifically designed to discover drug-drug interactions. Although the third-generation antiepileptic drugs enlarged therapeutic palette against epilepsy, 20-30% of patients with epilepsy is still treatment-resistant and need new pharmacological approach. There is great need to explore all molecular targets that may directly or indirectly be involved in generation of seizures, so a number of candidate compounds for even newer anticonvulsants could be generated.

  12. analyzers in overweight/obese renal patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Kusztal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA is an affordable, non-invasive and fast alternative method to assess body composition. The purpose of this study was to compare two different tetrapolar BIA devices for estimating body fluid volumes and body cell mass (BCM in a clinical setting among patients with kidney failure.All double measurements were performed by multi-frequency (MF and single-frequency (SF BIA analyzers: a Body Composition Monitor (Fresenius Medical Care, Germany and BIA-101 (Akern, Italy, respectively. All procedures were conducted according to the manufacturers’ instructions (dedicated electrodes, measurement sites, positions, etc. Total body water (TBW, extracellular water (ECW, intracellular water (ICW and BCM were compared. The study included 39 chronic kidney disease patients (stage III-V with a mean age of 45.8 ± 8 years (21 men and 18 women who had a wide range of BMI [17-34 kg/m2 (mean 26.6 ±5].A comparison of results from patients with BMI <25 vs ≥25 revealed a significant discrepancy in measurements between the two BIA devices. Namely, in the group with BMI <25 (n=16 acceptable correlations were obtained in TBW (r 0.99; p<0.01, ICW (0.92; p<0.01, BCM (0.68; p<0.01, and ECW (0.96 p<0.05, but those with BMI ≥25 (n=23 showed a discrepancy (lower correlations in TBW (r 0.82; p<0.05, ICW (0.78; p<0.05, BCM (0.52; p<0.05, and ECW (0.76; p<0.01.Since estimates of TBW, ICW and BCM by the present BIA devices do not differ in patients with BMI <25, they might be interchangeable. This does not hold true for overweight/obese renal patients.

  13. The Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory Data Quality Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringler, A. T.; Hagerty, M.; Holland, J.; Gee, L. S.; Wilson, D.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory (ASL) has several efforts underway to improve data quality at its stations. The Data Quality Analyzer (DQA) is one such development. The DQA is designed to characterize station data quality in a quantitative and automated manner. Station quality is based on the evaluation of various metrics, such as timing quality, noise levels, sensor coherence, and so on. These metrics are aggregated into a measurable grade for each station. The DQA consists of a website, a metric calculator (Seedscan), and a PostgreSQL database. The website allows the user to make requests for various time periods, review specific networks and stations, adjust weighting of the station's grade, and plot metrics as a function of time. The website dynamically loads all station data from a PostgreSQL database. The database is central to the application; it acts as a hub where metric values and limited station descriptions are stored. Data is stored at the level of one sensor's channel per day. The database is populated by Seedscan. Seedscan reads and processes miniSEED data, to generate metric values. Seedscan, written in Java, compares hashes of metadata and data to detect changes and perform subsequent recalculations. This ensures that the metric values are up to date and accurate. Seedscan can be run in a scheduled task or on demand by way of a config file. It will compute metrics specified in its configuration file. While many metrics are currently in development, some are completed and being actively used. These include: availability, timing quality, gap count, deviation from the New Low Noise Model, deviation from a station's noise baseline, inter-sensor coherence, and data-synthetic fits. In all, 20 metrics are planned, but any number could be added. ASL is actively using the DQA on a daily basis for station diagnostics and evaluation. As Seedscan is scheduled to run every night, data quality analysts are able to then use the

  14. Hallucinatory Side Effects of ADHD Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Clinical trial and postmarketing surveillance data for drugs used in treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were analyzed to determine the frequency of hallucinations and other psychotic side effects, in a study at the US Food and Drug Administration, and Department of Health and Human Services, Maryland.

  15. Inhalation Exposure Method for Illegal Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Akiko; Ogata, Akio; Tada, Yukie; Nagasawa, Akemichi; Yuzawa, Katsuhiro; Ando, Hiroshi; Kubo, Yoshikazu; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Kaihoko, Fujifumi; Tanaka, Kazuyoshi; Nakajima, Jun'ichi; Suzuki, Atsuko; Uemura, Nozomi; Moriyasu, Takako; Watanabe, Daisuke; Ishihara, Kei; Usami, Takashi; Kamei, Satoru; Kohno, Yasuaki

    2017-01-01

    We developed a new inhalation exposure method to evaluate effects of synthetic cannabimimetics that are being distributed as new, unregulated drugs in the Tokyo area. We selected the commercial product "SOUTOU" containing AB-CHMINACA and 5F-AMB as the test drug and dried marshmallow (Althaea officinalis) leaves as the negative control. A half cigarette packed with dried marshmallow leaves or SOUTOU was ignited, then mainstream smoke from each was delivered to five mice in an exposure box. After the cigarettes were fully consumed, neurobehavioral observations and a catalepsy test were performed at 15, 30 and 60 min after exposure. The effluent air from the exposure box was poured into impingers containing acetonitrile (first impinger) and dimethyl sulfoxide (second impinger). The resulting solutions were analyzed to assess decomposition of the synthetic cannabimimetics. Mice exposed to SOUTOU smoke showed many excitement behaviors and some suppressive behaviors at 15, 30 and 60 min. These clearly included cannabimimetic specific pharmacological actions. Negative control mice also showed some suppressive behaviors at 15 min but these were attenuated at later times, nearly disappearing at 60 min. In addition, the behavioral effects observed in controls were less pronounced than those in SOUTOU exposed mice. The inhalation exposure method developed in our study would be effective for determining cannabinoid specific pharmacological effects of illegal drugs, as well as for assessing the presence of active compound(s) by comparing the test substance with a negative control.

  16. Drug-induced apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutroy, M J

    1994-01-01

    Drugs have been in the past and will in the future still be liable to induce apnea in neonates, infants and older children. At these different stages of development, the child may be abnormally vulnerable to respiratory disorders and apnea, and doses of drugs, without any abnormal side effects in adult patients, can be harmful in younger subjects. Drugs responsible for apnea during development are numerous, but more than half of the problems are induced by sedatives and hypnotics, among which phenothiazines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines (included transplacentally acquired) and general anesthetics are a few. Other pharmacological families are apnea inducers in the neonatal period and childhood: analgesics and opioid narcotics, agents acting at the levels of neuromuscular function and autonomic ganglia, and cardiovascular agents. The pathogenesis of these apneas depends on the disturbance of any mechanism responsible for the respiratory activity: medullary centers and brain stem structures, afferent influx to CNS, sleep stages, upper airways, lungs and respiratory muscles. At key stages such as birth and infancy, drugs may emphasize the particular sensitivity of the mechanisms responsible for inducing apnea. This might explain unexpected respiratory disorders during development.

  17. Adverse drug reactions induced by cardiovascular drugs in outpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholami K

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering increased use of cardiovascular drugs and limitations in pre-marketing trials for drug safety evaluation, post marketing evaluation of adverse drug reactions (ADRs induced by this class of medicinal products seems necessary.Objectives: To determine the rate and seriousness of adverse reactions induced by cardiovascular drugs in outpatients. To compare sex and different age groups in developing ADRs with cardiovascular agents. To assess the relationship between frequencies of ADRs and the number of drugs used. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done in cardiovascular clinic at a teaching hospital. All patients during an eight months period were evaluated for cardiovascular drugs induced ADRs. Patient and reaction factors were analyzed in detected ADRs. Patients with or without ADRs were compared in sex and age by using chi-square test. Assessing the relationship between frequencies of ADRs and the number of drugs used was done by using Pearson analysis. Results: The total number of 518 patients was visited at the clinic. ADRs were detected in 105 (20.3% patients. The most frequent ADRs were occurred in the age group of 51-60. The highest rate of ADRs was recorded to be induced by Diltiazem (23.5% and the lowest rate with Atenolol (3%. Headache was the most frequent detected ADR (23%. Assessing the severity and preventability of ADRs revealed that 1.1% of ADRs were detected as severe and 1.9% as preventable reactions. Women significantly developed more ADRs in this study (chi square = 3.978, P<0.05. ADRs more frequently occurred with increasing age in this study (chi square = 15.871, P<0.05. With increasing the number of drugs used, the frequency of ADRs increased (Pearson=0.259, P<0.05. Conclusion: Monitoring ADRs in patients using cardiovascular drugs is a matter of importance since this class of medicines is usually used by elderly patients with critical conditions and underlying diseases.

  18. Observational study of drug-drug interactions in oncological inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Sacramento Díaz-Carrasco

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of potential clinically relevant drug- drug interactions in adult oncological inpatients, as well as to describe the most frequent interactions. A standard database was used. Method: An observational, transversal, and descriptive study including patients admitted to the Oncology Service of a reference hospital. All prescriptions were collected twice a week during a month. They were analysed using Lexicomp® database, recording all interactions classified with a level of risk: C, D or X. Results: A total of 1 850 drug-drug interactions were detected in 218 treatments. The prevalence of treatments with at least one clinically relevant interaction was 95%, being 94.5% for those at level C and 26.1% for levels D and X. The drugs most commonly involved in the interactions detected were opioid analgesics, antipsychotics (butyrophenones, benzodiazepines, pyrazolones, glucocorticoids and heparins, whereas interactions with antineoplastics were minimal, highlighting those related to paclitaxel and between metamizole and various antineoplastics. Conclusions: The prevalence of clinically relevant drug-drug interactions rate was very high, highlighting the high risk percentage of them related to level of risk X. Due to the frequency of onset and potential severity, highlighted the concomitant use of central nervous system depressants drugs with risk of respiratory depression, the risk of onset of anticholinergic symptoms when combining morphine or haloperidol with butylscopolamine, ipratropium bromide or dexchlorpheniramine and the multiple interactions involving metamizole.

  19. Bioinformatics in translational drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooller, Sarah K; Benstead-Hume, Graeme; Chen, Xiangrong; Ali, Yusuf; Pearl, Frances M G

    2017-08-31

    Bioinformatics approaches are becoming ever more essential in translational drug discovery both in academia and within the pharmaceutical industry. Computational exploitation of the increasing volumes of data generated during all phases of drug discovery is enabling key challenges of the process to be addressed. Here, we highlight some of the areas in which bioinformatics resources and methods are being developed to support the drug discovery pipeline. These include the creation of large data warehouses, bioinformatics algorithms to analyse 'big data' that identify novel drug targets and/or biomarkers, programs to assess the tractability of targets, and prediction of repositioning opportunities that use licensed drugs to treat additional indications. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. Substandard/counterfeit antimicrobial drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelesidis, Theodoros; Falagas, Matthew E

    2015-04-01

    Substandard/counterfeit antimicrobial drugs are a growing global problem. The most common substandard/counterfeit antimicrobials include beta-lactams (among antibiotics) and chloroquine and artemisin derivatives (among antimalarials). The most common type of substandard/counterfeit antimicrobial drugs have a reduced amount of the active drug, and the majority of them are manufactured in Southeast Asia and Africa. Counterfeit antimicrobial drugs may cause increased mortality and morbidity and pose a danger to patients. Here we review the literature with regard to the issue of substandard/counterfeit antimicrobials and describe the prevalence of this problem, the different types of substandard/counterfeit antimicrobial drugs, and the consequences for the individuals and global public health. Local, national, and international initiatives are required to combat this very important public health issue. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.