Unifying all elementary particle forces including gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terazawa, H.
1979-01-01
It is a final goal in physics to unify all four basic forces, strong, weak, electromagnetic and gravitational. First, the unified gauge theories of strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions are discussed. There are two standard models, the model of Pati and Salam in which leptons have the fourth color, and the model of Georgi and Glashow in which a simple group SU (5) is assumed for grand unification. Two mass relations for leptons and quarks were derived, and the extension of the Georgi-Glashow model to a grand unified model of SU (6) gauge group has been made. The quantization of the electric charge of elementary particles is one of the most satisfactory features in grand unified gauge theories. The constraint relations between the gauge couplings, the weak mixing angle and the mass scale of symmetry breaking owing to the renormalization effect are not so severe as those in the grand unified models. However, the mass scale becomes far above the Planck mass in some cases. The baryon number non-conservation is one of the most intriguing features common to grand unified gauge theories. The unified models of all elementary particle forces including gravity are discussed. The discovery of weak vector bosons and the production of subquark pairs are anticipated. (Kako, I.)
Amphiphilic carbon dots for sensitive detection, intracellular imaging of Al{sup 3+}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kong, Depeng [State Key Laboratory of Separation Membranes and Membrane Processes, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Yan, Fanyong, E-mail: yanfanyong@tjpu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Separation Membranes and Membrane Processes, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Luo, Yunmei [Department of Pharmacology/Key Laboratory for Basic Pharmacology of Ministry of Education, Zunyi Medical College, Guizhou 563000 (China); Ye, Qianghua; Zhou, Siyushan [State Key Laboratory of Separation Membranes and Membrane Processes, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Chen, Li, E-mail: Chenlis@tjpu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Separation Membranes and Membrane Processes, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China)
2017-02-08
In this paper, a simple and effective method was designed to synthesize hydrophobic carbon dots. Subsequently, amphiphilic fluorescent carbon dots (A-CDs) were synthesized by further surface modification. The result A-CDs show excellent optical properties with a quantum yield of 16.9%. It was interestingly found that morin (MR) and its fluorescent metal-ion complex (MR-Al{sup 3+}) can successfully coordinate on the surface of A-CDs, the emission of A-CDs completely overlapped the absorption peak of MR-Al{sup 3+}. Thus, the prepared A-CDs can be used as an effective fluorescent probe for Al{sup 3+} based on a fluorescence resonance energy transfer process. The sensing platform can realize real-time detection of Al{sup 3+} within 0.5 min. The fluorescence signals of the system were linearly correlated with the concentration of Al{sup 3+} over a range of 8–20 μM, with a detection limit of 0.113 μM. The method was also successfully applied to image the distribution of Al{sup 3+} in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells. - Highlights: • Amphiphilic carbon dots were obtained by simply modifying hydrophobic carbon dots. • Amphiphilic carbon dots/morin-Al{sup 3+} was used as a selective turn-on probe for Al{sup 3+}. • The method was employed to intracellular imaging Al{sup 3+} in living cells.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ye, Xing-Pei [Department of Physics and Chemistry, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000 (China); Sun, Shao-bo; Li, Ying-dong [Institute of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine, Gansu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhi, Li-hua [Department of Physics and Chemistry, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000 (China); Wu, Wei-na, E-mail: wuwn08@hpu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Chemistry, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000 (China); Wang, Yuan, E-mail: wangyuan08@hpu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Chemistry, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000 (China)
2014-11-15
A new o-aminophenol-based fluorogenic chemosensor methyl 3,5-bis((E)-(2-hydroxyphenylimino)methyl)-4-hydroxybenzoate 1 have been synthesized by Schiff base condensation of methyl 3,5-diformyl-4-hydroxybenzoate with o-aminophenol, which exhibits high selectivity and sensitivity toward Al{sup 3+}. Fluorescence titration studies of receptors 1 with different metal cations in CH{sub 3}OH medium showed highly selective and sensitive towards Al{sup 3+} ions even in the presence of other commonly coexisting metal ions. The detection limit of Al{sup 3+} ions is at the parts per billion level. Interestingly, the Al(III) complex of 1 offered a large Stokes shift (>120 nm), which can miximize the selfquenching effect. In addition, possible utilization of this receptor as bio-imaging fluorescent probe to detect Al{sup 3+} in human cervical HeLa cancer cell lines was also investigated by confocal fluorescence microscopy. - Highlights: • A new Schiff base chemosensor is reported. • The sensor for Al{sup 3+} offers large Stokes shift. • The detection limit of Al{sup 3+} in CH{sub 3}OH solution is at the parts per billion level. • The utilization of sensor for the monitoring of Al{sup 3+} levels in living cells was examined.
Shuvalov, V A
2008-01-01
Possible role of high-energy bosons (virtual photons) is discussed with respect to the formation of elementary particles and their interaction in nucleus, many-electron atom, and molecule including photoreaction centers. Using properties of the photons, the expressions for calculations of the mass of particles, of the energy of electrons and their distances from nucleus in atoms, of the dissociation energy and distances between atoms in molecules were found which give results in good agreement with experimental data. This approach allows doing calculations in rather complicated system like photoreaction centers in which chlorophyll molecules form electron transfer chain.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Suah, Faiz Bukhari Mohd, E-mail: fsuah@usm.my [School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Minden, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Ahmad, Musa [Faculty of Science & Technology, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, 71800, Bandar Baru Nilai, Negeri Sembilan (Malaysia)
2017-01-25
The use of a polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) as a sensing material is a new approach to overcome the selectivity and stability drawbacks of the optical chemical sensor (optode). In this study, non-plasticized PIM containing poly(vinyl chloride) as a support base, sodium morin-5-sulfonate (NaMSA) as a reagent and Aliquat 336 as a fixed carrier (ionophore) was prepared and its performance was tested for application in an optode to determine Al{sup 3+} ions. The results showed that PIM properties are greatly influenced by the membrane composition. The studies revealed that the optode response was dependent on film thickness, the presence of plasticizer, stirring effect, concentration of NaMSA, concentration of Aliquat 336 and pH of the aqueous solution used. The dynamic range of Al{sup 3+} ions concentration determined using this optode was linear from 5.19 × 10{sup −7} to 6.00 × 10{sup −5} mol L{sup −1} and the calculated limit of detection (L.O.D.) was found to be 4.07 × 10{sup −7} mol L{sup −1}. The maximum emission wavelength (λ{sub em}) for the PIM based optode was 512 nm. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of the PIM revealed that a dense texture was formed. Fourier transform infra-red and thermal gravimetry analysis characterizations proved that all of the constituents of the PIM remain within the membrane. The PIM developed in this work was found to be stable, has good mechanical strength, and is sensitive and reusable. Lastly, the PIM was successfully applied as an optical sensor for determination of Al{sup 3+} ions in an aqueous solution. - Highlights: • A novel non-plasticized polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) based optode has been developed for determination of Al{sup 3+} ions. • A novel use of sulphonated morin (NaMSA) for determination of Al{sup 3+} ions by using fluorescence technique. • The optode is fully reversible. • It shows good repeatability and reproducibility without significant decrease in fluorescence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhou, Haifang [Fuzhou University, School of Physics and Information Engineering, and Institute of Micro-Nano Devices and Solar Cells, Fuzhou (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering, Changzhou, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Xiechun; Lai, Yunfeng; Cheng, Shuying; Zheng, Qiao; Yu, Jinlin [Fuzhou University, School of Physics and Information Engineering, and Institute of Micro-Nano Devices and Solar Cells, Fuzhou (China)
2017-10-15
Rare-earth ion-doped upconversion (UC) materials show great potential applications in optical and optoelectronic devices due to their novel optical properties. In this work, hexagonal KLaF{sub 4}:Yb{sup 3+}/Er{sup 3+} nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal method, and remarkably enhanced upconversion luminescence in green and red emission bands in KLaF{sub 4}:Yb{sup 3+}/Er{sup 3+} NPs has been achieved by doping Al{sup 3+} ions under 980 nm excitation. Compared to the aluminum-free KLaF{sub 4}:Yb{sup 3+}/Er{sup 3+} NPs sample, the UC fluorescence intensities of the green and red emissions of NPs doped with 10 at.% Al{sup 3+} ions were significantly enhanced by 5.9 and 7.3 times, respectively. Longer lifetimes of the doped samples were observed for the {sup 4}S{sub 3/2} state and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} state. The underlying reason for the UC enhancement by doping Al{sup 3+} ions was mainly ascribed to distortion of the local symmetry around Er{sup 3+} ions and adsorption reduction of organic ligands on the surface of NPs. In addition, the influence of doping Al{sup 3+} ions on the structure and morphology of the NPs samples was also discussed. (orig.)
Theoretical photoionization spectra in the UV photon energy range for a Mg-like Al{sup +} ion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Dae-Soung [e-Business Department, Kyonggi Institute of Technology, Siheung, Jungwang-Dong 2121-3, Kyonggi-Do 429-792 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Soon [Department of Physics, Myongji University, San 38-2 Namdong, Cheoin-gu, Yongin, Kyonggi-Do 449-728 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: dskim@kinst.ac.kr
2008-08-28
In the present work, we report the photoionization cross sections of the Al{sup +} ion calculated for the photon energy range 20-26 eV and 30-50 eV. We have expanded our previous calculation (2007 J. Phys. Soc. Japan 76 014302) with an optimized admixture of the initial ground state 3s{sup 21}S and exited states 3s3p{sup 1,3}P, 3s3d{sup 1,3}D and 3s4s{sup 1,3}S, and obtained significantly improved predictions for the main background and autoionizing resonance structures of the reported experimental spectra. The absolute measurements of the photoionization cross sections of the Al{sup +} ion in these energy ranges have been performed by West et al (2001 Phys. Rev. A 63 052719), and they reported that the prominent peaks around 21 eV were attributed to the effects of the significant influence of the small fraction of the fourth-order radiation with energies around 84 eV from the synchrotron source. In our previous work, the main shape for these cross sections was calculated assuming an admixture of initial 3s{sup 21}S and 3s3p{sup 3}P states, only with a rough overall estimate for the experimental spectra in the photon energy range 20-26 eV, and without these peaks around 21 eV. The report of the experimental assignment attributes these peaks to the excitation of a 2p electron from the core. However, our present results with the new admixture reveal similar peaks without considering the possibility of the core excitation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abreu, C. M.; Freire, L.; Novoa, X. R.; Pena, G.; Perez, M. C.
2009-07-01
Red mud (Rm) is the main by-product of the Bayer process for alumina extraction from bauxite, and grey slurries (GS) are generated during the granite rocks transformation processes. the huge volume of those wastes generated every year suppose a serious environmental problem. Recent works by our group demonstrate the efficiency of both types of muds as corrosion inhibitors for iron and steel in alkaline media containing chlorides. The elemental analysis of these slurried shows that Al{sup 3}+ is the main common element. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to study the effect of the soluble Al{sup 3}+ in the electrochemical behaviour of iron in alkaline media, in presence and absence of chlorides. The electrochemical study using Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) together with surface analysis techniques allowed to conclude that Al{sup 3}+ blocks the surface of steel in alkaline media chloride increasing the steel resistance to chlorides attack. (Author) 15 refs.
Parham, R.
1974-01-01
Presents the text of a speech given to a conference of physics teachers in which the full spectrum of elementary particles is given, along with their classification. Also includes some teaching materials available on this topic. (PEB)
McKeague, Charles P
1986-01-01
Elementary Algebra, Third Edition focuses on the basic principles, operations, and approaches involved in elementary algebra. The book first ponders on the basics, linear equations and inequalities, and graphing and linear systems. Discussions focus on the elimination method, solving linear systems by graphing, word problems, addition property of equality, solving linear equations, linear inequalities, addition and subtraction of real numbers, and properties of real numbers. The text then takes a look at exponents and polynomials, factoring, and rational expressions. Topics include reducing ra
van Zee, Emily H.
2009-12-01
In this commentary, I first consider what Oliveira defines inquiry-based science instruction to be. Next I discuss what the discourse practices are that he is advocating. Then I examine what he presents as evidence of changes in two teachers' discourse practices due to a summer institute and how their pragmatic awareness seems to have been enhanced through institute activities. Finally I ponder whether, when, how, and why professional development should include a focus on ways of speaking during inquiry-based science instruction.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abreu, C. M.
2009-02-01
Full Text Available Red mud (RM is the main by-product of the Bayer process for alumina extraction from bauxite, and grey slurries (GS are generated during the granite rocks transformation processes. The huge volume of those wastes generated every year suppose a serious environmental problem. Recent works by our group demonstrate the efficiency of both types of muds as corrosion inhibitors for iron and steel in alkaline media containing chlorides. The elemental analysis of these slurries shows that Al>3+ is the main common element. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to study the effect of the soluble Al>3+ in the electrochemical behaviour of iron in alkaline media, in presence and absence of chlorides. The electrochemical study using Cyclic Voltammetry (CV and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS together with surface analysis techniques allowed to conclude that Al>3+ blocks the surface of steel in alkaline media chloride increasing the steel resistance to chloride attack.
Los elevados volúmenes de residuos generados por los lodos rojos (LR, procedentes del proceso de obtención de la alúmina a partir de la bauxita y los lodos grises (LG, originados durante el proceso de la transformación del granito, suponen un grave problema medioambiental. Trabajos recientes de este grupo demuestran la eficacia de ambos tipos de lodos como inhibidores de la corrosión del hierro y acero en medio alcalino clorurado. Esta característica ha llevado al estudio individualizado de sus componentes mayoritarios y, dentro de éstos, el Al>3+, elemento común presente en mayor proporción. El estudio mediante técnicas electroquímicas como la Voltametría Cíclica (VC y la Espectroscopía de Impedancia Electroquímica (EIE, apoyadas en técnicas de análisis químico y superficial, ha permitido visualizar cómo el Al>3+ es capaz de bloquear la superficie del acero en medio alcalino aumentando su resistencia al ataque
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abedini, Alam; Larki, Farhad; Saion, Elias; Noroozi, Monir [Putra Malaysia Univ., Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia). Dept. of Physics
2013-07-15
Cu-Al bimetallic nanoparticles were synthesized by gamma irradiation technique in aqueous solutions containing metal chlorides as precursors, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a capping agent, isopropanol as a radical scavenger, and distilled water as a solvent. The Cu-Al bimetallic nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible absorption spectrometry, powder X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The TEM, XRD, EDX, and absorption analyses confirmed the formation of core-shell structure of Cu-Al bimetallic nanoparticles at lower Cu{sup 2+}/Al{sup 3+} mole ratio, and the formation of Cu-Al alloy nanoparticles at higher Cu{sup 2+}/Al{sup 3+} mole ratio. The TEM analysis for particle size and size distribution revealed that the average particle size of Cu-Al bimetallic nanoparticles decreased with the increase of absorbed dose. It may be explained due to the competition between nucleation and aggregation processes in the formation of metallic nanoparticles under irradiation. (orig.)
EdSource, 2007
2007-01-01
This guide informs parents about some instructional practices that work well for all elementary school students, in particular English learners. It includes questions parents can ask teachers and principals to help them understand how their children's school approaches teaching and learning. Both English and Spanish versions of the document are…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marciano, W.J.
1984-12-01
The present state of the art in elementary particle theory is reviewed. Topics include quantum electrodynamics, weak interactions, electroweak unification, quantum chromodynamics, and grand unified theories. 113 references
Elementary Environmental Activities.
Larson, Robert J.
This guide presents suggestions for field trips, out-of-doors activities, material for centers, and individualized activities in the teaching of elementary school science and particularly environmental education at the elementary level. The guide includes a section on preparation and procedures for conducting field trips, including sample…
Elementary operators - still not elementary?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martin Mathieu
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Properties of elementary operators, that is, finite sums of two-sided multiplications on a Banach algebra, have been studied under a vast variety of aspects by numerous authors. In this paper we review recent advances in a new direction that seems not to have been explored before: the question when an elementary operator is spectrally bounded or spectrally isometric. As with other investigations, a number of subtleties occur which show that elementary operators are still not elementary to handle.
34 CFR 300.13 - Elementary school.
2010-07-01
... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Elementary school. 300.13 Section 300.13 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.13 Elementary school. Elementary school means a nonprofit institutional day or residential school, including a public elementary charter school, that...
Olympiads for Elementary Schools.
Lenchner, George
1985-01-01
The goals and history of the Mathematical Olympiads for Elementary Schools are described. Teams, levels, and gender are discussed, as well as teacher training, administration, scoring, and awards. Sample problems are included. (MNS)
Weak interactions of elementary particles
Okun, Lev Borisovich
1965-01-01
International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy, Volume 5: Weak Interaction of Elementary Particles focuses on the composition, properties, and reactions of elementary particles and high energies. The book first discusses elementary particles. Concerns include isotopic invariance in the Sakata model; conservation of fundamental particles; scheme of isomultiplets in the Sakata model; universal, unitary-symmetric strong interaction; and universal weak interaction. The text also focuses on spinors, amplitudes, and currents. Wave function, calculation of traces, five bilinear covariants,
McKeague, Charles P
1981-01-01
Elementary Algebra 2e, Second Edition focuses on the basic principles, operations, and approaches involved in elementary algebra. The book first tackles the basics, linear equations and inequalities, and graphing and linear systems. Discussions focus on the substitution method, solving linear systems by graphing, solutions to linear equations in two variables, multiplication property of equality, word problems, addition property of equality, and subtraction, addition, multiplication, and division of real numbers. The manuscript then examines exponents and polynomials, factoring, and rational e
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bouziane, K. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36, PC 123, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman (Oman)], E-mail: bouzi@squ.edu.om; Yousif, A.; Widatallah, H.M. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36, PC 123, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman (Oman); Amighian, J. [Department of Physics, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2008-10-15
Single-phased polycrystalline Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5-2x}Al{sub x}Cr{sub x}O{sub 12} garnet samples (x=0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6) have been prepared by the conventional ceramic technique. Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction patterns of the samples shows them to crystallize in the Ia3d space group and the corresponding lattice constant to decrease with increasing Al{sup 3+} and Cr{sup 3+} contents (x). Moessbauer results indicate that Cr{sup 3+} substitutes for Fe{sup 3+} at the octahedral sites whilst Al{sup 3+} essentially replaces Fe{sup 3+} at the tetrahedral sites. This result indicates that co-doping of Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} does not affect the preferential site occupancy for separate individual substitution of either Cr{sup 3+} or Al{sup 3+}. The magnetization measurements reveal that the Curie temperature (T{sub c}) monotonically decreases with increasing x while the magnetic moment per unit formula decreases up to x=0.4 and then slightly increases for x=0.6. This reflects a progressive weakening of the ferrimagnetic exchange interaction between the Fe{sup 3+} ions at octahedral and tetrahedral sites due to co-substitution. The magnetic moment was calculated using the cations distribution inferred from the Moessbauer data and the collinear ferrimagnetic model, and was found to agree reasonably with the experimentally measured value. The phenomenological amplitude crossover, characterized by the temperature T*, has also been observed in the doped YIG and briefly discussed.
Logic in elementary mathematics
Exner, Robert M
2011-01-01
This applications-related introductory treatment explores facets of modern symbolic logic useful in the exposition of elementary mathematics. The authors convey the material in a manner accessible to those trained in standard elementary mathematics but lacking any formal background in logic. Topics include the statement calculus, proof and demonstration, abstract mathematical systems, and the restricted predicate calculus. The final chapter draws upon the methods of logical reasoning covered in previous chapters to develop solutions of linear and quadratic equations, definitions of order and
Dudley, Underwood
2008-01-01
Ideal for a first course in number theory, this lively, engaging text requires only a familiarity with elementary algebra and the properties of real numbers. Author Underwood Dudley, who has written a series of popular mathematics books, maintains that the best way to learn mathematics is by solving problems. In keeping with this philosophy, the text includes nearly 1,000 exercises and problems-some computational and some classical, many original, and some with complete solutions. The opening chapters offer sound explanations of the basics of elementary number theory and develop the fundamenta
Elementary classical hydrodynamics
Chirgwin, B H; Langford, W J; Maxwell, E A; Plumpton, C
1967-01-01
Elementary Classical Hydrodynamics deals with the fundamental principles of elementary classical hydrodynamics, with emphasis on the mechanics of inviscid fluids. Topics covered by this book include direct use of the equations of hydrodynamics, potential flows, two-dimensional fluid motion, waves in liquids, and compressible flows. Some general theorems such as Bernoulli's equation are also considered. This book is comprised of six chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the fundamental principles of fluid hydrodynamics, with emphasis on ways of studying the motion of a fluid. Basic c
Vision in elementary mathematics
Sawyer, W W
2003-01-01
Sure-fire techniques of visualizing, dramatizing, and analyzing numbers promise to attract and retain students' attention and understanding. Topics include basic multiplication and division, algebra, word problems, graphs, negative numbers, fractions, many other practical applications of elementary mathematics. 1964 ed. Answers to Problems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Verma, Satish, E-mail: satishapurva@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Govt. P.G. College, Solan (India); Chand, Jagdish; Singh, M. [Department of Physics, Himachal Pradesh University, Summer-Hill, Shimla, 171005 (India)
2016-09-15
Nanoparticles of Al{sup 3+} ions substituted Mg−Mn−Ni materials with compositions Mg{sub 0.2}Mn{sub 0.5}Ni{sub 0.3}Al{sub y}Fe{sub 2−y}O{sub 4} (y = 0.15–0.25) were synthesized by citrate precursor technique. Samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer and room temperature {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. Saturation magnetization decreases with increasing Al{sup 3+} ions concentration because replacement of Fe{sup 3+} ions by Al{sup 3+} ions at octahedral B-site weaken sublattice interaction and lowers magnetic moments. Mössbauer spectral studies show that as-prepared nano-sized samples are superparamagnetic at room temperature. Superparamagnetic relaxation was observed for small crystallite in samples with higher Al content, which is attributed to weakening of A–B exchange interaction. Mössbauer spectra at 300 K show a gradual collapse of magnetic hyperfine splitting typical for superparamagnetic relaxation. An increase in inversion parameter is observed with increasing Al{sup 3+} ions substitution, which is attributed to decrease in crystallite size. - Highlights: • Single phase nanocrystalline samples were synthesized by citrate precursor method. • Particle size decreases as non-magnetic Al{sup 3+} ions concentration increase. • Presence of doublet in Mössbauer spectra was due to superparamagnetic relaxation. • Study shows collapse of long range magnetic order and quenching of magnetic moment.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borkar, Hitesh; Kumar, Ashok, E-mail: ashok553@nplindia.org [CSIR-National Physical laboratory, New Delhi, India 110012 (India)
2016-05-23
Choice of proper dopants at A or B-site of ABO{sub 3} perovskite structure can modify the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB), and hence functional properties of polar systems. The chemical nature of donor or acceptor will significantly influence the fundamental properties. Lead-free ferroelectrics have vast potential to replace the lead-based ceramics. The (Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}){sub 1-x}Ba{sub x}TiO{sub 3} (NBT-BT) (at x=0.08) near MPB with small substitution of trivalent cations (Al{sup 3+}) has been synthesized by solid state reaction route. The aim to choose the trivalent cations (Al{sup 3+}) was its relatively smaller radii than that of Bi{sup 3+} cations to develop the antipolar phases in the ferroelectric ceramic. Structural, morphological and elemental compositional analyses were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Secondary electron microscope (SEM) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), respectively. Ferroelectric studies were carried out on various compositions of (Na{sub 0.46}Bi{sub 0.46-x}Al{sub x}Ba{sub 0.08})TiO{sub 3} (NBAT-BT) (x=0, 0.05, 0.07, 0.10) electroceramics. It was observed that with increase in concentration of Al the ferroelectricity state changes from soft to hard. Temperature dependent dielectric spectroscopy shows broad dielectric dispersion. The Al doping diminishes the relaxor behavior of NBT-BT ceramics. Impedance spectroscopy shows that electrical resistivity and relaxation frequency decreases with increase in Al-concentration. Modulus spectra indicate that Al significantly change the bulk capacitance of NBT-BT.
Snell, K S; Langford, W J; Maxwell, E A
1966-01-01
Elementary Analysis, Volume 2 introduces several of the ideas of modern mathematics in a casual manner and provides the practical experience in algebraic and analytic operations that lays a sound foundation of basic skills. This book focuses on the nature of number, algebraic and logical structure, groups, rings, fields, vector spaces, matrices, sequences, limits, functions and inverse functions, complex numbers, and probability. The logical structure of analysis given through the treatment of differentiation and integration, with applications to the trigonometric and logarithmic functions, is
Wolstenholme, E Œ
1978-01-01
Elementary Vectors, Third Edition serves as an introductory course in vector analysis and is intended to present the theoretical and application aspects of vectors. The book covers topics that rigorously explain and provide definitions, principles, equations, and methods in vector analysis. Applications of vector methods to simple kinematical and dynamical problems; central forces and orbits; and solutions to geometrical problems are discussed as well. This edition of the text also provides an appendix, intended for students, which the author hopes to bridge the gap between theory and appl
ELEMENTARY PARTICLE INTERACTIONS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
EFREMENKO, YURI; HANDLER, THOMAS; KAMYSHKOV, YURI; SIOPSIS, GEORGE; SPANIER, STEFAN
2013-07-30
The High-Energy Elementary Particle Interactions group at UT during the last three years worked on the following directions and projects: Collider-based Particle Physics; Neutrino Physics, particularly participation in “NOνA”, “Double Chooz”, and “KamLAND” neutrino experiments; and Theory, including Scattering amplitudes, Quark-gluon plasma; Holographic cosmology; Holographic superconductors; Charge density waves; Striped superconductors; and Holographic FFLO states.
2010-07-01
... employees (including academic administrative personnel and teachers in elementary or secondary schools), and... professional employees (including academic administrative personnel and teachers in elementary or secondary... employed in the capacity of academic administrative personnel or teachers in elementary or secondary...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leny R. M. Teixeira
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Neste trabalho apresentamos os dados de uma pesquisa que teve por objetivo verificar o desempenho de alunos do 6.° ao 9.° anos do Ensino Fundamental na resolução de oito problemas multiplicativos, envolvendo raciocínio combinatório. Os problemas diferiam em relação à quantidade de variáveis e à quantidade de algarismos utilizados nos fatores. Para tanto, por meio de uma entrevista clínica levantamos as principais estratégias e erros produzidos por 40 alunos de duas escolas públicas (A e B da cidade de Campo Grande-MS, as quais fizeram parte de uma pesquisa mais ampla realizada anteriormente. Os dados revelam que o desempenho foi melhor nos problemas com duas variáveis e com fatores de valores baixos, não havendo diferença de desempenho entre alunos do 6.° e do 9.° anos. De modo geral, as dificuldades que emergiram estavam relacionadas: 1 aos modelos intuitivos que os alunos têm a respeito da multiplicação (em especial o da soma repetida; 2 a estrutura semântica do problema; 3 as preferências numéricas quanto ao tamanho dos números, formas de representar o problema e interpretação do enunciado verbal. Por ser a multiplicação uma operação bastante complexa envolvendo, em sua resolução, processos cognitivos abstratos, acreditamos que o professor precisa conhecê-los para favorecer a aprendizagem dos alunos.This work presents data from a study which aimed at verifying the performance of Elementary School 6th and 9th graders when solving eight multiplicative problems involving combinatorial thinking. The problems were different concerning the amount of variables and the amount of numerical digits used in factors. Therefore, through a clinical interview, we listed the main strategies and mistakes produced by 40 graders from two public schools (A and B in the municipality of Campo Grande (Mato Grosso do Sul - MS - State which were part of a larger research developed before. The observations reveal that the performance
The Elementary Private School Recognition Program: Mike Mulligan's View.
Lodish, Richard
1986-01-01
Describes the goals, the selection criteria, and the selection process of the Elementary Private School Recognition Program. Includes a listing, by states, of the 60 private elementary schools selected for 1985-86 recognition. (IW)
Elementary Mathematics Leaders
Fennell, Francis; Kobett, Beth McCord; Wray, Jonathan A.
2013-01-01
Elementary school mathematics leaders often come to the realization that their position, however titled and determined, although dedicated to addressing needs in math teaching and learning, also entails and directly involves leadership. Elementary school math specialists/instructional leaders (referenced here as elementary mathematics leaders, or…
Elementary functions algorithms and implementation
Muller, Jean-Michel
2016-01-01
This textbook presents the concepts and tools necessary to understand, build, and implement algorithms for computing elementary functions (e.g., logarithms, exponentials, and the trigonometric functions). Both hardware- and software-oriented algorithms are included, along with issues related to accurate floating-point implementation. This third edition has been updated and expanded to incorporate the most recent advances in the field, new elementary function algorithms, and function software. After a preliminary chapter that briefly introduces some fundamental concepts of computer arithmetic, such as floating-point arithmetic and redundant number systems, the text is divided into three main parts. Part I considers the computation of elementary functions using algorithms based on polynomial or rational approximations and using table-based methods; the final chapter in this section deals with basic principles of multiple-precision arithmetic. Part II is devoted to a presentation of “shift-and-add” algorithm...
Service Learning is also Elementary!
Social Studies Review, 1997
1997-01-01
Presents 10 ideas for service learning projects designed for elementary schools. Includes having students do local history projects complete with interviews and artifacts, learn about community volunteering, interact with the elderly, care for the environment, recycle materials, and hold canned food drives. (MJP)
Fierro, J.
2006-08-01
In developing nations such as Mexico, basic science education has scarcely improved. There are multiple reasons for this problem; they include poor teacher training and curricula that are not challenging for students. I shall suggest ways in which astronomy can be used to improve basic education, it is so attractive that it can be employed to teach how to read and write, learn a second language, mathematics, physics, as well as geography. If third world nations do not teach science in an adequate way, they will be in serious problems when they will try to achieve a better standard of living for their population. I shall also address informal education, it is by this means that most adults learn and keep up to date with subjects that are not their specialty. If we provide good outreach programs in developing nations we can aid adult training; astronomy is ideal since it is particularly multidisciplinary. In particular radio and television programs are useful for popularization since they reach such wide audiences.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lostaglio, Matteo; Alhambra, Álvaro M.; Perry, Christopher
2018-01-01
To what extent do thermodynamic resource theories capture physically relevant constraints? Inspired by quantum computation, we define a set of elementary thermodynamic gates that only act on 2 energy levels of a system at a time. We show that this theory is well reproduced by a Jaynes...... of fundamental theorems by Birkhoff and Muirhead-Hardy-Littlewood-Polya concerning stochastic maps. Physically, this implies that stronger constraints than those imposed by single-shot quantities can be given if we tailor a thermodynamic resource theory to the relevant experimental scenario. We provide new tools...... to do so, including necessary and sufficient conditions for a given change of the population to be possible. As an example, we describe the resource theory of the Jaynes-Cummings model. Finally, we initiate an investigation into how our resource theories can be applied to Heat Bath Algorithmic Cooling...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mrowczynski, S.
1989-01-01
The physics of relativistic elementary atoms,i.e. of Coulomb bound states of elementary particles, like positronium, pionium or an atom of μ + π - , is presented. The atom lifetimes and processes, in which the atoms are produced, are discussed. The interaction of the atoms with matter is also described. A simple derivation of most results is given. 33 refs. (author)
Leonardo CHIATTI
2014-01-01
C.S. Peirce’s semiotic approach admits the possibility of natural signic systems. This article explores the possible connection between the concept of elementary particle and the irreducible relations of Peircean semiotics. The potentialities and the limitations of a semiotic vision of elementary physical processes are addressed.
Perkins, D. H.
1986-01-01
Elementary particle physics is discussed. Status of the Standard Model of electroweak and strong interactions; phenomena beyond the Standard Model; new accelerator projects; and possible contributions from non-accelerator experiments are examined.
Gardiner, L. S.; Hatheway, B.; Taylor, J.; Chambers, L. H.; Stanitski, D.
2016-12-01
To address the dearth of climate education resources at the elementary level, we have developed a new module of Elementary GLOBE to showcase the science of climate change for young learners. Elementary GLOBE builds K-4 student understanding of the science concepts and the practices of science research. At the heart of each Elementary GLOBE module is a fiction storybook, describing how three kids investigate a science question. Accompanying classroom activities allow students to explore the science concepts in the book in more depth and in a context appropriate for young learners. The book for the Elementary GLOBE climate module, "What in the World Is Happening to Our Climate?," is the account of an adventure to explore climate change, how it is affecting melting glacial ice and sea level rise, and how climate change is a problem that can be solved. Three hands-on activities, which will be presented at this session, allow students to explore the topics in greater depth including differences between weather and climate, how sea level rise affects coastal areas, and how they can shrink their carbon footprint to help address recent climate change. Each activity includes instructions for teachers, background information, and activity sheets for students, and is aligned to the Next Generation Science Standards and Common Core Math and Language Arts Standards. The storybook and activities were field tested in classrooms and reviewed by climate and Earth system scientists as well as elementary education and climate education specialists and educators to ensure scientific accuracy and clear explanations, and that the resources are age appropriate and reflect the needs of the climate education community. Other Elementary GLOBE modules include the science of seasonal change, water, soil, clouds, aerosols, and Earth as a system. All Elementary GLOBE educational resources are freely available online (www.globe.gov/elementaryglobe).
Composing Film: Multimodality and Production in Elementary Classrooms
Husbye, Nicholas E.; Vander Zanden, Sarah
2015-01-01
Despite the proliferation of technology in contemporary lives, many elementary schools often do not account for other technologically-mediated ways of constructing meaning in their daily curriculum, including film. This article presents insights from 2 filmmaking projects with elementary-aged students illustrating how film allowed students to…
Contemporary Practice in the Elementary Classroom: A Study of Change
Thulson, Anne
2013-01-01
Elementary school is not too early to introduce contemporary art; young students are especially adept at learning by mimicry and embracing contemporary art practices, including site-specific works. Elementary students are poised and capable to comprehend and respond to contemporary art. Tangible products can be made within a conceptual,…
Is an elementary particle really: (i) a particle? (ii) elementary?
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Is an elementary particle really: (i) a particle? (ii) elementary? Over centuries, naïve notions about this have turned out incorrect. Particles are not really pointlike. The word elementary is not necessarily well-defined. Notes:
Elementary Particles and Weak Interactions
Lee, T. D.; Yang, C. N.
1957-01-01
Some general patterns of interactions between various elementary particles are reviewed and some general questions concerning the symmetry properties of these particles are studied. Topics are included on the theta-tau puzzle, experimental limits on the validity of parity conservation, some general discussions on the consequences due to possible non-invariance under P, C, and T, various possible experimental tests on invariance under P, C, and T, a two-component theory of the neutrino, a possible law of conservation of leptons and the universal Fermi interactions, and time reversal invariance and Mach's principle. (M.H.R.)
Elementary linear programming with applications
Kolman, Bernard
1995-01-01
Linear programming finds the least expensive way to meet given needs with available resources. Its results are used in every area of engineering and commerce: agriculture, oil refining, banking, and air transport. Authors Kolman and Beck present the basic notions of linear programming and illustrate how they are used to solve important common problems. The software on the included disk leads students step-by-step through the calculations. The Second Edition is completely revised and provides additional review material on linear algebra as well as complete coverage of elementary linear program
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dolce Donatello
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Elementary particles, i.e. the basic constituents of nature, are characterized by quantum recurrences in time. The flow of time of every physical system can be therefore decomposed in elementary cycles of time. This allows us to enforce the local nature of relativistic time, yielding interesting unified descriptions of fundamental aspects of modern physics, as shown in recent publications. Every particle can be regarded as a reference clock with time resolution of the order of the Compton time particle, many orders of magnitude more accurate than the atomic clocks. Here we report basic implications about the resulting notion of time.
Elementary topology problem textbook
Viro, O Ya; Netsvetaev, N Yu; Kharlamov, V M
2008-01-01
This textbook on elementary topology contains a detailed introduction to general topology and an introduction to algebraic topology via its most classical and elementary segment centered at the notions of fundamental group and covering space. The book is tailored for the reader who is determined to work actively. The proofs of theorems are separated from their formulations and are gathered at the end of each chapter. This makes the book look like a pure problem book and encourages the reader to think through each formulation. A reader who prefers a more traditional style can either find the pr
Atwood, Ronald K.; Christopher, John E.; Combs, Rebecca K.; Roland, Elizabeth E.
2010-01-01
Magnetism is a topic frequently studied in elementary schools. Since magnetism is a popular topic and is included in national science education standards, it might be assumed that elementary teachers have a good understanding of this topic and that elementary students develop a good understanding of fundamental magnetism concepts. Unfortunately,…
Report of decontamination at Tominari Elementary School.
Katsumi, S
2016-12-01
On 19 April 2011, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology designated 13 elementary schools, including Tominari Elementary School in Date city, as high-dose schools that needed to restrict outdoor activities due to the effects of the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Approximately 1 week later, the municipal government took action to remove the topsoil from the school grounds, and the prohibition of outdoor activities at Tominari Elementary School was lifted. The school staff continued to work on decontaminating the surrounding areas using high-pressure washers and brushes. There were certain positive outcomes, but a more effective decontamination method was required. In July 2011, the municipal government started an environmental remediation project, both inside and outside the school buildings, with researchers and decontamination workers at Tominari Elementary School, involving members of the Parent-Teacher Association (PTA), local communities, and volunteers using various effective and specialised forms of decontamination. As a result, Tominari Elementary School was able to recommence swimming lessons at the end of the first semester, which had been thought to be impossible. This article will provide information about the importance of 'dialogue' for decontamination, how engagement of the experts gave members of the PTA and the local community a feeling of 'security and safety', and how the decontamination work was an ever-expanding collaborative work of a large number of people.
Elementary concepts of topology
Alexandroff, Paul
1961-01-01
Concise work presents topological concepts in clear, elementary fashion without sacrificing their profundity or exactness. Author proceeds from basics of set-theoretic topology, through topological theorems and questions based on concept of the algebraic complex, to the concept of Betti groups.
Elementary School Mathematics Priorities
Wilson, W. Stephen
2009-01-01
This article first describes some of the basic skills and knowledge that a solid elementary school mathematics foundation requires. It then elaborates on several points germane to these practices. These are then followed with a discussion and conclude with final comments and suggestions for future research. The article sets out the five…
Magnetism of elementary particles
Vonsovsky, S V
1975-01-01
Spin magnetic moment of the electron ; magnetism of the atomic electron shell ; magnetism of nucleons (protons and neutrons) and atomic nuclei ; anomalous magnetic moments of elementary particles ; the magnetic monopole ; non-linear quantum-electrodynamic effects in a magnetic field.
Elementary Mathematics with PLATO.
Dugdale, Sharon; Kibbey, David
Computer-based courseware for the intermediate grades developed by the PLATO Elementary Mathematics Project was tested for a three year period in the public schools of Champaign and Urbana, Illinois. This brief report describes the project in terms of the student session, curriculum, educational effectiveness, and data feedback to teachers.…
Generalized elementary functions
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Monteiro, Giselle Antunes; Slavík, A.
2014-01-01
Roč. 411, č. 2 (2014), s. 838-852 ISSN 0022-247X Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : elementary functions * Kurzweil-Stieltjes integral * generalized linear ordinary differential equations * time scale calculus Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.120, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022247X13009141
Current experiments in elementary-particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Rittenberg, A.
1983-03-01
Microfiche are included which contain summaries of 479 experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments are included at the following laboratories: Brookhaven (BNL); CERN; CESR; DESY; Fermilab (FNAL); Institute for Nuclear Studies (INS); KEK; LAMPF; Serpukhov (SERP); SIN; SLAC; and TRIUMF. Also, summaries of proton decay experiments are included. A list of experiments and titles is included; and a beam-target-momentum index and a spokesperson index are given. Properties of beams at the facilities are tabulated
Geotechnical Engineering in US Elementary Schools
Suescun-Florez, Eduardo; Iskander, Magued; Kapila, Vikram; Cain, Ryan
2013-01-01
This paper reports on the results of several geotechnical engineering-related science activities conducted with elementary-school students. Activities presented include soil permeability, contact stress, soil stratigraphy, shallow and deep foundations, and erosion in rivers. The permeability activity employed the LEGO NXT platform for data…
Introduction to the elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shellard, R.C.
1982-03-01
An introduction is given to the subject of elementary particle physics. Several particle properties are discussed and some models are shown. This introduction covers the theoretical as well as the experimental aspects including a topic on detectors. (L.C.) [pt
Teaching Elementary School Children about Korea.
Van Decar, Patricia
1988-01-01
Presents ideas for teaching elementary school students about Korea by introducing them to the country's folktales, clothing, art, music, and food. Includes a folktale adapted as a play and suggestions for teaching about traditional costumes, folk dances, music, and masks, as well as Korean mealtime and table manners. (GEA)
MINIMUM AREAS FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOL BUILDING FACILITIES.
Pennsylvania State Dept. of Public Instruction, Harrisburg.
MINIMUM AREA SPACE REQUIREMENTS IN SQUARE FOOTAGE FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOL BUILDING FACILITIES ARE PRESENTED, INCLUDING FACILITIES FOR INSTRUCTIONAL USE, GENERAL USE, AND SERVICE USE. LIBRARY, CAFETERIA, KITCHEN, STORAGE, AND MULTIPURPOSE ROOMS SHOULD BE SIZED FOR THE PROJECTED ENROLLMENT OF THE BUILDING IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE PROJECTION UNDER THE…
Chaos and fractals an elementary introduction
Feldman, David P
2012-01-01
For students with a background in elementary algebra, this text provides a vivid introduction to the key phenomena and ideas of chaos and fractals, including the butterfly effect, strange attractors, fractal dimensions, Julia sets and the Mandelbrot set, power laws, and cellular automata.
Making elementary particles visible
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen, Eyal
1994-01-01
Ever since the days of the ancient Greek atomists, the notion that matter is made up of tiny fundamental elements has dominated the history of scientific theories. Elementary particles (and now strings...) are the latest in this chronological list of fundamental objects. Our notions of what a physical theory should be like, and what precisely ''matter is made up of...'' really means, have evolved with the years, undergoing a profound revolution with quantum mechanics
Some Elementary Aspects of Means
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mowaffaq Hajja
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We raise several elementary questions pertaining to various aspects of means. These questions refer to both known and newly introduced families of means, and include questions of characterizations of certain families, relations among certain families, comparability among the members of certain families, and concordance of certain sequences of means. They also include questions about internality tests for certain mean-looking functions and about certain triangle centers viewed as means of the vertices. The questions are accessible to people with no background in means, and it is also expected that these people can seriously investigate, and contribute to the solutions of, these problems. The solutions are expected to require no more than simple tools from analysis, algebra, functional equations, and geometry.
Strategies for Teaching Elementary and Junior High Students.
Consuegra, Gerard F.
1980-01-01
Discusses the applications of Piaget's theory of cognitive development to elementary and junior high school science teaching. Topics include planning concrete experiences, inductive and hypothetical deductive reasoning, measurement concepts, combinatorial logic, scientific experimentation and reflexive thinking. (SA)
Progress in elementary particle theory, 1950-1964
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gell-Mann, M.
1989-01-01
This final chapter of the book lists advances in elementary particle theory from 1950 to 1964 in an order of progressive understanding of ideas rather than chronologically. Starting with quantum field theory and the important discoveries within it, the author explains the connections and items missing in this decade, but understood later. The second part of the chapter takes the same pattern, but deals with basic interactions (strong, electromagnetic, weak and gravitational) and elementary particles, including quarks. By 1985, theory had developed to such a degree that it was hoped that the long-sought-after unified field theory of all elementary particles and interactions of nature might be close at hand. (UK)
Eves, Howard
1980-01-01
The usefulness of matrix theory as a tool in disciplines ranging from quantum mechanics to psychometrics is widely recognized, and courses in matrix theory are increasingly a standard part of the undergraduate curriculum.This outstanding text offers an unusual introduction to matrix theory at the undergraduate level. Unlike most texts dealing with the topic, which tend to remain on an abstract level, Dr. Eves' book employs a concrete elementary approach, avoiding abstraction until the final chapter. This practical method renders the text especially accessible to students of physics, engineeri
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ranft, G.; Ranft, J.
1977-01-01
In this part the subject is covered under the following headings, methods for producing high-energy particles; interaction of high-energy particles with matter; methods for the detection of high-energy particles; symmetry properties and conservation laws; quantum number and selection rules; theorem of scattering behaviour at asymptotically high energies; statistical methods in elementary particle physics; interaction of high-energy particles with nuclei; relations of high-energy physics to other branches of science and its response to engineering. Intended as information on high-energy physics for graduate students and research workers familiar with the fundamentals of classical and quantum physics
Neave, Henry R
2012-01-01
This book, designed for students taking a basic introductory course in statistical analysis, is far more than just a book of tables. Each table is accompanied by a careful but concise explanation and useful worked examples. Requiring little mathematical background, Elementary Statistics Tables is thus not just a reference book but a positive and user-friendly teaching and learning aid. The new edition contains a new and comprehensive "teach-yourself" section on a simple but powerful approach, now well-known in parts of industry but less so in academia, to analysing and interpreting process dat
Close Reading in Elementary Schools
Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy
2012-01-01
Close reading is a recommended instructional approach to meet the challenges of teaching complex texts. But close readings are more common in high school and college than in elementary schools. In this article, we identify the components of close reading that were developed after a group of elementary school teachers observed their colleges in…
Engineering at the Elementary Level
McGrew, Cheryl
2012-01-01
Can engineering technology be taught at the elementary level? Designing and building trebuchets, catapults, solar cars, and mousetrap vehicles in a west central Florida elementary class was considered very unusual in recent years. After a review of current research on failing schools and poor curriculum, the author wondered what her school could…
Elementary School Philosophy: A Response
Wartenberg, Thomas E.
2012-01-01
This article is a response to criticism of my book "Big Ideas for Little Kids." The main topics addressed are: Who is the audience for the book? Can people without formal philosophical training can be good facilitators of elementary school philosophy discussions? Is it important to assess attempts to teach philosophy in elementary school? Should…
Assessing Elementary Algebra with STACK
Sangwin, Christopher J.
2007-01-01
This paper concerns computer aided assessment (CAA) of mathematics in which a computer algebra system (CAS) is used to help assess students' responses to elementary algebra questions. Using a methodology of documentary analysis, we examine what is taught in elementary algebra. The STACK CAA system, http://www.stack.bham.ac.uk/, which uses the CAS…
Explorations in Elementary Mathematical Modeling
Shahin, Mazen
2010-01-01
In this paper we will present the methodology and pedagogy of Elementary Mathematical Modeling as a one-semester course in the liberal arts core. We will focus on the elementary models in finance and business. The main mathematical tools in this course are the difference equations and matrix algebra. We also integrate computer technology and…
Crowdfunding for Elementary Science Educators
Reese, Jessica; Miller, Kurtz
2017-01-01
The inadequate funding of science education in many school districts, particularly in underserved areas, is preventing elementary science educators from realizing the full potential of the "Next Generation Science Standards" ("NGSS"). Yet many elementary science teachers may be unaware that millions of dollars per year are…
Science education research interests of elementary teachers
Gabel, Dorothy; Samuel, K. V.; Helgeson, Stanley; McGuire, Saundra; Novak, Joseph; Butzow, John
Science education researchers have always sought to improve the quality of our nation's schools. One way of doing this is to make research findings on the teaching of science available to teachers. Perhaps an even more effective way is to plan research studies with teachers' interests in mind. The purpose of this study was to determine the science education research interests of elementary teachers and to examine the data according to certain demographic variables. The sample consisted of 553 elementary teachers in 98 schools from across the nation. The survey instrument contained 28 items, 16 of which were included on a survey instrument prepared by White et al. The data collected using the Likert-type questionnaire were dichotomized as 1 important and O not important and were analyzed using the Cochran Test and the McNemar Test for post hoc comparisons. Results of the study indicate that the top five research interests of teachers in the order of preference are: hands-on experiences, science content of the curriculum, cognitive development and learning styles, problem solving, and teaching strategies. The area of lowest interest was research on sex differences.Results of the survey have several important implications for science education. First, they can be used to help science educators plan research that may be of interest to elementary teachers. Second, they can be used by groups such as NSTA who publish research reviews, and by colleges and universities that prepare elementary teachers, as a guide to not only what is of interest to elementary teachers, but to identify those areas of research for which dissemination has been lacking.
Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revision
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Galic, H. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Armstrong, F.E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); von Przewoski, B. [Indiana Univ. Cyclotron Facility, Bloomington, IN (United States)] [and others
1994-08-01
This report contains summaries of 568 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments that finished taking data before 1988 are excluded. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, INS (Tokyo), ITEP (Moscow), IUCF (Bloomington), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several underground and underwater experiments. Instructions are given for remote searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.
Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revision
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galic, H.; Armstrong, F.E.; von Przewoski, B.
1994-08-01
This report contains summaries of 568 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments that finished taking data before 1988 are excluded. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, INS (Tokyo), ITEP (Moscow), IUCF (Bloomington), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several underground and underwater experiments. Instructions are given for remote searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries
Supersymmetry of elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sardanashvili, G.A.; Zakharov, O.A.
1986-01-01
Some difficulties, connected with correct application of supersymmetry mathematical tools in the field and elementary particle theory are pointed out. The role of Grassman algebra in the usual field theory and the role of Lee superalgebra in supertransformations mixing bosons and fermions are shown. Grassman algebra in the theory of supersymmetries plays a role of numerical field. A supersymmetrical model, when indexes {i} of Grassman algebra corresponding to ''color'', and indexes {α} of Lee superalgebra representations - to ''flavor'', is considered. It is marked that the problem of interpretation of Grassman algebra indexes is a key one for the theory of supersymmetries. In particular, it gives no possibility to come from the theory of supersymmetries to the usual field theory, whose indexes of Grassman algebra possess obvious physical meaning
Elementary and middle school science improvement project
Mcguire, Saundra Y.
1989-01-01
The Alabama A and M University Elementary and Middle School Science Improvement Project (Project SIP) was instituted to improve the science knowledge of elementary and middle school teachers using the experimental or hands-on approach. Summer workshops were conducted during the summers of 1986, 1987, and 1988 in the areas of biology, chemistry, physics, and electricity, and magnetism. Additionally, a manual containing 43 lessons which included background information, experiments and activities for classroom and home use was provided to each teacher. During the course of the project activities, the teachers interacted with various university faculty members, scientists, and NASA staff. The administrative aspects of the program, the delivery of the services to participating teachers, and the project outcome are addressed.
Bubbles, shocks and elementary technical trading strategies
Fry, John
2014-01-01
In this paper we provide a unifying framework for a set of seemingly disparate models for bubbles, shocks and elementary technical trading strategies in financial markets. Markets operate by balancing intrinsic levels of risk and return. This seemingly simple observation is commonly over-looked by academics and practitioners alike. Our model shares its origins in statistical physics with others. However, under our approach, changes in market regime can be explicitly shown to represent a phase transition from random to deterministic behaviour in prices. This structure leads to an improved physical and econometric model. We develop models for bubbles, shocks and elementary technical trading strategies. The list of empirical applications is both interesting and topical and includes real-estate bubbles and the on-going Eurozone crisis. We close by comparing the results of our model with purely qualitative findings from the finance literature.
Implementing Elementary School Next Generation Science Standards
Kennedy, Katheryn B.
Implementation of the Next Generation Science Standards requires developing elementary teacher content and pedagogical content knowledge of science and engineering concepts. Teacher preparation for this undertaking appears inadequate with little known about how in-service Mid-Atlantic urban elementary science teachers approach this task. The purpose of this basic qualitative interview study was to explore the research questions related to perceived learning needs of 8 elementary science teachers and 5 of their administrators serving as instructional leaders. Strategies needed for professional growth to support learning and barriers that hamper it at both building and district levels were included. These questions were considered through the lens of Schon's reflective learning and Weick's sensemaking theories. Analysis with provisional and open coding strategies identified informal and formal supports and barriers to teachers' learning. Results indicated that informal supports, primarily internet usage, emerged as most valuable to the teachers' learning. Formal structures, including professional learning communities and grade level meetings, arose as both supportive and restrictive at the building and district levels. Existing formal supports emerged as the least useful because of the dominance of other priorities competing for time and resources. Addressing weaknesses within formal supports through more effective planning in professional development can promote positive change. Improvement to professional development approaches using the internet and increased hands on activities can be integrated into formal supports. Explicit attention to these strategies can strengthen teacher effectiveness bringing positive social change.
Impulse approximation versus elementary particle method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klieb, L.
1982-01-01
Calculations are made for radiative muon capture in 3 He, both in impulse approximation and with the elementary particle method, and results are compared. It is argued that a diagrammatic method which takes a selected set of Feynman diagrams into account only provides insufficient warrant that effects not included are small. Therefore low-energy theorems are employed, as first given by Adler and Dothan, to determine the amplitude up to and including all terms linear in photon momentum and momentum transfer at the weak vertex. This amplitude is applied to radiative muon capture with the elementary particle method (EPM). The various form factors needed are discussed. It is shown that the results are particularly sensitive to the π- 3 He- 3 H coupling constant of which many contradictory determinations have been described in the literature. The classification of the nuclear wave function employed in the impulse approximation (IA) is summarized. The ν-decay of 3 H and (radiative muon capture in 3 He is treated and numerical results are given. Next, pion photoproduction and radiative pion capture are considered. IA and EPM for radiative muon capture are compared more closely. It is concluded that two-step processes are inherently difficult; the elementary particle method has convergence problems, and unknown parameters are present. In the impulse approximation, which is perhaps conceptually more difficult, the two-step interaction for the nucleon is considered as effectively point-like with small non-local corrections. (Auth.)
Cultural Astronomy in Elementary and Secondary School
Jafelice, Luiz Carlos
2015-07-01
This work is addressed to educators and geography, science, biology and physics teachers who deal with elementary, middle and high school education. It discusses the importance of adopting the anthropological perspective regarding issues that are considered within the astronomy area. It also presents practical proposals for those who intend to introduce cultural astronomy in elementary, middle and high school education - from the beginning of the 1st grade in Elementary school to the end of the 3rd grade in Secondary school, in formal as well as in informal education. This work is proposed within the context of the holistic and transdisciplinary environmental education. Our approach values above all the experience and aims at a humanistic education that includes epistemological and cultural diversities. The suggested practical proposals can be also beneficially used to address works that include contents related to Brazilian indigenous and Afro-descent cultures in the school curriculum, as the new law requires. The guidelines presented here were tested in real school situations.
Elementary calculation of the extrapolation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boffi, V.C.; Haggag, M.H.; Spiga, G.
1985-01-01
A simple projectional technique combined with an equally simple parametric representation of the transient part of the neutron total flux is proposed for an elementary straightforward calculation of the extrapolation distance in diffusing media. (author)
Another short and elementary proof of strong subadditivity of quantum entropy
Ruskai, Mary Beth
2007-08-01
A short and elementary proof of the joint convexity of relative entropy is presented, using nothing beyond linear algebra. The key ingredients are an easily verified integral representation and the strategy used to prove the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality in elementary courses. Several consequences are proved in a way which allows an elementary proof of strong subadditivity in a few more lines. Some expository material on Schwarz inequalities for operators and the Holevo bound for partial measurements is also included.
Elementary number theory with programming
Lewinter, Marty
2015-01-01
A successful presentation of the fundamental concepts of number theory and computer programming Bridging an existing gap between mathematics and programming, Elementary Number Theory with Programming provides a unique introduction to elementary number theory with fundamental coverage of computer programming. Written by highly-qualified experts in the fields of computer science and mathematics, the book features accessible coverage for readers with various levels of experience and explores number theory in the context of programming without relying on advanced prerequisite knowledge and con
Elementary numerical mathematics for programmers and engineers
Stoyan, Gisbert
2016-01-01
This book covers the basics of numerical methods, while avoiding the definition-theorem-proof style and instead focusing on numerical examples and simple pseudo-codes. The book is divided into ten chapters. Starting with floating number calculations and continuing up to ordinary differential equations, including "Euler backwards". The final chapter discusses practical error estimations. Exercises (including several in MATLAB) are provided at the end of each chapter. Suitable for readers with minimal mathematical knowledge, the book not only offers an elementary introduction to numerical mathematics for programmers and engineers but also provides supporting material for students and teachers of mathematics.
Research in elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bland, R.W.; Greensite, J.
1992-01-01
Task A of this contract supports research in elementary particle physics using cryogenic particle detectors. We have developed superconducting aluminum tunnel-junction detectors sensitive to a variety of particle signals, and with potential application to a number of particle-physics problems. We have extended our range of technologies through a collaboration with Simon Labov, on niobium tri-layer junctions, and Jean-Paul Maneval, on high-T c superconducting bolometers. We have new data on response to low-energy X-rays and to alpha-particle signals from large-volume detectors. The theoretical work under this contract (Task B) is a continued investigation of nonperturbative aspects of quantum gravity. A Monte Carlo calculation is proposed for Euclidian quantum gravity, based on the ''fifth-time action'' stabilization procedure. Results from the last year include a set of seven papers, summarized below, addressing various aspects of nonperturbative quantum gravity and QCD. Among the issues- addressed is the so-called ''problem of time'' in canonical quantum gravity
Resource Letter HEPP-1: History of elementary-particle physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hovis, R.C. (Department of Physics, Clark Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York (USA)); Kragh, H. (TISK Project, Roskilde University Centre, Postbox 260, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark))
1991-09-01
This Resource Letter provides a guide to literature on the history of modern elementary-particle physics. Histories that treat developments from the 1930s through the 1980s are focused on and a sampling is included of the historiography covering the period c. 1890--1930, the prehistory of elementary-particle physics as a discipline. Also included are collections of scientific papers, which might be especially valuable to individuals who wish to undertake historical research on particular scientists or subfields of elementary-particle physics. The introduction presents some statistical data and associated references for elementary-particle physics and surveys historiographical approaches and issues that are represented in historical accounts in the bibliography. All references are assigned a rating of E (Elementary), I (Intermediate), or A (Advanced) based on their technical or conceptual difficulty or their appropriateness for a person attempting a graduated study of the history of modern particle physics. That is, items labeled E are suitable for the layman or would be fundamental to a beginning exploration of the history of particle physics, whereas items labeled A are technically demanding (mathematically, historiographically, or philosophically) or would be most appropriate for specialized or advanced examinations of various topics.
The Effects of Note-Taking Skills Instruction on Elementary Students' Reading
Chang, Wan-Chen; Ku, Yu-Min
2015-01-01
The authors investigated the effects of a 5-week note-taking skills instructional program on note-taking and reading comprehension performance of elementary students. The participants included 349 fourth-grade students from 2 elementary schools in Taiwan. The Note-Taking Instruction group received approximately 40 min of note-taking skills…
An Integrated Earth Science, Astronomy, and Physics Course for Elementary Education Majors
Plotnick, Roy E.; Varelas, Maria; Fan, Qian
2009-01-01
Physical World is a one-semester course designed for elementary education majors, that integrates earth science, astronomy, and physics. The course is part of a four-course set that explores science concepts, processes, and skills, along with the nature of scientific practice, that are included in state and national standards for elementary school…
Examining LGBTQ-Based Literature Intended for Primary and Intermediate Elementary Students
Bickford, John H., III
2018-01-01
This content analysis research examined how lesbian, gay, bisexual, transsexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals and issues are represented in elementary-level trade books. The data pool included every LGBTQ-based trade book with intended audiences of primary (grades K-2) and intermediate (grades 3-5) elementary students. Trade books…
Integrating E-Books into Science Teaching by Preservice Elementary School Teachers
Lai, Ching-San
2016-01-01
This study aims to discuss the issues of integrating e-books into science teaching by preservice elementary school teachers. The study adopts both qualitative and quantitative research methods. In total, 24 preservice elementary school teachers participated in this study. The main sources of research data included e-books produced by preservice…
Gonczi, Amanda L.; Chiu, Jennifer L.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Bell, Randy L.
2016-01-01
This investigation sought to identify patterns in elementary science teachers' computer simulation use, particularly implementation structures and instructional supports commonly employed by teachers. Data included video-recorded science lessons of 96 elementary teachers who used computer simulations in one or more science lessons. Results…
Sahin, Elif Adibelli; Deniz, Hasan
2016-01-01
This study explored how four elementary teachers assessed the developmental appropriateness and importance of nine nature of science (NOS) aspects after participating in a yearlong professional development program. A multiple-embedded case study design was employed. The primary data sources included (a) Views of Nature of Science Elementary School…
Bell, Randy L.; Matkins, Juanita Jo; Gansneder, Bruce M.
2011-01-01
This mixed-methods investigation compared the relative impacts of instructional approach and context of nature of science instruction on preservice elementary teachers' understandings. The sample consisted of 75 preservice teachers enrolled in four sections of an elementary science methods course. Independent variables included instructional…
Development and Validation of Nature of Science Instrument for Elementary School Students
Hacieminoglu, Esme; Yilmaz-Tüzün, Özgül; Ertepinar, Hamide
2014-01-01
The purposes of this study were to develop and validate an instrument for assessing elementary students' nature of science (NOS) views and to explain the elementary school students' NOS views, in terms of varying grade levels and gender. The sample included 782 students enrolled in sixth, seventh, and eighth grades. Exploratory factor analysis…
Chemistry at elementary schools: particles or also atoms – that's the ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
At elementary school level, the description of substances and their changes is preferred by most guidelines of education. If the elementary school includes fifth and sixth graders like in Africa, it seems to be possible to introduce the idea of the Particle Model of Matter to reflect changes of states, dissolving and diffusing ...
Acoustics in the elementary classroom
Hansen, Uwe J.
2005-04-01
The need for increased science exposure at all educational levels continues to be acute. Science is almost universally perceived as difficult, and its ability to raise the quality of life in the presence of apparently insurmountable social problems is increasingly suspect. Over the past 15 years we have conducted teacher workshops, visited classrooms, have organized hands-on demonstration sessions, judged science fairs, and mentored high school students in research efforts, all in an attempt to raise the level of enthusiasm for science. A look ahead suggests that the need continues. Elementary school teachers all too often limit their own science skills to plants and animals, and thus physics concepts do not get the exposure needed to generate the necessary excitement for the physical sciences. Workshops for Elementary grade teachers will be described, which are aimed at preparing teachers to use music as a vehicle to introduce basic physics concepts in the upper elementary grades.
Physical education in elementary school
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luciane Sanchonete Etchepare
2008-05-01
Full Text Available This study aimed at verifying the most evidenced objectives in Physical Education in elementary school, the teacher’s professional qualification, and the opinion of the teachers on the action of the Physical Education professional in these grades. The research was based on the opinion descriptive method. The sample comprised 27 teachers who teach Physical Education for elementary students at municipal, state and private schools in Santa Maria city – state of Rio Grande Sul. Interviews and a quantitative analysis of both the frequency and the percentage of the answers were used as data collecting. We can observe the following results: the most evidenced objectives are the development of the motor skills in the preschool and first grades, sport in the second and third grades and fun in the fourth grades. 93,75% of the teachers interviewed find the action of the professional graduated in Physical Education important for the elementary school.
Investigating the Self-Perceived Science Teaching Needs of Local Elementary Educators
Carver, Cynthia G.
Elementary teachers in one school system have expressed low self-efficacy teaching science and desire more support teaching science. However, little research has been conducted on how best to meet these teachers' needs. The theories of perceived self-efficacy, social cognition, and behaviorism make up the conceptual framework of this study. The focus of this qualitative project study was on the needs of local elementary educators. These teachers were asked what they felt they needed most to be more effective science educators. The methodology of phenomenology was used in this study in which local elementary teachers were questioned in focus groups regarding their own science teaching efficacy and perceived needs. Using inductive analysis, data were coded for links to discussion questions as well as any additional patterns that emerged. Findings indicated that local elementary teachers desire improved communication among administrators and teachers as well as better science content support and training. Focus group participants agreed that teacher self-efficacy affects the time spent, effort toward, and quality of elementary science education. Using the results of the study, a science mentor program was developed to support the needs of elementary teachers and increase teacher self-efficacy, thus improving local elementary science education. Implications for positive social change include the development and support of elementary science programs in other school systems with the goal of improving science education for elementary students.
Current experiments in elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galic, H.; Dodder, D.C.; Klyukhin, V.I.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Illarionova, N.S.; Lehar, F.; Oyanagi, Y.; Frosch, R.
1992-06-01
This report contains summaries of 584 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments that finished taking data before 1986 are excluded. Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, SSCL, and TRIUMF, and also several underground and underwater experiments. Instructions are given for remote searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries
[Research in elementary particles and interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adair, R.; Sandweiss, J.; Schmidt, M.
1992-05-01
Research of the Yale University groups in the areas of elementary particles and their interactions are outlined. Work on the following topics is reported: development of CDF trigger system; SSC detector development; study of heavy flavors at TPL; search for composite objects produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions; high-energy polarized lepton-nucleon scattering; rare K + decays; unpolarized high-energy muon scattering; muon anomalous magnetic moment; theoretical high-energy physics including gauge theories, symmetry breaking, string theory, and gravitation theory; study of e + e - interactions with the SLD detector at SLAC; and the production and decay of particles containing charm and beauty quarks
Current experiments in elementary particle physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Trippe, T.G.; Yost, G.P. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Oyanagi, Y. (Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan)); Dodder, D.C. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Ryabov, Yu.G.; Slabospitsky, S.R. (Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Serpukhov (USSR). Inst. Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij); Frosch, R. (Swiss Inst. for Nuclear Research, Villigen (Switzerla
1989-09-01
This report contains summaries of 736 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1982 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PSI/SIN, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several underground experiments. Also given are instructions for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized.
Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revised
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Galic, H. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Linear Accelerator Center; Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, B. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Dodder, D.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Klyukhin, V.I.; Ryabov, Yu.G. [Inst. for High Energy Physics, Serpukhov (Russian Federation); Illarionova, N.S. [Inst. of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lehar, F. [CEN Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Oyanagi, Y. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Sciences; Olin, A. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Frosch, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland)
1992-06-01
This report contains summaries of 584 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments that finished taking data before 1986 are excluded. Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, SSCL, and TRIUMF, and also several underground and underwater experiments. Instructions are given for remote searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.
Current experiments in elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Oyanagi, Y.; Dodder, D.C.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Frosch, R.; Olin, A.; Lehar, F.; Moskalev, A.N.; Barkov, B.P.
1987-03-01
This report contains summaries of 720 recent and current experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1980 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, KEK, LAMPF, Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute, Saclay, Serpukhov, SIN, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also experiments on proton decay. Instructions are given for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized
Current experiments in elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Trippe, T.G.; Yost, G.P.; Oyanagi, Y.; Dodder, D.C.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Slabospitsky, S.R.; Olin, A.; Klumov, I.A.
1989-09-01
This report contains summaries of 736 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1982 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PSI/SIN, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several underground experiments. Also given are instructions for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized
Current experiments in elementary particle physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E., Oyanagi, Y.; Dodder, D.C.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Frosch, R.; Olin, A.; Lehar, F.; Moskalev, A.N.; Barkov, B.P.
1987-03-01
This report contains summaries of 720 recent and current experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1980 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, KEK, LAMPF, Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute, Saclay, Serpukhov, SIN, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also experiments on proton decay. Instructions are given for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized.
Elementary Particles The first hundred years
Perkins, Donald Hill
1997-01-01
To mark the centenary of the discovery of that first elementary particle, the electron, some remarks and recollections from the early days of high energy physics, including the impact of early experiments and ideas on todayÕs research. Much of our progress in this field has been carefully anticipated and planned, but a surprising number of successes were the result of incredibly lucky breaks, where headway was made despite - or even because of - incorrect experimental results, crossed wires or simply asking the wrong question at the right time. We can be sure therefore that the next century - or perhaps even what remains of this one - will have unexpected surprises in store.
On calculation of elementary particles' masses
Kyriakos, Alexander G.
2006-01-01
The purpose of present paper is to develop the approach to calculation of the mass spectra of elementary particles within the framework of the resonance theory of elementary particles as de Broglie waves
Dimensional considerations about elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cocconi, G.
1978-01-01
The search for fundamental elementary particles responsible for the observed behaviour of matter during the past decades is briefly reviewed, and the possibility is considered that the four fundamental interactions that shape things merge into a unique field when matter is so compressed that particles are at extremely small distances from one another. These interactions are the gravitational interaction, the electromagnetic interaction, the strong interaction, and the weak interaction. It is thought that a simple geometrical criterion, termed the 'elementary criterion', would suffice to indicate how the various interactions should behave as particles are brought closer to one another and thus approach the situation where all interactions merge. (6 references). (U.K.)
Dermatomycosis among Elementary School Children in Jatinangor West Java
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Isni Maulina Sukmara
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Background: Dermatomycosis often occurs in tropical countries. Many studies from tropical countries have reported high prevalence of dermatomycosis among elementary school children. Despite being a tropical country, prevalence of dermatomycosis among elementary school children in Indonesia is still unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of dermatomycosis among elementary school children in Jatinangor, Sumedang, West Java in September–November 2012. Methods: This study used a cross-sectional descriptive survey method. The 328 children from five elementary schools in Jatinangor were included in the study using multistage sampling technique. Medical history and physical examination was performed to all subjects. Subjects who had skin lesion suspected for dermatomycosis were examined with direct microscopic examination using 10% solutions of potassium hydroxide (KOH. Data were presented as frequent analysis distribution using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 17.0. Results: Of 328 children (174 males, 154 females; aged 5–14 years, 35 (10.6% had lesions suggestive of dermatomycosis but only 5 children (1.5% were positive for dermatomycosis. Males are more prevalent females, patients were in ≥10 years age group. Four cases were Pityriasis versicolor, while one was diagnosed with tinea facialis. Conclusions: Dermatomycosis among elementary school children in Jatinangor had a low prevalence, with only 4 cases of Pityriasis versicolor and one tinea facialis case.
Digital Photography for Elementary Students
Neckers, Matt
2009-01-01
Most elementary students approach photography in an open-minded, experimental way. As a result, their images are often more playful than those taken by adults. Students discover more through their own explorations than they would learn through overly structured lessons. In this article, the author describes how he introduces his elementary…
Franklin Elementary PTA's "Sweet Success"
Freemon, Jennifer
2012-01-01
Just a few short years ago, Franklin Elementary in Glendale, California, was in danger of closing its doors because enrollment was so low. The school district decided to put into place a series of language immersion programs at the site. It currently houses Spanish, Italian, and German immersion programs. These programs have boosted Franklin's…
Innovation in the Elementary Classroom
Wright, Geoffrey A.; Jones, Matthew D.
2018-01-01
In this article, the authors outline an innovation curriculum that can be taught to elementary-aged students to expand their creative and innovative abilities and potential. The curriculum focuses on divergent and convergent thinking principles embedded in a hands-on learning pedagogy. The curriculum framework is based on an innovation model known…
Elementary Students' Metaphors for Democracy
Dundar, Hakan
2012-01-01
The purpose of the research was to reveal elementary 8th grade students' opinions concerning democracy with the aid of metaphors. The students were asked to produce metaphors about the concept of democracy. 140 students from 3 public schools in Ankara (Turkey) participated in the research. 55% of the students were females and 45% were males. The…
Cooperative Learning in Elementary Schools
Slavin, Robert E.
2015-01-01
Cooperative learning refers to instructional methods in which students work in small groups to help each other learn. Although cooperative learning methods are used for different age groups, they are particularly popular in elementary (primary) schools. This article discusses methods and theoretical perspectives on cooperative learning for the…
Elementary Algebra Connections to Precalculus
Lopez-Boada, Roberto; Daire, Sandra Arguelles
2013-01-01
This article examines the attitudes of some precalculus students to solve trigonometric and logarithmic equations and systems using the concepts of elementary algebra. With the goal of enticing the students to search for and use connections among mathematical topics, they are asked to solve equations or systems specifically designed to allow…
Parent Education and Elementary Counseling.
Lamb, Jackie; Lamb, Wesley A.
This monograph serves as an overview of theory and technique for parent training, most specifically through the implementation of programs led by the elementary school counselor and the school psychologist. This document explores the history, basic assumptions, goals, training procedures, training of trainers, and references and resources from a…
Thomas Edison Accelerated Elementary School.
Levin, Henry M.; Chasin, Gene
This paper describes early outcomes of a Sacramento, California, elementary school that participated in the Accelerated Schools Project. The school, which serves many minority and poor students, began training for the project in 1992. Accelerated Schools were designed to advance the learning rate of students through a gifted and talented approach,…
Atomic nucleus and elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zakrzewski, J.
1976-01-01
Negatively charged leptons and hadrons can be incorporated into atomic shells forming exotic atoms. Nucleon resonances and Λ hyperons can be considered as constituents of atomic nuclei. Information derived from studies of such exotic systems enriches our knowledge of both the interactions of elementary particles and of the structure of atomic nuclei. (author)
Electrical elementary diagrams and operators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Patterson, B.K. [Human Factors Practical Inc., Dipper Harbour, New Brunswick (Canada)]. E-mail: HumanFactors@netscape.ca
2005-07-01
After 40 years of reading and interrupting electrical elementary logic drawings, I have concluded that we need to make a change. We need to write and express our nuclear power plant logic in some other language than relay ladder logic, solid state logic or computer mnemonics. The language should be English, or your native language, and the format should be Descriptive Block Diagrams. (author)
Place-based Learning About Climate with Elementary GLOBE
Hatheway, B.; Gardiner, L. S.; Harte, T.; Stanitski, D.; Taylor, J.
2017-12-01
Place-based education - helping students make connections between themselves, their community, and their local environment - is an important tool to help young learners understand their regional climate and start to learn about climate and environmental change. Elementary GLOBE storybooks and learning activities allow opportunities for place-based education instructional strategies about climate. In particular, two modules in the Elementary GLOBE unit - Seasons and Climate - provide opportunities for students to explore their local climate and environment. The storybooks and activities also make connections to other parts of elementary curriculum, such as arts, geography, and math. Over the long term, place-based education can also encourage students to be stewards of their local environment. A strong sense of place may help students to see themselves as stakeholders in their community and its resilience. In places that are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate and environmental change and the economic, social, and environmental tradeoffs of community decisions, helping young students developing a sense of place and to see the connection between Earth science, local community, and their lives can have a lasting impact on how a community evolves for decades to come. Elementary GLOBE was designed to help elementary teachers (i.e., grades K-4) integrate Earth system science topics into their curriculum as they teach literacy skills to students. This suite of instructional materials includes seven modules. Each module contains a science-based storybook and learning activities that support the science content addressed in the storybooks. Elementary GLOBE modules feature air quality, climate, clouds, Earth system, seasons, soil, and water. New eBooks allow students to read stories on computers or tablets, with the option of listening to each story with an audio recording. A new Elementary GLOBE Teacher Implementation Guide, published in 2017, provides
Elementary General and Special Education Teachers' Mathematics Skills and Efficacy
Flores, Margaret M.; Thornton, Jennifer; Franklin, Toni M.; Hinton, Vanessa M.; Strozier, Shaunita
2014-01-01
The purpose of this study was to extend the literature regarding elementary teachers' beliefs about mathematics instruction to include special education teachers by surveying special education and general education teachers' mathematics teaching efficacy. In addition, the researchers' surveyed teachers' mathematics skills. The participants (n =…
"We Make It Controversial": Elementary Preservice Teachers' Beliefs about Race
Buchanan, Lisa Brown
2015-01-01
The impetus for this study began during an elementary teacher education course meeting, where preservice teachers discussed whether or not it was appropriate to discuss controversial topics--including race--with young children. Preservice teachers disclosed their "uncomfortableness" with race at large, and emphasized that discussions…
Quantum Optics, Diffraction Theory, and Elementary Particle Physics
CERN. Geneva
2009-01-01
Physical optics has expanded greatly in recent years. Though it remains part of the ancestry of elementary particle physics, there are once again lessons to be learned from it. I shall discuss several of these, including some that have emerged at CERN and Brookhaven.
A Comprehensive Science Education Program for Preparing Elementary School Teachers.
Phillips, Donald B.
1984-01-01
Presents an integrated sequence of courses designed to teach both science content and science teaching methodology to prospective elementary school teachers. Includes courses in physics, chemistry, earth science and biology; describes the chemistry course in detail; and explains how the methods portion is integrated into the course. (JM)
Dynamic Assessment, Potential Giftedness and Mathematics Achievement in Elementary School
Popa, Nicoleta Laura; Pauc, Ramona Loredana
2015-01-01
Dynamic assessment is currently discussed in educational literature as one of the most promising practices in stimulating learning among various groups of students, including gifted and potentially gifted students. The present study investigates effects of dynamic assessment on mathematics achievement among elementary school students, with…
Technology Integration in Elementary Classrooms: Teaching Practices of Student Teachers
Liu, Ping
2016-01-01
This study examines how and why student teachers integrated technology to enhance instruction in elementary classrooms. The participants were 31 student teachers who completed an assignment of eight weeks. Multiple data sets including observation notes of 347 lessons were obtained from three key groups for data triangulation. Results reveal that…
Ergonomic Based Design and Survey of Elementary School Furniture
Maheshwar; Jawalkar, Chandrashekhar S.
2014-01-01
This paper presents the ergonomic aspects in designing and prototyping of desks cum chairs used in elementary schools. The procedures adopted for the assessment included: the study of existing school furniture, design analysis and development of prototypes. The design approach proposed a series of adjustable desks and chairs developed in terms of…
The Use and Effectiveness of Computers in the Elementary Classroom.
Caster, Tonja
Practical issues that should be considered in placing a classroom computer for use with elementary students include where to locate computer equipment in relation to electrical sockets, windows, and chalkboards; the program sound; who will be able to see the screen; and classroom traffic patterns. Decisions must be made regarding the size of…
A Case Study in Elementary Statistics: The Florida Panther Population
Lazowski, Andrew; Stopper, Geffrey
2013-01-01
We describe a case study that was created to intertwine the fields of biology and mathematics. This project is given in an elementary probability and statistics course for non-math majors. Some goals of this case study include: to expose students to biology in a math course, to apply probability to real-life situations, and to display how far a…
Diverse Learners. Reauthorizing the Elementary and Secondary Education Act
US Department of Education, 2010
2010-01-01
To achieve President Obama's stated goal of including all of America's students in leading the world in education, the administration has designed a blueprint for a reenvisioned federal role in education through the reauthorization of the "Elementary and Secondary Education Act" ("ESEA"). The new "ESEA" will ensure…
Beyond the Ordinary--Learning Centers in Elementary Physical Education.
Aufsesser, Kathryn Summa
1980-01-01
One of the most successful motivators in elementary physical education today is the concept of "themed learning centers." Such themes might involve the popular topics of superheroes or television stars. Included in this presentation are lists of basic components and purposes for themed learning centers, and a sample learning center. (JN)
Educational Quality Assessment. Manual for Interpreting Elementary School Reports.
Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of Planning and Evaluation.
This manual is designed to accompany Pennsylvania Educational Quality Assessment (EQA) elementary school reports for a district. The manual is not intended to stand alone; it is an aid to school administrators and other staff members for understanding the reports of their respective schools. Information includes: participating schools,…
Elementary particles and basic interactions. Trends and perspectives
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baton, J.P.; Cohen-Tannoudji, G.
1992-06-01
This lesson given to Physics teachers, takes stock of actual knowledge and trends in Particle Physics: basic interactions and unification, elementary particles (lepton-quarks), fields theories, boson and gluon discovery. It reminds the operating principle of different large accelerators established in the world and associated particle detectors. It includes also a glossary
Ideas and Insights: Language Arts in the Elementary School.
Watson, Dorothy J., Ed.
Intended to provide elementary school language arts teachers with new and interesting teaching activities, this book contains over 100 teacher-tested classroom activities that are based on the whole language approach to learning. Chapters discuss the following: (1) a world of language in use; (2) literature points the way (including themes and…
Perceptions of Elementary School Teachers Concerning the Concept of Curriculum
Yurdakul, Bunyamin
2015-01-01
As the meaning that teachers attribute to curriculum includes important data concerning curriculum development as well as affects their teaching process, this study investigated the perceptions of elementary school teachers regarding the concept of curriculum. The participants of the study, which was carried out using the phenomenological design,…
Elementary Science and Reading Activities for Teacher Educators.
Rezba, Richard J.
The author suggests ways reading can be integrated with science and describes the reading activities in an elementary science methods course. The activities include: (1) selecting a science tradebook for children to review and for the teacher to analyze vocabulary; (2) helping children review science tradebooks; and (3) encouraging independent…
About limit masses of elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ibadova, U.R.
2002-01-01
The simple examples of spontaneous breaking of various symmetries for the scalar theory with fundamental mass have been considered. Higgs' generalizations on 'fundamental masses' that was introduced into the theory on a basis of the five-dimensional de Sitter space. The connection among 'fundamental mass', 'Planck's mass' and 'maxim ons' has been found. Consequently, the relationship among G-gravitational constant and other universal parameters can be established. The concept the mass having its root from deep antiquity (including Galilee's Pis sans experiment, theoretical research of the connection of mass with the Einstein's energy etc.) still remains fundamental. Every theoretical and experimental research in classical physics and quantum physics associated with mass is of step to the discernment of Nature. Besides of mass, the other fundamental constants such as Planck's constant ℎ and the speed of light also play the most important role in the modern theories. The first one related to quantum mechanics and the second one is related to the theory of relativity. Nowadays the properties and interactions of elementary particles can be described more or less adequately in terms of local fields that are affiliated with the lowest representations of corresponding compact groups of symmetry. It is known that the mass of any body is composed of masses of its comprising elementary particles. The mass of elementary particles is the Casimir operator of the non-compact Poincare group, and those representations of the given group, that are being used in Quantum Field Theory (QFT), and it can take any values in the interval of 0≤m≤∞. Two particles, today referred to as elementary particles, can have masses; distinct one from another by many orders. For example, vectorial bosons with the mass of ∼10 15 GeV take place in general relativity theory modules, whereas the mass of an electron is only ∼0.5·10 3 GeV. Formally, the standard QFT remains logical in a case
Topics in elementary particle physics
Jin, Xiang
The author of this thesis discusses two topics in elementary particle physics: n-ary algebras and their applications to M-theory (Part I), and functional evolution and Renormalization Group flows (Part II). In part I, Lie algebra is extended to four different n-ary algebraic structure: generalized Lie algebra, Filippov algebra, Nambu algebra and Nambu-Poisson tensor; though there are still many other n-ary algebras. A natural property of Generalized Lie algebras — the Bremner identity, is studied, and proved with a totally different method from its original version. We extend Bremner identity to n-bracket cases, where n is an arbitrary odd integer. Filippov algebras do not focus on associativity, and are defined by the Fundamental identity. We add associativity to Filippov algebras, and give examples of how to construct Filippov algebras from su(2), bosonic oscillator, Virasoro algebra. We try to include fermionic charges into the ternary Virasoro-Witt algebra, but the attempt fails because fermionic charges keep generating new charges that make the algebra not closed. We also study the Bremner identity restriction on Nambu algebras and Nambu-Poisson tensors. So far, the only example 3-algebra being used in physics is the BLG model with 3-algebra A4, describing two M2-branes interactions. Its extension with Nambu algebra, BLG-NB model, is believed to describe infinite M2-branes condensation. Also, there is another propose for M2-brane interactions, the ABJM model, which is constructed by ordinary Lie algebra. We compare the symmetry properties between them, and discuss the possible approaches to include these three models into a grand unification theory. In Part II, we give an approximate solution for Schroeder's equations, based on series and conjugation methods. We use the logistic map as an example, and demonstrate that this approximate solution converges to known analytical solutions around the fixed point, around which the approximate solution is constructed
Stochastic pulse models of a partially-coherent elementary field representation of pulse coherence.
Fernández-Pousa, Carlos R
2013-04-22
A representation of the mutual coherence function (MCF) of a light pulse as an incoherent sum of partially-coherent elementary pulses is introduced. It is shown that this MCF can be decomposed into fully and partially-coherent constituents and three different pulse models of partially-coherent constituents are constructed: single elementary-pulse fluctuations, emission of elementary fields driven by white noise, and elementary pulses triggered by Poisson impulses. The fourth-order correlation function of this last model includes as limit cases those of the fluctuating-pulse and noise-driven-emission models. These results provide a means of extending elementary-field models to higher-order coherence theory.
Sleep Habits of Elementary and Middle School Children in South Texas.
Surani, Salim; Hesselbacher, Sean; Surani, Saherish; Sadasiva, Sreevidya; Surani, Zoya; Surani, Sara S; Khimani, Amina; Subramanian, Shyam
2015-01-01
Background. Sleep difficulties, including insufficient sleep and inadequate sleep hygiene, have been prevalent among children. Sleep deprivation can lead to poor grades, sleepiness, and moodiness. We undertook this study to assess the prevalence of sleep abnormalities among elementary and middle school students in South Texas and how the groups compare with one another. Method. After approval from the appropriate school district for a sleep education program, a baseline survey was taken of elementary and middle school students, using the Children's Sleep Habit Questionnaire-Sleep Self-Report Form, which assessed the domains of bedtime resistance, sleep onset delay, sleep anxiety, sleep duration, night awakening, and daytime sleepiness. Results. The survey was completed by 499 elementary and 1008 middle school children. Trouble sleeping was reported by 43% in elementary school, compared with 29% of middle school children. Fifty percent of middle school children did not like sleeping, compared with 26% in elementary school. Bedtime resistance, sleep onset delay, and nighttime awakening were more common among elementary school students. Daytime sleepiness was more common among the middle school children when compared to elementary school children. Conclusions. Sleep abnormalities are present in elementary school children with changes in sleep habits into middle school.
Sleep Habits of Elementary and Middle School Children in South Texas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Salim Surani
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Background. Sleep difficulties, including insufficient sleep and inadequate sleep hygiene, have been prevalent among children. Sleep deprivation can lead to poor grades, sleepiness, and moodiness. We undertook this study to assess the prevalence of sleep abnormalities among elementary and middle school students in South Texas and how the groups compare with one another. Method. After approval from the appropriate school district for a sleep education program, a baseline survey was taken of elementary and middle school students, using the Children’s Sleep Habit Questionnaire-Sleep Self-Report Form, which assessed the domains of bedtime resistance, sleep onset delay, sleep anxiety, sleep duration, night awakening, and daytime sleepiness. Results. The survey was completed by 499 elementary and 1008 middle school children. Trouble sleeping was reported by 43% in elementary school, compared with 29% of middle school children. Fifty percent of middle school children did not like sleeping, compared with 26% in elementary school. Bedtime resistance, sleep onset delay, and nighttime awakening were more common among elementary school students. Daytime sleepiness was more common among the middle school children when compared to elementary school children. Conclusions. Sleep abnormalities are present in elementary school children with changes in sleep habits into middle school.
Teaching Astronomy from Elementary School to University
Amorim, V.; Pereira, M. G.; Liberato, M. L. R.; Caramelo, L.; Amraoui, M.; Alencoão, A. M.; Reis, A.
2009-04-01
Earth sciences are included in both elementary and secondary education school curricula in Portugal because it increases students' skills concerning living in planet Earth. Astronomy concepts and laws are learned to provide a global understanding of the constitution and characterization of the universe, the solar system and the position of Earth in these systems. The Earth in Space theme comprises: the universe (scale measurements and characterization); the solar system (origin, constitution, orientation, dimension and characterization); the Earth in the solar system (movements and forces); and the Earth (shape and constitution). Interaction processes between the Sun, the Earth and the Moon, (e.g. earth position, explanation of day and night, reason for the seasons, phases of the moon) are also studied. It is aimed that the students learn to monitor and to register the observations. In this sense, besides the use of planetarium and field observations using telescopes we also propose the use of internet and simulation software. Our experience reveals that software dynamics studies and online exploitation techniques improve student outcomes since they provide the opportunity for students to develop their own mental models. All these resources collectively seem to provide an appropriate creative environment for students. For these reasons, we are working with elementary and secondary school teachers. We firmly believe that it is more likely to result in a gradual progress in their practices, in the curricula and in long-term improvements in students' outcomes.
Iteration in Early-Elementary Engineering Design
McFarland Kendall, Amber Leigh
K-12 standards and curricula are beginning to include engineering design as a key practice within Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education. However, there is little research on how the youngest students engage in engineering design within the elementary classroom. This dissertation focuses on iteration as an essential aspect of engineering design, and because research at the college and professional level suggests iteration improves the designer's understanding of problems and the quality of design solutions. My research presents qualitative case studies of students in kindergarten and third-grade as they engage in classroom engineering design challenges which integrate with traditional curricula standards in mathematics, science, and literature. I discuss my results through the lens of activity theory, emphasizing practices, goals, and mediating resources. Through three chapters, I provide insight into how early-elementary students iterate upon their designs by characterizing the ways in which lesson design impacts testing and revision, by analyzing the plan-driven and experimentation-driven approaches that student groups use when solving engineering design challenges, and by investigating how students attend to constraints within the challenge. I connect these findings to teacher practices and curriculum design in order to suggest methods of promoting iteration within open-ended, classroom-based engineering design challenges. This dissertation contributes to the field of engineering education by providing evidence of productive engineering practices in young students and support for the value of engineering design challenges in developing students' participation and agency in these practices.
Elementary principles of linear accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loew, G.A.; Talman, R.
1983-09-01
These lectures come in five sections. The first is this introduction. The second is a short chronology of what are viewed as important milestones in the field. The third covers proton linacs. It introduces elementary concepts such as transit time, shunt impedance, and Q. Critical issues such as phase stability and transverse forces are discussed. The fourth section contains an elementary discussion of waveguide accelerating structures. It can be regarded as an introduction to some of the more advanced treatments of the subject. The final section is devoted to electron accelerators. Taking SLAC as an example, various topics are discussed such as structure design, choice of parameters, frequency optimization, beam current, emittance, bunch length and beam loading. Recent developments and future challenges are mentioned briefly. 41 figures, 4 tables
Elementary principles of linear accelerators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Loew, G.A.; Talman, R.
1983-09-01
These lectures come in five sections. The first is this introduction. The second is a short chronology of what are viewed as important milestones in the field. The third covers proton linacs. It introduces elementary concepts such as transit time, shunt impedance, and Q. Critical issues such as phase stability and transverse forces are discussed. The fourth section contains an elementary discussion of waveguide accelerating structures. It can be regarded as an introduction to some of the more advanced treatments of the subject. The final section is devoted to electron accelerators. Taking SLAC as an example, various topics are discussed such as structure design, choice of parameters, frequency optimization, beam current, emittance, bunch length and beam loading. Recent developments and future challenges are mentioned briefly. 41 figures, 4 tables.
Elementary Particles A New Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
FranciscoMartnezFlores.
2015-07-01
Full Text Available ABSTRACT It is shown the inexistence of neutrinos to define precisely the concept of relativistics mass under this scheme to elementarys particles as electron and interactions particles like photons correspond an electromagnetic and virtual mass. Nucleons protons and neutrons have real or inertial mass for being composite particles since inertia needs structure it is provided by an interactive network originated by strong and weak forces. This mass is building up atoms and all the material world under Classical Physics and Chemistrys laws.These actual masses may be considered as electromagnetic and virtual one thanks to its charge in order to establish the high energies level needed to obtain all particles physics elementary or not which are governed by the laws of Quantum Physics. With all this one may set up amore reasonable and understandable new Standard Model which being projected into Cosmological Model can get rid of some inconsistencies and concepts difficult to be admitted.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tollestrup, A.V.; Dugan, G
1983-12-01
Major headings in this review include: proton sources; antiproton production; antiproton sources and Liouville, the role of the Debuncher; transverse stochastic cooling, time domain; the accumulator; frequency domain; pickups and kickers; Fokker-Planck equation; calculation of constants in the Fokker-Planck equation; and beam feedback. (GHT)
Elementary statistical physics
Kittel, C
1965-01-01
This book is intended to help physics students attain a modest working knowledge of several areas of statistical mechanics, including stochastic processes and transport theory. The areas discussed are among those forming a useful part of the intellectual background of a physicist.
Supersymmetry in Elementary Particle Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peskin, Michael E.; /SLAC
2008-02-05
These lectures give a general introduction to supersymmetry, emphasizing its application to models of elementary particle physics at the 100 GeV energy scale. I discuss the following topics: the construction of supersymmetric Lagrangians with scalars, fermions, and gauge bosons, the structure and mass spectrum of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), the measurement of the parameters of the MSSM at high-energy colliders, and the solutions that the MSSM gives to the problems of electroweak symmetry breaking and dark matter.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sternheimer, J.
1983-01-01
This Note offers a new point of view on particle masses. It is shown that they are distributed following a musical scale, the chromatic tempered scale -for stable particles- subdivided into microintervals including unstable particles. A theoretical explanation, based on causality, allows one also to calculate their global distribution along the mass scale, in agreement with experiment, and indicating the existence of ''musical'' laws in the vibratory organisation of matter [fr
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sternheimer, J.
1983-12-12
This note offers a new point of view on particle masses. It is shown that they are distributed following a musical scale, the chromatic tempered scale -for stable particles- subdivided into microintervals including unstable particles. A theoretical explanation, based on causality, allows one also to calculate their global distribution along the mass scale, in agreement with experiment, and indicating the existence of ''musical'' laws in the vibratory organisation of matter.
Marcinkiewicz, Henryk R.; And Others
1995-01-01
Discovered that the introduction of piano keyboarding into elementary school music instruction produced a positive effect regarding children's sentiment towards school. No discernible effect was revealed concerning memory skills. Includes statistical data and description of survey questionnaires. (MJP)
Hohn, Franz E
2012-01-01
This complete and coherent exposition, complemented by numerous illustrative examples, offers readers a text that can teach by itself. Fully rigorous in its treatment, it offers a mathematically sound sequencing of topics. The work starts with the most basic laws of matrix algebra and progresses to the sweep-out process for obtaining the complete solution of any given system of linear equations - homogeneous or nonhomogeneous - and the role of matrix algebra in the presentation of useful geometric ideas, techniques, and terminology.Other subjects include the complete treatment of the structur
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Eriksen, Tine L. Mundbjerg; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne
2014-01-01
Bullying is a widespread social phenomenon that is thought to have detrimental effects on life outcomes. This paper investigates the link between bullying and later school performance. We rely on rich survey and register-based data for children born in a region of Denmark during 1990–92, which...... allows us to carefully consider possible confounders including psychological factors. We implement an IV strategy inspired by Carrell and Hoekstra (2010) where we instrument victim status with the proportion of peers from troubled homes in one’s classroom. We show that bullied children suffer in terms...
Saxon, David S
2012-01-01
Based on lectures for an undergraduate UCLA course in quantum mechanics, this volume focuses on the formulas of quantum mechanics rather than applications. Widely used in both upper-level undergraduate and graduate courses, it offers a broad self-contained survey rather than in-depth treatments.Topics include the dual nature of matter and radiation, state functions and their interpretation, linear momentum, the motion of a free particle, Schrödinger's equation, approximation methods, angular momentum, and many other subjects. In the interests of keeping the mathematics as simple as possible, m
Bradbury, Leslie U.; Wilson, Rachel E.; Brookshire, Laura E.
2017-06-01
In this self-study, two science educators partnered with two elementary teachers to plan, implement, and reflect on a unit taught in second grade classrooms that integrated science and language arts. The researchers hoped to increase their pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) for elementary science teaching so that they might use their experiences working in an elementary context to modify their practices in their elementary science method instruction. The research question guiding the study was: What aspects of our PCK for elementary science teaching do we as science educators develop by co-planning, co-teaching, and reflecting with second grade teachers? Data include transcripts of planning meetings, oral reflections about the experience, and videos of the unit being enacted. Findings indicate that managing resources for science teaching, organizing students for science learning, and reflecting on science teaching were themes prevalent in the data. These themes were linked to the model of PCK developed by Park and Oliver (Research in Science Education, 38, 261-284, 2008) and demonstrate that we developed PCK for elementary science teaching in several areas. In our discussion, we include several proposed changes for our elementary science methods course based on the outcomes of the study.
Schwerdtfeger, Sara
2017-01-01
This study examined the differences in knowledge of mathematical modeling between a group of elementary preservice teachers and a group of elementary inservice teachers. Mathematical modeling has recently come to the forefront of elementary mathematics classrooms because of the call to add mathematical modeling tasks in mathematics classes through…
(Research in elementary particles and interactions). [1992
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adair, R.; Sandweiss, J.; Schmidt, M.
1992-05-01
Research of the Yale University groups in the areas of elementary particles and their interactions are outlined. Work on the following topics is reported: development of CDF trigger system; SSC detector development; study of heavy flavors at TPL; search for composite objects produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions; high-energy polarized lepton-nucleon scattering; rare K{sup +} decays; unpolarized high-energy muon scattering; muon anomalous magnetic moment; theoretical high-energy physics including gauge theories, symmetry breaking, string theory, and gravitation theory; study of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} interactions with the SLD detector at SLAC; and the production and decay of particles containing charm and beauty quarks.
Chemical kinetic functional sensitivity analysis: Elementary sensitivities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Demiralp, M.; Rabitz, H.
1981-01-01
Sensitivity analysis is considered for kinetics problems defined in the space--time domain. This extends an earlier temporal Green's function method to handle calculations of elementary functional sensitivities deltau/sub i//deltaα/sub j/ where u/sub i/ is the ith species concentration and α/sub j/ is the jth system parameter. The system parameters include rate constants, diffusion coefficients, initial conditions, boundary conditions, or any other well-defined variables in the kinetic equations. These parameters are generally considered to be functions of position and/or time. Derivation of the governing equations for the sensitivities and the Green's funciton are presented. The physical interpretation of the Green's function and sensitivities is given along with a discussion of the relation of this work to earlier research
The Search for Stable, Massive, Elementary Particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Peter C.
2001-01-01
In this paper we review the experimental and observational searches for stable, massive, elementary particles other than the electron and proton. The particles may be neutral, may have unit charge or may have fractional charge. They may interact through the strong, electromagnetic, weak or gravitational forces or through some unknown force. The purpose of this review is to provide a guide for future searches--what is known, what is not known, and what appear to be the most fruitful areas for new searches. A variety of experimental and observational methods such as accelerator experiments, cosmic ray studies, searches for exotic particles in bulk matter and searches using astrophysical observations is included in this review
Compilation of data on elementary particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trippe, T.G.
1984-09-01
The most widely used data compilation in the field of elementary particle physics is the Review of Particle Properties. The origin, development and current state of this compilation are described with emphasis on the features which have contributed to its success: active involvement of particle physicists; critical evaluation and review of the data; completeness of coverage; regular distribution of reliable summaries including a pocket edition; heavy involvement of expert consultants; and international collaboration. The current state of the Review and new developments such as providing interactive access to the Review's database are described. Problems and solutions related to maintaining a strong and supportive relationship between compilation groups and the researchers who produce and use the data are discussed.
Compilation of data on elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trippe, T.G.
1984-09-01
The most widely used data compilation in the field of elementary particle physics is the Review of Particle Properties. The origin, development and current state of this compilation are described with emphasis on the features which have contributed to its success: active involvement of particle physicists; critical evaluation and review of the data; completeness of coverage; regular distribution of reliable summaries including a pocket edition; heavy involvement of expert consultants; and international collaboration. The current state of the Review and new developments such as providing interactive access to the Review's database are described. Problems and solutions related to maintaining a strong and supportive relationship between compilation groups and the researchers who produce and use the data are discussed
Everglades National Park Including Biscayne National Park. Activity Book.
Ruehrwein, Dick
Intended to help elementary school children learn about the resources of the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks, this activity book includes information, puzzles, games, and quizzes. The booklet deals with concepts related to: (1) the seasons; (2) fire ecology; (3) water; (4) fish; (5) mammals; (6) mosquitos; (7) birds; (8) venomous snakes;…
Instrumentation in elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fabjan, C.W.; Pilcher, J.E.
1988-01-01
The first International Committee for Future Accelerators Instrumentation School was held at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy from 8 to 19 June 1987. The School was attended by 74 students of whom 45 were from developing countries, 10 lecturers and 9 laboratory instructors. The next generation of elementary particle physics experiments would depend vitally on new ideas in instrumentation. This is a field where creativity and imagination play a major role and large budgets are not a prerequisite. One of the unique features was the presentation of four laboratory experiments using modern techniques and instrumentation. Refs, figs and tabs
Sahin, Elif Adibelli; Deniz, Hasan; Topçu, Mustafa Sami
2016-01-01
The present study investigated to what extent Turkish preservice elementary teachers' orientations to teaching science could be explained by their epistemological beliefs, conceptions of learning, and approaches to learning science. The sample included 157 Turkish preservice elementary teachers. The four instruments used in the study were School…
Akerson, Valarie L.; Pongsanon, Khemmawadee; Park Rogers, Meredith A.; Carter, Ingrid; Galindo, Enrique
2017-01-01
This study explored a modified version of Japanese Lesson Study to determine whether and how it influenced preservice elementary teachers in their abilities to deliver science lessons that included nature of science (NOS) to their own students. We used a case study approach that focused on one subset of a cohort of preservice elementary teachers…
Elementary particle physics at the University of Florida
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1991-01-01
This report discusses research in the following areas: theoretical elementary particle physics; experimental elementary particle physics; axion project; SSC detector development; and computer acquisition. (LSP)
Elementary particle physics at the University of Florida
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1991-12-01
This report discusses research in the following areas: theoretical elementary particle physics; experimental elementary particle physics; axion project; SSC detector development; and computer acquisition. (LSP).
Vacuum alignment with and without elementary scalars
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alanne, Tommi; Gertov, Helene; Meroni, Aurora
2016-01-01
We systematically elucidate differences and similarities of the vacuum alignment issue in composite and renormalizable elementary extensions of the Standard Model featuring a pseudo-Goldstone Higgs. We also provide general conditions for the stability of the vacuum in the elementary framework...
Communication and Stakeholder Engagement at Brighouse Elementary
Drew, Robert
2011-01-01
The Samuel Brighouse Elementary School, located in Richmond, BC, a city adjacent to Vancouver on the west coast of Canada, is a five-hundred student elementary school. When completed in September 2011, it will replace an existing older school on the same site. This project was identified early on as an opportunity for the Richmond School Board to…
On Elementary and Algebraic Cellular Automata
Gulak, Yuriy
In this paper we study elementary cellular automata from an algebraic viewpoint. The goal is to relate the emergent complex behavior observed in such systems with the properties of corresponding algebraic structures. We introduce algebraic cellular automata as a natural generalization of elementary ones and discuss their applications as generic models of complex systems.
College and Career Readiness in Elementary Schools
Pulliam, Nicole; Bartek, Samantha
2018-01-01
This conceptual article will provide an in-depth exploration of the relevant literature focused on college and career readiness interventions in elementary schools. Beginning with a theoretical framework, a rationale is provided for early intervention by elementary school counselors. While professional guidelines and standards exist supporting…
Applying Disciplinary Literacy in Elementary Geography
Britt, Judy; Ming, Kavin
2017-01-01
In this article, a social studies teacher and a literacy teacher describe a vision for social studies that highlights reading practices that foster disciplinary literacy in elementary geography. Their purpose is to share a practical approach for enriching elementary social studies lessons and activities with a geographic lens. During the…
Elementary lesions in dermatological semiology: literature review.
Cardili, Renata Nahas; Roselino, Ana Maria
2016-01-01
Discrepancies in the terminology of elementary lesions persist when texts from Dermatology and Semiology books are compared, which can cause some confusion in both the teaching of undergraduate medical students and the learning acquired by professionals in the field. This review aims to compare and clarify the differences in the description of elementary lesions by many authors, used as references for specialists in dermatology.
Introducing Technology Education at the Elementary Level
McKnight, Sean
2012-01-01
Many school districts are seeing a need to introduce technology education to students at the elementary level. Pennsylvania's Penn Manor School District is one of them. Pennsylvania has updated science and technology standards for grades 3-8, and after several conversations the author had with elementary principals and the assistant superintendent…
Administrators' perspectives of support for elementary science education
Hanegan, Nikki Notias
This investigation examines administrators' perspectives of support for elementary science education through naturalistic inquiry methodologies. Determining how administrators, as instructional leaders, define and demonstrate support for innovative reform in one curriculum area, specifically in science, has a direct impact on teacher effectiveness to implement change and new curricula into classrooms. Six major areas of current literature were reviewed for this study. They were (1) the need for Elementary Science Education, (2) the current status of Elementary Science Education, (3) the need for science professional development, (4) key components for effective professional development implementation, (5) leadership for elementary science education, and (6) administrative support. These critical issues were selected to deepen the understanding and purpose of this study. As a result of emergent interviews, five major themes developed from this study. They are: (1) knowledge of science instruction and implementation, (2) demonstration of administrative leadership to promote science education, (3) providing necessary resources or materials, (4) providing professional development opportunities, and (5) fostering teacher leadership for science instruction. These themes are discussed with supporting evidence from respondent interviews and verified through teacher interviews, newsletters, web sites, school observations, or curriculum sources. Administrative support for elementary science education is defined as action taken to ascertain that students are receiving quality science instruction. Chapter Five includes a discussion on the effectiveness of managers versus leaders in science education reform. Administrators need more direct involvement and participation in professional development aimed at science education to develop leadership skills, science content knowledge, and tools necessary to develop leaders for future district and school planning to implement science
Explorations in Elementary Mathematical Modeling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mazen Shahin
2010-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper we will present the methodology and pedagogy of Elementary Mathematical Modeling as a one-semester course in the liberal arts core. We will focus on the elementary models in finance and business. The main mathematical tools in this course are the difference equations and matrix algebra. We also integrate computer technology and cooperative learning into this inquiry-based learning course where students work in small groups on carefully designed activities and utilize available software to support problem solving and understanding of real life situations. We emphasize the use of graphical and numerical techniques, rather than theoretical techniques, to investigate and analyze the behavior of the solutions of the difference equations.As an illustration of our approach, we will show a nontraditional and efficient way of introducing models from finance and economics. We will also present an interesting model of supply and demand with a lag time, which is called the cobweb theorem in economics. We introduce a sample of a research project on a technique of removing chaotic behavior from a chaotic system.
Quantum mechanics from elementary view
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fischer, Karl
2009-01-01
This book offers an introduction to quantum mechanics as well as interesting supplements up to the beginnings of quantum field theory. A comprehensive mathematical block facilitates the access. It is rich on examples and otherwise mostly not findable calculations, which make it so transparent in its results. It likes the historical relations and brings so the feeling how much has been grown from the past. It brings also a short outline about relativity theory up to the understanding of the term ''metrics''. The spotlight holds the term product space, by means of which quantum mechanics is put together to a practicable theory. A simpler notation for instance at the Dirac equation facilitates also the understanding. On the mathematical side it is above all the term distributive law as well as the term linear combination, which lead so simple transparent definitions fast to more general. Generally it is tried to find an as possible elementary access to at least not elementary connections. So may it be for many both instructive and interesting
Preservice Elementary Teachers’ Alternative Conceptions of Science
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Isil Koc
2016-09-01
Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the extent to which preservice elementary teachers held alternative conceptions in fundemental elementary science concepts. Eighty-six preservice elementary teachers participated in this study. Twelve preservice elementary teachers participated in follow-up interviews. Data were collected through the use of Alternative Conceptions in Science Instrument (Schoon, & Boone, 1998, a participant information form, and utilization of interviews. The results indicated that the majority of preservice elementary teachers (67.4% held a number of alternative conceptions with mostly in the physical science. Various sources of alternative conceptions emerged during the interviews. Findings from the study also confirmed that science courses completed do not seem to have influenced participants’ alternative conceptions. Overall, the results of the study suggest that more consideration be given to identifying and modifying of the alternative conceptions of science so that teachers could better help their own students arriving at more accurate conceptions.
Elementary Particle Spectroscopy in Regular Solid Rewrite
Trell, Erik
2008-10-01
The Nilpotent Universal Computer Rewrite System (NUCRS) has operationalized the radical ontological dilemma of Nothing at All versus Anything at All down to the ground recursive syntax and principal mathematical realisation of this categorical dichotomy as such and so governing all its sui generis modalities, leading to fulfilment of their individual terms and compass when the respective choice sequence operations are brought to closure. Focussing on the general grammar, NUCRS by pure logic and its algebraic notations hence bootstraps Quantum Mechanics, aware that it "is the likely keystone of a fundamental computational foundation" also for e.g. physics, molecular biology and neuroscience. The present work deals with classical geometry where morphology is the modality, and ventures that the ancient regular solids are its specific rewrite system, in effect extensively anticipating the detailed elementary particle spectroscopy, and further on to essential structures at large both over the inorganic and organic realms. The geodetic antipode to Nothing is extension, with natural eigenvector the endless straight line which when deployed according to the NUCRS as well as Plotelemeian topographic prescriptions forms a real three-dimensional eigenspace with cubical eigenelements where observed quark-skewed quantum-chromodynamical particle events self-generate as an Aristotelean phase transition between the straight and round extremes of absolute endlessness under the symmetry- and gauge-preserving, canonical coset decomposition SO(3)×O(5) of Lie algebra SU(3). The cubical eigen-space and eigen-elements are the parental state and frame, and the other solids are a range of transition matrix elements and portions adapting to the spherical root vector symmetries and so reproducibly reproducing the elementary particle spectroscopy, including a modular, truncated octahedron nano-composition of the Electron which piecemeal enter into molecular structures or compressed to each
Younger Elementary Students Waste More School Lunch Foods than Older Elementary Students
Niaki, Shahrbanou F.; Moore, Carolyn E.; Chen, Tzu-An
2016-01-01
Background Children may not receive the nutritional benefits from school lunch meals if they do not eat the foods served. Objective This study investigated whether there were differences in school lunch foods consumed and wasted by grade level of elementary school students. Design In this cross-sectional study, anonymous meal observations were conducted after students selected their reimbursable school lunch meals in the cafeteria lunch line. The amount of foods selected and consumed was recorded using the quarter waste method and food waste was calculated using the information recorded. Participants/setting During the spring of 2013, eight elementary schools (50% low income) enrolling children in kindergarten through grade 5 in one school district in the Houston, Texas area were selected by the Child Nutrition Director. Main outcome measures The amount of kilocalories (kcal) and foods consumed and the percentage wasted were assessed. Statistical analyses performed Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) and post hoc analysis were used to examine food consumption and plate waste by grade level [kindergarten and grade 1 (K-Gr1), grade 2 and 3 (Gr2-3) and grade four and five (Gr4-5)], controlling for student sex and school level free/reduced priced meal eligibility (FRP). Results There were 568 nonrandom lunch meal observations of students included in the analyses. Approximately 48% of the observations were from boys; 50% were from low income schools, and were evenly divided by grade. In general, students in K-Gr1 consumed fewer kcal than both Gr2-3 and Gr4-5 students, and Gr2-3 students consumed significantly fewer kcal than Gr4-5 students. K-Gr1 students also consumed less and wasted more total and red-orange vegetables, total/whole/refined grains, and total protein foods than the older students. Gr2-3 students wasted more calories and total grains than Gr4-5 students. K-Gr1 wasted more fruit than Gr2-3 students. Conclusions Overall, younger students in elementary schools
Arini, Aquilina Tanti; Ghazali, Ratna Juwita; Satiti, Arti; Mintarsih, Mintarsih; Yuniarti, Kwartarini W
2017-01-01
This study aimed to describe how the global climate change was perceived by teachers of elementary schools. The subjects were 111 teachers from 7 elementary schools in Yogyakarta City and Sleman district. The data were collected using open-ended questions (including perception about the weather, feeling evoked by global warming words and free responses related to global warming issues). The data were analyzed using the technique of qualitative and quantitative content analysis with Indigenous...
Discrete wavelet transformations an elementary approach with applications
Van Fleet, Patrick
2008-01-01
An "applications first" approach to discrete wavelet transformations. Discrete Wavelet Transformations provides readers with a broad elementary introduction to discrete wavelet transformations and their applications. With extensive graphical displays, this self-contained book integrates concepts from calculus and linear algebra into the construction of wavelet transformations and their various applications, including data compression, edge detection in images, and signal and image denoising. The book begins with a cursory look at wavelet transformation development and illustrates its
Pump apparatus including deconsolidator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew
2014-10-07
A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.
Optical modulator including grapene
Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang
2016-06-07
The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.
An excursion through elementary mathematics
Caminha Muniz Neto, Antonio
2017-01-01
This book provides a comprehensive, in-depth overview of elementary mathematics as explored in Mathematical Olympiads around the world. It expands on topics usually encountered in high school and could even be used as preparation for a first-semester undergraduate course. This first volume covers Real Numbers, Functions, Real Analysis, Systems of Equations, Limits and Derivatives, and much more. As part of a collection, the book differs from other publications in this field by not being a mere selection of questions or a set of tips and tricks that applies to specific problems. It starts from the most basic theoretical principles, without being either too general or too axiomatic. Examples and problems are discussed only if they are helpful as applications of the theory. Propositions are proved in detail and subsequently applied to Olympic problems or to other problems at the Olympic level. The book also explores some of the hardest problems presented at National and International Mathematics Olympiads, as we...
Reg geology: An elementary introduction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carreras, B.; Fernandez, E.
1973-01-01
The purpose of these notes is to given an elementary introduction to the ideas underlying the Regge-type models. In lectures 1 and 2 the connection between the exchange models and the Regge form of the amplitude is shown. In lecture 3 the analytic continuation of the amplitude from the t-channel to the s-schanel is considered, leading to the Regge-type expression, and then (lecture 4), some phenomenological applications are discussed. Lectures 5 and 6 are a generalization of 3 and 4 to the scattering of non-zero spin particles. finally (lectures 7,8 and 9) Regge cuts are introduced and new phenomenological applications are discussed. (Author)
An excursion through elementary mathematics
Caminha Muniz Neto, Antonio
This book provides a comprehensive, in-depth overview of elementary mathematics as explored in Mathematical Olympiads around the world. It expands on topics usually encountered in high school and could even be used as preparation for a first-semester undergraduate course. This first volume covers Real Numbers, Functions, Real Analysis, Systems of Equations, Limits and Derivatives, and much more. As part of a collection, the book differs from other publications in this field by not being a mere selection of questions or a set of tips and tricks that applies to specific problems. It starts from the most basic theoretical principles, without being either too general or too axiomatic. Examples and problems are discussed only if they are helpful as applications of the theory. Propositions are proved in detail and subsequently applied to Olympic problems or to other problems at the Olympic level. The book also explores some of the hardest problems presented at National and International Mathematics Olympiads, as we...
Tracking and imaging elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Breuker, H.; Drevermann, H.; Grab, C.; Rademakers, A.A.; Stone, H.
1991-01-01
The Large Electron-Positron (LEP) Collider is one of the most powerful particle accelerators ever built. It smashes electrons into their antimatter counterparts, positrons, releasing as much as 100 billion electron volts of energy within each of four enormous detectors. Each burst of energy generates a spray of hundreds of elementary particles that are monitored by hundreds of thousands of sensors. In less than a second, an electronic system must sort through the data from some 50,000 electron-positron encounters, searching for just one or two head-on collisions that might lead to discoveries about the fundamental forces and the elementary particles of nature. When the electronic systems identify such a promising event, a picture of the data must be transmitted to the most ingenious image processor ever created. The device is the human brain. Computers cannot match the brain's capacity to recognize complicated patterns in the data collected by the LEP detectors. The work of understanding subnuclear events begins therefore through the visualization of objects that are trillions of times smaller than the eye can see and that move millions of times faster than the eye can follow. During the past decade, the authors and their colleagues at the European laboratory for particle physics (CERN) have attempted to design the perfect interface between the minds of physicists and the barrage of electronic signals from the LEP detectors. Using sophisticated computers, they translate raw data - 500,000 numbers from each event - into clear, meaningful images. With shapes, curves and colors, they represent the trajectories of particles, their type, their energy and many other properties
Detection of elementary charges on colloidal particles.
Strubbe, Filip; Beunis, Filip; Neyts, Kristiaan
2008-05-30
We have succeeded in determining the charge of individual colloidal particles with resolution higher than the elementary charge. The number of elementary charges on a particle is obtained from the analysis of optical tracking data of weakly charged silica spheres in an electric field in a nonpolar medium. The analysis also yields an accurate value of the particle size. Measurement of the charge as a function of time reveals events in which the particle loses or gains an elementary charge due to ionization or recombination processes at the surface.
On the invertibility of elementary operators
Boudi, Nadia; Bračič, Janko
2013-01-01
Let $\\mathscr{X}$ be a complex Banach space and $\\mathcal{L}(\\mathscr{X})$ be the algebra of all bounded linear operators on $\\mathscr{X}$. For a given elementary operator $\\Phi$ of length $2$ on $\\mathcal{L}(\\mathscr{X})$, we determine necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a solution of the equation ${\\rm X} \\Phi=0$ in the algebra of all elementary operators on $\\mathcal{L}(\\mathscr{X})$. Our approach allows us to characterize some invertible elementary operators of length...
Elementary Preservice Teachers' Science Vocabulary: Knowledge and Application
Carrier, Sarah J.
2013-03-01
Science vocabulary knowledge plays a role in understanding science concepts, and science knowledge is measured in part by correct use of science vocabulary (Lee et al. in J Res Sci Teach 32(8):797-816, 1995). Elementary school students have growing vocabularies and many are learning English as a secondary language or depend on schools to learn academic English. Teachers must have a clear understanding of science vocabulary in order to communicate and evaluate these understandings with students. The present study measured preservice teachers' vocabulary knowledge during a science methods course and documented their use of science vocabulary during peer teaching. The data indicate that the course positively impacted the preservice teachers' knowledge of select elementary science vocabulary; however, use of science terms was inconsistent in microteaching lessons. Recommendations include providing multiple vocabulary instruction strategies in teacher preparation.
Elementary Children’s Retrodictive Reasoning about Earth Science
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Julie C. LIBARKIN
2012-10-01
Full Text Available We report on interviews conducted with twenty-one elementary school children (grades 1-5 about a number of Earth science concepts. These interviews were undertaken as part of a teacher training video series designed specifically to assist elementary teachers in learning essential ideas in Earth science. As such, children were interviewed about a wide array of earth science concepts, from rock formation to the Earth’s interior. We analyzed interview data primarily to determine whether or not young children are capable of inferring understanding of the past based on present-day observation (retrodictive reasoning in the context of Earth science. This work provides a basis from which curricula for teaching earth and environmental sciences can emerge, and suggests that new studies into the retrodictive reasoning abilities of young children are needed, including curricula that encourage inference of the past from modern observations.
Elementary children’s retrodictive reasoning about earth science
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matthew H. Schneps
2012-11-01
Full Text Available We report on interviews conducted with twenty-one elementary school children (grades 1-5 about a number of Earth science concepts. These interviews were undertaken as part of a teacher training video series designed specifically to assist elementary teachers in learning essential ideas in Earth science. As such, children were interviewed about a wide array of earth science concepts, from rock formation to the Earth’s interior. We analyzed interview data primarily to determine whether or not young children are capable of inferring understanding of the past based on present-day observation (retrodictive reasoning in the context of Earth science. This work provides a basis from which curricula for teaching earth and environmental sciences can emerge, and suggests that new studies into the retrodictive reasoning abilities of young children are needed, including curricula that encourage inference of the past from modern observations.
Pedagogical Transformations of Science Content Knowledge in Korean Elementary Classrooms
Oh, Phil Seok; Kim, Kyoung Suk
2013-06-01
While a solid understanding of science content knowledge is important in developing expertise in science teaching, it is not necessarily a sufficient condition to teach science effectively in elementary schools. Teachers need to have the ability to transform their knowledge into forms learnable by students. Based on this perspective, the current study explored how science content knowledge was pedagogically transformed in Korean elementary classrooms. Data sources included video-recorded science lessons of five elementary teachers in a metropolitan city of Korea. The analysis of the data revealed that the Korean teachers often engaged in transforming science content knowledge by means of different semiotic modes, including language, pictures, materials, actions, and their complex combinations. Further, their representations of scientific knowledge were in diverse forms, such as personifications, analogies, quiz questions, pictorial models, diagrams, animations, real-life examples, hand demonstrations, videos, flash tools, and songs-and-dances. Future research involving a wider range of participants, such as students, content specialists, and teachers with weak and strong content understanding, was suggested to confirm the findings of this study and find more various ways of pedagogical transformation of science subject matter knowledge.
Elementary school students' perceptions of stuttering: A mixed model approach.
Panico, James; Healey, E Charles; Knopik, Jennifer
2015-09-01
Past research studies have focused on perceptions of stuttering by various age groups and only a few have examined how children react to a peer who stutters. All of these studies used a quantitative analysis but only one included a qualitative analysis of elementary school age children's responses to stuttering. The aim of this study was to further explore the perceptions of elementary school students toward a peer who stutters using both quantitative and qualitative analyses of three levels of stuttering. Participants included 88 elementary school children between 8 and 12 years of age. Each participant viewed one of four audiovisual samples of a peer producing fluent speech and mild, moderate, and severe simulated stuttering. Each participant then rated five Likert statements and answered three open-ended questions. Quantitative and qualitative results indicated that negative ratings and the percentage of negative comments increased as the frequency of stuttering increased. However, the children in this study indicated that they were comfortable listening to stuttering and would be comfortable making friends with the peer who stutters. The findings of this study together with past research in this area should help clinicians and their clients appreciate the range of social and emotional reactions peers have of a child who stutters. After reading this article, the reader will be able to: (a) discuss past research regarding children's perceptions of stuttering; (b) summarize the need to explore the perceptions of elementary-aged children toward a peer who stutters; (c) describe the major quantitative and qualitative findings of children's perceptions of stuttering; and (d) discuss the need for disseminating more information about stuttering to children and teachers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Curricular adaptations: Case studies of two exemplary elementary science teachers
Harris, Mary Sadama
This research sought to determine whether and how current local and national curricular mandates affect the science instruction of two exemplary Alabama elementary teachers. The study provides a description of the contextual backdrop of elementary teaching in Alabama and the curricular mandates resulting from federal legislation entitled The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 that have been enacted across the state of Alabama. This study centers on the evolution of reform initiatives that impact the teaching of science in elementary schools. These reforms focus on student achievement, teacher accountability, subject matter testing, and federal legislation. The emphasis on accountability has created situations where teachers are, in any given year, faced with multiple program innovations focused on subject matter tested leaving other subjects areas such as science excluded from the curricula. Reform initiatives influential to this research were the Alabama Reading Initiative and Alabama's State Department of Education's mandated testing and progress monitoring of the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) and how these reforms impact the elementary day and science instruction. The purpose of this research, which utilized a qualitative multiple case study design, was to understand how exemplary elementary science teachers in Alabama teach science given the curricular mandates that marginalize science instructional time. The central phenomenon centered on the curricular adaptations and negotiations teachers made in order to teach science. Data collected included classroom observations, semi-structured interviews, and artifacts. An inductive, interpretative approach to data analysis was used to allow for exploration of the sociocultural and sociopolitical influences on science teaching of these exemplary elementary teachers. Findings were constructed as narrative portraitures of each teacher and their science teaching bounded within their unique
Adamson, Karen; Santau, Alexandra; Lee, Okhee
2013-04-01
This study examined elementary teachers' instructional strategies for promoting scientific understanding and inquiry and supporting English language development with diverse student groups including English language learners. The study was part of a 5-year research and development project consisting of reform-based science curriculum units and teacher workshops aimed at providing effective science instruction to promote students' science and literacy achievement in urban elementary schools. Data consisted of 213 post-observation interviews with third, fourth, and fifth grade teachers. The teachers reported using instructional strategies to promote scientific understanding, but generally did not employ more sophisticated inquiry-based strategies. They also reported using instructional strategies to support English language development. There were significant differences among grade levels and by years of teacher participation.
Elementary process theory axiomatic introduction and applications
Cabbolet, Marcoen J T F
2011-01-01
Modern physics lacks a unitary theory that applies to all four fundamental interactions. This PhD thesis is a proposal for a single, complete, and coherent scheme of mathematically formulated elementary laws of nature. While the first chapter presents the general background, the second chapter addresses the method by which the main result has been developed. The next three chapters rigorously introduce the Elementary Process Theory, its mathematical foundations, and its applications to physics, cosmology and philosophy of mind. The final two chapters discuss the results and present the conclusions. Summarizing, the Elementary Process Theory is a scheme of seven well-formed closed expressions, written in the mathematical language of set matrix theory – a generalization of Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory. In the physical world, these seven expressions can be interpreted as elementary principles governing the universe at supersmall scale. The author critically confronts the theory with Quantum Mechanics and Genera...
REDUCE in elementary particle physics. Quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grozin, A.G.
1990-01-01
This preprint is the second part of the problem book on using REDUCE for calculations of cross sections and decay probabilities in elementary particle physics. It contains examples of calculations in quantum electrodynamics. 5 refs
Assessment of elementary school safety restraint programs.
1985-06-01
The purpose of this research was to identify elementary school (K-6) safety belt : education programs in use in the United States, to review their development, and : to make administrative and impact assessments of their use in selected States. : Six...
A research Program in Elementary Particle Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sobel, Henry; Molzon, William; Lankford, Andrew; Taffard, Anyes; Whiteson, Daniel; Kirkby, David
2013-07-25
Work is reported in: Neutrino Physics, Cosmic Rays and Elementary Particles; Particle Physics and Charged Lepton Flavor Violation; Research in Collider Physics; Dark Energy Studies with BOSS and LSST.
Notices about using elementary statistics in psychology
Matsuda, Fumiko; Miyake, Motoko; Hashimoto, Yukari; Yamasaki, Rio; Morita, Aiko; Kojima, Yoshiko
2003-01-01
Improper uses of elementary statistics that were often observed in beginners' manuscripts and papers were collected and better ways were suggested. This paper consists of three parts: About descriptive statistics, multivariate analyses, and statistical tests.
Reform in Turkish Elementary Mathematics Curriculum
BABADOĞAN, Cem; OLKUN, Sinan
2006-01-01
Disappointed from such major international studies as TIMSS, PISA, PIRLS andsome internal indicators such as national university entrance examination, the Turkish Ministry ofNational Education initiated a massive reform movement in education. These reforms includedeveloping new curricula for both elementary and secondary education and developing teachercompetencies. The purpose of this paper is to present an evaluation of the elementary schoolmathematics curriculum, which is a part of the ref...
Elementary lesions in dermatological semiology: literature review*
Cardili, Renata Nahas; Roselino, Ana Maria
2016-01-01
Discrepancies in the terminology of elementary lesions persist when texts from Dermatology and Semiology books are compared, which can cause some confusion in both the teaching of undergraduate medical students and the learning acquired by professionals in the field. This review aims to compare and clarify the differences in the description of elementary lesions by many authors, used as references for specialists in dermatology. PMID:27828637
Building blocks of topological quantum chemistry: Elementary band representations
Cano, Jennifer; Bradlyn, Barry; Wang, Zhijun; Elcoro, L.; Vergniory, M. G.; Felser, C.; Aroyo, M. I.; Bernevig, B. Andrei
2018-01-01
The link between chemical orbitals described by local degrees of freedom and band theory, which is defined in momentum space, was proposed by Zak several decades ago for spinless systems with and without time reversal in his theory of "elementary" band representations. In a recent paper [Bradlyn et al., Nature (London) 547, 298 (2017), 10.1038/nature23268] we introduced the generalization of this theory to the experimentally relevant situation of spin-orbit coupled systems with time-reversal symmetry and proved that all bands that do not transform as band representations are topological. Here we give the full details of this construction. We prove that elementary band representations are either connected as bands in the Brillouin zone and are described by localized Wannier orbitals respecting the symmetries of the lattice (including time reversal when applicable), or, if disconnected, describe topological insulators. We then show how to generate a band representation from a particular Wyckoff position and determine which Wyckoff positions generate elementary band representations for all space groups. This theory applies to spinful and spinless systems, in all dimensions, with and without time reversal. We introduce a homotopic notion of equivalence and show that it results in a finer classification of topological phases than approaches based only on the symmetry of wave functions at special points in the Brillouin zone. Utilizing a mapping of the band connectivity into a graph theory problem, we show in companion papers which Wyckoff positions can generate disconnected elementary band representations, furnishing a natural avenue for a systematic materials search.
Elementary students' engagement in failure-prone engineering design tasks
Andrews, Chelsea Joy
Although engineering education has been practiced at the undergraduate level for over a century, only fairly recently has the field broadened to include the elementary level; the pre-college division of the American Society of Engineering Education was established in 2003. As a result, while recent education standards require engineering in elementary schools, current studies are still filling in basic research on how best to design and implement elementary engineering activities. One area in need of investigation is how students engage with physical failure in design tasks. In this dissertation, I explore how upper elementary students engage in failure-prone engineering design tasks in an out-of-school environment. In a series of three empirical case studies, I look closely at how students evaluate failed tests and decide on changes to their design constructions, how their reasoning evolves as they repeatedly encounter physical failure, and how students and facilitators co-construct testing norms where repetitive failure is manageable. I also briefly investigate how students' engagement differs in a task that features near-immediate success. By closely examining student groups' discourse and their interactions with their design constructions, I found that these students: are able to engage in iteration and see failure-as-feedback with minimal externally-imposed structure; seem to be designing in a more sophisticated manner, attending to multiple causal factors, after experiencing repetitive failure; and are able to manage the stress and frustration of repetitive failure, provided the co-constructed testing norms of the workshop environment are supportive of failure management. These results have both pedagogical implications, in terms of how to create and facilitate design tasks, and methodological implications--namely, I highlight the particular insights afforded by a case study approach for analyzing engagement in design tasks.
Etats-Unis: Le Francais a l'ecole elementaire (United States: French in the Elementary School).
Egea-Kuchne, Denise
1993-01-01
A discussion of French foreign language instruction in the elementary schools (FLES) in the United States looks at the rationale behind and proliferation of FLES programs and the diversity of program models, including exploratory, traditional second language, and immersion. (MSE)
Sewart, Bethany Bianca
Teacher education knowledge, skills, and dispositions have recently become a well-discussed topic among education scholars around the nation, mainly due to its attention by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) over the past few years. Accrediting agencies, such as NCATE and the Interstate New Teacher and Assessment and Support Consortium (INTASC), have sought to improve the quality of teacher education programs by examining knowledge, skills, and dispositions as factors in preparing highly-qualified teachers. There is a paucity of research examining these factors for elementary science teachers. Because these factors influence instruction, and students are behind in scientific and mathematical knowledge, elementary science teachers should be studied. Teacher knowledge, skills, and dispositions should be further researched in order to ultimately increase the quality of teachers and teacher education programs. In this particular case, by determining what schools of education and public schools deem important knowledge, skills, and dispositions needed to teach science, higher education institutions and schools can collaborate to further educate these students and foster the necessary qualities needed to teach effectively. The study of knowledge, skills, and dispositions is crucial to nurturing effective teaching within the classroom. Results from this study demonstrated that there were prominent knowledge, skills, and dispositions identified by teachers, administrators, and science teacher educators as important for effective teaching of elementary science. These characteristics included: a willingness to learn, or open-mindedness; content knowledge; planning, organization, and preparation; significance of teaching science; and science-related assessment strategies. Interestingly, administrators in the study responded differently than their counterparts in the following areas: their self-evaluation of teacher effectiveness; how the
Assessing the Status of Environmental Education in Illinois Elementary Schools
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rebecca M. Young
2009-11-01
Full Text Available One-thousand Illinois elementary teachers received a survey intended to assess the amount and manner in which they included environmental education in the classroom during the 2005 academic year. Over 91% of respondents (n = 234 said that they taught about the environment at least once during the school year, yet most students were only exposed to 22 to 100 minutes during that year. Of the teachers that included environmental education, 49% said they did so because of personal interest in the environment; 47% of the teachers that excluded it said the reason was because of a lack of class time.
Assessing the status of environmental education in illinois elementary schools.
Young, Rebecca M; Lafollette, Sharron
2009-11-09
One-thousand Illinois elementary teachers received a survey intended to assess the amount and manner in which they included environmental education in the classroom during the 2005 academic year. Over 91% of respondents (n = 234) said that they taught about the environment at least once during the school year, yet most students were only exposed to 22 to 100 minutes during that year. Of the teachers that included environmental education, 49% said they did so because of personal interest in the environment; 47% of the teachers that excluded it said the reason was because of a lack of class time.
Moore, Felicia M.
2008-01-01
This study reports the learning of elementary preservice teachers regarding diversity and teaching science in diverse urban elementary classrooms. From participating in a semester-long book club, the preservice teachers reveal their cultural biases, connect and apply their knowledge of diversity, and understand that getting to know their students…
Foster, Donald Carey
The purpose of this case study was to identify barriers that limit the effectiveness of elementary teachers in the teaching of science. It is of the utmost urgency that barriers be first identified, so that possible solutions can be explored to bring about the improvement of elementary science education. This urgency has been imposed by the scheduled national testing of students in science by 2007, as mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. Using qualitative case study methods, the researcher conducted interviews with 8 elementary teachers from two schools within one school district who taught 3rd, 4th, and 5th grade. These interviews were designed to gain insight into barriers these elementary teachers perceived as factors limiting their effectiveness in teaching science and preparing students for high-stakes testing. Barriers in the areas of teacher background, typical teaching day, curriculum, inservices, and legislative influences were explored. This study concluded that the barriers explored do have a substantial negative affect on the teaching and learning of science in the elementary grades. Specifically, the barriers revealed in this study include the limited science background of elementary teachers, inadequate class time devoted to science, non-comprehensive curriculum, ineffective or lack of inservice training, and pressures from legislated mandates. But it is also clear that these barriers are so intertwined that one cannot remove these barriers one at a time. It will take a collective effort from all involved, including legislators, administrators, teachers, parents, and students, to alleviate these barriers and discover effective solutions to improve elementary science education.
Nava, Fe' Josefa G.; Loyd, Brenda H.
Criteria that teachers include in grading and the weight given each were investigated in a sample of 827 elementary school and high school teachers from 18 school districts. A three-section survey was administered to the subjects. Underlying dimensions of grading criteria were studied, and the relationship between including a specific criterion…
The Effects of Visual Art Integration on Reading at the Elementary Level. A Review of Literature
McCarty, Kristine A.
2007-01-01
Although visual art is considered a subject deemed by the federal government as part of the core curriculum, many elementary schools do not include this subject into the current core curriculum of studies. This review of literature provides insight through current qualitative and quantitative studies on the effectiveness of including visual art…
Examining elementary students' perceptions of engineers
Oware, Euridice A.
There has been a national focus on improving K-12 Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education. The integration of engineering education from kindergarten through high school (K-12) has been identified as key to sustaining the U.S. economy and standard of living. Misconceptions about the nature of engineering may deter children from even considering this profession. Currently, there are few research studies on young children's perceptions of engineers, and such research can be used to support children along STEM pathways. The purpose of this research was to investigate elementary students' perceptions of engineers for children enrolled in a gifted and talented outreach program. Participants included students enrolled in two structural engineering classes: one for 3rd and 4th graders and another for 5th and 6th grade students. Participants represented an age group that is not typically exposed to engineering. This research was framed within a constructivist theoretical framework, and qualitative research methods were utilized to develop a rich understanding of the perspectives of students enrolled in the engineering classes. Data collection included student pre- and post-questionnaires, Draw-an-Engineer tasks, and semi-structured interviews. Data analysis entailed the use of open and axial coding. Trustworthiness of data was determined through triangulation of multiple data sources. Results demonstrated how children describe the work of engineers, objects associated with engineering, tools used or created by engineers, and professional characteristics of engineers. In addition, images of engineers were discussed and influences on students' perceptions of engineers were identified. The findings of this study have implications for the development of formal and informal K-12 curricula and programs that focus on improving students' understanding and engagement in engineering. Implications for researchers interested in studying children
Lucas, Ashley G.
2009-01-01
This article considers human rights education at the elementary school level in the United States. It explores some of the benefits of including human rights education in the elementary curriculum and provides suggestions on how to incorporate it. The article focuses on a discussion of the book "A Life Like Mine: How Children Live around the…
Keaton, Patrick
2014-01-01
This National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) First Look report introduces new data for the universe of public elementary and secondary schools and agencies in the United States in school year (SY) 2012-13. Specifically, this report includes statistics that describe: (1) the numbers and types of public elementary and secondary schools and…
Glander, Mark
2016-01-01
This National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) "First Look" report introduces new data for the universe of public elementary and secondary schools and agencies in the United States in school year (SY) 2014-15. Specifically, this report includes statistics that describe: (1) the numbers and types of public elementary and secondary…
Glander, Mark
2015-01-01
This National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) First Look report introduces new data for the universe of public elementary and secondary schools and agencies in the United States in school year (SY) 2013-14. Specifically, this report includes statistics that describe: (1) the numbers and types of public elementary and secondary schools and…
Glander, Mark
2017-01-01
This National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) First Look report introduces new data for the universe of public elementary and secondary schools and agencies in the United States in school year (SY) 2015-16. Specifically, this report includes statistics that describe the following: (1) the numbers and types of public elementary and secondary…
Norms of certain Jordan elementary operators
Zhang, Xiaoli; Ji, Guoxing
2008-10-01
Let be a complex Hilbert space and let denote the algebra of all bounded linear operators on . For , the Jordan elementary operator UA,B is defined by UA,B(X)=AXB+BXA, . In this short note, we discuss the norm of UA,B. We show that if and ||UA,B||=||A||||B||, then either AB* or B*A is 0. We give some examples of Jordan elementary operators UA,B such that ||UA,B||=||A||||B|| but AB*[not equal to]0 and B*A[not equal to]0, which answer negatively a question posed by M. Boumazgour in [M. Boumazgour, Norm inequalities for sums of two basic elementary operators, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 342 (2008) 386-393].
Elementary particle physics in early physics education
Wiener, Gerfried
2017-01-01
Current physics education research is faced with the important question of how best to introduce elementary particle physics in the classroom early on. Therefore, a learning unit on the subatomic structure of matter was developed, which aims to introduce 12-year-olds to elementary particles and fundamental interactions. This unit was iteratively evaluated and developed by means of a design-based research project with grade-6 students. In addition, dedicated professional development programmes were set up to instruct high school teachers about the learning unit and enable them to investigate its didactical feasibility. Overall, the doctoral research project led to successful results and showed the topic of elementary particle physics to be a viable candidate for introducing modern physics in the classroom. Furthermore, thanks to the design-based research methodology, the respective findings have implications for both physics education and physics education research, which will be presented during the PhD defen...
Maxwell's equations and their consequences elementary electromagnetic theory
Chirgwin, B H; Kilmister, C W 0
2013-01-01
Elementary Electromagnetic Theory Volume 3: Maxwell's Equations and their Consequences is the third of three volumes that intend to cover electromagnetism and its potential theory. The third volume considers the implications of Maxwell's equations, such as electromagnetic radiation in simple cases, and its relation between Maxwell's equation and the Lorenz transformation. Included in this volume are chapters 11-14, which contain an in-depth discussion of the following topics: Electromagnetic Waves The Lorentz Invariance of Maxwell's Equation Radiation Motion of Charged Particles Intended
Evidence of significant bias in an elementary random number generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borgwaldt, H.; Brandl, V.
1981-03-01
An elementary pseudo random number generator for isotropically distributed unit vectors in 3-dimensional space has ben tested for bias. This generator uses the IBM-suplied routine RANDU and a transparent rejection technique. The tests show clearly that non-randomness in the pseudo random numbers generated by the primary IBM generator leads to bias in the order of 1 percent in estimates obtained from the secondary random number generator. FORTRAN listings of 4 variants of the random number generator called by a simple test programme and output listings are included for direct reference. (orig.) [de
Schools K-12 - MDC_ElementaryAttendanceBoundary
NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Polygon feature class of Miami-Dade County, Public Schools attendance zones for Elementary schools (PK-5) and K-8 Centers (PK-8) schools. K-8 Centers are elementary...
Kinetic studies of elementary chemical reactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Durant, J.L. Jr. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)
1993-12-01
This program concerning kinetic studies of elementary chemical reactions is presently focussed on understanding reactions of NH{sub x} species. To reach this goal, the author is pursuing experimental studies of reaction rate coefficients and product branching fractions as well as using electronic structure calculations to calculate transition state properties and reaction rate calculations to relate these properties to predicted kinetic behavior. The synergy existing between the experimental and theoretical studies allow one to gain a deeper insight into more complex elementary reactions.
Elementary particles and physics interaction unification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leite-Lopes, J.
1985-01-01
Quantum theory and relativity theory are fundamental of relativistic quantum mechanics, quantum field theory, which is the base of elementary particle physics, gauge field theory and basic force unification models. After a short introduction of relativistic equations of the main fields, the free scalar field, the free vector field, the free electromagnetic field and the free spinor field, and of elementary particles and basic interactions, gauge invariance and electromagnetic gauge field are detailed. Then the presentation of internal degrees of freedom, especially isospin, introduces gauge field theory of Yang-Mills. At last weak interactions and strong interactions are presented and lead to grand unification theory in conclusion [fr
Koster, M.P.; Bouwer, I.R.
2016-01-01
The Dutch Inspectorate for Education established that the quality of elementary students’ writing is below the desired level, and that the teaching of writing must be improved. The aim of this PhD research was therefore to improve writing education in upper elementary grades by developing an effective teaching program for writing, including professional development for teachers, and tools for the assessment of writing. Building on the findings of previous research, we developed and tested Tek...
Chronic Teacher Turnover in Urban Elementary Schools
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kacey Guin
2004-08-01
Full Text Available This study examines the characteristics of elementary schools that experience chronic teacher turnover and the impacts of turnover on a school’s working climate and ability to effectively function. Based on evidence from staff climate surveys and case studies, it is clear that high turnover schools face significant organizational challenges. Schools with high teacher turnover rates have difficulty planning and implementing a coherent curriculum and sustaining positive working relationships among teachers. The reality of these organizational challenges is particularly alarming, given that high turnover schools are more likely to serve low-income and minority students. The negative relationship between teacher turnover and school functioning, and the fact that turbulent schools are disproportionately likely to serve lowincome and minority students have important implications for both district and school-level policies. Specifically: Teacher turnover rates are one indicator of school health, which school districts should consider when focusing on school improvements. Districts need to begin by developing the means to identify individual schools that experience high levels of teacher turnover. Current district policies in implementing professional development for teachers in low-performing schools are inefficient when teachers do not remain in the schools in which they are trained. In order for low-performing schools to improve, districts need to consider providing incentive programs so that high quality teachers apply for, and remain in, these schools. Future research is needed to address the causal link between turnover, organizational functioning and student outcomes. Additionally, there is a need for research examining district policies that may facilitate teacher turnover within a district, including how districts place and transfer teachers, as well as how teachers’ salaries are budgeted.
Preservice Elementary Teachers and the Fundamentals of Probability
Dollard, Clark
2011-01-01
This study examined how preservice elementary teachers think about situations involving probability. Twenty-four preservice elementary teachers who had not yet studied probability as part of their preservice elementary mathematics coursework were interviewed using a task-based interview. The participants' responses showed a wide variety of…
Awareness on Learning Disabilities among Elementary School Teachers
Menon K. P., Seema
2016-01-01
The study aims to find out the awareness on learning disabilities among elementary school teachers. The sample for the present study consisted of 500 elementary school teachers of Kerala. In this study the investigator used an Awareness Test on Learning Disabilities to measure the Awareness on Learning Disabilities among Elementary School…
Preservice Teachers' Alternative Conceptions in Elementary Science Concepts
Koc, Isil; Yager, Robert E.
2016-01-01
This study was conducted to investigate the extent to which preservice teachers held alternative conceptions in elementary science concepts. Eighty-six preservice elementary teachers participated in this study. Twelve preservice elementary teachers participated in follow-up interviews. Data were collected through the use of Alternative Conceptions…
Complementing Mathematics Teachers’ Horizon Content Knowledge with an Elementary-on-Advanced Aspect
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yi-An Cho
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Although Ball and her colleagues provided empirical evidence to support the existence of the six sub-domains in mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT and further explained or defined the majority of these sub-domains, there were few explanations of what horizon content knowledge (HCK embedded in MKT meant and they merely provided ideas about HCK. Many researchers attempted to provide some teaching incidents and exemplification to interpret the construct of HCK. Moreover, they thought teachers’ studies of tertiary mathematics are useful for classroom teaching practice. Their discourse and instantiation of HCK was correspondent with a higher perspective on elementary mathematics mentioned by Felix Klein (1924, but was not entirely coincide with a kind of elementary perspective on advanced knowledge introduced by Ball and Bass (2009. This study lasted 1 years, and data collection included in-depth interviews, classroom observation and video analysis. We provide a shared classroom teaching incidence and illustrations to explain and to describe the construct of HCK. HCK not only is a kind of elementary perspective on advanced mathematical knowledge, but also complements to a higher perspective on elementary mathematics. Furthermore, HCK could be seen as a reciprocal pathway between the elementary and advanced mathematical knowledge.
Goekoop, Rutger; Goekoop, Jaap G
2014-01-01
The vast number of psychopathological syndromes that can be observed in clinical practice can be described in terms of a limited number of elementary syndromes that are differentially expressed. Previous attempts to identify elementary syndromes have shown limitations that have slowed progress in the taxonomy of psychiatric disorders. To examine the ability of network community detection (NCD) to identify elementary syndromes of psychopathology and move beyond the limitations of current classification methods in psychiatry. 192 patients with unselected mental disorders were tested on the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale (CPRS). Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the bootstrapped correlation matrix of symptom scores to extract the principal component structure (PCS). An undirected and weighted network graph was constructed from the same matrix. Network community structure (NCS) was optimized using a previously published technique. In the optimal network structure, network clusters showed a 89% match with principal components of psychopathology. Some 6 network clusters were found, including "Depression", "Mania", "Anxiety", "Psychosis", "Retardation", and "Behavioral Disorganization". Network metrics were used to quantify the continuities between the elementary syndromes. We present the first comprehensive network graph of psychopathology that is free from the biases of previous classifications: a 'Psychopathology Web'. Clusters within this network represent elementary syndromes that are connected via a limited number of bridge symptoms. Many problems of previous classifications can be overcome by using a network approach to psychopathology.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rutger Goekoop
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The vast number of psychopathological syndromes that can be observed in clinical practice can be described in terms of a limited number of elementary syndromes that are differentially expressed. Previous attempts to identify elementary syndromes have shown limitations that have slowed progress in the taxonomy of psychiatric disorders. AIM: To examine the ability of network community detection (NCD to identify elementary syndromes of psychopathology and move beyond the limitations of current classification methods in psychiatry. METHODS: 192 patients with unselected mental disorders were tested on the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale (CPRS. Principal component analysis (PCA was performed on the bootstrapped correlation matrix of symptom scores to extract the principal component structure (PCS. An undirected and weighted network graph was constructed from the same matrix. Network community structure (NCS was optimized using a previously published technique. RESULTS: In the optimal network structure, network clusters showed a 89% match with principal components of psychopathology. Some 6 network clusters were found, including "Depression", "Mania", "Anxiety", "Psychosis", "Retardation", and "Behavioral Disorganization". Network metrics were used to quantify the continuities between the elementary syndromes. CONCLUSION: We present the first comprehensive network graph of psychopathology that is free from the biases of previous classifications: a 'Psychopathology Web'. Clusters within this network represent elementary syndromes that are connected via a limited number of bridge symptoms. Many problems of previous classifications can be overcome by using a network approach to psychopathology.
Fifth Grade Elementary Students' Conceptions of Earthquakes
Savasci, Funda; Uluduz, Hatice
2013-01-01
This study intends to investigate the fifth grade students' conceptions of earthquakes. Twenty two grade 5 students (11-12 years old) from five different elementary schools in Istanbul voluntarily participated in the study. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with each participant. Six interview questions were designed by…
Learning Leadership Skills in Elementary School
Bowman, Richard F.
2014-01-01
Leadership is everyone's responsibility-even first graders. The most important contribution that any educator can make in an era of unrelenting change is identifying and developing aspiring leaders. Elementary school teachers can embed leadership development opportunities into the classroom to foster leadership dispositions and skills…
Addressing Priorities for Elementary School Mathematics
Venenciano, Linda; Dougherty, Barbara
2014-01-01
Findings from international assessments present an opportunity to reconsider mathematics education across the grades. If concepts taught in elementary grades lay the foundation for continued study, then children's introduction to school mathematics deserves particular attention. We consider Davydov's theory (1966), which sequences…
Integrating Children's Literature in Elementary Mathematics
Thomas, Lynsey; Feng, Jay
2015-01-01
The purpose of this professional development project was to train teachers in using children's literature for math instruction and to also examine its effect on student math learning at an elementary school. Teachers were taught how to use children's literature to instruct and enhance their math curriculum through the use of literature pieces,…
Freedom of Expression in Elementary School.
Zirkel, Perry A.
2003-01-01
Uses question and answer format to discuss scope of elementary students' First Amendment freedom of expression rights. For example, does the First Amendment prevent the disciplining of a sixth grader for writing a sexually inappropriate remark in another student's notebook? Answer: No. (Contains 13 references.) (PKP)
Art Teaching: Elementary through Middle School
Szekely, George; Bucknam, Julie Alsip
2011-01-01
"Art Teaching" speaks to a new generation of art teachers in a changing society and fresh art world. Comprehensive and up-to-date, it presents fundamental theories, principles, creative approaches, and resources for art teaching in elementary through middle-school. Key sections focus on how children make art, why they make art, the unique…
Exploring Collective Mathematical Creativity in Elementary School
Levenson, Esther
2011-01-01
This study combines theories related to collective learning and theories related to mathematical creativity to investigate the notion of collective mathematical creativity in elementary school classrooms. Collective learning takes place when mathematical ideas and actions, initially stemming from an individual, are built upon and reworked,…
Rural Elementary School Teachers' Technology Integration
Howley, Aimee; Wood, Lawrence; Hough, Brian
2011-01-01
Based on survey responses from more than 500 third-grade teachers, this study addressed three research questions relating to technology integration and its impact in rural elementary schools. The first analyses compared rural with non-rural teachers, revealing that the rural teachers had more positive attitudes toward technology integration. Then…
Teaching Elementary Particle Physics: Part I
Hobson, Art
2011-01-01
I'll outline suggestions for teaching elementary particle physics, often called "high energy physics," in high school or introductory college courses for non-scientists or scientists. Some presentations of this topic simply list the various particles along with their properties, with little overarching structure. Such a laundry list approach is a…
Bullying in Elementary School: An American Perspective
Conn, Kathleen
2013-01-01
Bullying in elementary schools is a recognized and widespread occurrence that threatens to rob children of their childhood. Part I of this commentary describes existing scientifically-based research on the nature, extent and effects of the phenomenon on children in United States schools. Part II analyzes the effectiveness of bullying prevention…
Tackling World Hunger in an Elementary School.
Donnan, Caroline S.
1986-01-01
Describes a program, developed in a small Vermont elementary school, that centered on world hunger and global awareness by involving students in helping stop food waste during lunch. Community members and businesses pledged money as an incentive for stopping waste, and the money raised went to UNICEF. (MD)
Theoretical Studies in Elementary Particle Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Collins, John C.; Roiban, Radu S
2013-04-01
This final report summarizes work at Penn State University from June 1, 1990 to April 30, 2012. The work was in theoretical elementary particle physics. Many new results in perturbative QCD, in string theory, and in related areas were obtained, with a substantial impact on the experimental program.
Northrop Frye in the Elementary Classroom
Sloan, Glenna
2009-01-01
Northrop Frye (1912-1991) was one of the leading literary theorists of his day, and this article shows the ways in which his theories continue to be relevant for both the field of literary criticism and elementary classroom education today. The author, an eminent scholar in the field of children's literature in her own right and a student of…
Research program in elementary particle theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1989-01-01
The Syracuse High Energy Theory group has continued to make significant contributions to many areas. Many novel aspects of Chern-Simons terms and effective Lagrangians were investigated. Various interesting aspects of quantum gravity and string theory were explored. Gauge models of elementary particles were studied in depth. The investigations of QCD at finite temperatures and multiply connected configuration spaces continued. 24 refs
Staying Alive: Social Studies in Elementary Schools
Pascopella, Angela
2005-01-01
Social studies, particularly in the elementary grades, has been pushed to the back burner in schools. Time is the biggest nemesis. Increased attention to math and language arts under the federal No Child Left Behind law is squeezing out social studies. Many states have standards in social studies so teachers are expected to cover the topic, but…
Critical Literacy in Elementary Education in Cambodia
In, Vichea
2012-01-01
This study focuses on a quest for insights into the introduction and negotiation of critical literacy in elementary education in Cambodia, whose recent past was scarred by devastating conflicts and wars. In this study, critical education is seen as a key to avoiding the reproduction of an unwanted past and minimizing social injustice in Cambodia.…
Elementary Particle Physics-Then and Now
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 7. Elementary Particle Physics-Then and Now. Avinash Khare. Reflections Volume 3 Issue 7 July 1998 pp 80-80. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/003/07/0080-0080. Author Affiliations.
Tips for Teaching Math to Elementary Students
Scarpello, Gary
2010-01-01
Since most elementary school teachers do not hold a degree in mathematics, teaching math may be a daunting task for some. Following are a few techniques to help make teaching and learning math easier and less stressful. First, know that math is a difficult subject to teach--even for math teachers. The subject matter itself is challenging. Second,…
Helping Elementary Teachers Understand Children and Divorce.
Hrymak, Marilyn J.; Smart, Laura S.
1984-01-01
Describes a workshop designed to help elementary teachers understand the recent literature on the effects of divorce on children and help the children through the crisis. Indicates that secondary home economics teachers may have to deal with students who have not adjusted to divorce. (JOW)
The periodic table of elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhattacharjee, B.J.
1994-01-01
It is shown that a periodic classification of elementary particles (eps) may be done with the basic properties of eps: viz. mass, spin and parity. Further application of spacing rule and GMO mass formulae show repetitions at very regular intervals. It is found that properties of eps are periodic function of rest mass. (author). 17 refs., 6 tabs
Elementary Business Calculus with Computer Algebra.
Judson, Phoebe T.
1990-01-01
Described are various ways that a computer algebra system (MAPLE) was used to facilitate the resequencing of skills and applications within an elementary college-level business calculus course. Experimental results confirmed earlier findings that skills acquisition is not a prerequisite to conceptual understanding or problem-solving ability. (JJK)
Assessing Elementary Lesions in Gout by Ultrasound
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Terslev, Lene; Gutierrez, Marwin; Christensen, Robin
2015-01-01
OBJECTIVE: To test the reliability of the consensus-based ultrasound (US) definitions of elementary gout lesions in patients. METHODS: Eight patients with microscopically proven gout were evaluated by 16 sonographers for signs of double contour (DC), aggregates, erosions, and tophi in the first m...
Handwriting Instruction in Elementary Schools: Revisited!
Asher, Asha; Estes, Joanne
2016-01-01
Handwriting is an essential literacy and communication skill developed through a variety of instructional methods in elementary school. This study explored the consistency in handwriting instruction across grade levels in a Midwest public school district 15 years after the school initially implemented a uniform handwriting program. Additionally,…
Ripples: A Big Sweep Elementary Activity Guide.
Burgess, Carla B., Ed.
Littering is a careless act indicating lack of respect for the environment, other people, and wildlife. Through education people can learn the consequences of littering and how to stop doing it. This book, designed for elementary children, presents a collection of 16 activities, ideas and resources concerning litter in the aquatic and marine…
Early Childhood and Elementary Preservice Teachers' Beliefs.
Lin, Huey-Ling; Taylor, Janet; Gorrell, Jeffrey; Hazareesingh, Nedra; Carlson, Helen L.; Asche, Megan
This study examined the relationship between preservice teachers' perceived efficacy and their beliefs about teaching and learning. Subjects were 382 preservice teachers enrolled in either an early childhood or elementary teacher preparation program. Statistical analysis of responses to a version of the Gibson and Dembo Teacher Efficacy Scale…
Conferenza internazionale di Siena sulle particelle elementari
1964-01-01
Last year the editor of CERN Courier was privileged to be able to attend the Sienna international conference on elementary particles, held in the historic Italian city at the beginning of October. The following article is a personal recollection of the conference activities, both formal and informal, and of the physics that was discussed there.
Keep Social Studies in the Elementary School
Brewer, Ernest Andrew
2006-01-01
Social studies is essential in elementary curriculum. It is the integrated study of the social sciences and humanities to promote civic competence. Within the school program, social studies provides coordinated, systematic study drawing upon such disciplines as anthropology, archaeology, economics, geography, history, law, psychology, religion,…
Soliton model for elementary electric charge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chepilko, N.M.; Kobushkin, A.P.
1988-01-01
The existence and topological stability of three-dimensional solitons in Klein-Gordon field electrodynamics are proved. The central-symmetric solution to field equations, which can be interpreted as soliton model of elementary electric charge with zero spin, is constructed. The electrostatic soliton rotation is shown to result in the charge having its own magnetic-dipole field. 9 refs.; 2 figs
Classroom Management in Elementary Mainstreaming Classrooms.
Borg, Walter R.; Ascione, Frank R.
1982-01-01
This research was aimed at adapting the Utah State University Classroom Management Program for use in elementary mainstreaming classrooms and evaluating the program's effectiveness in changing teacher and pupil behavior. The program appears to be powerful in changing teacher behavior and an effective classroom management training tool. (Author/AL)
Cooperative Learning and Elementary Social Studies.
Guyton, Edith
1991-01-01
Argues that cooperative learning is useful in elementary social studies instruction. Identifies positive interdependence, student interaction, individual accountability for mastering material, and appropriate interpersonal and small group skills as essential elements of cooperative learning. Suggests that cooperative learning can help teach social…
Exploring Elementary Student Perceptions of Writing Feedback
Marrs, Sarah; Zumbrunn, Sharon; McBride, Caitlin; Stringer, J. K.
2016-01-01
The purpose of this descriptive qualitative investigation was to explore elementary students' (N = 867) perceptions of the feedback they receive on their writing. After responding to the closed-ended question, "Do you like to receive feedback about your writing?" students were branched to the appropriate follow-up open-ended question,…
Aerospace Concepts at the Elementary Level
Journal of Aerospace Education, 1975
1975-01-01
Presents materials compiled to assist the elementary teacher in preparing teaching units in aerospace education. Suggests specific and general objectives and lists important concepts and questions pertaining to areas such as: history of flight, weather and flying, airplanes, jets, rockets, space travel, and the solar system. (MLH)
Challenging mathematical problems with elementary solutions
Yaglom, A M
1987-01-01
Volume I of a two-part series, this book features a broad spectrum of 100 challenging problems related to probability theory and combinatorial analysis. The problems, most of which can be solved with elementary mathematics, range from relatively simple to extremely difficult. Suitable for students, teachers, and any lover of mathematics. Complete solutions.
REDUCE system in elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grozin, A.G.
1990-01-01
This preprint is the first part of the problem book on using REDUCE for calculations of cross sections and decay probabilities in elementary particle physics. It contains the review of the necessary formulae and examples of using REDUCE for calculations with vectors and Dirac matrices. 5 refs.; 11 figs
Safety First: Safety--The Elementary Mission
Roy, Ken
2013-01-01
Activities involving the construction of a model solar oven, soda bottle rocket, catapult, bridge, roller coaster, playground, and plane glider all have one thing in common. They are examples of STEM project activities for elementary students. STEM is one of the areas of emphasis in the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS), which…
Selective Mutism in Elementary School: Multidisciplinary Interventions.
Giddan, Jane J.; And Others
1997-01-01
Presents the symptoms of selective mutism and historical background for treatment. It provides a case study which illustrates successful multidisciplinary treatment outcomes for a child who was selectively mute. Issues relevant to speech-language pathologists working with elementary school children are discussed and treatment guidelines provided.…
Grace and Courtesy in the Elementary Community
Huneke-Stone, Elise
2015-01-01
Don't be fooled by Elise Huneke-Stone's disarming beginning where she implies that grace and courtesy is not normally associated with the elementary. She goes on to elaborate that grace and courtesy is indeed everywhere: in project-based learning, understanding of moral precepts, social and intellectual independence, in the utilization of empathy,…
Comprehending Elementary School Teachers' Classroom Management Approaches
Sahin, Ali E.
2015-01-01
This study intends to determine elementary school teachers' degree of classroom control, which constitutes the consistency in their classroom management and discipline-related behaviour. The major research question was as follows: Is the control approach adopted by teachers related to certain variables (gender, age, subject area, experience)? The…
Discovering Technology in the Elementary School Classroom.
Peterson, Richard E.
1980-01-01
Presents one approach to developing a technology-based curriculum for the elementary school. Three models are examined which help establish a curriculum structure: (1) curriculum content structure; (2) five dimensions of the study of technology; and (3) curriculum webbing/sunburst technique. (CT)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
O' Donnell, Kane; Visser, Matt, E-mail: kco61@uclive.ac.nz, E-mail: matt.visser@msor.vuw.ac.nz [School of Mathematics, Statistics, and Operations Research, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington (New Zealand)
2011-07-15
The purpose of this paper is to provide an elementary introduction to the qualitative and quantitative results of velocity combination in special relativity, including the Wigner rotation and Thomas precession. We utilize only the most familiar tools of special relativity, in arguments presented at three differing levels: (1) utterly elementary, which will suit a first course in relativity; (2) intermediate, to suit a second course; and (3) advanced, to suit higher level students. We then give a summary of useful results and suggest further reading in this often obscure field.
Emotional Experience, Expression, and Regulation of High-Quality Japanese Elementary School Teachers
Hosotani, Rika; Imai-Matsumura, Kyoko
2011-01-01
The present study investigates the emotional experience, expression, and regulation processes of high-quality Japanese elementary school teachers while they interact with children, in terms of teachers' emotional competence. Qualitative analysis of interview data demonstrated that teachers had various emotional experiences including self-elicited…
Elementary School and Middle School Principals' Theories of Action in Two Rural School Districts
Lisy-Macan, Lynn
2012-01-01
This dissertation was designed to answer the following question. What are elementary and middle school principals' theories of action in two rural school districts? Sub-questions included the superintendent-principal relationship and its influence on the principal's theories of action and the extent to which rural context impacts…
Is This the Right Elementary School for My Gender Nonconforming Child?
Slesaransky-Poe, Graciela; Ruzzi, Lisa; DiMedio, Connie; Stanley, Jeanne
2013-01-01
This article describes what followed after a mother wondered if the school in her neighborhood was the right elementary school for her gender nonconforming young child. It includes collective and individual narratives from four key players: the mom and teacher educator (Slesaransky-Poe), the school's guidance counselor (Ruzzi), the principal…
Dziewior, Jane M.
2009-01-01
Past research was not clear what the relationship was between emotional intelligence (EI) and leadership style for school principals. This researcher examined EI and its contribution to leadership skills of 22 female Catholic elementary school principals. The method included a self-reported questionnaire of leadership style and EI to explore if…
Sonu, Debbie; Snaza, Nathan
2015-01-01
The greatest challenge facing the field of environmentalism includes ontological questions over the human subject and its desensitization from landscapes of experience. In this article the authors draw from field experiences in New York City elementary schools (such as observations of teachers, NYS Scope and Sequence Standards for Social Studies,…
Mitchell, Rebecca; Laski, Elida
2013-01-01
Instructors (N = 204) of elementary mathematics methods courses completed a survey assessing the extent to which they stay informed about research related to effective uses of educational technology and the kinds and numbers of educational technologies they include in their courses. Findings indicate that, while they view educational technology…
The Impact of Resilience on Role Stressors and Burnout in Elementary and Secondary Teachers
Richards, K. Andrew; Levesque-Bristol, Chantal; Templin, Thomas J.; Graber, Kim C.
2016-01-01
The role of a teacher is becoming increasingly complex, and it is more important than ever that teachers develop resilience to overcome stress and burnout. A conceptual framework to explain the ability of resilience to decrease role stress and burnout was developed and tested. Participants included 415 teachers (174 elementary, 241 secondary) who…
Dancing through the School Day: How Dance Catapults Learning in Elementary Education
Becker, Kelly Mancini
2013-01-01
The necessity for engaging the body in learning, the need for students to move throughout the school day, and the positive effects that dance has on students' development are all good reasons for dance to be included in the elementary curriculum. There are many ways for teachers to integrate movement into the school day, using math, science,…
Yang, Chunyan; Sharkey, Jill D.; Reed, Lauren A.; Chen, Chun; Dowdy, Erin
2018-01-01
Bullying is the most common form of school violence and is associated with a range of negative outcomes, including traumatic responses. This study used hierarchical linear modeling to examine the multilevel moderating effects of school climate and school level (i.e., elementary, middle, and high schools) on the association between bullying…
A Meta-Analysis of Writing Instruction for Students in the Elementary Grades
Graham, Steve; McKeown, Debra; Kiuhara, Sharlene; Harris, Karen R.
2012-01-01
In an effort to identify effective instructional practices for teaching writing to elementary grade students, we conducted a meta-analysis of the writing intervention literature, focusing our efforts on true and quasi-experiments. We located 115 documents that included the statistics for computing an effect size (ES). We calculated an average…
Motor Skill Performance and Sports Participation in Deaf Elementary School Children
Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Visscher, Chris
2011-01-01
This study aimed to examine motor performance in deaf elementary school children and its association with sports participation. The population studied included 42 deaf children whose hearing loss ranged from 80 to 120 dB. Their motor skills were assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, and a questionnaire was used to determine…
Robertson, Dylan L.; Farmer, Thomas W.; Fraser, Mark W.; Day, Steven H.; Duncan, Tisha; Crowther, Amity; Dadisman, Kimberly A.
2010-01-01
Social relations of second grade students (247 boys, 290 girls) were examined in rural elementary classrooms. Cluster analysis of teacher ratings was used to identify interpersonal competence configurations including perceived unpopular-aggressive (i.e., "Troubled") and perceived popular-aggressive (i.e., "Tough") subtypes for…
Exploring the Information Literacy Competence Standards for Elementary and High School Teachers
Wen, Jia Rong; Shih, Wen Ling
2008-01-01
The main purpose of this study was to establish Information Literacy Competence Standards for Elementary and High School Teachers. To establish these standards a set of two expert round-table discussions and three rounds of Delphi Technique surveys were employed. Ten participants including field scholars, information professionals were invited to…
Juma, Dalal Sabri
2013-01-01
In this study the researcher examined the influence between a principal's self-perceived emotional intelligence and the overall organizational climate of one public elementary school as perceived by the principal's followers. These followers included teaching and non-teaching staff. It was not known how self-perceived emotional intelligence of a…
Lenhardt, Marie C.; Young, Patti Ann
2001-01-01
Professional counselors must assume the responsibility for the continued expansion and growth of the counseling profession. Article provides counselors with practical strategies to strengthen their public image and promote more positions and programming, particularly, at the elementary level. Background information is included on public relations,…
Elementary School Student Burnout Scale for Grades 6-8: A Study of Validity and Reliability
Aypay, Ayse
2011-01-01
The purpose of this study is to develop an "Elementary School Student Burnout Scale for Grades 6-8". The study group included 691 students out of 10 schools in Eskisehir. Both Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis were conducted on the data (Burnout stem from school activities, burnout stem from family, feeling of…
Kawinkamolroj, Milintra; Triwaranyu, Charinee; Thongthew, Sumlee
2015-01-01
This research aimed to develop coaching process based on transformative learning theory for changing the mindset about instruction of elementary school teachers. Tools used in this process include mindset tests and questionnaires designed to assess the instructional mindset of teachers and to allow the teachers to reflect on how they perceive…
River Falls Mall Math Trails: Connecting Elementary Mathematics to the World.
Ryan, Walter F.
This collection of activities demonstrates how the study of elementary mathematics can be extended beyond the school and involve teachers and students in investigative, problem-based experiences. The activities include topics in geometry, concept of number, algebra, measurement, graphing, statistics, and probability, and are organized into five…
Listing of Issues in American Elementary and Secondary Education, 1979. Interim Report.
McBain, Susan; And Others
This document lists issues in elementary and secondary education which were identified by a review of education journals and newspapers, including: Congressional Quarterly, Education Daily, Education U.S.A., Harvard Educational Review, National Journal, Newsweek, New York Times, Phi Delta Kappan, School Review, Time, Wall Street Journal, and…
Classroom Management through the Eyes of Elementary Teachers in Turkey: A Phenomenological Study
Akin, Sibel; Yildirim, Ali; Goodwin, A. Lin
2016-01-01
This study aims to explore Turkish elementary teachers' (1) perceptions of classroom management, (2) classroom management problems they experience, (3) factors causing these problems, and (4) their classroom management practices. The study employed phenomenological research design in the qualitative tradition. The participants included 15…
Fostering Elementary Students' Mathematics Disposition through Music-Mathematics Integrated Lessons
An, Song A.; Tillman, Daniel A.; Boren, Rachel; Wang, Junjun
2014-01-01
Two classes of third grade students (n = 56) from an elementary school located on the western coast of the United States participated in this research study. A pretest-posttest control group design was utilized to examine changes between two groups of participating students' in mathematics achievement and dispositions, including beliefs about…
The Supply and Demand of Elementary and Secondary School Teachers in the United States. ERIC Digest.
Yasin, Said
This Digest examines U.S. teacher supply and demand, including projections for the next 10 years. For the past 10 years, the supply of public elementary and secondary school teachers has grown. Currently, the number of teachers in the United States is 3.1 million, 2,666,034 of whom teach in public schools. The number is projected to increase by…
An Evaluation of Health and Sexuality Education in Turkish Elementary School Curricula
Bikmaz, Fatma Hazir; Guler, Duygu S.
2007-01-01
Research was undertaken to evaluate whether and to what extent the health-related domains, including sexuality education, specified by the Development of Health Awareness in Adolescent Project Science Committee overlapped with the goals and objectives of the 2002/03 elementary school curricula (grades one to eight; ages 7-14 years) in Turkey. For…
Effective Programs in Elementary Mathematics: A Best-Evidence Synthesis. Version 1.2
Slavin, Robert E.; Lake, Cynthia
2007-01-01
This article reviews research on the achievement outcomes of three types of approaches to improving elementary mathematics: Mathematics curricula, computer-assisted instruction (CAI), and instructional process programs. Study inclusion requirements included use of a randomized or matched control group, a study duration of 12 weeks, and achievement…
The Influence of Drama on Elementary Students' Written Narratives and On-Task Behavior
Anderson, Alida; Berry, Katherine A.
2014-01-01
Dramatic language arts integration (DLA) and conventional language arts (CLA) lessons were compared for their influence on third grade students' written narrative cohesion and on-task behavior in a self-contained, nonpublic elementary classroom. Participants included students (N = 14) with comorbid language-based learning disabilities (LD) and…
The New Northview Elementary School. Public School Reporter, Vol. 3, No. 1.
Olathe Board of Education, KS.
The Northview Elementary School is described, some features including a centrally located library-instructional materials center, flexibility through the absence of load bearing walls allowing flexible use of space, planning areas for teachers, and a minimum of corridor space. Among the unusual features are windowless construction, individual…
On Teaching the Scientific Complexity of Germination: A Study with Prospective Elementary Teachers
Vidal, Manuel; Membiela, Pedro
2014-01-01
This study reveals and discusses the problems of future elementary teachers after they have completed a practical on germination, including the fact that such practice is conceptually more complex than is usually considered, at least when the aim is to experiment with the determinant factors for germination. In this case there seemed to be some…
Elementary Teachers' Participation in Edmodo as a Community of Practice: A Phenomenology
Reasoner, Cynthia Rush
2017-01-01
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the shared, lived experience of elementary teachers' participation in Edmodo as a community of practice. The theoretical framework guiding this research included Lave and Wenger's (1991) community of practice theory and Bandura's social learning theory (1977, 1984) which explained how…
Collins, J. Michael; Odders-White, Elizabeth
2015-01-01
Concerns about consumers' ability to manage their finances have triggered a range of proposals, including interventions aimed at elementary school students. The goal of these approaches is to improve lifelong economic decision making, but the evidence supporting their efficacy is thin. In this article, the authors discuss the trend toward…
Choosing to Comply: How Teachers and Students Used Tests in a Bilingual Charter Elementary School
McGrew, Sean
2012-01-01
This study examines teacher and student talk about tests and test data in a bilingual charter elementary school over two academic years. Considering tests as conveying information, the analysis proposes categories to distinguish different kinds and uses of test information. Kinds of test information include that conveyed by the existence of the…
Elementary Visual Hallucinations and Their Relationships to Neural Pattern-Forming Mechanisms
Billock, Vincent A.; Tsou, Brian H.
2012-01-01
An extraordinary variety of experimental (e.g., flicker, magnetic fields) and clinical (epilepsy, migraine) conditions give rise to a surprisingly common set of elementary hallucinations, including spots, geometric patterns, and jagged lines, some of which also have color, depth, motion, and texture. Many of these simple hallucinations fall into a…
Elementary particle physics at the University of Florida. Annual report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Field, R.D.; Ramond, P.M.; Sikivie, P.
1995-01-01
This is the annual progress report of the University of Florida's elementary particle physics group. The theoretical high energy physics group's research covers a broad range of topics, including both theory and phenomenology. Present work of the experimental high energy physics group is directed toward the CLEO detector, with some effort going to B physics at Fermilab. The Axion Search project is participating in the operation of a large-scale axion detector at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, with the University of Florida taking responsibility for this experiment's high-resolution spectrometer's assembly, programming, and installation, and planning to take shifts during operation of the detector in FY96. The report also includes a continuation of the University's three-year proposal to the United States Department of Energy to upgrade the University's high-energy physics computing equipment and to continue student support, system manager/programmer support, and maintenance. Report includes lists of presentations and publications by members of the group
James, Mark Charles
Novice teachers with little prior knowledge of science concepts often resort to teaching science as a litany of jargon and definitions. The primary objective of this study was to establish the efficacy of analogy-based pedagogy on influencing the teaching performance of preservice elementary teachers, a group that has been identified for their particular difficulties in teaching science content. While numerous studies have focused on the efficacy of analogy-based instruction on the conceptual knowledge of learners, this was the first study to focus on the influence of analogy-based pedagogy instruction on the teaching performance of novice teachers. The study utilized a treatment/contrast group design where treatment and contrast groups were obtained from intact sections of a university course on methods of teaching science for preservice elementary education students. Preservice teachers in the treatment group were provided instruction in pedagogy that guided them in the generation of analogies to aid in the explanation phase of their learning cycle lessons. The process of generating and evaluating analogies for use in teaching was instrumental in focusing the preservice teachers' lesson planning efforts on critical attributes in target concepts, and away from misplaced concentrations on jargon and definitions. Teaching performance was primarily analyzed using coded indicants of Shulman's (1986) six stages of pedagogical reasoning ability. The primary data source was preservice teachers' work submitted for a major course assignment where the preservice teachers interviewed an elementary school student to gauge prior knowledge of Newtonian force concepts. The culmination of the semester-long assignment was the design of an individualized lesson that was presented by the preservice teachers to individual elementary school students. The results of this study strongly suggest that instruction in methods to include analogy-based pedagogy within a learning cycle lesson
Niaki, Shahrbanou F; Moore, Carolyn E; Chen, Tzu-An; Weber Cullen, Karen
2017-01-01
Children may not receive nutritional benefits from school lunch meals if they do not eat the foods served. This study investigated whether there were differences in school lunch foods consumed and wasted by grade level of elementary school students. In this cross-sectional study, anonymous meal observations were conducted after students selected their reimbursable school lunch meals in the cafeteria lunch line. The amounts of foods selected and consumed were recorded using the quarter waste method and food waste was calculated using the information recorded. During the spring of 2013, eight elementary schools (50% low income) enrolling children in kindergarten through grade 5 in one school district in the Houston, TX, area were selected by the Child Nutrition Director. The amount of calories and foods consumed and the percentage wasted were assessed. Analysis of covariance and post hoc analysis were used to examine food consumption and plate waste by grade level (kindergarten and grade 1 [K-Gr1], grades 2 and 3 [Gr2-3], and grades 4 and 5 [Gr4-5]), controlling for student sex and school-level free/reduced priced meal eligibility. There were 568 nonrandom lunch meal observations of students included in the analyses. Approximately 48% of the observations were from boys; 50% were from low-income schools, and were evenly divided by grade. In general, students in K-Gr1 consumed fewer calories than both Gr2-3 and Gr4-5, and Gr2-3 students consumed significantly fewer calories than Gr4-5. K-Gr1 students also consumed less and wasted more total and red-orange vegetables, total/whole/refined grains, and total protein foods than the older students. Gr2-3 students wasted more calories and total grains than Gr4-5 students. K-Gr1 students wasted more fruit than Gr2-3 students. Overall, younger students in elementary schools (K-Gr-1) consumed less of the foods they selected for their lunch meals, and wasted more than older elementary school students. Future studies should
Investigating elementary school pupils’ proficiency in mastering English vocabulary
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Diana Achmad
2014-03-01
Full Text Available English has been taught at elementary schools as one of the local content subjects. It is necessary to study English from an early age in order to achieve good mastery in it. To master English means to master the four skills in it and also the language aspects, including vocabulary. As one of the language aspects, vocabulary plays an important role in language learning. This study reports on pupils’ proficiency in mastering English vocabulary after three years of studying in elementary school. The writer chose 55 grade-four pupils of SD Methodist Banda Aceh as a sample for this study. They were given a vocabulary test related to reading and writing skills consisting of 26 items. The test was to be done in 20 minutes. After calculating the data, it was found that the mean score (x of the pupils was 69.5, with the highest score at 92.3 and the lowest score at 26.9. More than 50% of the pupils could answer the questions correctly in less than 20 minutes. Only 4 out of the 55 pupils answered the questions less than 50% correctly and no one answered 100% correct. According to these results, this study showed that the pupils achieved good proficiency in vocabulary.
Physics through the 1990s: Elementary-particle physics
1986-01-01
The volume begins with a non-mathematical discussion of the motivation behind, and basic ideas of, elementary-particle physics theory and experiment. The progress over the past two decades with the quark model and unification of the electromagnetic and weak interactions is reviewed. Existing theoretical problems in the field, such as the origin of mass and the unification of the fundamental forces, are detailed, along with experimental programs to test the new theories. Accelerators, instrumentation, and detectors are described for both current and future facilities. Interactions with other areas of both theoretical and applied physics are presented. The sociology of the field is examined regarding the education of graduate students, the organization necessary in large-scale experiments, and the decision-making process involved in high-cost experiments. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for maintaining US excellence in theory and experiment are given. Appendices list both current and planned accelerators, and present statistical data on the US elementary-particle physics program. A glossary is included.
Theoretical & Experimental Studies of Elementary Particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McFarland, Kevin [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)
2012-10-04
Abstract High energy physics has been one of the signature research programs at the University of Rochester for over 60 years. The group has made leading contributions to experimental discoveries at accelerators and in cosmic rays and has played major roles in developing the theoretical framework that gives us our ``standard model'' of fundamental interactions today. This award from the Department of Energy funded a major portion of that research for more than 20 years. During this time, highlights of the supported work included the discovery of the top quark at the Fermilab Tevatron, the completion of a broad program of physics measurements that verified the electroweak unified theory, the measurement of three generations of neutrino flavor oscillations, and the first observation of a ``Higgs like'' boson at the Large Hadron Collider. The work has resulted in more than 2000 publications over the period of the grant. The principal investigators supported on this grant have been recognized as leaders in the field of elementary particle physics by their peers through numerous awards and leadership positions. Most notable among them is the APS W.K.H. Panofsky Prize awarded to Arie Bodek in 2004, the J.J. Sakurai Prizes awarded to Susumu Okubo and C. Richard Hagen in 2005 and 2010, respectively, the Wigner medal awarded to Susumu Okubo in 2006, and five principal investigators (Das, Demina, McFarland, Orr, Tipton) who received Department of Energy Outstanding Junior Investigator awards during the period of this grant. The University of Rochester Department of Physics and Astronomy, which houses the research group, provides primary salary support for the faculty and has waived most tuition costs for graduate students during the period of this grant. The group also benefits significantly from technical support and infrastructure available at the University which supports the work. The research work of the group has provided educational opportunities
Elementary science education: Dilemmas facing preservice teachers
Sullivan, Sherry Elaine
Prospective teachers are involved in a process of induction into a culture of teaching that has rules, or codes of conduct for engaging in teaching practice. This same culture of teaching exists within a larger culture of schooling that also has values and norms for behaviors, that over time have become institutionalized. Teacher educators are faced with the challenging task of preparing preservice teachers to resolve dilemmas that arise from conflicts between the pressure to adopt traditional teaching practices of schooling, or to adopt inquiry-based teaching practices from their university methods classes. One task for researchers in teacher education is to define with greater precision what factors within the culture of schooling hinder or facilitate implementation of inquiry-based methods of science teaching in schools. That task is the focus of this study. A qualitative study was undertaken using a naturalistic research paradigm introduced by Lincoln and Guba in 1985. Participant observation, interviews, discourse analysis of videotapes of lessons from the methods classroom and written artifacts produced by prospective teachers during the semester formed the basis of a grounded theory based on inductive analysis and emergent design. Unstructured interviews were used to negotiate outcomes with participants. Brief case reports of key participants were also written. This study identified three factors that facilitated or hindered the prospective teachers in this research success in implementing inquiry-based science teaching in their field placement classrooms: (a) the culture of teaching/teacher role-socialization, (b) the culture of schooling and its resistance to change, and (c) the culture of teacher education, especially in regards to grades and academic standing. Some recommendations for overcoming these persistent obstacles to best practice in elementary science teaching include: (a) preparing prospective teachers to understand and cope with change
Elementary school teachers’ knowledge on dyslexia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Isabelly Silva do Nascimento
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to describe the knowledge of elementary school teachers on child dyslexia. Methods: 10 teachers from the 1st to the 5th year of elementary education in public schools in the municipality of Abreu e Lima, Pernambuco, Brazil, participated in the study. A semi-structured interview was conducted with each teacher, individually, in the school itself and was based on some guiding questions. Results: content analysis allowed the identification of three thematic categories: 1. Teacher training does not address dyslexia; 2. Feelings and difficulties of the literacy teacher facing the challenges of literacy; 3. Lack of knowledge about dyslexia: school management of possibly dyslexic children. Conclusion: the research revealed the lack of knowledge of literacy teachers on dyslexia, despite having undergraduate and postgraduate education, as well as that of teachers who participated in training offered by the municipal education network.
Research in elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1992-01-01
Experimental and theoretical work on high energy physics is reviewed. Included are preparations to study high-energy electron-proton interactions at HERA, light-cone QCD, decays of charm and beauty particles, neutrino oscillation, electron-positron interactions at CLEO II, detector development, and astrophysics and cosmology
Enzyme Kinetics? Elementary, my dear
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In addition, enzymes usually exhibit a remarkable specificity for the reactants and reactions, including the ability to distinguish between optical isomers 1. The Principle of Catalysis. An enzyme, like a catalyst, only increases the rate of a reaction without altering itself at the end of the reaction. Consider the interconversion of ...
Elementary Continuum Mechanics for Everyone
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Byskov, Esben
numerical method, the finite element method, including means of mending inherent problems •An informal, yet precise exposition that emphasizes not just how a topic is treated, but discusses why a particular choice is made The book opens with a derivation of kinematically nonlinear 3-D continuum mechanics...
An elementary approach to gap theorems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In the second class, it is assumed that the sectional curvature has a definite sign and approaches zero at a certain rate. One of the early results in this direction was by Siu and Yau [5]. A by-product of this paper is a completely elementary and short proof of the main result in [5]. A host of theorems was also proved by Greene.
Elementary introduction to finite difference equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
White, J.W.
1976-01-01
An elementary description is given of the basic vocabulary and concepts associated with finite difference modeling. The material discussed is biased toward the types of large computer programs used at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Particular attention is focused on truncation error and how it can be affected by zoning patterns. The principle of convergence is discussed, and convergence as a tool for improving calculational accuracy and efficiency is emphasized
Chronic Teacher Turnover in Urban Elementary Schools
Kacey Guin
2004-01-01
This study examines the characteristics of elementary schools that experience chronic teacher turnover and the impacts of turnover on a school’s working climate and ability to effectively function. Based on evidence from staff climate surveys and case studies, it is clear that high turnover schools face significant organizational challenges. Schools with high teacher turnover rates have difficulty planning and implementing a coherent curriculum and sustaining positive working relationships am...
Current experiments in elementary particle physics, 1989
Lawrence Berkeley Nat. Laboratory. Berkeley; Armstrong, F E; Trippe, T G; Yost, G P; Oyanagi, Y; Dodder, D C; Ryabov, Yu G; Slabospitsky, S R; Frosch, R; Olin, A; Lehar, F; Klumov, I A; Ivanov, I I
1989-01-01
Contains more than 1,800 experiments in elementary particle physics from the Experience database. Search and browse by author; title; experiment number or prefix; institution; date approved, started or completed; accelerator or detector; polarization, reaction, final state or particle; or by papers produced. Maintained at SLAC for the Particle Data Group. Supplies the information for Current Experiments in Particle Physics (LBL-91). Print version updated every second year.
Reading motivation in elementary school students
Sonja Pečjak; Nataša Bucik
2005-01-01
Reading motivation is one of the crucial factors of reading and consequently also learning efficiency of students. The purpose of the contribution is to establish the connection between dimensions of reading motivation and reading achievement in elementary school students. Participating in the study were 1073 third-grade and 1282 seventh-grade students. We used the questionnaire of reading motivation which consists of two factors: the reading competence factor and the interest and perceived r...
Written narrative practices in elementary school students.
Romano-Soares, Soraia; Soares, Aparecido José Couto; Cárnio, Maria Silvia
2010-01-01
Promotion of a written narratives production program in the third grade of an Elementary School. To analyze two written narrative practice proposals in order to verify which resources are more efficient in benefitting the textual productions of third grade Elementary School students. Sixty students were selected from two third grade groups of a public Elementary School in São Paulo (Brazil). For the analysis, students were divided into two groups (Group A and Group B). Fourteen children's storybooks were used. In Group A, the story was orally told by the researchers in a colloquial manner, keeping the narrator role and the original structure proposed by the author. In Group B, the story was fully read. The book was projected onto a screen and read aloud so the students could follow the reading and observe the corresponding illustrations. Voice changing resources in the characters' dialogues were used. In the overall comparison, statistically significant results were found for moment (initial and final assessments) and for interaction between groups. It was observed that both groups presented substantial development from initial to final assessment. The Written Narratives Promotion Program based on the shared reading of children's storybooks constituted a more effective strategy than telling the stories using a single reader.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suherman Ayi
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The issue of this research emphasizes on the implementation of character building values through physical education learning in elementary school. The effort in developing this character building practice is essential to be done in order to tackle moral and character crises, which already occur in both individual and collective levels reflected in educational institution from elementary school to higher education. Hence, to form culture and national character, educational program and process are inseparable from environmental factor including the values of society, culture, and humanity. Physical education subject that is based on 2013 Curriculum has significant difference compared to the previous physical education subject. This is due to the fact that integrated physical education has its own uniqueness in terms of planning, systematic implementation, and instructional medium. This research aims at producing guidance in implementing character values integrated in physical education in elementary school. The method used in this research is research and development (R&D method, which includes preliminary research, model designing, limited trial, and extensive trial, as well as validation and dissemination. The findings of the research show that character values can be implemented in physical education in elementary schools in Sumedang Regency.
Investigations in Elementary Particle Theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weiler, Thomas J. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Kephart, Thomas W. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Scherrer, Robert J. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)
2014-07-02
The research interests of our three Co-PI’s complement each other very well. Kephart works mainly on models of particle unification in four or higher dimensions, on aspects of gravity such as inflation, black-holes, and the very early Universe, and on applications of knot theory and topology to various physical systems (including gluon dynamics). Scherrer works mainly on aspects of the intermediate-aged Universe, including dark matter and dark energy, and particle physics in the early Universe. Weiler works mainly on neutrino physics, dark matter signatures, and extreme particle-astrophysics in the late Universe, including origins of the highest-energy cosmic-rays and gamma-rays, and the future potential of neutrino astrophysics. Kephart and Weiler have lately devoted some research attention to the LHC and its reach for probing physics beyond the Standard Model. During the 3-year funding period, our grant supported one postdoc (Chiu Man Ho) and partially supported two students, Peter Denton and Lingjun Fu. Chiu Man collaborated with all three of the Co-PI’s during the 3-year funding period and published 16 refereed papers. Chiu Man has gone on to a postdoc with Steve Hsu at Michigan State University. Denton and Fu will both receive their PhDs during the 2014-15 academic year. The total number of our papers published in refereed journals by the three co-PIs during the period of this grant (2011-present) is 54. The total number of talks given by the group members during this time period, including seminars, colloquia, and conference presentations, is 47. Some details of the accomplishments of our DOE funded researchers during the grant period include Weiler being named a Simons Fellow in 2013. He presented an invited TEDx talk in 2012. His paper on closed timelike curves (2013) garnered a great deal of national publicity. Scherrer’s paper on the “little rip” (2011) fostered a new area of cosmological research, and the name “little rip” has now entered
Elementary principles in statistical mechanics
Gibbs, Josiah Willard
2014-01-01
Written by J. Willard Gibbs, the most distinguished American mathematical physicist of the nineteenth century, this book was the first to bring together and arrange in logical order the works of Clausius, Maxwell, Boltzmann, and Gibbs himself. The lucid, advanced-level text remains a valuable collection of fundamental equations and principles. Topics include the general problem and the fundamental equation of statistical mechanics, the canonical distribution of the average energy values in a canonical ensemble of systems, and formulas for evaluating important functions of the energies of a sys
Preservice elementary teachers learning of astronomy
Fidler, Chuck Gary
The dissertation presents a new approach for the study of preservice elementary teacher astronomy education. The approach suggests that learning astronomical concepts are facilitated by greater sophistication in scale perception and spatial-aptitude. This dissertation is underscored by the national call for elementary science education reform efforts and suggests certain strategies shown more effective for the development of accurate astronomical comprehension. The present research study describes how preservice elementary teachers conceptualize and communicate ideas about Space. Instead of assuming a universal mental conception of cosmic orientations and relationships, the dissertation claims that the perception of Space related dimensions vary among preservice elementary teachers. Furthermore, the dissertation suggests individual perceptions of the scale sizes and orientations of celestial systems have direct influences on mental models used to organize and communicate astronomical information. The development of inaccurate mental models of the scaled dimensions of Space may perpetuate the teacher-student cycle of misconception and naive-theory generation among children in elementary education settings. The ability to conceptualize the vast cosmos is facilitated by the minds ability to think about vast scales and orientations of celestial objects. The Earth-based perspective of astronomy education compels the learner to think about astronomical principles within imaginary frames of reference and across unfamiliar scaled dimensions. Therefore, mental astronomical model building is underscored by the perception of scale and cosmic spatiality. This study suggests these cognitive skill sets are interconnected and facilitate the learning of accurate astronomy principles; as well as play an important role when designing an astronomy education program for preservice elementary teachers. This research study is comprised of three separate standalone articles designed and
Research on elementary particle physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Holloway, L.E.; O' Halloran, T.A.
1992-05-01
This report describes the activities of the University of Illinois Experimental High Energy Physics Group. The physicists in the University of Illinois High Energy Physics Group are engaged in a wide variety of experiments at current and future accelerator laboratories. These include: (1) The CDF experiment at the Fermilab Tevetron p{bar p} collider. (2) Design and developmental work for the SDC group at SSCL. (3) Experiments at the wide band photon beam at Fermilab. (4) The SLD experiment at SLAC and design studies for a {tau}-charm factor. (5) CP violation experiments at Fermilab. (6) The HiRes cosmic ray experiment at Dugway Proving Grounds, Utah. (7) Computational facilities. (8) Electronics systems development.
Perspectives on learning, learning to teach and teaching elementary science
Avraamidou, Lucy
The framework that characterizes this work is that of elementary teachers' learning and development. Specifically, the ways in which prospective and beginning teachers' develop pedagogical content knowledge for teaching science in light of current recommendations for reform emphasizing teaching and learning science as inquiry are explored. Within this theme, the focus is on three core areas: (a) the use of technology tools (i.e., web-based portfolios) in support of learning to teach science at the elementary level; (b) beginning teachers' specialized knowledge for giving priority to evidence in science teaching; and (c) the applications of perspectives associated with elementary teachers' learning to teach science in Cyprus, where I was born and raised. The first manuscript describes a study aimed at exploring the influence of web-based portfolios and a specific task in support of learning to teach science within the context of a Professional Development School program. The task required prospective teachers to articulate their personal philosophies about teaching and learning science in the form of claims, evidence and justifications in a web-based forum. The findings of this qualitative case study revealed the participants' developing understandings about learning and teaching science, which included emphasizing a student-centered approach, connecting physical engagement of children with conceptual aspects of learning, becoming attentive to what teachers can do to support children's learning, and focusing on teaching science as inquiry. The way the task was organized and the fact that the web-based forum provided the ability to keep multiple versions of their philosophies gave prospective teachers the advantage of examining how their philosophies were changing over time, which supported a continuous engagement in metacognition, self-reflection and self-evaluation. The purpose of the study reported in the second manuscript was to examine the nature of a first
Disciplined knowledge: Differentiating and binding the elementary science curriculum
Hayes, Michael Thomas
The purpose of this research was to investigate elementary science curriculum differentiation at two schools with widely divergent student demographics. Historically, elementary school students of ethnic-minority and low-socioeconomic backgrounds have not performed on traditional assessments of academic achievement and progress in science education at the same level as their White and more affluent peers. This inequality has long been of interest to the proponents of science education reform who are concerned with the ability of students to participate successfully in a democratic society and in the labor market. Differentiating the curriculum such that students, because of their socioeconomic, ethnic, or racial backgrounds, receive different knowledge, skills, and experiences is a key component of school activity that supports social inequality. Participants in the study included the teachers and students of four classrooms in two schools with student populations that differed in their socioeconomic and ethnic demographics. Qualitative research methods, including fieldnotes, audiorecordings, and interviews, were utilized to gather data. The collection and analysis of data were articulated in a developmental research process in which theories and interpretations were continuously constructed and tested for validity. The results of this research show that the science curricula at the two schools were different, with differences being understood in terms of the populations served. The particular form of differentiation observed in this study was closely correlated to elements of social discipline, knowledge segmentation and reconfiguration, time and pacing, control of bodies, and testing. The elementary science curriculum at the two schools differed in the formality and intensity with which the curriculum was constructed in adherence to these elements of discipline. Such differences cannot be understood in traditional terms as supporting White middle-class students
Anxiety of elementary and secondary school students in Slovenia: gender and age analyses
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ana kozina
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Anxiety is defined as a multidimensional response with emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and physiological domain with the anticipation of threat. Anxiety negatively interferes with the adaptive functioning of students in elementary and secondary schools and needs to be investigated in detail. The present article examines age and gender differences in representative samples of elementary (4th and 8th grade students and secondary school students (students of 4th grade in Matura programs. The LAOM anxiety scale that measures anxiety with its components (emotional and cognitive in students in schools was used. Based on the results of two-way ANOVA important age, gender and the interaction effect is evident in analyzed data. 8th grade female students are more anxious compared to 8th grade male students. The gender differences in 4th grade elementary sample and secondary school sample were not significant. 8th grade students are more anxious compared to 4th grade students, secondary school students are least anxious compared to both elementary school samples. The results are congruent with the findings of the research literature indicating higher anxiety of females when compared to males and higher anxiety of older students when compared to younger students. The paper offers important findings regarding age and gender differences in representative school samples in Slovenia and proposes future research in direction of including different age groups and different measures of anxiety in the analyses.
[Research in elementary particles and interactions]. Technical progress report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adair, R.; Sandweiss, J.; Schmidt, M.
1992-05-01
Research of the Yale University groups in the areas of elementary particles and their interactions are outlined. Work on the following topics is reported: development of CDF trigger system; SSC detector development; study of heavy flavors at TPL; search for composite objects produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions; high-energy polarized lepton-nucleon scattering; rare K{sup +} decays; unpolarized high-energy muon scattering; muon anomalous magnetic moment; theoretical high-energy physics including gauge theories, symmetry breaking, string theory, and gravitation theory; study of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} interactions with the SLD detector at SLAC; and the production and decay of particles containing charm and beauty quarks.
Lie groups, lie algebras, and representations an elementary introduction
Hall, Brian
2015-01-01
This textbook treats Lie groups, Lie algebras and their representations in an elementary but fully rigorous fashion requiring minimal prerequisites. In particular, the theory of matrix Lie groups and their Lie algebras is developed using only linear algebra, and more motivation and intuition for proofs is provided than in most classic texts on the subject. In addition to its accessible treatment of the basic theory of Lie groups and Lie algebras, the book is also noteworthy for including: a treatment of the Baker–Campbell–Hausdorff formula and its use in place of the Frobenius theorem to establish deeper results about the relationship between Lie groups and Lie algebras motivation for the machinery of roots, weights and the Weyl group via a concrete and detailed exposition of the representation theory of sl(3;C) an unconventional definition of semisimplicity that allows for a rapid development of the structure theory of semisimple Lie algebras a self-contained construction of the representations of compac...
Prospective elementary and secondary school mathematics teachers’ statistical reasoning
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rabia KARATOPRAK
2015-04-01
Full Text Available This study investigated prospective elementary (PEMTs and secondary (PSMTs school mathematics teachers’ statistical reasoning. The study began with the adaptation of the Statistical Reasoning Assessment (Garfield, 2003 test. Then, the test was administered to 82 PEMTs and 91 PSMTs in a metropolitan city of Turkey. Results showed that both groups were equally successful in understanding independence, and understanding importance of large samples. However, results from selecting appropriate measures of center together with the misconceptions assessing the same subscales showed that both groups selected mode rather than mean as an appropriate average. This suggested their lack of attention to the categorical and interval/ratio variables while examining data. Similarly, both groups were successful in interpreting and computing probability; however, they had equiprobability bias, law of small numbers and representativeness misconceptions. The results imply a change in some questions in the Statistical Reasoning Assessment test and that teacher training programs should include statistics courses focusing on studying characteristics of samples.
A data acquisition system for elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grittenden, J.A.; Benenson, G.; Cunitz, H.; Hsuing, Y.B.; Kaplan, D.M.; Sippach, W.; Stern, B.
1984-01-01
The data acquisition system experiment 605 at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory employs a set of data transfer protocols developed at Columbia University and implemented in the Nevis Laboratories Data Transport System. The authors describe the logical design of the Transport System, its physical realization, and its particular application during the Spring, 1982 data run of experiment 605. During that run it served as the interface between the data latches and a megabyte of fast memory, operating at a data transfer rate of 200 nsec/16-bit word. Up to two thousand events were read out during the one second beam spill, each event consisting of about 250 words. Included are details of proposed improvements to the data acquisition system and append a brief comment of the need for inexpensive, versatile readout systems in experimental elementary particle physics
Tensor analysis and elementary differential geometry for physicists and engineers
Nguyen-Schäfer, Hung
2014-01-01
Tensors and methods of differential geometry are very useful mathematical tools in many fields of modern physics and computational engineering including relativity physics, electrodynamics, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), continuum mechanics, aero and vibroacoustics, and cybernetics. This book comprehensively presents topics, such as bra-ket notation, tensor analysis, and elementary differential geometry of a moving surface. Moreover, authors intentionally abstain from giving mathematically rigorous definitions and derivations that are however dealt with as precisely as possible. The reader is provided with hands-on calculations and worked-out examples at which he will learn how to handle the bra-ket notation, tensors and differential geometry and to use them in the physical and engineering world. The target audience primarily comprises graduate students in physics and engineering, research scientists, and practicing engineers.
The basic elementary particles as martensitic nucleus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aguinaco-Bravo, V. J.; Onoro, J.
1999-01-01
The martensitic transformation is a diffusional structural change that produces an important modification of the microstructure and properties of materials. In this paper we propose how the martensitic phase is nucleated from a basic elementary particle (bep). The bep is formed in several stages. Vacancies, divacancies, etc. are formed at high temperature, which collapse into prismatic dislocation loops during the cooling process. We define a bep as a dislocation loop reaching a critical radius and fulfilling certain elastic energy conditions. A martensitic nucleus is a bep that coincides crystallographically with the habit plane of the matrix. (Author) 16 refs
Job satisfaction of Jamaican elementary school teachers
Rodgers-Jenkinson, Fay; Chapman, David W.
1990-09-01
This study investigated correlates of job satisfaction among public (N=190) and private (N=100) Jamaican elementary school teachers. Emphasis was on the identification of factors that could be affected through administrative intervention. Results indicated that the quality of school working conditions and respondents' relationships with other teachers were significantly related to satisfaction for both public and private school teachers. School prestige and parental encouragement were also significant predictors for public school teachers; leadership style, organizational structure, and teacher-parent relationships predicted job satisfaction for private school teachers. Implications of these findings for Jamaican education are discussed.
An Elementary Introduction to Statistical Learning Theory
Kulkarni, Sanjeev
2011-01-01
A thought-provoking look at statistical learning theory and its role in understanding human learning and inductive reasoning A joint endeavor from leading researchers in the fields of philosophy and electrical engineering, An Elementary Introduction to Statistical Learning Theory is a comprehensive and accessible primer on the rapidly evolving fields of statistical pattern recognition and statistical learning theory. Explaining these areas at a level and in a way that is not often found in other books on the topic, the authors present the basic theory behind contemporary machine learning and
Search for new families of elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cline, D.B.; Mann, A.K.; Rubbia, C.
1976-01-01
A new particle was observed at Fermilab having a mass and lifetime that place it in a region of the elementary-particle spectrum that remains almost unexplored. Its significance is that it reveals an entirely new family, the existence of which implies that there is some hitherto unobserved property matter that distinguishes the particles in the new family from all the more familiar ones. Particle properties are reviewed in order to explain the observation of the new particle. It is suggested that a new hadron is the most likely interpretation
Baryogenesis via Elementary Goldstone Higgs Relaxation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gertov, Helene; Pearce, Lauren; Sannino, Francesco
2016-01-01
We extend the relaxation mechanism to the Elementary Goldstone Higgs framework. Besides studying the allowed parameter space of the theory we add the minimal ingredients needed for the framework to be phenomenologically viable. The very nature of the extended Higgs sector allows to consider very...... flat scalar potential directions along which the relaxation mechanism can be implemented. This fact translates into wider regions of applicability of the relaxation mechanism when compared to the Standard Model Higgs case. Our results show that, if the electroweak scale is not fundamental...... but radiatively generated, it is possible to generate the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry via the relaxation mechanism....
On an elementary definition of visual saliency
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Loog, Marco
2008-01-01
Various approaches to computational modelling of bottom-up visual attention have been proposed in the past two decades. As part of this trend, researchers have studied ways to characterize the saliency map underlying many of these models. In more recent years, several definitions based...... on probabilistic and information or decision theoretic considerations have been proposed. These provide experimentally successful, appealing, low-level, operational, and elementary definitions of visual saliency (see eg, Bruce, 2005 Neurocomputing 65 125 - 133). Here, I demonstrate that, in fact, all...
Elementary particle physics in a nutshell
Tully, Christopher C
2011-01-01
The new experiments underway at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Switzerland may significantly change our understanding of elementary particle physics and, indeed, the universe. This textbook provides a cutting-edge introduction to the field, preparing first-year graduate students and advanced undergraduates to understand and work in LHC physics at the dawn of what promises to be an era of experimental and theoretical breakthroughs. Christopher Tully, an active participant in the work at the LHC, explains some of the most recent experiments in the field. But this book, which emerged fr
Are quarks and leptons composite or elementary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peccei, R.D.
1986-01-01
In these lectures I discuss the issue of the origin of the quark and lepton masses, both in the case in which these objects are elementary and in the case they are composite. Some of the generic predictions and dynamical assumptions of GUTS, family symmetry models and superstrings are detailed. They are contrasted to the dynamics required for composite models of quarks and leptons. In this latter case, the difficulties of protecting dynamically fermion masses and yet still generating intra and interfamily hierarchies is emphasized. (orig.)
Sports profile in public elementary school
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Warren Pedersen, Lise; Trangbæk, Else
2012-01-01
In 2005, Copenhagen municipality decided to develop and implement a sport and movement profile at a local elementary school. The overall development is discussed as are specific results and consequences of the decision. The role of physical education and teachers in relation to a health discourse......, sport and school sports viewed as an arena for talent identification and development will be discussed. In addition, a question of inequality raised, as a group of talented athletes are accepted into specific sports classes, focusing on cultural capital and the possibility of the educational system...
On the spectrum of elementary type operator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khan, G.A.; Kyle, J.
1990-11-01
Let H be a complex separable Hilbert space and let B(H) be the algebra of all bounded linear operators on H. Let {A 1 ,...,A n } and {B 1 ,...,B n } be two commuting families of self-adjoint operators in B(H). In this paper we are concerned with the investigation of the spectrum of the elementary type operator Γ : B(H) → B(H) defined by Γ(X) = Σ n i=1 A i XB i for all X in B(H). 8 refs
Jones, Brett D.; Sigmon, Miranda L.
2016-01-01
Introduction: The purpose of our study was to assess whether the Elementary School version of the MUSIC® Model of Academic Motivation Inventory was valid for use with elementary students in classrooms with regular classroom teachers and student teachers enrolled in a university teacher preparation program. Method: The participants included 535…
Elementary particle physics at the University of Florida. Annual progress report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1991-12-01
This report discusses research in the following areas: theoretical elementary particle physics; experimental elementary particle physics; axion project; SSC detector development; and computer acquisition. (LSP).
Malki, Sharon; Einat, Tomer
2018-01-01
Numerous studies have emphasized the relationship between success of policies of inclusion and acceptance and accommodation of students with intellectual disabilities in mainstream settings and teachers' positive attitudes toward them. Using semi-structured interviews and interpretive and constructivist strategies, the present study qualitatively…
Reconceptualizing Elementary Teacher Preparation: A Case for Informal Science Education
Avraamidou, Lucy
2015-01-01
The purpose of this case study was to explore the ways in which 3 different informal science experiences in the context of an elementary methods course influenced a group of prospective elementary teachers' ideas about science teaching and learning as well as their understandings about the role of informal science environments to teaching and…
Question and Answer: Observation in the Elementary Classroom
Baker, Kay
2016-01-01
In this article, Kay Baker sets out to answer the questions, "What is observation? What is the nature of observation in the elementary class? How can observation help the adult guide the development of children?" She responds by listing the areas that can be observed in the elementary class (the prepared environment, the work of the…
Cypriot Urban Elementary Students' Attitude toward Physical Education
Constantinides, Panos; Silverman, Stephen
2018-01-01
Purpose: This study examined the attitudes of Cypriot elementary school students toward physical education. Fourth, fifth and sixth grade students (N = 763) from six urban Cypriot elementary schools completed an attitude instrument. Methods: Adapting the attitude instrument for Greek-speaking students an extensive two-step pilot study showed the…
43 CFR 17.220 - Preschool, elementary, and secondary education.
2010-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preschool, elementary, and secondary education. 17.220 Section 17.220 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap § 17.220 Preschool, elementary,...
75 FR 31771 - Office of Elementary and Secondary Education
2010-06-04
... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Office of Elementary and Secondary Education Overview Information; Impact... 8007(b)(2)(A) of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, as amended (Act) (20 U.S.C. 7707(b... 2007.) Program Authority: 20 U.S.C. 7707(b). Applicable Regulations: (a) The Education Department...
The Effects of Academic Optimism on Elementary Reading Achievement
Bevel, Raymona K.; Mitchell, Roxanne M.
2012-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between academic optimism (AO) and elementary reading achievement (RA). Design/methodology/approach: Using correlation and hierarchical linear regression, the authors examined school-level effects of AO on fifth grade reading achievement in 29 elementary schools in Alabama.…
Can Elementary Students Gather Information from Concept Maps?
Marulcu, Ismail; Karakuyu, Yunus; Dogan, Mevlut
2013-01-01
In this study, we investigated whether concept maps were used as often and as effectively in elementary science and technology classrooms as recommended by the National Ministry of Education (MEB) in the new curricula in Turkey. In the new elementary science and technology curricula, the MEB provides a general concept map for each unit. We used…
Common Core Implementation Decisions Made by Principals in Elementary Schools
Norman, Alexis Cienfuegos
2016-01-01
The purpose of this study was to understand the decisions elementary principals have made during the Common Core State Standards reform. Specifically, (a) what decisions principals have made to support Common Core implementation, (b) what strategies elementary principals have employed to communicate with stakeholders about Common Core State…
Physical activity during recess in elementary school: Gender ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The aim of this study was to determine the levels of physical activity during unstructured recess in the elementary school considering gender and weight status. There were 66 elementary school participants from southern Spain. Anthropometric parameters, such as body mass, body height and body mass index and physical ...
Predicting the Geometry Knowledge of Pre-Service Elementary Teachers
Duatepe Aksu, Asuman
2013-01-01
In this study, the aim was to examine the factors that predict the geometry knowledge of pre-service elementary teachers. Data was collected on 387 pre-service elementary teachers from four universities by using a geometry knowledge test, the van Hiele geometric thinking level test, a geometry self efficacy scale and a geometry attitude scale.…
Exploring Plant and Animal Content in Elementary Science Textbooks
Schussler, Elisabeth E.; Link-Perez, Melanie A.; Weber, Kirk M.; Dollo, Vanessa H.
2010-01-01
Student knowledge about plants is typically less than student knowledge about animals. Textbooks are a commonly-used curriculum material in elementary grades and contain embedded cultural ideologies that may impact instruction. This study analyzed two nationally-syndicated elementary science textbook series to explore their presentation of plant…
Vector valued logarithmic residues and the extraction of elementary factors
H. Bart (Harm); T. Ehrhardt; B. Silbermann
2007-01-01
textabstractAn analysis is presented of the circumstances under which, by the extraction of elementary factors, an analytic Banach algebra valued function can be transformed into one taking invertible values only. Elementary factors are generalizations of the simple scalar expressions λ – α, the
Prospective Elementary Teachers Making Sense of Multidigit Multiplication: Leveraging Resources
Whitacre, Ian; Nickerson, Susan D.
2016-01-01
This study examines how collective activity related to multiplication evolved over several class sessions in an elementary mathematics content course that was designed to foster prospective elementary teachers' number-sense development. We document how the class drew on as-if-shared ideas to make sense of multidigit multiplication in terms of…
Preparing Elementary Prospective Teachers to Teach Early Algebra
Hohensee, Charles
2017-01-01
Researchers have argued that integrating early algebra into elementary grades will better prepare students for algebra. However, currently little research exists to guide teacher preparation programs on how to prepare prospective elementary teachers to teach early algebra. This study examines the insights and challenges that prospective teachers…
Elementary Algebra + Student-Written Web Illustrations = Math Mastery.
Veteto, Bette R.
This project focuses on the construction and use of a student-made elementary algebra tutorial World Wide Web page at the University of Memphis (Tennessee), how this helps students further explore the topics studied in elementary algebra, and how students can publish their work on the class Web page for use by other students. Practical,…
Teaching - learning plan on nuclear energy for elementary school
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2009-03-01
This is for teaching - learning curriculum about nuclear energy for elementary school students. It consist of four titles, which are I saved this much, learning energy through quiz, I work for nuclear power plant and would mayor build a nuclear power plant in our town? It was written to teach nuclear power plant and nuclear energy to elementary school students in easy way.
Perceptions of Elementary School Children's Parents Regarding Sexuality Education
Fisher, Christine M.; Telljohann, Susan K.; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph A.; Glassman, Tavis
2015-01-01
This study examined the preferences of parents of elementary school-aged children regarding when sexuality topics should be discussed in school and at home. The survey was mailed to a national random sample of parents of elementary school age children. Overall, 92% of parents believed that sexuality education should be taught in schools.…
Roles of Teachers in Orchestrating Learning in Elementary Science Classrooms
Zhai, Junqing; Tan, Aik-Ling
2015-01-01
This study delves into the different roles that elementary science teachers play in the classroom to orchestrate science learning opportunities for students. Examining the classroom practices of three elementary science teachers in Singapore, we found that teachers shuttle between four key roles in enabling student learning in science. Teachers…
Balance Sheet for Catholic Elementary Schools: 2001 Income and Expenses.
Kealey, Robert J.
This financial report was designed to provide a basis for informed discussion regarding potential forms of federal and state assistance to students attending Catholic elementary schools, and to encourage improved local management. The information presented in this study is based upon a random sample of Catholic elementary schools across the United…
Elementary Teachers' Thinking about a Good Mathematics Lesson
Li, Yeping
2011-01-01
In an effort to gain a better understanding of Chinese classroom teaching culture, this study aimed to examine elementary teachers' views about a good mathematics lesson in China. Through analyzing 57 teachers' essays collected from 7 elementary schools in 2 provinces, it is found that Chinese teachers emphasized the most about students and their…
Elementary Teachers' Perspectives of Inclusion in the Regular Education Classroom
Olinger, Becky Lorraine
2013-01-01
The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine regular education and special education teacher perceptions of inclusion services in an elementary school setting. In this phenomenological study, purposeful sampling techniques and data were used to conduct a study of inclusion in the elementary schools. In-depth one-to-one interviews with 8…
Future Elementary School Teachers' Conceptual Change Concerning Photosynthesis
Ahopelto, Ilona; Mikkila-Erdmann, Mirjamaija; Anto, Erkki; Penttinen, Marjaana
2011-01-01
The purpose of this study was to examine conceptual change among future elementary school teachers while studying a scientific text concerning photosynthesis. Students' learning goals in relation to their learning outcomes were also examined. The participants were future elementary school teachers. The design consisted of pre- and post-tests. The…
Strengthening the Educational Value of the Elementary Musical
Peterson, Barbara
2004-01-01
Presents an article on strengthening the educational value of the elementary musical presentations. Importance of the theories of constructivism and multiple intelligence in improving student learning; Factors which should be considered in planning a music program for elementary students; Suggestions for music educators who are developing music…
Finding the Hook: Computer Science Education in Elementary Contexts
Ozturk, Zehra; Dooley, Caitlin McMunn; Welch, Meghan
2018-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate how elementary teachers with little knowledge of computer science (CS) and project-based learning (PBL) experienced integrating CS through PBL as a part of a standards-based elementary curriculum in Grades 3-5. The researchers used qualitative constant comparison methods on field notes and reflections…
Elementary function calculation programs for the central processor-6
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dobrolyubov, L.V.; Ovcharenko, G.A.; Potapova, V.A.
1976-01-01
Subprograms of elementary functions calculations are given for the central processor (CP AS-6). A procedure is described to obtain calculated formulae which represent the elementary functions as a polynomial. Standard programs for random numbers are considered. All the programs described are based upon the algorithms of respective programs for BESM computer
Inappropriate Lessons: Elementary Schools and the Social Organization of Sexuality
Boas, Erica Misako
2013-01-01
This dissertation responds to the question: How is sexuality organized in elementary schools? I argue that despite the absence of overt discussions on sexuality in elementary schools, sexuality is "organized" through social processes that are recursively linked to ideology. Due to the widely held belief that "children" and…
The Elementary Child's Place in the Natural World
Allen, Phoebe
2013-01-01
Phoebe Allen's article speaks for the early bonding of children to the natural world prior to the elementary class. She also suggests the continuing exploration of children at elementary age in the outdoors in order to build the necessary sense of wonder and love of the environment to overcome anxiety over the negative realities of the planet's…
Mathematical Models of Elementary Mathematics Learning and Performance. Final Report.
Suppes, Patrick
This project was concerned with the development of mathematical models of elementary mathematics learning and performance. Probabilistic finite automata and register machines with a finite number of registers were developed as models and extensively tested with data arising from the elementary-mathematics strand curriculum developed by the…
44 CFR 7.8 - Elementary and secondary schools.
2010-10-01
... schools. 7.8 Section 7.8 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY...) Nondiscrimination in FEMA-Assisted Programs-General § 7.8 Elementary and secondary schools. The requirements of section 7 with respect to any elementary or secondary school or school system shall be deemed to be...
Exploring the Role of M-Learning in Elementary Education
Chen, Hsiu-Ju
2017-01-01
Aim/Purpose: This study explores the associations between elementary school learners' m-learning and learner satisfactions based on the technology-mediated learning model. Background: M-learning (mobile learning) is emerging, but its role in elementary education still needs clarification. Methodology: Questionnaires were mailed to several…
Theaters in Elementary Schools. AIA School Plant Studies.
Brush, Martha S.
1963-01-01
A national volunteer program for producing a children's theater in elementary schools is severaly limited by the inadequacy of theater facilities in local school systems. A general discussion of the theater program is presented, the current state of theater facilities in elementary schools, difficulties in play production, and possible causes for…
Quality of nutrition analysis among graduating classes of elementary and high school students
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pejčić Ana
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Results of numerous studies indicate that young people have improper eating habits. The aim of this study was to determine whether daily intake of vitamins, minerals and energy satisfies nutrition requirements for graduating classes of elementary and high school students. An epidemiological cross-sectional study was conducted on 84 students, including 42 students from graduating class of an elementary school and 42 students from graduating class of a high school. The students were asked to write the amount and composition of food consumed over a week, their age, body weight and height. 'USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 25' was used to calculate daily intake of vitamins, minerals and energy. Comparison was made with respect to recommendations of Dietary Reference Intake of the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine, US National Academy of Science. The mean, standard deviation and percentiles of daily intake of certain nutrients were determined. For nutrients for which there was defined value of Estimated Average Requirement the results are presented as percentages of individuals with intakes less than the Estimated Average Requirement as estimates of the prevalence of inadequacy, whereas for nutrients for which only Adequate Intake was defined the results are presented as percentages of individuals with intakes at or greater than the Adeqate Intake. Assessment of adequacy of energy intake was done with respect to calculated Estimated Energy Requirement for each participant in the study. It was shown that 47.6% of elementary and 38.1% of high school students have adequate energy intake. Daily intake of students from both elementary and high school does not meet the dietary recommendations for magnesium, calcium, vitamin C and liposoluble vitamins A, D, E and K. The findings of this study emphasize the importance of proper nutrition. There is a need for increased intake of milk, dairy products, fresh
Prospective Elementary Teachers’ Attitudes toward Chemistry Course
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seçil Erökten
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The current research aims to investigate attitudes of prospective elementary teachers toward chemistry course according to their gender and the type of high school they graduated from. The study employs the scanning model. The current study was conducted in 2015-2016 academic year, spring semester with Pamukkale University, Faculty of Education, Elementary Education Department students. 99 students who were attending the chemistry course in their first year curriculum participated in the current study. The data collection was conducted using "Attitudes towards Chemistry Course Scale" developed by Hançer, Uludağ and Yılmaz (2007. Whether the attitude scores of participants changed according to gender and high school they graduated were tested using independent t-test and one-way ANOVA. As the result of the data analysis it was observed that the students have a negative attitude toward the chemistry class and these negative attitudes did not vary according to neither gender nor high school graduated from.
Dialogical argumentation in elementary science classrooms
Kim, Mijung; Roth, Wolff-Michael
2018-02-01
To understand students' argumentation abilities, there have been practices that focus on counting and analyzing argumentation schemes such as claim, evidence, warrant, backing, and rebuttal. This analytic approach does not address the dynamics of epistemic criteria of children's reasoning and decision-making in dialogical situations. The common approach also does not address the practice of argumentation in lower elementary grades (K-3) because these children do not master the structure of argumentation and, therefore, are considered not ready for processing argumentative discourse. There is thus little research focusing on lower elementary school students' argumentation in school science. This study, drawing on the societal-historical approach by L. S. Vygotsky, explored children's argumentation as social relations by investigating the genesis of evidence-related practices (especially burden of proof) in second- and third-grade children. The findings show (a) students' capacity for connecting claim and evidence/responding to the burden of proof and critical move varies and (b) that teachers play a significant role to emphasize the importance of evidence but experience difficulties removing children's favored ideas during the turn taking of argumentative dialogue. The findings on the nature of dialogical reasoning and teacher's role provide further insights about discussions on pedagogical approaches to children's reasoning and argumentation.
Elementary English Language Instruction: Colombian Teachers’ Classroom Practices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cadavid Múnera Isabel Cristina
2004-08-01
Full Text Available An in-progress ethnographic research project about teachers who are facing the complex task of teaching English to children in 7 public elementary schools in the metropolitan area of Medellin is presented in this article. First, the need for this research is outlined by researchers; second, the methodology of the project is described; third, up-to-date findings which include a profile of the 12 teachers who are participating in this study, and an analysis of their class methodology in terms of activities, materials, teacher and student roles are reported. Lastly, implications of this research project related to early foreign language instruction are highlighted. Key words: Public Elementary-English-Language Instruction, English-Foreign Language, Ethnography-Research-Method, Teaching-Methodology Este artículo presenta los resultados preliminares de una investigación etnográfica acerca de las estrategias metodológicas utilizadas por profesores de básica primaria que enseñan inglés como lengua extranjera en 7 escuelas públicas del área metropolitana del municipio de Medellín. En la primera parte se resalta la importancia de esta investigación en nuestro medio y en la segunda, de los 12 profesores participantes y un análisis de la metodología empleada por ellos con respecto a las actividades de clase, los materiales y el rol del estudiante y del profesor. Finalmente, se discuten algunas de las implicaciones de este proyecto de investigación en la enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras a niños. Palabras claves: Inglés-Enseñanza-Básica Primaria, Lengua Extranjera-Inglés, Estudio Etnográfico-Investigación, Enseñanza-Metodología
Level of Work Related Stress among Teachers in Elementary Schools.
Agai-Demjaha, Teuta; Bislimovska, Jovanka Karadzinska; Mijakoski, Dragan
2015-09-15
Teaching is considered a highly stressful occupation, with work-related stress levels among teachers being among the highest compared to other professions. Unfortunately there are very few studies regarding the levels of work-related stress among teachers in the Republic of Macedonia. To identify the level of self-perceived work-related stress among teachers in elementary schools and its relationship to gender, age, position in the workplace, the level of education and working experience. We performed a descriptive-analytical model of a cross-sectional study that involved 300 teachers employed in nine elementary schools. Evaluation of examined subjects included completion of a specially designed questionnaire. We found that the majority of interviewed teachers perceive their work-related stress as moderate. The level of work-related stress was significantly high related to the gender, age, position in workplace, as well as working experience (p teachers perceives the workplace as extremely stressful as compared to the upper-grade teachers (18.5% vs. 5.45%), while the same is true for female respondents as compared to the male ones (15.38% vs. 3.8%). In addition, our results show that teachers with university education significantly more often associate their workplace with stronger stress than their colleagues with high education (13.48% vs. 9.4%). We also found that there is no significant difference of stress levels between new and more experienced teachers. Our findings confirm that the majority of interviewed teachers perceived their work-related stress as high or very high. In terms of the relationship between the level of teachers' stress and certain demographic and job characteristics, according to our results, the level of work-related stress has shown significantly high relation to gender, age, levels of grades taught as well as working experience, and significant relation to the level of education.
Seroepidemiology of pertussis among elementary school children in northern Taiwan.
Kuo, Ching-Chia; Huang, Yhu-Chering; Hsieh, Yu-Chia; Huang, Ya-Ling; Huang, Yu-Chiau; Hung, Yung-Tai
2017-06-01
Pertussis has been considered a vaccine-preventable "childhood disease", but a shift in age distribution has been reported worldwide. We conducted a seroepidemiological study in 2013 in Taiwan to elucidate the seroprevalence of pertussis among elementary school children. With a multilevel randomized method, which included 14 variables (4 population variables, 4 socio-educational variables, and 6 medical facilities' variables), the 29 executive districts of New Taipei City, Taiwan, were categorized into five strata. From each stratum, the number of school children as well as the number of elementary schools were proportionally selected. Enzyme immunoassay was applied for pertussis immunoglobulin-G measurement. A total of 936 children from 14 schools were recruited. Most participants (98.89%) received at least three doses of acellular diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine. The overall seropositive rate for pertussis was 33.97%. The seropositive rate was highest for students in Grade 1 (49.36%) and then declined with time, except for Grade 6 students. Students from Grade 1 to Grade 4 had a significant higher seropositive rate (37.18% vs. 27.56%, p = 0.002) than those from Grade 5 to Grade 6, but a lower geometric mean titer (18.71 NovaTec Unit/mL vs. 20.04 NovaTec Unit/mL, p = 0.20). For the class grades, geometric mean titers were positively correlated with seroprevalence (p Taiwan were seropositive for pertussis, a rate lower than expected. Seroprevalence declined with increasing class grades except for Grade 6. The current national immunization program may not provide adequate protection for children against pertussis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Behavioral Dysphonia and Depression in Elementary School Teachers.
Marques da Rocha, Luise; Behlau, Mara; Dias de Mattos Souza, Luciano
2015-11-01
To verify the relationship between behavioral dysphonia and current depressive episodes in municipal elementary school teachers. We hypothesize that teachers with behavioral dysphonia will be more susceptible to psychiatric disorders. Cross-sectional study, quantitative, conducted across municipal schools in both rural and urban regions of Pelotas. Five-hundred seventy-five teachers from urban and rural areas of the same Brazilian state were included. The full version of the Voice Handicap Index validated into Brazilian Portuguese was used to determine the presence of behavioral dysphonia. A profile of vocal behaviors was also used to quantify the number of phonotraumatic events. In addition, the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used to determine current episodes of depression. Data were analyzed via correlative studies using chi-square and Poisson regression analyses. Across all teachers, the prevalence of dysphonia was 33.9% and 55% reported that they had already taken a leave because of their voice. Those teachers with a current depressive episode had a higher rate of dysphonia compared with those without depression (prevalence ratio [PR] 1.66; P Teachers who presented with a risk of serious vocal problems had a prevalence ratio of 2.58, indicating a greater proportion of dysphonia, whereas teachers classified as champions of abuse were five times more likely compared with those teachers with behaved or candidates for voice problems. There is an association between behavioral dysphonia and current depressive episodes in elementary school teachers. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Characteristics of lumbar spondylolysis in elementary school age children.
Sakai, Toshinori; Goda, Yuichiro; Tezuka, Fumitake; Takata, Yoichiro; Higashino, Kosaku; Sato, Masahiro; Mase, Yasuyoshi; Nagamachi, Akihiro; Sairyo, Koichi
2016-02-01
Lumbar spondylolysis, a stress fracture of the pars interarticularis in the lumbar spine, is often precipitated by trauma, but there may be a congenital predisposition to this condition. There have been few studies on spondylolysis in young children, despite their suitability for studies on congenital defects. The aim of this study was to identify the clinical features of lumbar spondylolysis in elementary school age children in order to elucidate its pathogenesis. Thirty lumbar spondylolysis patients (23 boys, 7 girls, including a pair of twins; mean age 9.5 years, age range 5-12 years) were studied. Patient data on history of athletic activity, symptoms at first consultation, and radiological findings such as spinal level, stage of the stress fracture, and skeletal age were collected. Among the 30 patients, 27 (21 boys, 6 girls) had L5 spondylolysis (90.0 %). Only 2 patients had no history of athletic activity at the first consultation. All patients, except for 2 whose diagnosis was incidental, complained of low back pain. In the 27 patients with L5 spondylolysis, 17 (63.0 %) had terminal-stage fracture and 25 (92.6 %) had spina bifida occulta (SBO) involving the S1 lamina. Sixteen of the 27 (59.3 %) had SBO involving the affected lamina (L5) and S1 lamina. In contrast, the 3 patients with L3 or L4 spondylolysis had no evidence of SBO. With respect to skeletal age, 23 of the 27 L5 spondylolysis patients (85.2 %) were in the cartilaginous stage while the remaining 4 patients were in the apophyseal stage. Lumbar spondylolysis in elementary school age children was commonly a terminal-stage bone defect at L5, which was not necessarily related to history of athletic activity and was sometimes asymptomatic. It was often associated with SBO, indicating a possible congenital predisposition. These findings may provide further insight into the pathogenesis of lumbar spondylolysis.
Research in elementary particle physics. Technical progress report, June 1, 1985-May 31, 1986
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirsch, L.E.; Schnitzer, H.J.; Bensinger, J.R.; Abbott, L.F.; Blocker, C.A.
1986-01-01
Progress is reported in both experimental and theoretical elementary particle research. Experimental activities include: construction of the Forward Electromagnetic Shower Counters for the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF); a test run in the CDF, involving observation of a small number of proton-antiproton collisions; design of a self-contained single wire proportional chamber with pressure and temperature sensing for monitoring the gain of gases used by various components of the CDF; data acquisition, and calibration. Also included are a search for a dibaryon of strangeness=-1; hyperon weak radiative decay. Theoretical research is reported in the areas of quantum field theory, string theory, elementary particle phenomenology, cosmology, field theory in curved spacetimes, and cosmology. 34 refs
Widhitama, Y. N.; Lukito, A.; Khabibah, S.
2018-01-01
The aim of this research is to develop problem solving based learning materials on fraction for training creativity of elementary school students. Curriculum 2006 states that mathematics should be studied by all learners starting from elementary level in order for them mastering thinking skills, one of them is creative thinking. To our current knowledge, there is no such a research topic being done. To promote this direction, we initiate by developing learning materials with problem solving approach. The developed materials include Lesson Plan, Student Activity Sheet, Mathematical Creativity Test, and Achievement Test. We implemented a slightly modified 4-D model by Thiagajan et al. (1974) consisting of Define, Design, Development, and Disseminate. Techniques of gathering data include observation, test, and questionnaire. We applied three good qualities for the resulted materials; that is, validity, practicality, and effectiveness. The results show that the four mentioned materials meet the corresponding criteria of good quality product.
Basar, Murat; Gürbüz, Mehmet
2017-01-01
The aim of this study is to examine the effect of SQ4R (Survey, Question, Read, Reflect, Recite, Review) technique of the reading comprehension ability of elementary school 4th grade students. The sampling was constituted by 57 students from two different branches of the Ataturk Elementary School in the center of Usak region during the 2nd…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brueckner, Thomas Christian
2015-01-01
After a description of the standard model of elementary-particle physics the author describes structuralistic reconstructions. Then the problem of the theoretical terms is discussed. Therafter the reconstruction of the standard-model elementary particles is described. Finally the ontology of leptons, quarks and both free and in atoms bound protons is considered.
Isabelle, Aaron D.
2017-01-01
For students to achieve the goals of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) by Grade 12, thinking and acting like scientists and engineers must begin in the elementary grades. However, elementary teachers may find this challenging -because language arts and mathematics still dominate many classrooms--often at the expense of science. This…
Fisherman, Shraga
2015-01-01
The novelty of the present study is its attempt to distinguish between pre-school, elementary, and post-elementary school teachers, regarding the relationship between professional identity and burnout. Two hundred and forty teachers responded to two questionnaires: professional identity and teacher burnout scales. Pre-school teachers were found to…
1988-12-01
Curriculum Specialist Paodre R-1 Binkley, Steven W., Carolina Biological Supply Company 09/03/88 NSRC Elementary Science Network Page 13 - Borrelli ...Borillo, Rod A., Math/Science Teacher/Coordinator St. Albert School Borrelli , Carla, 09/03/88 NSRC Elementary Science Network Page 11 Binns, Ercell H...Programming New York Hall of Science Coleman , Donald, No. 47 Junior High School Colglazier, Jerry M., Science Consultant Center for School Improvement
Im, Young Lim; Park, Kyung Min
2014-02-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a sexuality education coaching program given to elementary school students in terms of sex-related knowledge and attitude. The participants were elementary school students in S city (Experimental group=21, Control group=23). Data were collected and the program was conducted from Feb. 15 to Apr. 15, 2013. The experimental group of 21 elementary school students in the fifth and sixth grades who received the sexuality education coaching program, 10 sessions in the three weeks. The control group of 23 elementary school students in the fifth and sixth grades from another school received, 2 sessions in the three weeks on sexuality education including physiology and sexual abuse prevention. Data were analyzed using χ²-test, independent t-test, repeated measures ANOVA, and utilized the SPSS program. The experimental group showed significantly better sex-related knowledge and sex-related attitudes than the control group. Therefore, individualized approach with emphasis on the differences of their level of understanding and strengths should be considered in providing sexuality education coaching programs for elementary school students.
Tsai, Pei-Shan; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Hwang, Gwo-Haur
2010-01-01
The purpose of this study was to develop an attitude and a self-efficacy survey of using PDAs in ubiquitous learning (u-learning) environments for elementary school students. The sample of this study included 414 third-grade to sixth-grade students (age 9-12 years) in Taiwan who had experience using PDAs for u-learning. The results indicate that…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dragt, A.J.
1987-01-01
A review is given of elementary Lie algebraic methods for treating Hamiltonian systems. This review is followed by a brief exposition of advanced Lie algebraic methods including resonance bases and conjugacy theorems. Finally, applications are made to the design of third-order achromats for use in accelerators, to the design of subangstroem resolution electron microscopes, and to the classification and study of high order aberrations in light optics. (orig.)
Orthaber, Mateja; Potočnik, Katja
2017-01-01
The fundamental elements of healthy eating for children and adolescents is a high-quality and varied diet that will help develop good habits for future life. Therefore, we presented some statistics on the eating habits of children and adolescents in elementary school and the organization of school meals in our country. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the basic characteristics of the eating habits of students. We included their opinions and attitudes toward eating at home and ...
Sleep Habits of Elementary and Middle School Children in South Texas
Surani, Salim; Hesselbacher, Sean; Surani, Saherish; Sadasiva, Sreevidya; Surani, Zoya; Surani, Sara S.; Khimani, Amina; Subramanian, Shyam
2015-01-01
Background. Sleep difficulties, including insufficient sleep and inadequate sleep hygiene, have been prevalent among children. Sleep deprivation can lead to poor grades, sleepiness, and moodiness. We undertook this study to assess the prevalence of sleep abnormalities among elementary and middle school students in South Texas and how the groups compare with one another. Method. After approval from the appropriate school district for a sleep education program, a baseline survey was taken of el...
An Action Research on Food and Farming Education Curriculum Development in a Rural Elementary School
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yi-Lin Kang
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Rural agricultural demographics and farming structure has shown fierce changes in the modernizing society over the past years. The young generation in rural areas has distanced from the land and their families’ farmer identity. Countries worldwide has revamped their “food & farming curriculum” to include cooking lessons and school gardens at the elementary school stage to strengthen children’s connection with food, environment and the community. This study developed a framework of “food & farming curriculum” through action research to establish farm-to-table experience for elementary students. The framework includes “farming experience activities”, “cooking lessons” and “knowledge of food and farming lessons.” The curriculum was carried out for fifth and sixth grade students for three semesters in a rural elementary school in Miaoli County, from 2011 to 2012. The study found that this curriculum brings positive changes to pupils and helps in regaining their passion to learning. The curriculum is suitable to be applied especially in rural schools because of the accessibility of land, agricultural knowledges and community support. The study proposed five suggestions to teachers who are interested in food and farming education, including hands-on and flexibility teaching; using the local human resources; applications of unused space in the school; looking for like-minded teachers to form a teaching team; and combining environmental education with school-based curriculum.
A Simple Mathematical Model for Standard Model of Elementary Particles and Extension Thereof
Sinha, Ashok
2016-03-01
An algebraically (and geometrically) simple model representing the masses of the elementary particles in terms of the interaction (strong, weak, electromagnetic) constants is developed, including the Higgs bosons. The predicted Higgs boson mass is identical to that discovered by LHC experimental programs; while possibility of additional Higgs bosons (and their masses) is indicated. The model can be analyzed to explain and resolve many puzzles of particle physics and cosmology including the neutrino masses and mixing; origin of the proton mass and the mass-difference between the proton and the neutron; the big bang and cosmological Inflation; the Hubble expansion; etc. A novel interpretation of the model in terms of quaternion and rotation in the six-dimensional space of the elementary particle interaction-space - or, equivalently, in six-dimensional spacetime - is presented. Interrelations among particle masses are derived theoretically. A new approach for defining the interaction parameters leading to an elegant and symmetrical diagram is delineated. Generalization of the model to include supersymmetry is illustrated without recourse to complex mathematical formulation and free from any ambiguity. This Abstract represents some results of the Author's Independent Theoretical Research in Particle Physics, with possible connection to the Superstring Theory. However, only very elementary mathematics and physics is used in my presentation.
PRAŽANOVÁ, Markéta
2011-01-01
The goal of the work was effort to find reasons why to include the education in the field of architecture and environmental culture in teaching systems, mainly in the second level of elementary schools. I tried to apply these reasons into the topics of architecture training in the lessons of art education. The research among nearly 250 pupils of the 8.and 9.class of the elementary schools in big and small towns and last but not least also the discussion with the teachers of art education at e...
Jang, Shinho
The purposes of this dissertation study are to better understand what specific types of scientific knowledge and practice three elementary teachers exhibit, and to examine how they use their scientific knowledge in their classroom teaching practice to provide students' opportunities to learn science when teaching condensation in the context of a unit on the water cycle. By comparing and contrasting three cases of elementary classroom teaching, this study discusses what kinds of scientific knowledge and practice are fundamental for teaching elementary science for scientific understanding. The data include structured interviews (content, pre- and post- observation, and stimulated recall), videotaped classroom observations, and collections of teachers' and students' written artifacts. Data were collected prior to, during, and after the three teachers taught condensation to fifth grade students. The data were analyzed in three contexts: interviews, teaching practices, and students' classroom activities. This made it possible to clarify which characteristics of teacher's scientific knowledge influenced which aspects of their teaching practice. Data analysis shows that teachers' scientific knowledge were closely associated with their teaching practice and students' classroom activities. Two characteristics of the teachers' scientific reasoning emerged as especially important. The first concerned how teachers connected observations of condensation with patterns in those observations (e.g., condensation occurs when warm moist air cools) and with explanations for those patterns (e.g., condensation is water vapor that changes to liquid water). Two teachers were careful to connect observations with patterns in their own thinking and in their classroom teaching. One of those teachers also connected the observations and patterns to scientific explanations. In contrast, the third teacher focused on listing scientific terms with little elaboration with specific observations and
Direct behavior rating as a school-based behavior screener for elementary and middle grades.
Chafouleas, Sandra M; Kilgus, Stephen P; Jaffery, Rose; Riley-Tillman, T Chris; Welsh, Megan; Christ, Theodore J
2013-06-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate how Direct Behavior Rating Single Item Scales (DBR-SIS) involving targets of academically engaged, disruptive, and respectful behaviors function in school-based screening assessment. Participants included 831 students in kindergarten through eighth grades who attended schools in the northeastern United States. Teachers provided behavior ratings for a sample of students in their classrooms on the DBR-SIS, the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System (Kamphaus & Reynolds, 2007), and the Student Risk Screening Scale (Drummond, 1994). Given variations in rating procedures to accommodate scheduling differences across grades, analysis was conducted separately for elementary school and middle school grade levels. Results suggested that the recommended cut scores, the combination of behavior targets, and the resulting conditional probability indices varied depending on grade level grouping (lower elementary, upper elementary, middle). For example, for the lower elementary grade level grouping, a combination of disruptive behavior (cut score=2) and academically engaged behavior (cut score=8) was considered to offer the best balance among indices of diagnostic accuracy, whereas a cut score of 1 for disruptive behavior and 8 for academically engaged behavior were recommended for the upper elementary school grade level grouping and cut scores of 1 and 9, respectively, were suggested for middle school grade level grouping. Generally, DBR-SIS cut scores considered optimal for screening using single or combined targets including academically engaged behavior and disruptive behavior by offering a reasonable balance of indices for sensitivity (.51-.90), specificity (.47-.83), negative predictive power (.94-.98), and positive predictive power (.14-.41). The single target of respectful behavior performed poorly across all grade level groups, and performance of DBR-SIS targets was relatively better in the elementary school than middle
The status of refractive errors in elementary school children in South Jeolla Province, South Korea
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jang JU
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Jung Un Jang,1 Inn-Jee Park2 1Department of Optometry, Eulji University, Seongnam, 2Department of Optometry, Kaya University, Gimhae, South Korea Purpose: To assess the prevalence of refractive errors among elementary school children in South Jeolla Province of South Korea. Methods: The subjects were aged 8–13 years; a total of 1,079 elementary school children from Mokpo, South Jeolla Province, were included. In all participants, uncorrected visual acuity and objective and subjective refractions were determined using auto Ref-Keratometer and phoropter. A spherical equivalent of -0.50 diopter (D or worse was defined as myopia, +0.50 D or more was defined as hyperopia, and a cylinder refraction greater than 0.75 D was defined as astigmatism. Results: Out of 1,079 elementary school children, the prevalence of uncorrected, best-corrected, and corrected visual acuity with own spectacles of 20/40 or worse in the better eye was 26.1%, 0.4%, and 20.2%, respectively. The uncorrected visual acuity was 20/200 or worse in the better eye in 5.7% of school children, and 5.2% of them already wore corrective spectacles. The prevalence of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism was 46.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 43.56–49.5, 6.2% (95% CI: 4.92–7.81, and 9.4% (95% CI: 7.76–11.25, respectively. Conclusion: The present study reveals a considerably higher prevalence of refractive error among elementary school children in South Jeolla Province of South Korea, exceeding 50% of subjects. The prevalence of myopia in the school children in Korea is similar to many other countries including People’s Republic of China, Malaysia, and Hong Kong. This may indicate that genetics and educational influences, such as studying and learning, may play a role in the progression of myopia in Korean elementary school children. Keywords: refractive error, elementary school children, visual acuity, myopia, astigmatism
Developing Coherent Conceptual Storylines: Two Elementary Challenges
Hanuscin, Deborah; Lipsitz, Kelsey; Cisterna-Alburquerque, Dante; Arnone, Kathryn A.; van Garderen, Delinda; de Araujo, Zandra; Lee, Eun Ju
2016-06-01
The `conceptual storyline' of a lesson refers to the flow and sequencing of learning activities such that science concepts align and progress in ways that are instructionally meaningful to student learning of the concepts. Research demonstrates that when teachers apply lesson design strategies to create a coherent science content storyline, student learning is positively impacted (Roth et al., 2011). Because the conceptual storyline is often implicit within a lesson, and teachers often have difficulty articulating this aspect of lesson design (Lo et al., 2014), our professional development program engages elementary teachers in analyzing and developing graphic representations of a lesson's conceptual storyline to make that element explicit. In this exploratory study, we present typologies that represent two primary challenges teachers faced in developing coherent conceptual storylines in their lesson design, and examine the extent to which professional development enhanced their capacity to develop a coherent conceptual storyline.
Elementary pinning force for a superconducting vortex
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hyun, O.B.; Finnemore, D.K.; Schwartzkopf, L.; Clem, J.R.
1987-01-01
The elementary pinning force f/sub p/ has been measured for a single vortex trapped in one of the superconducting layers of a cross-strip Josephson junction. At temperatures close to the transition temperature the vortex can be pushed across the junction by a transport current. The vortex is found to move in a small number of discrete steps before it exits the junction. The pinning force for each site is found to be asymmetric and to have a value of about 10/sup -6/ N/m at the reduced temperature, t = T/T/sub c/ = 0.95. As a function of temperature, f/sub p/ is found to vary approximately as (1-t)/sup 3/2/. .AE
Elementary excitations and phase transformations in solids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cowley, R.A.
1985-01-01
Neutron scattering is and will continue to be a uniquely powerful tool for the study of elementary excitations and phase transformations in solids. The paper examines a few recent experiments on molecular crystals, superionic materials, paramagnetic scattering and phase transitions to see what experimental features made these experiments possible, and hence to make suggestions about future needs. It is concluded that new instruments will extend the scope of neutron scattering studies to new excitations, that there is a need for higher resolution, particularly for phase transition studies, and that it will be important to use intensity information, discrimination against unwanted inelastic processes and polarization analysis to reliably measure the excitations in new materials. (author)
Monte Carlo calculations of elementary particle properties
Guralnik, G. S.; Warnock, T.; Zemach, C.
1984-01-01
The object of this project is to calculate the masses of the elementary particles. This ambitious goal apparently is not possible using analytic methods or known approximation methods. However, it is probable that the power of a modern super computer will make at least part of the low lying mass spectrum accessible through direct numerical computation. Initial attempts by several groups at calculating this spectrum on small lattices of space time points have been very promising. Using new methods and super computers considerable progress has been made towards evaluating the mass spectrum on comparatively large lattices. Only more time and faster machines with increased storage will allow calculations of systems with guaranteed minimal boundary effects. The ideas that currently go into this calculation are outlined.
Elementary excitations in single-chain magnets
Lutz, Philipp; Aguilà, David; Mondal, Abhishake; Pinkowicz, Dawid; Marx, Raphael; Neugebauer, Petr; Fâk, Björn; Ollivier, Jacques; Clérac, Rodolphe; van Slageren, Joris
2017-09-01
Single-chain magnets (SCMs) are one-dimensional coordination polymers or spin chains that display slow relaxation of the magnetization. Typically their static magnetic properties are described by the Heisenberg model, while the description of their dynamic magnetic properties is based on an Ising-like model. The types of excitations predicted by these models (collective vs localized) are quite different. Therefore we probed the nature of the elementary excitations for two SCMs abbreviated Mn2Ni and Mn2Fe , as well as a mononuclear derivative of the Mn2Fe chain, by means of high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (HFEPR) and inelastic neutron scattering (INS). We find that the HFEPR spectra of the chains are clearly distinct from those of the monomer. The momentum transfer dependence of the INS intensity did not reveal significant dispersion, indicating an essentially localized nature of the excitations. At the lowest temperatures these are modified by the occurrence of short-range correlations.
Facilitating Lasting Changes at an Elementary School
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laurie JAMES
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine how to minimize waste in a school setting by reducing, reusing, recycling, and composting waste products. Specifically, the desire was to identify what steps could be taken to decrease waste practices at a Title I elementary school. Through the Washington Green Schools certification process, a Waste and Recycling Assessment and Characterization Audit allowed for the collection of data. The assessment examined how much and what types of waste products were disposed of at the school. Based on the audit, 93% of waste products in the cafeteria were recyclable or compostable. The results provided ways for the students and staff to take action resulting in behavioral changes that taught and modeled environmental conservation. This study can help revolutionize school communities by serving as a prototype for environmental sustainability enhancing an eco-friendly citizenry.
The development of elementary quantum theory
Capellmann, Herbert
2017-01-01
This book traces the evolution of the ideas that eventually resulted in the elementary quantum theory in 1925/26. Further, it discusses the essential differences between the fundamental equations of Quantum Theory derived by Born and Jordan, logically comprising Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Optics, and the traditional view of the development of Quantum Mechanics. Drawing on original publications and letters written by the main protagonists of that time, it shows that Einstein’s contributions from 1905 to 1924 laid the essential foundations for the development of Quantum Theory. Einstein introduced quantization of the radiation field; Born added quantized mechanical behavior. In addition, Born recognized that Quantum Mechanics necessarily required Quantum Optics; his radical concept of truly discontinuous and statistical quantum transitions (“quantum leaps”) was directly based on Einstein’s physical concepts.
Elementary Goldstone Higgs Boson and Dark Matter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alanne, Tommi; Gertov, Helene; Sannino, Francesco
2015-01-01
We investigate a perturbative extension of the Standard Model featuring elementary pseudo-Goldstone Higgs and dark matter particles. These are two of the five Goldstone bosons parametrising the SU(4)/Sp(4) coset space. They acquire masses, and therefore become pseudo-Goldstone bosons, due...... of the theory, the quantum corrections are precisely calculable. The remaining pseudo-Goldstone boson is identified with the dark matter candidate because it is neutral with respect to the Standard Model and stable. By a direct comparison with the Large Hadron Collider experiments, the model is found...... to be phenomenologically viable. Furthermore the dark matter particle leads to the observed thermal relic density while respecting the most stringent current experimental constraints....
On an elementary definition of visual saliency
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Loog, Marco
2008-01-01
Various approaches to computational modelling of bottom-up visual attention have been proposed in the past two decades. As part of this trend, researchers have studied ways to characterize the saliency map underlying many of these models. In more recent years, several definitions based on probabi......Various approaches to computational modelling of bottom-up visual attention have been proposed in the past two decades. As part of this trend, researchers have studied ways to characterize the saliency map underlying many of these models. In more recent years, several definitions based...... on probabilistic and information or decision theoretic considerations have been proposed. These provide experimentally successful, appealing, low-level, operational, and elementary definitions of visual saliency (see eg, Bruce, 2005 Neurocomputing 65 125 - 133). Here, I demonstrate that, in fact, all...
Elementary school principals' perceptions of childhood obesity.
Price, J H; Desmond, S M; Stelzer, C M
1987-11-01
This survey assessed school principals' perceptions regarding childhood obesity and the schools' role in dealing with the problem. A randomly selected group of 300 school principals was obtained from the National Association of Elementary School Principals; 227 (76%) administrators returned the questionnaire. Fifty-one percent of the principals believed normal weight was important to child health. Although 35% believed schools were not doing enough to alleviate childhood obesity, responses suggested principals oppose schools becoming obesity treatment centers. They do not believe teachers or parents would support such programs. They perceived the school's role to be educational and referral in nature. However, they supported elimination of "junk food" machines (71%) and provision of low calorie lunches (60%). They believed school nurses play the most important role in treating childhood obesity at school.
Sports profile in public elementary school
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Warren Pedersen, Lise; Trangbæk, Else
2012-01-01
In 2005, Copenhagen municipality decided to develop and implement a sport and movement profile at a local elementary school. The overall development is discussed as are specific results and consequences of the decision. The role of physical education and teachers in relation to a health discourse......, sport and school sports viewed as an arena for talent identification and development will be discussed. In addition, a question of inequality raised, as a group of talented athletes are accepted into specific sports classes, focusing on cultural capital and the possibility of the educational system...... as reproducing or as an arena for social mobility. Finally a discussion of the possibilities for either sports policy development or school policy development through single initiatives is presented....
Independent events in elementary probability theory
Csenki, Attila
2011-07-01
In Probability and Statistics taught to mathematicians as a first introduction or to a non-mathematical audience, joint independence of events is introduced by requiring that the multiplication rule is satisfied. The following statement is usually tacitly assumed to hold (and, at best, intuitively motivated): quote specific-use="indent"> If the n events E 1, E 2, … , E n are jointly independent then any two events A and B built in finitely many steps from two disjoint subsets of E 1, E 2, … , E n are also independent. The operations 'union', 'intersection' and 'complementation' are permitted only when forming the events A and B. quote>Here we examine this statement from the point of view of elementary probability theory. The approach described here is accessible also to users of probability theory and is believed to be novel.
A cryptosystem based on elementary cellular automata
Abdo, A. A.; Lian, Shiguo; Ismail, I. A.; Amin, M.; Diab, H.
2013-01-01
Based on elementary cellular automata, a new image encryption algorithm is proposed in this paper. In this algorithm, a special kind of periodic boundary cellular automata with unity attractors is used. From the viewpoint of security, the number of cellular automata attractor states are changed with respect to the encrypted image, and different key streams are used to encrypt different plain images. The cellular neural network with chaotic properties is used as the generator of a pseudo-random key stream. Theoretical analysis and experimental results have both confirmed that the proposed algorithm possesses high security level and good performances against differential and statistical attacks. The comparison with other existing schemes is given, which shows the superiority of the proposal scheme.
Prevention of prejudice in elementary school students.
Rooney-Rebeck, P; Jason, L
1986-12-01
This study investigated the effects of cooperative group peer tutoring on the inter-ethnic relations of elementary school age children. Direct observations of social interactions on the playground and sociometric indices were used to measure inter-ethnic associations before and after the eight-week program. For first graders, inter-ethnic interactions and sociometric choices increased and improvements were found in arithmetic and reading grades. However, no significant changes were found among the third grade program children in either inter-ethnic associations or academic performance. These findings suggest that a cooperative peer tutoring classroom structure may improve the inter-ethnic relationships of first grade children who have experienced only a short history of competitive academic exercises and whose overt ethnic prejudice may be less ingrained.
(including travel dates) Proposed itinerary
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Ashok
31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.
Borger, Laurie Landon
The National Research Council's most recent report Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8, (2007) has suggested a redefinition of science proficiency. "This framework rests on a view of science as both a body of knowledge and an evidence-based, model building enterprise that continually extends, refines, and revises knowledge" (p.2). Therefore embedding argumentation discourse within inquiry teaching includes educating students to voice their own evidence based explanations and justifications for acceptance, refinement, or possible rejection by their peers. This new perspective will require elementary teachers to challenge their own knowledge, beliefs, and practices about science proficiency. It will necessitate the creation of professional development opportunities that are specific to the needs of the teachers who are facilitating the reform during a time period when the NCLB (2001) legislation requires 100% proficiency for all students in reading and math. This intrinsic case study involved the purposive sampling of 30 regular elementary education teachers in one rural school district in Pennsylvania. A grounded theory perspective was used to examine the elementary teachers' beliefs, practices, and barriers as a means to specify the necessary supports needed to accept the challenges associated with the redefinition of science proficiency. Data was collected through a survey, observational inventory, checklist, and interviews. Using constant comparison analysis, this researcher and the district's Science Department Head, identified and refined emerging trends into the following four essential themes: equity and accountability, teacher's beliefs, isolation, and curriculum rigor. Each theme influenced instructional practices. Most notably the implementation of the teacher evaluation plan encouraged teachers to view science as a lower priority and hindered their desire to improve it. Isolation kept teachers' science knowledge and
On the Origin of Elementary Particle Masses
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hansson J.
2014-04-01
Full Text Available The oldest enigma in fundamental particle physics is: Where do the observed masses of elementary particles come from? Inspired by observation of the empirical particle mass spectrum we propose that the masses of elementary parti cles arise solely due to the self-interaction of the fields associated with a particle. We thus assume that the mass is proportional to the strength of the interaction of th e field with itself. A simple application of this idea to the fermions is seen to yield a mas s for the neutrino in line with constraints from direct experimental upper limits and correct order of magnitude predictions of mass separations between neutrinos, charge d leptons and quarks. The neutrino interacts only through the weak force, hence becom es light. The electron in- teracts also via electromagnetism and accordingly becomes heavier. The quarks also have strong interactions and become heavy. The photon is the only fundamental parti- cle to remain massless, as it is chargeless. Gluons gain mass comparable to quarks, or slightly larger due to a somewhat larger color charge. Inclu ding particles outside the standard model proper, gravitons are not exactly massless, but very light due to their very weak self-interaction. Some immediate and physically interesting consequences arise: i Gluons have an e ff ective range ∼ 1 fm, physically explaining why QCD has finite reach; ii Gravity has an effective range ∼ 100 Mpc coinciding with the largest known structures, the cosmic voids; iii Gravitational waves undergo dispersion even in vacuum, and have all five polarizations (not just the two of m = 0, which might explain why they have not yet been detected.
Elementary particle physics at the University of Florida. Annual report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Field, R.D.; Ramond, P.M.; Sikivie, P. [and others
1995-12-01
This is the annual progress report of the University of Florida`s elementary particle physics group. The theoretical high energy physics group`s research covers a broad range of topics, including both theory and phenomenology. Present work of the experimental high energy physics group is directed toward the CLEO detector, with some effort going to B physics at Fermilab. The Axion Search project is participating in the operation of a large-scale axion detector at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, with the University of Florida taking responsibility for this experiment`s high-resolution spectrometer`s assembly, programming, and installation, and planning to take shifts during operation of the detector in FY96. The report also includes a continuation of the University`s three-year proposal to the United States Department of Energy to upgrade the University`s high-energy physics computing equipment and to continue student support, system manager/programmer support, and maintenance. Report includes lists of presentations and publications by members of the group.
Vermont Inst. of Natural Science, Woodstock.
The solid waste problem is so pervasive that it can no longer be ignored. The purpose of this set of materials is to encourage a lifestyle that includes the use of the three R's: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle. It was designed to educate upper elementary and junior high school students who may educate their classmates, families, and community about the…
Virginia State Dept. of Waste Management, Richmond. Div. of Litter & Recycling.
This publication, the last in a series of seven for elementary schools, is an environmental education curriculum guide with a focus on waste management issues. It contains a unit of exercises selected for sixth grade students focusing on community solutions to solid waste pollution. Waste management activities included in this unit seek to…
Kwon, Kyongboon; Kim, Elizabeth Moorman; Sheridan, Susan M.
2014-01-01
Background: Positive attitudes toward school have been suggested as a meaningful indicator of school engagement among elementary children. The current study was guided by a social cognitive developmental perspective which suggests that social cognitions, including beliefs, play an important role in children's adjustment outcomes. Objective: The…
Wood, Brenna K.; Flanagan, Timothy F.
2013-01-01
Researchers conducted the present case study to address the immediate need of a student who consumed food at home and refused all food and liquids in her elementary school setting. In order to increase in-school food consumption, researchers developed a multicomponent treatment package that included antecedent adjustments (time and place food was…
Chang, Chiung-Sui
2008-01-01
The purpose of this study was to describe the development and validation of an instrument to identify various dimensions of the computer technology literacy self-assessment scale (CTLS) for elementary school students. The instrument included five CTLS dimensions (subscales): the technology operation skills, the computer usages concepts, the…
Haines, Michael S.; Kim, Danny H.
2013-01-01
Background: Children with moderate persistent asthma are often reluctant to engage in physical activity and as a result are more prone to obesity and increased incidence of asthma attacks. Purpose: This study developed an asthma program that included physical activity and asthma management education for elementary school children with moderate…
Syzdykbayeva, Aigul Dzhumanazarovna; Bainazarova, Tursynay Beysembekovna; Aitzhanova, Elmira Nyrmahankyzy
2015-01-01
The present article presents the structural-functional model of formation of research competence of future elementary school teachers in the process of professional training. This model includes a set of interrelated and interdependent structural components: target; informative; procedural; estimate-effective structural components. The article…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cleland, W.E.; Coon, D.D.; Engels, E. Jr.; Shepard, P.F.; Thompson, J.A.
1987-12-01
This paper discusses research activity at the University of Pittsburgh in experimental elementary particle physics. The three main tasks included are: Study of lepton production at the SPS and study of large P/sub T/ direct photon production at the ISR; Direct photon production at the Fermi Tevatron; and Search for fractional charge particles in semiconductors
Thompson, Chad; Frank, Ellen
This curriculum for elementary school-level instruction in Denakenaga' is intended for development of oral native language skills. Included are plans for 60 25-minute lessons, arranged in 11 units: basic conversation; food and eating; hunting and animals; clothing and morning routine; weather; body parts; dogs and sleds; numbers; the village;…
Boyraz, Sirin; Ozbar, Nurper; Yetgin, Meral Kucuk; Koksalan, Burke
2015-01-01
A total of 437 volunteers including 54 teachers, 218 6th grade students and 102 parents from Beykoz Elementary Schools participated in this study to understand the perspectives of students, families and teachers on Physical Education classes. The perspectives of students, families and teachers of other branches are identified by survey method.…
Avraamidou, Lucy; Zembal-Saul, Carla
2005-01-01
The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine the nature of a first-year elementary teacher's specialized practices and knowledge for giving priority to evidence in science teaching and to explore the possible sources from which this knowledge was generated. Data included three
Sukiniarti
2016-01-01
On global era todays, as the professional teacher should be improving their pedagogic competency, including to improve their science pedagogy quality. This study is aimed to identify: (1) Process skill approach which has been used by Elementary School Teacher in science learning; (2) Teacher's opinion that process skill can motivate the student to…
Rogers, Kimberly Cervello; Steele, Michael D.
2016-01-01
Graduate teaching assistants serve as instructors of record for numerous undergraduate courses every semester, including serving as teachers for mathematics content courses for elementary preservice teachers. In this study, we examine 6 teaching assistants' teaching practices in the context of a geometry content course for preservice teachers by…
Evertsson, Jakob
2015-01-01
It was in the late nineteenth century that teaching in Sweden's elementary schools began its transformation from a religious education to a broader, national citizenship education that included history and geography. International research has pointed to a connection between the introduction of school inspections and the reform of public education…
Thomas, Susan Elizabeth Shelton
It has been said, "The two greatest forces in human history are science and religion" (Schachter-Shalomi & Smith, 1999, p. 220). It is those forces and their influence on science teaching that motivated the focus of this study to explore the cultural referents of elementary teachers and the place of fundamentalist Southern Baptist religious beliefs in teaching elementary science. Through a hermeneutic phenomenological framework, multiple case study method was used to interpret the individual consciousness and classroom lived experiences of three elementary teachers. The particularities surrounding elementary science instruction by devout Southern Baptist teachers was explored through several data sources, which included: personal interactions with the teachers, classroom observations, journaling, and interviews (Stake, 1995; Yin, 2003). Insights gained from this study indicate that the religious component of the culture of elementary teachers affects science teaching and learning. In Alabama, Southern Baptist beliefs influence both the public and private lives of educators. Replicated themes revealed the following themes: (a) a lack of concern for occasionally mentioning God in class due to the conservatively religious nature of Southern culture, (b) the teachers' beliefs affected classroom instruction and student interaction, (c) a commitment to science teaching in the context of the elementary classrooms, and (d) the teachers' as mediators. In addition, the theoretical framework provided an awareness of how the lives of the three educators could yield replicated themes. Indications are for a better understanding of how religion, as part of culture, influences science classroom instruction, including teacher education programs and aspects of science teaching and learning.
Malignant lymphomas (including myeloproliferative disorders)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Todd, I.D.H.
1985-01-01
This chapter deals with the radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy of the malignant lymphomas. Included within this group are Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, mycosis fungoides, and chronic lymphatic leukaemia. A further section deals with the myeloproliferative disorders, including granulocytic leukaemia, polycythaemia vera, and primary thrombocythaemia. Excluded are myeloma and reticulum cell sarcoma of bone and acute leukaemia. With regard to Hodgkin's disease, the past 25 years have seen general recognition of the curative potential of radiotherapy, at least in the local stages, and, more recently, awareness of the ability to achieve long-term survival after combination chemotherapy in generalised or in recurrent disease. At the same time the importance of staging has become appreciated and the introduction of procedures such as lymphography, staging laparotomy, and computer tomography (CT) has enormously increased its reliability. Advances have not been so dramatic in the complex group of non-Hodgkins's lymphomas, but are still very real
Do Elementary Science Methods Textbooks Promote Understanding of Shadows?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lloyd H. Barrow
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Elementary science methods textbooks can be an important resource for future elementary teachers of science. Since shadows are a common topic in elementary school and Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Lead States, 2013. A series of ten shadows concepts were formed into a learning progression by Wizman and Fortus (2007. For this research, ten science methods textbook were read and analyzed about how each of the shadow concepts were addressed. These methods textbooks focused on a limited number of shadow concepts. Consequently, as a future reference, they are very limited in addressing all ten shadow concepts.
Incorporating Remote Robotic Telescopes into an Elementary Classroom Setting
Sharp, Zoe; Hock, Emily
2016-03-01
As Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are implemented across the nation, engaging and content-specific lessons are becoming an important addition to elementary classrooms. This paper demonstrate how effective hands-on teaching tactics, authentic learning, scientifically significant data, and research in the elementary realm can aid students in selfdiscovery about astronomy and uncover what it is to be a researcher and scientist. It also outlines an effective, engaging, and integrated classroom unit that is usable in both the scientific community and elementary schools. The lesson unit consists of NGSS science and engineering practices and performance expectations as well as California Common Core Standards (CCSS).
Tachyons: may they have a role in elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recami, E.; Rodrigues, W. A.
1985-01-01
The possible role of space like objects in elementary particle physics (and in quantum mechanics) is reviewed and discussed, mainly by exploiting the explicit consequences of the peculiar relativistic mechanics of tachyons. Particular attention is paid : 1) to tachyons as the possible carriers of interactions (''internal lines''); e.g., to the links between ''virtual particles'' and superluminal objects; 2) to the possibility of ''vacuum decays'' at the classical level; 3) to a Lorentz-invariant bootstrap model; 4) to the apparent shape of the tachyonic elementary particles (''elementary tachyons'') and its possible connection with the de Broglie wave-particle dualism
Tachyons: may they have a role in elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recami, E.; Rodrigues Junior, W.A.
1985-01-01
The possible role of space-like objects in elementary particle physics (and in quantum mechanics) is reviewed and discussed, mainly by exploiting the explicit consequences of the peculiar relativistic mechanics of Tachyons. Particular attention is paid: (i) to tachyons as the possible carriers of interactions ('internal lines'); e.g., to the links between 'virtual particles' and superluminal objects; (ii) to the possibility of 'vacuum decays' at the classical level; (iii) to a Lorentz-invariant bootstrap model; (iv) to the apparent shape of the tachyonic elementary particles ('elementary tachyons') and its possible connection with the de Broglie wave-particle dualism. (Author) [pt
Prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in elementary school students
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
parisa namdari
2009-03-01
Full Text Available Background: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is one of the most prevalent psychiadric disorders starting from Childhood and is considered as an important mental health problem of a society. Behavioral disorders including ADHD may have distractive effects on peoples social, educational, personality, and behavioral relationship in their childhood and adulthood. Therefore, we decided to conduct the present research for ADHD in elementary school students of Khoramabad year 2004. Materials and methods: This research was a cross-sectional study. Its statistical community includes all the students studing in grades one to five at elementary school in Khorramabad (N=945. Some 16 state and private schools (8 girls and 8 boys schools were selected in a cluster and multi-stage method. The standardized questionnaire Child symptom inventories – 4 (CSI4 has been used to collect data, which was a means for the prevalens of children’s psychiatric disorders. Owing to their scoring. The cases which showed ADHD were undergone clinical examination by psychiatrist. Then, the results were analyzed using descriptive statistic and X2 test. Results: The total sample was 945 children There were 50.7% and 49.3% girls and boys respectively. Some 3.17 per cent of them were reported to suffer from ADHD the most percentages of which were of inattention (40%, overactivens (33.3%, and mixed type (26.6%. ADHD was reported to be more prevalent in boys than girls (4.9% VS. 1.5%. The students in grade 5 showed the lowest, and those in grade 2 and 3 showed the highest prevalence rate of suffering from ADHD. There was also a significant relationship between children’s sex and ADHD (P<0.005. However, there seemed no significant relationship between parents age, education, job, income, grade, and the family psychiatric problems. Conclusion: Due to the high prevalence of the disorder including ADHD, and lack of enough attention to their consequences in children and
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdolreza Gilavand
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Background It is obvious that most of informal learnings of social skills and constructive plays occur in school yards and play-fields where children spend much of their non-official time of teaching. This study aimed to investigate the impact of schools' open space on learning and educational achievement of elementary students in Ahvaz, Southwest of Iran. Materials and Methods At a cross-sectional study, 210 students were selected randomly as sample of study. Data collection tools included Hermance’s achievement motivation questionnaire and researcher-constructed questionnaire (observation checklist to examine the physical parameters of learning schools' open space and interviews with students. Data of study were analyzed in SPSS- 21 software. Results Results of this study showed that schools' open space has a significant impact on learning and academic achievement of elementary school students in Ahvaz- Iran (P
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdolreza Gilavand
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Background In modern education, physical space is considered as a dynamic factor in students' educational activities. This study was conducted to investigating the impact of lighting educational spaces on learning and academic achievement of elementary students. Materials and Methods At a cross-sectional study (2015-2016, a total of 210 students were selected randomly as sample of study. Cluster sampling was done by appropriate allocation and questionnaires were randomly divided among students. Data collection tools included Hermance’s achievement motivation questionnaire and researcher-constructed questionnaire (observation checklist to examine the physical parameters of learning environment lighting and interviews with students. Data of study were analyzed using SPSS- 21 software. Results Results of this study showed that lighting educational spaces has a significant impact on learning and academic achievement of elementary school students in Ahvaz, Iran (P
Thermodynamically consistent modeling of elementary electrochemistry in lithium-ion batteries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Colclasure, Andrew M.; Kee, Robert J.
2010-01-01
This paper is particularly concerned with the elementary reactions and transport processes that are responsible for Li-ion battery performance. The model generally follows the widely practiced approach developed by Newman and co-workers (e.g., Doyle et al., J. Electrochem. Soc. 140 (1993) 1526 ). However, there are significant departures, especially in modeling electrochemical charge transfer. The present approach introduces systems of microscopically reversible reactions, including both heterogeneous thermal reactions and electrochemical charge-transfer reactions. All reaction rates are evaluated in elementary form, providing a powerful alternative to a Butler-Volmer formalism for the charge-transfer reactions. The paper is particularly concerned with the influence of non-ideal thermodynamics for evaluating reversible potentials as well as charge-transfer rates. The theory and modeling approach establishes a framework for extending chemistry models to incorporate detailed reaction mechanisms that represent multiple competitive reaction pathways.
Relativistic bound state approach to fundamental forces including gravitation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Morsch H.P.
2012-06-01
Full Text Available To describe the structure of particle bound states of nature, a relativistic bound state formalism is presented, which requires a Lagrangian including scalar coupling of two boson fields. The underlying mechanisms are quite complex and require an interplay of overlapping boson fields and fermion-antifermion production. This gives rise to two potentials, a boson-exchange potential and one identified with the long sought confinement potential in hadrons. With minimal requirements, two elementary massless fermions (quantons - with and without charge - and one gauge boson, hadrons and leptons but also atoms and gravitational systems are described by bound states with electric and magnetic coupling between the charges and spins of quantons. No need is found for colour, Higgs-coupling and supersymmetry.
Van Dyke, Miriam E; Cheung, Patricia C; Franks, Padra; Gazmararian, Julie A
2018-02-01
This study aimed to characterize physical activity (PA) environments in Georgia public elementary schools and to identify socioeconomic status (SES) and racial/ethnic disparities in PA environments. A school setting PA survey was launched in 2013 to 2014 as a cross-sectional online survey assessing PA environment factors, including facility access and school PA practices, staff PA opportunities, parental involvement in school PA, and out-of-school PA opportunities. All 1333 Georgia public elementary schools were recruited. A total of 1083 schools (81.2%) responded. Survey respondents included school administrators, physical education (PE) teachers, and grade-level chairs. Physical activity environment factors were assessed via an online questionnaire adapted from school PA surveys and articles. The chi-square and Fisher exact analyses were conducted to examine the reporting of PA environment factors overall and by school SES, as measured by free/reduced lunch rate, and/or racial/ethnic composition. Overall, many PA environment factors were widely prevalent (ie, gym [99%] or field [79%] access), although some factors such as some PA-related programs (ie, a structured walk/bike program [11%]) were less widely reported. Disparities in school PA environment factors were largely patterned by SES, though they varied for some factors by racial/ethnic composition and across SES within racial/ethnic composition categories. For example, lower SES schools were less likely to report access to blacktops and tracks ( p-value racial/ethnic disparities in PA environments in Georgia public elementary schools.
Gonczi, Amanda L.; Chiu, Jennifer L.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Bell, Randy L.
2016-07-01
This investigation sought to identify patterns in elementary science teachers' computer simulation use, particularly implementation structures and instructional supports commonly employed by teachers. Data included video-recorded science lessons of 96 elementary teachers who used computer simulations in one or more science lessons. Results indicated teachers used a one-to-one student-to-computer ratio most often either during class-wide individual computer use or during a rotating station structure. Worksheets, general support, and peer collaboration were the most common forms of instructional support. The least common instructional support forms included lesson pacing, initial play, and a closure discussion. Students' simulation use was supported in the fewest ways during a rotating station structure. Results suggest that simulation professional development with elementary teachers needs to explicitly focus on implementation structures and instructional support to enhance participants' pedagogical knowledge and improve instructional simulation use. In addition, research is needed to provide theoretical explanations for the observed patterns that should subsequently be addressed in supporting teachers' instructional simulation use during professional development or in teacher preparation programs.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Vhahangwele, M
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Al(sup3+)-bentonite clay (Alum-bent) was prepared by ion exchange of base cations on the matrices of bentonite clay. Intercalation of bentonite clay with Al(sup3+) was performed in batch experiments. Parameters optimized include time, dosage, and Al...
Wong, Yueching; Chang, Yu-Jhen; Tsao, Shu-Wei
2014-01-01
This study investigated Taiwanese elementary school students' status in terms of body size, body satisfaction and disturbed eating tendencies. In a cross-sectional survey, 1,261 elementary school children from grades four to six participated in this study. We used an anonymous selfreported questionnaire, which included: demographics and body satisfaction; Children's Eating Attitude Test -26 (ChEAT-26); Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale; and Influence of Significant Others Scale and Media Impact Scale. We found that 58.4% of the children were of normal weight, and 32.7% of the boys and 22.2% of the girls were over-weight or obese. Moreover, 39% of the children wanted to be thinner. The mean ChEAT-26 score was 8.71±8.35, and 10.5% of the children were at high risk for disturbed eating tendencies (ChEAT-26≥20), including 8.4% of the boys and 12.6% of the girls. Scores on the ChEAT-26, Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale, Influence of Significant Others Scale and Media Impact Scale were positively correlated. The level of external control and the influence of significant others and the media were significantly higher in children with disturbed eating attitudes than in those without them. Multivariable logistic regressions showed that disturbed eating attitudes were associated with body satisfaction, locus of control, and the level of influence of significant others and the media. Disturbed eating behaviors exist among elementary school students in Taiwan. This survey highlights the need for education in acquiring healthy mental attitudes and eating behaviors by elementary school students.
Device including a contact detector
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2011-01-01
The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of cantilever arms (12) contacting the surface of the test sample when performing the movement....... arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area...
Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Elementary Particle Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Evans, Harold G [Indiana University; Kostelecky, V Alan [Indiana University; Musser, James A [Indiana University
2013-07-29
The elementary particle physics research program at Indiana University spans a broad range of the most interesting topics in this fundamental field, including important contributions to each of the frontiers identified in the recent report of HEPAP's Particle Physics Prioritization Panel: the Energy Frontier, the Intensity Frontier, and the Cosmic Frontier. Experimentally, we contribute to knowledge at the Energy Frontier through our work on the D0 and ATLAS collaborations. We work at the Intensity Frontier on the MINOS and NOvA experiments and participate in R&D for LBNE. We are also very active on the theoretical side of each of these areas with internationally recognized efforts in phenomenology both in and beyond the Standard Model and in lattice QCD. Finally, although not part of this grant, members of the Indiana University particle physics group have strong involvement in several astrophysics projects at the Cosmic Frontier. Our research efforts are divided into three task areas. The Task A group works on D0 and ATLAS; Task B is our theory group; and Task C contains our MINOS, NOvA, and LBNE (LArTPC) research. Each task includes contributions from faculty, senior scientists, postdocs, graduate and undergraduate students, engineers, technicians, and administrative personnel. This work was supported by DOE Grant DE-FG02-91ER40661. In the following, we describe progress made in the research of each task during the final period of the grant, from November 1, 2009 to April 30, 2013.
The Euler-Maclaurin Formula and Extensions - An Elementary Approach
Gearhart, W. B.; Qian, Maijian
2005-01-01
This note offers a derivation of the Euler-Maclaurin formula that is simple and elementary. In addition, the paper shows that the derivation provides Euler-Maclaurin formulas for a variety of functionals other than the trapezoid rule.
Theoretical Studies of Elementary Hydrocarbon Species and Their Reactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Allen, Wesley D. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry. Center for Computational Quantum Chemistry; Schaefer, III, Henry F. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry. Center for Computational Quantum Chemistry
2015-11-14
This is the final report of the theoretical studies of elementary hydrocarbon species and their reactions. Part A has a bibliography of publications supported by DOE from 2010 to 2016 and Part B goes into recent research highlights.
An Elementary Proof of the Polynomial Matrix Spectral Factorization Theorem
Ephremidze, Lasha
2010-01-01
A very simple and short proof of the polynomial matrix spectral factorization theorem (on the unit circle as well as on the real line) is presented, which relies on elementary complex analysis and linear algebra.
Synthesis of multivalued quantum logic circuits by elementary gates
Di, Yao-Min; Wei, Hai-Rui
2013-01-01
We propose the generalized controlled X (gcx) gate as the two-qudit elementary gate, and based on Cartan decomposition, we also give the one-qudit elementary gates. Then we discuss the physical implementation of these elementary gates and show that it is feasible with current technology. With these elementary gates many important qudit quantum gates can be synthesized conveniently. We provide efficient methods for the synthesis of various kinds of controlled qudit gates and greatly simplify the synthesis of existing generic multi-valued quantum circuits. Moreover, we generalize the quantum Shannon decomposition (QSD), the most powerful technique for the synthesis of generic qubit circuits, to the qudit case. A comparison of ququart (d=4) circuits and qubit circuits reveals that using ququart circuits may have an advantage over the qubit circuits in the synthesis of quantum circuits.
Perspectives on learning, learning to teach and teaching elementary science
Avraamidou, Lucy
2003-01-01
The framework that characterizes this work is that of elementary teachers' learning and development. Specifically, the ways in which prospective and beginning teachers' develop pedagogical content knowledge for teaching science in light of current recommendations for reform emphasizing teaching and
Decomposition Theory in the Teaching of Elementary Linear Algebra.
London, R. R.; Rogosinski, H. P.
1990-01-01
Described is a decomposition theory from which the Cayley-Hamilton theorem, the diagonalizability of complex square matrices, and functional calculus can be developed. The theory and its applications are based on elementary polynomial algebra. (KR)
Physics through the 1990s: Elementary-particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirk, W.T.
1986-01-01
This report on elementary-particle physics is part of an overall survey of physics carried out for the National Academy of Sciences by the National Research Council. The panel that wrote this report had three goals. The first goal was to explain the nature of elementary-particle physics and to describe how research is carried out in this field. The second goal was to summarize our present knowledge of the elementary particles and the fundamental forces. The third goal was to consider the future course of elementary-particle physics research and to propose a program for this research in the United States. All of these goals are covered in this report
Elementary Pre-Service Teacher Perceptions of the Greenhouse Effect.
Groves, Fred H.; Pugh, Ava F.
1999-01-01
Expands on earlier work to examine pre-service teachers' views on environmental issues, especially global warming and the related term "greenhouse effect." Suggests that pre-service elementary teachers hold many misconceptions about environmental issues. (DDR)
Exploring elementary students’ understanding of energy and climate change
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Colin BOYLAN
2008-10-01
Full Text Available As environmental changes become a significant societal issue, elementary science curriculaneed to develop students’ understanding about the key concepts of energy and climate change.For teachers, developing quality learning experiences involves establishing what theirstudents’ prior understanding about energy and climate change are. A survey was developed toexplore what elementary students know and understand about renewable and non-renewablesources of energy and their relationship to climate change issues. The findings from thissurvey are reported in this paper.
Elementary affine $lambda$-calculus with multithreading and side effects
Madet, Antoine; Amadio, Roberto M.
2011-01-01
Linear logic provides a framework to control the complexity of higher-order functional programs. We present an extension of this framework to programs with multithreading and side effects focusing on the case of elementary time. Our main contributions are as follows. First, we provide a new combinatorial proof of termination in elementary time for the functional case. Second, we develop an extension of the approach to a call-by-value $lambda$-calculus with multithreading and side effects. Thi...
Exploiting Elementary Landscapes for TSP, Vehicle Routing and Scheduling
2015-09-03
Whitley, E. Alba (2011) A Methodology to Find the Elementary Land - scape Decomposition of Combinatorial Optimization Problems. Evolutionary Computa- tion...that are below threshold must be localized in one or more regions of the search space. Functions with search land - scapes that can be characterized as...called “Elementary Land - scapes ” and they have a number of special mathematical properties. In this paper, the Hamiltonian Path problem is shown to
On Adiabatic Processes at the Elementary Particle Level
A, Michaud
2016-01-01
Analysis of adiabatic processes at the elementary particle level and of the manner in which they correlate with the principle of conservation of energy, the principle of least action and entropy. Analysis of the initial and irreversible adiabatic acceleration sequence of newly created elementary particles and its relation to these principles. Exploration of the consequences if this first initial acceleration sequence is not subject to the principle of conservation.
A Development of the Multiple Intelligences Measurement of Elementary Students
Chaiwat Waree
2013-01-01
This research aims at development of the Multiple Intelligences Measurement of Elementary Students. The structural accuracy test and normality establishment are based on the Multiple Intelligences Theory of Gardner. This theory consists of eight aspects namely linguistics, logic and mathematics, visual-spatial relations, body and movement, music, human relations, self-realization/selfunderstanding and nature. The sample used in this research consists of elementary school ...
Elementary Teachers’ Views about School Administrators’ Technology Leadership Roles
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Mehmet Sincar
2011-06-01
Full Text Available This study aims to reveal the elementary school administrators’ technology leadership roles, according to elementary classroom and subject teachers’ perception, and to evaluate these roles. In this mixed method research both qualitative and quantitative methods were used. In order to determine whether elementary school principals’ technology leadership role differentiate in respect of the independent variables such as subjects, gender, experience years in teaching, and number of student, the parametric analyze technique was used. Qualitative data was analyzed with the content analysis technique. According to the opinion of classroom and subject teachers, the technology leadership roles of the elementary school administrators such as human-centered, vision, communication and cooperation were performed partially support role were determined to be performed enough. It was assured that findings obtained from quantitative research techniques were also supported by findings obtained from interviews which were the techniques of qualitative part. No significant differences between the views of subject teachers and classroom teachers were found about elementary school administrators’ technology leadership roles. The results revealed that there were statistically significant differences in terms of gender variable among the views of the classroom teachers, related to the role of the vision of the elementary school administrators; among the views of the branch teacher, on the role of communication and cooperation. In terms of student number of schools, no significant differences were found between the views of teachers about elementary school administrators’ role of technology leadership. However, there were significant differences among subject teachers’ views about elementary school administrators’ technology leadership roles considering roles in vision and humancentered components
Education of teachers of elementary art educational system
Machander, Jan
2012-01-01
An elementary art educational system is deeply rooted in Czech educational and cultural tradition. The art education is widely spread, provides its students with large offer of study subjects in music, plastic art, dance and drama, all in one type of etablisment: elementary art school. Depending on student's interest that education can lead to further professional education or can provide him with art skills and development of art competencies. That educational system demands highly educated ...
Making space more interesting to elementary students
Edlund, J.
When in life do we take the big decision of deciding which path in our career we are going to take? Is this decision made from our experiences in school or is it taken before? Do our family or our friends hopes and dreams for us have any impact on our decision? These are questions that are useful for understanding why some people choose to work with science and why other has chosen another career. In my work to help the university to recruit new student to their master of science in space engineering programme, I have been visiting an elementary school and talked about different topics in space science. The pupils were very interested but when I did a survey of their dream jobs and future career I saw that most of them have hopes of a career that are based on their present talent and not on what education they are going to have. 11 out of 17 students that did this survey wanted to be some kind of artist or soccer professional. Only 4 of them had chosen a career that there are educations for. I do not think this is the situation only for this school, I think this situation is common for children I this age. Since the chance of being a pro in any sport is a really hard thing, probably the most of them have to give up their dream and chose a more realistic approach to their future career. This leaves us with a majority of the students that have not yet had their path chosen and hopefully with help of teachers and special lectures we can make science more attractive to them. This sound like an easy problem, since most of the students finds space really interesting. But there are some problems. The teachers do not have the kind of education, especially in elementary school that is needed for the kids to get proper answer to their questions. The solution is not easy. Should the teachers take more courses in physics and chemistry or should it be their responsibility to search for facts when these kinds of questions appear? I found that in some cases the student have
Content knowledge of prospective elementary school teacher for fractional concepts
Pattimukay, N.; Juniati, D.; Budiarto, M. T.
2018-03-01
The aim of this study was to describe the content knowledge especially the concept of fraction of prospective elementary school teacher. The purpose of this study is to describe the content knowledge, especially the concept of fraction of prospective elementary school teacher. The subject of the study was one of prospective elementary school teacher of Pattimura University. This research is qualitative research. Data were collected through the provision of tests to explore the knowledge content of primary school teacher candidates about fractional concepts. Then continued with qualitative data analysis. The results of this study are as follows: that the prospective primary school teacher defines fractions as part of the whole if an object is divided into equal parts, so that the part that has been divided is part of the whole. Furthermore, the prospective elementary school teacher understood the fractions as division shown in two ways, namely the prospective elementary school teacher understood the fraction as a division operation, the primary school teacher candidate interpreted the fraction as a division when an object is divided be part of the same. Meanwhile, the fraction as a ratio is interpreted as the relationship between a pair of numbers. Then, the denominations are interpreted as a ratio between the numerator and the denominator of the same value. The prospective elementary school teacher also understands fractions of value when simplifying fractions. Primary school teacher candidates understand the concept of fractional operations.
Motivation for physical education classes among junior elementary-school students
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Buišić Svetlana B.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Students' motivation is important for the feeling of satisfaction with school as well as for enhancing teaching effects. The aim of our research was to examine motivational orientations of the third-year elementary-school students for Physical Education classes. The research included 100 students (54 boys and 46 girls from two elementary schools in Sombor. By using the double cluster analysis we got the results which indicate higher self-determined behavior of younger school age, stimulated by fun, enjoyment and wish to learn various sport activities, which is a solid basis for conducting the teaching process more efficiently. Identified regulation and intristic motivation dominate, and the results of multivariant variance analysis show that there are no gender differences in behavior self-determination. Represented motivational orientations are a good base for more efficient teaching of Physical Education in junior classes of elementary school, while teachers in senior classes should uphold it by using more current contents of physical education, more possibilities for choosing the contents and activities by students and a more flexible teaching curriculum.
Biggers, Mandy
2018-02-01
Questioning is a central practice in science classrooms. However, not every question translates into a "good" science investigation. Questions that drive science investigations can be provided by many sources including the teacher, the curriculum, or the student. The variations in the source of investigation questions were explored in this study. A dataset of 120 elementary science classroom videos and associated lesson plans from 40 elementary teachers (K-5) across 21 elementary school campuses were scored on an instrument measuring the amount of teacher-direction or student-direction of the lessons' investigation questions. Results indicated that the investigation questions were overwhelmingly teacher directed in nature, with no opportunities for students to develop their own questions for investigation. This study has implications for researchers and practitioners alike, calling attention to the teacher-directed nature of investigation questions in existing science curriculum materials, and the need for teacher training in instructional strategies to adapt their existing curriculum materials across the continuum of teacher-directed and student-directed investigation questions. Teachers need strategies for adapting the teacher-directed questions provided in their existing curriculum materials in order to allow students the opportunity to engage in this essential scientific practice.
Stichter, Janine P; O'Connor, Karen V; Herzog, Melissa J; Lierheimer, Kristin; McGhee, Stephanie D
2012-03-01
Despite frequent reports of academic success, individuals with high functioning autism or Aspergers Syndrome (HFA/AS) often manifest deficits in social abilities. These deficits can lead to daily difficulties, and negative long-term outcomes. Deficits in social competency are evident in this population from an early age, as children with HFA/AS present unique challenges relating to peers, interpreting complex contextual cues, and transitioning across settings. A paucity of social interventions exist that target elementary-age children with HFA/AS and their combination of core social competence deficit areas: theory of mind (ToM), emotional recognition, and executive functioning. The current study expanded on the Social Competence Intervention (for adolescents; SCI-A), as detailed in Stichter et al. (J Autism Dev Disorders 40:1067-1079, 2010), by adjusting the curriculum to meet the needs of an elementary population. Results indicate significant improvements on direct assessments measuring theory of mind and problem solving, and parent perceptions of overall social abilities and executive functioning for 20 students, aged 6-10, with HFA/AS. The elementary SCI program appears promising, however, additional replications are necessary including expansion to school settings.
Alarcon, Maricela H.
Science education reform and state testing accountability call upon principals to become instructional leaders in science. Specifically, elementary school principals must take an active role in science instruction to effectively improve science education for all students including English Language Learners. As such, the research questioned posed in this study centered on How are elementary school principals addressing the academic needs of Latino Spanish-speaking English language learners within science education? This study employed a qualitative research design to identify the factors contributing to the exemplary performance in science, as measured by the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS), for English Language Learner students in three high poverty bilingual elementary schools based on a multiple case study. As part of the data collection process, interviews were conducted with three school principals, three science academic support teachers, and two 5th grade bilingual teachers. Additionally, observations were acquired through school principal shadowing. The findings revealed four attributes necessary for effective instructional leadership in science education. First, Positive School Culture was defined as the core that linked the other three instructional leadership attributes and thus increased their effectiveness. Second, Clear Goals and Expectations were set by making science a priority and ensuring that English language learners were transitioning from Spanish to English instruction by the fifth grade. Third, Critical Resourcing involved hiring a science academic support teacher, securing a science classroom on campus, and purchasing bilingual instructional materials. Fourth, principal led and supported Collaboration in which teachers met to discuss student performance based data in addition to curriculum and instruction. These research findings are vital because by implementing these best practices of elementary school principals, educators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tsiligianni Ioanna G
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco and alcohol use during adolescence have potential long term health consequences and a possibility of future addiction. Methods This cross sectional study took place in 2007 among a convenience sample of 981 adolescents from public elementary and high schools in Eastern Crete, Greece. Following parental consent, an anonymous structured questionnaire including information on personal and family use of alcohol and tobacco was distributed. Results Among the entire study population, cigarette experimentation was found to be associated with current alcohol use, with an Adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR of 38.8; (95%C.I: 5.33-58.2 and with having a smoker in the immediate family (aOR 10.3; 95%C.I: 3.14-34.0. Among the subset of elementary school children, cigarette smoking was strongly associated with current alcohol use aOR 9.7; (95%C.I: 2.12-44.3, while the association between smoking experimentation and sibling and parental alcohol use was statistically significant within the entire population (however not among elementary students with an aOR of 2.76 (95%C.I: 1.24-6.15 and aOR 3.66, (95%C.I: 1.97-6.81 respectively. The elementary child’s gender was not found to be associated with cigarette experimentation among this study population. Conclusions Strong associations were found between alcohol use and tobacco experimentation. The potential parental influence on consequent adolescent tobacco and alcohol use was also noted. Potential community based interventions, if launched in Greece, should take the role of the Greek family into account.
Rich, Peter Jacob; Jones, Brian; Belikov, Olga; Yoshikawa, Emily; Perkins, McKay
2017-01-01
STEM, the integration of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics is increasingly being promoted in elementary education. However, elementary educators are largely untrained in the 21st century skills of computing (a subset of technology) and engineering. The purpose of this study was to better understand elementary teachers'…
Covault, Jacquelyn M.
2011-01-01
This study explored the instructional reading practices of four elementary teachers, all graduates of a small branch campus of a large Midwestern University, who obtained their Bachelor of Arts in Elementary Education and have been employed in public elementary schools for nearly three years. The four individuals were former university students of…
Zangori, Laura; Forbes, Cory T.; Biggers, Mandy
2013-01-01
While research has shown that elementary (K-5) students are capable of engaging in the scientific practice of explanation construction, commonly-used elementary science curriculum materials may not always afford them opportunities to do so. As a result, elementary teachers must often adapt their science curriculum materials to better support…
Approaches to Inquiry Teaching: Elementary teacher's perspectives
Ireland, Joseph; Watters, James J.; Lunn Brownlee, J.; Lupton, Mandy
2014-07-01
Learning science through the process of inquiry is advocated in curriculum documents across many jurisdictions. However, a number of studies suggest that teachers struggle to help students engage in inquiry practices. This is not surprising as many teachers of science have not engaged in scientific inquiry and possibly hold naïve ideas about what constitutes scientific inquiry. This study investigates teachers' self-reported approaches to teaching science through inquiry. Phenomenographic interviews undertaken with 20 elementary teachers revealed teachers identified six approaches to teaching for inquiry, clustered within three categories. These approaches were categorized as Free and Illustrated Inquiries as part of an Experience-centered category, Solution and Method Inquiries as part of a Problem-centered category, and Topic and Chaperoned Inquiries as part of a Question-centered category. This study contributes to our theoretical understanding of how teachers approach Inquiry Teaching and suggests fertile areas of future research into this valued and influential phenomenon broadly known as 'Inquiry Teaching'.
Effective Lagrangians in elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trahern, C.G.
1982-01-01
Non-linear effective Lagrangians are constructed to represent the low energy phenomenology of elementary particles. As approximate descriptions of the dynamics of hadrons, these models simulate the expected (but unproven) behavior of more complex theories such as quantum Chromo-dynamics [QCD]. A general formalism for non-linear models was developed in the late 1960's by Coleman, Wess and Zumino. This dissertation utilizes and extends their work by incorporating some of the advances that have been made in the understanding of quantum field theories in the last decade. In particular the significance of spatial boundary conditions for interpreting the ground state behavior of the non-linear models is investigated. In addition the existence of a dual theory for the non-linear model is discussed. For experimental purposes duality refers to the possibility that in different enrgy regimes there may be wholly distinct kinds of excitations in the physical spectrum. Corresponding to these phenomenological distinctions are mutually exclusive mathematical descriptions. A familiar example is the duality of electric and magnetic charge in electro-dynamics. If magnetic charges do exist, they are expected to be extremely massive states that are unobservable up to very high energies. The analysis of such states within electrodynamics shows that one cannot describe both electric and magnetic charges without admitting the presence of singularities in the electric potential. A completely analogous form of duality is found and discussed for the non-linear models
Facts and mysteries in elementary particle physics
Veltman, Martinus J G
2018-01-01
This book provides a comprehensive overview of modern particle physics accessible to anyone with a true passion for wanting to know how the universe works. We are introduced to the known particles of the world we live in. An elegant explanation of quantum mechanics and relativity paves the way for an understanding of the laws that govern particle physics. These laws are put into action in the world of accelerators, colliders and detectors found at institutions such as CERN and Fermilab that are in the forefront of technical innovation. Real world and theory meet using Feynman diagrams to solve the problems of infinities and deduce the need for the Higgs boson. Facts and Mysteries in Elementary Particle Physics offers an incredible insight from an eyewitness and participant in some of the greatest discoveries in 20th century science. From Einstein's theory of relativity to the spectacular discovery of the Higgs particle, this book will fascinate and educate anyone interested in the world of quarks, leptons an...
Elementary Chemical Reactions in Surface Photocatalysis.
Guo, Qing; Zhou, Chuanyao; Ma, Zhibo; Ren, Zefeng; Fan, Hongjun; Yang, Xueming
2018-02-28
Photocatalytic hydrogen evolution and organic degradation on oxide materials have been extensively investigated in the last two decades. Great efforts have been dedicated to the study of photocatalytic reaction mechanisms of a variety of molecules on TiO 2 surfaces by using surface science methods under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions, providing fundamental understanding of surface chemical reactions in photocatalysis. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in the study of photocatalysis of several important species (water, methanol, and aldehydes) on different TiO 2 surfaces. The results of these studies have provided us deep insights into the elementary processes of surface photocatalysis and stimulated a new frontier of research in this area. Based on the results of these studies, a new dynamics-based photocatalysis model is also discussed. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Physical Chemistry Volume 69 is April 20, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Reading motivation in elementary school students
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sonja Pečjak
2005-02-01
Full Text Available Reading motivation is one of the crucial factors of reading and consequently also learning efficiency of students. The purpose of the contribution is to establish the connection between dimensions of reading motivation and reading achievement in elementary school students. Participating in the study were 1073 third-grade and 1282 seventh-grade students. We used the questionnaire of reading motivation which consists of two factors: the reading competence factor and the interest and perceived reading importance factor. The findings of the study are the following: third-graders are more competent and more interested in reading compared to seventh-graders. The same is true for girls in both educational levels. Reading competence , interest and perceived reading importance reflect also in the actual reading behaviour of students – students who are more competent and more interested in reading read more frequently, for longer periods and more often autonomously decide to read compared to their less motivated peers. Higher reading motivation has implications also for higher reading efficiency. Namely, good readers are more competent, show higher interest and perceive reading as more important compared to average and bad readers.
Visuospatial training improves elementary students' mathematics performance.
Lowrie, Tom; Logan, Tracy; Ramful, Ajay
2017-06-01
Although spatial ability and mathematics performance are highly correlated, there is scant research on the extent to which spatial ability training can improve mathematics performance. This study evaluated the efficacy of a visuospatial intervention programme within classrooms to determine the effect on students' (1) spatial reasoning and (2) mathematics performance as a result of the intervention. The study involved grade six students (ages 10-12) in eight classes. There were five intervention classes (n = 120) and three non-intervention control classes (n = 66). A specifically designed 10-week spatial reasoning programme was developed collaboratively with the participating teachers, with the intervention replacing the standard mathematics curriculum. The five classroom teachers in the intervention programme presented 20 hr of activities aimed at enhancing students' spatial visualization, mental rotation, and spatial orientation skills. The spatial reasoning programme led to improvements in both spatial ability and mathematics performance relative to the control group who received standard mathematics instruction. Our study is the first to show that a classroom-based spatial reasoning intervention improves elementary school students' mathematics performance. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Elementary school teachers' attitudes to teamwork
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vasilijević Danijela N.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Research to date has shown that teacher teamwork results in higher motivation among students and higher quality knowledge, and also facilitates the sharing of professional experiences and stimulates teachers' creativity and their openness to change. Team forming and development depend on multiple factors, particularly on the individual and group traits of team members. This paper examines teachers' attitudes as an individual factor significant for their inclination for team teaching, and the aim of the study presented in the paper was to study teachers' attitudes to teamwork. The sample consisted of 240 teachers from fifteen elementary schools in Belgrade. Factor analysis has singled out three factors around which teachers' attitudes are grouped: a teaching; b team and individual development; and c professional challenge. The study has shown that overall, teachers have a positive attitude to teamwork because it is conducive to a stimulating environment for work and learning, and also provides an opportunity for teachers' personal and professional development. Significant differences in the perception of teamwork have been noted among lower-grade teachers depending on their years of service and the extent to which they have been engaged in team teaching.
Improving listening in the elementary grades.
Meinders, P M; Byers, V W
1981-11-01
A single stratagem was taught to 36 students: 12 each in the second grade, the fourth grade, and the sixth grade, to improve their listening skills. The basic six stratagem taught the children how to ask who, what, when, where, why, and how questions. The children were seen three times a week in groups of six. The results of a pre - post test showed statistically significant improvement for the children in the listening program. The second-grade group showed an average improvement of 3.92 correct answers, a 23% improvement. The fourth-grade group showed an average improvement of 5.75 correct answers, a 23% improvement. The sixth-grade group showed an average improvement of 4.55 correct answers, a 12% improvement. Their classmates in the fourth and sixth grades, who also took the pre - post test, show no improvement in their pre - post test scores. The second-grade classroom children showed a significant improvement of 1.55 correct answers, which was a 9% improvement. The listening skills of children in the elementary grades can be improved through a direct teaching of a specific stratagem in a small group setting.
Symmetries in the world of elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horvath, D.; Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen
2003-01-01
Symmetries are leading to conservation laws and these are important features of interactions. Elementary particles are classified according to their spin into fermions and bosons with accordingly different symmetry features. Each particle has its corresponding antiparticle that is leading to the CPT symmetry. Particles can also be classified according to the type of interaction they take part in. Leptons are not taking part in the strong interaction, while the quark model can describe all particles. The model has been made complete with the introduction of a new quantum number, the colour. The next theoretical stage has been that of the GIM mechanism leading to the Standard Model, according to which all interactions are rooted in local symmetries. The carriers of the three basic interactions are: the photon for the electromagnetic one, the weak bosons for the weak interaction, and the gluons for the strong one. The Standard Model has been brought to its actual form by the Higgs mechanism, the spontaneous symmetry breaking. Further development of the model is envisaged. One direction might be that of super symmetry, which created the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. (Gy.M.)
Radon in elementary schools in Tunisia
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Labidi, S.; Mahjoubi, H.; Al-Azmi, D.; Ben Salah, R.
2010-01-01
Indoor radon measurements were carried out in 30 elementary schools in Tunis, the capital city of Tunisia, during the winter months of December 2008 to early March 2009. Two classrooms, one each from ground floor and first floor were chosen from each school making a total of 60 classrooms. In some of the classrooms, two detectors (open and closed) were used to measure the concentrations of radon as well as radon and its progeny to allow the calculations of the equilibrium factors. Nuclear track detectors type LR-115 (Kodalpha) were used for the measurements. The results show that the radon concentration levels are low in the range of 6-169 Bq m-3 with a mean value of 26.9 Bq m-3. The annual effective dose was found to vary between 0.025-0.715 mSv y-1 for teachers while the range for pupils was from 0.019-0.525 mSv y-1. These values are within the ICRP recommended values. (authors)
A readability analysis of elementary-level science textbooks
Trainer, Robyn
Given both the unprecedented attention to the importance of providing children with the best possible science textbooks and the overwhelming evidence that students in the United States are severely lacking the most basic science knowledge, the decline in the number of students pursuing science degrees is alarming. In spite of all the efforts being made, a disparity still exists between (1) the wealth of science information available, (2) the apparent ease of access to scientific information, and (3) the lack of scientific academic progress being made in classrooms across the United States. A literature review was conducted which included the areas of textbook analysis and textbook readability levels, the fields of textbook analysis and readability, and findings from recently published books about textbook readability. The majority of the literature reflected an urgent need for science textbooks to be revised. Based on the information gathered during the literature review, the study examined the readability levels of elementary level science textbooks that were published by six textbook publishers. Results from the study revealed that when used properly, readability formulas provide an objective look at textbooks. After applying these formulas to the selected elementary level science textbooks, it became clear that very few changes were implemented between the most recent previous editions and the current editions. The textbooks remain too difficult for the students using them. The findings from this study will help science textbook publishers and textbook writers see that some changes need to be made in the way their textbooks are written. In order to maintain a competitive edge in the global marketplace, more students need to pursue science. In order for more students to do that, they need to pursue science degrees, but in order for them to pursue science degrees, they need to have a certain degree of confidence and level of interest in the subject matter. For
Academic Interventions for Elementary and Middle School Students with Low Socioeconomic Status
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dietrichson, Jens; Bøg, Martin; Filges, Trine
2017-01-01
Socioeconomic status is a major predictor of educational achievement. This systematic review and meta-analysis seeks to identify effective academic interventions for elementary and middle school students with low socioeconomic status. Included studies have used a treatment-control group design......, were performed in OECD and EU countries, and measured achievement by standardized tests in mathematics or reading. The analysis included 101 studies performed during 2000-2014, 76 percent of which were randomized controlled trials. The effect sizes (ES) of many interventions indicate...
Culture Connection Project: promoting multiculturalism in elementary schools.
Matuk, Lucia Yiu; Ruggirello, Tina
2007-01-01
To promote multiculturalism among grade school students through drama education. Grade 3-6 students (N = 665) from 6 targeted schools including lead-class students (n = 158) representing each school. Elementary schools in Windsor-Essex County, Ontario, Canada. In this non-experimental design study, group discussions conducted with each lead class to explore students' understanding of multiculturalism were developed into an interactive drama performance and performed for all grades 3-6 students in their respective schools. A follow-up drama workshop was offered to each lead class one week after the drama performance. All students completed a 7-item questionnaire before and after the drama performance and after the drama workshop. Pre-test and post-test data collected were analyzed using T-test and ANOVA to determine the effects of drama education on students' attitudes toward multiculturalism. Statistical analysis at 0.05 significance level revealed that both the performance and the drama workshop heightened students' awareness of racism, and instilled cultural respect through "talking with others", "accepting others", and "believing that they can make a difference" in multiculturalism promotion. Drama education was an effective experiential tool for promoting multiculturalism in a school setting. The key to promoting inter-racial harmony is to respect and accept individual differences and to broaden the social determinants of health by providing culture safety care.
Elementary school children's science learning from school field trips
Glick, Marilyn Petty
This research examines the impact of classroom anchoring activities on elementary school students' science learning from a school field trip. Although there is prior research demonstrating that students can learn science from school field trips, most of this research is descriptive in nature and does not examine the conditions that enhance or facilitate such learning. The current study draws upon research in psychology and education to create an intervention that is designed to enhance what students learn from school science field trips. The intervention comprises of a set of "anchoring" activities that include: (1) Orientation to context, (2) Discussion to activate prior knowledge and generate questions, (3) Use of field notebooks during the field trip to record observations and answer questions generated prior to field trip, (4) Post-visit discussion of what was learned. The effects of the intervention are examined by comparing two groups of students: an intervention group which receives anchoring classroom activities related to their field trip and an equivalent control group which visits the same field trip site for the same duration but does not receive any anchoring classroom activities. Learning of target concepts in both groups was compared using objective pre and posttests. Additionally, a subset of students in each group were interviewed to obtain more detailed descriptive data on what children learned through their field trip.