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Sample records for include all-cause mortality

  1. Predictors, Including Blood, Urine, Anthropometry, and Nutritional Indices, of All-Cause Mortality among Institutionalized Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohwada, Hiroko; Nakayama, Takeo; Tomono, Yuji; Yamanaka, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    As the life expectancy of people with intellectual disability (ID) increases, it is becoming necessary to understand factors affecting survival. However, predictors that are typically assessed among healthy people have not been examined. Predictors of all-cause mortality, including blood, urine, anthropometry, and nutritional indices, were…

  2. Alcohol and Mortality from All Causes

    OpenAIRE

    SERGE RENAUD; DOMINIQUE LANZMANN-PETITHORY; RENÉ GUEGUEN; PASCALE CONARD

    2004-01-01

    A large number of prospective studies have observed an inverse relationship between a moderate intake of alcohol and coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality. Concerning death from all-causes, results are not unanimous. Alcohol intake was associated with a protection of all-cause mortality in England and USA physicians and the large study of the American Cancer Society. None of these studies separated the effects of different alcoholic beverages. In our prospective studies in France on ...

  3. Alcohol and Mortality from All Causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGE RENAUD

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A large number of prospective studies have observed an inverse relationship between a moderate intake of alcohol and coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality. Concerning death from all-causes, results are not unanimous. Alcohol intake was associated with a protection of all-cause mortality in England and USA physicians and the large study of the American Cancer Society. None of these studies separated the effects of different alcoholic beverages. In our prospective studies in France on 35 000 middle-aged men, we observed that only wine at moderate intake, was associated with a protective effect on all-cause mortality. The reason was that in addition to the known effect on cardiovascular diseases, a very moderate intake of wine, protected also from cancer and other causes as confirmed by Gronbaek in Denmark. Our recent results also indicate that the protective effect of a moderate intake of wine on all-cause mortality is observed at all levels of blood pressure and serum cholesterol.

  4. Viral eradication reduces all-cause mortality, including non-liver-related disease, in patients with progressive hepatitis C virus-related fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Toshifumi; Kumada, Takashi; Toyoda, Hidenori; Kiriyama, Seiki; Tanikawa, Makoto; Hisanaga, Yasuhiro; Kanamori, Akira; Kitabatake, Shusuke; Yama, Tsuyoki; Tanaka, Junko

    2017-03-01

    Eradication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) with interferon (IFN)-based therapy has been reported to reduce all-cause mortality in patients with chronic HCV infection. However, the impact of HCV eradication on non-liver-related mortality and causes of death has not been sufficiently investigated in patients with progressive HCV-related fibrosis. We enrolled 784 chronic HCV patients with progressive liver fibrosis (aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index >1). Cause of death, incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma, and all-cause mortality including non-liver-related mortality were analyzed. Of these 784 patients, 170 achieved sustained virological response (SVR) (eradication of HCV) with IFN-based therapy (IFN-SVR), and 614 did not receive IFN-based therapy (non-IFN patients, chronic HCV infection). The median follow-up duration was 10.3 years. Two hundred seventy-three patients died during follow-up (liver-related death, n = 171; non-liver-related death, n = 102). The mortality rate from non-liver-related disease was 63.6% (7/11) in IFN-SVR patients and 36.3% (95/262) in non-IFN patients, respectively. In multivariate analysis, the eradication of HCV associated with not only hepatocellular carcinoma incidence (hazard ratio (HR), 0.162; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.092-0.284), and all-cause mortality (HR, 0.094; 95% CI, 0.047-0.187), but non-liver-related mortality (HR, 0.286; 95% CI, 0.127-0.644) as well. Eradication of HCV reduced both liver-related and non-liver-related mortality in patients with progressive HCV-related fibrosis. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Social isolation and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Kristina; Baggesen, Lisbeth Munksgård; Schmidt, Sigrún Alba Jóhannesdóttir

    2018-01-01

    Social isolation is associated with increased mortality. Meta-analytic results, however, indicate heterogeneity in effect sizes. We aimed to provide new evidence to the association between social isolation and mortality by conducting a population-based cohort study. We reconstructed the Berkman...... cumulative mortality and adjusted mortality rate ratios (MRR) associated with SNI. We adjusted for potential important confounders, including psychiatric and somatic status, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status. Cumulative 7-year mortality in men was 11% for SNI 0/1 and 5.4% for SNI 4 and in women 9...... isolation was associated with 60-70% increased mortality. Having no partner was associated with highest MRR....

  6. Weight at Birth and All-Cause Mortality in Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Olsen, Lina Wøhlk; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2008-01-01

    :: We investigated the association of birth weight with adult all-cause mortality using a Danish school-based cohort of 216,464 men and women born from 1936 through 1979. The cohort was linked to vital statistic registers. The main outcome was all-cause mortality from ages 25 through 68 years...

  7. Light-Intensity Physical Activity and All-Cause Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D

    2017-07-01

    Research demonstrates that moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality. Few studies have examined the effects of light-intensity physical activity on mortality. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the association between objectively measured light-intensity physical activity and all-cause mortality risk. Longitudinal. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006 with follow-up through December 31, 2011. Five thousand five hundred seventy-five U.S. adults. Participants wore an accelerometer for at least 4 days and completed questionnaires to assess sociodemographics and chronic disease information, with blood samples taken to assess biological markers. Follow-up mortality status was assessed via death certificate data from the National Death Index. Cox proportional hazard model. After adjusting for accelerometer-determined MVPA, age, gender, race-ethnicity, cotinine, weight status, poverty level, C-reactive protein, and comorbid illness, for every 60-minute increase in accelerometer-determined light-intensity physical activity, participants had a 16% reduced hazard of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio = .84; 95% confidence interval: .78-.91; p physical activity was inversely associated with all-cause mortality risk, independent of age, MVPA, and other potential confounders. In addition to MVPA, promotion of light-intensity physical activity is warranted.

  8. Plasma urate, cancer incidence, and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobylecki, Camilla J.; Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Observationally, high plasma urate is associated with high risk of cancer. We used a Mendelian randomization design to test the hypothesis that high concentrations of plasma urate are associated with high cancer incidence and all-cause mortality observationally and genetically. Method...

  9. Low Nonfasting Triglycerides and Reduced All-Cause Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mette; Varbo, Anette; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased nonfasting plasma triglycerides marking increased amounts of cholesterol in remnant lipoproteins are important risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but whether lifelong reduced concentrations of triglycerides on a genetic basis ultimately lead to reduced all-cause mortal......BACKGROUND: Increased nonfasting plasma triglycerides marking increased amounts of cholesterol in remnant lipoproteins are important risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but whether lifelong reduced concentrations of triglycerides on a genetic basis ultimately lead to reduced all......-cause mortality is unknown. We tested this hypothesis. METHODS: Using individuals from the Copenhagen City Heart Study in a mendelian randomization design, we first tested whether low concentrations of nonfasting triglycerides were associated with reduced all-cause mortality in observational analyses (n = 13 957......); second, whether genetic variants in the triglyceride-degrading enzyme lipoprotein lipase, resulting in reduced nonfasting triglycerides and remnant cholesterol, were associated with reduced all-cause mortality (n = 10 208). RESULTS: During a median 24 and 17 years of 100% complete follow-up, 9991...

  10. Ethnic differences in all-cause mortality rates in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davletov, K; McKee, M; Berkinbayev, S; Battakova, Z; Zhussupov, B; Amirov, B; Junusbekova, G; Rechel, B

    2016-04-01

    This article explores mortality rates in Kazakhstan by ethnic group and some of the potential lifestyle factors that might help to explain the observed differences on a population level. Repeated cross-sectional data analysis. We calculated age-standardized mortality rates from all causes by ethnic group, gender and age for 2009-2012. We analysed data on self-reported alcohol and tobacco consumption and other lifestyle factors from the nationally representative 5th National Behavior Study, conducted in 2012. Age-standardized all-cause mortality rates are generally much higher among ethnic Russians than among ethnic Kazakhs, both among women and men and in rural as well as urban areas. These differences are most pronounced in the age group 20-59 years. Information on self-reported alcohol consumption and smoking by ethnic group, gender and age shows major differences between ethnic groups, with consistently higher rates of alcohol consumption and smoking among ethnic Russians, both in women and men and across all adult age groups. Policies to improve the health of the population of Kazakhstan must take account of ethnic differences. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Smoking and All-cause Mortality in Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müezzinler, Aysel; Mons, Ute; Gellert, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Smoking is known to be a major cause of death among middle-aged adults, but evidence on its impact and the benefits of smoking cessation among older adults has remained limited. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the influence of smoking and smoking cessation on all-cause mortality......-fold and former smokers had 1.3-fold increased mortality compared with never smokers. These increases in mortality translated to RAPs of 6.4 (95% CI=4.8, 7.9) and 2.4 (95% CI=1.5, 3.4) years, respectively. A clear positive dose-response relationship was observed between number of currently smoked...... cigarettes and mortality. For former smokers, excess mortality and RAPs decreased with time since cessation, with RAPs of 3.9 (95% CI=3.0, 4.7), 2.7 (95% CI=1.8, 3.6), and 0.7 (95% CI=0.2, 1.1) for those who had quit Smoking remains as a strong...

  12. The Gamma Gap and All-Cause Mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P Juraschek

    Full Text Available The difference between total serum protein and albumin, i.e. the gamma gap, is a frequently used clinical screening measure for both latent infection and malignancy. However, there are no studies defining a positive gamma gap. Further, whether it is an independent risk factor of mortality is unknown.This study examined the association between gamma gap, all-cause mortality, and specific causes of death (cardiovascular, cancer, pulmonary, or other in 12,260 participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES from 1999-2004. Participants had a comprehensive metabolic panel measured, which was linked with vital status data from the National Death Index. Cause of death was based on ICD10 codes from death certificates. Analyses were performed with Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for mortality risk factors. The mean (SE age was 46 (0.3 years and the mean gamma gap was 3.0 (0.01 g/dl. The population was 52% women and 10% black. During a median follow-up period of 4.8 years (IQR: 3.3 to 6.2 years, there were 723 deaths. The unadjusted 5-year cumulative incidences across quartiles of the gamma gap (1.7-2.7, 2.8-3.0, 3.1-3.2, and 3.3-7.9 g/dl were 5.7%, 4.2%, 5.5%, and 7.8%. After adjustment for risk factors, participants with a gamma gap of ≥3.1 g/dl had a 30% higher risk of death compared to participants with a gamma gap <3.1 g/dl (HR: 1.30; 95%CI: 1.08, 1.55; P = 0.006. Gamma gap (per 1.0 g/dl was most strongly associated with death from pulmonary causes (HR 2.22; 95%CI: 1.19, 4.17; P = 0.01.The gamma gap is an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality at values as low as 3.1 g/dl (in contrast to the traditional definition of 4.0 g/dl, and is strongly associated with death from pulmonary causes. Future studies should examine the biologic pathways underlying these associations.

  13. Hyperprolactinemia and the Association with All-Cause Mortality and Cardiovascular Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Selmer, Christian; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Hyperprolactinemia has been suspected to increase mortality risk, but the available data are conflicting. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between hyperprolactinemia and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among patients referred for assessment of prolactin......-cause mortality (95% CI 1.22-2.82) and 2.55 (95% CI 1.43-4.55) for cardiovascular mortality. The IRR for all-cause mortality was reduced to 1.37 (0.90-2.08) when adjusted for the use of antipsychotic medication. The association between hyperprolactinemia and cardiovascular mortality remained after adjusting...... for confounders, for example, chronic renal failure, diabetes, and antipsychotic medication. In females, hyperprolactinemia was not associated with all-cause mortality (IRR 1.45; CI 0.86-2.47) or cardiovascular mortality (IRR 0.58; CI 0.14-2.39). In conclusion, hyperprolactinemia was associated with increased...

  14. Mortality from cancer and all causes among British radiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.G.; Doll, R.

    1981-01-01

    The mortality of men who joined a British radiological society between 1897 and 1954 has been compared with that of (i) all men in England and Wales, (ii) men in social class 1, and (iii) male medical practitioners. Radiologists who entered the profession before 1921 suffered a death rate from cancer 75% higher than that of medical practitioners. Among these men there was a statistically significant excess of deaths from cancers of the pancreas (6 against 1.9 expected), lung (8 against 3.7), and skin (6 against 0.8), and from leukaemia (4 against 0.7). There were 72 deaths from cancer among men who entered the study after 1920 and 68.6 deaths were expected, based upon rates among medical practitioners. For no individual cancer site did the observed number of deaths exceed the expected number. There was some evidence, however, that the ratio of observed to expected cancer increased with the duration of time that men were included in the study. Among those followed for more than 30 years there were 30 deaths against 22.1 expected. It is not possible to make a close estimate of the dose of radiation received by the men in this study, but those who entered between 1920 and 1945 could have received an accumulated whole-body dose of the order of 1-5 Gy(100 to 500 rad). For all non-cancer causes of death combined, the death rate among radiologists is lower than that among all men in England and Wales, men in social class 1, and male medical practitioners. The data offer no support for the concept of a non-specific aging effect of radiation. (author)

  15. Association of BMI with risk of CVD mortality and all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Chee Cheong; Sumarni, Mohd Ghazali; Lim, Kuang Hock; Selvarajah, Sharmini; Haniff, Jamaiyah; Tee, Guat Hiong Helen; Gurpreet, Kaur; Faudzi, Yusoff Ahmad; Amal, Nasir Mustafa

    2017-05-01

    To determine the relationship between BMI and risk of CVD mortality and all-cause mortality among Malaysian adults. Population-based, retrospective cohort study. Participants were followed up for 5 years from 2006 to 2010. Mortality data were obtained via record linkages with the Malaysian National Registration Department. Multiple Cox regression was applied to compare risk of CVD and all-cause mortality between BMI categories adjusting for age, gender and ethnicity. Models were generated for all participants, all participants the first 2 years of follow-up, healthy participants, healthy never smokers, never smokers, current smokers and former smokers. All fourteen states in Malaysia. Malaysian adults (n 32 839) aged 18 years or above from the third National Health and Morbidity Survey. Total follow-up time was 153 814 person-years with 1035 deaths from all causes and 225 deaths from CVD. Underweight (BMIBMI ≥30·0 kg/m2) was associated with a heightened risk of CVD mortality. Overweight (BMI=25·0-29·9 kg/m2) was inversely associated with risk of all-cause mortality. Underweight was significantly associated with all-cause mortality in all models except for current smokers. Overweight was inversely associated with all-cause mortality in all participants. Although a positive trend was observed between BMI and CVD mortality in all participants, a significant association was observed only for severe obesity (BMI≥35·0 kg/m2). Underweight was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality and obesity with increased risk of CVD mortality. Therefore, maintaining a normal BMI through leading an active lifestyle and healthy dietary habits should continue to be promoted.

  16. Extreme all-cause mortality in JUPITER requires reexamination of vital records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebruany, Victor L

    2011-01-01

    To compare all-cause mortality in JUPITER with other statin trials at 21 months of follow-up. Outcome advantages including all-cause mortality reduction yielded from the JUPITER trial support aggressive use of rosuvastatin and, perhaps by extension, other statins for primary prevention. Despite enrolling apparently healthy subjects and early trial termination at 21 months of mean follow-up, JUPITER revealed very high all-cause mortality in both the placebo (2.8%) and rosuvastatin (2.2%) arms. Comparison of all-cause mortality prorated for 21 months in 10 primary prevention studies and 1 acute coronary syndromes statin trial. The all-cause mortality in JUPITER was more than twice that of the average of primary prevention studies, matching well only with specific trials designed in diabetics (ASPEN or CARDS), early hypertension studies (ALLHAT-LLT) or a trial in patients with acute coronary syndromes (PROVE IT). Since the 'play of chance' is unlikely to explain these discrepancies due to excellent baseline match, excess death rates and all-cause mortality rates in both JUPITER arms must be questioned. It may be important that the study sponsor self-monitored sites. Excess all-cause mortality rates in the apparently relatively healthy JUPITER population are alarming and require independent verification. If, indeed, the surprising outcomes in JUPITER are successfully challenged, and considering established harm of statins with regard to rhabdomyolysis as well as, potentially, diabetes, millions of patients may find better and safer options for primary prevention of vascular events. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Body Mass Index (BMI) and All-Cause Mortality Pooling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    The BMI and All-Cause Mortality Pooling Project quantified the risk associated with being overweight and the extent to which the relationship between BMI and all-cause mortality varies by certain factors.

  18. The association between income inequality and all-cause mortality across urban communities in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong; Ryu, So-Yeon; Han, Mi-ah; Choi, Seong-Woo

    2015-06-20

    Korea has achieved considerable economic growth more rapidly than most other countries, but disparities in income level have increased. Therefore, we sought to assess the association between income inequality and mortality across Korean cities. Data on household income were obtained from the 2010-2012 Korean Community Health Survey and data on all-cause mortality and other covariates were obtained from the Korean Statistical Information Service. The Gini coefficient, Robin Hood index, and income share ratio between the 80th and 20th percentiles of the distribution were measured for each community. After excluding communities affected by changes in administrative districts between 2010 and 2012, a total of 157 communities and 172,398 urban residents were included in the analysis. When we graphed income inequality measures versus all-cause mortality as scatter plots, the R square values of the regression lines for GC, RHI, and 80/20 ratios relative to mortality were 0.230, 0.238, and 0.152, respectively. After adjusting for other covariates and median household income, mean all-cause mortality increased significantly with increasing GC (P for trend = 0.014) and RHI (P for trend = 0.031), and increased marginally with 80/20 ratio (P for trend = 0.067). Our data demonstrate that income inequality measures are significantly associated with all-cause mortality rate after adjustment for covariates, including median household income across urban communities in Korea.

  19. Heat-Related Mortality in India: Excess All-Cause Mortality Associated with the 2010 Ahmedabad Heat Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Mavalankar, Dileep; Nori-Sarma, Amruta; Rajiva, Ajit; Dutta, Priya; Jaiswal, Anjali; Sheffield, Perry; Knowlton, Kim; Hess, Jeremy J.; Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Deol, Bhaskar; Bhaskar, Priya Shekhar; Hess, Jeremy; Jaiswal, Anjali; Khosla, Radhika; Knowlton, Kim; Mavalankar, Mavalankar; Rajiva, Ajit; Sarma, Amruta; Sheffield, Perry

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In the recent past, spells of extreme heat associated with appreciable mortality have been documented in developed countries, including North America and Europe. However, far fewer research reports are available from developing countries or specific cities in South Asia. In May 2010, Ahmedabad, India, faced a heat wave where the temperatures reached a high of 46.8°C with an apparent increase in mortality. The purpose of this study is to characterize the heat wave impact and assess the associated excess mortality. Methods We conducted an analysis of all-cause mortality associated with a May 2010 heat wave in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India, to determine whether extreme heat leads to excess mortality. Counts of all-cause deaths from May 1–31, 2010 were compared with the mean of counts from temporally matched periods in May 2009 and 2011 to calculate excess mortality. Other analyses included a 7-day moving average, mortality rate ratio analysis, and relationship between daily maximum temperature and daily all-cause death counts over the entire year of 2010, using month-wise correlations. Results The May 2010 heat wave was associated with significant excess all-cause mortality. 4,462 all-cause deaths occurred, comprising an excess of 1,344 all-cause deaths, an estimated 43.1% increase when compared to the reference period (3,118 deaths). In monthly pair-wise comparisons for 2010, we found high correlations between mortality and daily maximum temperature during the locally hottest “summer” months of April (r = 0.69, pheat (May 19–25, 2010), mortality rate ratios were 1.76 [95% CI 1.67–1.83, pheat wave in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India had a substantial effect on all-cause excess mortality, even in this city where hot temperatures prevail through much of April-June. PMID:24633076

  20. Race, Depressive Symptoms, and All-Cause Mortality in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Moazen-Zadeh, Ehsan; Lankarani, Maryam Moghani; Micol-Foster, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Despite the well-established association between baseline depressive symptoms and risk of all cause-mortality, limited information exists on racial differences in the residual effects of baseline depressive symptoms above and beyond socioeconomic status (SES) and physical health on this link. The current study compared Blacks and Whites for the residual effects of depressive symptoms over SES and health on risk of long-term all-cause mortality in the U.S. Data were obtained from the Americans' Changing Lives Study, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort of U.S. adults with up to 25 years of follow-up. The study followed 3,361 Blacks and Whites for all-cause mortality between 1986 and 2011. The main predictor of interest was baseline depressive symptoms measured at 1986 using an 11-item Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale. Covariates included baseline demographics (age and gender), SES (education and income), and health [chronic medical conditions (CMCs), self-rated health (SRH), and body mass index (BMI)] measured at 1986. Race (Black versus White) was the focal moderator. We ran a series of Cox proportional hazard models in the pooled sample and also stratified by race. In the pooled sample, higher depressive symptoms at baseline were associated with higher risk of all-cause mortality except when the CMC, SRH, and BMI were added to the model. In this later model, race interacted with baseline depressive symptoms, suggesting a larger effect of depressive symptoms on mortality among Whites compared to Blacks. Among Whites, depressive symptoms were associated with increased risk of mortality, after controlling for SES but not after controlling for health (CMC, SRH, and BMI). Among Blacks, depressive symptoms were not associated with mortality before health was introduced to the model. After controlling for health, baseline depressive symptoms showed an inverse association with all-cause mortality among Blacks. Although the effect of

  1. Body adiposity index and all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moliner-Urdiales, Diego; Artero, Enrique G; Lee, Duck-chul; España-Romero, Vanesa; Sui, Xuemei; Blair, Steven N

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association of body adiposity index (BAI) with all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality risk. Design and Methods The current analysis comprised 19 756 adult men who enrolled in the Aerobics Centre Longitudinal Study and completed a baseline examination during 1988-2002. All-cause and CVD mortality was registered till December 31, 2003. Results During an average follow-up of 8.3 years (163 844 man-years), 353 deaths occurred (101 CVD deaths). Age- and examination year-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for all-cause mortality risk were higher for men with high values of BMI (HR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.19–2.23), waist circumference (1.55, 1.22-1.96) and percentage of body fat (%BF) (1.36, 1.04-1.31), but not for men with high values of BAI (1.28, 0.98-1.66). The HRs for CVD mortality risks were higher for men with high values in all adiposity measures (HRs ranged from 1.73 to 2.06). Most of these associations, however, became nonsignificant after adjusting for multiple confounders including cardiorespiratory fitness. Conclusion BAI is not a better predictor of all-cause and CVD mortality risk than BMI, waist circumference or %BF. PMID:23512375

  2. Association of body mass index with all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in the elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yi Wu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the associations of body mass index (BMI with all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD, and expanded CVD mortality in the elderly. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Annual physical examination program for the elderly from 2006 to 2010. PARTICIPANTS: We included 77,541 Taipei residents aged ≥ 65 years (39,365 men and 38,176 women. MEASUREMENTS: BMI was categorized as underweight (BMI<18.5, normal weight (18.5 ≤ BMI<25, overweight (25 ≤ BMI<30, grade 1 obesity (30 ≤ BMI<35, or grade 2-3 obesity (BMI ≥ 35. Mortality was ascertained by national death files. RESULTS: Underweight (hazard ratios [HRs] of all-cause, CVD, and expanded CVD mortality: 1.92, 1.74, and 1.77, respectively, grade 2-3 obesity (HRs: 1.59, 2.36, and 2.22, respectively, older age, male sex, smoking, and high fasting blood sugar were significant predictors of mortality. Meanwhile, being married/cohabitating, higher education, alcohol consumption, more regular exercise, and high total cholesterol were inversely associated with mortality. Multivariate stratified subgroup analyses verified smokers (HRs of all-cause, CVD, and expanded CVD mortality: 3.25, 10.71, and 7.86, respectively, for grade 2-3 obesity, the high triglyceride group (HRs: 5.82, 10.99, and 14.22, respectively for underweight, and patients with 3-4 factors related to metabolic syndrome (HRs: 4.86, 12.72, and 11.42, respectively, for underweight were associated with mortality. CONCLUSION: The associations of BMI with all-cause, CVD, expanded CVD mortality in the elderly are represented by U-shaped curves, suggesting unilateral promotions or interventions in weight reduction in the elderly may be inappropriate. Heterogeneous effects of grades 1 and 2-3 obesity on mortality were observed and should be treated as different levels of obesity.

  3. Nonfermented milk and other dairy products: associations with all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tognon, Gianluca; Nilsson, Lena M; Shungin, Dmitry; Lissner, Lauren; Jansson, Jan-Håkan; Renström, Frida; Wennberg, Maria; Winkvist, Anna; Johansson, Ingegerd

    2017-06-01

    Background: A positive association between nonfermented milk intake and increased all-cause mortality was recently reported, but overall, the association between dairy intake and mortality is inconclusive. Objective: We studied associations between intake of dairy products and all-cause mortality with an emphasis on nonfermented milk and fat content. Design: A total of 103,256 adult participants (women: 51.0%) from Northern Sweden were included (7121 deaths; mean follow-up: 13.7 y). Associations between all-cause mortality and reported intakes of nonfermented milk (total or by fat content), fermented milk, cheese, and butter were tested with the use of Cox proportional hazards models that were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, education, energy intake, examination year, and physical activity. To circumvent confounding, Mendelian randomization was applied in a subsample via the lactase LCT - 13910 C/T single nucleotide polymorphism that is associated with lactose tolerance and milk intake. Results: High consumers of nonfermented milk (≥2.5 times/d) had a 32% increased hazard (HR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.18, 1.48) for all-cause mortality compared with that of subjects who consumed milk ≤1 time/wk. The corresponding value for butter was 11% (HR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.21). All nonfermented milk-fat types were independently associated with increased HRs, but compared with full-fat milk, HRs were lower in consumers of medium- and low-fat milk. Fermented milk intake (HR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.86, 0.94) and cheese intake (HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.91, 0.96) were negatively associated with mortality. Results were slightly attenuated by lifestyle adjustments but were robust in sensitivity analyses. Mortality was not significantly associated with the LCT -13910 C/T genotype in the smaller subsample. The amount and type of milk intake was associated with lifestyle variables. Conclusions: In the present Swedish cohort study, intakes of nonfermented milk and butter are

  4. Race, depressive symptoms, and all-cause mortality in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin eAssari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Despite the well-established association between baseline depressive symptoms and risk of all cause-mortality, limited information exists on racial differences in the residual effects of baseline depressive symptoms above and beyond socio-economic status (SES and physical health on this link. The current study compared Blacks and Whites for the residual effects of depressive symptoms over SES and health on risk of long-term all-cause mortality in the United States. Methods: Data came from the Americans’ Changing Lives Study, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort of U.S. adults with up to 25 years of follow up. The study followed 3,361 Blacks or Whites for all-cause mortality between 1986 and 2011. The main predictor of interest was baseline depressive symptoms measured at 1986 using an 11- item Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D. Covariates included baseline demographics (age and gender, SES (education and income, and health [chronic medical conditions (CMC, self-rated health, and body mass index (BMI] measured at 1986. Race (Black versus White was the focal moderator. We ran a series of Cox proportional hazard models, in the pooled sample and also stratified by race. Results: In the pooled sample, higher depressive symptoms at baseline were associated with higher risk of all-cause mortality except when the CMC, SRH, and BMI were added to the model. In this later model, race interacted with baseline depressive symptoms, suggesting a larger effect of depressive symptoms on mortality among Whites compared to Blacks. Among Whites, depressive symptoms were associated with increased risk of mortality, after controlling for SES, but not after controlling for health (CMC, SRH and BMI as well. Among Blacks, depressive symptoms were not associated with mortality before that health was introduced to the model. After controlling for health, baseline depressive symptoms showed an inverse association with all-cause

  5. Increased all-cause mortality with use of psychotropic medication in dementia patients and controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Baandrup, Lone; Ibsen, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate all-cause mortality of middle-aged and elderly subjects diagnosed with dementia and treated with psychotropic drugs as compared with controls subjects. Using data from the Danish National Patient Registry, n=26,821 adults with a diagnosis of dementia were included. They were...... compared with 44,286 control subjects with a minimum follow-up of four years and matched on age, gender, marital status, and community location. Information about psychotropic medication use (benzodiazepines, antidepressants, antipsychotics) was obtained from the Danish Medicinal Product Statistics. All......-cause mortality was higher in patients with dementia as compared to control subjects. Mortality hazard ratios were increased for subjects prescribed serotonergic antidepressant drugs (respectively, HR=1.355 (SD=0.023), P=0.001 in patients; HR=1.808 (0.033), P

  6. The combined effects of healthy lifestyle behaviors on all-cause mortality: The Golestan Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekshah, Akbar Fazel-tabar; Zaroudi, Marsa; Etemadi, Arash; Islami, Farhad; Sepanlou, Sadaf; Sharafkhah, Maryam; Keshtkar, Abbas-Ali; Khademi, Hooman; Poustchi, Hossein; Hekmatdoost, Azita; Pourshams, Akram; Sani, Akbar Feiz; Jafari, Elham; Kamangar, Farin; Dawsey, Sanford M; Abnet, Christian C.; Pharoah, Paul D; Berennan, Paul J; Boffetta, Paolo; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2018-01-01

    Background Most studies that have assessed the association between combined lifestyle factors and mortality outcomes have been conducted in populations of developed countries. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the association between combined lifestyle scores and risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for the first time among Iranian adults. Methods The study population included 50,045 Iranians, 40–75 years of age, who were enrolled in the Golestan Cohort Study, between 2004 and 2008. The lifestyle risk factors used in this study included cigarette smoking, physical inactivity, and Alternative Healthy Eating Index. The lifestyle score ranged from zero (non-healthy) to 3 (most healthy) points. From the study baseline up to analysis, a total of 4691 mortality cases were recorded. Participants with chronic diseases at baseline, outlier reports of calorie intake, missing data, and body mass index of less than 18.5 were excluded from the analyses. Cox regression models were fitted to establish the association between combined lifestyle scores and mortality outcomes. Results After implementing the exclusion criteria, data from 40,708 participants were included in analyses. During 8.08 years of follow-up, 3,039 cases of death due to all causes were recorded. The adjusted hazard ratio of healthy life style score, compared with non-healthy lifestyle score, was 0.68(95% CI: 0.54, 0.86) for all-cause mortality, 0.53(95% CI: 0.37, 0.77) for cardiovascular mortality, and 0.82(95% CI: 0.53; 1.26) for mortality due to cancer. When we excluded the first two years of follow up from the analysis, the protective association between healthy lifestyle score and cardiovascular death did not change much 0.55 (95% CI: 0.36, 0.84), but the inverse association with all-cause mortality became weaker 0.72 (95% CI: 0.55, 0.94), and the association with cancer mortality was non-significant 0.92 (95% CI: 0.58, 1.48). In the gender-stratified analysis, we found an inverse

  7. Association of loneliness with all-cause mortality: A meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Alejandra Rico-Uribe

    Full Text Available Loneliness has social and health implications. The aim of this article is to evaluate the association of loneliness with all-cause mortality.Pubmed, PsycINFO, CINAHL and Scopus databases were searched through June 2016 for published articles that measured loneliness and mortality. The main characteristics and the effect size values of each article were extracted. Moreover, an evaluation of the quality of the articles included was also carried out. A meta-analysis was performed firstly with all the included articles and secondly separating by gender, using a random effects model.A total of 35 articles involving 77220 participants were included in the systematic review. Loneliness is a risk factor for all-cause mortality [pooled HR = 1.22, 95% CI = (1.10, 1.35, p < 0.001] for both genders together, and for women [pooled HR = 1.26, 95% CI = (1.07, 1.48; p = 0.005] and men [pooled HR = 1.44; 95% CI = (1.19, 1.76; p < 0.001] separately.Loneliness shows a harmful effect for all-cause mortality and this effect is slightly stronger in men than in women. Moreover, the impact of loneliness was independent from the quality evaluation of each article and the effect of depression.

  8. Association of loneliness with all-cause mortality: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Uribe, Laura Alejandra; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Martín-María, Natalia; Cabello, María; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis; Miret, Marta

    2018-01-01

    Loneliness has social and health implications. The aim of this article is to evaluate the association of loneliness with all-cause mortality. Pubmed, PsycINFO, CINAHL and Scopus databases were searched through June 2016 for published articles that measured loneliness and mortality. The main characteristics and the effect size values of each article were extracted. Moreover, an evaluation of the quality of the articles included was also carried out. A meta-analysis was performed firstly with all the included articles and secondly separating by gender, using a random effects model. A total of 35 articles involving 77220 participants were included in the systematic review. Loneliness is a risk factor for all-cause mortality [pooled HR = 1.22, 95% CI = (1.10, 1.35), p Loneliness shows a harmful effect for all-cause mortality and this effect is slightly stronger in men than in women. Moreover, the impact of loneliness was independent from the quality evaluation of each article and the effect of depression.

  9. Associations of Muscle Mass and Strength with All-Cause Mortality among US Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Xia, Jin; Zhang, X I; Gathirua-Mwangi, Wambui Grace; Guo, Jianjun; Li, Yufeng; McKenzie, Steve; Song, Yiqing

    2018-03-01

    Recent studies suggested that muscle mass and muscle strength may independently or synergistically affect aging-related health outcomes in older adults; however, prospective data on mortality in the general population are sparse. We aimed to prospectively examine individual and joint associations of low muscle mass and low muscle strength with all-cause mortality in a nationally representative sample. This study included 4449 participants age 50 yr and older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999 to 2002 with public use 2011 linked mortality files. Weighted multivariable logistic regression models were adjusted for age, sex, race, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol use, education, leisure time physical activity, sedentary time, and comorbid diseases. Overall, the prevalence of low muscle mass was 23.1% defined by appendicular lean mass (ALM) and 17.0% defined by ALM/BMI, and the prevalence of low muscle strength was 19.4%. In the joint analyses, all-cause mortality was significantly higher among individuals with low muscle strength, whether they had low muscle mass (odds ratio [OR], 2.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27-3.24 for ALM; OR, 2.53; 95% CI, 1.64-3.88 for ALM/BMI) or not (OR, 2.66; 95% CI, 1.53-4.62 for ALM; OR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.29-3.64 for ALM/BMI). In addition, the significant associations between low muscle strength and all-cause mortality persisted across different levels of metabolic syndrome, sedentary time, and LTPA. Low muscle strength was independently associated with elevated risk of all-cause mortality, regardless of muscle mass, metabolic syndrome, sedentary time, or LTPA among US older adults, indicating the importance of muscle strength in predicting aging-related health outcomes in older adults.

  10. Depression and markers of inflammation as predictors of all-cause mortality in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommersteeg, Paula M C; Schoemaker, Regien G; Naudé, Petrus J W; Eisel, Ulrich L M; Garrelds, Ingrid M; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Westerhuis, Bert W J J M; Kop, Willem J; Denollet, Johan

    2016-10-01

    In patients with heart failure (HF) depressive symptoms have been associated with mortality, as well as biological risk factors, including inflammation, nitric oxide (NO) regulation, and oxidative stress. We investigated the joint predictive value of depressive symptoms, inflammation and NO regulation on all-cause mortality in patients with HF, adjusted for covariates. Serum levels of inflammation (TNFα, sTNFr1, sTNFr2, IL-6, hsCRP, NGAL), NO regulation (l-arginine, ADMA, and SDMA), and oxidative stress (isoprostane 8-Epi Prostaglandin F2 Alpha) were measured in 104 patients with HF (mean age 65.7±SD 8.4years, 28% women). Depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI) were measured as continuous total, cognitive, and somatic symptoms, as well as categorized presence of mild/moderate depression (cut-off BDI ⩾10). In Cox proportional hazard models we adjusted for age, sex, poor exercise tolerance and comorbidity. After on average 6.1years follow-up (SD=2.9, range 0.4-9.2), 49 patients died. Total and somatic depressive symptoms, mild/moderate depression, higher NGAL, sTNFr2, IL-6, hsCRP and SDMA serum levels were significantly associated with a higher all-cause mortality rate, adjusted for covariates. The findings were most consistent for CRP level and somatic depressive symptoms. When combined, both depressive symptoms and markers of inflammation and NO regulation remained significantly associated with all-cause mortality. These associations were not confounded by age, sex, poor exercise tolerance and comorbidity. Depressive symptoms and markers of inflammation and NO regulation are codominant risk factors for all-cause mortality in heart failure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Severe Hypoglycemia and Cardiovascular or All-Cause Mortality in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon-Ah Cha

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWe investigated the association between severe hypoglycemia (SH and the risk of cardiovascular (CV or all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes.MethodsThe study included 1,260 patients aged 25 to 75 years with type 2 diabetes from the Vincent Type 2 Diabetes Resgistry (VDR, who consecutively enrolled (n=1,260 from January 2000 to December 2010 and were followed up until May 2015 with a median follow-up time of 10.4 years. Primary outcomes were death from any cause or CV death. We investigated the association between the CV or all-cause mortality and various covariates using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis.ResultsAmong the 906 participants (71.9% who completed follow-up, 85 patients (9.4% had at least one episode of SH, and 86 patients (9.5% died (9.1 per 1,000 patient-years. Patients who had died were older, had a longer duration of diabetes and hypertension, received more insulin, and had more diabetic microvascular complications at baseline, as compared with surviving patients. The experience of SH was significantly associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 2.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39 to 5.02; P=0.003 and CV mortality (HR, 6.34; 95% CI, 2.02 to 19.87; P=0.002 after adjusting for sex, age, diabetic duration, hypertension, mean glycosylated hemoglobin levels, diabetic nephropathy, lipid profiles, and insulin use.ConclusionWe found a strong association between SH and increased risk of all-cause and CV mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  12. Too much sitting and all-cause mortality: is there a causal link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart J. H. Biddle

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sedentary behaviours (time spent sitting, with low energy expenditure are associated with deleterious health outcomes, including all-cause mortality. Whether this association can be considered causal has yet to be established. Using systematic reviews and primary studies from those reviews, we drew upon Bradford Hill’s criteria to consider the likelihood that sedentary behaviour in epidemiological studies is likely to be causally related to all-cause (premature mortality. Methods Searches for systematic reviews on sedentary behaviours and all-cause mortality yielded 386 records which, when judged against eligibility criteria, left eight reviews (addressing 17 primary studies for analysis. Exposure measures included self-reported total sitting time, TV viewing time, and screen time. Studies included comparisons of a low-sedentary reference group with several higher sedentary categories, or compared the highest versus lowest sedentary behaviour groups. We employed four Bradford Hill criteria: strength of association, consistency, temporality, and dose–response. Evidence supporting causality at the level of each systematic review and primary study was judged using a traffic light system depicting green for causal evidence, amber for mixed or inconclusive evidence, and red for no evidence for causality (either evidence of no effect or no evidence reported. Results The eight systematic reviews showed evidence for consistency (7 green and temporality (6 green, and some evidence for strength of association (4 green. There was no evidence for a dose–response relationship (5 red. Five reviews were rated green overall. Twelve (67 % of the primary studies were rated green, with evidence for strength and temporality. Conclusions There is reasonable evidence for a likely causal relationship between sedentary behaviour and all-cause mortality based on the epidemiological criteria of strength of association, consistency of effect

  13. Vitamin D status and incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Pisinger, Charlotta

    2013-01-01

    Low vitamin D status has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality primarily in selected groups, smaller studies, or with self-reported vitamin D intake. We investigated the association of serum vitamin D status with the incidence of a registry-based diagnosis of ischemic...... heart disease (IHD), stroke, and all-cause mortality in a large sample of the general population. A total of 9,146 individuals from the two population-based studies, Monica10 and Inter99, were included. Measurements of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D at baseline were carried out using the IDS ISYS immunoassay...

  14. Elevated C-reactive protein, depression, somatic diseases, and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Orsted, David Dynnes; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne

    2014-01-01

    of cancer (p = .002), ischemic heart disease (p = 4 × 10(-99)), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (p = 6 × 10(-86)), and all-cause mortality (p = .001) examined in the same individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated CRP was associated with increased risk of depression in individuals in the general population......BACKGROUND: Elevated levels of plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) have been associated with many diseases including depression, but it remains unclear whether this association is causal. We tested the hypothesis that CRP is causally associated with depression, and compared these results to those...... for cancer, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and all-cause mortality. METHODS: We performed prospective and instrumental variable analyses using plasma CRP levels and four CRP genotypes on 78,809 randomly selected 20- to 100-year-old men and women from the Danish general...

  15. Comfort Eating and All-Cause Mortality in the US Health and Retirement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Jenna R; Mason, Ashley E; Puterman, Eli; Tomiyama, A Janet

    2017-12-14

    Comfort eating is a prevalent behavior. Prior research shows that comfort eating is associated with reduced stress responses and increased metabolic risk across adolescence, young adulthood, and middle adulthood. The purpose of the current research was to test if comfort eating prospectively predicted all-cause mortality in older adulthood. The US Health and Retirement Study is an ongoing, nationally representative, longitudinal study of older adults. The final sample for the present study (N = 1445) included participants randomly selected to report how often they comfort ate. Comfort eating data were collected in 2008 and all-cause mortality data were collected in 2014. Participants also reported how often they consumed high-fat/sugar food as well as their height and weight in 2008. For each 1-unit increase in comfort eating, the expected odds of all-cause mortality (n = 255 deceased) decreased by 14%, OR = 0.86, p = 0.048, 95% CI [0.74, 0.99]. This analysis statistically accounted for other predictors of mortality in the sample including age, biological sex, race, highest educational degree attained, moderate and vigorous exercise, smoking, and cumulative illness. High-fat/sugar intake did not mediate (or diminish) the association but body mass index did. Comfort eating-irrespective of consuming high-fat/sugar food-may be associated with reduced mortality in older adults because it may promote greater body mass, and greater body mass is associated with lower risk of mortality in nationally representative samples. Interventionists might consider both beneficial and detrimental aspects of comfort eating across the lifespan.

  16. Body mass index and all-cause mortality among older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To examine the association between baseline body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and all-cause mortality in a well-characterized cohort of older persons. Methods: The association between BMI (both as a categorical and continuous variable) and all-cause mortality was investigated using 4,565 Geisi...

  17. Statin use and all-cause and cancer mortality: BioBank Japan cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Yokomichi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Statins are the first-line agents used to treat patients with high serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, thus reducing the risk of death from arterial sclerotic cardiovascular disease; however, little is known about the effects of non-statin pharmacological interventions on mortality as well as about the potential protective effects of statin use against cancer death. This work aimed to compare all-cause and cancer mortality among patients with hyperlipidaemia who did and did not receive statin treatment. Methods: Between 2003 and 2007 fiscal years, we recruited Japanese patients diagnosed with hyperlipidaemia from 66 hospitals. Patients in our cohort were followed up for a maximum of 12 years to observe the causes of death. Kaplan–Meier estimates from the baseline were used to compare the mortality of patients based on the administered medicine. All-cause mortality were compared among patients with/without administration of statins and other agents; any-organ and colorectal cancer mortality were compared between patients with/without administration of statins. Results: Our cohort included 41,930 patients with mean ages of 64–66 years and mean body mass indices of 24–25 kg/m2. Patients who received statin monotherapy and were treated with lifestyle modification exhibited nearly identical survival curves, whereas statin use represented a non-significant but potentially protective effect against colorectal cancer-related mortality. The lowest mortality in this cohort was associated with resin monotherapy. Conclusions: Mortality rate has been similar for patients treated with statin monotherapy and lifestyle modification. Statin monotherapy could potentially reduce any-organ- and colorectal cancer-related mortality.

  18. Heat-related mortality in India: excess all-cause mortality associated with the 2010 Ahmedabad heat wave.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulrez Shah Azhar

    Full Text Available In the recent past, spells of extreme heat associated with appreciable mortality have been documented in developed countries, including North America and Europe. However, far fewer research reports are available from developing countries or specific cities in South Asia. In May 2010, Ahmedabad, India, faced a heat wave where the temperatures reached a high of 46.8 °C with an apparent increase in mortality. The purpose of this study is to characterize the heat wave impact and assess the associated excess mortality.We conducted an analysis of all-cause mortality associated with a May 2010 heat wave in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India, to determine whether extreme heat leads to excess mortality. Counts of all-cause deaths from May 1-31, 2010 were compared with the mean of counts from temporally matched periods in May 2009 and 2011 to calculate excess mortality. Other analyses included a 7-day moving average, mortality rate ratio analysis, and relationship between daily maximum temperature and daily all-cause death counts over the entire year of 2010, using month-wise correlations.The May 2010 heat wave was associated with significant excess all-cause mortality. 4,462 all-cause deaths occurred, comprising an excess of 1,344 all-cause deaths, an estimated 43.1% increase when compared to the reference period (3,118 deaths. In monthly pair-wise comparisons for 2010, we found high correlations between mortality and daily maximum temperature during the locally hottest "summer" months of April (r = 0.69, p<0.001, May (r = 0.77, p<0.001, and June (r = 0.39, p<0.05. During a period of more intense heat (May 19-25, 2010, mortality rate ratios were 1.76 [95% CI 1.67-1.83, p<0.001] and 2.12 [95% CI 2.03-2.21] applying reference periods (May 12-18, 2010 from various years.The May 2010 heat wave in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India had a substantial effect on all-cause excess mortality, even in this city where hot temperatures prevail through much of April-June.

  19. Daily sitting time and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine Y Chau

    Full Text Available To quantify the association between daily total sitting and all-cause mortality risk and to examine dose-response relationships with and without adjustment for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity.Studies published from 1989 to January 2013 were identified via searches of multiple databases, reference lists of systematic reviews on sitting and health, and from authors' personal literature databases. We included prospective cohort studies that had total daily sitting time as a quantitative exposure variable, all-cause mortality as the outcome and reported estimates of relative risk, or odds ratios or hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Two authors independently extracted the data and summary estimates of associations were computed using random effects models.Six studies were included, involving data from 595,086 adults and 29,162 deaths over 3,565,569 person-years of follow-up. Study participants were mainly female, middle-aged or older adults from high-income countries; mean study quality score was 12/15 points. Associations between daily total sitting time and all-cause mortality were not linear. With physical activity adjustment, the spline model of best fit had dose-response HRs of 1.00 (95% CI: 0.98-1.03, 1.02 (95% CI: 0.99-1.05 and 1.05 (95% CI: 1.02-1.08 for every 1-hour increase in sitting time in intervals between 0-3, >3-7 and >7 h/day total sitting, respectively. This model estimated a 34% higher mortality risk for adults sitting 10 h/day, after taking physical activity into account. The overall weighted population attributable fraction for all-cause mortality for total daily sitting time was 5.9%, after adjusting for physical activity.Higher amounts of daily total sitting time are associated with greater risk of all-cause mortality and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity appears to attenuate the hazardous association. These findings provide a starting point for identifying a threshold on which to base clinical and public

  20. Self-reported sleep duration, all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronholm, Erkki; Laatikainen, Tiina; Peltonen, Markku; Sippola, Risto; Partonen, Timo

    2011-03-01

    The U-shaped association of self-reported sleep duration with all-cause mortality is generally accepted. Findings on cardiovascular (CVD) mortality and morbidity are inconsistent. We aimed to further clarify the associations of the self-reported sleep duration with CVD mortality and morbidity. In two population based surveys in 1972 and 1977 the levels of coronary risk factors in Finland and habitual sleep duration were measured; 25,025 individuals were followed-up until 2006 by the national register data. The outcome variables were death (for any reason), CVD death, and non-fatal CVD event (non-fatal myocardial infarction or stroke). Participants with former non-fatal CVD event at baseline were excluded from CVD analyses, and socio-demographic and health-related confounders were considered in the final Cox proportional hazard models for both genders. The U-shaped association of total mortality with self-reported sleep duration was confirmed in both genders. The association of CVD mortality with self-reported sleep duration was independent of pertinent cardiovascular risk factors in women. The highest CVD mortality risk was found in both extreme ends of sleep duration distribution (⩽5 and ⩾10h sleepers). Sleep duration is an independent risk factor for CVD mortality and morbidity in women but not in men. The highest CVD mortality risk is associated with the extreme ends of sleep duration distribution. Thus, in epidemiological studies, combining adjacent (6 and 9h) sleep duration groups with the extreme groups may partly mask the mortality risks, especially in the long run. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Excessive blood pressure increase with exercise and risk of all-cause mortality and cardiac events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzas-Mosquera, María C; Bouzas-Mosquera, Alberto; Peteiro, Jesús

    2016-10-01

    The association of an excessive blood pressure increase with exercise (EBPIE) on cardiovascular outcomes remains controversial. We sought to assess its impact on the risk of all-cause mortality and major cardiac events in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) referred for stress testing. Exercise echocardiography was performed in 10 047 patients with known or suspected CAD. An EBPIE was defined as an increase in systolic blood pressure with exercise ≥ 80 mmHg. The endpoints were all-cause mortality and major cardiac events (MACE), including cardiac death or nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI). Overall, 573 patients exhibited an EBPIE during the tests. Over a mean follow-up of 4·8 years, there were 1950 deaths (including 725 cardiac deaths), 1477 MI and 1900 MACE. The cumulative 10-year rates of all-cause mortality, cardiac death, nonfatal MI and MACE were 32·9%, 13·1%, 26·9% and 33% in patients who did not develop an EBPIE vs. 18·9%, 4·7%, 17·5% and 20·7% in those experiencing an EBPIE, respectively (P mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 0·73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0·59-0·91, P = 0·004), cardiac death (HR 0·67, 95% CI 0·46-0·98, P = 0·04), MI (HR 0·67, 95% CI 0·52-0·86, P = 0·002) and MACE (HR 0·69, 95% CI 0·56-0·86, P = 0·001). An EBPIE was associated with a significantly lower risk of mortality and MACE in patients with known or suspected CAD referred for stress testing. © 2016 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  2. The gamma gap predicts 4-year all-cause mortality among nonagenarians and centenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Xie, Linlin; Liu, Xiu; Hao, Qiukui; Jiang, Jiaojiao; Dong, Birong

    2018-01-18

    Recent studies have revealed the prognostic role of the gamma gap, the total serum proteins concentration minus the albumin concentration, for predicting all-cause mortality among adults. This study aims to investigate the relationship between the gamma gap and all-cause mortality among nonagenarians and centenarians via a secondary data analysis of a prospective observational study. The analysis included 801 participants (260 men and 541 women, mean age: 93.7 ± 3.5 years), 46 of which were lost at the 4-year follow-up. The mean gamma gap was 2.7 ± 0.5 g/dl. After adjusting for relevant confounders, the gamma gap was significantly associated with 4-year all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] per 1-SD = 1.22, 95% confidential interval [CI]: 1.12-1.78). Using different cut-off points, the elevated gamma gap could be defined as ≥2.9, 3.0, 3.1, or 3.2 g/dl. The relevant HRs and 95% CIs of the elevated gamma gap for predicting mortality were 1.27 (1.12-1.90), 1.29 (1.03-1.78), 1.21 (1.23-1.66), and 1.26 (1.09-1.69), respectively. In conclusion, the gamma gap is an independent prognostic factor for long-term mortality in nonagenarians and centenarians. A value greater than or equal to 3.1 g/dl may define an elevated gamma gap, but further studies are required.

  3. Overweight Without Central Obesity, Cardiovascular Risk, and All-Cause Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin; Liu, Chen; Chen, Yili; He, Jiangui; Dong, Yugang

    2018-04-12

    To assess the association of overweight without central obesity with risks of mortality. We included 14,299 participants in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (from October 18, 1988, through October 15, 1994). According to their body mass index and waist circumference, participants were categorized into 7 anthropometric groups. Logistic regression models were used to assess the relation of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, or hypercholesterolemia) and 10-year cardiovascular risk to anthropometric groups. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the risk of all-cause mortality, and competing-risks regression models were used for calculating cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality. Compared with those with normal body mass index and waist circumference, overweight men without central obesity were more likely to have all 3 cardiovascular risk factors and a high cardiovascular risk, whereas women in this anthropometric group were more likely to have hypercholesterolemia. In proportional hazards models, overweight without central obesity was associated with lower all-cause mortality among men in the population with cardiovascular risk factors (hazard ratio, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.56-0.89; P=.004) and the general population (hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.60-0.87; P=.001), whereas results of these comparisons among women were not significant (P>.05). In competing risk analyses, overweight men without central obesity had a lower risk of noncardiovascular mortality, but not cardiovascular mortality. Although overweight without central obesity was associated with cardiovascular risk factors and a high cardiovascular risk among men, men in this anthropometric group had a lower mortality risk. Copyright © 2018 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. All-Cause Mortality Risk of Metabolically Healthy Obese Individuals in NHANES III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Durward

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mortality risk across metabolic health-by-BMI categories in NHANES-III was examined. Metabolic health was defined as: (1 homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR <2.5; (2 ≤2 Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III metabolic syndrome criteria; (3 combined definition using ≤1 of the following: HOMA-IR ≥1.95 (or diabetes medications, triglycerides ≥1.7 mmol/L, HDL-C <1.04 mmol/L (males or <1.30 mmol/L (females, LDL-C ≥2.6 mmol/L, and total cholesterol ≥5.2 mmol/L (or cholesterol-lowering medications. Hazard ratios (HR for all-cause mortality were estimated with Cox regression models. Nonpregnant women and men were included (n=4373, mean ± SD, age 37.1±10.9 years, BMI 27.3±5.8 kg/m2, 49.4% female. Only 40 of 1160 obese individuals were identified as MHO by all definitions. MHO groups had superior levels of clinical risk factors compared to unhealthy individuals but inferior levels compared to healthy lean groups. There was increased risk of all-cause mortality in metabolically unhealthy obese participants regardless of definition (HOMA-IR HR 2.07 (CI 1.3–3.4, P<0.01; ATP-III HR 1.98 (CI 1.4–2.9, P<0.001; combined definition HR 2.19 (CI 1.3–3.8, P<0.01. MHO participants were not significantly different from healthy lean individuals by any definition. While MHO individuals are not at significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality, their clinical risk profile is worse than that of metabolically healthy lean individuals.

  5. Functional status and all-cause mortality in serious mental illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D Hayes

    Full Text Available Serious mental illness can affect many aspects of an individual's ability to function in daily life. The aim of this investigation was to determine if the environmental and functional status of people with serious mental illness contribute to the high mortality risk observed in this patient group.We identified cases of schizophrenia, schizoaffective and bipolar disorder aged ≥ 15 years in a large secondary mental healthcare case register linked to national mortality tracing. We modelled the effect of activities of daily living (ADLs, living conditions, occupational and recreational activities and relationship factors (Health of the Nation Outcome Scale [HoNOS] subscales on all-cause mortality over a 4-year observation period (2007-10 using Cox regression.We identified 6,880 SMI cases (242 deaths in the observation period. ADL impairment was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (adjusted HR 1.9; 95% CI 1.3-2.8; p = 0.001, p for trend across ADL categories = 0.001 after controlling for a broad range of covariates (including demographic factors, physical health, mental health symptoms and behaviours, socio-economic status and mental health service contact. No associations were found for the other three exposures. Stratification by age indicated that ADLs were most strongly associated with mortality in the youngest (15 to <35 years and oldest (≥ 55 years groups.Functional impairment in people with serious mental illness diagnoses is a marker of increased mortality risk, possibly in younger age groups as a marker of negative symptomatology.

  6. Wound healing and all-cause mortality in 958 wound patients treated in home care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarchi, Kian; Martinussen, Torben; Jemec, Gregor B. E.

    2015-01-01

    healing, death, or the end of follow-up on December 2012. In total, 958 consecutive patients received wound care by home-care nurses, corresponding to a 1-year prevalence of 1.2% of the total population in the district. During the study, wound healing was achieved in 511 (53.3%), whereas 90 (9.4%) died...... to investigate wound healing and all-cause mortality associated with different types of skin wounds. Consecutive skin wound patients who received wound care by home-care nurses from January 2010 to December 2011 in a district in Eastern Denmark were included in this study. Patients were followed until wound...

  7. Serum Parathyroid Hormone in Relation to All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality: The Hoorn Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ballegooijen, A.J.; Reinders, I.; Visser, M.; Dekker, J.M.; Nijpels, G.; Stehouwer, C.D.; Pilz, S.; Brouwer, I.A.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Higher PTH concentrations have been associated with fatal cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), but data in the general population are scarce. Objective: We investigated whether higher PTH concentrations are prospectively associated with all-cause and CVD mortality. Design, Setting, Participants:

  8. Alcohol Consumption and Risk of All-Cause and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin K. Howie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the association between consumption of alcoholic beverages and all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD mortality in a cohort of men (n=31,367. In the Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for age, year of examination, body mass index (BMI, smoking, family history of CVD, and aerobic fitness, there were no significant differences in risk of all-cause mortality across alcohol intake groups. Risk of CVD mortality was reduced 29% in quartile 1 (HR = 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.53, 0.95 and 25% in quartile 2 (HR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.58, 0.98. The amount of alcohol consumed to achieve this risk reduction was <6 drinks/week; less than the amount currently recommended. The addition of other potential confounders and effect modifiers including blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, lipid levels, and psychological variables did not affect the magnitude of association. Future research is needed to validate the current public health recommendations for alcohol consumption.

  9. Sleep duration and ischemic heart disease and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Hansen, Åse Marie; Holtermann, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    This prospective study aimed to examine if sleep duration is a risk indicator for ischemic heart disease (IHD) and all-cause mortality, and how perceived stress during work and leisure time and use of tranquilizers/hypnotics modifies the association.......This prospective study aimed to examine if sleep duration is a risk indicator for ischemic heart disease (IHD) and all-cause mortality, and how perceived stress during work and leisure time and use of tranquilizers/hypnotics modifies the association....

  10. Five Factor Model personality traits and all-cause mortality in the Edinburgh Artery Study cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Michelle D; Whiteman, Martha C; Fowkes, Gerald R; Lee, Amanda J; Allerhand, Michael; Deary, Ian J

    2009-07-01

    To examine whether personality traits are related to all-cause mortality in a general adult population in Scotland. The Edinburgh Artery Study began in 1987 to 1988 by recruiting 1592 men and women aged 55 to 74 years to be followed-up for atherosclerotic diseases. The NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) was completed by 1035 surviving participants in 1995 to 1996. Deaths from all causes were examined in relation to personality traits and social and physical risk factors for mortality. During follow-up, 242 (37.1%) men and 165 (24.6%) women died. For the whole sample, there was a 28% lower rate of all-cause mortality for each 1 SD increase in NEO-FFI openness (95% CI, 0.61-0.84) and a 18% lower rate of all-cause mortality for each 1 SD increase in NEO-FFI conscientiousness (95% CI, 0.70-0.97). In men, the risk of all-cause mortality was 0.63 (95% CI, 0.5-10.78) for a 1 SD increase in openness and 0.75 (95% CI, 0.61-0.91) for a 1 SD increase in conscientiousness. In women, none of the personality domains were significantly associated with all-cause mortality. Well fitting structural equation models in men (n = 652) showed that the relationships between conscientiousness and openness and all-cause mortality were not substantially explained by smoking, or other variables in the models. High conscientiousness and openness may be protective against all-cause mortality in men. Further investigations are needed on the mechanisms of these associations, and the influence of personality traits on specific causes of death.

  11. IGF1 as predictor of all cause mortality and cardiovascular disease in an elderly population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Mikkel; Raymond, Ilan; Kistorp, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    increases lifespan. Reduced IGF1 activity might also be associated with longevity in humans. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate if plasma IGF1 levels were associated with all cause mortality, and the development of chronic heart failure (CHF) and a major CV event. PATIENTS AND DESIGN: A population.......861). CONCLUSIONS: High IGF1 levels were independently associated with increased all cause mortality and risk of development of CHF, whereas no relation with the overall incidence of CVD was observed....

  12. Systemic inflammation predicts all-cause mortality: a glasgow inflammation outcome study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Proctor

    Full Text Available Markers of the systemic inflammatory response, including C-reactive protein and albumin (combined to form the modified Glasgow Prognostic Score, as well as neutrophil, lymphocyte and platelet counts have been shown to be prognostic of survival in patients with cancer. The aim of the present study was to examine the prognostic relationship between these markers of the systemic inflammatory response and all-cause, cancer, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular mortality in a large incidentally sampled cohort.Patients (n = 160 481 who had an incidental blood sample taken between 2000 and 2008 were studied for the prognostic value of C-reactive protein (>10mg/l, albumin (>35mg/l, neutrophil (>7.5×109/l lymphocyte and platelet counts. Also, patients (n = 52 091 sampled following the introduction of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (>3mg/l measurements were studied. A combination of these markers, to make cumulative inflammation-based scores, were investigated.In all patients (n = 160 481 C-reactive protein (>10mg/l (HR 2.71, p35mg/l (HR 3.68, p3mg/l (n = 52 091. A combination of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (>3mg/l, albumin and neutrophil count predicted all-cause (HR 7.37, p<0.001, AUC 0.723, cancer (HR 9.32, p<0.001, AUC 0.731, cardiovascular (HR 4.03, p<0.001, AUC 0.650 and cerebrovascular (HR 3.10, p<0.001, AUC 0.623 mortality.The results of the present study showed that an inflammation-based prognostic score, combining high sensitivity C-reactive protein, albumin and neutrophil count is prognostic of all-cause mortality.

  13. Excess of all-cause mortality after a fracture in type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Laguna, D; Nogues, Xavier; Abrahamsen, B

    2017-01-01

    Post-fracture mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients has been poorly studied. We report an absolute and relative excess all-cause mortality following a fracture in these patients compared to non-diabetic patients. INTRODUCTION: T2DM and osteoporotic fractures are independently asso...

  14. Vitamin C Depletion and All-Cause Mortality in Renal Transplant Recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sotomayor, C. G.; Eisenga, Michele F; Neto, Antonio W Gomes; Ozyilmaz, Akin; Gans, Rijk O B; Jong, Wilhelmina H A de; Zelle, Dorien M; Berger, Stefan P; Gaillard, Carlo A J M; Navis, Gerjan J.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin C may reduce inflammation and is inversely associated with mortality in the general population. We investigated the association of plasma vitamin C with all-cause mortality in renal transplant recipients (RTR); and whether this association would be mediated by inflammatory biomarkers.

  15. All-cause and cause-specific mortality of different migrant populations in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    U.Z. Ikram (Umar Z.); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); S. Harding (Seeromanie); G. Rey (Grégoire); R.S. Bhopal (Raj); E. Regidor (Enrique); A. Rosato (Antonio); K. Juel (Knud); K. Stronks (Karien); A.E. Kunst (Anton)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis study aimed to examine differences in all-cause mortality and main causes of death across different migrant and local-born populations living in six European countries. We used data from population and mortality registers from Denmark, England & Wales, France, Netherlands, Scotland,

  16. All-cause and cause-specific mortality of different migrant populations in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikram, Umar Z.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Harding, Seeromanie; Rey, Grégoire; Bhopal, Raj S.; Regidor, Enrique; Rosato, Michael; Juel, Knud; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine differences in all-cause mortality and main causes of death across different migrant and local-born populations living in six European countries. We used data from population and mortality registers from Denmark, England & Wales, France, Netherlands, Scotland, and Spain.

  17. The Association of Reproductive Hormone Levels and All-Cause, Cancer, and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard Holmboe, Stine; Vradi, Eleni; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2015-01-01

    testosterone in relation to CVD mortality, however insignificant. CONCLUSION: The observed positive association of LH and LH/T, but not testosterone, with all-cause mortality suggests that a compensated impaired Leydig cell function may be a risk factor for death by all causes in men. Our findings underpin...... the clinical importance of including LH measurement in the diagnostic work-up of male patients seeking help for possible androgen insufficiency....

  18. Association of flavonoid-rich foods and flavonoids with risk of all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Kerry L; Jensen, Majken K; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Eliassen, A Heather; Cassidy, Aedín; Rimm, Eric B

    2017-05-01

    Flavonoids are bioactive compounds found in foods such as tea, red wine, fruits and vegetables. Higher intakes of specific flavonoids, and flavonoid-rich foods, have been linked to reduced mortality from specific vascular diseases and cancers. However, the importance of flavonoid-rich foods, and flavonoids, in preventing all-cause mortality remains uncertain. As such, we examined the association of intake of flavonoid-rich foods and flavonoids with subsequent mortality among 93 145 young and middle-aged women in the Nurses' Health Study II. During 1 838 946 person-years of follow-up, 1808 participants died. When compared with non-consumers, frequent consumers of red wine, tea, peppers, blueberries and strawberries were at reduced risk of all-cause mortality (Pflavonoid intake were at reduced risk of all-cause mortality in the age-adjusted model; 0·81 (95 % CI 0·71, 0·93). However, this association was attenuated following multivariable adjustment; 0·92 (95 % CI 0·80, 1·06). Similar results were observed for consumption of flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins. Flavonols, flavanones and flavones were not associated with all-cause mortality in any model. Despite null associations at the compound level and select foods, higher consumption of red wine, tea, peppers, blueberries and strawberries, was associated with reduced risk of total and cause-specific mortality. These findings support the rationale for making food-based dietary recommendations.

  19. Plasma Soluble CD163 Level Independently Predicts All-Cause Mortality in HIV-1-Infected Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Troels Bygum; Ertner, Gideon; Petersen, Janne

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: CD163, a monocyte- and macrophage-specific scavenger receptor, is shed as soluble CD163 (sCD163) during the proinflammatory response. Here, we assessed the association between plasma sCD163 levels and progression to AIDS and all-cause mortality among individuals infected with human.......35 [95% CI, 1.13-1.63], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Plasma sCD163 was an independent marker of all-cause mortality in a cohort of HIV-infected individuals, suggesting that monocyte/macrophage activation may play a role in HIV pathogenesis and be a target of intervention....

  20. Depressive symptoms and all-cause mortality in people with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nefs, Giesje; Pop, Victor J M; Denollet, Johan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression has been associated with increased all-cause mortality in people with type 2 diabetes. AIMS: To test whether anhedonia, dysphoria and anxiety are differentially associated with all-cause mortality and examine symptom-specific behavioural or pathophysiological mechanisms....... METHOD: A total of 1465 people completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in 2005 and were followed until death or 31 December 2010. Cox regression analyses compared survival time for people with a low v. high baseline dysphoria/anhedonia/anxiety score and identified mediating mechanisms. RESULTS...

  1. All-cause and cause-specific mortality of different migrant populations in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram, Umar Z; Mackenbach, Johan P; Harding, Seeromanie; Rey, Grégoire; Bhopal, Raj S; Regidor, Enrique; Rosato, Michael; Juel, Knud; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to examine differences in all-cause mortality and main causes of death across different migrant and local-born populations living in six European countries. We used data from population and mortality registers from Denmark, England & Wales, France, Netherlands, Scotland, and Spain. We calculated age-standardized mortality rates for men and women aged 0-69 years. Country-specific data were pooled to assess weighted mortality rate ratios (MRRs) using Poisson regression. Analyses were stratified by age group, country of destination, and main cause of death. In six countries combined, all-cause mortality was lower for men and women from East Asia (MRRs 0.66; 95 % confidence interval 0.62-0.71 and 0.76; 0.69-0.82, respectively), and Other Latin America (0.44; 0.42-0.46 and 0.56; 0.54-0.59, respectively) than local-born populations. Mortality rates were similar for those from Turkey. All-cause mortality was higher in men and women from North Africa (1.09; 1.08-1.11 and 1.19; 1.17-1.22, respectively) and Eastern Europe (1.30; 1.27-1.33 and 1.05; 1.01-1.08, respectively), and women from Sub-Saharan Africa (1.34; 1.30-1.38). The pattern differed by age group and country of destination. Most migrants had higher mortality due to infectious diseases and homicide while cancer mortality and suicide were lower. CVD mortality differed by migrant population. To conclude, mortality patterns varied across migrant populations in European countries. Future research should focus both on migrant populations with favourable and less favourable mortality pattern, in order to understand this heterogeneity and to drive policy at the European level.

  2. Dairy Food Intake and All-Cause, Cardiovascular Disease, and Cancer Mortality: The Golestan Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farvid, Maryam S; Malekshah, Akbar F; Pourshams, Akram; Poustchi, Hossein; Sepanlou, Sadaf G; Sharafkhah, Maryam; Khoshnia, Masoud; Farvid, Mojtaba; Abnet, Christian C; Kamangar, Farin; Dawsey, Sanford M; Brennan, Paul; Pharoah, Paul D; Boffetta, Paolo; Willett, Walter C; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2017-04-15

    We investigated the association between dairy product consumption and all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer mortality in the Golestan Cohort Study, a prospective cohort study launched in January 2004 in Golestan Province, northeastern Iran. A total of 42,403 men and women participated in the study and completed a diet questionnaire at enrollment. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. We documented 3,291 deaths (1,467 from CVD and 859 from cancer) during 11 years of follow-up (2004-2015). The highest quintile of total dairy product consumption (versus the lowest) was associated with 19% lower all-cause mortality risk (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72, 0.91; Ptrend = 0.006) and 28% lower CVD mortality risk (HR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.60, 0.86; Ptrend = 0.005). High consumption of low-fat dairy food was associated with lower risk of all-cause (HR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.73, 0.94; Ptrend = 0.002) and CVD (HR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.61, 0.89; Ptrend = 0.001) mortality. We noted 11% lower all-cause mortality and 16% lower CVD mortality risk with high yogurt intake. Cheese intake was associated with 16% lower all-cause mortality and 26% lower CVD mortality risk. Higher intake of high-fat dairy food and milk was not associated with all-cause or CVD mortality. Neither intake of individual dairy products nor intake of total dairy products was significantly associated with overall cancer mortality. High consumption of dairy products, especially yogurt and cheese, may reduce the risk of overall and CVD mortality. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Body fat and fat-free mass and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigaard, Janne; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Tjønneland, Anne

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the association between BMI and all-cause mortality could be disentangled into opposite effects of body fat and fat-free mass (FFM). RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: All-cause mortality was studied in the Danish follow-up study "Diet, Cancer and Health" with 27......,178 men and 29,875 women 50 to 64 years old recruited from 1993 to 1997. By the end of year 2001, the median follow-up was 5.8 years, and 1851 had died. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance. Cox regression models were used to estimate the relationships among body fat mass index (body...... fat mass divided by height squared), FFM index (FFM divided by height squared), and mortality. All analyses were adjusted for smoking habits. RESULTS: Men and women showed similar associations. J-shaped associations were found between body fat mass index and mortality adjusted for FFM and smoking...

  4. Medication Regimen Complexity and Polypharmacy as Factors Associated With All-Cause Mortality in Older People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Barbara C.; Bell, J. Simon; Fastbom, Johan; Wiese, Michael D.; Johnell, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate whether medication regimen complexity and/or polypharmacy are associated with all-cause mortality in older people. Methods: This was a population-based cohort study among community-dwelling and institutionalized people ≥60 years old (n = 3348). Medication regimen complexity was assessed using the 65-item Medication Regimen Complexity Index (MRCI) in 10-unit steps. Polypharmacy was assessed as a continuous variable (number of medications). Mortality data were obtained from the Swedish National Cause of Death Register. Cox proportional hazard models were used to compute unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for the association between regimen complexity and polypharmacy with all-cause mortality over a 3-year period. Subanalyses were performed stratifying by age (≤80 and>80 years), sex, and cognition (Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE] 80 years old or with MMSE 80 years old, or in those with MMSE<26. These different associations with mortality deserve further investigation. PMID:26681444

  5. Self-rated health and all-cause and cause-specific mortality of older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bamia, Christina; Orfanos, Philippos; Juerges, Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    with random-effect meta-analyses. Main outcome measures All-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality. Results Within the median 12.5 years of follow-up, 93,014 (22%) deaths occurred. SRH “fair” or “poor” vs. “at-least-good” was associated with increased mortality: HRs 1.46 (95% CI 1·23–1.74) and 2.31 (1...

  6. Milk and dairy consumption and risk of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Jing; Astrup, Arne; Lovegrove, Julie A.; Gijsbers, Lieke; Givens, David I.; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S.

    2017-01-01

    With a growing number of prospective cohort studies, an updated dose–response meta-analysis of milk and dairy products with all-cause mortality, coronary heart disease (CHD) or cardiovascular disease (CVD) have been conducted. PubMed, Embase and Scopus were searched for articles published up to

  7. Educational level as a contextual and proximate determinant of all cause mortality in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Prescott, E

    2003-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine the educational level in the area of living as a determinant of all cause mortality, controlling for individual and other correlated contextual factors. DESIGN: Pooled data from two population based cohort studies were linked to social registers to obtain selected...

  8. Weight change and all-cause mortality in older adults: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This meta-analysis of observational cohort studies examined the association between weight change (weight loss, weight gain, and weight fluctuation) and all-cause mortality among older adults. We used PubMed (MEDLINE), Web of Science, and Cochrane Library to identify prospective studies published in...

  9. DNA Methylation and All-Cause Mortality in Middle-Aged and Elderly Danish Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Anne Marie; Soerensen, Mette; Lund, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    Several studies have linked DNA methylation at individual CpG sites to aging and various diseases. Recent studies have also identified single CpGs whose methylation levels are associated with all-cause mortality. In this study, we perform an epigenome-wide study of the association between CpG met...

  10. Prolonged QT interval predicts cardiac and all-cause mortality in the elderly. The Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. de Bruyne (Martine); A.W. Hoes (Arno); J.A. Kors (Jan); J.H. van Bemmel (Jan); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); A. Hofman (Albert)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractAIMS: To examine the association between heart-rate corrected QT prolongation and cardiac and all-cause mortality in the population-based Rotterdam Study among men and women aged 55 years or older and to compare the prognostic value of the QT interval, using

  11. Statin use is associated with reduced all-cause mortality after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leurs, L.J.; Visser, P.; Laheij, R.J.F.; Buth, J.; Harris, P.L.; Blankensteijn, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    It has been shown that preoperative statin therapy reduces all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients undergoing major noncardiac vascular surgery. In this report, we investigated the influence of statin use on early and late outcome following endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair

  12. Daily sitting time and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chau, J.Y.; Grunseit, A.C.; Chey, T.; Stamatakis, E.; Brown, W.J.; Matthews, C.E.; Bauman, A.E.; van der Ploeg, H.P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To quantify the association between daily total sitting and all-cause mortality risk and to examine dose-response relationships with and without adjustment for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Methods: Studies published from 1989 to January 2013 were identified via searches of

  13. The association between left ventricular global longitudinal strain, renal impairment and all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnasamy, Rathika; Isbel, Nicole M; Hawley, Carmel M; Pascoe, Elaine M; Leano, Rodel; Haluska, Brian A; Stanton, Tony

    2014-06-01

    Left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction is an important predictor of cardiovascular death. Global longitudinal strain (GLS) is a widely available echocardiographic technique proven to be more sensitive than conventional ejection fraction (EF) in detecting subtle changes in LV function. However, the prognostic value of GLS in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unknown. We studied 447 patients from a single center who were stratified according to estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). GLS was calculated using two-dimensional speckle tracking and EF was measured using Simpson's biplane. Cox proportional hazard model was used to identify independent predictors of survival and measures of discrimination and reclassification were used to assess the predictive value of GLS. Multivariable regression models were used to evaluate clinical and laboratory factors associated with GLS. The mean EF was 58 ± 11% and GLS was -16.6 ± 4.2%. eGFR correlated negatively with GLS (r = -0.14, P = 0.004). Factors that were independently associated with GLS include gender, previous myocardial infarction, eGFR and phosphate (R(2) = 0.16, P cause mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.15] following adjustment for age, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, eGFR and left ventricular mass index (LVMI). The strength of association between demographic data, eGFR, LVMI and mortality increased following addition of GLS [c-statistic 0.68 (95% CI 0.61-0.74) to 0.71 (95% CI 0.64-0.77), P = 0.04]. Addition of GLS also demonstrated a 21% net reclassification improvement in risk prediction for all-cause mortality over clinical factors. GLS is an important predictor of all-cause mortality in CKD patients. Traditional and non-traditional risk factors such as phosphate are important determinants of GLS. Strain assessment in CKD patients may provide greater cardiovascular risk stratification. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  14. Wound healing and all-cause mortality in 958 wound patients treated in home care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarchi, Kian; Martinussen, Torben; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2015-09-01

    Skin wounds are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Data are, however, not readily available for benchmarking, to allow prognostic evaluation, and to suggest when involvement of wound-healing experts is indicated. We, therefore, conducted an observational cohort study to investigate wound healing and all-cause mortality associated with different types of skin wounds. Consecutive skin wound patients who received wound care by home-care nurses from January 2010 to December 2011 in a district in Eastern Denmark were included in this study. Patients were followed until wound healing, death, or the end of follow-up on December 2012. In total, 958 consecutive patients received wound care by home-care nurses, corresponding to a 1-year prevalence of 1.2% of the total population in the district. During the study, wound healing was achieved in 511 (53.3%), whereas 90 (9.4%) died. During the first 3 weeks of therapy, healing was most likely to occur in surgical wounds (surgical vs. other wounds: adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] 2.21, 95% confidence interval 1.50-3.23), while from 3 weeks to 3 months of therapy, cancer wounds, and pressure ulcers were least likely to heal (cancer vs. other wounds: AHR 0.12, 0.03-0.50; pressure vs. other wounds: AHR 0.44, 0.27-0.74). Cancer wounds and pressure ulcers were further associated with a three times increased probability of mortality compared with other wounds (cancer vs. other wounds: AHR 3.19, 1.35-7.50; pressure vs. other wounds: AHR 2.91, 1.56-5.42). In summary, the wound type was found to be a significant predictor of healing and mortality with cancer wounds and pressure ulcers being associated with poor prognosis. © 2015 by the Wound Healing Society.

  15. Volunteering as a predictor of all-cause mortality: what aspects of volunteering really matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalon, Liat

    2008-10-01

    This study evaluates the predictive effects of different aspects of volunteering (e.g. volunteering status, number of hours, number of years, and type of volunteering activity) on all-cause mortality. A seven-year follow-up dataset of a nationally representative sample of Israelis, 60 years and older was used. As expected, volunteering was associated with a reduced mortality risk even after adjusting for age, gender, education, baseline mental health and physical health, activity level, and social engagement. Those who volunteered for 10 to 14 years had a reduced mortality risk relative to non-volunteers. In addition, those who volunteered privately, not as part of an official organization, also had a reduced mortality risk compared to non-volunteers. The number of hours of volunteering was not a significant predictor of all-cause mortality in the fully adjusted model. In additional sensitivity analyses limited to those who volunteered, none of the various aspects of volunteering was associated with a reduced mortality risk. Results suggest that not all aspects of volunteering have the same predictive value and that the protective effects of length of volunteering time and type of volunteering are particularly important. However, whether or not volunteering is the most consistent predictor of mortality and whether once a person volunteers the various aspects of volunteering are no longer associated with mortality risk.

  16. Multiple roles and all-cause mortality: the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamakoshi, Akiko; Ikeda, Ai; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Tamakoshi, Koji; Iso, Hisoyasu

    2013-02-01

    Two contrasting perspectives on the effects of multiple roles; the 'role overload hypothesis' and the 'role enhancement model', have been proposed to predict variations in health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of multiple roles on all-cause mortality in Japan where gender roles are currently changing. A total of 76,758 individuals from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study were followed for an average of 15.7 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated from proportional hazard models to estimate the risk of all-cause mortality according to multiple roles (spouse, parent and worker, and combinations of these roles). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the risks of all-cause mortality were elevated among men and women without a role. The number of roles was also associated with all-cause mortality risk, showing the highest risk values among those with no roles compared with those with triple roles (HR: 1.66 in men and 1.78 in women). The impact of the lack of a role was generally greater in men than in women and also in the middle-aged than in the elderly. A beneficial effect of multiple roles was suggested among Japanese. The fewer roles they had, the higher all-cause mortality risks were observed. The risk values of those with fewer roles were generally higher in men than in women and also in the middle-aged than in the elderly, partially explained by greater role overload in middle-aged women than other groups in Japan.

  17. Self-reported habitual snoring and risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongmei; Liu, Debao; Wang, Xiuming; He, Dongdong

    2014-07-01

    Inconsistent findings have reported the association between self-reported habitual snoring and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality. We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate whether self-reported habitual snoring was an independent predictor for CVD and all-cause mortality using prospective observational studies. Electronic literature databases (PubMed, Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, Wanfang database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure) were searched for publications prior to September 2013. Only prospective studies evaluating baseline habitual snoring and subsequent risk of CVD and all-cause mortality were selected. Pooled adjust hazard risk (HR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for categorical risk estimates. Eight studies with 65,037 subjects were analyzed. Pooled adjust HR was 1.26 (95% CI 0.98-1.62) for CVD, 1.15 (95% CI 1.05-1.27) for coronary heart disease (CHD), and 1.26 (95% CI 1.11-1.43) for stroke comparing habitual snoring to non-snorers. Pooled adjust HR was 0.98 (95% CI 0.78-1.23) for all-cause mortality in a random effect model comparing habitual snoring to non-snorers. Habitual snoring appeared to increase greater stroke risk among men (HR 1.54; 95% CI: 1.09-2.17) than those in women (HR 1.22; 95% CI: 1.05-1.41). Self-reported habitual snoring is a mild but statistically significant risk factor for stroke and CHD, but not for CVD and all-cause mortality. However, whether the risk is attributable to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome or snoring alone remains controversial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor as a prognostic marker of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in a black population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Botha, Shani; Fourie, Carla M T; Schutte, Rudolph

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are well-known risk factors for cardiovascular mortality. The less familiar marker, soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), is known to predict cancer, infections and all-cause mo......BACKGROUND: Elevated inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are well-known risk factors for cardiovascular mortality. The less familiar marker, soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), is known to predict cancer, infections and all......-cause mortality. We determined whether suPAR, CRP and IL-6 are predictive of both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in a black population, highly burdened by cardiovascular disease and HIV infection. METHODS: We included 1425 black South Africans, of which 208 died within five years after baseline data...

  19. Relationship between systolic blood pressure and all-cause mortality: a prospective study in a cohort of Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunsheng; Chen, Youren; Zheng, Qiongbing; Wu, Weiqiang; Chen, Zhichao; Song, Lu; An, Shasha; Li, Zhifang; Chen, Shuohua; Wu, S L

    2018-01-05

    The association between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and all-cause mortality in Chinese adults remains unclear. This study aimed to identify the relationship of SBP with all-cause mortality in Chinese men and women. One hundred twenty-one thousand eighty-two employees of the Kailuan Group Corporation, aged 18 or older, who participated in physical examination from 2006 to 2007 or from 2008 to 2009, were enrolled and followed up for all-cause mortality. The information used to ascertain the outcome of death during follow-up was extracted from provincial vital statistics offices, hospitalization records from the 11 hospitals, or medical records from medical insurance companies. The average age was 50.06 ± 12.85 in the overall sample. Over 7 years of follow-up, 5945 participants, including 5520 men and 425 women had all-cause mortality. After multivariate adjustment, men in SBP group of women in SBP group of 140-159, 160-179 and ≥180 mmHg had significantly greater risk with HRs of 1.44 (95% CI, 1.01-2.07), 1.63 (95% CI, 1.04-2.55) and 2.31 (95% CI, 1.27-4.20). Either lower (120 mmHg) SBP was associated with an increased all-cause mortality risk and a J-shaped relationship was observed between SBP and all-cause mortality in men. Only SBP exceeding 140 mmHg was related to a higher risk in women. The relationship between SBP and all-cause mortality among Chinese adults may differ by sex.

  20. Weight Gain After Breast Cancer Diagnosis and All-Cause Mortality: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Michael B.; Sanft, Tara B.; Ligibel, Jennifer A.; Harrigan, Maura; Irwin, Melinda L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Overweight and obesity are associated with breast cancer mortality. However, the relationship between postdiagnosis weight gain and mortality is unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of weight gain after breast cancer diagnosis and breast cancer–specific, all-cause mortality and recurrence outcomes. Methods: Electronic databases identified articles up through December 2014, including: PubMed (1966-present), EMBASE (1974-present), CINAHL (1982-present), and Web of Science. Language and publication status were unrestricted. Cohort studies and clinical trials measuring weight change after diagnosis and all-cause/breast cancer–specific mortality or recurrence were considered. Participants were women age 18 years or older with stage I-IIIC breast cancer. Fixed effects analysis summarized the association between weight gain (≥5.0% body weight) and all-cause mortality; all tests were two-sided. Results: Twelve studies (n = 23 832) were included. Weight gain (≥5.0%) compared with maintenance (breast cancer–specific mortality (HR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.38, P = .05). Conclusions: Weight gain after diagnosis of breast cancer is associated with higher all-cause mortality rates compared with maintaining body weight. Adverse effects are greater for weight gains of 10.0% or higher. PMID:26424778

  1. Anxiety disorders and all-cause mortality: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloyan, Beyon; Bulley, Adam; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Eaton, William W; Gonçalves-Bradley, Daniela C

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies that examined the relationship between anxiety disorders, or clinically significant anxiety symptoms, at baseline and all-cause mortality at follow-up relative to control participants without clinically significant anxiety. PubMed, EMBASE, PsycInfo, and CINAHL were searched through July 2015, along with manual searches of published reviews and forward and backward snowball searches of included studies. Studies were excluded if anxiety was not defined with a standardized instrument, or if participants were followed-up for 1 year or less. The initial search yielded 7901 articles after the removal of duplicates, of which 328 underwent full-text screening. Forty-two estimates from 36 articles were included in the meta-analysis with a total sample of 127,552 participants and over 11,573 deaths. The overall hazard ratio (HR) estimate of mortality in clinically anxious participants relative to controls was 1.09 (95 % CI 1.01-1.16); however, this was reduced after adjusting for publication bias (1.03; 95 % CI 0.95-1.13). There was no evidence of increased mortality risk among anxious participants derived from community samples (0.99; 95 % CI 0.96-1.02) and in studies that adjusted for a diagnosis of depression (1.01; 95 % CI 0.96-1.06). These findings suggest that positive associations in the literature are attributable to studies in smaller samples, comorbid depression (or other psychiatric conditions) among participants, and possible confounding in medical patient samples followed-up for short durations.

  2. Loneliness and all-cause mortality in community-dwelling elderly Singaporeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelique Chan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Loneliness is a significant risk factor for mortality among older adults. There are several pathways through which loneliness may operate to increase mortality risk, ranging from biological responses and individual perceptions to social interactions and environmental factors. The proportion of single older (65+ person households has doubled in the last ten years in Singapore. Yet little is understood about the relationship between loneliness, social isolation, and mortality risk among older adults, in Singapore and in Asian contexts in general. Objective: To assess the impact of loneliness and social isolation on the risk of all-cause mortality over a four-year period, controlling for demographic characteristics and health status at baseline. Methods: We used data from a longitudinal survey of community-dwelling Singaporean elderly (N=4,522. Loneliness was assessed using the UCLA three-item loneliness scale. Unadjusted and adjusted Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to estimate mortality risk. Results: In the final adjusted model, living arrangements and social networks outside the household were not associated with all-cause mortality. Loneliness increased the risk of all-cause mortality; those sometimes lonely and mostly lonely were 44.0Š (p=0.005 and 39.0Š (p=0.059 more likely to die compared to those not lonely. Conclusions: Loneliness is associated with higher mortality risks among Singaporean elderly. Mental health among the older population is a major public health concern and community interventions are needed to more efficiently identify, raise awareness of, and increase care for the lonely elderly in the community.

  3. Impact of statin therapy on all-cause mortality and ICD interventions in heart failure patients - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazoukis, George; Papadatos, Stamatis S; Letsas, Konstantinos P; Pagkalidou, Eirini; Korantzopoulos, Panagiotis

    2017-10-01

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) have a unique role for the primary and secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD). The aim of our systematic review is to present the existing data about the impact of statins on all-cause mortality and ICD interventions in heart failure (HF) patients who had an ICD implanted either for primary or for secondary prevention of SCD. We searched PubMed database and the reference list of the relevant studies for retrieving studies evaluating the effect of statins on all-cause mortality and ICD interventions in HF patients. We finally included 17 relevant studies in our systematic review. Of them, nine studies included data about the impact of statins on all-cause mortality, eight studies about the impact of statins on appropriate ICD interventions and three studies about the impact of statins on inappropriate ICD interventions in HF patients. These data showed that statins seem to have a beneficial role in the reduction of all-cause mortality and ICD interventions in HF patients. Statins seem to have a beneficial role in the reduction of all-cause mortality and ICD interventions in HF patients. However, further research about pleiotropic effects of statins is needed as well randomized control trials to elucidate the exact role of statin therapy in ICD outcomes.

  4. Time in Therapeutic Range, as a Determinant of All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumas, Michael; Tsioufis, Costas; Fletcher, Ross; Amdur, Richard; Faselis, Charles; Papademetriou, Vasilios

    2017-11-03

    Accumulating evidence indicates that reducing systolic blood pressure (BP) to determined. Many population studies or post hoc analyses suggest a target systolic BP between 120 and 140 mm Hg with increased risk above and below that range. We tested the hypothesis that consistent control of systolic BP between 120 and 140 mm Hg-time in therapeutic range-is a strong determinant of all-cause mortality among US veterans. A total of 689 051 individuals from 15 Veterans Administration Medical Centers were followed over a 10-year period. Participants were classified as hypertensive, intermediate hypertensive, and normotensive according to the number of elevated BP recordings (>3, 1 or 2, and none, respectively). Time within, above, or below therapeutic range (120-140 mm Hg) was considered in quartiles and related to all-cause mortality. The study population consisted of 54% hypertensive, 19.9% intermediate, and 26.1% normotensive participants; the corresponding mortality rates for the 3 groups were 11.5%, 8%, and 1.9%, respectively ( P 75%) to 8.9%, 15.6%, and 23.5% towards the less consistently controlled quartiles (50-75%, 25-50%, and determinant of all-cause mortality, and consistency of BP control should be monitored in everyday clinical practice. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  5. Skin autofluorescence and all-cause mortality in stage 3 CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Simon D S; Roderick, Paul J; McIntyre, Natasha J; Harris, Scott; McIntyre, Christopher W; Fluck, Richard J; Taal, Maarten W

    2014-08-07

    Novel markers may help to improve risk prediction in CKD. One potential candidate is tissue advanced glycation end product accumulation, a marker of cumulative metabolic stress, which can be assessed by a simple noninvasive measurement of skin autofluorescence. Skin autofluorescence correlates with higher risk of cardiovascular events and mortality in people with diabetes or people requiring RRT, but its role in earlier CKD has not been studied. A prospective cohort of 1741 people with CKD stage 3 was recruited from primary care between August 2008 and March 2010. Participants underwent medical history, clinical assessment, blood and urine sampling for biochemistry, and measurement of skin autofluorescence. Kaplan-Meier plots and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate associations between skin autofluorescence (categorical in quartiles) and all-cause mortality. In total, 1707 participants had skin autofluorescence measured; 170 (10%) participants died after a median of 3.6 years of follow-up. The most common cause of death was cardiovascular disease (41%). Higher skin autofluorescence was associated significantly with poorer survival (all-cause mortality, Panalysis. Univariate and age/sex-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models showed that the highest quartile of skin autofluorescence was associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 2.64; 95% confidence interval, 1.71 to 4.08; PSkin autofluorescence was not independently associated with all-cause mortality in this study. Additional research is needed to clarify whether it has a role in risk prediction in CKD. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  6. All-cause and cause-specific mortality of different migrant populations in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ikram, Umar Z; Mackenbach, Johan P; Harding, Seeromanie

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine differences in all-cause mortality and main causes of death across different migrant and local-born populations living in six European countries. We used data from population and mortality registers from Denmark, England & Wales, France, Netherlands, Scotland, and Spain....... We calculated age-standardized mortality rates for men and women aged 0-69 years. Country-specific data were pooled to assess weighted mortality rate ratios (MRRs) using Poisson regression. Analyses were stratified by age group, country of destination, and main cause of death. In six countries...... combined, all-cause mortality was lower for men and women from East Asia (MRRs 0.66; 95 % confidence interval 0.62-0.71 and 0.76; 0.69-0.82, respectively), and Other Latin America (0.44; 0.42-0.46 and 0.56; 0.54-0.59, respectively) than local-born populations. Mortality rates were similar for those from...

  7. High dietary phosphorus intake is associated with all-cause mortality: results from NHANES III123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alex R; Lazo, Mariana; Appel, Lawrence J; Gutiérrez, Orlando M; Grams, Morgan E

    2014-01-01

    Background: Elevated serum phosphorus is associated with all-cause mortality, but little is known about risk associated with dietary phosphorus intake. Objective: We investigated the association between phosphorus intake and mortality in a prospective cohort of healthy US adults (NHANES III; 1998–1994). Design: Study participants were 9686 nonpregnant adults aged 20–80 y without diabetes, cancer, or kidney or cardiovascular disease. Exposure to dietary phosphorus, which was assessed by using a 24-h dietary recall, was expressed as the absolute intake and phosphorus density (phosphorus intake divided by energy intake). All-cause and cardiovascular mortality was assessed through 31 December 2006. Results: Median phosphorus intake was 1166 mg/d (IQR: 823–1610 mg/d); median phosphorus density was 0.58 mg/kcal (0.48–0.70 mg/kcal). Individuals who consumed more phosphorus-dense diets were older, were less often African American, and led healthier lifestyles (smoking, physical activity, and Healthy Eating Index). In analyses adjusted for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, kidney function, and energy intake, higher phosphorus intake was associated with higher all-cause mortality in individuals who consumed >1400 mg/d [adjusted HR (95% CI): 2.23 (1.09, 4.5) per 1-unit increase in ln(phosphorus intake); P = 0.03]. At phosphorus density and all-cause mortality at a phosphorus density amount >0.35 mg/kcal [adjusted HR (95% CI): 2.27 (1.19, 4.33) per 0.1-mg/kcal increase in phosphorus density; P = 0.01]. At phosphorus density was associated with increased mortality risk. Phosphorus density was associated with cardiovascular mortality [adjusted HR (95% CI): 3.39 (1.43, 8.02) per 0.1 mg/kcal at >0.35 mg/kcal; P = 0.01], whereas no association was shown in analyses with phosphorus intake. Results were similar by subgroups of diet quality and in analyses adjusted for sodium and saturated fat intakes. Conclusions: High phosphorus intake is associated with increased

  8. High dietary phosphorus intake is associated with all-cause mortality: results from NHANES III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alex R; Lazo, Mariana; Appel, Lawrence J; Gutiérrez, Orlando M; Grams, Morgan E

    2014-02-01

    Elevated serum phosphorus is associated with all-cause mortality, but little is known about risk associated with dietary phosphorus intake. We investigated the association between phosphorus intake and mortality in a prospective cohort of healthy US adults (NHANES III; 1998-1994). Study participants were 9686 nonpregnant adults aged 20-80 y without diabetes, cancer, or kidney or cardiovascular disease. Exposure to dietary phosphorus, which was assessed by using a 24-h dietary recall, was expressed as the absolute intake and phosphorus density (phosphorus intake divided by energy intake). All-cause and cardiovascular mortality was assessed through 31 December 2006. Median phosphorus intake was 1166 mg/d (IQR: 823-1610 mg/d); median phosphorus density was 0.58 mg/kcal (0.48-0.70 mg/kcal). Individuals who consumed more phosphorus-dense diets were older, were less often African American, and led healthier lifestyles (smoking, physical activity, and Healthy Eating Index). In analyses adjusted for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, kidney function, and energy intake, higher phosphorus intake was associated with higher all-cause mortality in individuals who consumed >1400 mg/d [adjusted HR (95% CI): 2.23 (1.09, 4.5) per 1-unit increase in ln(phosphorus intake); P = 0.03]. At phosphorus density and all-cause mortality at a phosphorus density amount >0.35 mg/kcal [adjusted HR (95% CI): 2.27 (1.19, 4.33) per 0.1-mg/kcal increase in phosphorus density; P = 0.01]. At phosphorus density was associated with increased mortality risk. Phosphorus density was associated with cardiovascular mortality [adjusted HR (95% CI): 3.39 (1.43, 8.02) per 0.1 mg/kcal at >0.35 mg/kcal; P = 0.01], whereas no association was shown in analyses with phosphorus intake. Results were similar by subgroups of diet quality and in analyses adjusted for sodium and saturated fat intakes. High phosphorus intake is associated with increased mortality in a healthy US population. Because of current

  9. Is Urinary KIM-1 a Predictor of EGFR Decline, Incident Cardiovascular Disease, and All Cause Mortality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eickhoff, Mie Klessen; von Scholten, Bernt Johan; Reinhard, Henrik

    Background Urinary levels of kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) has shown to reflect tubular pathophysiology. We evaluated KIM-1 as a predictor of decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2......D) and microalbuminuria without clinical coronary artery disease. Methods We performed a prospective study including 200 patients, all receiving multifactorial treatment. Urinary KIM-1 was measured at baseline and was available in 191 patients. Adjusted Cox models included sex, age, LDL cholesterol...... the predefined CKD progression endpoint after 4.9 years (median). Higher urinary KIM-1 was a predictor of eGFR decline, unadjusted HR (95% CI): 1.9 (1.2-2.8); p=0.003, and in the adjusted model HR 1.7 (1.0-2.7); p=0.034. For CVD events urinary KIM-1 was a determinant in the unadjusted model (HR 1.4 (1.0-2.1); p...

  10. All-Cause Mortality Among Belgian Military Radar Operators: A 40-Year Controlled Longitudinal Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degrave, Etienne; Autier, Philippe; Grivegnee, Andre-Robert; Zizi, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that exposure to radiofrequency/microwaves radiations could be associated with greater health hazards and higher mortality. Methods: The all-cause mortality of 27,671 Belgian militaries who served from 1963 until 1994 in battalions equipped with radars for anti-aircraft defence was studied over the period 1968-2003. End of the seventies, technical modifications brought to the shielding of the micro-wave generators resulted in a reduction in irradiations. A control group was formed by 16,128 militaries who served during the same period in the same military area but who were never exposed to radars. Administrative procedures for identifying militaries and their vital status were equivalent in the radar and the control groups. Results: The age-standardized mortality ratio (SMR) in the radar battalions was 1.05 (95% CI: 0.95-1.16) in professional militaries, and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.75-0.85) in conscripts. In professional militaries no difference in mortality was found according to duration (less than, or five years or more) or to period of service (before 1978 or after 1977). Conclusions: During a 40-year period of observation, we found no increase in all-cause mortality in Belgian militaries who were in close contact with radar equipments of anti-aircraft defence battalions

  11. Traffic air pollution and mortality from cardiovascular disease and all causes: a Danish cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Ketzel, Matthias; Sørensen, Mette; Hansen, Johnni; Loft, Steffen; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim

    2012-09-05

    Traffic air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular mortality, which might be due to co-exposure to road traffic noise. Further, personal and lifestyle characteristics might modify any association. We followed up 52 061 participants in a Danish cohort for mortality in the nationwide Register of Causes of Death, from enrollment in 1993-1997 through 2009, and traced their residential addresses from 1971 onwards in the Central Population Registry. We used dispersion-modelled concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) since 1971 as indicator of traffic air pollution and used Cox regression models to estimate mortality rate ratios (MRRs) with adjustment for potential confounders. Mean levels of NO₂ at the residence since 1971 were significantly associated with mortality from cardiovascular disease (MRR, 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.51, per doubling of NO₂ concentration) and all causes (MRR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.04-1.23, per doubling of NO₂ concentration) after adjustment for potential confounders. For participants who ate causes. Traffic air pollution is associated with mortality from cardiovascular diseases and all causes, after adjustment for traffic noise. The association was strongest for people with a low fruit and vegetable intake.

  12. Traffic air pollution and mortality from cardiovascular disease and all causes: a Danish cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raaschou-Nielsen Ole

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traffic air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular mortality, which might be due to co-exposure to road traffic noise. Further, personal and lifestyle characteristics might modify any association. Methods We followed up 52 061 participants in a Danish cohort for mortality in the nationwide Register of Causes of Death, from enrollment in 1993–1997 through 2009, and traced their residential addresses from 1971 onwards in the Central Population Registry. We used dispersion-modelled concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2 since 1971 as indicator of traffic air pollution and used Cox regression models to estimate mortality rate ratios (MRRs with adjustment for potential confounders. Results Mean levels of NO2 at the residence since 1971 were significantly associated with mortality from cardiovascular disease (MRR, 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06–1.51, per doubling of NO2 concentration and all causes (MRR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.04–1.23, per doubling of NO2 concentration after adjustment for potential confounders. For participants who ate  Conclusions Traffic air pollution is associated with mortality from cardiovascular diseases and all causes, after adjustment for traffic noise. The association was strongest for people with a low fruit and vegetable intake.

  13. Association of allergic rhinitis, coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crans Yoon, Angelina M; Chiu, Vicki; Rana, Jamal S; Sheikh, Javed

    2016-10-01

    Inflammation is implicated in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Allergic diseases also involve a systemic inflammatory state, which may potentiate cardiovascular disease. To examine the association of allergic rhinitis, coronary heart disease (CHD), cerebrovascular disease (CVD), and all-cause mortality. We conducted a retrospective, population-based, matched cohort study comparing the incidence of CHD, CVD, and all-cause mortality from January 1, 1999, through December 31, 2012, in patients with International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, documented allergic rhinitis matched 1:1 by age, sex, and ethnicity to a reference cohort without allergic rhinitis within Kaiser Permanente Southern California. Fully adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated. Further analyses for those with positive environmental allergen specific IgE (sIgE) test results within the allergic rhinitis cohort were also performed. Patients with physician-diagnosed allergic rhinitis (N = 110, 207 in matched cohort) had significantly lower risk for myocardial infarction (HR, 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59-0.67; P allergic rhinitis was associated with decreased CHD, CVD, and all-cause mortality. This decreased risk was more pronounced after excluding patients with asthma. Patients with positive sIgE test results also had decreased risk of CHD. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Purpose in Life and Its Relationship to All-Cause Mortality and Cardiovascular Events: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Randy; Bavishi, Chirag; Rozanski, Alan

    2016-01-01

    To assess the net impact of purpose in life on all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events. The electronic databases PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO were systematically searched through June 2015 to identify all studies investigating the relationship between purpose in life, mortality, and cardiovascular events. Articles were selected for inclusion if, a) they were prospective, b) evaluated the association between some measure of purpose in life and all-cause mortality and/or cardiovascular events, and c) unadjusted and/or adjusted risk estimates and confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. Ten prospective studies with a total of 136,265 participants were included in the analysis. A significant association was observed between having a higher purpose in life and reduced all-cause mortality (adjusted pooled relative risk = 0.83 [CI = 0.75-0.91], p purpose in life, age, and whether or not participants with baseline cardiovascular disease were included in the study all yielded similar results. Possessing a high sense of purpose in life is associated with a reduced risk for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events. Future research should focus on mechanisms linking purpose in life to health outcomes, as well as interventions to assist individuals identified as having a low sense of purpose in life.

  15. Alcohol, drinking pattern and all-cause, cardiovascular and alcohol-related mortality in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobak, Martin; Malyutina, Sofia; Horvat, Pia; Pajak, Andrzej; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Kubinova, Ruzena; Simonova, Galina; Topor-Madry, Roman; Peasey, Anne; Pikhart, Hynek; Marmot, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol has been implicated in the high mortality in Central and Eastern Europe but the magnitude of its effect, and whether it is due to regular high intake or episodic binge drinking remain unclear. The aim of this paper was to estimate the contribution of alcohol to mortality in four Central and Eastern European countries. We used data from the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe is a prospective multi-centre cohort study in Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland), Kaunas (Lithuania) and six Czech towns. Random population samples of 34,304 men and women aged 45-69 years in 2002-2005 were followed up for a median 7 years. Drinking volume, frequency and pattern were estimated from the graduated frequency questionnaire. Deaths were ascertained using mortality registers. In 230,246 person-years of follow-up, 2895 participants died from all causes, 1222 from cardiovascular diseases (CVD), 672 from coronary heart disease (CHD) and 489 from pre-defined alcohol-related causes (ARD). In fully-adjusted models, abstainers had 30-50% increased mortality risk compared to light-to-moderate drinkers. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) in men drinking on average ≥60 g of ethanol/day (3% of men) were 1.23 (95% CI 0.95-1.59) for all-cause, 1.38 (0.95-2.02) for CVD, 1.64 (1.02-2.64) for CHD and 2.03 (1.28-3.23) for ARD mortality. Corresponding HRs in women drinking on average ≥20 g/day (2% of women) were 1.92 (1.25-2.93), 1.74 (0.76-3.99), 1.39 (0.34-5.76) and 3.00 (1.26-7.10). Binge drinking increased ARD mortality in men only. Mortality was associated with high average alcohol intake but not binge drinking, except for ARD in men.

  16. Statin Intolerance and Risk of Coronary Heart Events and All-Cause Mortality Following Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serban, Maria-Corina; Colantonio, Lisandro D; Manthripragada, Angelika D; Monda, Keri L; Bittner, Vera A; Banach, Maciej; Chen, Ligong; Huang, Lei; Dent, Ricardo; Kent, Shia T; Muntner, Paul; Rosenson, Robert S

    2017-03-21

    Many patients report adverse reactions to, and may not tolerate, statin therapy. These patients may be at increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) events and mortality. This study evaluated the risk for recurrent myocardial infarction (MI), CHD events, and all-cause mortality in Medicare beneficiaries with statin intolerance and in those with high adherence to statin therapy. We studied 105,329 Medicare beneficiaries who began a moderate- or high-intensity statin dosage after hospitalization for MI between 2007 and 2013. Statin intolerance was defined as down-titrating statins and initiating ezetimibe therapy, switching from statins to ezetimibe monotherapy, having International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, diagnostic codes for rhabdomyolysis or an antihyperlipidemic adverse event, followed by statin down-titration or discontinuation, or switching between ≥3 types of statins within 1 year after initiation. High statin adherence over the year following hospital discharge was defined as proportion of days covered ≥80%. Recurrent MI, CHD events (recurrent MI or a coronary revascularization procedure), and mortality were identified from 1 year after hospital discharge through December 2014. Overall, 1,741 patients (1.65%) had statin intolerance, and 55,567 patients (52.8%) had high statin adherence. Over a median of 1.9 to 2.3 years of follow-up, there were 4,450 recurrent MIs, 6,250 CHD events, and 14,311 deaths. Compared to beneficiaries with high statin adherence, statin intolerance was associated with a 36% higher rate of recurrent MI (41.1 vs. 30.1 per 1,000 person-years, respectively), a 43% higher rate of CHD events (62.5 vs. 43.8 per 1,000 person-years, respectively), and a 15% lower rate of all-cause mortality (79.9 vs. 94.2 per 1,000 person-years, respectively). The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) comparing beneficiaries with statin intolerance versus those with high statin adherence were 1.50 (95% confidence interval [CI

  17. Predictive Value of Carotid Distensibility Coefficient for Cardiovascular Diseases and All-Cause Mortality: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Yuan

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to determine the pooled predictive value of carotid distensibility coefficient (DC for cardiovascular (CV diseases and all-cause mortality.Arterial stiffness is associated with future CV events. Aortic pulse wave velocity is a commonly used predictor for CV diseases and all-cause mortality; however, its assessment requires specific devices and is not always applicable in all patients. In addition to the aortic artery, the carotid artery is also susceptible to atherosclerosis, and is highly accessible because of the surficial property. Thus, carotid DC, which indicates the intrinsic local stiffness of the carotid artery and may be determined using ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, is of interest for the prediction. However, the role of carotid DC in the prediction of CV diseases and all-cause mortality has not been thoroughly characterized, and the pooled predictive value of carotid DC remains unclear.A meta-analysis, which included 11 longitudinal studies with 20361 subjects, was performed.Carotid DC significantly predicted future total CV events, CV mortality and all-cause mortality. The pooled risk ratios (RRs of CV events, CV mortality and all-cause mortality were 1.19 (1.06-1.35, 95%CI, 9 studies with 18993 subjects, 1.09 (1.01-1.18, 95%CI, 2 studies with 2550 subjects and 1.65 (1.15-2.37, 95%CI, 6 studies with 3619 subjects, respectively, for the subjects who had the lowest quartile of DC compared with their counterparts who had higher quartiles. For CV events, CV mortality and all-cause mortality, a decrease in DC of 1 SD increased the risk by 13%, 6% and 41% respectively, whereas a decrease in DC of 1 unit increased the risk by 3%, 1% and 6% respectively.Carotid DC is a significant predictor of future CV diseases and all-cause mortality, which may facilitate the identification of high-risk patients for the early diagnosis and prompt treatment of CV diseases.

  18. The Impact of Abdominal Fat Levels on All-Cause Mortality Risk in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Yajima

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Although an increased body mass index is associated with lower mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD, known as the “obesity paradox,” the relationship of abdominal fat levels with all-cause mortality has rarely been studied. We investigated the impact of computed-tomography-measured abdominal fat levels (visceral fat area (VFA and subcutaneous fat area (SFA on all-cause mortality in this population. A total of 201 patients undergoing HD were enrolled and cross-classified by VFA and SFA levels according to each cutoff point, VFA of 78.7 cm2 and SFA of 93.2 cm2, based on the receiver operator characteristic (ROC curve as following; group 1 (G1: lower VFA and lower SFA, G2: higher VFA and lower SFA, G3: lower VFA and higher SFA, G4: higher VFA and higher SFA. During a median follow-up of 4.3 years, 67 patients died. Kaplan–Meier analysis revealed 10-year survival rates of 29.0%, 50.0%, 62.6%, and 72.4% in G1, G2, G3, and G4 (p < 0.0001, respectively. The adjusted hazard ratio was 0.30 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.05–1.09, p = 0.070 for G2 vs. G1, 0.37 (95% CI 0.18–0.76, p = 0.0065 for G3 vs. G1, and 0.21 (95% CI 0.07–0.62, p = 0.0035 for G4 vs. G1, respectively. In conclusion, combined SFA and VFA levels were negatively associated with risks for all-cause mortality in patients undergoing HD. These results are a manifestation of the “obesity paradox.”

  19. Rabies vaccine is associated with decreased all-cause mortality in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobel, Darryn L; Arega, Sintayehu; Reininghaus, Bjorn; Simpson, Gregory J G; Gessner, Bradford D; Stryhn, Henrik; Conan, Anne

    2017-07-05

    Evidence suggests that rabies vaccine may have non-specific protective effects in animals and children. We analyzed four years of data (2012-2015) from an observational study of the health and demographics of a population of owned, free-roaming dogs in a low-income community in South Africa. The objective of this analysis was to assess the association between rabies vaccine and all-cause mortality in dogs, stratified by age group (0-3months, 4-11months, and 12months and older), and controlling for the effects of sex and number of dogs in the residence. Rabies vaccination reduced the risk of death from any cause by 56% (95% CI=16-77%) in dogs aged 0-3months, by 44% (95% CI=21-60%) in dogs aged 4-11months and by 16% (95% CI=0-29%) in dogs aged 12months and older. We hypothesize that the protective association between rabies vaccination status and all-cause mortality is due to a protective effect of rabies vaccine against diseases other than rabies. Existence of a strong non-specific protective effect of rabies vaccine on mortality in dogs would have implications for the design of dog rabies control programs that aim to eliminate dog-mediated human rabies cases. Further, we propose that owned domestic dogs in high mortality settings provide a useful animal model to better understand any non-specific protective effect of rabies vaccine in children, due to dogs' high numbers, high morbidity and mortality rates, relatively short lifespan, exposure to a variety of infectious and parasitic diseases, and shared environment with people. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Frailty syndrome and all-cause mortality in demented patients: the Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Scafato, Emanuele; Frisardi, Vincenza; Sancarlo, Daniele; Seripa, Davide; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Baldereschi, Marzia; Crepaldi, Gaetano; Di Carlo, Antonio; Galluzzo, Lucia; Gandin, Claudia; Inzitari, Domenico; Maggi, Stefania; Pilotto, Alberto; Panza, Francesco

    2012-04-01

    Cognition has already been considered as a component of frailty, and it has been demonstrated that it is associated with adverse health outcomes. We estimated the prevalence of frailty syndrome in an Italian older population and its predictive role on all-cause mortality and disability in nondemented subjects and in demented patients. We evaluated 2,581 individuals recruited from the Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging, a population-based sample of 5,632 subjects, aged 65-84 years old. Participants received identical baseline evaluation at the 1st survey (1992-1993) and were followed at 2nd (1995-1996) and 3rd survey (2000-2001). A phenotype of frailty according to partially modified measurement of Cardiovascular Health Study criteria was operationalized. The overall prevalence of frailty syndrome in this population-based study was 7.6% (95% confidence interval (CI) 6.55-8.57). Frail individuals noncomorbid or nondisable were 9.1% and 39.3%, respectively, confirming an overlap but not concordance in the co-occurrence among these conditions. Frailty was associated with a significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality over a 3-year follow-up (hazard ratio (HR) 1.98, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.52-2.60) and over a 7-year follow-up (HR 1.74, 95% CI 1.44-2.16), but with significant increased risk of disability only over a 3-year follow-up (HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.06-1.86 over a 3-year follow-up and HR 1.16, 95% CI 0.88-1.56 over a 7-year follow-up). Frail demented patients were at higher risk of all-cause mortality over 3- (HR 3.33, 95% CI 1.28-8.29) and 7-year follow-up periods (HR 1.89, 95% CI 1.10-3.44), but not of disability. Frailty syndrome was a short-term predictor of disability in nondemented older subjects and short- and long-term predictor of all-cause mortality in nondemented and demented patients.

  1. Oral health in relation to all-cause mortality: the IPC cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Margaux; Darnaud, Christelle; Thomas, Frédérique; Pannier, Bruno; Danchin, Nicolas; Batty, G David; Bouchard, Philippe

    2017-03-15

    We evaluated the association between oral health and mortality. The study population comprised 76,188 subjects aged 16-89 years at recruitment. The mean follow-up time was 3.4 ± 2.4 years. Subjects with a personal medical history of cancer or cardiovascular disease and death by casualty were excluded from the analysis. A full-mouth clinical examination was performed in order to assess dental plaque, dental calculus and gingival inflammation. The number of teeth and functional masticatory units 10 missing teeth and functional masticatory units 10 missing teeth (HR = 2.31, [95% CI: 1.40-3.82]) and functional masticatory units <5 (HR = 2.40 [95% CI 1.55-3.73]). Moreover, when ≥3 oral diseases were cumulated in the model, the risk increased for all-cause mortality (HR = 3.39, [95% CI: 2.51-5.42]), all-cancer mortality (HR = 3.59, [95% CI: 1.23-10.05]) and non-cardiovascular and non-cancer mortality (HR = 4.71, [95% CI: 1.74-12.7]). The present study indicates a postive linear association between oral health and mortality.

  2. Vitamin C Depletion and All-Cause Mortality in Renal Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotomayor, Camilo G; Eisenga, Michele F; Gomes Neto, Antonio W; Ozyilmaz, Akin; Gans, Rijk O B; Jong, Wilhelmina H A de; Zelle, Dorien M; Berger, Stefan P; Gaillard, Carlo A J M; Navis, Gerjan J; Bakker, Stephan J L

    2017-06-02

    Vitamin C may reduce inflammation and is inversely associated with mortality in the general population. We investigated the association of plasma vitamin C with all-cause mortality in renal transplant recipients (RTR); and whether this association would be mediated by inflammatory biomarkers. Vitamin C, high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), soluble intercellular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1) were measured in a cohort of 598 RTR. Cox regression analyses were used to analyze the association between vitamin C depletion (≤28 µmol/L; 22% of RTR) and mortality. Mediation analyses were performed according to Preacher and Hayes's procedure. At a median follow-up of 7.0 (6.2-7.5) years, 131 (21%) patients died. Vitamin C depletion was univariately associated with almost two-fold higher risk of mortality (Hazard ratio (HR) 1.95; 95% confidence interval (95%CI) 1.35-2.81, p C depletion is frequent and independently associated with almost two-fold higher risk of mortality in RTR. It may be hypothesized that the beneficial effect of vitamin C at least partly occurs through decreasing inflammation.

  3. Increased all-cause mortality with psychotropic medication in Parkinson's disease and controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Rune; Baandrup, Lone; Kjellberg, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Use of medication and polypharmacy is common as the population ages and its disease burden increases. We evaluated the association of antidepressants, benzodiazepines, antipsychotics and combinations of psychotropic drugs with all-cause mortality in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD...... of psychotropic medication in PD patients and controls. Hazard ratios were as follows for the medication types: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or serotonin-noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors, PD HR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.04-1.36; Control HR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.64-1.91; benzodiazepines, PD HR = 1.17, 95% CI = 0.......20-1.76; Control HR = 2.00, 95% CI 1.66-2.43; and combinations of these drugs compared with non-medicated PD patients and controls. Discontinuation of medication was associated with decreased mortality in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: The use of psychotropic medication in the elderly is associated with increased...

  4. Benzodiazepines and risk of all cause mortality in adults: cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patorno, Elisabetta; Glynn, Robert J; Levin, Raisa; Lee, Moa P; Huybrechts, Krista F

    2017-07-06

    Objectives  To evaluate the risk of all cause mortality associated with initiating compared with not initiating benzodiazepines in adults, and to address potential treatment barriers and confounding related to the use of a non-active comparator group. Design  Retrospective cohort study. Setting  Large de-identified US commercial healthcare database (Optum Clinformatics Datamart). Participants  1:1 high dimensional propensity score matched cohort of benzodiazepine initiators, and randomly selected benzodiazepine non-initiators with a medical visit within 14 days of the start of benzodiazepine treatment (n=1 252 988), between July 2004 and December 2013. To address treatment barriers and confounding, patients were required to have filled one or more prescriptions for any medication in the 90 days and 91-180 days before the index date (ie, the date of starting benzodiazepine treatment for initiators and the date of the selected medical visit for benzodiazepine non-initiators) and the high dimensional propensity score was estimated on the basis of more than 300 covariates. Main outcome measure  All cause mortality, determined by linkage with the Social Security Administration Death Master File. Results  Over a six month follow-up period, 5061 and 4691 deaths occurred among high dimensional propensity score matched benzodiazepine initiators versus non-initiators (9.3 v 9.4 events per 1000 person years; hazard ratio 1.00, 95% confidence interval 0.96 to 1.04). A 4% (95% confidence interval 1% to 8%) to 9% (2% to 7%) increase in mortality risk was observed associated with the start of benzodiazepine treatment for follow-ups of 12 and 48 months and in subgroups of younger patients and patients initiating short acting agents. In secondary analyses comparing 1:1 high dimensional propensity score matched patients initiating benzodiazepines with an active comparator, ie, patients starting treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants

  5. Nonmelanoma skin cancer and risk of all-cause and cancer-related mortality: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Virginia; Armeson, Kent; Hampras, Shalaka; Ferris, Laura K; Visvanathan, Kala; Rollison, Dana; Alberg, Anthony J

    2017-05-01

    Some reports suggest that a history of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) may be associated with increased mortality. NMSCs have very low fatality rates, but the high prevalence of NMSC elevates the importance of the possibility of associated subsequent mortality from other causes. The variable methods and findings of existing studies leave the significance of these results uncertain. To provide clarity, we conducted a systematic review to characterize the evidence on the associations of NMSC with: (1) all-cause mortality, (2) cancer-specific mortality, and (3) cancer survival. Bibliographic databases were searched through February 2016. Cohort studies published in English were included if adequate data were provided to estimate mortality ratios in patients with-versus-without NMSC. Data were abstracted from the total of eight studies from independent data sources that met inclusion criteria (n = 3 for all-cause mortality, n = 2 for cancer-specific mortality, and n = 5 for cancer survival). For all-cause mortality, a significant increased risk was observed for patients with a history of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (mortality ratio estimates (MR) 1.25 and 1.30), whereas no increased risk was observed for patients with a history of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) (MRs 0.96 and 0.97). Based on one study, the association with cancer-specific mortality was stronger for SCC (MR 2.17) than BCC (MR 1.15). Across multiple types of cancer both SCC and BCC tended to be associated with poorer survival from second primary malignancies. Multiple studies support an association between NMSC and fatal outcomes; the associations tend to be more potent for SCC than BCC. Additional investigation is needed to more precisely characterize these associations and elucidate potential underlying mechanisms.

  6. Dog ownership and all-cause mortality in a population cohort in Norway: The HUNT study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnhild Oust Torske

    Full Text Available There has been increased interest in human-animal interactions and their possible effects on human health. Some of this research has focused on human physical activity levels, mediated through increased dog walking. Much of the reported research has been cross sectional, and very few epidemiological studies have examined the association between dog ownership and mortality in populations.We used data from the Norwegian county population-based Nord-Trøndelag HUNT Study (HUNT2, 1995-1997. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to analyse the relationship between dog ownership and all-cause mortality. The median follow-up time was 18.5 years and the maximum follow-up time was 19.7 years.In this population, dog owners were no more physically active than non-dog owners, both groups reporting a total of just over 3 hours/week of light and vigorous activity. Dog owners (n = 25,031, with 1,587 deaths during follow-up; 504,017 person-years of time at risk had virtually the same hazard of dying as non-dog owners (Hazard ratio 1.00, 95% CI 0.91-1.09.We found no evidence for an association between the presence of a dog in the household and all-cause mortality or physical activity levels in this Norwegian population. Further epidemiological research is needed to clarify this relationship, as methodological limitations and an active Norwegian population sample means that generalizable evidence is not yet clear on dog ownership and mortality.

  7. Worsening calcification propensity precedes all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in haemodialyzed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Georg; Steubl, Dominik; Kemmner, Stephan; Pasch, Andreas; Koch-Sembdner, Wilhelm; Pham, Dang; Haller, Bernhard; Bachmann, Quirin; Mayer, Christopher C; Wassertheurer, Siegfried; Angermann, Susanne; Lech, Maciej; Moog, Philipp; Bauer, Axel; Heemann, Uwe; Schmaderer, Christoph

    2017-10-17

    A novel in-vitro test (T 50 -test) assesses ex-vivo serum calcification propensity which predicts mortality in HD patients. The association of longitudinal changes of T 50 with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality has not been investigated. We assessed T 50 in paired sera collected at baseline and at 24 months in 188 prevalent European HD patients from the ISAR cohort, most of whom were Caucasians. Patients were followed for another 19 [interquartile range: 11-37] months. Serum T 50 exhibited a significant decline between baseline and 24 months (246 ± 64 to 190 ± 68 minutes; p < 0.001). With serum Δ-phosphate showing the strongest independent association with declining T 50 (r = -0.39; p < 0.001) in multivariable linear regression. The rate of decline of T 50 over 24 months was a significant predictor of all-cause (HR = 1.51 per 1SD decline, 95% CI: 1.04 to 2.2; p = 0.03) and cardiovascular mortality (HR = 2.15; 95% CI: 1.15 to 3.97; p = 0.02) in Kaplan Meier and multivariable Cox-regression analysis, while cross-sectional T 50 at inclusion and 24 months were not. Worsening serum calcification propensity was an independent predictor of mortality in this small cohort of prevalent HD patients. Prospective larger scaled studies are needed to assess the value of calcification propensity as a longitudinal parameter for risk stratification and monitoring of therapeutic interventions.

  8. Trends in All-Cause Mortality across Gestational Age in Days for Children Born at Term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chun Sen; Sun, Yuelian; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard; Olsen, Jørn

    2015-01-01

    Background Term birth is a gestational age from 259 days to 293 days. However trends in mortality according to gestational ages in days have not yet been described in this time period. Methods and Findings Based on nation-wide registries, we conducted a population-based cohort study among all children born at term in Denmark from 1997 to 2004 to estimate differences in mortality across gestational ages in days among singletons born at term. We studied early-neonatal mortality, neonatal mortality, infant mortality, and five-year mortality. Children were followed from birth up to the last day of the defined mortality period or December 31, 2009. A total of 360,375 singletons born between 259 and 293 days of gestation were included in the study. Mortality decreased with increasing gestational age in days and the highest mortality was observed among children born at 37 week of gestation. A similar pattern was observed when analyses were restricted to children born to by mothers without pregnancy complications. Conclusions This study demonstrates heterogeneity in mortality rates even among singletons born at term. The highest mortality was observed among children born 37 weeks of gestation, which call for cautions when inducing labor in term pregnancies just reaching 37 weeks of gestation. The findings support that 37 weeks of gestation should be defined as early term. PMID:26656842

  9. Diabetes treatments and risk of heart failure, cardiovascular disease, and all cause mortality: cohort study in primary care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupland, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess associations between risks of cardiovascular disease, heart failure, and all cause mortality and different diabetes drugs in people with type 2 diabetes, particularly newer agents, including gliptins and thiazolidinediones (glitazones). Design Open cohort study. Setting 1243 general practices contributing data to the QResearch database in England. Participants 469 688 people with type 2 diabetes aged 25-84 years between 1 April 2007 and 31 January 2015. Exposures Diabetes drugs (glitazones, gliptins, metformin, sulphonylureas, insulin, other) alone and in combination. Main outcome measure First recorded diagnoses of cardiovascular disease, heart failure, and all cause mortality recorded on the patients’ primary care, mortality, or hospital record. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios for diabetes treatments, adjusting for potential confounders. Results During follow-up, 21 308 patients (4.5%) received prescriptions for glitazones and 32 533 (6.9%) received prescriptions for gliptins. Compared with non-use, gliptins were significantly associated with an 18% decreased risk of all cause mortality, a 14% decreased risk of heart failure, and no significant change in risk of cardiovascular disease; corresponding values for glitazones were significantly decreased risks of 23% for all cause mortality, 26% for heart failure, and 25% for cardiovascular disease. Compared with no current treatment, there were no significant associations between monotherapy with gliptins and risk of any complications. Dual treatment with gliptins and metformin was associated with a decreased risk of all three outcomes (reductions of 38% for heart failure, 33% for cardiovascular disease, and 48% for all cause mortality). Triple treatment with metformin, sulphonylureas, and gliptins was associated with a decreased risk of all three outcomes (reductions of 40% for heart failure, 30% for cardiovascular disease, and 51% for all cause

  10. Dietary phosphatidylcholine and risk of all-cause and cardiovascular-specific mortality among US women and men12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yan; Li, Yanping; Rimm, Eric B; Hu, Frank B; Albert, Christine M; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Manson, JoAnn E; Qi, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Background: The trimethylamine-containing nutrient phosphatidylcholine is the major dietary source for the gut microbiota metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), which has been related to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and mortality. Previous research suggested that the relation of TMAO with CVD risk might be stronger in diabetic than in nondiabetic populations. However, the evidence for an association of dietary phosphatidylcholine with CVD and mortality is limited. Objectives: We aimed to examine whether dietary consumption of phosphatidylcholine, which is mainly derived from eggs, red meat, and fish, is related to all-cause and CVD mortality in 2 cohorts of US women and men. In particular, we also tested if such an association was modified by diabetes status. Design: We followed 80,978 women from the Nurses’ Health Study (1980–2012) and 39,434 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986–2012), who were free of cancer and CVD at baseline, for mortality. Dietary intakes and potential confounders were assessed with regularly administered questionnaires. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate HRs and 95% CIs. Results: We documented 17,829 all-cause and 4359 CVD deaths during follow-up. After multivariate adjustment for potential confounders, including demographic factors, disease status, lifestyle, and dietary intakes, higher phosphatidylcholine intakes were associated with an increased risk of all-cause and CVD mortality. HRs (95% CIs) comparing the top and bottom quintiles of phosphatidylcholine intake were 1.11 (1.06, 1.17; P-trend across quintiles < 0.0001) for all-cause mortality and 1.26 (1.15, 1.39; P-trend < 0.0001) for CVD mortality in the combined data of both cohorts. The associations of phosphatidylcholine with all-cause and CVD mortality were stronger in diabetic than in nondiabetic participants (P-interaction = 0.0002 and 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: These data suggest that higher phosphatidylcholine consumption is

  11. Loneliness and All-Cause, Cardiovascular, and Noncardiovascular Mortality in Older Men: The Zutphen Elderly Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julsing, Jolien E; Kromhout, Daan; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Giltay, Erik J

    2016-06-01

    Loneliness, defined as the discrepancy between one's desired and actual relationships, is prevalent in the elderly and can be both emotional and social loneliness. We aimed to determine whether loneliness is independently related to higher all-cause, cardiovascular, and noncardiovascular mortality in elderly men. Using a population-based cohort study with 25 years of follow-up from 1985, the Zutphen Study, 719 of 939 men (76.2%; age range: 64-84 years) who had complete data on loneliness at baseline and at least 2 years of survival were studied. Loneliness was assessed using a validated 11-item questionnaire in 1985, 1990, 1995, and 2000. Time-dependent Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics and cardiovascular risk factors. At baseline, point prevalence of moderate and severe loneliness was, respectively, 38.8% (N = 279) and 3.2% (N = 23). Loneliness, especially emotional loneliness, did significantly increase over 15 years with an overall reliability coefficient of 0.50. All-cause, cardiovascular, and noncardiovascular mortality were not higher among moderately lonely participants (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.00; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.84-1.17; HR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.78-1.25; and HR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.79-1.24, respectively) and severely lonely participants (HR: 1.40; 95% CI: 0.85-2.31; HR: 1.18; 95% CI: 0.58-2.39; and HR: 1.63; 95% CIH 0.80-3.31, respectively). Loneliness is common and increases during aging, due to the increase in its component emotional loneliness over time. No independent associations with risks of all-cause, cardiovascular, and noncardiovascular death were found. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Long-term weight changes in obese young adult men and subsequent all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, E; Berentzen, T L; Ängquist, Lars Henrik

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Although the expectation is that weight gain increases mortality and weight loss among those overweight reduces mortality, results on weight gain and mortality in young adults are conflicting, and weight loss is less explored. We investigated the association between long-term weight...... change and all-cause mortality in a broad range of body mass index (BMI) in young men.METHODS:Among 362200 Danish draftees, examined between 1943 and 1977, all obese (BMI 31.0 kg m(-2); n=1930), and a random 1% sample of the others (n=3601) were identified at a mean age of 20 years (range: 18-25 years......). All the obese and half the controls were re-examined between 4 and 40 years later (mean age 35 years). Weight changes were defined as: weight loss 0.1 kg m(-2) per year. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox regression.RESULTS:Among the 908 obese and 1073...

  13. All-cause mortality after drug-eluting stent implantation in African-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poludasu, Shyam; Cavusoglu, Erdal; Khan, Waqas; Marmur, Jonathan D

    2008-12-01

    Recent studies have questioned the safety of drug-eluting stents because of a higher incidence of late stent thrombosis, raising the possibility that drug-eluting stents may be associated with an increased mortality. The effect of drug-eluting stents on mortality in African-Americans is unknown. We evaluated 628 African-American patients (354 patients treated with drug-eluting stents and 274 patients treated with bare metal stents) between January 2003 and August 2005, using data from our bolus-only platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor database. The primary end point was all-cause mortality obtained using social security death index. After a mean follow-up of 3+/-0.9 years, the mortality rate in the bare metal stents group was 12.8% compared with 7.1% in the drug-eluting stents group [adjusted P value=0.19; hazard ratio (HR) for bare metal stents group compared with drug-eluting stents group for death=1.4; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.8-2.4]. In a subgroup analysis, patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome had a higher mortality when treated with bare metal stents compared with drug-eluting stents (17.1 vs. 6.3%, P=0.022; HR=2.2; 95% CI: 1.1-4.4). Patients with chronic kidney disease (all patients with creatinine >1.5 mg/dl) also had a higher mortality with bare metal stents compared with drug-eluting stents (36.7 vs. 20.4%, P=0.044; HR=2.3; 95% CI: 1.02-5.2). Drug-eluting stents seem to be safe in African-Americans and may improve survival in certain subgroups such as patients with acute coronary syndromes and chronic kidney disease.

  14. Surface-Based Body Shape Index and Its Relationship with All-Cause Mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ashiqur Rahman

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global public health challenge. In the US, for instance, obesity prevalence remains high at more than one-third of the adult population, while over two-thirds are obese or overweight. Obesity is associated with various health problems, such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, depression, some forms of cancer, sleep apnea, osteoarthritis, among others. The body mass index (BMI is one of the best known measures of obesity. The BMI, however, has serious limitations, for instance, its inability to capture the distribution of lean mass and adipose tissue, which is a better predictor of diabetes and CVDs, and its curved ("U-shaped" relationship with mortality hazard. Other anthropometric measures and their relation to obesity have been studied, each with its advantages and limitations. In this work, we introduce a new anthropometric measure (called Surface-based Body Shape Index, SBSI that accounts for both body shape and body size, and evaluate its performance as a predictor of all-cause mortality.We analyzed data on 11,808 subjects (ages 18-85, from the National Health and Human Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2004, with 8-year mortality follow up. Based on the analysis, we introduce a new body shape index constructed from four important anthropometric determinants of body shape and body size: body surface area (BSA, vertical trunk circumference (VTC, height (H and waist circumference (WC. The surface-based body shape index (SBSI is defined as follows: SBSI = ((H(7/4(WC(5/6/(BSA VTC (1 SBSI has negative correlation with BMI and weight respectively, no correlation with WC, and shows a generally linear relationship with age. Results on mortality hazard prediction using both the Cox proportionality model, and Kaplan-Meier curves each show that SBSI outperforms currently popular body shape indices (e.g., BMI, WC, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, A Body Shape Index (ABSI in predicting all-cause

  15. Paleolithic and Mediterranean Diet Pattern Scores Are Inversely Associated with All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Kristine A; Judd, Suzanne; McCullough, Marjorie L; Flanders, W Dana; Hartman, Terryl J; Bostick, Roberd M

    2017-04-01

    Background: Poor diet quality is associated with a higher risk of many chronic diseases that are among the leading causes of death in the United States. It has been hypothesized that evolutionary discordance may account for some of the higher incidence and mortality from these diseases. Objective: We investigated associations of 2 diet pattern scores, the Paleolithic and the Mediterranean, with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the REGARDS (REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) study, a longitudinal cohort of black and white men and women ≥45 y of age. Methods: Participants completed questionnaires, including a Block food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ), at baseline and were contacted every 6 mo to determine their health status. Of the analytic cohort ( n = 21,423), a total of 2513 participants died during a median follow-up of 6.25 y. We created diet scores from FFQ responses and assessed their associations with mortality using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusting for major risk factors. Results: For those in the highest relative to the lowest quintiles of the Paleolithic and Mediterranean diet scores, the multivariable adjusted HRs for all-cause mortality were, respectively, 0.77 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.89; P- trend diets closer to Paleolithic or Mediterranean diet patterns may be inversely associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Exercise capacity and all-cause mortality in male veterans with hypertension aged ≥70 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faselis, Charles; Doumas, Michael; Pittaras, Andreas; Narayan, Puneet; Myers, Jonathan; Tsimploulis, Apostolos; Kokkinos, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Aging, even in otherwise healthy subjects, is associated with declines in muscle mass, strength, and aerobic capacity. Older individuals respond favorably to exercise, suggesting that physical inactivity plays an important role in age-related functional decline. Conversely, physical activity and improved exercise capacity are associated with lower mortality risk in hypertensive individuals. However, the effect of exercise capacity in older hypertensive individuals has not been investigated extensively. A total of 2153 men with hypertension, aged ≥70 years (mean, 75 ± 4) from the Washington, DC, and Palo Alto Veterans Affairs Medical Centers, underwent routine exercise tolerance testing. Peak workload was estimated in metabolic equivalents (METs). Fitness categories were established based on peak METs achieved, adjusted for age: very-low-fit, 2.0 to 4.0 METs (n=386); low-fit, 4.1 to 6.0 METs (n=1058); moderate-fit, 6.1 to 8.0 METs (n=495); high-fit >8.0 METs (n=214). Cox proportional hazard models were applied after adjusting for age, body mass index, race, cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular medications, and risk factors. All-cause mortality was quantified during a mean follow-up period of 9.0 ± 5.5 years. There were a total of 1039 deaths or 51.2 deaths per 1000 person-years of follow-up. Mortality risk was 11% lower (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.86-0.93; Pexercise capacity. When compared with those achieving ≤4.0 METs, mortality risk was 18% lower (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.95; P=0.011) for the low-fit, 36% for the moderate-fit (hazard ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.78; Pexercise capacity is associated with lower mortality risk in elderly men with hypertension. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Syndecan-4 Is an Independent Predictor of All-Cause as Well as Cardiovascular Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej J Jaroszyński

    Full Text Available Left ventricular hypertrophy is associated withincreased mortality in hemodialysis (HD patients.Syndecan-4 plays a role in many processes that are involved in the heart fibrosis and hypertrophy.We designed this study to prospectively determine whether syndecan-4 was predictive of mortality in a group of HD patients.In total, 191 HD patients were included. Clinical, biochemical and echocardiographic parameters were recorded. HD patients were followed-up for 23.18 ± 4.02 months.Syndecan-4 levels correlated strongly with geometrical echocardiographic parameters and ejection fraction. Relations with pressure-related parameters were weak and only marginally significant. Using the receiver operating characteristics the optimal cut-off points in predicting all-cause as well as cardiovascular (CV mortality were evaluated and patients were divided into low and high syndecan-4 groups. A Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the cumulative incidences of all-cause as well as CV mortality were higher in high serum syndecan-4 group compared with those with low serum syndecan-4 (p<0.001 in both cases.A multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis revealed syndecan-4 concentration to be an independent and significant predictor of all-cause (hazard ratio, 2.99; confidence interval, 2.34 to 3.113; p<0.001as well as CV mortality (hazard ratio, 2.81;confidence interval, 2.28to3.02; p<0.001.Serum syndecan-4 concentration reflects predominantly geometrical echocardiographic parameters. In HD patients serum syndecan-4 concentration is independently associated with all-cause as well as CV mortality.

  18. Cardiorespiratory optimal point during exercise testing as a predictor of all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Plínio S; Araújo, Claudio Gil S

    2017-04-01

    The cardiorespiratory optimal point (COP) is a novel index, calculated as the minimum oxygen ventilatory equivalent (VE/VO 2 ) obtained during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). In this study we demonstrate the prognostic value of COP both independently and in combination with maximum oxygen consumption (VO 2 max) in community-dwelling adults. Maximal cycle ergometer CPET was performed in 3331 adults (66% men) aged 40-85 years, healthy (18%) or with chronic disease (81%). COP cut-off values of 30 were selected based on the log-rank test. Risk discrimination was assessed using COP as an independent predictor and combined with VO 2 max. Median follow-up was 6.4 years (7.1% mortality). Subjects with COP >30 demonstrated increased mortality compared to those with COP 30 of 3.72 (95% CI 1.98-6.98; p30, either independently or in combination with low VO 2 max, is a good predictor of all-cause mortality in community-dwelling adults (healthy or with chronic disease). COP is a submaximal prognostic index that is simple to obtain and adds to CPET assessment, especially for adults unable or unwilling to achieve maximal exercise. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Independent effects of waist circumference and physical activity on all-cause mortality in Canadian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Craig, Cora L

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the independent effects of waist circumference (WC) and physical inactivity on the risk of mortality in women. This prospective cohort study included 5421 female participants 20-69 years of age in the 1981 Canada Fitness Survey. WC was measured with an anthropometric tape and leisure-time physical activity levels over the previous 12 months were assessed with a questionnaire. Mortality surveillance was conducted by data linkage with the Canadian Mortality Database through 31 December, 1993. The hazard ratios (HR) of mortality were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression with age, smoking status, and alcohol consumption included as covariates in all models. A total of 225 deaths occurred over an average of 12.4 years of follow up (67 500 person-years of follow up). Physical activity (HR = 0.78; 95% C.I.: 0.64-0.95) and WC (HR = 1.17; 95% C.I.: 1.05-1.31) were associated with mortality when included in separate regression models. When included in the same model, both physical activity (HR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.65-0.96) and WC (HR = 1.16; 95% C.I.: 1.04-1.30) remained independent significant predictors of mortality. In conclusion, physical inactivity and high WC have significant independent risks of premature mortality among women.

  20. Depression and markers of inflammation as predictors of all-cause mortality in heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommersteeg, P.M.C.; Schoemaker, R.G.; Naudé, P.J.W.; Eisel, U.L.M.; Garrelds, I.M.; Schalkwijk, C.G.; Westerhuis, B.W.J.J.M.; Kop, W.J.; Denollet, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background In patients with heart failure (HF) depressive symptoms have been associated with mortality, as well as biological risk factors, including inflammation, nitric oxide (NO) regulation, and oxidative stress. We investigated the joint predictive value of depressive symptoms, inflammation and

  1. Occupational heavy lifting and risk of ischemic heart disease and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina Bjørk; Eriksen, Louise; Tolstrup, Janne S

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Occupational heavy lifting is known to impose a high cardiovascular strain, but the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) from occupational heavy lifting is unknown. The objective was to investigate the association between occupational heavy lifting and risk of IHD and all...... risk was associated with occupational (HR: 0.50, 95 % CI: 0.37, 0.68) and leisure time (HR: 0.73, 95 % CI: 0.56, 0.95) physical activity. Referencing men with high occupational physical activity and no heavy lifting, men with high occupational physical activity and heavy lifting did not have...... cardiovascular disease at baseline. Conventional risk factors for the outcomes IHD and all-cause mortality were controlled for in Cox analyses. RESULTS: Among men, heavy lifting was associated with increased risk for IHD (hazard ratio (HR): 1.52, 95 % Confidence interval (95 % CI): 1.15, 2.02), while a decreased...

  2. Red Cell Distribution Width Is Associated with All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality in Patients with Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeer G. Al-Kindi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Methods. Red cell distribution width (RDW has emerged as a prognostic marker in patients with cardiovascular diseases. We investigated mortality in patients with diabetes included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, in relation to baseline RDW. RDW was divided into 4 quartiles (Q1: ≤12.4%, Q2: 12.5%–12.9%, Q3: 13.0%–13.7%, and Q4: >13.7%. Results. A total of 3,061 patients were included: mean age 61±14 years, 50% male, 39% White. Mean RDW was 13.2%±1.4%. Compared with first quartile (Q1 of RDW, patients in Q4 were more likely to be older, female, and African-American, have had history of stroke, myocardial infarction, and heart failure, and have chronic kidney disease. After a median follow-up of 6 years, 628 patient died (29% of cardiovascular disease. Compared with Q1, patients in Q4 were at increased risk for all-cause mortality (HR 3.44 [2.74–4.32], P<.001 and cardiovascular mortality (HR 3.34 [2.16–5.17], P<.001. After adjusting for 17 covariates, RDW in Q4 remained significantly associated with all-cause mortality (HR 2.39 [1.30–4.38], P=0.005 and cardiovascular mortality (HR 1.99 [1.17–3.37], P=0.011. Conclusion. RDW is a powerful and an independent marker for prediction of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality in patients with diabetes.

  3. The inflammatory biomarker YKL-40 as a new prognostic marker for all-cause mortality in patients with heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harutyunyan, Marina; Christiansen, Michael; Johansen, Julia S

    2011-01-01

    peptide (NT-proBNP) could be a new prognostic biomarker for all-cause mortality in patients with HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 717 of the 1000 patients with severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction included in the EchoCardiography and Heart Outcome Study were included in Denmark and had blood...... YKL-40 II to IV quartiles, respectively following multivariable adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors (age, left ventricular ejection fraction, gender, history of heart failure, ischemic heart disease, chronic pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, stroke, hypertension, NT-proBNP, hs......-CRP, and renal function). CONCLUSION: Serum YKL-40 is significantly associated with all-cause mortality in patients with HF and could potentially be a new prognostic biomarker in these patients....

  4. All cause mortality and incidence of cancer in workers in bauxite mines and alumina refineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritschi, Lin; Hoving, Jan Lucas; Sim, Malcolm R; Del Monaco, Anthony; MacFarlane, Ewan; McKenzie, Dean; Benke, Geza; de Klerk, Nicholas

    2008-08-15

    Bauxite is a reddish clay that is refined to produce alumina, which is then reduced to aluminium. There have been studies examining the health of workers in aluminium smelters, but not workers in bauxite mining and alumina refining. A cohort of employees of 1 large aluminium company since 1983 was assembled (n = 6,485, 5,828 men). Deaths and incident cancers to 2002 were ascertained by linkage to national and state cancer and death registries. SIRs and SMRs were calculated compared to national rates standardizing for calendar year, sex and 5-year age group. The mortality from all causes (SMR 0.68, 95% CI: 0.60-0.77), and from circulatory and respiratory diseases, all cancers combined and injury in the male cohort were lower than in the Australian male population and were similar across work groups and with duration of employment. The only significant increased mortality risk was from pleural mesothelioma. The incidence of all cancers combined was similar to the Australian rate. The cohort had a lower risk of incident lymphohaematopoietic cancer (SIR 0.50, 95% CI: 0.31-0.88) and a higher risk of melanoma (SIR 1.30, 95% CI: 1.00-1.69) although no dose-responses were seen. There was also an increased risk of mesothelioma (SIR 3.49, 95% CI: 1.82-6.71), which was associated with exposures outside the aluminium industry. This study is the first to examine cancer and mortality amongst workers in bauxite mines and alumina refineries and found little evidence for increased cancer incidence or mortality in these workers. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Serum globulin predicts all-cause mortality for life insurance applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulks, Michael; Stout, Robert L; Dolan, Vera F

    2014-01-01

    Determine the relative mortality in apparently healthy adults with various levels of serum globulin. By use of the Social Security Death Master File, mortality in 2010 was determined for 7.7 million life insurance applicants age 20 to 89 providing blood samples with valid globulin results between 1992 and 2006. Relative mortality by Cox regression for bands of globulin values was determined by age-sex group, with age split into 20 to 59 and 60 to 89, with each grouping also including age as a covariate. Further analysis was conducted by excluding applicants with elevations of other test values associated with increased globulin levels and mortality risk. After accounting for the mortality impact of frequently associated laboratory test abnormalities including BMI, alkaline phosphatase and albumin, relative mortality was found to increase gradually for globulin values > 3.2 g/dL. Values > 4.0 were associated with a mortality risk that was approximately doubled. There is also a small increased risk for globulin values life insurance applicants. In many cases, other laboratory findings were not informative of the risk.

  6. Changes in physical activity and all-cause mortality in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaes, A. W.; Garcia-Aymerich, J.; Marott, J. L.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about changes in physical activity in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its impact on mortality. Therefore, we aimed to study changes in physical activity in subjects with and without COPD and the impact of physical activity on mortality risk. Subjects......, respectively) were included. COPD subjects with moderate or high baseline physical activity who reported low physical activity level at follow-up had the highest hazard ratios of mortality (1.73 and 2.35, respectively; both p...

  7. Legume consumption and risk of all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality in the PREDIMED study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papandreou, Christopher; Becerra-Tomás, Nerea; Bulló, Mònica; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramon; Ros, Emilio; Arós, Fernando; Schroder, Helmut; Fitó, Montserrat; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Lapetra, José; Fiol, Miquel; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Sorli, Jose V; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2018-01-09

    Limited prospective studies have examined the association between legumes consumption and mortality, whereas scarce, if at all, previous studies have evaluated such associations taking into consideration specific grain legumes. We aimed to investigate the association between total legumes consumption and grain legumes species (dry beans, chickpeas, lentils, and fresh peas) with all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and other-cause mortality among elderly Mediterranean individuals at high CVD risk. We prospectively assessed 7216 participants from the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea study. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline and yearly during follow-up by using a validated food frequency questionnaire. During a median follow-up of 6.0 years, 425 total deaths, 103 CVD deaths, 169 cancer deaths and 153 due to other-causes deaths occurred. Hazard ratios (HRs) [95% confidence interval (CI)] of CVD mortality were 1.52 (1.02-2.89) (P-trend = 0.034) and 2.23 (1.32-3.78) (P-trend = 0.002) for the 3rd tertile of total legumes and dry beans consumption, respectively, compared with the 1st tertile. When comparing extreme tertiles, higher total legumes and lentils consumption was associated with 49% (HR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.31-0.84; P-trend = 0.009) and 37% (HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.40-0.98; P-trend = 0.049) lower risk of cancer mortality. Similar associations were observed for CVD death in males and for cancer death in males, obese and diabetic participants. These findings support the benefits of legumes consumption for cancer mortality prevention which may be counterbalanced by their higher risk for CVD mortality. The trial is registered at http://www.controlled-trials.com (ISRCTN35739639). Registration date: 5th October 2005. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effect of Coffee and Quantity of Consumption on Specific Cardiovascular and All-Cause Mortality: Coffee Consumption Does Not Affect Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomba, Rohit S; Aggarwal, Saurabh; Arora, Rohit R

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have examined whether or not an association exists between the consumption of caffeinated coffee to all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. This study aimed to delineate this association using population representative data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. Patients were included in the study if all the following criteria were met: (1) follow-up mortality data were available, (2) age of at least 45 years, and (3) reported amount of average coffee consumption. A total of 8608 patients were included, with patients stratified into the following groups of average daily coffee consumption: (1) no coffee consumption, (2) less than 1 cup, (3) 1 cup a day, (4) 2-3 cups, (5) 4-5 cups, (6) more than 6 cups a day. Odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals, and P values were calculated for univariate analysis to compare the prevalence of all-cause mortality, ischemia-related mortality, congestive heart failure-related mortality, and stroke-related mortality, using the no coffee consumption group as reference. These were then adjusted for confounding factors for a multivariate analysis. P coffee consumption and mortality, although this became insignificant on multivariate analysis. Coffee consumption, thus, does not seem to impact all-cause mortality or specific cardiovascular mortality. These findings do differ from those of recently published studies. Coffee consumption of any quantity seems to be safe without any increased mortality risk. There may be some protective effects but additional data are needed to further delineate this.

  9. Anti-Gay Prejudice and All-Cause Mortality Among Heterosexuals in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellatorre, Anna; Muennig, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We determined whether individuals who harbor antigay prejudice experience elevated mortality risk. Methods. Data on heterosexual sexual orientation (n = 20 226, aged 18–89 years), antigay attitudes, and mortality risk factors came from the General Social Survey, which was linked to mortality data from the National Death Index (1988–2008). We used Cox proportional hazard models to examine whether antigay prejudice was associated with mortality risk among heterosexuals. Results. Heterosexuals who reported higher levels of antigay prejudice had higher mortality risk than those who reported lower levels (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.25; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09, 1.42), with control for multiple risk factors for mortality, including demographics, socioeconomic status, and fair or poor self-rated health. This result translates into a life expectancy difference of approximately 2.5 years (95% CI = 1.0, 4.0 years) between individuals with high versus low levels of antigay prejudice. Furthermore, in sensitivity analyses, antigay prejudice was specifically associated with increased risk of cardiovascular-related causes of death in fully adjusted models (HR = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.04, 1.60). Conclusions. The findings contribute to a growing body of research suggesting that reducing prejudice may improve the health of both minority and majority populations. PMID:24328664

  10. Road traffic noise is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and all-cause mortality in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halonen, Jaana I; Hansell, Anna L; Gulliver, John; Morley, David; Blangiardo, Marta; Fecht, Daniela; Toledano, Mireille B; Beevers, Sean D; Anderson, Hugh Ross; Kelly, Frank J; Tonne, Cathryn

    2015-10-14

    Road traffic noise has been associated with hypertension but evidence for the long-term effects on hospital admissions and mortality is limited. We examined the effects of long-term exposure to road traffic noise on hospital admissions and mortality in the general population. The study population consisted of 8.6 million inhabitants of London, one of Europe's largest cities. We assessed small-area-level associations of day- (7:00-22:59) and nighttime (23:00-06:59) road traffic noise with cardiovascular hospital admissions and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in all adults (≥25 years) and elderly (≥75 years) through Poisson regression models. We adjusted models for age, sex, area-level socioeconomic deprivation, ethnicity, smoking, air pollution, and neighbourhood spatial structure. Median daytime exposure to road traffic noise was 55.6 dB. Daytime road traffic noise increased the risk of hospital admission for stroke with relative risk (RR) 1.05 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02-1.09] in adults, and 1.09 (95% CI: 1.04-1.14) in the elderly in areas >60 vs. 60 vs. road traffic noise was associated with small increased risks of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in the general population, particularly for stroke in the elderly. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  11. All-Cause Mortality for Diabetics or Individuals with Hyperglycemia Applying for Life Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Stephen A; MacKenzie, Ross; Wylde, David N; Roudebush, Bradley T; Bergstrom, Richard L; Holowaty, J Carl; Hart, Anna; Rigatti, Steven J; Gill, Stacy J

    2016-01-01

    Diabetics and individuals with lab results consistent with a diagnosis of diabetes or hyperglycemia were extracted from data covering US residents who applied for life insurance between January 2007 and January 2014. Information about these applicants was matched to the Social Security Death Master File (SSDMF) and another commercially available death source file to determine vital status. Due to the inconsistencies of reporting within the death files, there were two cohorts of death cases, one including the imputed year of birth (full cohort of deaths), and the second where the date of birth was known (reduced cohort of deaths). The study had approximately 8.5 million person-years of exposure. Actual to expected (A/E) mortality ratios were calculated using the Society of Actuaries 2008 Valuation Basic Table (2008VBT) select table, age last birthday and the 2010 US population as expected mortality rates. With the 2008VBT as an expected basis, the overall A/E mortality ratio was 3.15 for the full cohort of deaths and 2.56 for the reduced cohort of deaths. Using the US population as the expected basis, the overall A/E mortality ratio was 0.98 for the full cohort of deaths and 0.79 for the reduced cohort. Since there was no smoking status information in this study, all expected bases were not smoker distinct. A/E mortality ratios varied by disease treatment category and were considerably higher in individuals using insulin. A/E mortality ratios decreased with increasing age and took on a J-shaped distribution with increasing BMI (Body Mass Index). The lowest mortality ratios were observed for overweight and obese individuals. The A/E mortality ratio based on the 2008VBT decreased with the increase in applicant duration, which was defined as the time since initial life insurance application.

  12. Increased risk of all-cause mortality and renal graft loss in stable renal transplant recipients with hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlstrøm, Hege; Dahle, Dag Olav; Mjøen, Geir; Pilz, Stefan; März, Winfried; Abedini, Sadollah; Holme, Ingar; Fellström, Bengt; Jardine, Alan G; Holdaas, Hallvard

    2015-02-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is reported in 10% to 66% of renal transplant recipients (RTR). The influence of persisting hyperparathyroidism on long-term clinical outcomes in RTR has not been examined in a large prospective study. We investigated the association between baseline parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and major cardiovascular events, renal graft loss, and all-cause mortality by Cox Proportional Hazard survival analyses in 1840 stable RTR derived from the Assessment of LEscol in Renal Transplantation trial. Patients were recruited in a mean of 5.1 years after transplantation, and follow-up time was 6 to 7 years. Significant associations between PTH and all 3 outcomes were found in univariate analyses. When adjusting for a range of plausible confounders, including measures of renal function and serum mineral levels, PTH remained significantly associated with all-cause mortality (4% increased risk per 10 units; P=0.004), and with graft loss (6% increased risk per 10 units; PHyperparathyroidism is an independent, potentially remediable, risk factor for renal graft loss and all-cause mortality in RTR.

  13. A systematic review and meta-analysis of nut consumption and incident risk of CVD and all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Alexandra J; de Souza, Russell J; Meyre, David; Anand, Sonia S; Mente, Andrew

    2016-01-28

    Dietary patterns containing nuts are associated with a lower risk of CVD mortality, and increased nut consumption has been shown to have beneficial effects on CVD risk factors including serum lipid levels. Recent studies have reported on the relationship between nut intake and CVD outcomes and mortality. Our objective was to systematically review the literature and quantify associations between nut consumption and CVD outcomes and all-cause mortality. Five electronic databases (through July 2015), previous reviews and bibliographies of qualifying articles were searched. In the twenty included prospective cohort studies (n 467 389), nut consumption was significantly associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality (ten studies; risk ratio (RR) 0·81; 95 % CI 0·77, 0·85 for highest v. lowest quantile of intake, P het=0·04, I 2=43 %), CVD mortality (five studies; RR 0·73; 95 % CI 0·68, 0·78; P het=0·31, I 2=16 %), all CHD (three studies; RR 0·66; 95 % CI 0·48, 0·91; P het=0·0002, I 2=88 %) and CHD mortality (seven studies; RR 0·70; 95 % CI 0·64, 0·76; P het=0·65, I 2=0 %), as well as a statistically non-significant reduction in the risk of non-fatal CHD (three studies; RR 0·71; 95 % CI 0·49, 1·03; P het=0·03, I 2=72 %) and stroke mortality (three studies; RR 0·83; 95 % CI 0·69, 1·00; P het=0·54, I 2=0 %). No evidence of association was found for total stroke (two studies; RR 1·05; 95 % CI 0·69, 1·61; P het=0·04, I 2=77 %). Data on total CVD and sudden cardiac death were available from one cohort study, and they were significantly inversely associated with nut consumption. In conclusion, we found that higher nut consumption is associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality, total CVD, CVD mortality, total CHD, CHD mortality and sudden cardiac death.

  14. Estradiol-based postmenopausal hormone therapy and risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkola, Tomi S; Tuomikoski, Pauliina; Lyytinen, Heli; Korhonen, Pasi; Hoti, Fabian; Vattulainen, Pia; Gissler, Mika; Ylikorkala, Olavi

    2015-09-01

    Data on the health benefits and risks of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) are derived mainly from the use of conjugated equine estrogens. Estradiol-based regimens may have a different risk-benefit profile. We evaluated the risk of death caused by coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, or any disease among users of estradiol-based HT regimens in a nationwide study in Finland. A total of 489,105 women who used HT from 1994 to 2009 (3.3 million HT exposure years), as indicated in the nationwide reimbursement register and the national Cause of Death Register, were followed. A total of 28,734 HT users died during follow-up; among the deaths, 3,843 were caused by CHD and 2,464 were caused by stroke. Mortality risk in HT users with varying duration of exposure (≤1 y, >1 to 3 y, >3 to 5 y, >5 to 10 y, or >10 y) was compared with that in an age-matched background population. Risk of CHD death was significantly reduced by 18% to 54% in HT users and was positively related to HT exposure time. Risk of stroke death was also reduced by 18% to 39%, but this reduction was not clearly related to HT exposure time. Risk of all-cause mortality was reduced in HT users by 12% to 38%, almost in linear relationship with duration of exposure. All these risk reductions were comparable in women initiating HT before age 60 years and women initiating HT at age 60 years or older. In absolute terms, the risk reductions mean 19 fewer CHD deaths and 7 fewer stroke deaths per 1,000 women using any HT for at least 10 years.

  15. Combined influence of leisure time physical activity and hip circumference on all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jane Nautrup; Grønbæk, Morten; Ängquist, Lars Henrik

    2013-01-01

    on mortality. From the Copenhagen City Heart Study, 3358 men and 4350 women aged 21 to 93 years without pre-existing diagnosis of diabetes, stroke, ischemic heart disease, or cancer in 1991-94 and with complete information on the variables of interest were included in the analyses. The participants were...

  16. Low-carbohydrate diets and all-cause mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Noto

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Low-carbohydrate diets and their combination with high-protein diets have been gaining widespread popularity to control weight. In addition to weight loss, they may have favorable short-term effects on the risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Our objective was to elucidate their long-term effects on mortality and CVD incidence. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov for relevant articles published as of September 2012. Cohort studies of at least one year's follow-up period were included. REVIEW METHODS: Identified articles were systematically reviewed and those with pertinent data were selected for meta-analysis. Pooled risk ratios (RRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs for all-cause mortality, CVD mortality and CVD incidence were calculated using the random-effects model with inverse-variance weighting. RESULTS: We included 17 studies for a systematic review, followed by a meta-analysis using pertinent data. Of the 272,216 people in 4 cohort studies using the low-carbohydrate score, 15,981 (5.9% cases of death from all-cause were reported. The risk of all-cause mortality among those with high low-carbohydrate score was significantly elevated: the pooled RR (95% CI was 1.31 (1.07-1.59. A total of 3,214 (1.3% cases of CVD death among 249,272 subjects in 3 cohort studies and 5,081 (2.3% incident CVD cases among 220,691 people in different 4 cohort studies were reported. The risks of CVD mortality and incidence were not statistically increased: the pooled RRs (95% CIs were 1.10 (0.98-1.24 and 0.98 (0.78-1.24, respectively. Analyses using low-carbohydrate/high-protein score yielded similar results. CONCLUSION: Low-carbohydrate diets were associated with a significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality and they were not significantly associated with a risk of CVD mortality and incidence. However, this analysis is based on limited observational studies and large-scale trials on

  17. Diet Quality Scores and Prediction of All-Cause, Cardiovascular and Cancer Mortality in a Pan-European Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Lassale

    Full Text Available Scores of overall diet quality have received increasing attention in relation to disease aetiology; however, their value in risk prediction has been little examined. The objective was to assess and compare the association and predictive performance of 10 diet quality scores on 10-year risk of all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality in 451,256 healthy participants to the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, followed-up for a median of 12.8y. All dietary scores studied showed significant inverse associations with all outcomes. The range of HRs (95% CI in the top vs. lowest quartile of dietary scores in a composite model including non-invasive factors (age, sex, smoking, body mass index, education, physical activity and study centre was 0.75 (0.72-0.79 to 0.88 (0.84-0.92 for all-cause, 0.76 (0.69-0.83 to 0.84 (0.76-0.92 for CVD and 0.78 (0.73-0.83 to 0.91 (0.85-0.97 for cancer mortality. Models with dietary scores alone showed low discrimination, but composite models also including age, sex and other non-invasive factors showed good discrimination and calibration, which varied little between different diet scores examined. Mean C-statistic of full models was 0.73, 0.80 and 0.71 for all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality. Dietary scores have poor predictive performance for 10-year mortality risk when used in isolation but display good predictive ability in combination with other non-invasive common risk factors.

  18. Impact of body composition changes on risk of all-cause mortality in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graf, Christophe E; Herrmann, François R; Spoerri, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    excluded persons who died within one month of the second BCM and who had two single BCM in a one-month timeframe. Mortality data was retrieved until December 2012. For each person, we calculated the regression slopes for BMI, FMI and FFMI changes. Significant positive slopes were categorized as "gain......PURPOSE: This study evaluates the relationship between body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI) changes and mortality in persons ≥65 years. METHODS: Adults ≥65 years with at least two body composition measurements (BCM) between 1990 and 2011 were included. We......, and age and co-morbidities, a loss of FFMI, but not of FMI or BMI, increased the risk of mortality (HR 2.02, 95%CI 1.28-3.19). The prediction of mortality with FFMI loss remained significant when further adjusting for FMI loss and the last available body composition (HR 1.68, 95%CI 1.04-2.70). CONCLUSIONS...

  19. Metabolic syndrome in Russian adults: associated factors and mortality from cardiovascular diseases and all causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grjibovski Andrej M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a cluster of four major obesity-related risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD. Russia has one of the highest CVD mortality in the world, but its association with MetS remains unknown. Also little is known about factors associated with MetS and its components in Russia. Methods Data on 3555 adults aged 18-90 years were collected in a cross-sectional study in 2000. MetS was defined by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF and National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP criteria. Sex-specific associations between the IDF-defined MetS, its components, and life-style, socio-economic factors and laboratory indicators, were analysed using multivariable Poisson regression. Vital status of the study participants was identified by July 2009. Sex-specific associations between MetS and stroke, Coronary Heart Disease (CHD, CVD and all-cause death, were studied by Poisson regression adjusted for age, smoking, alcohol and history of CVDs. Results After adjustment for all studied factors except BMI, age, serum GGT, C-reactive protein and AST-to-ALT ratio were associated with MetS in both genders. Additionally, MetS was associated with sedentary lifestyle in women and with smoking in men. In the same regression model drinking alcohol 2-4 times a month and consumption of five or more alcohol units at one occasion in men, and drinking alcohol 5 times or more a month in women were inversely associated with MetS. After a 9-year follow-up, MetS was associated with higher risk of death from stroke (RR = 3.76, 95% CI:1.35-10.46 and from either stroke or myocardial infarction (MI, RR = 2.87, 95% CI:1.32-6.23 in men. No associations between MetS and any of the studied causes of death were observed in women. Conclusion Factors associated with MetS in both genders were age, GGT, C-reactive protein, and AST-to-ALT ratio. Moderate frequency of alcohol consumption and binge drinking in men and higher leisure time

  20. Intelligence in youth and all-cause-mortality: systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, Catherine M; Deary, Ian J; Fenton, Candida; Roberts, Beverly A; Der, Geoff; Leckenby, Nicola; Batty, G David

    2011-06-01

    A number of prospective cohort studies have examined the association between intelligence in childhood or youth and life expectancy in adulthood; however, the effect size of this association is yet to be quantified and previous reviews require updating. The systematic review included an electronic search of EMBASE, MEDLINE and PSYCHINFO databases. This yielded 16 unrelated studies that met inclusion criteria, comprising 22,453 deaths among 1,107,022 participants. Heterogeneity was assessed, and fixed effects models were applied to the aggregate data. Publication bias was evaluated, and sensitivity analyses were conducted. A 1-standard deviation (SD) advantage in cognitive test scores was associated with a 24% (95% confidence interval 23-25) lower risk of death, during a 17- to 69-year follow-up. There was little evidence of publication bias (Egger's intercept = 0.10, P = 0.81), and the intelligence-mortality association was similar for men and women. Adjustment for childhood socio-economic status (SES) in the nine studies containing these data had almost no impact on this relationship, suggesting that this is not a confounder of the intelligence-mortality association. Controlling for adult SES in five studies and for education in six studies attenuated the intelligence-mortality hazard ratios by 34 and 54%, respectively. Future investigations should address the extent to which attenuation of the intelligence-mortality link by adult SES indicators is due to mediation, over-adjustment and/or confounding. The explanation(s) for association between higher early-life intelligence and lower risk of adult mortality require further elucidation.

  1. Risk of All-Cause Mortality in Alcohol-Dependent Individuals: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Laramée

    2015-10-01

    Interpretation: AD was found to significantly increase an individual's risk of all-cause mortality. While abstinence in alcohol-dependent subjects led to greater mortality reduction than non-abstinence, this study suggests that alcohol-dependent subjects can significantly reduce their mortality risk by reducing alcohol consumption.

  2. Renal function and metabolic syndrome components on cardiovascular and all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Kuo-Liong; Hsu, Hsiu-Ching; Lee, Yuan-Teh; Chen, Ming-Fong

    2008-04-01

    Impaired renal function and metabolic syndrome have been associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We investigated their roles in CVD and all-cause death among ethnic Chinese population. We followed up a cohort of 11429 men and 7472 women aged 20 years and older for an average 4.9 years (median: 3.5, inter-quartile range: 2.7-7.9) from the tertiary hospital health check-up population. CVD death rates increased when the quintiles of each variable progressed. Metabolic syndrome was a significant predictor for CVD death, with relative risk of up to 4.68. In the multivariate adjusted model that included metabolic syndrome, quintiles of serum creatinine concentrations, estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and uric acids were significantly associated CVD death, with the highest relative risk of creatinine concentration (11.22, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.43-51.7, P for trend: creatinine concentrations and estimated GFR had the higher areas under ROC curves of CVD death (0.76, 95% CI: 0.71-0.80 for creatinine and 0.76, 95% CI: 0.72-0.81 for estimated GFR). The two marker models showed that metabolic syndrome and impaired renal function had the most significant roles in predicting CVD deaths; the multivariate relative risk was 30.6 (95% CI: 3.7-254, P: 0.002) in participants with the highest creatinine and presence of metabolic syndrome compared with those with the lowest and absence of metabolic syndrome. Impaired renal function and metabolic syndrome are important risk factors for CVD and all-cause deaths among ethnic Chinese.

  3. Left ventricular global longitudinal strain predicts major adverse cardiac events and all-cause mortality in heart transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemmensen, Tor Skibsted; Eiskjær, Hans; Løgstrup, Brian Bridal; Ilkjær, Lars Bo; Poulsen, Steen Hvitfeldt

    2017-05-01

    Left ventricular global longitudinal strain (LVGLS) is a robust longitudinal myocardial deformation marker that is strongly affected by cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV), microvascular dysfunction, and acute cellular rejection (ACR). We evaluated graft deformation for risk stratification in long-term heart transplant (HTx) patients. The study included 196 patients who underwent HTx between 2011 and 2013. Patients underwent comprehensive echocardiography and coronary angiography. Previous rejection burden was assessed, and ACR grades were calculated. Patients were prospectively followed until February 24, 2016. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE), including coronary event, heart failure, treated rejection, and cardiovascular death, and all-cause mortality were recorded. During follow-up, 57 patients experienced MACE. Median follow-up was 1,035 (interquartile range [IQR] 856-1,124) days. Median time to first event was 534 (IQR 276-763) days. LVGLS was a strong predictor of MACE (hazard ratio [HR] 4.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.7-8.9, p transplantation. Measurement of LVGLS strongly predicts MACE and mortality in long-term HTx patients. Predictive ability was seen in patients with and without CAV. A combined model of left ventricular systolic deformation by LVGLS and diastolic graft performance by LVFP was a stronger model for prediction of MACE and all-cause mortality. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. DOT associated with reduced all-cause mortality among tuberculosis patients in Taipei, Taiwan, 2006–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Y-F.; Rodwell, T. C.; Yen, M-Y.; Shih, H-C.; Hu, B-S.; Li, L-H.; Shie, Y-H.; Chuang, P.; Garfein, R. S.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether patients receiving directly observed treatment (DOT) had lower all-cause mortality than those treated with self-administered treatment (SAT) and to identify factors associated with mortality among tuberculosis (TB) patients. DESIGN All TB patients in Taipei, Taiwan, diagnosed between 2006 and 2008 were included in a retrospective cohort study. RESULTS Among 3624 TB patients, 45.5% received DOT, which was disproptionately offered to older patients and those with more underlying illness and severe TB disease. After controlling for patient sociodemographic factors, clinical findings and underlying comorbidities, the odds of death was 40% lower (aOR 0.60, 95%CI 0.5–0.8) among patients treated with DOT than those on SAT. After adjusting for DOT, independent predictors of death included non-Taiwan birth, increasing age, male, unemployment, end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis, malignancy, acid-fast bacilli smear positivity and pleural effusion. CONCLUSION DOT was associated with lower all-cause mortality after controlling for confounding factors. DOT should be expanded in Taiwan to improve critical treatment outcomes among TB patients. PMID:22236917

  5. What is the effect of unemployment on all-cause mortality? A cohort study using propensity score matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Tom; Popham, Frank; Boyle, Paul

    2015-02-01

    There is a strong association between unemployment and mortality, but whether this relationship is causal remains debated. This study utilizes population-level administrative data from Scotland within a propensity score framework to explore whether the association between unemployment and mortality may be causal. The study examined a sample of working men and women aged 25-54 in 1991. Subsequent employment status in 2001 was observed (in work or unemployed) and the relative all-cause mortality risk of unemployment between 2001 and 2010 was estimated. To account for potential selection into unemployment of those in poor health, a propensity score matching approach was used. Matching variables were observed prior to unemployment and included health status up to the year of unemployment (hospital admissions and self-reported limiting long-term illness), as well as measures of socioeconomic position. Unemployment was associated with a significant all-cause mortality risk relative to employment for men (hazard ratio [HR] 1.85; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.33-2.55). This effect was robust to controlling for prior health and sociodemographic characteristics. Effects for women were smaller and statistically insignificant (HR 1.51; 95% CI 0.68-3.37). For men, the findings support the notion that the often-observed association between unemployment and mortality may contain a significant causal component; although for women, there is less support for this conclusion. However, female employment status, as recorded in the census, is more complex than for men and may have served to underestimate any mortality effect of unemployment. Future work should examine this issue further. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  6. Strength Training and All-Cause, Cardiovascular Disease, and Cancer Mortality in Older Women: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Masamitsu; Shiroma, Eric J; Buring, Julie E; Miyachi, Motohiko; Lee, I-Min

    2017-10-31

    Few data exist on the association between strength training and mortality rates. We sought to examine the association between strength training and all-cause, cardiovascular disease, and cancer mortality. Beginning in 2001 to 2005, 28 879 women throughout the United States (average baseline age, 62.2 years) from the Women's Health Study who were free of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and cancer reported their physical activities, including strength training. During follow-up (average, 12.0 years) through 2015, investigators documented 3055 deaths (411 from cardiovascular disease and 748 from cancer). After adjusting for covariables, including aerobic activity, time in strength training showed a quadratic association with all-cause mortality ( P =0.36 for linear trend; P strength training (0, 1-19, 20-59, 60-149, and ≥150 min/wk) were 1.0 (referent), 0.73 (95% confidence interval, 0.65-0.82), 0.71 (0.62-0.82), 0.81 (0.67-0.97), and 1.10 (0.77-1.56), respectively. A significant quadratic association was also observed for cardiovascular disease death ( P =0.007) but not cancer death ( P =0.41). Spline models also indicated a J-shaped nonlinear association for all-cause mortality ( P =0.020); the point estimates of hazard ratios were strength training, compared with 0 min/wk, whereas hazard ratios were >1.00 for ≥146 min/wk of strength training. However, confidence intervals were wide at higher levels of strength training. Time in strength training showed a J-shaped association with all-cause mortality in older women. A moderate amount of time in strength training seemed beneficial for longevity, independent of aerobic activity; however, any potential risk with more time (≈≥150 min/wk) should be further investigated. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  7. ESHOL study reanalysis: All-cause mortality considered by competing risks and time-dependent covariates for renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Maduell

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: The results of this analysis of the ESHOL trial confirm that post-dilution OL-HDF reduces all-cause mortality versus hemodialysis in prevalent patients. The original results of the ESHOL study, which censored patients discontinuing the study for any reason, were confirmed in the present ITT population without censures and when all-cause mortality was considered by time-dependent and competing risks for transplantation.

  8. All-Cause Mortality After Fertility-Sparing Surgery for Stage I Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melamed, Alexander; Rizzo, Anthony E; Nitecki, Roni; Gockley, Allison A; Bregar, Amy J; Schorge, John O; Del Carmen, Marcela G; Rauh-Hain, J Alejandro

    2017-07-01

    To compare all-cause mortality between women who underwent fertility-sparing surgery with those who underwent conventional surgery for stage I ovarian cancer. In a cohort study using the National Cancer Database, we identified women younger than 40 years diagnosed with stage IA and unilateral IC epithelial ovarian cancer between 2004 and 2012. Fertility-sparing surgery was defined as conservation of one ovary and the uterus. The primary outcome was time from diagnosis to death. We used propensity score methods to assemble a cohort of women who underwent fertility-sparing or conventional surgery but were otherwise similar on observed covariates and conducted survival analyses using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard models. We identified 1,726 women with stage IA and unilateral IC epithelial ovarian cancer of whom 825 (47.8%) underwent fertility-sparing surgery. Fertility-sparing surgery was associated with younger age, residence in the northeastern and western United States, and serous or mucinous histology (Pfertility-sparing surgery and 37 deaths among propensity-matched women who underwent conventional surgery after a median follow-up of 63 months. Fertility-sparing surgery was not associated with hazard of death (hazard ratio 0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49-1.29, P=.36). The probability of survival 10 years after diagnosis was 88.5% (95% CI 82.4-92.6) in the fertility-sparing group and 88.9% (95% CI 84.9-92.0) in the conventional surgery group. In patients with high-risk features such as clear cell histology, grade 3, or stage IC, 10-year survival was 80.5% (95% CI 68.5-88.3) among women who underwent fertility-sparing surgery and 83.4% (95% 76.0-88.7) among those who had conventional surgery (hazard ratio 0.86, 95% CI 0.49-1.53, P=.61). Compared with conventional surgery, fertility-sparing surgery was not associated with increased risk of death in young women with stage I epithelial ovarian cancer.

  9. Trends in All-Cause Mortality across Gestational Age in Days for Children Born at Term

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Chun Sen; Sun, Yuelian; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Term birth is a gestational age from 259 days to 293 days. However trends in mortality according to gestational ages in days have not yet been described in this time period. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Based on nation-wide registries, we conducted a population-based cohort study among all...... children born at term in Denmark from 1997 to 2004 to estimate differences in mortality across gestational ages in days among singletons born at term. We studied early-neonatal mortality, neonatal mortality, infant mortality, and five-year mortality. Children were followed from birth up to the last day...

  10. Association between dietary fiber and lower risk of all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zhao, Long-Gang; Wu, Qi-Jun; Ma, Xiao; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2015-01-15

    Although in vitro and in vivo experiments have suggested that dietary fiber might have beneficial effects on health, results on the association between fiber intake and all-cause mortality in epidemiologic studies have been inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to quantitatively assess this association. Pertinent studies were identified by searching articles in PubMed and Web of Knowledge through May 2014 and reviewing the reference lists of the retrieved articles. Study-specific risk estimates were combined using random-effects models. Seventeen prospective studies (1997-2014) that had a total of 67,260 deaths and 982,411 cohort members were included. When comparing persons with dietary fiber intakes in the top tertile with persons whose intakes were in the bottom tertile, we found a statistically significant inverse association between fiber intake and all-cause mortality, with an overall relative risk of 0.84 (95% confidence interval: 0.80, 0.87; I(2) = 41.2%). There was a 10% reduction in risk for per each 10-g/day increase in fiber intake (relative risk = 0.90; 95% confidence interval: 0.86, 0.94; I(2) = 77.2%). The combined estimate was robust across subgroup and sensitivity analyses. No publication bias was detected. A higher dietary fiber intake was associated with a reduced risk of death. These findings suggest that fiber intake may offer a potential public health benefit in reducing all-cause mortality. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Addition of Cardiorespiratory Fitness Within an Obesity Risk Classification Model Identifies Men at Increased Risk of All-Cause Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, T Alexander; Sui, Xuemei; Lavie, Carl J; Blair, Steven N; Ross, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Guidelines for identification of obesity-related risk which stratify disease risk using specific combinations of body mass index and waist circumference. Whether the addition of cardiorespiratory fitness, an independent predictor of disease risk, provides better risk prediction of all-cause mortality within current body mass index and waist circumference categories is unknown. The study objective was to determine whether the addition of cardiorespiratory fitness improves prediction of all-cause mortality risk classified by the combination of body mass index and waist circumference. We performed a prospective observational study using data from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. A total of 31,267 men (mean age, 43.9 years; standard deviation, 9.4 years) who completed a baseline medical examination between 1974 and 2002 were included. The main outcome measure was all-cause mortality. Participants were grouped using body mass index- and waist circumference-specific threshold combinations: normal body mass index: 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m(2), waist circumference threshold of 90 cm; overweight body mass index: 25.0 to 29.9 kg/m(2), waist circumference threshold of 100 cm, and obese body mass index: 30.0 to 34.9 kg/m(2), waist circumference threshold of 110 cm. Participants were classified using cardiorespiratory fitness as unfit or fit, where unfit was the lowest fifth of the age-specified distribution of maximal exercise test time on the treadmill among the entire Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study population. A total of 1399 deaths occurred over a follow-up of 14.1 ± 7.4 years, for a total of 439,991 person-years of observation. Men who were unfit and had normal body mass index with waist circumference men who were fit, respectively (P Men who were unfit and overweight had 41% (HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.04-1.90) higher mortality risk with a waist circumference Men who were unfit and obese were not at increased mortality risk (HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 0.90-2.09) with a waist

  12. Prognostic factors of all-cause mortalities in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vejakama Phisitt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of small solute clearance on mortalities in patients with CAPD has been controversial. We therefore conducted a study with 3 years' follow up in adult patients who participated in the CAPD-first policy. Methods There were 11,523 patients with end-stage renal disease who participated in the CAPD-first policy between 2008 and 2011. Among them, 1,177 patients were included in the retrospective cohort study. A receiver operating characteristic curve was applied to calibrate the cutoffs of tKt/V, rKt/V and tCrcl. Kaplan-Meier and Cox-regression models with time varying covariates were applied to estimate overall death rate, probability of death and prognosis, respectively. Results The cutoffs of rKt/V and tKt/V were 0.25 and 1.75, respectively. The Cox regression suggested that the higher these clearance parameters, the lower the risks of death after adjusting for covariables. The risks of death for those above these cutoffs were 57% (HR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.31, 0.60 and 29% (HR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.98 lower for rKt/V and tKt/V, respectively. Age, serum albumin, hemoglobin, systolic blood pressure, and ultra-filtration volume significantly affected the mortality outcome. Conclusions Our study suggested that the cutoffs of 0.25 and 1.75 for rKt/V and tKt/V might be associated with mortality in CAPD patients. A minimum tKt/V of 1.75 should be targeted, but increased dialysis dosage to achieve tKt/V > 2.19 adds no further benefit. Serum albumin, hemoglobin, SBP, and UF volume are also associated with mortality. However, our study may face with selection and other unobserved confounders, so further randomized controlled trials are required to confirm these cutoffs.

  13. All cause mortality and body mass index in a young Asian occupational cohort without baseline metabolic syndrome components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Ki-Chul; Ryu, Seungho; Lee, Jong-Young; Lee, SungHo; Cheong, EunSun; Kim, Jang-Young; Wild, Sarah H; Byrne, Christopher D

    2016-12-01

    The aim was to investigate associations between underweight, overweight and obesity and all cause, cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, excluding subjects with known CVD, diabetes, hypertension and components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) at baseline. The study population consisted of examinees participating in a health screening in Korea from 2002 to 2013. Data were analyzed in 162,194 subjects (in a retrospective cohort study design-median (interquartile range (IQR) follow-up 4.9 (1.8-8.5years))). The outcomes were all cause mortality, cancer and CVD. The mean (age range) and median age (IQR) at baseline were 36.9(20.0-85.3) and 35.2 (30.8-40.6) years. There were 436 deaths during follow-up. For men and women together, the fully adjusted HR for underweight and all cause mortality, cancer and CVD was 1.53 (95% CIs 1.06-2.20), 1.21 (95% CIs 0.68-2.14) and 1.34 (95% CIs 0.40-4.49) respectively. In contrast, the fully adjusted HR for overweight/obesity combined and all cause mortality was 0.77 (95%CIs 0.63-0.95) and there were non significant trends towards decreased cancer and CVD mortality. The association between overweight/obesity and all cause mortality was similar for men and women considered separately and for overweight and obesity as separate BMI categories. Smoking did not seem to explain the increased HR in the underweight BMI category. In a young metabolically healthy adult cohort, underweight was associated with increased all cause mortality and overweight/obesity was associated with decreased all cause mortality if CVD, diabetes, hypertension and components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) are excluded. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dietary fiber intake in relation to coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality over 40 y: the Zutphen Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streppel, M.T.; Ocke, M.C.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Kok, F.J.; Kromhout, D.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the effects of dietary fiber intake on long-term mortality. Objective: We aimed to study recent and long-term dietary fiber intake in relation to coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality. Design: The effects of recent and long-term dietary fiber intakes on

  15. Dietary patterns, biomarkers of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, F.P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary belonging to the thesis entitled ‘Dietary patterns, biomarkers of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality’

    The long history of epidemiologic studies on diet and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has traditionally relied on analysis of specific nutrients

  16. Dietary patterns, biomarkers of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, F.P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary belonging to the thesis entitled ‘Dietary patterns, biomarkers of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality’ The long history of epidemiologic studies on diet and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has traditionally relied on analysis of specific

  17. Association Between Caffeine Intake and All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality: A Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Tetsuro; Kajio, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Takehiro

    2017-08-01

    To assess whether caffeine intake is associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. We conducted a prospective cohort study using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of participants with a caffeine intake of 10 to 99, 100 to 199, and 200 mg/d or more with those of participants with a caffeine intake of less than 10 mg/d. In total, 17,594 participants were included, and the mean ± SD and median (interquartile range) follow-up was 6.5±2.8 years and 6.4 (3.6-9.5) years, respectively; 17,568 participants (99.8%) completed the follow-up, and 1310 died. Compared with those who had a caffeine intake of less than 10 mg/d, HRs and 95% CIs for all-cause mortality were significantly lower in participants with a caffeine intake of 10 to 99 mg/d (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.66-1.00; P=.05), 100 to 199 mg/d (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.51-0.78; Pcaffeine intake of 100 to 199 mg/d (HR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.22-0.93). There was no association between caffeine intake and cardiovascular mortality, whereas the HRs for noncardiovascular mortality were significantly lower in those with a caffeine intake of 10 to 99 mg/d (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.57-0.95; P=.01), 100 to 199 mg/d (HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.46-0.77; Pcaffeine intake was associated with a decreased risk of all-cause mortality, regardless of the presence or absence of coffee consumption. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Traffic air pollution and mortality from cardiovascular disease and all causes: a Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Jensen, Steen Solvang

    2012-01-01

    Traffic air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular mortality, which might be due to co-exposure to road traffic noise. Further, personal and lifestyle characteristics might modify any association.......Traffic air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular mortality, which might be due to co-exposure to road traffic noise. Further, personal and lifestyle characteristics might modify any association....

  19. Elevated resting heart rate, physical fitness and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus Thorsten; Suadicani, Poul; Hein, Hans Ole

    2013-01-01

    To examine whether elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is an independent risk factor for mortality or a mere marker of physical fitness (VO2Max).......To examine whether elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is an independent risk factor for mortality or a mere marker of physical fitness (VO2Max)....

  20. γ-Glutamyl Transferase as a Risk Factor for All-Cause or Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Among 5912 Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Wen-Jun; Liu, Qiang; Cao, Jian-Lei; Zhao, Sheng-Jie; Zeng, Xian-Wei; Deng, Ai-Jun

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the association of the measurement of serum γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) concentrations at admission with 1-year all-cause or cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in patients with acute ischemic stroke. This prospective, multicenter cohort study was conducted in 4 stroke centers in China. Baseline GGT measurements were tested. The relationship of GGT to the risk of death from all-cause or CVD was examined among 1-year follow-up patients. We recorded results from 5912 patients with stroke. In those patients, 51.0% were men, and the median age was 61 years. In both men and women, high GGT was significantly associated with total mortality from all-cause or CVD ( P mortality from all-cause and CVD, respectively. With an area under the curve of 0.69 (95% confidence interval, 0.66-0.73), GGT showed a significantly greater discriminatory ability to predict all-cause mortality as compared with others factors. GGT improved the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (area under the curve of the combined model, 0.75 [95% confidence interval, 0.73-0.78]; P mortality in patients with ischemic stroke. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Milk and dairy consumption and risk of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Jing; Astrup, Arne; Lovegrove, Julie A

    2017-01-01

    to September 2016. Random-effect meta-analyses with summarised dose-response data were performed for total (high-fat/low-fat) dairy, milk, fermented dairy, cheese and yogurt. Non-linear associations were investigated using the spine models and heterogeneity by subgroup analyses. A total of 29 cohort studies...... (included sour milk products, cheese or yogurt; per 20 g/day) with mortality (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.99; I(2) = 94.4%) and CVD risk (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.99; I(2) = 87.5%). Further analyses of individual fermented dairy of cheese and yogurt showed cheese to have a 2% lower risk of CVD (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.......95-1.00; I(2) = 82.6%) per 10 g/day, but not yogurt. All of these marginally inverse associations of totally fermented dairy and cheese were attenuated in sensitivity analyses by removing one large Swedish study. This meta-analysis combining data from 29 prospective cohort studies demonstrated neutral...

  2. Heart rate variability predicts 30-day all-cause mortality in intensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HRV), has shown promise in predicting clinically important outcomes in the critical care setting; however, there is debate concerning its utility. ... Keywords: APACHE II, autonomic nervous system, critical care, heart rate variability, mortality ...

  3. Association of metabolic syndrome and its components with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Sang-Yhun; Lee, June-Young; Kim, Do-Hoon

    2017-01-01

    Abstract There is increasing evidence regarding the relationship between metabolic syndrome and mortality. However, previous research examining metabolic syndrome and mortality in older populations has produced mixed results. In addition, there is a clear need to identify and manage individual components of metabolic syndrome to decrease cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. In this meta-analysis, we searched the MEDLINE databases using PubMed, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE databases. Based on 20 prospective cohort studies, metabolic syndrome was associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality [relative risk (RR), 1.23; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.15–1.32; I2 = 55.9%] and CVD mortality (RR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.11–1.39; I2 = 58.1%). The risk estimates of all-cause mortality for single components of metabolic syndrome were significant for higher values of waist circumference or body mass index (RR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.88–1.00), higher values of blood glucose (RR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.05–1.34), and lower values of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (RR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.02–1.21). In the elderly population, metabolic syndrome was associated with an increased risk of all-cause and CVD mortality. Among the individual components of metabolic syndrome, increased blood glucose and HDL cholesterol levels were significantly associated with increased mortality. However, older obese or overweight individuals may have a decreased mortality risk. Thus, the findings of the current meta-analysis raise questions about the utility of the definition of metabolic syndrome in predicting all-cause mortality and CVD mortality in the elderly population. PMID:29137039

  4. The inflammatory biomarker YKL-40 as a new prognostic marker for all-cause mortality in patients with heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harutyunyan, Marina; Christiansen, Michael; Johansen, Julia S

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite progress in management of patients with heart failure (HF) these patients still have a poor prognosis. We tested the hypothesis whether the inflammatory biomarker YKL-40 alone or in combination with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and/or N-terminal-pro-B natriuretic...... peptide (NT-proBNP) could be a new prognostic biomarker for all-cause mortality in patients with HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 717 of the 1000 patients with severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction included in the EchoCardiography and Heart Outcome Study were included in Denmark and had blood...... YKL-40 II to IV quartiles, respectively following multivariable adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors (age, left ventricular ejection fraction, gender, history of heart failure, ischemic heart disease, chronic pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, stroke, hypertension, NT-proBNP, hs...

  5. Milk Consumption and Mortality from All Causes, Cardiovascular Disease, and Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Susanna C.; Crippa, Alessio; Orsini, Nicola; Wolk, Alicja; Michaëlsson, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Results from epidemiological studies of milk consumption and mortality are inconsistent. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies assessing the association of non-fermented and fermented milk consumption with mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. PubMed was searched until August 2015. A two-stage, random-effects, dose-response meta-analysis was used to combine study-specific results. Heterogeneity among studies was assessed with the I2 statistic. During follow-up periods ranging from 4.1 to 25 years, 70,743 deaths occurred among 367,505 participants. The range of non-fermented and fermented milk consumption and the shape of the associations between milk consumption and mortality differed considerably between studies. There was substantial heterogeneity among studies of non-fermented milk consumption in relation to mortality from all causes (12 studies; I2 = 94%), cardiovascular disease (five studies; I2 = 93%), and cancer (four studies; I2 = 75%) as well as among studies of fermented milk consumption and all-cause mortality (seven studies; I2 = 88%). Thus, estimating pooled hazard ratios was not appropriate. Heterogeneity among studies was observed in most subgroups defined by sex, country, and study quality. In conclusion, we observed no consistent association between milk consumption and all-cause or cause-specific mortality. PMID:26378576

  6. Milk Consumption and Mortality from All Causes, Cardiovascular Disease, and Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna C. Larsson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Results from epidemiological studies of milk consumption and mortality are inconsistent. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies assessing the association of non-fermented and fermented milk consumption with mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. PubMed was searched until August 2015. A two-stage, random-effects, dose-response meta-analysis was used to combine study-specific results. Heterogeneity among studies was assessed with the I2 statistic. During follow-up periods ranging from 4.1 to 25 years, 70,743 deaths occurred among 367,505 participants. The range of non-fermented and fermented milk consumption and the shape of the associations between milk consumption and mortality differed considerably between studies. There was substantial heterogeneity among studies of non-fermented milk consumption in relation to mortality from all causes (12 studies; I2 = 94%, cardiovascular disease (five studies; I2 = 93%, and cancer (four studies; I2 = 75% as well as among studies of fermented milk consumption and all-cause mortality (seven studies; I2 = 88%. Thus, estimating pooled hazard ratios was not appropriate. Heterogeneity among studies was observed in most subgroups defined by sex, country, and study quality. In conclusion, we observed no consistent association between milk consumption and all-cause or cause-specific mortality.

  7. The Associations of Plant Protein Intake With All-Cause Mortality in CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaorui; Wei, Guo; Jalili, Thunder; Metos, Julie; Giri, Ajay; Cho, Monique E; Boucher, Robert; Greene, Tom; Beddhu, Srinivasan

    2016-03-01

    Plant protein intake is associated with lower production of uremic toxins and lower serum phosphorus levels. Therefore, at a given total protein intake, a higher proportion of dietary protein from plant sources might be associated with lower mortality in chronic kidney disease. Observational study. 14,866 NHANES III participants 20 years or older without missing data for plant and animal protein intake and mortality. Plant protein to total protein ratio and total plant protein intake. Patients were stratified by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)protein intakes were estimated from 24-hour dietary recalls. Mortality was ascertained by probabilistic linkage with National Death Index records through December 31, 2000. Mean values for plant protein intake and plant protein to total protein ratio were 24.6±13.2 (SD) g/d and 33.0% ± 14.0%, respectively. The prevalence of eGFRsprotein intake, and physical inactivity, each 33% increase in plant protein to total protein ratio was not associated with mortality (HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.74-1.04) in the eGFR≥60mL/min/1.73m(2) subpopulation, but was associated with lower mortality risk (HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.61-0.96) in the eGFRprotein itself or to other factors associated with more plant-based diets is difficult to establish. A diet with a higher proportion of protein from plant sources is associated with lower mortality in those with eGFRprotein intake in reducing mortality in those with eGFR<60mL/min/1.73m(2). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Statin treatment prevents increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality associated with clarithromycin in patients with stable coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Gorm B; Hilden, Jørgen; Als-Nielsen, Bodil

    2010-01-01

    In the CLARICOR trial, significantly increased cardiovascular (CV) and all-cause mortality in stable patients with coronary heart disease were observed after a short course of clarithromycin. We report on the impact of statin treatment at entry on the CV and all-cause mortality. The multicenter...... CLARICOR trial randomized patients to oral clarithromycin (500 mg daily; n = 2172) versus matching placebo (daily; n = 2201) for 2 weeks. Patients were followed through public databases. In the 41% patients on statin treatment at entry, no significant effect of clarithromycin was observed on CV (hazard.......0003; statin-clarithromycin interaction P = 0.0029) and all-cause mortality (HR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.05-1.67; P = 0.016; statin-clarithromycin interaction P = 0.41). Multivariate analysis and 6-year follow up confirmed these results. Concomitant statin treatment in stable patients with coronary heart disease...

  9. Delayed effects of obese and overweight population conditions on all-cause adult mortality rate in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert A Okunade

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there are few studies separating the linkage of pathological obese and overweight body mass indices (BMI to the all-cause mortality rate in adults. Consequently, this paper, using annual Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS data of the 50 US states and the District of Columbia (DC estimates empirical regression models linking the US adult population overweight and obesity rates separately to the all-cause mortality rate. The biochemistry of multi-period cumulative adiposity (saturated fatty acid from unexpended caloric intakes (net energy storage provides the natural theoretical foundation for tracing unhealthy BMI to all-cause mortality. Cross-sectional and panel data regression models are separately estimated for the delayed effects of obese and overweight BMIs on the all-cause mortality rate. Controlling for the independent effects of economic, socio-demographic and other factors on the all-cause mortality rate, our findings confirm that the estimated panel data models are more appropriate. The panel data regression results reveal that the obesity-mortality link strengthens significantly after multiple years in the condition. The faster mortality response to obesity detected here is conjectured to arise from the significantly more obese. Compared with past studies postulating a static (rather than delayed effects, the statistically significant lagged effects of adult population BMI pathology in this study are novel and insightful. And, as expected, these lagged effects are more severe in the obese than overweight population segment. Public health policy implications of this social science study findings agree with those of the clinical sciences literature advocating timely lifestyle modification interventions (e.g., smoking cessation to slow premature mortality linked to unhealthy BMIs.

  10. The association between television watching time and all-cause mortality after breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Stephanie M; Smith, Ashley W; Alfano, Catherine M; Bowles, Heather R; Irwin, Melinda L; McTiernan, Anne; Bernstein, Leslie; Baumgartner, Kathy B; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel

    2013-06-01

    Sedentary time is a rapidly emerging independent risk factor for mortality in the general population, but its prognostic effect among cancer survivors is unknown. In a multiethnic, prospective cohort of breast cancer survivors, we hypothesized that television watching time would be independently associated with an increased risk of death from any cause. The Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle Study cohort included 687 women diagnosed with local or regional breast cancer. On average 30 (±4) months postdiagnosis, women completed self-report assessments on time spent sitting watching television/videos in a typical day in the previous year. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for death from any cause (n = 89) during the 7 years of follow-up. Television time (top tertile vs. bottom tertile) was positively related to risk of death (HR, 1.94; 95 % CI, 1.02, 3.66, p trend = 0.024), but the association was attenuated and not statistically significant after adjustment for aerobic moderate-vigorous intensity physical activity (HR, 1.70; 95 % CI, 0.89, 3.22, p trend = 0.14) and all covariates (HR, 1.39; 95 % CI, 0.69, 2.82, p trend = 0.48). In this first published investigation on this topic, we did not observe a statistically significant multivariate-adjusted association between television watching time and risk of death among women diagnosed with breast cancer. These results begin an evidence base on this topic that can be built upon to inform lifestyle recommendations for this expanding, aging population.

  11. Reduced All-Cause Child Mortality After General Measles Vaccination Campaign in Rural Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane Bærent; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Martins, Cesario

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Randomised trials have shown that measles vaccine (MV) prevents non-measles deaths. MV-campaigns are conducted to eliminate measles infection.The overall mortality effect of MV-campaigns has not been studied. METHODS: Bandim Health Project (BHP) surveys children aged 0-4 years in rural...... in the 12 months after the campaign, compared with 203 and 206 deaths in the two previous years, the adjusted mortality rate ratio (aMRR) comparing all children in 2006 with all children in 2004-2005 being 0.80 (95%CI: 0.66-0.96).Censoring deaths due to measles infection the aMRR was 0.83 (0.69-1.00).The...... by prevention of measles deaths. If MV-campaigns reduce non-measles related mortality the policies for measles vaccination should take this into account....

  12. All-Cause Mortality Among US Veterans of the Persian Gulf War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Han K.; Bullman, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We determined cause-specific mortality prevalence and risks of Gulf War deployed and nondeployed veterans to determine if deployed veterans were at greater risk than nondeployed veterans for death overall or because of certain diseases or conditions up to 13 years after conflict subsided. Methods: Follow-up began when the veteran left the Gulf War theater or May 1, 1991, and ended on the date of death or December 31, 2004. We studied 621   901 veterans who served in the 1990-1991 Persian Gulf War and 746   247 veterans who served but were not deployed during the Gulf War. We used Cox proportional hazard models to calculate rate ratios adjusted for age at entry to follow-up, length of follow-up, race, sex, branch of service, and military unit. We compared the mortality of (1) Gulf War veterans with non–Gulf War veterans and (2) Gulf War army veterans potentially exposed to nerve agents at Khamisiyah in March 1991 with those not exposed. We compared standardized mortality ratios of deployed and nondeployed Gulf War veterans with the US population. Results: Male Gulf War veterans had a lower risk of mortality than male non–Gulf War veterans (adjusted rate ratio [aRR] = 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95-0.99), and female Gulf War veterans had a higher risk of mortality than female non–Gulf War veterans (aRR = 1.15; 95% CI, 1.03-1.28). Khamisiyah-exposed Gulf War army veterans had >3 times the risk of mortality from cirrhosis of the liver than nonexposed army Gulf War veterans (aRR = 3.73; 95% CI, 1.64-8.48). Compared with the US population, female Gulf War veterans had a 60% higher risk of suicide and male Gulf War veterans had a lower risk of suicide (standardized mortality ratio = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.80-0.88). Conclusion: The vital status and mortality risk of Gulf War and non–Gulf War veterans should continue to be investigated. PMID:28123229

  13. Relation between early life socioeconomic position and all cause mortality in two generations. A longitudinal study of Danish men born in 1953 and their parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Batty, G David

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine (1) the relation between parental socioeconomic position and all cause mortality in two generations, (2) the relative importance of mother's educational status and father's occupational status on offspring mortality, and (3) the effect of factors in the family environment...... of this population and their parents was ascertained from April 1968 to January 2002. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All cause mortality in study participants, their mothers, and fathers. RESULTS: A similar pattern of relations was found between parental social position and all cause mortality in adult life in the three...... triads of father, mother, and offspring constituted of the cohort of men born in 1953, their parents, and grandparents. The educational status of mothers showed no independent effect on total mortality when father's occupational social class was included in the model in either of the triads. Low material...

  14. Meta-analysis of predictors of all-cause mortality after transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giordana, Francesca; D'Ascenzo, Fabrizio; Nijhoff, Freek; Moretti, Claudio; D'Amico, Maurizio; Biondi Zoccai, Giuseppe; Sinning, Jan Malte; Nickenig, George; van Mieghem, Nicolas M.; Chieffo, Adelaide; Dumonteil, Nicolas; Tchetche, Didier; Barbash, Israel M.; Waksman, Ron; D'Onofrio, Augusto; Lefevre, Thierry; Pilgrim, Thomas; Amabile, Nicolas; Codner, Pablo; Kornowski, Ran; Yong, Ze Yie; Baan, Jan; Colombo, Antonio; Latib, Azeem; Salizzoni, Stefano; Omedè, Pierluigi; Conrotto, Federico; La Torre, Michele; Marra, Sebastiano; Rinaldi, Mauro; Gaita, Fiorenzo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify predictors of 30-day and midterm mortality after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) by means of a systemic review. TAVI was demonstrated to be safe and efficacious in patients with severe aortic stenosis. An accurate estimation of procedural risk of

  15. Dog ownership and all-cause mortality in a population cohort in Norway: The HUNT study.

    OpenAIRE

    Torske, Magnhild Oust; Krokstad, Steinar; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Bauman, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Objective There has been increased interest in human-animal interactions and their possible effects on human health. Some of this research has focused on human physical activity levels, mediated through increased dog walking. Much of the reported research has been cross sectional, and very few epidemiological studies have examined the association between dog ownership and mortality in populations. Methods We used data from the Norwegian county population-based Nord-Trøndelag HUNT ...

  16. Abdominal obesity in Japanese-Brazilians: which measure is best for predicting all-cause and cardiovascular mortality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marselle Rodrigues Bevilacqua

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify which anthropometric measure of abdominal obesity was the best predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in Japanese-Brazilians. The study followed 1,581 subjects for 14 years. Socio-demographic, lifestyle, metabolic, and anthropometric data were collected. The dependent variable was vital status (alive or dead at the end of the study, and the independent variable was presence of abdominal obesity according to different baseline measures. The mortality rate was estimated, and Poisson regression was used to obtain mortality rate ratios with abdominal obesity, adjusted simultaneously for the other variables. The mortality rate was 10.68/thousand person-years. Male gender, age > 60 years, and arterial hypertension were independent risk factors for mortality. The results indicate that prevalence of abdominal obesity was high among Japanese-Brazilians, and that waist/hip ratio was the measure with the greatest capacity to predict mortality (especially cardiovascular mortality in this group.

  17. Somatic versus cognitive symptoms of depression as predictors of all-cause mortality and health status in chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Angélique A; Pelle, Aline J; Smith, Otto R F

    2009-01-01

    Depression is a predictor of adverse health outcomes in chronic heart failure (CHF), but it is not known whether specific symptoms drive this relationship. We examined the impact of somatic/affective, cognitive/affective, and total depressive symptoms on all-cause mortality and health status in CHF....

  18. Is the adiposity-associated FTO gene variant related to all-cause mortality independent of adiposity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, E; Ängquist, L H; Mirza, S S

    2015-01-01

    Previously, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs9939609, in the FTO gene showed a much stronger association with all-cause mortality than expected from its association with body mass index (BMI), body fat mass index (FMI) and waist circumference (WC). This finding implies that the SNP has s...

  19. Domain and facet personality predictors of all-cause mortality among Medicare patients aged 65 to 100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Alexander; Costa, Paul T

    2005-01-01

    Our objectives were to test whether Conscientiousness, the other 4 domains of the Five-Factor Model, and their facets predicted mortality in older, frail individuals. Controlling for demographic and health measures, we used Cox regression to test whether the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness domains predicted all-cause mortality over 5 years in 1076 65- to 100-year-old participants who took part in a Medicare Demonstration study. Supplementary analyses on 597 participants aged 66 to 102 who were reassessed 2 years later were conducted to determine whether any of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) facets were related to mortality. When personality domains were treated as continuous variables, NEO-FFI Neuroticism and Agreeableness were significant protective factors. When personality domains were trichotomized, NEO-FFI Conscientiousness was a protective factor. In a third analysis, Agreeableness was not a significant predictor in a model that included the continuous Neuroticism and trichotomized Conscientiousness variables. Analysis of the NEO-PI-R Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness factors showed that Agreeableness and Conscientiousness were protective and that there was a trend for a similar effect of Neuroticism. Facet-level analyses revealed that the Impulsiveness, Straightforwardness, and Self-Discipline facets of Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness, respectively, were prospectively related to greater survival over a 3-year interval. The effects of Neuroticism and Agreeableness on mortality are inconsistent across previous studies. This study indicates that, in a sample of older, frail participants, high Neuroticism and Agreeableness scores are protective and that more specific effects are primarily the result of the Impulsiveness and Straightforwardness facet scales. The Conscientiousness findings are consistent with those in

  20. Inhaled anticholinergic use and all-cause mortality among elderly Medicare beneficiaries with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajmera M

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mayank Ajmera,1 Chan Shen,2 Xiaoyun Pan,1 Patricia A Findley,3 George Rust,4 Usha Sambamoorthi1 1Department of Pharmaceutical Systems and Policy, School of Pharmacy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA; 2Department of Biostatistics, MD Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, TX, USA; 3School of Social Work, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA; 4Department of Family Medicine, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between use of inhaled anticholinergics and all-cause mortality among elderly individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, after controlling for demographic, socioeconomic, health, functional status, smoking, and obesity. Methods: We used a retrospective longitudinal panel data design. Data were extracted for multiple years (2002–2009 of the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS linked with fee-for-service Medicare claims. Generic and brand names of inhaled anticholinergics were used to identify inhaled anticholinergic utilization from the self-reported prescription medication files. All-cause mortality was assessed using the vital status variable. Unadjusted group differences in mortality rates were tested using the chi-square statistic. Multivariable logistic regressions with independent variables entered in separate blocks were used to analyze the association between inhaled anticholinergic use and all-cause mortality. All analyses accounted for the complex design of the MCBS. Results: Overall, 19.4% of the elderly Medicare beneficiaries used inhaled anticholinergics. Inhaled anticholinergic use was significantly higher (28.5% among those who reported poor health compared with those reporting excellent or very good health (12.7%. Bivariate analyses indicated that inhaled anticholinergic use was associated with significantly higher rates of all-cause mortality (18.7% compared with nonusers (13.6%. However

  1. All-cause and cause-specific mortality among Black and White North Carolina state prisoners, 1995-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, David A.; Schoenbach, Victor J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose We compared mortality rates among state prisoners and other state residents to identify prisoners’ healthcare needs Methods We linked North Carolina prison records with state death records for 1995-2005 to estimate all-cause and cause-specific death rates among Black and White male prisoners aged 20-79 years, and used standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) to compare these observed deaths with the expected number based on death rates among state residents Results The all-cause SMR of Black prisoners was 0.52 (95%CI: 0.48 0.57), with fewer deaths than expected from accidents, homicides, cardiovascular disease and cancer. The all-cause SMR of White prisoners was 1.12 (95%CI: 1.01, 1.25) with fewer deaths than expected for accidents, but more deaths than expected from viral hepatitis, liver disease, cancer, chronic lower respiratory disease, and HIV. Conclusions Mortality of Black prisoners was lower than that of Black state residents for both traumatic and chronic causes of death. Mortality of White prisoners was lower than that of White state residents for accidents, but higher for several chronic causes of death. Future studies should investigate the effect of prisoners’ pre-incarceration and in-prison morbidity, the prison environment, and prison healthcare on prisoners’ patterns of mortality. PMID:21737304

  2. Occupational class inequalities in all-cause and cause-specific mortality among middle-aged men in 14 European populations during the early 2000s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Toch-Marquardt

    Full Text Available This study analyses occupational class inequalities in all-cause mortality and four specific causes of death among men, in Europe in the early 2000s, and is the most extensive comparative analysis of occupational class inequalities in mortality in Europe so far. Longitudinal data, obtained from population censuses and mortality registries in 14 European populations, from around the period 2000-2005, were used. Analyses concerned men aged 30-59 years and included all-cause mortality and mortality from all cancers, all cardiovascular diseases (CVD, all external, and all other causes. Occupational class was analysed according to five categories: upper and lower non-manual workers, skilled and unskilled manual workers, and farmers and self-employed combined. Inequalities were quantified with mortality rate ratios, rate differences, and population attributable fractions (PAF. Relative and absolute inequalities in all-cause mortality were more pronounced in Finland, Denmark, France, and Lithuania than in other populations, and the same countries (except France also had the highest PAF values for all-cause mortality. The main contributing causes to these larger inequalities differed strongly between countries (e.g., cancer in France, all other causes in Denmark. Relative and absolute inequalities in CVD mortality were markedly lower in Southern European populations. We conclude that relative and absolute occupational class differences in all-cause and cause specific mortality have persisted into the early 2000's, although the magnitude differs strongly between populations. Comparisons with previous studies suggest that the relative gap in mortality between occupational classes has further widened in some Northern and Western European populations.

  3. The effect of atmospheric thermal conditions and urban thermal pollution on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Katrin; Schneider, Alexandra; Breitner, Susanne; Khan, Mobarak Hossain; Krämer, Alexander; Endlicher, Wilfried

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of temperature and thermal atmospheric conditions on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in Bangladesh. In particular, differences in the response to elevated temperatures between urban and rural areas were investigated. Generalized additive models (GAMs) for daily death counts, adjusted for trend, season, day of the month and age were separately fitted for urban and rural areas. Breakpoint models were applied for determining the increase in mortality above and below a threshold (equivalent) temperature. Generally, a 'V'-shaped (equivalent) temperature-mortality curve with increasing mortality at low and high temperatures was observed. Particularly, urban areas suffered from heat-related mortality with a steep increase above a specific threshold. This adverse heat effect may well increase with ongoing urbanization and the intensification of the urban heat island due to the densification of building structures. Moreover, rising temperatures due to climate change could aggravate thermal stress. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A prospective study of low fasting glucose with cardiovascular disease events and all-cause mortality: The Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongraw-Chaffin, Morgana; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Sears, Dorothy D; Garcia, Lorena; Phillips, Lawrence S; Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena; Zaslavsky, Oleg; Anderson, Cheryl A M

    2017-05-01

    While there is increasing recognition of the risks associated with hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes, few studies have investigated incident cause-specific cardiovascular outcomes with regard to low fasting glucose in the general population. We hypothesized that low fasting glucose would be associated with cardiovascular disease risk and all-cause mortality in postmenopausal women. To test our hypothesis, we used both continuous incidence rates and Cox proportional hazards models in 17,287 participants from the Women's Health Initiative with fasting glucose measured at baseline. Participants were separated into groups based on fasting glucose level: low (fasting glucose distribution exhibited evidence of a weak J-shaped association with heart failure and mortality that was predominantly due to participants with treated diabetes. Impaired and diabetic fasting glucose were positively associated with all outcomes. Associations for low fasting glucose differed, with coronary heart disease (HR=0.64 (0.42, 0.98)) significantly inverse; stroke (0.73 (0.48, 1.13)), combined cardiovascular disease (0.91 (0.73, 1.14)), and all-cause mortality (0.97 (0.79, 1.20)) null or inverse and not significant; and heart failure (1.27 (0.80, 2.02)) positive and not significant. Fasting glucose at the upper range, but not the lower range, was significantly associated with incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The number of years lived with obesity and the risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdullah, Asnawi; Wolfe, Rory; Stoelwinder, Johannes U

    2011-01-01

    ) of the Framingham Cohort Study were followed up every 2 years from 1948 for up to 48 years. The association between obesity duration and all-cause and cause-specific mortality was analysed using time-dependent Cox models adjusted for body mass index. The role of biological intermediates and chronic diseases...... was also explored. RESULTS: The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for mortality increased as the number of years lived with obesity increased. For those who were obese for 1-4.9, 5-14.9, 15-24.9 and =25 years of the study follow-up period, adjusted HRs for all-cause mortality were 1.51 [95% confidence interval...... (CI) 1.27-1.79], 1.94 (95% CI 1.71-2.20), 2.25 (95% CI 1.89-2.67) and 2.52 (95% CI 2.08-3.06), respectively, compared with those who were never obese. A dose-response relation between years of duration of obesity was also clear for all-cause, cardiovascular, cancer and other-cause mortality. For every...

  6. Scoring life insurance applicants' laboratory results, blood pressure and build to predict all-cause mortality risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulks, Michael; Stout, Robert L; Dolan, Vera F

    2012-01-01

    Evaluate the degree of medium to longer term mortality prediction possible from a scoring system covering all laboratory testing used for life insurance applicants, as well as blood pressure and build measurements. Using the results of testing for life insurance applicants who reported a Social Security number in conjunction with the Social Security Death Master File, the mortality associated with each test result was defined by age and sex. The individual mortality scores for each test were combined for each individual and a composite mortality risk score was developed. This score was then tested against the insurance applicant dataset to evaluate its ability to discriminate risk across age and sex. The composite risk score was highly predictive of all-cause mortality risk in a linear manner from the best to worst quintile of scores in a nearly identical fashion for each sex and decade of age. Laboratory studies, blood pressure and build from life insurance applicants can be used to create scoring that predicts all-cause mortality across age and sex. Such an approach may hold promise for preventative health screening as well.

  7. Impact of baseline renal function on all-cause mortality in patients who underwent cardiac resynchronization therapy: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazoukis, G; Letsas, K P; Korantzopoulos, P; Thomopoulos, C; Vlachos, K; Georgopoulos, S; Karamichalakis, N; Saplaouras, A; Efremidis, M; Sideris, A

    2017-10-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) improves both morbidity and mortality in selected patients with heart failure and increased QRS duration. However, chronic kidney disease (CKD) may have an adverse effect on patient outcome. The aim of this systematic review was to analyze the existing data regarding the impact of baseline renal function on all-cause mortality in patients who underwent CRT. Medline database was searched systematically, and studies evaluating the effect of baseline renal function on all-cause mortality in patients who underwent CRT were retrieved. We performed three separate analyses according to the comparison groups included in each study. Data were analyzed using Review Manager software (RevMan version 5.3; Oxford, UK). We included 16 relevant studies in our analysis. Specifically, 13 studies showed a statistically significant higher risk of all-cause mortality in patients with impaired baseline renal function who underwent CRT. The remaining three studies did not show a statistically significant result. The quantitative synthesis of five studies showed a 19% decrease in all-cause mortality per 10-unit increment in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) [HR: 0.81, 95% CI (0.73-0.90), p <0.01, 86% I 2 ]. Additionally, we demonstrated that patients with an eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 had an all-cause mortality rate of 66% [HR: 1.66, 95% CI (1.37-2.02), p <0.01, 0% I 2 ], which was higher than in those with an eGFR≥60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . Baseline renal dysfunction has an adverse effect on-all cause mortality in patients who underwent CRT.

  8. The serum anion gap is associated with disease severity and all-cause mortality in coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shi-Wei; Zhou, Yu-Jie; Zhao, Ying-Xin; Liu, Yu-Yang; Tian, Xiao-Fang; Wang, Zhi-Jian; Jia, De-An; Han, Hong-Ya; Hu, Bin; Shen, Hua; Gao, Fei; Wang, Lu-Ya; Lin, Jie; Pan, Guo-Zhong; Zhang, Jian; Guo, Zhen-Feng; Du, Jie; Hu, Da-Yi

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the associations between the serum anion gap (AG) with the severity and prognosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). We measured serum electrolytes in 18,115 CAD patients indicated by coronary angiography. The serum AG was calculated according to the equation: AG = Na + [(mmol/L) + K + (mmol/L)] - [Cl - (mmol/L) + HCO3 - (mmol/L)]. A total of 4510 (24.9%) participants had their AG levels greater than 16 mmol/L. The serum AG was independently associated with measures of CAD severity, including more severe clinical types of CAD ( P < 0.001) and worse cardiac function ( P = 0.004). Patients in the 4th quartile of serum AG (≥ 15.92 mmol/L) had a 5.171-fold increased risk of 30 days all-cause death ( P < 0.001). This association was robust, even after adjustment for age, sex, evaluated glomerular filtration rate [hazard ratio (HR): 4.861, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.150-10.993, P < 0.001], clinical diagnosis, severity of coronary artery stenosis, cardiac function grades, and other confounders (HR: 3.318, 95% CI: 1.76-2.27, P = 0.009). In this large population-based study, our findings reveal a high percentage of increased serum AG in CAD. Higher AG is associated with more severe clinical types of CAD and worse cardiac function. Furthermore, the increased serum AG is an independent, significant, and strong predictor of all-cause mortality. These findings support a role for the serum AG in the risk-stratification of CAD.

  9. Aggressive regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis decrease all-cause mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole D Mitnick

    Full Text Available A better understanding of the composition of optimal treatment regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB is essential for expanding universal access to effective treatment and for developing new therapies for MDR-TB. Analysis of observational data may inform the definition of an optimized regimen.This study assessed the impact of an aggressive regimen-one containing at least five likely effective drugs, including a fluoroquinolone and injectable-on treatment outcomes in a large MDR-TB patient cohort.This was a retrospective cohort study of patients treated in a national outpatient program in Peru between 1999 and 2002. We examined the association between receiving an aggressive regimen and the rate of death.In total, 669 patients were treated with individualized regimens for laboratory-confirmed MDR-TB. Isolates were resistant to a mean of 5.4 (SD 1.7 drugs. Cure or completion was achieved in 66.1% (442 of patients; death occurred in 20.8% (139. Patients who received an aggressive regimen were less likely to die (crude hazard ratio [HR]: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.44,0.89, compared to those who did not receive such a regimen. This association held in analyses adjusted for comorbidities and indicators of severity (adjusted HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.43,0.93.The aggressive regimen is a robust predictor of MDR-TB treatment outcome. TB policy makers and program directors should consider this standard as they design and implement regimens for patients with drug-resistant disease. Furthermore, the aggressive regimen should be considered the standard background regimen when designing randomized trials of treatment for drug-resistant TB.

  10. Mid-arm muscle circumference as a significant predictor of all-cause mortality in male individuals.

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    Li-Wei Wu

    Full Text Available Emerging evidences indicate that mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC is one of the anthropometric indicators that reflect health and nutritional status, but its correlative effectiveness in all-cause mortality prediction of United States individuals remains uncertain.We investigated the joint association between MAMC and all-cause mortality in the US general population. A population-based longitudinal study of 6,769 participants aged 40 to 90 years in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. All participants were divided into two groups based on the gender: male and female group; each group was then divided into three subgroups depending on their MAMC level. The tertiles were as follows: T1 (18<27.3, T2 (27.3<29.6, T3 (29.6≤40.0 cm in the male group and T1 (15<22.3, T2 (22.3<24.6, T3 (24.6≤44.0 cm in the female group. Multivariable Cox regression analyses and Kaplan-Meier survival probabilities were utilized to jointly relate all-cause mortality risk to different MAMC level. For all-cause mortality in male participants, multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HRs were 0.83 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.69-0.98; p = 0.033 for MAMC of 27.3-29.6 cm compared with 18-27.3 cm, and 0.76 (95% CI: 0.61-0.95; p = 0.018 for MAMC of 29.6-40 cm compared with 18-27.3 cm. For all-cause mortality in female participants, multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HRs were 0.84 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.69-1.02; p = 0.075 for MAMC of 22.3-24.6 cm compared with 15-22.3 cm, and 0.94 (95% CI: 0.75-1.17; p = 0.583 for MAMC of 24.6-44 cm compared with 15-22.3 cm.Results support a lower MAMC is associated with a higher mortality risk in male individuals.

  11. Diabetes mellitus increased all-cause mortality rate among newly-diagnosed tuberculosis patients in an Asian population: A nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Po-Yen; Lin, Shi-Dou; Hsieh, Ming-Chia; Chen, Yu-Cheng

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the effect of diabetes mellitus (DM) on all-cause mortality among patients with newly-diagnosed tuberculosis (TB) in an Asian population. We also identified risk factors for mortality in these patients. The data were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database and included 9831 newly-diagnosed TB individuals and 1627 TB mortality cases in the period of 2000-2010. The mortality data were divided into a DM group and a non-DM group. We measured the incidence density of mortality and identified the risk factors of mortality. The all-cause mortality of newly-diagnosed TB patients progressively increased with an average rate of 16.5% during 2000-2010. DM is an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality with HRs 1.17-1.27 by various models. TB patients with ages above 75years had the highest risk of mortality (HR=11.93) compared with those under 45 years. TB patients with heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, ischemic heart disease, cerebral vascular disease, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, pulmonary disease, liver disease, cancer, peptic ulcer disease, gout, and autoimmune disease had higher mortality compared to those without the aforementioned factors. The one-year all-cause mortality after TB diagnosis was high among TB patients in Taiwan and it tended to increase in the past decade. While treating these newly-diagnosed TB patients, it is crucial to detect the factors predisposing to death, such as old age, male gender, certain kinds of aforementioned factors and diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Time Trends in Incidence and Mortality of Acute Myocardial Infarction, and All-Cause Mortality following a Cardiovascular Prevention Program in Sweden.

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    Gunilla Journath

    Full Text Available In 1988, a cardiovascular prevention program which combined an individual and a population-based strategy was launched within primary health-care in Sollentuna, a municipality in Stockholm County. The aim of this study was to investigate time trends in the incidence of and mortality from acute myocardial infarction and all-cause mortality in Sollentuna compared with the rest of Stockholm County during a period of two decades following the implementation of a cardiovascular prevention program.The average population in Sollentuna was 56,589 (49% men and in Stockholm County (Sollentuna included 1,795,504 (49% men during the study period of 1987-2010. Cases of hospitalized acute myocardial infarction and death were obtained for the population of Sollentuna and the rest of Stockholm County using national registries of hospital discharges and deaths. Acute myocardial infarction incidence and mortality were estimated using the average population of Sollentuna and Stockholm in 1987-2010.During the observation period, the incidence of acute myocardial infarction decreased more in Sollentuna compared with the rest of Stockholm County in women (-22% vs. -7%; for difference in slope <0.05. There was a trend towards a greater decline in Sollentuna compared to the rest of Stockholm County in the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (in men, acute myocardial mortality, and all-cause mortality but the differences were not significant.During a period of steep decline in acute myocardial infarction incidence and mortality in Stockholm County the municipality of Sollentuna showed a stronger trend in women possibly compatible with favorable influence of a cardiovascular prevention program.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02212145.

  13. Comparison of all-cause and malaria-specific mortality from two West African countries with different malaria transmission patterns

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    Kouyaté Bocar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a leading cause of death in children below five years of age in sub-Saharan Africa. All-cause and malaria-specific mortality rates for children under-five years old in a mesoendemic malaria area (The Gambia were compared with those from a hyper/holoendemic area (Burkina Faso. Methods Information on observed person-years (PY, deaths and cause of death was extracted from online search, using key words: "Africa, The Gambia, Burkina Faso, malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, mortality, child survival, morbidity". Missing person-years were estimated and all-cause and malaria-specific mortality were calculated as rates per 1,000 PY. Studies were classified as longitudinal/clinical studies or surveys/censuses. Linear regression was used to investigate mortality trends. Results Overall, 39 and 18 longitudinal/clinical studies plus 10 and 15 surveys and censuses were identified for The Gambia and Burkina Faso respectively (1960–2004. Model-based estimates for under-five all-cause mortality rates show a decline from 1960 to 2000 in both countries (Burkina Faso: from 71.8 to 39.0, but more markedly in The Gambia (from 104.5 to 28.4. The weighted-average malaria-specific mortality rate per 1000 person-years for Burkina Faso (15.4, 95% CI: 13.0–18.3 was higher than that in The Gambia (9.5, 95% CI: 9.1–10.1. Malaria mortality rates did not decline over time in either country. Conclusion Child mortality in both countries declined significantly in the period 1960 to 2004, possibly due to socio-economic development, improved health services and specific intervention projects. However, there was little decline in malaria mortality suggesting that there had been no major impact of malaria control programmes during this period. The difference in malaria mortality rates across countries points to significant differences in national disease control policies and/or disease transmission patterns.

  14. Fasting insulin, insulin resistance, and risk of cardiovascular or all-cause mortality in non-diabetic adults: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohong; Li, Jun; Zheng, Shuiping; Luo, Qiuyun; Zhou, Chunmei; Wang, Chaoyang

    2017-10-31

    Studies on elevated fasting insulin or insulin resistance (IR) and cardiovascular or all-cause mortality risk in non-diabetic individuals have yielded conflicting results. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the association of elevated fasting insulin levels or IR as defined by homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) with cardiovascular or all-cause mortality in non-diabetic adults. We searched for relevant studies in PubMed and Emabse databases until November 2016. Only prospective observational studies investigating the association of elevated fasting insulin levels or HOMA-IR with cardiovascular or all-cause mortality risk in non-diabetic adults were included. Risk ratio (RR) with its 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was pooled for the highest compared with the lowest category of fasting insulin levels or HOMA-IR. Seven articles involving 26976 non-diabetic adults were included. The pooled, adjusted RR of all-cause mortality comparing the highest with the lowest category was 1.13 (95% CI: 1.00-1.27; P =0.058) for fasting insulin levels and 1.34 (95% CI: 1.11-1.62; P =0.002) for HOMA-IR, respectively. When comparing the highest with the lowest category, the pooled adjusted RR of cardiovascular mortality was 2.11 (95% CI: 1.01-4.41; P =0.048) for HOMA-IR in two studies and 1.40 (95% CI: 0.49-3.96; P =0.526) for fasting insulin levels in one study. IR as measured by HOMA-IR but not fasting insulin appears to be independently associated with greater risk of cardiovascular or all-cause mortality in non-diabetic adults. However, the association of fasting insulin and HOMA-IR with cardiovascular mortality may be unreliable due to the small number of articles included. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. Twelve-month quality of life improvement and all-cause mortality in elderly patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleczyński, Paweł; Bagieński, Maciej; Dziewierz, Artur; Rzeszutko, Łukasz; Sorysz, Danuta; Trębacz, Jarosław; Sobczyński, Robert; Tomala, Marek; Stąpór, Maciej; Dudek, Dariusz

    2016-10-10

    Restoration of quality of life (QoL) and improvement of clinical outcomes is crucial in elderly patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). We sought to evaluate changes in QoL and all-cause mortality 12 months after TAVI. A total of 101 patients who underwent TAVI were included. Patients were followed for 12 months. QoL was assessed at baseline and at 1, 6 and 12 months after TAVI using EQ-5D-3L with a visual analog scale (VAS). Patients who reported some problems with mobility at baseline showed better mobility after 12 months (p = 0.001). On the other hand, those who reported issues with self-care, usual activity or pain did not show significant improvement (p = 0.41; p = 0.12; p = 0.27, respectively). Patients reporting anxiety at baseline improved 12 months later (p = 0.003). VAS score showed an incremental increase during follow-up (p<0.001). Transfemoral access was associated with higher VAS score values after 1 month (median (IQR): 65.0 (50.0-75.0) vs. 54.0 (50.0-60.0); p = 0.019) but not after 12 months (70.0 (62.5-80.0) vs. 67.5 (55.0-70.0); p = 0.07) as compared to non-transfemoral access. In multivariable regression analysis, only age and the presence of coronary chronic total occlusion were independently associated with VAS score at 12 months. In-hospital, 1-, 6- and 12-month mortality rates were 6.9%, 10.9%, 15.8 and 17.8%, respectively. TAVI provides improved QoL with relatively good clinical outcomes. However, not all components of QoL may be improved. Patients treated with transfemoral access might have better QoL than those who had non-transfemoral access, especially early after TAVI.

  16. Different impacts of hypertension and diabetes mellitus on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in community-dwelling older adults: the Rancho Bernardo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jee-Young; Allison, Matthew A; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Although the prevalence rates of hypertension (HTN) and diabetes mellitus are slowing in some high-income countries, HTN and diabetes mellitus remain as the two major risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading cause of death in the United States and worldwide. We aimed to observe the association of HTN and diabetes mellitus with all-cause and CVD mortality in older white adults. All community-dwelling Rancho Bernardo Study participants who were at least 55 years old and had carefully measured blood pressure and plasma glucose from 75-g oral glucose tolerance test at the baseline visit (1984-1987, n = 2186) were followed up until death or the last clinic visit in 2013 (median 14.3 years, interquartile range 8.4-21.3). In unadjusted analyses, diabetes mellitus was associated with all-cause mortality [hazard ratio 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23-1.60] and CVD mortality (hazard ratio 1.67, 95% CI 1.39-2.00); HTN with all-cause mortality [hazard ratio 1.93 (1.73-2.15)] and CVD mortality [hazard ratio 2.45 (2.10-2.93)]. After adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, including age, BMI, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, smoking, exercise, and alcohol consumption, diabetes mellitus was associated with CVD mortality only (hazard ratio 1.25, P = 0.0213). Conversely, HTN was associated with both all-cause (hazard ratio 1.34, P diabetes mellitus and HTN was associated with all-cause (hazard ratio 1.38, P = 0.0002) and CVD mortality (hazard ratio 1.70, P diabetes mellitus. Having both confers a modest increase in the hazards for these types of mortality.

  17. Intake of trans fat and all-cause mortality in the Reasons for Geographical and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiage, James N; Merrill, Peter D; Robinson, Cody J; Cao, Yue; Malik, Talha A; Hundley, Barrett C; Lao, Ping; Judd, Suzanne E; Cushman, Mary; Howard, Virginia J; Kabagambe, Edmond K

    2013-05-01

    A high intake of trans fatty acids decreases HDL cholesterol and is associated with increased LDL cholesterol, inflammation, diabetes, cancer, and mortality from cardiovascular disease. The relation between trans fat intake and all-cause mortality has not been established. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between trans fat intake and all-cause mortality. We used data from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study-a prospective cohort study of white and black men and women residing in the continental United States. Energy-adjusted trans fat intake was categorized into quintiles, and Cox-regression was used to evaluate the association between trans fat intake and all-cause mortality. During 7 y of follow-up, there were 1572 deaths in 18,513 participants included in REGARDS. From the first to the fifth quintile of trans fat intake, the mortality rates per 1000 person-years of follow-up (95% CIs) were 12.8 (11.3, 14.5), 14.3 (12.7, 16.2), 14.6 (13.0, 16.5), 19.0 (17.1, 21.1), and 23.6 (21.5, 25.9), respectively. After adjustment for demographic factors, education, and risk factors for mortality, the HRs (95% CIs) for all-cause mortality were 1.00, 1.03 (0.86, 1.23), 0.98 (0.82, 1.17), 1.25 (1.05, 1.48), and 1.24 (1.05, 1.48), respectively (P-trend = 0.004). The population attributable risk due to trans fat intake was 7% (95% CI: 5%, 8%). Higher trans fat intake is associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality.

  18. Assessing the association between all-cause mortality and multiple aspects of individual social capital among the older Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondo Naoki

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few prospective cohort studies have assessed the association between social capital and mortality. The studies were conducted only in Western countries and did not use the same social capital indicators. The present prospective cohort study aimed to examine the relationships between various forms of individual social capital and all-cause mortality in Japan. Methods Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to subjects in the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES Project in 2003. Mortality data from 2003 to 2008 were analyzed for 14,668 respondents. Both cognitive and structural components of individual social capital were collected: 8 for cognitive social capital (trust, 3; social support, 3; reciprocity, 2 and 9 for structural social capital (social network. Cox proportional hazard models stratified by sex with multiple imputation were used. Age, body mass index, self-rated health, current illness, smoking history, alcohol consumption, exercise, equivalent income and education were used as covariates. Results During 27,571 person-years of follow-up for men and 29,561 person-years of follow-up for women, 790 deaths in men and 424 in women were observed. In the univariate analyses for men, lower social capital was significantly related to higher mortality in one general trust variable, all generalised reciprocity variables and four social network variables. For women, lower social capital was significantly related to higher mortality in all generalised reciprocity and four social network variables. After adjusting for covariates, lower friendship network was significantly associated with higher all-cause mortality among men (meet friends rarely; HR = 1.30, 95%CI = 1.10-1.53 and women (having no friends; HR = 1.81, 95%CI = 1.02-3.23. Among women, lower general trust was significantly related to lower mortality (most people cannot be trusted; HR = 0.65, 95%CI = 0.45-0.96. Conclusions Friendship network was a good

  19. All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality among Users of Basal Insulins NPH, Detemir, and Glargine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto Y Strandberg

    Full Text Available Insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes may increase mortality and cancer incidence, but the impact of different types of basal insulins on these endpoints is unclear. Compared to the traditional NPH insulin, the newer, longer-acting insulin analogues detemir and glargine have shown benefits in randomized controlled trials. Whether these advantages translate into lower mortality among users in real life is unknown.To estimate the differences in all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates between new users of basal insulins in a population-based study in Finland.23 751 individuals aged ≥40 with type 2 diabetes, who initiated basal insulin therapy in 2006-2009 were identified from national registers, with comprehensive data for mortality, causes of death, and background variables. Propensity score matching was performed on characteristics. Follow-up time was up to 4 years (median 1.7 years.2078 deaths incurred. With NPH as reference, the adjusted HRs for all-cause mortality were 0.39 (95% CI, 0.30-0.50 for detemir, and 0.55 (95% CI, 0.44-0.69 for glargine. As compared to glargine, the HR was 0.71 (95% CI, 0.54-0.93 among detemir users. Compared to NPH, the mortality risk for both cardiovascular causes as well as cancer were also significantly lower for glargine, and especially for detemir in adjusted analysis. Furthermore, the results were robust in various sensitivity analyses.In real clinical practice, mortality was substantially higher among users of NPH insulin as compared to insulins detemir or glargine. Considering the large number of patients who require insulin therapy, this difference in risk may have major clinical and public health implications. Due to limitations of the observational study design, further investigation using an interventional study design is warranted.

  20. All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality among Users of Basal Insulins NPH, Detemir, and Glargine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, Arto Y; Hoti, Fabian J; Strandberg, Timo E; Christopher, Solomon; Haukka, Jari; Korhonen, Pasi

    2016-01-01

    Insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes may increase mortality and cancer incidence, but the impact of different types of basal insulins on these endpoints is unclear. Compared to the traditional NPH insulin, the newer, longer-acting insulin analogues detemir and glargine have shown benefits in randomized controlled trials. Whether these advantages translate into lower mortality among users in real life is unknown. To estimate the differences in all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates between new users of basal insulins in a population-based study in Finland. 23 751 individuals aged ≥40 with type 2 diabetes, who initiated basal insulin therapy in 2006-2009 were identified from national registers, with comprehensive data for mortality, causes of death, and background variables. Propensity score matching was performed on characteristics. Follow-up time was up to 4 years (median 1.7 years). 2078 deaths incurred. With NPH as reference, the adjusted HRs for all-cause mortality were 0.39 (95% CI, 0.30-0.50) for detemir, and 0.55 (95% CI, 0.44-0.69) for glargine. As compared to glargine, the HR was 0.71 (95% CI, 0.54-0.93) among detemir users. Compared to NPH, the mortality risk for both cardiovascular causes as well as cancer were also significantly lower for glargine, and especially for detemir in adjusted analysis. Furthermore, the results were robust in various sensitivity analyses. In real clinical practice, mortality was substantially higher among users of NPH insulin as compared to insulins detemir or glargine. Considering the large number of patients who require insulin therapy, this difference in risk may have major clinical and public health implications. Due to limitations of the observational study design, further investigation using an interventional study design is warranted.

  1. Impact of Different Levels of iPTH on All-Cause Mortality in Dialysis Patients with Secondary Hyperparathyroidism after Parathyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Qiu Ping; Xie, Xi Sheng; Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Rui; Xiao, Yue Fei; Jin, Cheng Gang; Li, Yan Bo; Wang, Lin; Zhang, Xiao Xuan; Du, Shu Tong

    2017-01-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) usually required parathyroidectomy (PTX) when drugs treatment is invalid. Analysis was done on the impact of different intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) after the PTX on all-cause mortality. An open, retrospective, multicenter cohort design was conducted. The sample included 525 dialysis patients with SHPT who had undergone PTX. 404 patients conformed to the standard, with 36 (8.91%) deaths during the 11 years of follow-up. One week postoperatively, different levels of serum iPTH were divided into four groups: A: ≤20 pg/mL; B: 21-150 pg/mL; C: 151-600 pg/mL; and D: >600 pg/mL. All-cause mortality in groups with different iPTH levels appeared as follows: A (8.29%), B (3.54%), C (10.91%), and D (29.03%). The all-cause mortality of B was the lowest, with D the highest. We used group A as reference (hazard ratio (HR) = 1) compared with the other groups, and HRs on groups B, C, and D appeared as 0.57, 1.43, and 3.45, respectively. The all-cause mortality was associated with different levels of iPTH after the PTX. We found that iPTH > 600 pg/mL appeared as a factor which increased the risk of all-cause mortality. When iPTH levels were positively and effectively reducing, the risk of all-cause mortality also decreased. The most appropriate level of postoperative iPTH seemed to be 21-150 pg/mL.

  2. The combined impact of adherence to five lifestyle factors on all-cause, cancer and cardiovascular mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kristina E N; Johnsen, Nina F; Olsen, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Individual lifestyle factors have been associated with lifestyle diseases and premature mortality by an accumulating body of evidence. The impact of a combination of lifestyle factors on mortality has been investigated in several studies, but few have applied a simple index taking national guidel......·70) for cardiovascular mortality. In the present study, adherence to merely one additional health recommendation had a protective effect on mortality risk, indicating a huge potential in enhancing healthy lifestyle behaviours of the population.......Individual lifestyle factors have been associated with lifestyle diseases and premature mortality by an accumulating body of evidence. The impact of a combination of lifestyle factors on mortality has been investigated in several studies, but few have applied a simple index taking national...... guidelines into account. The objective of the present prospective cohort study was to investigate the combined impact of adherence to five lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, waist circumference and diet) on all-cause, cancer and cardiovascular mortality based on international...

  3. Vegetarian diet and all-cause mortality: Evidence from a large population-based Australian cohort - the 45 and Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihrshahi, Seema; Ding, Ding; Gale, Joanne; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Banks, Emily; Bauman, Adrian E

    2017-04-01

    The vegetarian diet is thought to have health benefits including reductions in type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. Evidence to date suggests that vegetarians tend to have lower mortality rates when compared with non-vegetarians, but most studies are not population-based and other healthy lifestyle factors may have confounded apparent protective effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between categories of vegetarian diet (including complete, semi and pesco-vegetarian) and all-cause mortality in a large population-based Australian cohort. The 45 and Up Study is a cohort study of 267,180 men and women aged ≥45years in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Vegetarian diet status was assessed by baseline questionnaire and participants were categorized into complete vegetarians, semi-vegetarians (eat meat≤once/week), pesco-vegetarians and regular meat eaters. All-cause mortality was determined by linked registry data to mid-2014. Cox proportional hazards models quantified the association between vegetarian diet and all-cause mortality adjusting for a range of potential confounding factors. Among 243,096 participants (mean age: 62.3years, 46.7% men) there were 16,836 deaths over a mean 6.1years of follow-up. Following extensive adjustment for potential confounding factors there was no significant difference in all-cause mortality for vegetarians versus non-vegetarians [HR=1.16 (95% CI 0.93-1.45)]. There was also no significant difference in mortality risk between pesco-vegetarians [HR=0.79 (95% CI 0.59-1.06)] or semi-vegetarians [HR=1.12 (95% CI 0.96-1.31)] versus regular meat eaters. We found no evidence that following a vegetarian diet, semi-vegetarian diet or a pesco-vegetarian diet has an independent protective effect on all-cause mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of systemic inflammation on the relationship between insulin resistance and all-cause and cancer-related mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da Young; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Chang, Yoosoo; Sohn, Chong Il; Shin, Ho-Cheol; Ryu, Seungho; Lee, Won-Young

    2017-11-27

    Insulin resistance and inflammation play an important role in a variety of chronic diseases. We investigated the influence of systemic inflammation on the relationship between insulin resistance and mortality risk in apparently healthy adults. This study examined the mortality outcomes for 165,849 Koreans enrolled in a health-screening program. The subjects were divided into four groups according to their homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels: group 0, HOMA-IR HOMA-IR ≥75% and hs-CRP HOMA-IR HOMA-IR ≥75% and hs-CRP ≥2.0mg/L. The Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for all-cause, cardiovascular disease, and cancer-related mortality. During the follow-up period of 1,417,325.6 person-years, a total of 1316 deaths (182 from cardiovascular disease) occurred. The multivariate-adjusted HRs for all-cause mortality were significantly higher in groups 2 (HR 1.40; 95% CI: 1.19-1.64) and group 3 (HR 1.68; 95% CI: 1.34-2.10) than that in group 0. For cardiovascular mortality, the sex-adjusted hazards were also significantly higher in groups 2 and 3 than that in group 0; however, this increased risk disappeared during multivariate analysis. Groups 2 and 3 had significantly higher risk for cancer-related mortality than group 0, with multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios of 1.48 (95% CI: 1.18-1.86) and 1.84 (95% CI: 1.35-2.51), respectively. Systemic inflammation can be used to stratify the subjects according to the all-cause and cancer-related mortality risks, irrespective of the insulin-resistance status. And this tendency is most pronounced in cancer-related mortality. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Impacts of cold weather on all-cause and cause-specific mortality in Texas, 1990-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsun-Hsuan; Li, Xiao; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Kai

    2017-06-01

    Cold weather was estimated to account for more than half of weather-related deaths in the U.S. during 2006-2010. Studies have shown that cold-related excessive mortality is especially relevant with decreasing latitude or in regions with mild winter. However, only limited studies have been conducted in the southern U.S. The purpose of our study is to examine impacts of cold weather on mortality in 12 major Texas Metropolitan Areas (MSAs) for the 22-year period, 1990-2011. Our study used a two-stage approach to examine the cold-mortality association. We first applied distributed lag non-linear models (DLNM) to 12 major MSAs to estimate cold effects for each area. A random effects meta-analysis was then used to estimate pooled effects. Age-stratified and cause-specific mortalities were modeled separately for each MSA. Most of the MSAs were associated with an increased risk in mortality ranging from 0.1% to 5.0% with a 1 °C decrease in temperature below the cold thresholds. Higher increased mortality risks were generally observed in MSAs with higher average daily mean temperatures and lower latitudes. Pooled effect estimate was 1.58% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) [0.81, 2.37]) increase in all-cause mortality risk with a 1 °C decrease in temperature. Cold wave effects in Texas were also examined, and several MSAs along the Texas Gulf Coast showed statistically significant cold wave-mortality associations. Effects of cold on all-cause mortality were highest among people over 75 years old (1.86%, 95% CI [1.09, 2.63]). Pooled estimates for cause-specific mortality were strongest in myocardial infarction (4.30%, 95% CI [1.18, 7.51]), followed by respiratory diseases (3.17%, 95% CI [0.26, 6.17]) and ischemic heart diseases (2.54%, 95% CI [1.08, 4.02]). In conclusion, cold weather generally increases mortality risk significantly in Texas, and the cold effects vary with MSAs, age groups, and cause-specific deaths. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Plasma Nitrate and Incidence of Cardiovascular Disease and All-Cause Mortality in the Community: The Framingham Offspring Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Renke; Xanthakis, Vanessa; Göen, Thomas; Müller, Johannes; Schwedhelm, Edzard; Böger, Rainer H; Vasan, Ramachandran S.

    2017-11-18

    Nitrate is a dietary component as well as an endogenously formed metabolite and source of the signaling molecule nitric oxide. Harmful as well as beneficial effects of nitrate have been advocated. Data regarding the prognostic relevance of plasma nitrate are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prospective association of plasma nitrate with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality. We assayed plasma nitrate in 2855 Framingham Offspring Study participants (mean age 59 years, 54% women) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and evaluated its association with all-cause mortality and incident CVD. On follow-up (median 17.3 years), 775 participants died and 522 developed new-onset CVD (of 2546 participants free of CVD at baseline). In multivariable models adjusting for standard risk factors, plasma nitrate was associated with an increased risk of death in participants (hazard ratio per unit increase in log-nitrate 1.21; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.40 [ P =0.015]). The strength of the association was attenuated by additional adjustment for estimated glomerular filtration rate (hazard ratio, 1.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.35 [ P =0.057]). In contrast, no evidence was found for an association of plasma nitrate with incident CVD (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio per unit increase log-nitrate 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 0.89-1.31 [ P =0.42]). In our prospective community-based investigation, a higher plasma nitrate concentration was associated with all-cause mortality but not with incident CVD. The association of nitrate with mortality may at least in part be attributable to its association with renal function. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  7. Intensity versus duration of cycling, impact on all-cause and coronary heart disease mortality: the Copenhagen City Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnohr, Peter; Marott, Jacob L; Jensen, Jan S; Jensen, Gorm B

    2012-02-01

    Current recommendations prescribe that every adult should accumulate 30 minutes or more of moderate physical activity in leisure time, preferably every day of the week. The optimal intensity, duration, and frequency still have to be established. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of intensity versus duration of cycling on all-cause and coronary heart disease mortality. Relative intensity and duration of cycling were recorded in 5106 apparently healthy men and women aged 21-90 years drawn from the general population of Copenhagen, and followed for an average of 18 years. Total number of deaths during follow-up was 1172, of these 146 were coronary heart disease deaths. For both sexes we found a significant inverse association between cycling intensity and risk of all-cause and coronary heart disease death, but only a weak association with cycling duration. The difference in expected lifetime in relation to intensity of cycling was calculated. Men with fast intensity cycling survived 5.3 years longer, and men with average intensity 2.9 years longer than men with slow cycling intensity. For women the figures were 3.9 and 2.2 years longer, respectively. Our findings indicate that the relative intensity, and not the duration of cycling, is of more importance in relation to all-cause and coronary heart disease mortality. Thus our general recommendations to all adults would be that brisk cycling is preferable to slow.

  8. TV viewing time is associated with increased all-cause mortality in Brazilian adults independent of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turi, B C; Monteiro, H L; Lemes, Í R; Codogno, J S; Lynch, K R; Asahi Mesquita, C A; Fernandes, R A

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between television (TV) viewing and all-cause mortality among Brazilian adults after 6 years of follow-up. This longitudinal study started in 2010 in the city of Bauru, SP, Brazil, and involved 970 adults aged ≥50 years. Mortality was reported by relatives and confirmed in medical records of the Brazilian National Health System. Physical activity (PA) and TV viewing were assessed by the Baecke questionnaire. Health status, sociodemographic and behavioral covariates were considered as potential confounders. After 6 years of follow-up, 89 deaths were registered (9.2% [95% CI=7.4%-11%]). Type 2 diabetes mellitus was associated with higher risk of mortality (P-value=.012). Deaths correlated significantly with age (ρ=.188; P-value=.001), overall PA score (ρ=-.128; P-value=.001) and TV viewing (ρ=.086; P-value=.007). Lower percentage of participants reported TV viewing time as often (16%) and very often (5.7%), but there was an association between higher TV viewing time ("often" and "very often" grouped together) and increased mortality after 6 years of follow-up (P-value=.006). The higher TV viewing time was associated with a 44.7% increase in all-cause mortality (HR=1.447 [1.019-2.055]), independently of other potential confounders. In conclusion, the findings from this cohort study identified increased risk of mortality among adults with higher TV viewing time, independently of PA and other variables. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Systolic Blood Pressure Trajectory, Frailty, and All-Cause Mortality >80 Years of Age: Cohort Study Using Electronic Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindrarajah, Rathi; Hazra, Nisha C; Hamada, Shota; Charlton, Judith; Jackson, Stephen H D; Dregan, Alex; Gulliford, Martin C

    2017-06-13

    Clinical trials show benefit from lowering systolic blood pressure (SBP) in people ≥80 years of age, but nonrandomized epidemiological studies suggest lower SBP may be associated with higher mortality. This study aimed to evaluate associations of SBP with all-cause mortality by frailty category >80 years of age and to evaluate SBP trajectories before death. A population-based cohort study was conducted using electronic health records of 144 403 participants ≥80 years of age registered with family practices in the United Kingdom from 2001 to 2014. Participants were followed for ≤5 years. Clinical records of SBP were analyzed. Frailty status was classified using the e-Frailty Index into the categories of fit, mild, moderate, and severe. All-cause mortality was evaluated by frailty status and mean SBP in Cox proportional-hazards models. SBP trajectories were evaluated using person months as observations, with mean SBP and antihypertensive treatment status estimated for each person month. Fractional polynomial models were used to estimate SBP trajectories over 5 years before death. During follow-up, 51 808 deaths occurred. Mortality rates increased with frailty level and were greatest at SBP mortality was 7.7 per 100 person years at SBP 120 to 139 mm Hg, 15.2 at SBP 110 to 119 mm Hg, and 22.7 at SBP mortality may be accounted for by reverse causation if participants with lower blood pressure values are closer, on average, to the end of life. © 2017 The Authors.

  10. High Rates of All-cause and Gastroenteritis-related Hospitalization Morbidity and Mortality among HIV-exposed Indian Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathy Srikanth

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-infected and HIV-exposed, uninfected infants experience a high burden of infectious morbidity and mortality. Hospitalization is an important metric for morbidity and is associated with high mortality, yet, little is known about rates and causes of hospitalization among these infants in the first 12 months of life. Methods Using data from a prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT trial (India SWEN, where HIV-exposed breastfed infants were given extended nevirapine, we measured 12-month infant all-cause and cause-specific hospitalization rates and hospitalization risk factors. Results Among 737 HIV-exposed Indian infants, 93 (13% were HIV-infected, 15 (16% were on HAART, and 260 (35% were hospitalized 381 times by 12 months of life. Fifty-six percent of the hospitalizations were attributed to infections; gastroenteritis was most common accounting for 31% of infectious hospitalizations. Gastrointestinal-related hospitalizations steadily increased over time, peaking around 9 months. The 12-month all-cause hospitalization, gastroenteritis-related hospitalization, and in-hospital mortality rates were 906/1000 PY, 229/1000 PY, and 35/1000 PY respectively among HIV-infected infants and 497/1000 PY, 107/1000 PY, and 3/1000 PY respectively among HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. Advanced maternal age, infant HIV infection, gestational age, and male sex were associated with higher all-cause hospitalization risk while shorter duration of breastfeeding and abrupt weaning were associated with gastroenteritis-related hospitalization. Conclusions HIV-exposed Indian infants experience high rates of all-cause and infectious hospitalization (particularly gastroenteritis and in-hospital mortality. HIV-infected infants are nearly 2-fold more likely to experience hospitalization and 10-fold more likely to die compared to HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. The combination of scaling up HIV PMTCT programs and implementing proven health

  11. All-cause mortality risk as a function of sedentary behavior, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Meghan K; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2016-09-01

    Emerging work demonstrates individual associations of sedentary behavior, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) on mortality risk. Limited research has evaluated all three of these parameters in a model when considering mortality risk, and their potential additive association on mortality risk has not been fully evaluated, which was the purpose of this study. Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used (N = 2,295 adults 20-85 yrs), with follow-up through 2011. Sedentary behavior and MVPA were objectively assessed (accelerometry) with cardiorespiratory estimated from a prediction equation taking into consideration participant demographic, anthropometric and behavioral characteristics. Using the median values, a PACS (Physical Activity Cardiorespiratory Sedentary) score was created that ranged from 0-3, indicating the number of these three positive characteristics. Those with below median sedentary behavior did not have a reduced all-cause mortality risk (HR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.34-1.04; P = 0.07), but those with above median MVPA (HR = 0.35; 95% CI: 0.15-0.82; P = 0.02) and above median CRF did (HR = 0.20; 95% CI: 0.09-0.43; P sedentary behavior, were independently associated with reduced mortality risk. Adults with all three characteristics (below median sedentary and above median MVPA and CRF), however, had the lowest mortality risk.

  12. Increased All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes and High-Expression Mannan-Binding Lectin Genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jakob A; Thiel, Steffen; Lajer, Maria

    2015-01-01

    normoalbuminuric patients (103 men, age 43 years [95% CI 41-44], eGFR 93 mL/min/1.73 m(2) [95% CI 91-95]). Mortality rates were compared according to the concentration-determining MBL2 genotype or the MBL concentration. Patients were classified as having high or low MBL expression genotypes. The effect of MBL...... concentration was estimated by comparing patients with MBL concentrations above or below the median. RESULTS: Ninety-eight patients died during follow-up. The unadjusted hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality was 1.61 (95% CI 1.07-2.43) for patients with high MBL expression genotypes versus patients with low...... MBL expression genotypes (P = 0.023). All-cause mortality was higher in patients with MBL concentrations above the median than in patients with MBL concentrations below the median (unadjusted HR 1.90 [95% CI 1.26-2.87], P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: High MBL expression genotypes and high MBL concentrations...

  13. Osteoporosis markers on low-dose lung cancer screening chest computed tomography scans predict all-cause mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckens, C.F. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Radiology Department, Utrecht (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands); Graaf, Y. van der [University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands); Verkooijen, H.M.; Mali, W.P.; Jong, P.A. de [University Medical Center Utrecht, Radiology Department, Utrecht (Netherlands); Isgum, I.; Mol, C.P. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands); Verhaar, H.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Geriatric Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Vliegenthart, R.; Oudkerk, M. [Medical Center Groningen, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Aalst, C.M. van; Koning, H.J. de [Erasmus MC Rotterdam, Department of Public Health, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-01-15

    Further survival benefits may be gained from low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) by assessing vertebral fractures and bone density. We sought to assess the association between CT-measured vertebral fractures and bone density with all-cause mortality in lung cancer screening participants. Following a case-cohort design, lung cancer screening trial participants (N = 3,673) who died (N = 196) during a median follow-up of 6 years (inter-quartile range: 5.7-6.3) were identified and added to a random sample of N = 383 from the trial. We assessed vertebral fractures using Genant and acute;s semiquantative method on sagittal reconstructions and measured bone density (Hounsfield Units (HU)) in vertebrae. Cox proportional hazards modelling was used to determine if vertebral fractures or bone density were independently predictive of mortality. The prevalence of vertebral fractures was 35 % (95 % confidence interval 30-40 %) among survivors and 51 % (44-58 %) amongst cases. After adjusting for age, gender, smoking status, pack years smoked, coronary and aortic calcium volume and pulmonary emphysema, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for vertebral fracture was 2.04 (1.43-2.92). For each 10 HU decline in trabecular bone density, the adjusted HR was 1.08 (1.02-1.15). Vertebral fractures and bone density are independently associated with all-cause mortality. (orig.)

  14. Sarcopenia as a predictor of all-cause mortality among community-dwelling older people: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Hao, Qiukui; Hai, Shan; Wang, Hui; Cao, Li; Dong, Birong

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the association between sarcopenia and all-cause mortality among community-dwelling older people. A systematic review was performed using three electronic databases (EMBASE, MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library) to identify prospective cohort studies from January 2009 to February 2017 examining sarcopenia as a predictor of all-cause mortality among community-dwelling older people. We conducted a pooled analysis of mortality associated with sarcopenia, and subgroup analyses based on measurements of muscle mass and length of follow-up by employing a random-effects model. Sensitivity analyses were performed evaluate the cause of high heterogeneity. In addition, methodological quality, heterogeneity and publication bias were evaluated. Of 1703 studies identified, 6 studies incorporating 7367 individuals were included in the meta-analysis for all-cause mortality. The pooled hazard ratios (HRs) of all-cause mortality from the combination of included studies suggested participants with sarcopenia had a significantly higher rate of mortality (pooled HR 1.60, 95%CI 1.24-2.06, I 2 =27.8%, p=0.216) than participants without sarcopenia. The subgroup analysis for length of follow-up suggested studies with a follow-up period of less than 5 years found a higher risk of all-cause mortality (pooled HR 2.09, 95%CI 1.21-3.60) than studies with a follow-up period of 5 years or more (pooled HR 1.52, 95%CI 1.14-2.01). A subgroup of anthropometric measures was found to identify higher mortality risks (pooled HR 2.26, 95%CI 1.30-3.92) than a subgroup of dual-energy x-ray (DXA) absorptiometry (pooled HR 1.82, 95%CI 1.04-3.18) factors or a subgroup of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) factors (pooled HR 1.31, 95%CI 1.15-1.49). Sarcopenia is a predictor of all-cause mortality among community-dwelling older people. Therefore, it is important to diagnose sarcopenia and to intervene, in order to reduce mortality rates in the

  15. Serum T3 level can predict cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality rates in CKD patients with proteinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jae Won; Han, Seung Tae; Song, Shin Han; Kim, Min Keun; Kim, Jae Seok; Choi, Seung Ok; Han, Byoung-Geun

    2012-01-01

    Patients with proteinuria frequently show changes in thyroid hormone levels. Serum T3 depression predicts a negative outcome in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and may be associated with cardiovascular complications or chronic inflammation. Few studies have explored the relationship between thyroid hormone dysregulation and clinical outcome in patients with proteinuria. We reviewed thyroid function test results obtained from 211 patients with 24 h urinary protein excretion greater than 150 mg/day and found a correlation of thyroid hormone level with cardiovascular events and mortality. T3 decreased with age (p = 0.001) and 24 h urine albumin (p = 0.028). Free T4 decreased in accordance with 24 h urine protein and serum creatinine (p = 0.034 and p = 0.033, respectively). In the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, lower cumulative survival, higher cardiovascular events, and mortality were found in the low T3 group compared with the normal T3 group (p = 0.000, p = 0.013, and p = 0.001, respectively). In Cox regression analysis, we observed that, with low T3, decreased sodium, and old age, the incidence of cardiovascular complications (p = 0.000, p = 0.016, and p = 0.000, respectively), cardiovascular mortality (p = 0.000, p = 0.048, and p = 0.001, respectively), and all-cause mortality (p = 0.000, p = 0.017, and p = 0.000, respectively) increased. In CKD patients with proteinuria, low T3 concentration predicted all-cause mortality and cardiovascular event independently of the severity of proteinuria.

  16. High serum YKL-40 level in a cohort of octogenarians is associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J. S.; Pedersen, Agnes Nadelmann; Schroll, M.

    2007-01-01

    = 151) and serum YKL-40 in 18-30-year-olds (n = 89). Fifty-one of the octogenarians died during the 6-year follow-up. Serum YKL-40 in octogenarians was higher compared to the level in young people (median 116 versus 31 microg/l, P ... of serum YKL-40 (logarithmically transformed and divided by tertiles) showed significant association with all-cause mortality [tertile 3: hazard ratio (HR) = 2.38, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19-4.78, P = 0.02]. The effect persisted after adjusting for potential confounders (sex, smoking, body mass...

  17. Repeatedly measured material and behavioral factors changed the explanation of socioeconomic inequalities in all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oude Groeniger, Joost; Kamphuis, Carlijn B; Mackenbach, Johan P; van Lenthe, Frank J

    2017-11-01

    We examined whether using repeatedly measured material and behavioral factors contributed differently to socioeconomic inequalities in all-cause mortality compared to one baseline measurement. Data from the Dutch prospective GLOBE cohort were linked to mortality register data (1991-2013; N = 4,851). Socioeconomic position was measured at baseline by educational level and occupation. Material factors (financial difficulties, housing tenure, health insurance) and behavioral factors (smoking, leisure time physical activity, sports participation, and body mass index) were self-reported in 1991, 1997, and 2004. Cox proportional hazards regression and bootstrap methods were used to examine the contribution of baseline-only and time-varying risk factors to socioeconomic inequalities in mortality. Men and women in the lowest educational and occupational groups were at an increased risk of dying compared to the highest groups. The contribution of material factors to socioeconomic inequalities in mortality was smaller when multiple instead of baseline-only measurements were used (25%-65% vs. 49%-93%). The contribution of behavioral factors was larger when multiple measurements were used (39%-51% vs. 19%-40%). Inclusion of time-dependent risk factors contributes to understanding socioeconomic inequalities in mortality, but careful examination of the underlying mechanisms and suitability of the model is required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Low ALT Levels Independently Associated with 22-Year All-Cause Mortality Among Coronary Heart Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltz-Sinvani, N; Klempfner, R; Ramaty, E; Sela, B A; Goldenberg, I; Segal, G

    2016-02-01

    Low alanine aminotransferase (ALT) blood levels are known to be associated with frailty and increased risk of long-term mortality in certain populations. However, the contribution of this marker to long-term outcome has not been assessed in patients with chronic coronary heart disease. The aim of the current study was to assess the association between low ALT values and long-term, 22.8-year, all-cause mortality in this population. We examined the association of low ALT (ALT group compared with patients with higher ALT levels (65.6 % vs. 58.4 %; log-rank p ALT is independently associated with 11 % greater long-term (22.8 years) mortality risk [HR 1.11 (95 % confidence interval: 1.03-1.19; adjusted p ALT levels are associated with increased long-term mortality among middle-aged patients with stable coronary heart disease. This association remained statistically significant after adjustment for other well-established risk factors for mortality in this population.

  19. Prognostic significance of mitral regurgitation in long-term all-cause mortality in patients aged ≥ 80 years with acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shijun; Barywani, Salim; Fu, Michael

    2014-09-20

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) has been shown to be associated with a poor prognosis in the patients with acute myocardial infarction, whether or not percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is employed. However, the long-term prognostic significance of MR in octogenarian patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) remains unknown. We sought to determine the impact of MR on long-term all-cause mortality and to further reveal whether PCI could influence the prognosis in octogenarian MR patients with ACS. In this study, we included a total of 353 consecutive hospitalized patients, aged ≥ 80 years, with ACS during the period of 5-year follow-up. Association between MR and long-term all-cause mortality was analyzed both in a overall cohort and in a matched cohort developed from a propensity score analysis. MR was independently associated with long-term all-cause mortality in the overall and matched cohorts (hazard ratio (HR) 1.58, 95% CI 1.01-2.47, P=0.043; HR 1.90, 95% CI 1.15-3.13, P=0.013). In the subgroup treated with PCI, MR also exhibited higher long-term all-cause mortality, PCI remained an independent determinant of improving long-term survival rate by reducing the mortality by 15.1% in ACS patients with MR aged ≥ 80 years. Our study demonstrates that MR is independently associated with long-term all-cause mortality, and PCI is an independent determinant for improving the long-term survival rate in the octogenarian ACS patients with MR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. All-cause and cardiovascular mortality risk in U.S. adults with and without type 2 diabetes: Influence of physical activity, pharmacological treatment and glycemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ruth E; Riddell, Michael C; Macpherson, Alison K; Canning, Karissa L; Kuk, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the joint association between physical activity, pharmacotherapy, and HbA1c control on all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality risk in adults with and without type 2 diabetes (T2D). 12,060 adults from NHANES III and NHANES continuous (1999-2002) surveys were used. Cox proportional hazards analyses were included to estimate mortality risk according to physical activity, pharmacotherapy, and glycemic control (HbA1c physically active, treated and controlled (goal situation) as the referent. Compared to the referent, adults with T2D who were uncontrolled, or controlled but physically inactive had a higher all-cause mortality risk (pphysically inactive had a higher CVD mortality risk, regardless of treatment or control status (p0.05). Physical activity and glycemic control are both associated with lower all-cause and CVD mortality risk in adults with T2D. Adults with T2D who are physically active, pharmacologically treated, and obtain glycemic control may attain similar mortality risk as normoglycemic adults. © 2014.

  1. Improvement in All-Cause Mortality With Blood Pressure Control in a Group of US Veterans With Drug-Resistant Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, Omid; Goa, Cristobal; Faselis, Charles; Kokkinos, Peter; Papademetriou, Vasilios

    2016-01-01

    The current definition of drug-resistant hypertension includes patients with uncontrolled (URH) (taking ≥3 antihypertensive medications) and controlled hypertension (CRH; blood pressure [BP] ≤140/90 mm Hg) (taking ≥4 medications). The authors hypothesized that all-cause mortality is reduced when URH is controlled. Qualified patients followed at the Washington DC VA Medical Center were included. BPs were averaged for each year of follow-up. In 2006, among 2906 patients who met the criteria for drug-resistant hypertension, 628 had URH. During follow-up, 234 patients were controlled (group 1) and 394 patients remained uncontrolled (group 2). The mortality rate among patients with URH was 28% (110 of 394) and among patients with CRH was 13% (30 of 234), a 54% reduction (Phypertension markedly reduces all-cause mortality. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Left ventricular global longitudinal strain is predictive of all-cause mortality independent of aortic stenosis severity and ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Arnold C T; Prihadi, Edgard A; Antoni, M Louisa; Bertini, Matteo; Ewe, See Hooi; Ajmone Marsan, Nina; Leung, Dominic Y; Delgado, Victoria; Bax, Jeroen J

    2017-07-28

    Left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain (GLS) may identify subclinical myocardial dysfunction in patients with aortic stenosis (AS). The aims of the present retrospective single centre study were to determine the independent prognostic value of LV GLS over LV ejection fraction (EF) and the role of LV GLS to further risk stratify severe AS patients before aortic valve replacement. A total of 688 patients (median age 72 years, 61.2% men) with mild (n = 130), moderate (n = 264) and severe AS (n = 294) were included. LV GLS was determined by 2D speckle tracking echocardiography. A total of 114 (16.6%) patients died before surgery during the study. When patients with severe AS and normal LVEF were dichotomized based on the median LV GLS value (-14.0%), patients with normal LVEF and 'preserved' LV GLS of ≤ -14% had significantly higher survival than patients with 'impaired' LV GLS of > -14%. There was no difference in survival between patients with normal LVEF but 'impaired' LV GLS ( > -14%) and patients with impaired LVEF (log-rank P = 0.34). LV GLS was independently associated with all-cause mortality on multivariable Cox regression analysis (hazard ratio 1.17, 95% confidence interval 1.09-1.26; P optimal timing of aortic valve replacement. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Dietary total flavonoids intake and risk of mortality from all causes and cardiovascular disease in the general population: A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue-Ming; Liu, Yu-Jian; Huang, Yao; Yu, Hong-Jie; Yuan, Shuai; Tang, Bo-Wen; Wang, Pei-Gang; He, Qi-Qiang

    2017-06-01

    Epidemiologic studies assessing the association between dietary total flavonoids intake and the risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all causes have yielded inconsistent results. Therefore, we conducted a dose-response meta-analysis to investigate this association. We searched PubMed and Embase databases from January 1966 through May 2016 and examined the references of retrieved articles to identify relevant prospective cohort studies. The random-effect model was used to calculate the summary risk estimates and dose-response analysis was performed. Ten studies were included in the present meta-analysis. The relative risk (RR) of all-cause mortality for the highest versus lowest category of total flavonoids intake was 0.82 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72-0.92). Dose-response analysis showed that those consuming 200 mg/day of total flavonoids had the lowest risk of all-cause mortality. Furthermore, a marginally significant association was found between dietary total flavonoids consumption and risk of death from CVD (summary RR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.70-1.03; P = 0.099) and coronary heart diseases (summary RR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.54-1.02; P = 0.069), respectively. The meta-analysis provides strong evidence for the recommendation of consuming flavonoids-rich food to reduce risks of mortality from all causes as part of a healthy diet among general adults. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. The combined influence of hypertension and common mental disorder on all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Mark; Batty, G David; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Kivimaki, Mika

    2010-12-01

    Common mental disorders, such as anxiety and depression, are risk factors for mortality among cardiac patients, although this topic has gained little attention in individuals with hypertension. We examined the combined effects of hypertension and common mental disorder on mortality in participants with both treated and untreated hypertension. In a representative, prospective study of 31 495 adults (aged 52.5 ± 12.5 years, 45.7% men) we measured baseline levels of common mental disorder using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and collected data on blood pressure, history of hypertension diagnosis, and medication use. High blood pressure (systolic/diastolic >140/90 mmHg) in study members with an existing diagnosis of hypertension indicated uncontrolled hypertension and, in undiagnosed individuals, untreated hypertension. There were 3200 deaths from all causes [943 cardiovascular disease (CVD)] over 8.4 years follow-up. As expected, the risk of CVD was elevated in participants with controlled [multivariate hazard ratio = 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-2.12] and uncontrolled (multivariate hazard ratio = 1.57, 95% CI 1.08-2.27) hypertension compared with normotensive participants. Common mental disorder (GHQ-12 score of ≥4) was also associated with CVD death (multivariate hazard ratio = 1.60, 95% CI 1.35-1.90). The risk of CVD death was highest in participants with both diagnosed hypertension and common mental disorder, especially in study members with controlled (multivariate hazard ratio = 2.32, 95% CI 1.70-3.17) hypertension but also in uncontrolled hypertension (multivariate hazard ratio = 1.90, 95% CI 1.18-3.05). The combined effect of common mental disorder was also apparent in participants with undiagnosed (untreated) hypertension, especially for all-cause mortality. These findings suggest that the association of hypertension with total and CVD mortality is stronger when combined with common mental disorder.

  5. Cancer risk and all-cause mortality among Norwegian military United Nations peacekeepers deployed to Kosovo between 1999 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Leif Aage; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Borud, Einar Kristian

    2014-08-01

    Media reports of leukaemia and other cancers among European United Nations (UN) peacekeepers who served in the Balkans, and a scientific finding of excess Hodgkin lymphoma among Italian UN peacekeepers who served in Bosnia, suggested a link between cancer incidence and depleted uranium (DU) exposure. This spurred several studies on cancer risk among UN peacekeepers who served in the Balkans. Although these studies turned out to be negative, the debate about possible cancers and other health risks caused by DU exposure continues. The aim of the present study was to investigate cancer incidence and all-cause mortality in a cohort of 6076 (4.4% women) Norwegian military UN peacekeepers deployed to Kosovo between 1999 and 2011. The cohort was followed for cancer incidence and mortality from 1999 to 2011. Standardised incidence ratios for cancer (SIR) and mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated from national rates. Sixty-nine cancer cases and 38 deaths were observed during follow-up. Cancer incidence in the cohort was similar to that in the general Norwegian population. No cancers in the overall cohort significantly exceeded incidence rates in the general Norwegian population, but there was an elevated SIR for melanoma of skin in men of 1.90 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.95-3.40). A fivefold increased incidence of bladder cancer was observed among men who served in Kosovo for ≥ 1 year, based on 2 excess cases (SIR=5.27; 95% CI 1.09-15.4). All-cause mortality was half the expected rate (SMR=0.49; 95% CI 0.35-0.67). Our study did not support the suggestion that UN peacekeeping service in Kosovo is associated with increased cancer risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Diabetic ketosis during hyperglycemic crisis is associated with decreased all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruljac, Ivan; Ćaćić, Miroslav; Ćaćić, Petra; Ostojić, Vedran; Štefanović, Mario; Šikić, Aljoša; Vrkljan, Milan

    2017-01-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have impaired ketogenesis due to high serum insulin and low growth hormone levels. Evidence exists that ketone bodies might improve kidney and cardiac function. In theory, improved ketogenesis in diabetics may have positive effects. We aimed to assess the impact of diabetic ketosis on all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus presenting with hyperglycemic crisis. We analyzed 486 patients with diabetic ketosis and 486 age and sex-matched patients with non-ketotic hyperglycemia presenting to the emergency department. Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyze the link between patient characteristics and mortality. During an observation time of 33.4 months, death of any cause occurred in 40.9 % of the non-ketotic hyperglycemia group and 30.2 % of the DK group (hazard ratio in the diabetic ketosis group, 0.63; 95 % confidence interval 0.48-0.82; P = 0.0005). Patients with diabetic ketosis had a lower incidence of symptomatic heart failure and had improved renal function. They used less furosemide and antihypertensive drugs, more metformin and lower insulin doses, all of which was independently associated with decreased mortality. Plasma glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels were similar in both groups. Patients with hyperglycemic crisis and diabetic ketosis have decreased all-cause mortality when compared to those with non-ketotic hyperglycemia. diabetic ketosis might be a compensatory mechanism rather than a complication in patients with hyperglycemic crises, but further prospective studies are warranted.

  7. Proximal aortic distensibility is an independent predictor of all-cause mortality and incident CV events: the MESA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redheuil, Alban; Wu, Colin O; Kachenoura, Nadjia; Ohyama, Yoshiaki; Yan, Raymond T; Bertoni, Alain G; Hundley, Gregory W; Duprez, Daniel A; Jacobs, David R; Daniels, Lori B; Darwin, Christine; Sibley, Christopher; Bluemke, David A; Lima, João A C

    2014-12-23

    The predictive value of ascending aortic distensibility (AAD) for mortality and hard cardiovascular disease (CVD) events has not been fully established. This study sought to assess the utility of AAD to predict mortality and incident CVD events beyond conventional risk factors in MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis). AAD was measured with magnetic resonance imaging at baseline in 3,675 MESA participants free of overt CVD. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate risk of death, heart failure (HF), and incident CVD in relation to AAD, CVD risk factors, indexes of subclinical atherosclerosis, and Framingham risk score. There were 246 deaths, 171 hard CVD events (myocardial infarction, resuscitated cardiac arrest, stroke and CV death), and 88 HF events over a median 8.5-year follow-up. Decreased AAD was associated with increased all-cause mortality with a hazard ratio (HR) for the first versus fifth quintile of AAD of 2.7 (p = 0.008) independent of age, sex, ethnicity, other CVD risk factors, and indexes of subclinical atherosclerosis. Overall, patients with the lowest AAD had an independent 2-fold higher risk of hard CVD events. Decreased AAD was associated with CV events in low to intermediate- CVD risk individuals with an HR for the first quintile of AAD of 5.3 (p = 0.03) as well as with incident HF but not after full adjustment. Decreased proximal aorta distensibility significantly predicted all-cause mortality and hard CV events among individuals without overt CVD. AAD may help refine risk stratification, especially among asymptomatic, low- to intermediate-risk individuals. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 14-Year risk of all-cause mortality according to hypoglycaemic drug exposure in a general population.

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    Emilie Bérard

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Guidelines for management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus recommend the use of hypoglycaemic drugs when lifestyle interventions remain insufficient for glycaemic control. Recent trials have provided worrying safety data on certain hypoglycaemic drugs. The aim of this study was to assess 14-year risk of all-cause mortality according to hypoglycaemic drug exposure at baseline, in a general population. METHODS: Our analysis was based on the observational Third French MONICA survey on cardiovascular risk factors (1995-1997. Vital status was obtained 14 years after inclusion, and assessment of determinants of mortality was based on multivariable Cox modelling. RESULTS: There were 3336 participants and 248 deaths over the 14-year period. At baseline, there were 3162 (95% non-diabetic, 46 (1% untreated type 2 diabetic and 128 (4% type 2 diabetic subjects with hypoglycaemic drug treatment (metformin alone (31%, sulfonylureas alone or in combination (49%, insulin alone or in combination (10%, or other treatments (9%. After adjustment for duration of diabetes, history of diabetes complications, area of residence (centre, age, gender, educational level, alcohol consumption, smoking, blood pressure, LDL and HDL cholesterol, which all were significant and independent determinants of mortality, the hazard ratio for all-cause mortality was 3.22 [95% confidence interval: 0.87-11.9] for untreated diabetic subjects, 2.28 [0.98-5.26] for diabetics treated with metformin alone, 1.70 [0.92-3.16] for diabetics with sulfonylureas and 4.92 [1.70-14.3] for diabetic with insulin versus non-diabetic subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the conclusion that until more evidence is provided from randomized trials, a prudent approach should be to restrain use of insulin to situations in which combinations of non-insulin agents have failed to appropriately achieve glycemic control, as it is recommended in the current guidelines for the management of

  9. Losing Life and Livelihood: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Unemployment and All-Cause Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelfs, David J.; Shor, Eran; Davidson, Karina W.; Schwartz, Joseph E.

    2011-01-01

    Unemployment rates in the United States remain near a 25-year high and global unemployment is rising. Previous studies have shown that unemployed persons have an increased risk of death, but the magnitude of the risk and moderating factors have not been explored. The study is a random-effects meta-analysis and meta-regression designed to assess the association between unemployment and all-cause mortality among working-age persons. We extracted 235 mortality risk estimates from 42 studies, providing data on more than 20 million persons. The mean hazard ratio (HR) for mortality was 1.63 among HRs adjusted for age and additional covariates. The mean effect was higher for men than for women. Unemployment was associated with an increased mortality risk for those in their early and middle careers, but less for those in their late-career. The risk of death was highest during the first 10 years of follow up, but decreased subsequently. The mean HR was 24% lower among the subset of studies controlling for health-related behaviors. Public health initiatives could target unemployed persons for more aggressive cardiovascular screening and interventions aimed at reducing risk-taking behaviors. PMID:21330027

  10. Relationship between Body Mass Index Reference and All-Cause Mortality: Evidence from a Large Cohort of Thai Adults

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    Vasoontara Yiengprugsawan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate variation in body mass index (BMI reference and 5-year all-cause mortality using data from 87151 adult Open University students nationwide. Analyses focused on BMI reference bands: “normal” (≥18.5 to <23, “lower normal” (≥18.5 to <20.75, “upper normal” (≥20.75 to <23, and “narrow Western normal” (≥23 to <25. We report hazard ratios (HR and 95% Confidence Intervals adjusting for covariates. Compared to lower normal, adults aged 35–65 years who were obese (BMI ≥ 30 were twice as likely to die during the follow-up (HR 2.37; 1.01–5.70. For the same group, when using narrow Western normal as the reference, the results were similar (HR 3.02; 1.26–7.22. However, different combinations of BMI exposure and reference band produce quite different results. Older age persons belonging to Asian overweight BMI category (≥23 to <25 were relatively protected from mortality (HR 0.57; 0.34–0.96 and HR 0.49; 0.28–0.84 when assessed using normal (≥18.5 to <23 and upper normal (≥20.75 to <23 as reference bands. Use of different “normal” reference produced varying mortality relationships in a large cohort of Thai adults. Caution is needed when interpreting BMI-mortality data.

  11. Racial disparities in adult all-cause and cause-specific mortality among us adults: mediating and moderating factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Beydoun

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies uncovering factors beyond socio-economic status (SES that would explain racial and ethnic disparities in mortality are scarce. Methods Using prospective cohort data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, we examined all-cause and cause-specific mortality disparities by race, mediation through key factors and moderation by age (20–49 vs. 50+, sex and poverty status. Cox proportional hazards, discrete-time hazards and competing risk regression models were conducted (N = 16,573 participants, n = 4207 deaths, Median time = 170 months (1–217 months. Results Age, sex and poverty income ratio-adjusted hazard rates were higher among Non-Hispanic Blacks (NHBs vs. Non-Hispanic Whites (NHW. Within the above-poverty young men stratum where this association was the strongest, the socio-demographic-adjusted HR = 2.59, p < 0.001 was only partially attenuated by SES and other factors (full model HR = 2.08, p = 0.003. Income, education, diet quality, allostatic load and self-rated health, were among key mediators explaining NHB vs. NHW disparity in mortality. The Hispanic paradox was observed consistently among women above poverty (young and old. NHBs had higher CVD-related mortality risk compared to NHW which was explained by factors beyond SES. Those factors did not explain excess risk among NHB for neoplasm-related death (fully adjusted HR = 1.41, 95 % CI: 1.02–2.75, p = 0.044. Moreover, those factors explained the lower risk of neoplasm-related death among MA compared to NHW, while CVD-related mortality risk became lower among MA compared to NHW upon multivariate adjustment. Conclusions In sum, racial/ethnic disparities in all-cause and cause-specific mortality (particularly cardiovascular and neoplasms were partly explained by socio-demographic, SES, health-related and dietary factors, and differentially by age, sex and poverty strata.

  12. Paid Sick Leave and Risks of All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality among Adult Workers in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The USA is one of only a few advanced economies globally that does not guarantee its workers paid sick leave. While there are plausible reasons why paid sick leave may be linked to mortality, little is known empirically about this association. Methods: In a pooled USA nationally-representative longitudinal sample of 57,323 working adults aged 18–85 years from the National Health Interview Surveys 2000–2002, paid sick leave was examined as a predictor of all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the impact of paid sick leave on mortality. Results: Having paid sick leave through one’s job was associated with 10% (hazards ratio, HR = 0.90; 95% CI = 0.81–0.996; p = 0.04, 14% (HR = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.74–0.99; p = 0.04, and 22% (HR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.65–0.94; p = 0.01 significantly lower hazards of all-cause mortality after mean follow-up times of 11.1, 6.5, and 4.5 years, respectively. This study further identified associations of paid sick leave with 24% (HR = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.59–0.98; p = 0.03, and 35% (HR = 0.65; 95% CI = 0.44–0.95; p = 0.03 lower hazards of dying from heart diseases and unintentional injuries, respectively. Conclusions: To the author’s knowledge, this study provides the first empirical evidence on the linkages between paid sick leave and mortality and supports protective effects, particularly against heart diseases and unintentional injuries. The most salient association corresponded to a lag period of just less than five years. Social policies that mandate paid sick leave may help to reduce health inequities and alleviate the population burden of mortality among working adults in the USA.

  13. Relationship between ever reporting depressive symptoms and all-cause mortality in a cohort of HIV-infected adults in routine care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson, Angela M; Pence, Brian W; Moore, Richard; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Mathews, William Christopher; Heine, Amy; Gaynes, Bradley N; Napravnik, Sonia; Christopoulos, Katerina; Crane, Heidi M; Mugavero, Michael J

    2017-04-24

    The aim of this study was to assess whether ever reporting depressive symptoms affects mortality in the modern HIV treatment era. A cohort study of HIV-infected adults in routine clinical care at seven sites in the USA. We examined the effect of ever reporting depressive symptoms on all-cause mortality using data from the Centers for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems cohort. We included individuals with at least one depression measure between 2005 and 2014. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9. We used weighted Kaplan-Meier curves and marginal structural Cox models with inverse probability weights to estimate the effect of ever reporting depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 ≥10) on all-cause mortality. A total of 10 895 individuals were included. Participants were followed for a median of 3.1 years (35 621 total person-years). There were 491 (4.5%) deaths during the follow-up period (crude incidence rate 13.8/1000 person-years). At baseline, 28% of the population reported depressive symptoms. In the weighted analysis, there was no evidence that ever reporting depressive symptoms increased the hazard of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 0.82, 95% confidence interval 0.55-1.24). In a large cohort of HIV-infected adults in care in the modern treatment era, we observed no evidence that ever reporting depressive symptoms increased the likelihood of all-cause mortality, controlling for a range of time-varying factors. Antiretroviral therapy that is increasingly robust to moderate adherence and improved access to depression treatment may help to explain changes in the relationship between depressive symptoms and mortality in the modern treatment era.

  14. Paleolithic and Mediterranean Diet Pattern Scores Are Inversely Associated with All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality in Adults123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Kristine A; Judd, Suzanne; McCullough, Marjorie L; Flanders, W Dana; Hartman, Terryl J; Bostick, Roberd M

    2017-01-01

    Background: Poor diet quality is associated with a higher risk of many chronic diseases that are among the leading causes of death in the United States. It has been hypothesized that evolutionary discordance may account for some of the higher incidence and mortality from these diseases. Objective: We investigated associations of 2 diet pattern scores, the Paleolithic and the Mediterranean, with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the REGARDS (REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) study, a longitudinal cohort of black and white men and women ≥45 y of age. Methods: Participants completed questionnaires, including a Block food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ), at baseline and were contacted every 6 mo to determine their health status. Of the analytic cohort (n = 21,423), a total of 2513 participants died during a median follow-up of 6.25 y. We created diet scores from FFQ responses and assessed their associations with mortality using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusting for major risk factors. Results: For those in the highest relative to the lowest quintiles of the Paleolithic and Mediterranean diet scores, the multivariable adjusted HRs for all-cause mortality were, respectively, 0.77 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.89; P-trend diets closer to Paleolithic or Mediterranean diet patterns may be inversely associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. PMID:28179490

  15. Isolated systolic hypertension in Dutch middle aged and all-cause mortality: a 25-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Ban, G C; Kampman, E; Schouten, E G; Kok, F J; van der Heide, R M; van der Heide-Wessel, C

    1989-03-01

    In the early 1950s, the blood pressure of 3901 Dutch civil servants and their spouses aged 40-65 years was measured in a general health survey. Isolated systolic hypertension (systolic pressure greater than 160 mmHg, diastolic pressure less than 90 mmHg) was observed in 6.3% of the women and 3.0% of the men. The prevalence increased with age and it was more common in women in all age groups. Using logistic regression, with adjustment for potential confounders (age, smoking, serum cholesterol, Quetelet index, alcohol consumption, haemoglobin level, pulse rate and diastolic blood pressure) the association of 15- and 25-year total mortality with isolated systolic hypertension was determined. Compared to normotensive people (systolic pressure less than or equal to 135 mmHg, diastolic pressure less than 90 mmHg), the risk of death from all causes was significantly higher for men with isolated systolic hypertension after 15 and 25 years of follow-up (odds ratio OR = 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-4.8 and OR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.3-8.0). For women 15-years mortality risk was strongly associated with isolated systolic hypertension (OR = 3.7, 95% CI 1.4-9.7). The increased risk was less pronounced after 25 years of follow-up (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 0.96-3.0). Our results support those of other studies and indicate that isolated systolic hypertension is an important independent risk factor for all-cause mortality. Since isolated systolic hypertension may be an indicator for the early onset of ageing, it is important to study its determinants and to pay more attention to its diagnosis and treatment in middle-aged populations.

  16. Snoring Is Not Associated With All-Cause Mortality, Incident Cardiovascular Disease, or Stroke in the Busselton Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Nathaniel S.; Wong, Keith K.H.; Cullen, Stewart R.J.; Knuiman, Matthew W.; Grunstein, Ronald R.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To ascertain whether objectively measured snoring increases mortality, cardiovascular disease, or stroke risk over the effects of obstructive sleep apnea and other established risk factors. Design: Community-based cohort. Participants: 400 residents of the Western Australian town of Busselton. Interventions: N/A. Measurements: Snoring and obstructive sleep apnea were quantified via the percentage of the night spent snoring and the respiratory disturbance index as measured by a single night recording in November-December 1990 by a home sleep apnea monitoring device (MESAM IV), along with a range of cardiovascular disease risk factors. Follow-up for deaths and cardiovascular hospitalizations was ascertained via record linkage until the end of 2007. Results: Our analytical sample of 380 people was made up of the 397 people for whom the authors had follow-up data, minus 17 people who reported a previous stroke or heart attack at baseline (n = 380/400 = 95% of cohort). Snoring was observed for a mean/median of 32.0/27.4% of the night (standard deviation = 23.9%; range = 0-97.2%). There were 46 deaths, 68 cardiovascular events, and 24 strokes during 17 yr of follow-up. Snoring as either a categoric or continuous variable was not significantly associated with death, incident cardiovascular disease, or stroke in both unadjusted Cox regression models and in models that adjusted for obstructive sleep apnea and other risk factors. Conclusions: No measure of snoring was associated with all-cause mortality, or incident cardiovascular disease or stroke over 17 yr in this community-based sample. Citation: Marshall NS; Wong KKH; Cullen SRJ; Knuiman MW; Grunstein RR. Snoring is not associated with all-cause mortality, incident cardiovascular disease, or stroke in the Busselton Health Study. SLEEP 2012;35(9):1235–1240. PMID:22942501

  17. All-cause and Cardiovascular mortality among ethnic German immigrants from the Former Soviet Union: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronellenfitsch, Ulrich; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Becher, Heiko; Razum, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    Background Migration is a phenomenon of particular Public Health importance. Since 1990, almost 2 million ethnic Germans (Aussiedler) have migrated from the former Soviet Union (FSU) to Germany. This study compares their overall and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality to that of Germany's general population. Because of high overall and CVD mortality in the FSU and low socio-economic status of Aussiedler in Germany, we hypothesize that their mortality is higher. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study for 1990–2002 with data of 34,393 Aussiedler. We assessed vital status at population registries and causes of death at the state statistical office. We calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for the whole cohort and substrata of covariables such as age, sex and family size. To assess multivariate effects, we used Poisson regression. Results 1657 cohort members died before December 31, 2002, and 680 deaths (41.03%) were due to CVD. The SMR for the whole cohort was 0.85 (95%-CI 0.81–0.89) for all causes of death and 0.79 (95%-CI 0.73–0.85) for CVD. SMRs were higher than one for younger Aussiedler and lower for older ones. There was no clear effect of duration of stay on SMRs. For 1990–93, SMRs were significantly lower than in subsequent years. In families comprising at least five members upon arrival in Germany, SMRs were significantly lower than in smaller families. Conclusion In contrast to our hypothesis on migrants' health, overall and CVD mortality among Aussiedler is lower than in Germany's general population. Possible explanations are a substantially better health status of Aussiedler in the FSU as compared to the local average, a higher perceived socio-economic status of Aussiedler in Germany, or selection effects. SMR differences between substrata need further exploration, and risk factor data are needed. PMID:16438727

  18. The obesity-associated risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality is not lower in Inuit compared to Europeans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, Pernille Falberg; Lucas, Michel; Laouan Sidi, Elhadji A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Inuit populations have lower levels of cardiometabolic risk factors for the same level of body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC) compared to Europeans in cross-sectional studies. We aimed to compare the longitudinal associations of anthropometric measures with card...... incidences of CVD and all-cause mortality, but the trends in the associations with the anthropometric measures only differ for all-cause mortality. Previous findings of a lower obesity-associated cardiometabolic risk among Inuit were not confirmed....... with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in Inuit and Europeans. METHODS: Using pooled data from three population-based studies in Canada, Greenland and Denmark, we conducted a cohort study of 10,033 adult participants (765 Nunavik Inuit, 2960 Greenlandic Inuit and 6308 Europeans). Anthropometric...... measures collected at baseline included: BMI, WC, waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR), waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR) and a body shape index (ABSI). Information on CVD and death was retrieved from national registers or medical files. Poisson regression analyses were used to calculate incidence rates for CVD and all-cause...

  19. Baseline health-related quality of life and 10-year all-cause mortality among 1739 Chinese adults.

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    Gaoqiang Xie

    Full Text Available Health-related quality of life (HRQOL may be associated with the longevity of patients; yet it is not clear whether this association holds in a general population, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this study was to determine whether baseline HRQOL was associated with 10-year all-cause mortality in a Chinese general population.A prospective cohort study was conducted from 2002 to 2012 on 1739 participants in 11 villages of Beijing. Baseline data on six domains of HRQOL, chronic diseases and cardiovascular risk factors were collected in either 2002 (n = 1290 or 2005 (n = 449. Subjects were followed through the end of the study period, or until they were censored due to death or loss to follow-up, whichever came first.A multivariable Cox model estimated that Total HRQOL score (bottom 50% versus top 50% was associated with a 44% increase in all-cause mortality (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00-2.06, after adjusting for sex, age, education levels, occupation, marital status, smoking status, fruit intake, vegetable intake, physical exercise, hypertension, history of a stroke, myocardial infarction, chronic respiratory disease, and kidney disease. Among the six HRQOL domains, the Independence domain had the largest fully adjusted HR (HR = 1.66; 95% CI: 1.13-2.42, followed by Psychological (HR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.03-2.09, Environmental (HR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.003-2.03, Physical (HR = 1.38; 95% CI: 0.97-1.95, General (HR = 1.37; 95% CI: 0.97-1.94, and the Social domain (HR = 1.15; 95% CI: 0.81-1.65.Lower HRQOL, especially the inability to live independently, was associated with a significantly increased risk of 10-year all-cause mortality. The inclusion of HRQOL measures in clinical assessment may improve diagnostic accuracy to improve clinical outcomes and better target public health promotions.

  20. All-cause mortality and serious cardiovascular events in people with hip and knee osteoarthritis: a population based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian A Hawker

    Full Text Available Because individuals with osteoarthritis (OA avoid physical activities that exacerbate symptoms, potentially increasing risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD and death, we assessed the relationship between OA disability and these outcomes.In a population cohort aged 55+ years with at least moderately severe symptomatic hip and/or knee OA, OA disability (Western Ontario McMaster Universities (WOMAC OA scores; Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ walking score; use of walking aids and other covariates were assessed by questionnaire. Survey data were linked to health administrative data to determine the relationship between baseline OA symptom severity to all-cause mortality and occurrence of a composite CVD outcome (acute myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, heart failure, stroke or transient ischemic attack over a median follow-up of 13.2 and 9.2 years, respectively.Of 2156 participants, 1,236 (57.3% died and 822 (38.1% experienced a CVD outcome during follow-up. Higher (worse baseline WOMAC function scores and walking disability were independently associated with a higher all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, aHR, per 10-point increase in WOMAC function score 1.04, 95% confidence interval, CI 1.01-1.07, p = 0.004; aHR per unit increase in HAQ walking score 1.30, 95% CI 1.22-1.39, p<0.001; and aHR for those using versus not using a walking aid 1.51, 95% CI 1.34-1.70, p<0.001. In survival analysis, censoring on death, risk of our composite CVD outcome was also significantly and independently associated with greater baseline walking disability ((aHR for use of a walking aid = 1.27, 95% CI 1.10-1.47, p = 0.001; aHR per unit increase in HAQ walking score = 1.17, 95% CI 1.08-1.27, p<0.001.Among individuals with hip and/or knee OA, severity of OA disability was associated with a significant increase in all-cause mortality and serious CVD events after controlling for multiple confounders. Research is needed to elucidate modifiable

  1. A prospective study of frequency of eating restaurant prepared meals and subsequent 9-year risk of all-cause and cardiometabolic mortality in US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Ashima K; Graubard, Barry I

    2018-01-01

    Restaurant prepared foods are known to be energy-dense and high in fat and sodium, but lower in protective nutrients. There is evidence of higher risk of adiposity, type II diabetes, and heart disease in frequent consumers of restaurant meals. However, the risk of mortality as a long-term health consequence of frequent consumption of restaurant meals has not been examined. We examined the prospective risk of all-cause and coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and diabetes (cardiometabolic) mortality in relation to frequency of eating restaurant prepared meals in a national cohort. We used frequency of eating restaurant prepared meals information collected in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, conducted from 1999-2004, with mortality follow-up completed through Dec. 31, 2011 (baseline age ≥ 40y; n = 9107). We estimated the relative hazard of all-cause and cardiometabolic mortality associated with weekly frequency of eating restaurant meals using Cox-proportional hazards regression methods to adjust for multiple covariates. All analyses accounted for complex survey design and included sample weights. Over 33% of all respondents reported eating ≥3 restaurant prepared meals/week. In this cohort, 2200 deaths due to all causes and 665 cardiometabolic deaths occurred over a median follow-up of 9 years. The covariate-adjusted hazard ratio of all cause or cardiometabolic mortality in men and women reporters of meals did not differ from those reporting ≥3 meals/week (P>0.05). The results were robust to effect modification by baseline BMI, years of education, and baseline morbidity. Expectedly, the 24-h dietary intakes of whole grains, fruits, dietary fiber, folate, vitamin C, potassium and magnesium at baseline were lower, but energy, energy density, and energy from fat were higher in more frequent restaurant meal reporters (Pfrequency of eating restaurant prepared meals (Pfrequency of eating restaurant prepared meals and prospective risk

  2. A prospective study of frequency of eating restaurant prepared meals and subsequent 9-year risk of all-cause and cardiometabolic mortality in US adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graubard, Barry I.

    2018-01-01

    Restaurant prepared foods are known to be energy-dense and high in fat and sodium, but lower in protective nutrients. There is evidence of higher risk of adiposity, type II diabetes, and heart disease in frequent consumers of restaurant meals. However, the risk of mortality as a long-term health consequence of frequent consumption of restaurant meals has not been examined. We examined the prospective risk of all-cause and coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and diabetes (cardiometabolic) mortality in relation to frequency of eating restaurant prepared meals in a national cohort. We used frequency of eating restaurant prepared meals information collected in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, conducted from 1999–2004, with mortality follow-up completed through Dec. 31, 2011 (baseline age ≥ 40y; n = 9107). We estimated the relative hazard of all-cause and cardiometabolic mortality associated with weekly frequency of eating restaurant meals using Cox-proportional hazards regression methods to adjust for multiple covariates. All analyses accounted for complex survey design and included sample weights. Over 33% of all respondents reported eating ≥3 restaurant prepared meals/week. In this cohort, 2200 deaths due to all causes and 665 cardiometabolic deaths occurred over a median follow-up of 9 years. The covariate-adjusted hazard ratio of all cause or cardiometabolic mortality in men and women reporters of meals did not differ from those reporting ≥3 meals/week (P>0.05). The results were robust to effect modification by baseline BMI, years of education, and baseline morbidity. Expectedly, the 24-h dietary intakes of whole grains, fruits, dietary fiber, folate, vitamin C, potassium and magnesium at baseline were lower, but energy, energy density, and energy from fat were higher in more frequent restaurant meal reporters (Peating restaurant prepared meals (Peating restaurant prepared meals and prospective risk of mortality after 9

  3. Age at natural menopause in relation to all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a follow-up study of US black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Se; Rosenberg, Lynn; Wise, Lauren A; Boggs, Deborah A; LaValley, Michael; Palmer, Julie R

    2013-07-01

    Early age at natural menopause has been associated with increased all-cause mortality in several studies, although the literature is not consistent. This relation has not been examined among African American women. Data were from the Black Women's Health Study, a follow-up study of African-American women enrolled in 1995. Among 11,212 women who were naturally menopausal at entry to the study or during follow-up through 2008, we assessed the relation of age at natural menopause to all-cause and cause-specific mortality. At baseline and biennially, participants reported on reproductive and medical history, including gynecologic surgeries and exogenous hormone use. Mortality data were obtained from the National Death Index. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate mortality rate ratios (MRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for categories of age at menopause. Of 692 deaths identified during 91,829 person years of follow-up, 261 were due to cancer, 199 to cardiovascular diseases and 232 to other causes. Natural menopause before age 40 was associated with increased all-cause mortality (MRR=1.34, 95% CI 0.96-1.84, relative to menopause at 50-54 years; P-trend=0.04) and with the subcategories of death considered - cancer, cardiovascular disease, and all other causes. The associations were present among never and ever users of postmenopausal female hormones and among never and ever smokers. In this large prospective cohort of African-American women, natural menopause before age 40 was associated with a higher rate of all-cause and cause-specific mortality. These findings provide support for the theory that natural menopause before age 40 may be a marker of accelerated somatic aging. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Meta-analysis: low-dose intake of vitamin E combined with other vitamins or minerals may decrease all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Pan, Zhenyu; Li, Hui; Li, Fenglan; Song, Yanyan; Qiu, Yu

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that vitamin E alone or combined with other vitamins or minerals can prevent oxidative stress and slow oxidative injury-related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. A comprehensive search of PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library was performed. Relative risk was used as an effect measure to compare the intervention and control groups. A total of 33 trials were included in the meta-analysis. Neither vitamin E intake alone (RR=1.01; 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.04; p=0.77) nor vitamin E intake combined with other agents (RR=0.97; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.06; p=0.55) was correlated with all-cause mortality. Subgroup analyses revealed that low-dose vitamin E supplementation combined with other agents is associated with a statistically significant reduction in all-cause mortality (RR=0.92; 95% CI, 0.86 to 0.98; p=0.01), and vitamin E intake combined with other agents is associated with a statistically significant reduction in mortality rates among individuals without probable or confirmed diseases (RR=0.92; 95% CI, 0.86 to 0.99; p=0.02). Neither vitamin E intake alone nor combined with other agents is associated with a reduction in all-cause mortality. But a low dose (vitamin E combined with other agents is correlated with a reduction in all-cause mortality, and vitamin E intake combined with other agents is correlated with a reduction in the mortality rate among individuals without probable or confirmed diseases.

  5. A prospective cohort study examining the associations of dietary calcium intake with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in older Chinese community-dwelling people.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Chan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most epidemiological studies of calcium intake and mortality risk have been conducted in populations with moderate to high calcium intake, and limited studies have focused on populations with low habitual calcium intake (i.e., mean dietary calcium intake =65 years and free of heart diseases or stroke at baseline, were analyzed. Primary outcome measures, identified from the death registry, were death from all causes and cardiovascular disease. Dietary calcium intake assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire was categorized into sex-specific quartiles. Data on use of supplemental calcium (yes or no including individual calcium supplements and other calcium containing supplement were collected. Cox regression models adjusted for demographic and lifestyle variables were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI. RESULTS: During a median of 9.1 years of follow-up, 529 all-cause deaths (344 men, 185 women and 114 (74 men, 40 women deaths from cardiovascular disease were identified. An inverse trend between dietary calcium intake and mortality was observed. Compared with the lowest quartile (762 mg/d for men, >688 mg/d for women had a significantly reduced risk of all-cause mortality (multivariate HR=0.63, 95% CI=0.49-0.81, P(trend<0.001 but an insignificant decreased risk of cardiovascular mortality (multivariate HR=0.70, 95% CI=0.41-1.21, P(trend=0.228. Similar inverse association was observed when the analyses were stratified on calcium supplemental use. CONCLUSIONS: Higher intake of dietary calcium was associated with reduced risk of all-cause mortality and possibly cardiovascular mortality in Chinese older people with low habitual calcium intake.

  6. Markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction are associated with incident cardiovascular disease, all-cause mortality, and progression of coronary calcification in type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Scholten, Bernt Johan; Reinhard, Henrik; Hansen, Tine Willum; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Stehouwer, Coen; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Jacobsen, Peter Karl; Rossing, Peter

    2016-03-01

    We evaluated markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction and their associations with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), all-cause mortality and progression of coronary artery calcium (CAC) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and microalbuminuria but without known coronary artery disease (CAD). Prospective study including 200 patients receiving multifactorial treatment. Markers of inflammation (TNF-ɑ, sICAM-1, sICAM-3, hsCRP, SAA, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8) and endothelial dysfunction (thrombomodulin, sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, sICAM-3, sE-selectin, sP-selectin) were measured at baseline. Adjustment included traditional CVD risk factors, and full adjustment additionally NT-proBNP and CAC. The "SQRT method" assessed CAC progression after 5.8years, and cut-point was an annualised difference >2.5. Occurrence of CVD (n=40) and all-cause mortality (n=26) was traced after 6.1years. In adjusted and fully adjusted Cox models, TNF-ɑ was a determinant of CVD and all-cause mortality (p≤0.007). Further, in adjusted and fully adjusted logistic regression, TNF-ɑ was related to CAC progression (p≤0.042). Of the other biomarkers, sICAM-3 and thrombomodulin were also associated with both endpoints (p≤0.046), IL-1β with CVD endpoints (p=0.021), and sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 with all-cause mortality (p≤0.005). Higher composite z-scores including all markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction were associated with CVD and all-cause mortality (p≤0.008). In patients with T2D and microalbuminuria without known CAD and receiving multifactorial treatment, biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction were independently associated with CVD, all-cause mortality and CAC progression. Especially TNF-ɑ was a robust determinant, even after adjusting for NT-proBNP and CAC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The inflammatory biomarker YKL-40 as a new prognostic marker for all-cause mortality in patients with heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harutyunyan, Marina; Christiansen, Michael; Johansen, Julia S

    2011-01-01

    YKL-40 II to IV quartiles, respectively following multivariable adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors (age, left ventricular ejection fraction, gender, history of heart failure, ischemic heart disease, chronic pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, stroke, hypertension, NT-proBNP, hs......BACKGROUND: Despite progress in management of patients with heart failure (HF) these patients still have a poor prognosis. We tested the hypothesis whether the inflammatory biomarker YKL-40 alone or in combination with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and/or N-terminal-pro-B natriuretic......-CRP, and renal function). CONCLUSION: Serum YKL-40 is significantly associated with all-cause mortality in patients with HF and could potentially be a new prognostic biomarker in these patients....

  8. Plasma matrix metalloproteinases are associated with incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peeters, S A; Engelen, L; Buijs, J

    2017-01-01

    , and cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetic patients. METHODS: We prospectively followed 337 type 1 diabetic patients [mean age 41.4 years (9.6), 39% female], 170 with and 167 without diabetic nephropathy, with median follow-up of 12.3 years. Survival analyses were applied to investigate...... differences in plasma MMP-1, -2, -3, -9, -10, and TIMP-1-levels in patients with and without a cardiovascular event and in those who died vs survivors. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, duration of diabetes, HbA1c, nephropathy and for other conventional cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS: After......BACKGROUND: Altered regulation of extracellular matrix remodeling by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) may contribute to vascular complications in type 1 diabetes. We investigated associations between plasma MMP-1, -2, -3, -9, -10 and TIMP-1...

  9. Relation of Periodontitis to Risk of Cardiovascular and All-Cause Mortality (from a Danish Nationwide Cohort Study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gorm Mørk; Egeberg, Alexander; Holmstrup, Palle

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis and atherosclerosis are highly prevalent chronic inflammatory diseases, and it has been suggested that periodontitis is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and that a causal link may exist between the 2 diseases. Using Danish national registers, we identified...... a nationwide cohort of 17,691 patients who received a hospital diagnosis of periodontitis within a 15-year period and matched them with 83,003 controls from the general population. We performed Poisson regression analysis to determine crude and adjusted incidence rate ratios of myocardial infarction, ischemic...... stroke, cardiovascular death, major adverse cardiovascular events, and all-cause mortality. The results showed that patients with periodontitis were at higher risk of all examined end points. The findings remained significant after adjustment for increased baseline co-morbidity in periodontitis patients...

  10. Cancer-Specific and All-Cause Mortality in Kidney Transplant Recipients With and Without Previous Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viecelli, Andrea K; Lim, Wai H; Macaskill, Petra; Chapman, Jeremy R; Craig, Jonathan C; Clayton, Philip; Cohney, Solomon; Carroll, Robert; Wong, Germaine

    2015-12-01

    For dialysis patients with a cancer history, a period of surveillance is generally recommended before listing for transplantation. However, the outcomes of patients with cancer recurrence and/or a second primary cancer after transplantation are unknown. To determine the prognosis of kidney transplant recipients who developed cancer after transplantation and whether this varied with cancer types (first cancer, recurrence, second primary cancer). Using data from the Australian and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry, we compared the cancer-specific and all-cause mortality among recipients with different cancer types using adjusted Cox proportional hazard models. Of the 21,415 recipients transplanted between 1965 and 2012, 3% (651 of 21,415) had a previous cancer history. A total of 2840 (13%) recipients developed cancer after the first transplant, of whom 2760 (97.2%) developed a first cancer, 23 (0.8%) experienced cancer recurrence, and 57 (2%) developed a second primary cancer. There were no significant differences in the risks of cancer-specific and all-cause mortality between recipients who developed their first cancer after transplant, those with cancer recurrence (adjusted hazard ratios [aHRs], 0.79; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.38-1.67; P = 0.54 and aHRs, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.45-1.66; P = 0.66, respectively) and recipients who developed a second primary cancer after transplantation (aHRs, 1.01; 95%CI, 0.63-1.62; P = 0.95 and aHRs, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.79-1.69; P = 0.45, respectively). Among patients with a previous history of malignancy, recurrent and second primary cancers are infrequent after renal transplantation. A history of previous malignancy does not have an additive effect on the cancer-specific and overall survival of kidney transplant recipients who develop cancer.

  11. Insomnia predicts long-term all-cause mortality after acute myocardial infarction: A prospective cohort study.

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    Condén, Emelie; Rosenblad, Andreas

    2016-07-15

    Sleep impairment such as insomnia is an established risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease and acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The aim of the current study was to examine the association between insomnia and all-cause mortality among AMI patients. This prospective cohort study used data on n=732 patients recruited from September 2006 to May 2011 as part of the Västmanland Myocardial Infarction Study (VaMIS), a prospective cohort study of AMI patients living in Västmanland County, Sweden. Participants were followed up for all-cause mortality until December 9, 2015. The outcome of interest was time-to-death (TTD), with the presence of insomnia being the risk factor of main interest. Data were analyzed using a piecewise Cox regression model with change point for insomnia at two years of follow-up, adjusted for socioeconomic, lifestyle and clinical risk factors. In total, n=175 (23.9%) of the participants suffered from insomnia. During a mean (SD) follow-up time of 6.0 (2.5) years (4392person-years), a total of n=231 (31.6%) participants died, n=77 (44.0%) in the insomnia group and n=154 (27.6%) in the non-insomnia group (log-rank test pinsomnia did not imply a higher risk of death during the first two years after AMI (HR 0.849; 95% CI 0.508-1.421; p=0.534). During the period after the first two years, however, insomnia implied a 1.6 times higher risk of death (HR 1.597; 95% CI 1.090-2.341; p=0.016). Insomnia implies a higher risk of death among AMI patients in the long term. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Diabetes in older people: Prevalence, incidence and its association with medium- and long-term mortality from all causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Martínez, Mercedes; Blanco, Augusto; Castell, María Victoria; Gutiérrez Misis, Alicia; González Montalvo, Juan Ignacio; Zunzunegui, María Victoria; Otero, Ángel

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and incidence of self-reported diabetes and to study its association with medium- and long-term mortality from all causes in persons ≥ 65 years. A population-based cohort study begun in 1993. "Envejecer en Leganés" cohort (Madrid). A random sample of persons ≥ 65 years (n=1277 in the 1993 baseline sample). Participants were classified as having diabetes if they so reported and had consulted a physician for this reason within the last year. Diabetes history was categorized in diabetic individuals (1965 persons/2 years). Vital status was recorded on 31 December 2011. The association between diabetes history ≥ 10 years and mortality at 6 and 18 years follow-up was studied by the Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses after adjusting for age, sex, heart disease and comorbidity. The prevalence of self-reported diabetes rose from 10.3% in 1993 to 16.1% in 1999 (p ≤ 0.001) and was higher in women than men (p ≤ 0.05). Total incidence density was 2.6 cases/100 persons/2 years (95% CI: 2.0-3.3). Medium- and long-term mortality was higher in persons with diabetes history ≥ 10 years than in non-diabetic individuals (HR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.2-3.3 and HR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.1-2.5, respectively). In diabetics with history diabetes is clearly associated with increased risk of mortality, it is significant only for patients with ≥ 10 years' history of diabetes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and all-cause mortality: results from a population-based Danish twins study alanine aminotransferase, GGT and mortality in elderly twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fraser, Abigail; Thinggaard, Mikael; Christensen, Kaare

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background/Aims: Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) are widely used markers of liver disease. Several population-based cohort studies have found associations of these liver enzymes with all-cause mortality. None of these studies controlled for genetic...

  14. Elevated baseline plasma IL-8 levels are an independent predictor of long-term all-cause mortality in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavusoglu, Erdal; Marmur, Jonathan D; Yanamadala, Sunitha; Chopra, Vineet; Hegde, Sudhanva; Nazli, Anila; Singh, Kamal Preet; Zhang, Ming; Eng, Calvin

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the long-term prognostic significance of baseline plasma IL-8 levels in a group of well-characterized male patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome. IL-8 is a cytokine that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and acute coronary syndrome. Elevated plasma levels have been reported in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Baseline plasma IL-8 levels were measured in 180 male patients with acute coronary syndrome who were referred for coronary angiography and followed prospectively for the development of all-cause mortality for 5 years. In a multivariate model that included a wide variety of baseline clinical, laboratory and angiographic parameters in the selection process, baseline plasma IL-8 levels (analyzed as a continuous variable) emerged as a significant predictor of all-cause mortality at 5 years (HR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.08-1.88; p = 0.0123). Furthermore, in 3 additional multivariate models that also included in the selection process a number of contemporary biomarkers with established prognostic efficacy in ACS (i.e., NT-proBNP, hs-CRP, hemoglobin and RDW), IL-8 remained an independent predictor of all-cause mortality at 5 years. Elevated baseline plasma levels of IL-8 are associated with an increased risk of long-term all-cause mortality in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Furthermore, this association is independent of a variety of clinical, laboratory and angiographic variables, including contemporary biomarkers with established prognostic efficacy in acute coronary syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Coffee consumption and risk of all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality in smokers and non-smokers: a dose-response meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Micek, Agnieszka; Godos, Justyna; Sciacca, Salvatore; Pajak, Andrzej; Martínez-González, Miguel A.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Galvano, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Coffee consumption has been associated with several benefits toward human health. However, its association with mortality risk has yielded contrasting results, including a non-linear relation to all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and no association with cancer mortality. As smoking habits may affect the association between coffee and health outcomes, the aim of the present study was to update the latest dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies on the association between coffee consumption and mortality risk and conduct stratified analyses by smoking status and other potential confounders. A systematic search was conducted in electronic databases to identify relevant studies, risk estimates were retrieved from the studies, and dose-response analysis was modeled by using restricted cubic splines. A total of 31 studies comprising 1610,543 individuals and 183,991 cases of all-cause, 34,574 of CVD, and 40,991 of cancer deaths were selected. Analysis showed decreased all-cause [relative risk (RR) = 0.86, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.82, 0.89)] and CVD mortality risk (RR = 0.85, 95 % CI = 0.77, 0.93) for consumption of up to 4 cups/day of coffee, while higher intakes were associated with no further lower risk. When analyses were restricted only to non-smokers, a linear decreased risk of all-cause (RR = 0.94, 95 % CI = 0.93, 0.96), CVD (RR = 0.94, 95 % CI = 0.91, 0.97), and cancer mortality (RR = 0.98, 95 % CI = 0.96, 1.00) for 1 cup/day increase was found. The search for other potential confounders, including dose-response analyses in subgroups by gender, geographical area, year of publication, and type of coffee, showed no relevant differences between strata. In conclusion, coffee consumption is associated with decreased risk of mortality from all-cause, CVD, and cancer; however, smoking modifies the observed risk when studying the role of coffee on human health.

  16. Physical activity is the strongest predictor of all-cause mortality in patients with COPD: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waschki, Benjamin; Kirsten, Anne; Holz, Olaf; Müller, Kai-Christian; Meyer, Thorsten; Watz, Henrik; Magnussen, Helgo

    2011-08-01

    Systemic effects of COPD are incompletely reflected by established prognostic assessments. We determined the prognostic value of objectively measured physical activity in comparison with established predictors of mortality and evaluated the prognostic value of noninvasive assessments of cardiovascular status, biomarkers of systemic inflammation, and adipokines. In a prospective cohort study of 170 outpatients with stable COPD (mean FEV(1), 56% predicted), we assessed lung function by spirometry and body plethysmography; physical activity level (PAL) by a multisensory armband; exercise capacity by 6-min walk distance test; cardiovascular status by echocardiography, vascular Doppler sonography (ankle-brachial index [ABI]), and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide level; nutritional and muscular status by BMI and fat-free mass index; biomarkers by levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, IL-6, fibrinogen, adiponectin, and leptin; and health status, dyspnea, and depressive symptoms by questionnaire. Established prognostic indices were calculated. The median follow-up was 48 months (range, 10-53 months). All-cause mortality was 15.4%. After adjustments, each 0.14 increase in PAL was associated with a lower risk of death (hazard ratio [HR], 0.46; 95% CI, 0.33-0.64; P leptin level (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.65-0.99; P = .042), right ventricular function (Tei-index) (HR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.04-1.54; P = .020), and ABI COPD. In addition, adiponectin level and vascular status provide independent prognostic information in our cohort.

  17. Glucose patterns during an oral glucose tolerance test and associations with future diabetes, cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulman, Adam; Vistisen, Dorte; Glümer, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: In addition to blood glucose concentrations measured in the fasting state and 2 h after an OGTT, intermediate measures during an OGTT may provide additional information regarding a person’s risk of future diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). First, we aimed to characterise...... heterogeneity of glycaemic patterns based on three time points during an OGTT. Second, we compared the incidences of diabetes and CVD and all-cause mortality rates among those with different patterns. Methods: Our cohort study included 5861 participants without diabetes at baseline from the Danish Inter99 study....... At baseline, all participants underwent an OGTT with measurements of plasma glucose levels at 0, 30 and 120 min. Latent class mixed-effects models were fitted to identify distinct patterns of glycaemic response during the OGTT. Information regarding incident diabetes, CVD and all-cause mortality rates during...

  18. Hypoalbuminemia is a strong predictor of 30-day all-cause mortality in acutely admitted medical patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jellinge, Marlene Ersgaard; Henriksen, Daniel Pilsgaard; Hallas, Peter

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Emergency patients with hypoalbuminemia are known to have increased mortality. No previous studies have, however, assessed the predictive value of low albumin on mortality in unselected acutely admitted medical patients. We aimed at assessing the predictive power of hypoalbuminemia on 30...... (precision of predictions) for hypoalbuminemia was determined. RESULTS: We included 5,894 patients and albumin was available in 5,451 (92.5%). A total of 332 (5.6%) patients died within 30 days of admission. Median plasma albumin was 40 g/L (IQR 37-43). Crude 30-day mortality in patients with low albumin...... in acutely admitted medical patients. Used as predictive tool for mortality, plasma albumin had acceptable discriminatory power and good calibration....

  19. External validation and comparison of two variants of the Elixhauser comorbidity measures for all-cause mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Fortin

    Full Text Available Assessing prevalent comorbidities is a common approach in health research for identifying clinical differences between individuals. The objective of this study was to validate and compare the predictive performance of two variants of the Elixhauser comorbidity measures (ECM for inhospital mortality at index and at 1-year in the Cerner Health Facts® (HF U.S.We estimated the prevalence of select comorbidities for individuals 18 to 89 years of age who received care at Cerner contributing health facilities between 2002 and 2011 using the AHRQ (version 3.7 and the Quan Enhanced ICD-9-CM ECMs. External validation of the ECMs was assessed with measures of discrimination [c-statistics], calibration [Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test, Brier Score, calibration curves], added predictive ability [Net Reclassification Improvement], and overall model performance [R2]. Of 3,273,298 patients with a mean age of 43.9 years and a female composition of 53.8%, 1.0% died during their index encounter and 1.5% were deceased at 1-year. Calibration measures were equivalent between the two ECMs. Calibration performance was acceptable when predicting inhospital mortality at index, although recalibration is recommended for predicting inhospital mortality at 1 year. Discrimination was marginally better with the Quan ECM compared the AHRQ ECM when predicting inhospital mortality at index (cQuan = 0.887, 95% CI: 0.885-0.889 vs. cAHRQ = 0.880, 95% CI: 0.878-0.882; p < .0001 and at 1-year (cQuan = 0.884, 95% CI: 0.883-0.886 vs. cAHRQ = 0.880, 95% CI: 0.878-0.881, p < .0001. Both the Quan and the AHRQ ECMs demonstrated excellent discrimination for inhospital mortality of all-causes in Cerner Health Facts®, a HIPAA compliant observational research and privacy-protected data warehouse. While differences in discrimination performance between the ECMs were statistically significant, they are not likely clinically meaningful.

  20. Sleep duration and risk of all-cause mortality: A flexible, non-linear, meta-regression of 40 prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong-Zu; Xu, Chang; Rota, Matteo; Cai, Hui; Zhang, Chao; Shi, Ming-Jun; Yuan, Rui-Xia; Weng, Hong; Meng, Xiang-Yu; Kwong, Joey S W; Sun, Xin

    2017-04-01

    Approximately 27-37% of the general population experience prolonged sleep duration and 12-16% report shortened sleep duration. However, prolonged or shortened sleep duration may be associated with serious health problems. A comprehensive, flexible, non-linear meta-regression with restricted cubic spline (RCS) was used to investigate the dose-response relationship between sleep duration and all-cause mortality in adults. Medline (Ovid), Embase, EBSCOhost-PsycINFO, and EBSCOhost-CINAHL Plus databases, reference lists of relevant review articles, and included studies were searched up to Nov. 29, 2015. Prospective cohort studies investigating the association between sleep duration and all-cause mortality in adults with at least three categories of sleep duration were eligible for inclusion. We eventually included in our study 40 cohort studies enrolling 2,200,425 participants with 271,507 deaths. A J-shaped association between sleep duration and all-cause mortality was present: compared with 7 h of sleep (reference for 24-h sleep duration), both shortened and prolonged sleep durations were associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality (4 h: relative risk [RR] = 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02-1.07; 5 h: RR = 1.06; 95% CI = 1.03-1.09; 6 h: RR = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.03-1.06; 8 h: RR = 1.03; 95% CI = 1.02-1.05; 9 h: RR = 1.13; 95% CI = 1.10-1.16; 10 h: RR = 1.25; 95% CI = 1.22-1.28; 11 h: RR = 1.38; 95% CI = 1.33-1.44; n = 29; P < 0.01 for non-linear test). With regard to the night-sleep duration, prolonged night-sleep duration was associated with increased all-cause mortality (8 h: RR = 1.01; 95% CI = 0.99-1.02; 9 h: RR = 1.08; 95% CI = 1.05-1.11; 10 h: RR = 1.24; 95% CI = 1.21-1.28; n = 13; P < 0.01 for non-linear test). Subgroup analysis showed females with short sleep duration a day (<7 h) were at high risk of all-cause mortality (4 h: RR = 1.07; 95% CI = 1.02-1.13; 5 h: RR = 1.08; 95

  1. Oral glucocorticoid therapy and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a retrospective cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Movahedi, Mohammad; Costello, Ruth; Lunt, Mark; Pye, Stephen Richard; Sergeant, Jamie Christopher; Dixon, William Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of glucocorticoid (GC) therapy and mortality have had inconsistent results and have not considered possible perimortal bias—a type of protopathic bias where illness in the latter stages of life influences GC exposure, and might affect the observed relationship between GC use and death. This study aimed to investigate all-cause and cause-specific mortality in association with GC therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and explore possible perimortal bias. A retrospective cohort study using the primary care electronic medical records. Oral GC exposure was identified from prescriptions. Mortality data were obtained from the UK Office for National Statistics. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models assessed the association between GC use models and death. Several methods to explore perimortal bias were examined. The cohort included 16,762 patients. For ever GC use there was an adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause mortality of 1.97 (95 % CI 1.81–2.15). Current GC dose of below 5 mg per day (prednisolone equivalent dose) was not associated with an increased risk of death, but a dose–response association was seen for higher dose categories. The association between ever GC use and all-cause mortality was partly explained by perimortal bias. GC therapy was associated with an increased risk of mortality for all specific causes considered, albeit to a lesser extent for cardiovascular causes. GC use was associated with an increased risk of death in RA, at least partially explained by perimortal bias. Importantly, GC doses below 5 mg were not associated with an increased risk of death.

  2. Validation of a model to predict all-cause in-hospital mortality in vascular surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biccard, B M; Pooran, R R

    2008-01-01

    To develop and validate a pre- and postoperative model of all-cause in-hospital mortality in South African vascular surgical patients. We carried out a retrospective cohort study. A multivariate analysis using binary logistic regression was conducted on a derivation cohort using clinical, physiological and surgical data. Interaction and colinearity between covariates were investigated. The models were validated using the Homer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test. Independent predictors of in-hospital mortality in the pre-operative model were: (1) age (per one-year increase) [odds ratio (OR) 1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-1.06), (2) creatinine > 180 micromol.l(-1) (OR 6.43, 95% CI: 3.482-11.86), (3) chronic beta-blocker therapy (OR 2.48, 95% CI: 1.38-4.48), and (4) absence of chronic statin therapy (OR 2.81, 95% CI: 1.15-6.83). Independent predictors of mortality in the postoperative model were: (1) age (per one-year increase) (OR 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02-1.09), (2) creatinine > 180 micromol.l(-1) (OR 5.08, 95% CI: 2.50-10.31), (3) surgery out of hours without statin therapy (OR 8.27, 95% CI: 3.36-20.38), (4) mean daily postoperative heart rate (HR) (OR 1.02, 95% CI: 1.0-1.04), (5) mean daily postoperative HR in the presence of a mean daily systolic blood pressure of less than 100 beats per minute or above 179 mmHg (OR 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01-1.03) and (6) mean daily postoperative HR associated with withdrawal of chronic beta-blockade (OR 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01-1.03). Both models were validated. The pre-operative model may predict the risk of in-hospital mortality associated with vascular surgery. The postoperative model may identify patients whose risk increases as a result of surgical or physiological factors.

  3. Abdominal Obesity Is Associated With an Increased Risk of All-Cause Mortality in Patients With HFpEF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Tetsuro; Kajio, Hiroshi

    2017-12-05

    There is a lack of studies that evaluate the association between abdominal obesity and subsequent outcomes in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). The present study aimed to assess the association between abdominal obesity and risk of all-cause mortality in patients with HFpEF. The present study used data from the TOPCAT (Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure with an Aldosterone Antagonist) trial. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. We analyzed and compared the hazard ratios (HRs) in patients with abdominal obesity and those without abdominal obesity using multivariable Cox proportional hazard models. Abdominal obesity was defined as a waist circumference of ≥102 cm in men and ≥88 cm in women. The present study included 3,310 patients with HFpEF: 2,413 patients with abdominal obesity and 897 without abdominal obesity. The mean follow-up was 3.4 ± 1.7 years. During follow-up, 500 patients died. All-cause mortality rates in patients with and without abdominal obesity were 46.1 and 40.7 events per 1,000 person-years, respectively. After multivariable adjustment, the risk of all-cause mortality was significantly higher in patients with abdominal obesity than in those without abdominal obesity (adjusted HR: 1.52; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16 to 1.99; p = 0.002). The risk of cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality was also significantly higher in patients with abdominal obesity than in those without abdominal obesity (adjusted HR: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.08 to 2.08; p = 0.01 and adjusted HR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.00 to 2.51; p = 0.04, respectively). The risk of all-cause mortality was significantly higher in patients with HFpEF with abdominal obesity than in those without abdominal obesity. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Baseline fatty acids, food groups, a diet score and 50-year all-cause mortality rates. An ecological analysis of the Seven Countries Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menotti, Alessandro; Kromhout, Daan; Puddu, Paolo Emilio; Alberti-Fidanza, Adalberta; Hollman, Peter; Kafatos, Anthony; Tolonen, Hanna; Adachi, Hisashi; Jacobs, David R

    2017-12-01

    This analysis deals with the ecologic relationships of dietary fatty acids, food groups and the Mediterranean Adequacy Index (MAI, derived from 15 food groups) with 50-year all-cause mortality rates in 16 cohorts of the Seven Countries Study. A dietary survey was conducted at baseline in cohorts subsamples including chemical analysis of food samples representing average consumptions. Ecologic correlations of dietary variables were computed across cohorts with 50-year all-cause mortality rates, where 97% of men had died. There was a 12-year average age at death population difference between extreme cohorts. In the 1960s the average population intake of saturated (S) and trans (T) fatty acids and hard fats was high in the northern European cohorts while monounsaturated (M), polyunsaturated (P) fatty acids and vegetable oils were high in the Mediterranean areas and total fat was low in Japan. The 50-year all-cause mortality rates correlated (r= -0.51 to -0.64) ecologically inversely with the ratios M/S, (M + P)/(S + T) and vegetable foods and the ratio hard fats/vegetable oils. Adjustment for high socio-economic status strengthened (r= -0.62 to -0.77) these associations including MAI diet score. The protective fatty acids and vegetable oils are indicators of the low risk traditional Mediterranean style diets. KEY MESSAGES We aimed at studying the ecologic relationships of dietary fatty acids, food groups and the Mediterranean Adequacy Index (MAI, derived from 15 food groups) with 50-year all-cause mortality rates in the Seven Countries Study. The 50-year all-cause mortality rates correlated (r = -0.51 to -0.64) ecologically inversely with the ratios M/S [monounsaturated (M) + polyunsaturated (P)]/[saturated (S) + trans (T)] fatty acids and vegetable foods and the ratio hard fats/vegetable oils. After adjustment for high socio-economic status, associations with the ratios strengthened (r = -0.62 to -0.77) including also the MAI diet score

  5. Differences in all-cause mortality: A comparison between immigrants and the host population in Norway 1990-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astri Syse

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Differences in all-cause mortality between immigrants and host populations may provide insight into health inequities that could be reduced. Objective: Death risks of adult immigrants were compared to those of the host population to assess effects of country of origin, duration of residence, calendar period, and sociodemographic characteristics, i.e., sex, education, and marital and parental status. Methods: Registry data encompassing the entire Norwegian population age 25-79 in 1990-2012 were used to compare death risks in various immigrant groups and the host population, using discrete-time hazard regression models with time-varying covariates. Results: Over 451,000 deaths occurred in around 4.4 million individuals. After adjusting for sex, age, and calendar period, immigrants had an 8Š survival advantage (odds ratio (OR 0.92. Death-risk estimates for immigrants were lowered pronouncedly by further adjustment of sociodemographic factors (OR 0.81. The greatest survival advantage was observed among immigrants with a short duration of residence. With increasing lengths of stay, immigrants' risk of death became similar to that of the host population. The survival advantage was most pronounced for younger, unmarried, and childless immigrants. Although the survival of Central and Eastern European immigrants improved over time, none of the groups had a higher adjusted death risk than the host population. Conclusions: Immigrants have a 20Š survival advantage compared to the host population. The convergence in mortality with increasing duration of residence suggests that 'healthy migrant' and 'acculturation' effects counteract each other, and warrants further research on the health and welfare of long-term immigrants.

  6. Declines in Malaria Burden and All-Cause Child Mortality following Increases in Control Interventions in Senegal, 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwing, Julie; Eckert, Erin; Dione, Demba Anta; Tine, Roger; Faye, Adama; Yé, Yazoume; Ndiop, Medoune; Cisse, Moustapha; Ndione, Jacques Andre; Diouf, Mame Birame; Ba, Mady

    2017-09-01

    Malaria is endemic in Senegal. The national malaria control strategy focuses on achieving universal coverage for major interventions, with a goal of reaching preelimination status by 2018. Senegal began distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and introduced artemisinin-based combination therapy in 2006, then introduced rapid diagnostic tests in 2007. We evaluated the impact of these efforts using a plausibility design based on malaria's contribution to all-cause under-five mortality (ACCM) and considering other contextual factors which may influence ACCM. Between 2005 and 2010, household ownership of ITNs increased from 20% to 63%, and the proportion of people sleeping under an ITN the night prior to the survey increased from 6% to 29%. Malaria parasite prevalence declined from 6% to 3% from 2008 to 2010 among children under five. Some nonmalaria indicators of child health improved, for example, increase of complete vaccination coverage from 58% to 64%; however, nutritional indicators deteriorated, with an increase in stunting from 16% to 26%. Although economic indicators improved, environmental conditions favored an increase in malaria transmission. ACCM decreased 40% between 2005 and 2010, from 121 (95% confidence interval [CI] 113-129) to 72 (95% CI 66-77) per 1,000, and declines were greater among age groups, epidemiologic zones, and wealth quintiles most at risk for malaria. After considering coverage of malaria interventions, trends in malaria morbidity, effects of contextual factors, and trends in ACCM, it is plausible that malaria control interventions contributed to a reduction in malaria mortality and to the impressive gains in child survival in Senegal.

  7. Associations Between Diabetes and Both Cardiovascular Disease and All-Cause Mortality Are Modified by Grip Strength: Evidence From UK Biobank, a Prospective Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celis-Morales, Carlos A; Petermann, Fanny; Hui, Li; Lyall, Donald M; Iliodromiti, Stamatina; McLaren, James; Anderson, Jana; Welsh, Paul; Mackay, Daniel F; Pell, Jill P; Sattar, Naveed; Gill, Jason M R; Gray, Stuart R

    2017-12-01

    Grip strength and diabetes are predictors of mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD), but whether these risk factors interact to predispose to adverse health outcomes is unknown. This study determined the interactions between diabetes and grip strength and their association with health outcomes. We undertook a prospective, general population cohort study by using UK Biobank. Cox proportional hazards models were used to explore the associations between both grip strength and diabetes and the outcomes of all-cause mortality and CVD incidence/mortality as well as to test for interactions between diabetes and grip strength. A total of 347,130 UK Biobank participants with full data available (mean age 55.9 years, BMI 27.2 kg/m 2 , 54.2% women) were included in the analysis, of which 13,373 (4.0%) had diabetes. Over a median follow-up of 4.9 years (range 3.3-7.8 years), 6,209 died (594 as a result of CVD), and 4,301 developed CVD. Participants with diabetes were at higher risk of all-cause and CVD mortality and CVD incidence. Significant interactions ( P strength. Similar results were observed for all-cause mortality and CVD incidence. Risk of adverse health outcomes among people with diabetes is lower in those with high grip strength. Low grip strength may be useful to identify a higher-risk subgroup of patients with diabetes. Intervention studies are required to determine whether resistance exercise can reduce risk. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  8. The combined influence of leisure-time physical activity and weekly alcohol intake on fatal ischaemic heart disease and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jane Østergaard; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal; Schnohr, Peter

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: To determine the combined influence of leisure-time physical activity and weekly alcohol intake on the risk of subsequent fatal ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and all-cause mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: Prospective cohort study of 11 914 Danes aged 20 years or older and without pre......-existing IHD. During approximately 20 years of follow-up, 1242 cases of fatal IHD occurred and 5901 died from all causes. Within both genders, being physically active was associated with lower hazard ratios (HR) of both fatal IHD and all-cause mortality than being physically inactive. Further, weekly alcohol...... had the highest HR of both fatal IHD and all-cause mortality within each category of weekly alcohol intake. Thus, the HR of both fatal IHD and all-cause mortality were low among the physically active who had a moderate alcohol intake. Conclusion Leisure-time physical activity and a moderate weekly...

  9. Occupational noise exposure, social class, and risk of ischemic heart disease and all-cause mortality - a 16-year follow-up in the Copenhagen Male Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suadicani, Poul; Hein, Hans Ole; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2012-01-01

    including a strong correlate of noise exposure namely social class may have been insufficient. METHODS: We carried out a 16-year follow-up of 2998 men aged 53-75 years without overt cardiovascular disease. RESULT: Overall, 197 men (6.6%) died due to IHD and 1192 (39.8%) from all-causes. Of the 2998 men......, glucosuria, cancer, body mass index, alcohol, tobacco, leisure-time physical activity, and social class. Stratified analyses of high and low social classes confirmed the overall results. CONCLUSION: Cumulative occupational exposure to noise was strongly associated with hearing impairment, but not with death...... from either IHD or all-cause mortality in a long-term follow-up adjusting for established cardiovascular risk factors including low social class....

  10. Alcohol Consumption Levels and All-Cause Mortality Among Women Veterans and Non-Veterans Enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Tracy L; Rillamas-Sun, Eileen; Lehavot, Keren; Timko, Christine; Rubin, Amy; Cucciare, Michael A; Williams, Emily C; Padula, Claudia B; Hunt, Julie R; Hoggatt, Katherine J

    2016-02-01

    To address research gaps regarding women Veterans' alcohol consumption and mortality risk as compared to non-Veterans, the current study evaluated whether alcohol consumption amounts differed between women Veterans and non-Veterans, whether Veterans and non-Veterans within alcohol consumption groups differed on all-cause mortality, and whether Veteran status modified the association between alcohol consumption and all-cause mortality. Six alcohol consumption groups were created using baseline data from the Women's Health Initiative Program (N = 145,521): lifelong abstainers, former drinkers, less than 1 drink/week (infrequent drinkers), 1-7 drinks/week (moderate drinkers), 8-14 drinks/week (moderately heavy drinkers), and 15 or more drinks/week (heavy drinkers). The proportions of Veteran and non-Veteran women within each alcohol consumption category were compared. Mortality rates within each alcohol consumption category were compared by Veteran status. Cox proportional hazard models, including a multiplicative interaction term for Veteran status, were fit to estimate adjusted mortality hazard (rate) ratios for each alcohol consumption category relative to a reference group of either lifelong abstainers or moderate drinkers. Women Veterans were less likely to be lifelong abstainers than non-Veterans. Women Veterans who were former or moderate drinkers had higher age-adjusted mortality rates than did non-Veterans within these alcohol consumption categories. In the fully adjusted multivariate models, Veteran status did not modify the association between alcohol consumption category and mortality with either lifelong abstainers or moderate drinkers as referents. The results suggest that healthcare providers may counsel Veteran and non-Veteran women in similar ways regarding safe and less safe levels of alcohol consumption. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions

  11. Black-white difference in long-term predictive power of self-rated health on all-cause mortality in United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Lankarani, Maryam Moghani; Burgard, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    Despite the well-established association between self-rated health (SRH) and mortality, limited information exists on Black-White differences in this link. Using a nationally representative sample of adults in the United States, the present study had four aims: (1) to assess whether the association between baseline SRH and all-cause mortality over a long follow-up differs for blacks and whites, (2) to test whether any race difference in the SRH-mortality link depends on how the SRH variable is treated (e.g., nominal, dichotomous, continuous), (3) to test if the SRH-mortality link or any differences in the association by race are explained by differences in objective health measures (chronic medical conditions [CMC]), and (4) to assess whether these associations vary by gender. Data came from the Americans' Changing Lives Study, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort of U.S. adults 25 years and older with up to 25 years of follow-up. The study followed 3361 blacks or whites for all-cause mortality between 1986 and 2011. The predictor of interest was a single-item measure of SRH in 1986, treated as a nominal, dichotomous (fair/poor vs. excellent/very good/good), and continuous variable. Confounders included baseline age, education, income, depressive symptoms, and CMC. Race (black vs. white) was the focal effect modifier. We ran Cox proportional hazard models for the pooled sample and also stratified by race and gender, before and after adjusting for CMC. Regardless of how SRH was treated and for both men and women, we found significant interactions between race and SRH, indicating a stronger predictive role of SRH for all-cause mortality among whites compared to blacks. Before adjustment for chronic medical conditions, lower SRH was associated with higher risk of mortality among blacks and whites, but after adjustment, the SRH-mortality association was no longer significant among blacks. Baseline SRH continues to predict long-term mortality among white but

  12. Black White Difference in Long Term Predictive Power of Self-Rated Health on All-Cause Mortality in United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Lankarani, Maryam Moghani; Burgard, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Despite the well-established association between self-rated health (SRH) and mortality, limited information exists on Black-White differences in this link. Using a nationally representative sample of adults in the United States, the current study had four aims: 1) to assess whether the association between baseline SRH and all-cause mortality over a long follow up differs for Blacks and Whites, 2) to test whether any race difference in the SRH – mortality link depends on how the SRH variable is treated (e.g., nominal, dichotomous, continuous), 3) to test if the SRH – mortality link or any differences in the association by race are explained by differences in objective health measures (chronic medical conditions [CMC]), and (4) to assess whether these associations vary by gender. Methods Data came from the Americans’ Changing Lives Study, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort of U.S. adults 25 and older with up to 25 years of follow up. The study followed 3,361 Blacks or Whites for all-cause mortality between 1986 and 2011. The predictor of interest was a single item measure of SRH in 1986, treated as a nominal, dichotomous (fair/poor versus excellent/very good/good) and continuous variable. Confounders included baseline age, education, income, depressive symptoms, and CMC. Race (Black versus White) was the focal effect modifier. We ran Cox proportional hazard models for the pooled sample, and also stratified by race and gender, before and after adjusting for CMC. Results Regardless of how SRH was treated and for both men and women, we found significant interactions between race and SRH, indicating a stronger predictive role of SRH for all-cause mortality among Whites compared to Blacks. Before adjustment for chronic medical conditions, lower SRH was associated with higher risk of mortality among Blacks and Whites, but after adjustment, the SRH – mortality association was no longer significant among Blacks. Conclusion Baseline SRH continues

  13. All-cause mortality in HIV-positive adults starting combination antiretroviral therapy: correcting for loss to follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderegg, Nanina; Johnson, Leigh F; Zaniewski, Elizabeth; Althoff, Keri N; Balestre, Eric; Law, Matthew; Nash, Denis; Shepherd, Bryan E; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T; Egger, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    To estimate mortality in HIV-positive patients starting combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) and to discuss different approaches to calculating correction factors to account for loss to follow-up. A total of 222 096 adult HIV-positive patients who started ART 2009-2014 in clinics participating in the International epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS collaboration in 43 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and North America were included. To allow for underascertainment of deaths due to loss to follow-up, two correction factors (one for the period 0-6 months on ART and one for later periods) or 168 correction factors (combinations of two sexes, three time periods after ART initiation, four age groups, and seven CD4 groups) based on tracing patients lost in Kenya and data linkages in South Africa were applied. Corrected mortality rates were compared with a worst case scenario assuming all patients lost to follow-up had died. Loss to follow-up differed between regions; rates were lowest in central Africa and highest in east Africa. Compared with using two correction factors (1.64 for the initial ART period and 2.19 for later), applying 168 correction factors (range 1.03-4.75) more often resulted in implausible mortality rates that exceeded the worst case scenario. Corrected mortality rates varied widely, ranging from 0.2 per 100 person-years to 54 per 100 person-years depending on region and covariates. Implausible rates were less common with the simpler approach based on two correction factors. The corrected mortality rates will be useful to international agencies, national programmes, and modellers.

  14. A prospective study of frequency of eating restaurant prepared meals and subsequent 9-year risk of all-cause and cardiometabolic mortality in US adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashima K Kant

    Full Text Available Restaurant prepared foods are known to be energy-dense and high in fat and sodium, but lower in protective nutrients. There is evidence of higher risk of adiposity, type II diabetes, and heart disease in frequent consumers of restaurant meals. However, the risk of mortality as a long-term health consequence of frequent consumption of restaurant meals has not been examined. We examined the prospective risk of all-cause and coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and diabetes (cardiometabolic mortality in relation to frequency of eating restaurant prepared meals in a national cohort. We used frequency of eating restaurant prepared meals information collected in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, conducted from 1999-2004, with mortality follow-up completed through Dec. 31, 2011 (baseline age ≥ 40y; n = 9107. We estimated the relative hazard of all-cause and cardiometabolic mortality associated with weekly frequency of eating restaurant meals using Cox-proportional hazards regression methods to adjust for multiple covariates. All analyses accounted for complex survey design and included sample weights. Over 33% of all respondents reported eating ≥3 restaurant prepared meals/week. In this cohort, 2200 deaths due to all causes and 665 cardiometabolic deaths occurred over a median follow-up of 9 years. The covariate-adjusted hazard ratio of all cause or cardiometabolic mortality in men and women reporters of 0.05. The results were robust to effect modification by baseline BMI, years of education, and baseline morbidity. Expectedly, the 24-h dietary intakes of whole grains, fruits, dietary fiber, folate, vitamin C, potassium and magnesium at baseline were lower, but energy, energy density, and energy from fat were higher in more frequent restaurant meal reporters (P<0.05. Baseline serum HDL cholesterol, folate, and some carotenoids were inversely associated with the frequency of eating restaurant prepared meals (P<0

  15. Wine intake, ABO phenotype, and risk of ischemic heart disease and all-cause mortality: the Copenhagen Male Study-a 16-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suadicani, P.; Hein, H.O.; Gyntelberg, F.

    2008-01-01

    were ABO phenotypes, alcohol intake (wine, beer, and spirits), tobacco smoking history, leisure-time, physical activity, social class, and age. During 16 years, 1985-1986 to end of 2001, 197 subjects (6.5%) died due to IHD, and 1,204 (39.8%) from all causes. Among non-O phenotypes (A, B, and AB......The association of alcohol intake with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and all-cause mortality may depend on ABO phenotype. We tested this hypothesis in a 16-year follow-up of 3,022 Caucasian men aged 53-74 years without overt cardiovascular disease. Potential risk factors and confounders included......) significantly fewer men who died due to IHD were wine consumers, 43.9% versus 55.7%, P alcohol abstainers, in Cox...

  16. High Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio is a Significant Predictor of Cardiovascular and All-Cause Mortality in Patients Undergoing Peritoneal Dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangxue Lu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Chronic inflammation is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular death in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD. Although elevated neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR, a novel inflammatory marker, has been shown to predict cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in the general population, limited evidence is available for its role in ESRD. Methods: We enrolled 86 patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD for a 36-month follow-up to investigate the association between the NLR and arterial stiffness markers, namely, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV and carotid augmentation index (AIx, and mortality in PD patients. The primary endpoints were cardiovascular mortality and all-cause mortality. Kaplan–Meier curves were used to show the cumulative incidence of cardiovascular mortality and all-cause mortality. Results: High NLR was found to be a predictor of increased cfPWV (β = 1.150; P < 0.001 and AIx (β = 3.945; P < 0.001 in patients on PD. Patients with higher NLR had lower survival during follow-up. Kaplan–Meier curves showed that the cumulative incidences of both cardiovascular mortality and all-cause mortality were significantly higher in patients with NLR ≥ 4.5 (both P < 0.01. Conclusion: Our results suggest that high NLR is independently associated with arterial stiffness and predicts cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in PD patients.

  17. [All-cause mortality and incidence of major cardiovascular events in hypertensive patients with ASCOT-type profile in a Spanish population setting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Fernández de Bobadilla, Jaime; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth; Rejas-Gutiérrez, Javier

    2010-08-01

    Mediterranean populations are traditionally considered to be associated with lower incidence of cardiovascular events (CVE). However, this might not be homogeneous throughout different patient strata. The goal was to compare the incidence of CVE and all-causes mortality in hypertensive patients with an ASCOT-type profile with that of the rest hypertensive subjects. A retrospective analysis was carried out using a claim database. Hypertensive patients without known cardiovascular disease on antihypertensive therapy included during year 2006 were followed up for two consecutive years to ascertain the incidence of all-causes mortality and any CVE. CVE included any of the following: coronary heart disease, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), angina, stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA) and peripheral artery disease. Patients with ASCOT and ASCOT-LLA type profiles were identified and compared with non-ASCOT-type profile hypertensive subjects. A total of 11,104 were included in the analysis; 68.0+/-11.4 years, 41.6% males. More than 73% of subjects fulfilled criteria for ASCOT-type profile. All-causes mortality were numerically higher in ASCOT and ASCOT-LLA subjects compared with non-ASCOT-type; hazard ratio (95% CI)=1.3 (0.8-1.9) and 1.6 (0.9-2.8), respectively. However, any-coronary event rate was significantly higher in ASCOT-type [2.3 (1.8-2.8), plikely to have any cardiovascular event than those hypertensive patients without ASCOT profile in a Mediterranean setting in Spain. Copyright 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. Frailty Index Predicts All-Cause Mortality for Middle-Aged and Older Taiwanese: Implications for Active-Aging Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Yu; Lee, Wei-Ju; Chou, Ming-Yueh; Peng, Li-Ning; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chen, Liang-Kung

    2016-01-01

    Frailty Index, defined as an individual's accumulated proportion of listed health-related deficits, is a well-established metric used to assess the health status of old adults; however, it has not yet been developed in Taiwan, and its local related structure factors remain unclear. The objectives were to construct a Taiwan Frailty Index to predict mortality risk, and to explore the structure of its factors. Analytic data on 1,284 participants aged 53 and older were excerpted from the Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study (2006), in Taiwan. A consensus workgroup of geriatricians selected 159 items according to the standard procedure for creating a Frailty Index. Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to explore the association between the Taiwan Frailty Index and mortality. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify structure factors and produce a shorter version-the Taiwan Frailty Index Short-Form. During an average follow-up of 4.3 ± 0.8 years, 140 (11%) subjects died. Compared to those in the lowest Taiwan Frailty Index tertile ( 0.23) had significantly higher risk of death (Hazard ratio: 3.2; 95% CI 1.9-5.4). Thirty-five items of five structure factors identified by exploratory factor analysis, included: physical activities, life satisfaction and financial status, health status, cognitive function, and stresses. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (C-statistics) of the Taiwan Frailty Index and its Short-Form were 0.80 and 0.78, respectively, with no statistically significant difference between them. Although both the Taiwan Frailty Index and Short-Form were associated with mortality, the Short-Form, which had similar accuracy in predicting mortality as the full Taiwan Frailty Index, would be more expedient in clinical practice and community settings to target frailty screening and intervention.

  19. Global longitudinal strain corrected by RR interval is a superior predictor of all-cause mortality in patients with systolic heart failure and atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modin, Daniel; Sengeløv, Morten; Jørgensen, Peter Godsk

    2018-01-01

    failure (HFrEF) with AF remains unknown. This study investigates the prognostic value of RR interval-corrected peak global longitudinal strain {GLSc = GLS/[RR^(1/2)]} in relation to all-cause mortality in HFrEF patients displaying AF during echocardiographic examination. METHODS AND RESULTS......: Echocardiograms from 151 patients with HFrEF and AF during examination were analysed offline. Peak global longitudinal strain (GLS) was averaged from 18 myocardial segments obtained from three apical views. GLS was indexed with the square root of the RR interval {GLSc = GLS/[RR^(1/2)]}. Endpoint was all......-cause mortality. During a median follow-up of 2.7 years, 40 patients (26.5%) died. Neither uncorrected GLS (P = 0.056) nor left ventricular ejection fraction (P = 0.053) was significantly associated with all-cause mortality. After RR^(1/2) indexation, GLSc became a significant predictor of all-cause mortality...

  20. Measures of anticholinergic drug exposure, serum anticholinergic activity, and all-cause postdischarge mortality in older hospitalized patients with hip fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangoni, Arduino A.; van Munster, Barbara C.; Woodman, Richard J.; de Rooij, Sophia E.

    Objectives: To assess possible associations between anticholinergic drug exposure and serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) and their capacities to predict all-cause mortality in older hospitalized patients. Setting: Academic medical center. Participants and Measurements: Data on clinical

  1. Measures of anticholinergic drug exposure, serum anticholinergic activity, and all-cause postdischarge mortality in older hospitalized patients with hip fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangoni, Arduino A.; van Munster, Barbara C.; Woodman, Richard J.; de Rooij, Sophia E.

    2013-01-01

    To assess possible associations between anticholinergic drug exposure and serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) and their capacities to predict all-cause mortality in older hospitalized patients. Academic medical center. Data on clinical characteristics, full medication exposure, SAA, and 4

  2. Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) score as a predictor of all-cause mortality in elderly hypertensive patients: a prospective follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaonan; Luo, Leiming; Zhao, Xiaoqian; Ye, Ping

    2017-09-18

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the impact of nutritional status on survival per Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) score and Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) in patients with hypertension over 80 years of age. Prospective follow-up study. A total of 336 hypertensive patients over 80 years old were included in this study. All-cause deaths were recorded as Kaplan-Meier curves to evaluate the association between CONUT and all-cause mortality at follow-up. Cox regression models were used to investigate the prognostic value of CONUT and GNRI for all-cause mortality in the 90-day period after admission. Hypertensive patients with higher CONUT scores exhibited higher mortality within 90 days after admission (1.49%, 6.74%, 15.38%, respectively, χ 2 =30.92, p=0.000). Surviving patients had higher body mass index (24.25±3.05 vs 24.25±3.05, p=0.012), haemoglobin (123.78±17.05 vs 115.07±20.42, p=0.040) and albumin levels, as well as lower fasting blood glucose (6.90±2.48 vs 8.24±3.51, p=0.010). Higher GRNI score (99.42±6.55 vs 95.69±7.77, p=0.002) and lower CONUT (3.13±1.98 vs 5.14±2.32) both indicated better nutritional status. Kaplan-Meier curves indicated that survival rates were significantly worse in the high-CONUT group compared with the low-CONUT group (χ 1 =13.372, p=0.001). Cox regression indicated an increase in HR with increasing CONUT risk (from normal to moderate to severe). HRs (95% CI) for 3-month mortality was 1.458 (95% CI 1.102 to 1.911). In both respiratory tract infection and 'other reason' groups, only CONUT was a sufficiently predictor for all-cause mortality (HR=1.284, 95% CI 1.013 to 1.740, p=0.020 and HR=1.841, 95% CI 1.117 to 4.518, p=0.011). Receiver operating characteristic showed that CONUT higher than 3.0 was found to predict all-cause mortality with a sensitivity of 77.8% and a specificity of 64.7% (area under the curve=0.778, p<0.001). Nutritional status assessed via CONUT is an accurate predictor of all-cause

  3. Fitness, work, and leisure-time physical activity and ischaemic heart disease and all-cause mortality among men with pre-existing cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Burr, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    Our aim was to study the relative impact of physical fitness, physical demands at work, and physical activity during leisure time on ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and all-cause mortality among employed men with pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD).......Our aim was to study the relative impact of physical fitness, physical demands at work, and physical activity during leisure time on ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and all-cause mortality among employed men with pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD)....

  4. Higher plasma high-mobility group box 1 levels are associated with incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nin, J W M; Ferreira, I; Schalkwijk, C G

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the associations of plasma levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes.......This study aimed to investigate the associations of plasma levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes....

  5. The impact of co-morbidity burden on appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Anne Christine; Vinther, Michael; Gislason, Gunnar H

    2017-01-01

    -ICD indication-related co-morbidities including atrial fibrillation, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic renal disease, liver disease, cancer, chronic psychiatric disease, and peripheral and/or cerebrovascular disease, and divided into four groups (co-morbidity burden 0, 1, 2, and ≥3......). Through Cox models, we assessed the impact of co-morbidity burden on appropriate ICD therapy and mortality. Increasing co-morbidity burden was not associated with increased risk of appropriate therapy, irrespective of implant indication [all hazard ratios (HRs) 1.0-1.4, P = NS]. Using no co...

  6. Milk and dairy consumption and risk of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality: dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Astrup, Arne; Lovegrove, Julie A; Gijsbers, Lieke; Givens, David I; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S

    2017-04-01

    With a growing number of prospective cohort studies, an updated dose-response meta-analysis of milk and dairy products with all-cause mortality, coronary heart disease (CHD) or cardiovascular disease (CVD) have been conducted. PubMed, Embase and Scopus were searched for articles published up to September 2016. Random-effect meta-analyses with summarised dose-response data were performed for total (high-fat/low-fat) dairy, milk, fermented dairy, cheese and yogurt. Non-linear associations were investigated using the spine models and heterogeneity by subgroup analyses. A total of 29 cohort studies were available for meta-analysis, with 938,465 participants and 93,158 mortality, 28,419 CHD and 25,416 CVD cases. No associations were found for total (high-fat/low-fat) dairy, and milk with the health outcomes of mortality, CHD or CVD. Inverse associations were found between total fermented dairy (included sour milk products, cheese or yogurt; per 20 g/day) with mortality (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.99; I 2  = 94.4%) and CVD risk (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.99; I 2  = 87.5%). Further analyses of individual fermented dairy of cheese and yogurt showed cheese to have a 2% lower risk of CVD (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.95-1.00; I 2  = 82.6%) per 10 g/day, but not yogurt. All of these marginally inverse associations of totally fermented dairy and cheese were attenuated in sensitivity analyses by removing one large Swedish study. This meta-analysis combining data from 29 prospective cohort studies demonstrated neutral associations between dairy products and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. For future studies it is important to investigate in more detail how dairy products can be replaced by other foods.

  7. Global Longitudinal Strain Is a Superior Predictor of All-Cause Mortality in Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengeløv, Morten; Jørgensen, Peter Godsk; Jensen, Jan Skov

    2015-01-01

    failure clinic. The echocardiographic images were analyzed, and conventional and novel echocardiographic parameters were obtained. RESULTS: Many of the conventional echocardiographic parameters proved to be predictors of mortality. However, GLS remained an independent predictor of mortality...

  8. Association Between Red Blood Cell Distribution Width and All-cause Mortality in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Li, Jing; Lin, Yan; Yang, Hongtao; Cao, Shili

    2017-05-01

    Considering results among previous studies regarding the relationship of red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and all-cause mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, we aimed to perform a comprehensive meta-analysis to evaluate the potential association between RDW and all-cause mortality in CKD patients. We conducted a systematic literature using electronic databases (PubMed, Ovid, Embase and Web of Science) to identify the studies reporting the association between RDW and all-cause mortality in CKD patients. We searched the literatures published December 2016 or earlier. We used both fix-effects and random-effects models to calculate the overall effect estimate. A sensitivity analysis and subgroup analysis were performed to find the origin of heterogeneity. We retrieved 9 studies with a total of 117,047 patients. For every 1% increase in RDW, the risk of all-cause mortality increased by 47% (HR 1.47, 95% CI 1.35-1.61) with no statistical heterogeneity among the studies (I 2  = 44.5%, p = 0.094). When RDW was entered as a categorical variable, mortality risk was significantly increased (HR 1.84, 95% CI 1.21-2.81). Heterogeneity among the studies was observed for all-cause mortality (I 2  = 82.3%, p = 0.001). We also performed a predefined subgroup analyses according to study population. We found that for every 1% increase in RDW, the risk of all-cause mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients increased by 36% (HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.20-1.53). Our meta-analysis suggests that high levels of RDW probably increase the risk of all-cause mortality in CKD patients. Copyright © 2017 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Whole grain consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all cause and cause specific mortality: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aune, Dagfinn; Keum, NaNa; Giovannucci, Edward; Fadnes, Lars T; Boffetta, Paolo; Greenwood, Darren C; Tonstad, Serena; Vatten, Lars J; Riboli, Elio; Norat, Teresa

    2016-06-14

     To quantify the dose-response relation between consumption of whole grain and specific types of grains and the risk of cardiovascular disease, total cancer, and all cause and cause specific mortality.  PubMed and Embase searched up to 3 April 2016.  Prospective studies reporting adjusted relative risk estimates for the association between intake of whole grains or specific types of grains and cardiovascular disease, total cancer, all cause or cause specific mortality.  Summary relative risks and 95% confidence intervals calculated with a random effects model.  45 studies (64 publications) were included. The summary relative risks per 90 g/day increase in whole grain intake (90 g is equivalent to three servings-for example, two slices of bread and one bowl of cereal or one and a half pieces of pita bread made from whole grains) was 0.81 (95% confidence interval 0.75 to 0.87; I(2)=9%, n=7 studies) for coronary heart disease, 0.88 (0.75 to 1.03; I(2)=56%, n=6) for stroke, and 0.78 (0.73 to 0.85; I(2)=40%, n=10) for cardiovascular disease, with similar results when studies were stratified by whether the outcome was incidence or mortality. The relative risks for morality were 0.85 (0.80 to 0.91; I(2)=37%, n=6) for total cancer, 0.83 (0.77 to 0.90; I(2)=83%, n=11) for all causes, 0.78 (0.70 to 0.87; I(2)=0%, n=4) for respiratory disease, 0.49 (0.23 to 1.05; I(2)=85%, n=4) for diabetes, 0.74 (0.56 to 0.96; I(2)=0%, n=3) for infectious diseases, 1.15 (0.66 to 2.02; I(2)=79%, n=2) for diseases of the nervous system disease, and 0.78 (0.75 to 0.82; I(2)=0%, n=5) for all non-cardiovascular, non-cancer causes. Reductions in risk were observed up to an intake of 210-225 g/day (seven to seven and a half servings per day) for most of the outcomes. Intakes of specific types of whole grains including whole grain bread, whole grain breakfast cereals, and added bran, as well as total bread and total breakfast cereals were also associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular

  10. Relation of Serum Adiponectin Levels to Number of Traditional Atherosclerotic Risk Factors and All-Cause Mortality and Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events (from the Copenhagen City Heart Study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Soren; Mogelvang, Rasmus; Pedersen, Sune H

    2013-01-01

    and women from the community without CV disease. Plasma adiponectin was measured at the beginning of the study. The median follow-up time was 7.8 years (interquartile range 7.3 to 8.3). The end point was all-cause mortality (n = 801), and the combined end point was MACE, consisting of CV mortality...

  11. Cortisol, estrogens and risk of ischaemic heart disease, cancer and all-cause mortality in postmenopausal women: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Kristensen, Tage S.; Diderichsen, Finn

    2010-01-01

    Chronic stress may affect morbidity and mortality through neuroendocrine changes, and the ratio of cortisol to sex steroid hormones has been suggested as a biomarker of stress. We aim to address a relation between the ratio of cortisol to estrogens (C/E) and risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD......), hormone-dependent cancers and all-cause mortality among postmenopausal women....

  12. Repeated measures of body mass index and C-reactive protein in relation to all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Doherty, Mark G; Jørgensen, Torben; Borglykke, Anders

    2014-01-01

    body mass index (BMI) and CRP with all-cause mortality and CVD. Being overweight (≥25-...Obesity has been linked with elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), and both have been associated with increased risk of mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Previous studies have used a single 'baseline' measurement and such analyses cannot account for possible changes in these which...

  13. Plasma growth differentiation factor-15 independently predicts all-cause and cardiovascular mortality as well as deterioration of kidney function in type 1 diabetic patients with nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lajer, Maria Stenkil; Jorsal, Anders; Tarnow, Lise

    2010-01-01

    Growth deferentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) is involved in inflammation and apoptosis. Expression is induced in the heart in response to ischemia and in atherosclerotic plaques. The aim of this study was to investigate GDF-15 levels in relation to all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality and mo...

  14. Risk Factors for Incidence of Cardiovascular Diseases and All-Cause Mortality in a Middle Eastern Population over a Decade Follow-up: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Sardarinia

    Full Text Available To examine the association between potentially modifiable risk factors with cardiovascular disease (CVD and all-cause mortality and to quantify their population attributable fractions (PAFs among a sample of Tehran residents.Overall, 8108 participants (3686 men aged≥30 years, were investigated. To examine the association between risk factors and outcomes, multivariate sex-adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression analysis were conducted, using age as time-scale in two models including general/central adiposity: 1adjusted for different independent variables including smoking, education, family history of CVD and sex for both outcomes and additionally adjusted for prevalent CVD for all-cause mortality 2further adjusted for obesity mediators (hypertension, diabetes, lipid profile and chronic kidney disease. Separate models were used including either general or central adiposity.During median follow-up of >10 years, 827 first CVD events and 551 deaths occurred. Both being overweight (hazard ratio (HR, 95%CI: 1.41, 1.18-1.66, PAF 13.66 and obese (1.51, 1.24-1.84, PAF 9.79 played significant roles for incident CVD in the absence of obesity mediators. Predicting CVD, in the presence of general adiposity and its mediators, significant positive associations were found for hypercholesterolemia (1.59, 1.36-1.85, PAF 16.69, low HDL-C (1.21, 1.03-1.41, PAF 12.32, diabetes (1.86, 1.57-2.27, PAF 13.87, hypertension (1.79, 1.46-2.19, PAF 21.62 and current smoking (1.61, 1.34-1.94, PAF 7.57. Central adiposity remained a significant positive predictor, even after controlling for mediators (1.17, 1.01-1.35, PAF 7.55. For all-cause mortality, general/central obesity did not have any risk even in the absence of obesity mediators. Predictors including diabetes (2.56, 2.08-3.16, PAF 24.37, hypertension (1.43, 1.11-1.84, PAF 17.13, current smoking (1.75, 1.38-2.22, PAF 7.71, and low education level (1.59, 1.01-2.51, PAF 27.08 were associated with higher risk

  15. A competing risk approach for the European Heart SCORE model based on cause-specific and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stovring, H.; Harmsen, C. G.; Wisloff, T.

    2013-01-01

    for older individuals. When non-CVD mortality was assumed unaffected by smoking status, the absolute risk reduction due to statin treatment ranged from 0.0% to 3.5%, whereas the gain in expected residual lifetime ranged from 3 to 11 months. Statin effectiveness increased for non-smokers and declined......, and the expected residual lifetime together with corresponding expected effects of statin treatment. Results: The modified model provided CVD-specific 10-year mortality risks similar to those of the European Heart SCORE model. Incorporation of non-CVD mortality increased 10-year mortality risks, in particular...... for smokers, when smoking was allowed to influence non-CVD mortality. Conclusion: The modified model provides mathematically consistent estimates of mortality risk and expected residual lifetime together with expected benefits from statin treatment....

  16. The association between cardiorespiratory fitness and risk of all-cause mortality among women with impaired fasting glucose or undiagnosed diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, G William; Sui, Xuemei; Lavie, Carl J; Church, Timothy S; Hand, Gregory A; Blair, Steven N

    2009-09-01

    To evaluate the independent and joint associations among cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), body mass index, and risk of mortality from any cause among women with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or undiagnosed diabetes mellitus (DM). Female patients (N=3044; mean age, 47.4 years) with IFG or undiagnosed DM completed a maximal exercise treadmill test (between January 26, 1971, and March 21, 2001). The women had no history of a cardiovascular disease event or diagnosed DM at baseline. Cardiorespiratory fitness was defined categorically as low (bottom 20%), moderate (middle 40%), or high (upper 40%) according to previously published Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study guidelines. Body mass index was calculated as the weight in kilograms divided by the height in meters squared (kg/m(2)). During a 16-year follow-up period, 171 deaths occurred. There was an inverse association between CRF and all-cause mortality risk. Women with moderate or high CRF were at lower risk of mortality (moderate CRF, 35% lower; high CRF, 36% lower; P(trend)=.03) than those with low CRF. An exercise capacity lower than 7 metabolic equivalents was associated with a 1.5-fold higher risk of death than an exercise capacity of 9 metabolic equivalents or higher (P(trend)=.05). The multivariate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs), including adjustments for CRF, were higher for heavier patients than for patients of normal weight (overweight patients: HR, 0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.57-1.30; obese patients: HR, 1.19; 95% confidence interval, 0.70-2.03; P(trend)=.84). Combined analyses showed that women who were overweight or obese and unfit (low CRF) were at more than twice the risk of death than women who were of normal weight and fit (moderate or high CRF). Cardiorespiratory fitness, not body mass index, is a significant predictor of all-cause mortality among women with IFG or undiagnosed DM. Assessing CRF levels provides important prognostic information independent of traditional risk factors.

  17. Which Sleep Health Characteristics Predict All-Cause Mortality in Older Men? An Application of Flexible Multivariable Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Meredith L; Stone, Katie; Smagula, Stephen F; Hall, Martica H; Simsek, Burcin; Kado, Deborah M; Redline, Susan; Vo, Tien N; Buysse, Daniel J

    2018-01-01

    Sleep is multidimensional, with domains including duration, timing, continuity, regularity, rhythmicity, quality, and sleepiness/alertness. Individual sleep characteristics representing these domains are known to predict health outcomes. However, most studies consider sleep characteristics in isolation, resulting in an incomplete understanding of which sleep characteristics are the strongest predictors of health outcomes. We applied three multivariable approaches to robustly determine which sleep characteristics increase mortality risk in the osteoporotic fractures in men sleep study. In total, 2,887 men (mean 76.3 years) completed relevant assessments and were followed for up to 11 years. One actigraphy or self-reported sleep characteristic was selected to represent each of seven sleep domains. Multivariable Cox models, survival trees, and random survival forests were applied to determine which sleep characteristics increase mortality risk. Rhythmicity (actigraphy pseudo-F statistic) and continuity (actigraphy minutes awake after sleep onset) were the most robust sleep predictors across models. In a multivariable Cox model, lower rhythmicity (hazard ratio, HR [95%CI] =1.12 [1.04, 1.22]) and lower continuity (1.16 [1.08, 1.24]) were the strongest sleep predictors. In the random survival forest, rhythmicity and continuity were the most important individual sleep characteristics (ranked as the sixth and eighth most important among 43 possible sleep and non-sleep predictors); moreover, the predictive importance of all sleep information considered simultaneously followed only age, cognition, and cardiovascular disease. Research within a multidimensional sleep health framework can jumpstart future research on causal pathways linking sleep and health, new interventions that target specific sleep health profiles, and improved sleep screening for adverse health outcomes. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research

  18. High tobacco consumption is causally associated with increased all-cause mortality in a general population sample of 55 568 individuals, but not with short telomeres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Bojesen, Stig E; Weischer, Maren

    2014-01-01

    randomization study, we conducted observational, genetic, and mediation analyses. RESULTS: First, tobacco consumption was 21.1 pack-years in non-carriers, 22.8 in heterozygotes and 24.8 in homozygotes (P-trendcause mortality was 1......BACKGROUND: High cumulative tobacco consumption is associated with short telomeres and with increased all-cause mortality. We tested the hypothesis that high tobacco consumption is causally associated with short telomeres and with increased all-cause mortality. METHODS: We studied 55...... in tobacco consumption. In Mendelian randomization analysis, the estimate was +3 base pairs (-10, +15) per minor CHRNA3 allele. Finally, individuals with the shortest vs longest telomeres had a multivariable adjusted hazard ratio of 1.30 (1.13, 1.50) for all-cause mortality; however, in mediation analysis...

  19. Elevated AST-to-platelet ratio index is associated with increased all-cause mortality among HIV-infected adults in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinikoor, Michael J; Sinkala, Edford; Mweemba, Aggrey; Zanolini, Arianna; Mulenga, Lloyd; Sikazwe, Izukanji; Fried, Michael W; Eron, Joseph J; Wandeler, Gilles; Chi, Benjamin H

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the association between significant liver fibrosis, determined by AST-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), and all-cause mortality among HIV-infected patients prescribed antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Zambia. Among HIV-infected adults who initiated ART, we categorized baseline APRI scores according to established thresholds for significant hepatic fibrosis (APRI ≥1.5) and cirrhosis (APRI ≥2.0). Using multivariable logistic regression we identified risk factors for elevated APRI including demographic characteristics, body mass index (BMI), HIV clinical and immunological status, and tuberculosis. In the subset tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), we investigated the association of hepatitis B virus co-infection with APRI score. Using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression we determined the association of elevated APRI with death during ART. Among 20 308 adults in the analysis cohort, 1027 (5.1%) had significant liver fibrosis at ART initiation including 616 (3.0%) with cirrhosis. Risk factors for significant fibrosis or cirrhosis included male sex, BMI <18, WHO clinical stage 3 or 4, CD4(+) count <200 cells/mm(3) , and tuberculosis. Among the 237 (1.2%) who were tested, HBsAg-positive patients had four times the odds (adjusted odds ratio, 4.15; 95% CI, 1.71-10.04) of significant fibrosis compared HBsAg-negatives. Both significant fibrosis (adjusted hazard ratio 1.41, 95% CI, 1.21-1.64) and cirrhosis (adjusted hazard ratio 1.57, 95% CI, 1.31-1.89) were associated with increased all-cause mortality. Liver fibrosis may be a risk factor for mortality during ART among HIV-infected individuals in Africa. APRI is an inexpensive and potentially useful test for liver fibrosis in resource-constrained settings. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. High dietary fiber intake is associated with decreased inflammation and all-cause mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Vidya M Raj; Wei, Guo; Baird, Bradley C; Murtaugh, Maureen; Chonchol, Michel B; Raphael, Kalani L; Greene, Tom; Beddhu, Srinivasan

    2012-02-01

    Chronic kidney disease is considered an inflammatory state and a high fiber intake is associated with decreased inflammation in the general population. Here, we determined whether fiber intake is associated with decreased inflammation and mortality in chronic kidney disease, and whether kidney disease modifies the associations of fiber intake with inflammation and mortality. To do this, we analyzed data from 14,543 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) was 5.8%. For each 10-g/day increase in total fiber intake, the odds of elevated serum C-reactive protein levels were decreased by 11% and 38% in those without and with kidney disease, respectively. Dietary total fiber intake was not significantly associated with mortality in those without but was inversely related to mortality in those with kidney disease. The relationship of total fiber with inflammation and mortality differed significantly in those with and without kidney disease. Thus, high dietary total fiber intake is associated with lower risk of inflammation and mortality in kidney disease and these associations are stronger in magnitude in those with kidney disease. Interventional trials are needed to establish the effects of fiber intake on inflammation and mortality in kidney disease.

  1. National Immunization Campaigns with Oral Polio Vaccine Reduce All-Cause Mortality: A Natural Experiment within Seven Randomized Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Andersen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundA recent WHO review concluded that live BCG and measles vaccine (MV may have beneficial non-specific effects (NSEs reducing mortality from non-targeted diseases. NSEs of oral polio vaccine (OPV were not examined. If OPV vaccination campaigns reduce the mortality rate, it would suggest beneficial NSEs.SettingBetween 2002 and 2014, Guinea-Bissau had 15 general OPV campaigns and other campaigns with OPV plus vitamin A supplementation (VAS, VAS-only, MV, and H1N1 vaccine. In this period, we conducted seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs with mortality as main outcome.MethodsWithin these RCTs, we assessed whether the mortality rate was lower after-campaign than before-campaign. We used Cox models with age as underlying time and further adjusted for low birth-weight, season and time trend in mortality. We calculated the adjusted mortality rate ratio (MRR for after-campaign vs before-campaign.ResultsThe mortality rate was lower after OPV-only campaigns than before, the MRR being 0.81 (95% CI = 0.68–0.95. With each additional dose of campaign-OPV the mortality rate declined further (MRR = 0.87 (95% CI: 0.79–0.96 per dose (test for trend, p = 0.005. No other type of campaign had similar beneficial effects. Depending on initial age and with follow-up to 3 years of age, the number needed to treat with campaign-OPV-only to save one life was between 68 and 230 children.ConclusionBissau had no case of polio infection so the results suggest that campaign-OPV has beneficial NSEs. Discontinuation of OPV-campaigns in low-income countries may affect general child mortality levels negatively.

  2. Dietary patterns and all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality in Japanese men and women: The Japan public health center-based prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanri, Akiko; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Shimazu, Taichi; Ishihara, Junko; Takachi, Ribeka; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Sawada, Norie; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2017-01-01

    A meta-analysis showed an inverse association of a prudent/healthy dietary pattern with all-cause mortality and no association of a western/unhealthy dietary pattern. However, the association of distinctive dietary patterns of Japanese population with mortality remains unclear. We prospectively investigated the association between dietary patterns and all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality among Japanese adults. Participants were 36,737 men and 44,983 women aged 45-74 years who participated in the second survey of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study (1995-1998) and who had no history of serious disease. Dietary patterns were derived from principal component analysis of the consumption of 134 food and beverage items ascertained by a food frequency questionnaire. Hazard ratios of death from the second survey to December 2012 were estimated using cox proportional hazard regression analysis. A prudent dietary pattern, which was characterized by high intake of vegetables, fruit, soy products, potatoes, seaweed, mushrooms, and fish, was significantly associated with decreased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality for the highest versus lowest quartile of the prudent dietary pattern score were 0.82 (0.77 to 0.86) and 0.72 (0.64 to 0.79), respectively (P for trend bread, and dairy products, was also inversely associated with risk of all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality. A traditional Japanese dietary pattern was not associated with these risks. The prudent and Westernized dietary patterns were associated with a decreased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in Japanese adults.

  3. Dietary patterns and all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality in Japanese men and women: The Japan public health center-based prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Nanri

    Full Text Available A meta-analysis showed an inverse association of a prudent/healthy dietary pattern with all-cause mortality and no association of a western/unhealthy dietary pattern. However, the association of distinctive dietary patterns of Japanese population with mortality remains unclear. We prospectively investigated the association between dietary patterns and all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality among Japanese adults.Participants were 36,737 men and 44,983 women aged 45-74 years who participated in the second survey of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study (1995-1998 and who had no history of serious disease. Dietary patterns were derived from principal component analysis of the consumption of 134 food and beverage items ascertained by a food frequency questionnaire. Hazard ratios of death from the second survey to December 2012 were estimated using cox proportional hazard regression analysis.A prudent dietary pattern, which was characterized by high intake of vegetables, fruit, soy products, potatoes, seaweed, mushrooms, and fish, was significantly associated with decreased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality for the highest versus lowest quartile of the prudent dietary pattern score were 0.82 (0.77 to 0.86 and 0.72 (0.64 to 0.79, respectively (P for trend <0.001 in both. A Westernized dietary pattern, characterized by high intake of meat, processed meat, bread, and dairy products, was also inversely associated with risk of all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality. A traditional Japanese dietary pattern was not associated with these risks.The prudent and Westernized dietary patterns were associated with a decreased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in Japanese adults.

  4. Serum Anion Gap Predicts All-Cause Mortality in Patients with Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease: A Retrospective Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Woo Lee

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular outcomes and mortality rates are poor in advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD patients. Novel risk factors related to clinical outcomes should be identified.A retrospective analysis of data from a randomized controlled study was performed in 440 CKD patients aged > 18 years, with estimated glomerular filtration rate 15-60 mL/min/1.73m2. Clinical data were available, and the albumin-adjusted serum anion gap (A-SAG could be calculated. The outcome analyzed was all-cause mortality.Of 440 participants, the median (interquartile range, IQR follow-up duration was 5.1 (3.0-5.5 years. During the follow-up duration, 29 participants died (all-cause mortality 6.6%. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of A-SAG for all-cause mortality was 0.616 (95% CI 0.520-0.712, P = 0.037. The best threshold of A-SAG for all-cause mortality was 9.48 mmol/L, with sensitivity 0.793 and specificity 0.431. After adjusting for confounders, A-SAG above 9.48 mmol/L was independently associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality, with hazard ratio 2.968 (95% CI 1.143-7.708, P = 0.025. In our study, serum levels of beta-2 microglobulin and blood urea nitrogen (BUN were positively associated with A-SAG.A-SAG is an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality in advanced CKD patients. The positive correlation between A-SAG and serum beta-2 microglobulin or BUN might be a potential reason. Future study is needed.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT 00860431.

  5. Serum Anion Gap Predicts All-Cause Mortality in Patients with Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease: A Retrospective Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Woo; Kim, Sejoong; Na, Ki Young; Cha, Ran-Hui; Kang, Shin Wook; Park, Cheol Whee; Cha, Dae Ryong; Kim, Sung Gyun; Yoon, Sun Ae; Han, Sang Youb; Park, Jung Hwan; Chang, Jae Hyun; Lim, Chun Soo; Kim, Yon Su

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular outcomes and mortality rates are poor in advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Novel risk factors related to clinical outcomes should be identified. A retrospective analysis of data from a randomized controlled study was performed in 440 CKD patients aged > 18 years, with estimated glomerular filtration rate 15-60 mL/min/1.73m2. Clinical data were available, and the albumin-adjusted serum anion gap (A-SAG) could be calculated. The outcome analyzed was all-cause mortality. Of 440 participants, the median (interquartile range, IQR) follow-up duration was 5.1 (3.0-5.5) years. During the follow-up duration, 29 participants died (all-cause mortality 6.6%). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of A-SAG for all-cause mortality was 0.616 (95% CI 0.520-0.712, P = 0.037). The best threshold of A-SAG for all-cause mortality was 9.48 mmol/L, with sensitivity 0.793 and specificity 0.431. After adjusting for confounders, A-SAG above 9.48 mmol/L was independently associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality, with hazard ratio 2.968 (95% CI 1.143-7.708, P = 0.025). In our study, serum levels of beta-2 microglobulin and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were positively associated with A-SAG. A-SAG is an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality in advanced CKD patients. The positive correlation between A-SAG and serum beta-2 microglobulin or BUN might be a potential reason. Future study is needed. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT 00860431.

  6. Higher Total Serum Cholesterol Levels Are Associated With Less Severe Strokes and Lower All-Cause Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen; Kammersgaard, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Background and Purpose - Evidence of a causal relation between serum cholesterol and stroke is inconsistent. We investigated the relation between total serum cholesterol and both stroke severity and poststroke mortality to test the hypothesis that hyperch....

  7. Association of metabolic syndrome and its components with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in the elderly: A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Sang-Yhun; Lee, June-Young; Kim, Do-Hoon

    2017-11-01

    There is increasing evidence regarding the relationship between metabolic syndrome and mortality. However, previous research examining metabolic syndrome and mortality in older populations has produced mixed results. In addition, there is a clear need to identify and manage individual components of metabolic syndrome to decrease cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. In this meta-analysis, we searched the MEDLINE databases using PubMed, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE databases. Based on 20 prospective cohort studies, metabolic syndrome was associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality [relative risk (RR), 1.23; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.15-1.32; I = 55.9%] and CVD mortality (RR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.11-1.39; I = 58.1%). The risk estimates of all-cause mortality for single components of metabolic syndrome were significant for higher values of waist circumference or body mass index (RR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.88-1.00), higher values of blood glucose (RR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.05-1.34), and lower values of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (RR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.02-1.21). In the elderly population, metabolic syndrome was associated with an increased risk of all-cause and CVD mortality. Among the individual components of metabolic syndrome, increased blood glucose and HDL cholesterol levels were significantly associated with increased mortality. However, older obese or overweight individuals may have a decreased mortality risk. Thus, the findings of the current meta-analysis raise questions about the utility of the definition of metabolic syndrome in predicting all-cause mortality and CVD mortality in the elderly population.

  8. Television viewing and risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Hu, Frank B

    2011-01-01

    Prolonged television (TV) viewing is the most prevalent and pervasive sedentary behavior in industrialized countries and has been associated with morbidity and mortality. However, a systematic and quantitative assessment of published studies is not available.......Prolonged television (TV) viewing is the most prevalent and pervasive sedentary behavior in industrialized countries and has been associated with morbidity and mortality. However, a systematic and quantitative assessment of published studies is not available....

  9. High dietary fiber intake is associated with decreased inflammation and all-cause mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Raj Krishnamurthy, Vidya M.; Wei, Guo; Baird, Bradley C.; Murtaugh, Maureen; Chonchol, Michel B.; Raphael, Kalani L.; Greene, Tom; Beddhu, Srinivasan

    2011-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is considered an inflammatory state and a high fiber intake is associated with decreased inflammation in the general population. Here, we determined whether fiber intake is associated with decreased inflammation and mortality in chronic kidney disease, and whether kidney disease modifies the associations of fiber intake with inflammation and mortality. To do this, we analyzed data from 14,543 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. The ...

  10. A reverse J-shaped association of all-cause mortality with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durup, Darshana Tiffany; Jørgensen, Henrik Løvendahl; Christensen, J.

    2012-01-01

    -cause mortality at very low (10 nmol/liter) and high (140 nmol/liter) serum levels of 25(OH)D were 2.13 (2.02-2.24) and 1.42 (1.31-1.53), respectively. Similarly, both high and low levels of albumin-adjusted serum calcium and serum PTH were associated with an increased mortality, and secondary hyperparathyroidism...

  11. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in adults on hemodialysis: The DIET-HD multinational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglimbene, Valeria M; Wong, Germaine; Ruospo, Marinella; Palmer, Suetonia C; Campbell, Katrina; Larsen, Vanessa Garcia; Natale, Patrizia; Teixeira-Pinto, Armando; Carrero, Juan-Jesus; Stenvinkel, Peter; Gargano, Letizia; Murgo, Angelo M; Johnson, David W; Tonelli, Marcello; Gelfman, Rubén; Celia, Eduardo; Ecder, Tevfik; Bernat, Amparo G; Del Castillo, Domingo; Timofte, Delia; Török, Marietta; Bednarek-Skublewska, Anna; Duława, Jan; Stroumza, Paul; Hoischen, Susanne; Hansis, Martin; Fabricius, Elisabeth; Wollheim, Charlotta; Hegbrant, Jörgen; Craig, Jonathan C; Strippoli, Giovanni F M

    2017-12-06

    Patients on hemodialysis suffer from high risk of premature death, which is largely attributed to cardiovascular disease, but interventions targeting traditional cardiovascular risk factors have made little or no difference. Long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are putative candidates to reduce cardiovascular disease. Diets rich in n-3 PUFA are recommended in the general population, although their role in the hemodialysis setting is uncertain. We evaluated the association between the dietary intake of n-3 PUFA and mortality for hemodialysis patients. The DIET-HD study is a prospective cohort study (January 2014-June 2017) in 9757 adults treated with hemodialysis in Europe and South America. Dietary n-3 PUFA intake was measured at baseline using the GA 2 LEN Food Frequency Questionnaire. Adjusted Cox regression analyses clustered by country were conducted to evaluate the association of dietary n-3 PUFA intake with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. During a median follow up of 2.7 years (18,666 person-years), 2087 deaths were recorded, including 829 attributable to cardiovascular causes. One third of the study participants consumed sufficient (at least 1.75 g/week) n-3 PUFA recommended for primary cardiovascular prevention, and less than 10% recommended for secondary prevention (7-14 g/week). Compared to patients with the lowest tertile of dietary n-3 PUFA intake (n-3 PUFA were 0.82 (0.69-0.98) and 1.03 (0.84-1.26), respectively. Corresponding adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were 0.96 (0.86-1.08) and 1.00 (0.88-1.13), respectively. Dietary n-3 PUFA intake was not associated with cardiovascular or all-cause mortality in patients on hemodialysis. As dietary n-3 PUFA intake was low, the possibility that n-3 PUFA supplementation might mitigate cardiovascular risk has not been excluded. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Association between diet-related inflammation, all-cause, all-cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality, with special focus on prediabetics: findings from NHANES III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Fang Emily; Shivappa, Nitin; Tang, YiFan; Mann, Joshua R; Hebert, James R

    2017-04-01

    Chronic inflammation is associated with increased risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and diabetes. The role of pro-inflammatory diet in the risk of cancer mortality and CVD mortality in prediabetics is unclear. We examined the relationship between diet-associated inflammation, as measured by dietary inflammatory index (DII) score, and mortality, with special focus on prediabetics. This prospective cohort study used data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). We categorized 13,280 eligible participants, ages 20-90 years, according to glycosylated hemoglobin (HgbA1c) level and identified 2681 with prediabetes, defined as a glycosylated hemoglobin percentage of 5.7-6.4. Computation of DII scores and all statistical analyses were conducted in 2015. The DII was computed based on baseline dietary intake assessed using 24-h dietary recalls (1988-1994). Mortality was determined from the National Death Index records through 2006. Over follow-up ranging between 135 and 168 person-months, a total of 3016 deaths were identified, including 676 cancer, 192 lung cancer, 176 digestive-tract cancer, and 1328 CVD deaths. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate hazard ratios. The prevalence of prediabetes was 20.19 %. After controlling for age, sex, race, HgbA1c, current smoking, physical activity, BMI, and systolic blood pressure, DII scores in tertile III (vs tertile I) was significantly associated with mortality from all causes (HR 1.39, 95 % CI 1.13, 1.72), CVD (HR 1.44, 95 % CI 1.02, 2.04), all cancers (HR 2.02, 95 % CI 1.27, 3.21), and digestive-tract cancer (HR 2.89, 95 % CI 1.08, 7.71). Findings for lung cancer (HR 2.01, 95 % CI 0.93, 4.34) suggested a likely effect. These results were moderately enhanced after additional adjustment for serum low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride and following eliminating deaths during the first year. A pro-inflammatory diet, as indicated by higher DII scores, is

  13. Population density, socioeconomic environment and all-cause mortality: a multilevel survival analysis of 2.7 million individuals in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Mathias; Kejs, Anne Mette; Stock, Christiane; Bloomfield, Kim; Ejstrud, Bo; Schlattmann, Peter

    2012-03-01

    This study examines the relative effects of population density and area-level SES on all-cause mortality in Denmark. A shared frailty model was fitted with 2.7 million persons aged 30-81 years in 2,121 parishes. Residence in areas with high population density increased all-cause mortality for all age groups. For older age groups, residence in areas with higher proportions of unemployed persons had an additional effect. Area-level factors explained considerably more variation in mortality among the elderly than among younger generations. Overall this study suggests that structural prevention efforts in neighborhoods could help reduce mortality when mediating processes between area-level socioeconomic status, population density and mortality are found. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Initial Body Mass Index and Weight Change on All-Cause Mortality: A 10-Year Cohort Study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Susan; Pi, Sunmi; Hwang, Jinseub; Kang, Jae-Heon; Kwon, Jin-Won

    2018-02-01

    We evaluated the effects of baseline body mass index (BMI) and its changes over 4 years on all-cause mortality in Korean population. We analyzed 351 735 participants whose BMI was measured in both 2002/2003 and 2006/2007. Mortality was assessed until 2013. Multivariate hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were estimated. Underweight and severe obesity with BMI >30 kg/m 2 were significantly associated with higher mortality. Similarly, >5% decrease or >10% increase of BMI for 4 years was associated with the increased risk of death. Comparing the results between baseline BMI and BMI change, the BMI change showed more stable associations with mortality than the baseline BMI in subgroup analysis such as nonsmokers and healthy participants. This study suggests that BMI change could be a useful health indicator along with obesity level by BMI. In addition, maintaining a healthy weight is needed for longevity, but rapid weight change should be carefully monitored.

  15. Impact of Preexisting Mental Illness on All-Cause and Breast Cancer-Specific Mortality in Elderly Patients With Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglay, Kristy; Santorelli, Melissa L; Hirshfield, Kim M; Williams, Jill M; Rhoads, George G; Lin, Yong; Demissie, Kitaw

    2017-12-20

    Purpose Limited data are available on the survival of patients with breast cancer with preexisting mental illness, and elderly women are of special interest because they experience the highest incidence of breast cancer. Therefore, we compared all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality for elderly patients with breast cancer with and without mental illness. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted by using SEER-Medicare data, including 19,028 women ≥ 68 years of age who were diagnosed with stage I to IIIa breast cancer in the United States from 2005 to 2007. Patients were classified as having severe mental illness if an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition, Clinical Modification code for bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, or other psychotic disorder was recorded on at least one inpatient or two outpatient claims during the 3 years before breast cancer diagnosis. Patients were followed for up to 5 years after breast cancer diagnosis to assess survival outcomes, which were then compared with those of patients without mental illness. Results Nearly 3% of patients had preexisting severe mental illness. We observed a two-fold increase in the all-cause mortality hazard between patients with severe mental illness compared with those without mental illness after adjusting for age, income, race, ethnicity, geographic location, and marital status (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.84 to 2.60). A 20% increase in breast cancer-specific mortality hazard was observed, but the association was not significant (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.20; 95% CI, 0.82 to 1.74). Patients with severe mental illness were more likely to be diagnosed with advanced breast cancer and aggressive tumor characteristics. They also had increased tobacco use and more comorbidities. Conclusion Patients with severe mental illness may need assistance with coordinating medical services.

  16. Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet and risk of renal function decline and all-cause mortality in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osté, Maryse C J; Gomes-Neto, António W; Corpeleijn, Eva; Gans, Rijk O B; de Borst, Martin H; van den Berg, Else; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S; Kromhout, Daan; Navis, Gerjan J; Bakker, Stephan J L

    2018-02-21

    Renal transplant recipients (RTR) are at risk of decline of graft function and premature mortality, with high blood pressure as an important risk factor for both. To study the association of the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet with these adverse events, we conducted a prospective cohort study of adult RTR. Dietary data were collected using a validated 177-item food frequency questionnaire and an overall DASH-score was obtained. We included 632 stable RTR (mean ± standard deviation age 53.0 ± 12.7 years, 57% men). Mean DASH score was 23.8 ± 4.7. During median follow-up of 5.3 (interquartile range, 4.1-6.0) years, 119 (18.8%) RTR had renal function decline, defined as a combined endpoint of doubling of serum creatinine and death-censored graft failure, and 128 (20.3%) died. In Cox-regression analyses, RTR in the highest tertile of the DASH score had lower risk of both renal function decline (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.33-0.96, P = .03) and all-cause mortality (HR = 0.52; 95%CI, 0.32-0.83, P = .006) compared to the lowest tertile, independent of potential confounders. Adherence to a DASH-style diet is associated with lower risk of both renal function decline and all-cause mortality. These results suggest that a healthful diet might benefit long-term outcome in RTR. © 2018 The Authors. American Journal of Transplantation published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  17. Influence of the Source of Social Support and Size of Social Network on All-Cause Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becofsky, Katie M; Shook, Robin P; Sui, Xuemei; Wilcox, Sara; Lavie, Carl J; Blair, Steven N

    2015-07-01

    To examine associations between relative, friend, and partner support, as well as size and source of weekly social network, and mortality risk in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. In a mail-back survey completed between January 1, 1990, and December 31, 1990, adult participants in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (N=12,709) answered questions on whether they received social support from relatives, friends, and spouse/partner (yes or no for each) and on the number of friends and relatives they had contact with at least once per week. Participants were followed until December 31, 2003, or until the date of death. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses evaluated the strength of the associations, controlling for covariates. Participants (3220 [25%] women) averaged 53.0 ± 11.3 years of age at baseline. During a median follow-up of 13.5 years, 1139 deaths occurred. Receiving social support from relatives reduced mortality risk by 19% (hazard ratio [HR], 0.81; 95% CI, 0.68-0.95). Receiving spousal/partner support also reduced mortality risk by 19% (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.66-0.99). Receiving social support from friends was not associated with mortality risk (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.75-1.09); however, participants reporting social contact with 6 or 7 friends on a weekly basis had a 24% lower mortality risk than did those in contact with 0 or 1 friend (HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.58-0.98). Contact with 2 to 5 or 8 or more friends was not associated with mortality risk, nor was the number of weekly contacts with relatives. Receiving social support from one's spouse/partner and relatives and maintaining weekly social interaction with 6 to 7 friends reduced mortality risk. Such data may inform interventions to improve long-term survival. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The PPARγ2 P12A polymorphism is not associated with all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacilli, Antonio; Prudente, Sabrina; Copetti, Massimiliano; Fontana, Andrea; Mercuri, Luana; Bacci, Simonetta; Marucci, Antonella; Alberico, Federica; Viti, Raffaella; Palena, Antonio; Lamacchia, Olga; Cignarelli, Mauro; De Cosmo, Salvatore; Trischitta, Vincenzo

    2016-10-01

    The high mortality risk of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus may well be explained by the several comorbidities and/or complications. Also the intrinsic genetic component predisposing to diabetes might have a role in shaping the risk of diabetes-related mortality. Among type 2 diabetes mellitus SNPs, rs1801282 is of particular interest because (i) it is harbored by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ2 (PPARγ2), which is the target for thiazolidinediones which are used as antidiabetic drugs, decreasing all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus, and (ii) it is associated with insulin resistance and related traits, risk factors for overall mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus. We investigated the role of PPARγ2 P12A, according to a dominant model (PA + AA vs. PP individuals) on incident all-cause mortality in three cohorts of type 2 diabetes mellitus, comprising a total of 1672 patients (462 deaths) and then performed a meta-analysis of ours and all available published data. In the three cohorts pooled and analyzed together, no association between PPARγ2 P12A and all-cause mortality was observed (HR 1.02, 95 % CI 0.79-1.33). Similar results were observed after adjusting for age, sex, smoking habits, and BMI (HR 1.09, 95 % CI 0.83-1.43). In a meta-analysis of ours and all studies previously published (n = 3241 individuals; 666 events), no association was observed between PPARγ2 P12A and all-cause mortality (HR 1.07, 95 % CI 0.85-1.33). Results from our individual samples as well as from our meta-analysis suggest that the PPARγ2 P12A does not significantly affect all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  19. Extreme nonfasting remnant cholesterol vs extreme LDL cholesterol as contributors to cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in 90000 individuals from the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varbo, Anette; Freiberg, Jacob J; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-03-01

    Increased nonfasting remnant cholesterol, like increased LDL cholesterol, is causally associated with increased risk for ischemic heart disease (IHD). We tested the hypothesis that extreme concentrations of nonfasting remnant and LDL cholesterol are equal contributors to the risk of IHD, myocardial infarction (MI), and all-cause mortality. We compared stepwise increasing concentrations of nonfasting remnant and LDL cholesterol for association with risk of IHD, MI, and all-cause mortality in approximately 90 000 individuals from the Danish general population. During up to 22 years of complete follow-up, 4435 participants developed IHD, 1722 developed MI, and 8121 died. Compared with participants with nonfasting remnant cholesterol cholesterol of 0.5-0.99 mmol/L (19.3-38.2 mg/dL) to 2.4 (1.9-2.9) for remnant cholesterol of ≥1.5 mmol/L (58 mg/dL) (P for trend LDL cholesterol LDL cholesterol of 3-3.99 mmol/L (115.8-154 mg/dL) to 2.3 (1.9-2.8) for LDL cholesterol of ≥5 mmol/L (193 mg/dL) (P cholesterol (P LDL cholesterol (P cholesterol concentrations were associated stepwise with all-cause mortality ranging from hazard ratio 1.0 (0.9-1.1) to 1.6 (1.4-1.9) (P LDL cholesterol concentrations were associated with decreased all-cause mortality risk in a U-shaped pattern, with hazard ratios from 0.8 (0.7-0.8) to 0.9 (0.8-1.0) (P = 0.002). After mutual adjustment, LDL cholesterol best predicted MI, and remnant cholesterol best predicted all-cause mortality. Both lipoproteins were associated equally with risk of IHD and MI; however, only nonfasting remnant cholesterol concentrations were associated stepwise with increased all-cause mortality risk. © 2015 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  20. Is type D personality an independent risk factor for recurrent myocardial infarction or all-cause mortality in post-acute myocardial infarction patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condén, Emelie; Rosenblad, Andreas; Wagner, Philippe; Leppert, Jerzy; Ekselius, Lisa; Åslund, Cecilia

    2017-03-01

    Background Type D personality refers to a combination of simultaneously high levels of negative affectivity and social inhibition. The present study aimed to examine whether type D personality was independently associated with recurrent myocardial infarction or all-cause mortality in post-acute myocardial infarction patients, using any of the previously proposed methods for measuring type D personality. Design This was a prospective cohort study. Methods Utilising data from the Västmanland Myocardial Infarction Study, 946 post-acute myocardial infarction patients having data on the DS14 instrument used to measure type D personality were followed-up for recurrent myocardial infarction and all-cause mortality until 9 December 2015. Data were analysed using Cox regression, adjusted for established risk factors. Results In total, 133 (14.1%) patients suffered from type D personality. During a mean follow-up time for recurrent myocardial infarction of 5.7 (3.2) years, 166 (17.5%) patients were affected by recurrent myocardial infarction, of which 26 (15.7%) had type D personality, while during a mean follow-up time for all-cause mortality of 6.3 (2.9) years, 321 (33.9%) patients died, of which 42 (13.1%) had type D personality. After adjusting for established risk factors, type D personality was not significantly associated with recurrent myocardial infarction or all-cause mortality using any of the previously proposed methods for measuring type D personality. A weak association was found between the social inhibition part of type D personality and a decreased risk of all-cause mortality, but this association was not significant after taking missing data into account in a multiple imputation analysis. Conclusions No support was found for type D personality being independently associated with recurrent myocardial infarction or all-cause mortality in post-acute myocardial infarction patients, using any of the previously proposed methods for measuring type D personality.

  1. Dietary saturated fat and fibre and risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality among type 1 diabetic patients: the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenaker, D A J M; Toeller, M; Chaturvedi, N; Fuller, J H; Soedamah-Muthu, S S

    2012-08-01

    Low adherence to recommendations for dietary saturated fatty acid (SFA) and fibre intake in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus may heighten their increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. We examined the relationship of SFA and total, soluble and insoluble fibre with incident CVD and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetic patients. A prospective cohort analysis was performed in 2,108 European type 1 diabetic patients aged 15-60 years who were free of CVD at baseline and enrolled in the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study (51% male). Diet was assessed from a standardised 3 day dietary record. HR were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models. During a mean follow-up of 7.3 years, 148 incident cases of fatal and non-fatal CVD and 46 all-cause deaths were documented. No statistically significant association was found between SFA and CVD and all-cause mortality. Total dietary fibre, per 5 g/day, was associated with lower all-cause mortality risk (HR 0.72; 95% CI 0.55, 0.95). This association was stronger for soluble fibre (per 5 g/day, HR 0.34; 95% CI 0.14, 0.80) compared with insoluble fibre (per 5 g/day; HR 0.66; 95% CI 0.45, 0.97). Similar results were found for the association with CVD. This study suggests that reported dietary SFA is not significantly associated with CVD and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetic patients. On the contrary, higher dietary fibre consumption, especially soluble fibre, within the range commonly consumed by type 1 diabetic patients, may contribute to the prevention of CVD and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetic patients.

  2. ACE genotype, phenotype and all-cause mortality in different cohorts of patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færch, Louise H; Sejling, Anne-Sophie; Lajer, Maria

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Carrying the D-allele of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) I/D polymorphism and high ACE activity are prognostic factors in diabetic nephropathy, which predicts mortality in type 1 diabetes. We studied the association between the ACE D-allele and ACE phenotype and long-term all.......0 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-16)), but not in the SDC cohorts. At HIH, serum ACE activity was associated with excess mortality (HR=1.04 (95% CI 1.0-1.1 per unit increase)), but in the SDC cohort plasma ACE concentration was not. CONCLUSION: In unselected patients with type 1 diabetes, carrying......-cause mortality in three single-institution outpatient cohorts. METHODS: Genotype-based analyses were performed in 269 patients from Hillerød Hospital (HIH) (follow-up: 12 years) and in 439 patients with diabetic nephropathy and 437 patients with persistent normoalbuminuria from the Steno Diabetes Center (SDC...

  3. The associations between US state and local social spending, income inequality, and individual all-cause and cause-specific mortality: The National Longitudinal Mortality Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    To investigate government state and local spending on public goods and income inequality as predictors of the risks of dying. Data on 431,637 adults aged 30-74 and 375,354 adults aged 20-44 in the 48 contiguous US states were used from the National Longitudinal Mortality Study to estimate the impacts of state and local spending and income inequality on individual risks of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for leading causes of death in younger and middle-aged adults and older adults. To reduce bias, models incorporated state fixed effects and instrumental variables. Each additional $250 per capita per year spent on welfare predicted a 3-percentage point (-0.031, 95% CI: -0.059, -0.0027) lower probability of dying from any cause. Each additional $250 per capita spent on welfare and education predicted 1.6-percentage point (-0.016, 95% CI: -0.031, -0.0011) and 0.8-percentage point (-0.008, 95% CI: -0.0156, -0.00024) lower probabilities of dying from coronary heart disease (CHD), respectively. No associations were found for colon cancer or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; for diabetes, external injury, and suicide, estimates were inverse but modest in magnitude. A 0.1 higher Gini coefficient (higher income inequality) predicted 1-percentage point (0.010, 95% CI: 0.0026, 0.0180) and 0.2-percentage point (0.002, 95% CI: 0.001, 0.002) higher probabilities of dying from CHD and suicide, respectively. Empirical linkages were identified between state-level spending on welfare and education and lower individual risks of dying, particularly from CHD and all causes combined. State-level income inequality predicted higher risks of dying from CHD and suicide. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. All-cause and disease-specific mortality among male, former elite athletes: an average 50-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettunen, Jyrki A; Kujala, Urho M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Bäckmand, Heli; Peltonen, Markku; Eriksson, Johan G; Sarna, Seppo

    2015-07-01

    To investigate life expectancy and mortality among former elite athletes and controls. HR analysis of cause-specific deaths sourced from the national death registry for former Finnish male endurance, team and power sports athletes (N=2363) and controls (N=1657). The median follow-up time was 50 years. Median life expectancy was higher in the endurance (79.1 years, 95% CI 76.6 to 80.6) and team (78.8, 78.1 to 79.8) sports athletes than in controls (72.9, 71.8 to 74.3). Compared to controls, risk for total mortality adjusted for socioeconomic status and birth cohort was lower in the endurance ((HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.79)) and team (0.80, 0.72 to 0.89) sports athletes, and slightly lower in the power sports athletes (0.93, 0.85 to 1.03). HR for ischaemic heart disease mortality was lower in the endurance (0.68, 0.54 to 0.86) and team sports (0.73, 0.60 to 0.89) athletes. HR for stroke mortality was 0.52 (0.33 to 0.83) in the endurance and 0.59 (0.40 to 0.88) in the team sports athletes. Compared to controls, the risk for smoking-related cancer mortality was lower in the endurance (HR 0.20, 0.08 to 0.47) and power sports (0.40, 0.25 to 0.66) athletes. For dementia mortality, the power sports athletes, particularly boxers, had increased risk (HR 4.20, 2.30 to 7.81). Elite athletes have 5-6 years additional life expectancy when compared to men who were healthy as young adults. Lower mortality for cardiovascular disease was in part due to lower rates of smoking, as tobacco-related cancer mortality was especially low. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Higher plasma soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (sRAGE) levels are associated with incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nin, Johanna W M; Jorsal, Anders; Ferreira, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the associations of plasma levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetes and the extent to which any such associations could be explained by endothelial and renal dysfunct......To investigate the associations of plasma levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetes and the extent to which any such associations could be explained by endothelial and renal...

  6. The impact of co-morbidity burden on appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Anne Christine; Vinther, Michael; Gislason, Gunnar H

    2017-01-01

    Aims: In a nationwide cohort of primary (PP-ICD) and secondary prevention (SP-ICD) implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) patients, we aimed to investigate the association between co-morbidity burden and risk of appropriate ICD therapy and mortality. Methods and results: We identified all...

  7. Effects of sample attrition in a longitudinal study of the association between alcohol intake and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau C; Johansen, Christoffer; Keiding, Niels

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Longitudinal studies show higher mortality among abstainers and heavy drinkers than among light and moderate alcohol consumers. The influence on this association of missing information on alcohol intake due to attrition (dropout) has not been examined previously. The aims of ...

  8. Are sitting occupations associated with increased all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality risk? A pooled analysis of seven British population cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Stamatakis

    Full Text Available There is mounting evidence for associations between sedentary behaviours and adverse health outcomes, although the data on occupational sitting and mortality risk remain equivocal. The aim of this study was to determine the association between occupational sitting and cardiovascular, cancer and all-cause mortality in a pooled sample of seven British general population cohorts.The sample comprised 5380 women and 5788 men in employment who were drawn from five Health Survey for England and two Scottish Health Survey cohorts. Participants were classified as reporting standing, walking or sitting in their work time and followed up over 12.9 years for mortality. Data were modelled using Cox proportional hazard regression adjusted for age, waist circumference, self-reported general health, frequency of alcohol intake, cigarette smoking, non-occupational physical activity, prevalent cardiovascular disease and cancer at baseline, psychological health, social class, and education.In total there were 754 all-cause deaths. In women, a standing/walking occupation was associated with lower risk of all-cause (fully adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 0.68, 95% CI 0.52-0.89 and cancer (HR = 0.60, 95% CI 0.43-0.85 mortality, compared to sitting occupations. There were no associations in men. In analyses with combined occupational type and leisure-time physical activity, the risk of all-cause mortality was lowest in participants with non-sitting occupations and high leisure-time activity.Sitting occupations are linked to increased risk for all-cause and cancer mortality in women only, but no such associations exist for cardiovascular mortality in men or women.

  9. Racial disparity in all-cause mortality among hepatitis C virus-infected individuals in a general US population, NHANES III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, B; Shardell, M D; Tracy, L; Kottilil, S; El-Kamary, S S

    2017-05-01

    There are few long-term nationally representative studies of all-cause mortality among those infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). When an additional 5 years of data were made publicly available in 2015, the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Linked Mortality File became the longest nationally representative study in the United States. Our objective was to update the estimated HCV-associated all-cause mortality in the general US population and determine any differences by sex, age and race/ethnicity. HCV status was assessed in 9117 nationally representative adults aged 18-59 years from 1988 to 1994, and mortality follow-up of the same individuals was completed through 2011 and made publicly available in 2015. There were 930 deaths over a median follow-up of 19.8 years. After adjusting for all covariate risk factors, chronic HCV had 2.63 times (95% CI: 1.59-4.37; P=.0002) higher all-cause mortality rate ratio (MRR) compared with being HCV negative. All-cause MRR was stratified by sex, age and race/ethnicity. Only race/ethnicity was a significant effect modifier of MRR (P<.0001) as the highest MRR of chronic HCV compared to HCV negative was 7.48 (95% CI: 2.15-26.10, P=.001) among Mexican Americans, 2.67 (95% CI: 2.67-5.56, P=.009) among non-Hispanic Whites and 2.02 (95% CI: 1.20-3.40, P=.007) among non-Hispanic Blacks. Racial disparity was seen in the all-cause mortality as Mexican Americans with chronic HCV had approximately seven times higher mortality rate than HCV-negative individuals. This suggests that these at-risk individuals should be targeted for HCV screening and treatment, given the availability of new highly effective HCV therapies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Global, regional, and national age–sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard Iburg, Kim

    2015-01-01

    the prominent role of reductions in age-standardised death rates for cardiovascular diseases and cancers in high-income regions, and reductions in child deaths from diarrhoea, lower respiratory infections, and neonatal causes in low-income regions. HIV/AIDS reduced life expectancy in southern sub-Saharan Africa......Background Up-to-date evidence on levels and trends for age-sex-specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality is essential for the formation of global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) we estimated yearly deaths for 188 countries......, and census data. We generally estimated cause of death as in the GBD 2010. Key improvements included the addition of more recent vital registration data for 72 countries, an updated verbal autopsy literature review, two new and detailed data systems for China, and more detail for Mexico, UK, Turkey...

  11. Plasma osteoprotegerin levels predict cardiovascular and all-cause mortality and deterioration of kidney function in type 1 diabetic patients with nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorsal, A.; Tarnow, L.; Flyvbjerg, A.

    2008-01-01

    (2)) and a group of 176 patients with longstanding type 1 diabetes and persistent normoalbuminuria (105 men; age 42.6 +/- 9.7 years, duration of diabetes 27.6 +/- 8.3 years). RESULTS: The median (range) follow-up period was 11.3 (0.0-12.9) years. Among patients with diabetic nephropathy, individuals...... and deterioration in kidney function in patients with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: This prospective observational follow-up study included 397 type 1 diabetic patients with overt diabetic nephropathy (243 men; age [mean+/-SD] 42.1 +/- 10.6 years, duration of diabetes 28.3 +/- 9.9 years, GFR 67 +/- 28 ml min(-1) 1.73 m....... CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: High levels of osteoprotegerin predict all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Furthermore, high levels of osteoprotegerin predict deterioration of kidney function towards end-stage renal disease Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11...

  12. Association between Insulin Monotherapy versus Insulin plus Metformin and the Risk of All-Cause Mortality and Other Serious Outcomes: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Holden

    Full Text Available To determine if concomitant metformin reduced the risk of death, major adverse cardiac events (MACE, and cancer in people with type 2 diabetes treated with insulin.For this retrospective cohort study, people with type 2 diabetes who progressed to insulin with or without metformin from 2000 onwards were identified from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (≈7% sample of the UK population. The risks of all-cause mortality, MACE and incident cancer were evaluated using multivariable Cox models comparing insulin monotherapy with insulin plus metformin. We accounted for insulin dose.12,020 subjects treated with insulin were identified, including 6,484 treated with monotherapy. There were 1,486 deaths, 579 MACE (excluding those with a history of large vessel disease, and 680 cancer events (excluding those in patients with a history of cancer. Corresponding event rates were 41.5 (95% CI 39.4-43.6 deaths, 20.8 (19.2-22.5 MACE, and 21.6 (20.0-23.3 cancer events per 1,000 person-years. The adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs for people prescribed insulin plus metformin versus insulin monotherapy were 0.60 (95% CI 0.52-0.68 for all-cause mortality, 0.75 (0.62-0.91 for MACE, and 0.96 (0.80-1.15 for cancer. For patients who were propensity-score matched, the corresponding aHRs for all-cause mortality and cancer were 0.62 (0.52-0.75 and 0.99 (0.78-1.26, respectively. For MACE, the aHR was 1.06 (0.75-1.49 prior to 1,275 days and 1.87 (1.22-2.86 after 1,275 days post-index.People with type 2 diabetes treated with insulin plus concomitant metformin had a reduced risk of death and MACE compared with people treated with insulin monotherapy. There was no statistically significant difference in the risk of cancer between people treated with insulin as monotherapy or in combination with metformin.

  13. Machine learning for prediction of all-cause mortality in patients with suspected coronary artery disease: a 5-year multicentre prospective registry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motwani, Manish; Dey, Damini; Berman, Daniel S; Germano, Guido; Achenbach, Stephan; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H; Andreini, Daniele; Budoff, Matthew J; Cademartiri, Filippo; Callister, Tracy Q; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Chinnaiyan, Kavitha; Chow, Benjamin J W; Cury, Ricardo C; Delago, Augustin; Gomez, Millie; Gransar, Heidi; Hadamitzky, Martin; Hausleiter, Joerg; Hindoyan, Niree; Feuchtner, Gudrun; Kaufmann, Philipp A; Kim, Yong-Jin; Leipsic, Jonathon; Lin, Fay Y; Maffei, Erica; Marques, Hugo; Pontone, Gianluca; Raff, Gilbert; Rubinshtein, Ronen; Shaw, Leslee J; Stehli, Julia; Villines, Todd C; Dunning, Allison; Min, James K; Slomka, Piotr J

    2017-02-14

    Traditional prognostic risk assessment in patients undergoing non-invasive imaging is based upon a limited selection of clinical and imaging findings. Machine learning (ML) can consider a greater number and complexity of variables. Therefore, we investigated the feasibility and accuracy of ML to predict 5-year all-cause mortality (ACM) in patients undergoing coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA), and compared the performance to existing clinical or CCTA metrics. The analysis included 10 030 patients with suspected coronary artery disease and 5-year follow-up from the COronary CT Angiography EvaluatioN For Clinical Outcomes: An InteRnational Multicenter registry. All patients underwent CCTA as their standard of care. Twenty-five clinical and 44 CCTA parameters were evaluated, including segment stenosis score (SSS), segment involvement score (SIS), modified Duke index (DI), number of segments with non-calcified, mixed or calcified plaques, age, sex, gender, standard cardiovascular risk factors, and Framingham risk score (FRS). Machine learning involved automated feature selection by information gain ranking, model building with a boosted ensemble algorithm, and 10-fold stratified cross-validation. Seven hundred and forty-five patients died during 5-year follow-up. Machine learning exhibited a higher area-under-curve compared with the FRS or CCTA severity scores alone (SSS, SIS, DI) for predicting all-cause mortality (ML: 0.79 vs. FRS: 0.61, SSS: 0.64, SIS: 0.64, DI: 0.62; PMachine learning combining clinical and CCTA data was found to predict 5-year ACM significantly better than existing clinical or CCTA metrics alone. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Health-related quality of life and all-cause mortality in patients with diabetes on dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østhus Tone Britt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study tests the hypotheses that health-related quality of life (HRQOL in prevalent dialysis patients with diabetes is lower than in dialysis patients without diabetes, and is at least as poor as diabetic patients with another severe complication, i.e. foot ulcers. This study also explores the mortality risk associated with diabetes in dialysis patients. Methods HRQOL was assessed using the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36, in a cross-sectional study of 301 prevalent dialysis patients (26% with diabetes, and compared with diabetic patients not on dialysis (n = 221, diabetic patients with foot ulcers (n = 127, and a sample of the general population (n = 5903. Mortality risk was assessed using a Kaplan-Meier plot and Cox proportional hazards analysis. Results Self-assessed vitality, general and mental health, and physical function were significantly lower in dialysis patients with diabetes than in those without. Vitality (p = 0.011 and general health (p Conclusions Physical aspects of HRQOL were perceived very low in dialysis patients with diabetes, and lower than in other dialysis patients and diabetic patients without dialysis. Mental aspects predicted mortality in dialysis patients with diabetes. Increased awareness and measures to assist physical function impairment may be particularly important in diabetes patients on dialysis.

  15. Low ALT blood levels predict long-term all-cause mortality among adults. A historical prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaty, E; Maor, E; Peltz-Sinvani, N; Brom, A; Grinfeld, A; Kivity, S; Segev, S; Sidi, Y; Kessler, T; Sela, B A; Segal, G

    2014-12-01

    Increased blood levels of alanine amino transferase (ALT, also known as SGPT; serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase) serve as a marker of liver injury by various mechanisms. Less is known about the clinical implications associated with low-normal ALT levels. Previous studies showed low ALT levels to be associated with poor long-term outcomes among elderlies, serving as a biomarker for increased incidence of frailty and subsequent risk of mortality. However, it has not been determined yet whether low-normal ALT values might be predictive of frailty and mortality in younger, middle-aged adults. We conducted a historical prospective cohort analysis. A total of 23,506 adults with ALT levels within the normal range, at the mean age of 48 ± 11 years, participating in an annual screening program for preventive medicine, were followed-up for a median period of 8.5 years during which 638 died. Low-normal ALT values (serum ALT activity ALT values may serve as an independent predictive marker for increased long-term mortality in middle-aged adults. Copyright © 2014 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Dose-response relationship of physical activity to premature and total all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in walkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T Williams

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the dose-response relationships between cause-specific mortality and exercise energy expenditure in a prospective epidemiological cohort of walkers. METHODS: The sample consisted of the 8,436 male and 33,586 female participants of the National Walkers' Health Study. Walking energy expenditure was calculated in metabolic equivalents (METs, 1 MET = 3.5 ml O2/kg/min, which were used to divide the cohort into four exercise categories: category 1 (≤ 1.07 MET-hours/d, category 2 (1.07 to 1.8 MET-hours/d, category 3 (1.8 to 3.6 MET-hours/d, and category 4 (≥ 3.6 MET-hours/d. Competing risk regression analyses were use to calculate the risk of mortality for categories 2, 3 and 4 relative to category 1. RESULTS: 22.9% of the subjects were in category 1, 16.1% in category 2, 33.3% in category 3, and 27.7% in category 4. There were 2,448 deaths during the 9.6 average years of follow-up. Total mortality was 11.2% lower in category 2 (P = 0.04, 32.4% lower in category 3 (P<10(-12 and 32.9% lower in category 4 (P = 10(-11 than in category 1. For underlying causes of death, the respective risk reductions for categories 2, 3 and 4 were 23.6% (P = 0.008, 35.2% (P<10(-5, and 34.9% (P = 0.0001 for cardiovascular disease mortality; 27.8% (P = 0.18, 20.6% (P = 0.07, and 31.4% (P = 0.009 for ischemic heart disease mortality; and 39.4% (P = 0.18, 63.8% (P = 0.005, and 90.6% (P = 0.002 for diabetes mortality when compared to category 1. For all related mortality (i.e., underlying and contributing causes of death combined, the respective risk reductions for categories 2, 3 and 4 were 18.7% (P = 0.22, 42.5% (P = 0.001, and 57.5% (P = 0.0001 for heart failure; 9.4% (P = 0.56, 44.3% (P = 0.0004, and 33.5% (P = 0.02 for hypertensive diseases; 11.5% (P = 0.38, 41.0% (P<10(-4, and 35.5% (P = 0.001 for dysrhythmias: and 23.2% (P = 0.13, 45.8% (P = 0.0002, and 41.1% (P

  17. Early Fungicidal Activity as a Candidate Surrogate Endpoint for All-Cause Mortality in Cryptococcal Meningitis: A Systematic Review of the Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Montezuma-Rusca, Jairo M.; Powers, John H.; Follmann, Dean; Wang, Jing; Sullivan, Brigit; Williamson, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a leading cause of HIV-associated mortality. In clinical trials evaluating treatments for CM, biomarkers of early fungicidal activity (EFA) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been proposed as candidate surrogate endpoints for all- cause mortality (ACM). However, there has been no systematic evaluation of the group-level or trial-level evidence for EFA as a candidate surrogate endpoint for ACM. Methods We conducted a systematic review of randomized tri...

  18. Plasma eicosapentaenoic acid is negatively associated with all-cause mortality among men and women in a population-based prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Kyoko; Hughes, Maria Celia B; Ungerer, Jacobus Pj; Green, Adèle C

    2016-11-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have anti-inflammatory properties, whereas omega-6 PUFAs appear to have proinflammatory properties. We aimed to assess plasma omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA status in relation to all-cause mortality in an Australian community-based study. We hypothesized that omega-3 PUFA would be inversely associated, and omega-6 PUFA positively associated with all-cause mortality. Plasma phospholipid omega-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA], docosapentaenoic acid [DPA], docosahexaenoic acid, α-linolenic acid, and total) and omega-6 PUFAs (linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, and total) were measured among 1008 adults (44% men) in 1996. Plasma PUFA composition was quantified using gas chromatography. During 17-year follow-up, 98 men and 81 women died. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, plasma EPA was inversely associated with all-cause mortality overall (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] per 1-SD increase, 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68-0.95), in men (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.62-0.98), and in women (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.65-0.94), separately. Inverse associations with mortality among men were also seen for DPA (HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.60-0.97) and α-linolenic acid (HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.57-0.94). No omega-6 PUFAs were significantly associated with mortality. Our findings of reduced all-cause mortality in men and women who have high EPA in plasma, and in men with high plasma DPA and α-linolenic acid, partially support our hypothesis that omega-3 PUFAs help reduce mortality but provide no evidence that omega-6 PUFAs may increase mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. CDH13 genotype-dependent association of high-molecular weight adiponectin with all-cause mortality: the J-SHIPP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uetani, Eri; Tabara, Yasuharu; Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Onuma, Hiroshi; Kohara, Katsuhiko; Osawa, Haruhiko; Miki, Tetsuro

    2014-02-01

    Despite its anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic effects, adiponectin is potentially associated with adverse clinical outcomes, such as all-cause mortality. As plasma adiponectin levels are strongly influenced by single nucleotide polymorphisms in the gene encoding T-cadherin (CDH13), we conducted a longitudinal study to investigate the possible link between the CDH13 genotype, plasma adiponectin levels, and all-cause mortality. This longitudinal study evaluated 2,020 Japanese subjects. Baseline clinical parameters were obtained from subjects' personal health records as evaluated at annual medical check-ups. Plasma high-molecular weight adiponectin (HMWA) levels were measured by an ELISA assay, and genotyping was performed by a TaqMan probe assay. Mean follow-up duration was 6.5 years. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that HMWA levels were positively associated with mortality (P < 0.001). HMWA levels were associated with older age, lower body weight, lower plasma triglyceride and glucose levels, and higher plasma HDL cholesterol. However, the Cox regression analysis showed that the positive association between HMWA and all-cause mortality was independent of these covariates (hazard ratio [HR] 1.92, P = 0.006). The CDH13 rs4783244 genotype was strongly associated with baseline HMWA levels (per-allele effect size 1.65 μg/mL, P < 0.001). In a separate analysis by the CDH13 genotype, the HR for all-cause mortality was linearly increased with the number of G alleles (P value for HMWA-CDH13 genotype interaction = 0.023). Higher plasma HMWA level was an independent prognostic factor for all-cause mortality in a general population. The CDH13 genotype may be a factor that affects not only the plasma level of HMWA but also the prognostic significance of HMWA.

  20. Associations of all-cause mortality with census-based neighbourhood deprivation and population density in Japan: a multilevel survival analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoki Nakaya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite evidence that neighbourhood conditions affect residents' health, no prospective studies of the association between neighbourhood socio-demographic factors and all-cause mortality have been conducted in non-Western societies. Thus, we examined the effects of areal deprivation and population density on all-cause mortality in Japan. METHODS: We employed census and survival data from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study, Cohort I (n = 37,455, consisting of middle-aged residents (40 to 59 years at the baseline in 1990 living in four public health centre districts. Data spanned between 1990 and 2010. A multilevel parametric proportional-hazard regression model was applied to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs of all-cause mortality by two census-based areal variables--areal deprivation index and population density--as well as individualistic variables such as socioeconomic status and various risk factors. RESULTS: We found that areal deprivation and population density had moderate associations with all-cause mortality at the neighbourhood level based on the survival data with 21 years of follow-ups. Even when controlling for individualistic socio-economic status and behavioural factors, the HRs of the two areal factors (using quartile categorical variables significantly predicted mortality. Further, this analysis indicated an interaction effect of the two factors: areal deprivation prominently affects the health of residents in neighbourhoods with high population density. CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed that neighbourhood socio-demographic factors are significant predictors of all-cause death in Japanese non-metropolitan settings. Although further study is needed to clarify the cause-effect relationship of this association, the present findings suggest that health promotion policies should consider health disparities between neighbourhoods and possibly direct interventions towards reducing mortality in densely

  1. Association of Bariatric Surgery Using Laparoscopic Banding, Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass, or Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy vs Usual Care Obesity Management With All-Cause Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reges, Orna; Greenland, Philip; Dicker, Dror; Leibowitz, Morton; Hoshen, Moshe; Gofer, Ilan; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Balicer, Ran D

    2018-01-16

    Bariatric surgery is an effective and safe approach for weight loss and short-term improvement in metabolic disorders such as diabetes. However, studies have been limited in most settings by lack of a nonsurgical group, losses to follow-up, missing data, and small sample sizes in clinical trials and observational studies. To assess the association of 3 common types of bariatric surgery compared with nonsurgical treatment with mortality and other clinical outcomes among obese patients. Retrospective cohort study in a large Israeli integrated health fund covering 54% of Israeli citizens with less than 1% turnover of members annually. Obese adult patients who underwent bariatric surgery between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2014, were selected and compared with obese nonsurgical patients matched on age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and diabetes, with a final follow-up date of December 31, 2015. A total of 33 540 patients were included in this study. Bariatric surgery (laparoscopic banding, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, or laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy) or usual care obesity management only (provided by a primary care physician and which may include dietary counseling and behavior modification). The primary outcome, all-cause mortality, matched and adjusted for BMI prior to surgery, age, sex, socioeconomic status, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and smoking. The study population included 8385 patients who underwent bariatric surgery (median age, 46 [IQR, 37-54] years; 5490 [65.5%] women; baseline median BMI, 40.6 [IQR, 38.5-43.7]; laparoscopic banding [n = 3635], gastric bypass [n = 1388], laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy [n = 3362], and 25 155 nonsurgical matched patients (median age, 46 [IQR, 37-54] years; 16 470 [65.5%] women; baseline median BMI, 40.5 [IQR, 37.0-43.5]). The availability of follow-up data was 100% for all-cause mortality. There were 105 deaths (1.3%) among surgical patients during a median follow

  2. Fresh and Processed Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Risk of Cardiovascular and All-Cause Mortality in a Dutch Population-Based Follow-up Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Griep, L.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Kromhout, D.; Verschuren, W.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Intake of fruit and vegetables has been shown to protect against CVD and all-cause mortality. Whether fresh and processed fruits have similar health effects remains unclear. Objective: We examined the association of total, fresh and processed fruit and vegetable intake with CVD and

  3. Milk and dairy consumption and risk of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality: dose–response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Jing; Astrup, Arne; Lovegrove, Julie A.; Gijsbers, Lieke; Givens, David I.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.

    2017-01-01

    With a growing number of prospective cohort studies, an updated dose–response meta-analysis of milk and dairy products with all-cause mortality, coronary heart disease (CHD) or cardiovascular disease (CVD) have been conducted. PubMed, Embase and Scopus were searched for articles published up to

  4. A comparison of body mass index, waist-hip ratio and waist circumference as predictors of all-cause mortality among the elderly : The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, T. L S; Seidell, J. C.; Molarius, A.; van der Kuip, F.; Hofman, A.; Witteman, J.C.M.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and waist circumference as predictors of all-cause mortality among the elderly. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study; mean follow-up was 5.4 y. SETTING: The Rotterdam Study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 6296 men and women; baseline age

  5. Fitness, work, and leisure-time physical activity and ischaemic heart disease and all-cause mortality among men with pre-existing cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Burr, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    Our aim was to study the relative impact of physical fitness, physical demands at work, and physical activity during leisure time on ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and all-cause mortality among employed men with pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD)....

  6. Risk of all-cause mortality associated with nonfatal AIDS and serious non-AIDS events among adults infected with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Angus, Brian; Kowalska, Justyna D

    2010-01-01

    Among patients with HIV, the risk of death associated with different AIDS events has been quantified, but the risk of death associated with non-AIDS events has not been examined. We compared the risk of all-cause mortality following AIDS versus serious non-AIDS (SNA) events in the Strategies...

  7. Markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction are associated with incident cardiovascular disease, all-cause mortality, and progression of coronary calcification in type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Scholten, Bernt Johan; Reinhard, Henrik; Hansen, Tine Willum

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We evaluated markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction and their associations with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), all-cause mortality and progression of coronary artery calcium (CAC) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and microalbuminuria but without known corona...

  8. Increased orosomucoid in urine is an independent predictor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes at 10 years of follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendstrup, Mathilde; Christiansen, Merete Skovdal; Magid, Erik

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate whether increased urinary orosomucoid excretion rate (UOER) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and type 1 diabetes (T1DM) at 10years of follow-up....

  9. Changes in physical activity in leisure time and the risk of myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina Bjørk; Grønbæk, Morten; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity is associated to a lower risk of mortality from all-causes and from coronary heart disease. The long-term effects of changes in physical activity on coronary heart disease are, however, less known. We examined the association between changes in leisure time physical activity...

  10. Baseline fatty acids, food groups, a diet score and 50-year all-cause mortality rates. An ecological analysis of the Seven Countries Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menotti, Alessandro; Kromhout, Daan; Puddu, Paolo Emilio; Alberti-Fidanza, Adalberta; Hollman, Peter; Kafatos, Anthony; Tolonen, Hanna; Adachi, Hisashi; Jacobs, David R.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This analysis deals with the ecologic relationships of dietary fatty acids, food groups and the Mediterranean Adequacy Index (MAI, derived from 15 food groups) with 50-year all-cause mortality rates in 16 cohorts of the Seven Countries Study. Material and methods: A dietary survey was

  11. Global, regional, and national age–sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geleijnse, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background

    Up-to-date evidence on levels and trends for age-sex-specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality is essential for the formation of global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) we estimated yearly deaths for 188

  12. Cancer incidence and all-cause mortality in HIV-positive patients in Northeastern Algeria before and during the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima Chaabna

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Since 1998, the proportion of HIV-positive patients treated with HAART increased, reaching 84% in 2010, all-cause mortality decreased, and cancer remained rare. However, almost all patients who died during the study seemed to be diagnosed at a late stage of the disease, emphasizing the need for earlier diagnosis of HIV in Algeria.

  13. Postdiagnostic physical activity, sleep duration, and TV watching and all-cause mortality among long-term colorectal cancer survivors: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratjen, Ilka; Schafmayer, Clemens; di Giuseppe, Romina; Waniek, Sabina; Plachta-Danielzik, Sandra; Koch, Manja; Burmeister, Greta; Nöthlings, Ute; Hampe, Jochen; Schlesinger, Sabrina; Lieb, Wolfgang

    2017-10-25

    Lifestyle recommendations for cancer survivors are warranted to improve survival. In this study, we aimed to examine the association of total physical activity, different types of physical activity, hours of sleeping at day and night, and hours spent watching television (TV) with all-cause mortality in long-term colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors. We assessed physical activity in 1376 CRC survivors (44% women; median age, 69 years) at median 6 years after CRC diagnosis using a validated questionnaire. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause mortality according to categories of physical activities, sleep duration, and TV watching. During a median follow-up time of 7 years, 200 participants had died. Higher total physical activity was significantly associated with lower all-cause mortality (HR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.36-0.80, 4th vs. 1st quartile). Specifically, sports, walking, and gardening showed a significant inverse association with all-cause mortality (HR: 0.34; 95% CI: 0.20-0.59, HR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.43-1.00, and HR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.42-0.91, respectively for highest versus lowest category). Individuals with ≥2 h of sleep during the day had a significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality compared to individuals with no sleep at day (HR: 2.22; 95% CI: 1.43-3.44). TV viewing of ≥4 h per day displayed a significant 45% (95% CI: 1.02-2.06) higher risk of dying compared to ≤2 h per day of watching TV. Physical activity was inversely related to all-cause mortality; specific activity types might be primarily responsible for this association. More hours of sleep during the day and a higher amount of TV viewing were each associated with higher all-cause mortality. Based on available evidence, it is reasonable to recommend CRC survivors to engage in regular physical activity.

  14. Systematic review and meta-analysis of reduction in all-cause mortality from walking and cycling and shape of dose response relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Paul; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Götschi, Thomas; Orsini, Nicola; Richards, Justin; Roberts, Nia; Scarborough, Peter; Foster, Charlie

    2014-10-24

    Walking and cycling have shown beneficial effects on population risk of all-cause mortality (ACM). This paper aims to review the evidence and quantify these effects, adjusted for other physical activity (PA). We conducted a systematic review to identify relevant studies. Searches were conducted in November 2013 using the following health databases of publications: Embase (OvidSP); Medline (OvidSP); Web of Knowledge; CINAHL; SCOPUS; SPORTDiscus. We also searched reference lists of relevant texts and reviews. Eligible studies were prospective cohort design and reporting walking or cycling exposure and mortality as an outcome. Only cohorts of individuals healthy at baseline were considered eligible. Extracted data included study population and location, sample size, population characteristics (age and sex), follow-up in years, walking or cycling exposure, mortality outcome, and adjustment for other co-variables. We used random-effects meta-analyses to investigate the beneficial effects of regular walking and cycling. Walking (18 results from 14 studies) and cycling (8 results from 7 studies) were shown to reduce the risk of all-cause mortality, adjusted for other PA. For a standardised dose of 11.25 MET.hours per week (or 675 MET.minutes per week), the reduction in risk for ACM was 11% (95% CI = 4 to 17%) for walking and 10% (95% CI = 6 to 13%) for cycling. The estimates for walking are based on 280,000 participants and 2.6 million person-years and for cycling they are based on 187,000 individuals and 2.1 million person-years. The shape of the dose-response relationship was modelled through meta-analysis of pooled relative risks within three exposure intervals. The dose-response analysis showed that walking or cycling had the greatest effect on risk for ACM in the first (lowest) exposure interval. The analysis shows that walking and cycling have population-level health benefits even after adjustment for other PA. Public health approaches would have the biggest impact

  15. Wave reflection and arterial stiffness in the prediction of 15-year all-cause and cardiovascular mortalities: a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kang-Ling; Cheng, Hao-Min; Sung, Shih-Hsien; Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Li, Cheng-Hung; Spurgeon, Harold A; Ting, Chih-Tai; Najjar, Samer S; Lakatta, Edward G; Yin, Frank C P; Chou, Pesus; Chen, Chen-Huan

    2010-03-01

    The value of increased arterial wave reflection, usually assessed by the transit time-dependent augmentation index and augmented pressure (Pa), in the prediction of cardiovascular events may have been underestimated. We investigated whether the transit time-independent measures of reflected wave magnitude predict cardiovascular outcomes independent of arterial stiffness indexed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. A total of 1272 participants (47% women; mean age: 52+/-13 years; range: 30 to 79 years) from a community-based survey were studied. Carotid pressure waveforms derived by tonometry were decomposed into their forward wave amplitudes, backward wave amplitudes (Pb), and a reflection index (=[Pb/(forward wave amplitude+Pb)]), in addition to augmentation index, Pa, and reflected wave transit time. During a median follow-up of 15 years, 225 deaths occurred (17.6%), including 64 cardiovascular origins (5%). In univariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis, pulse wave velocity, Pa, and Pb predicted all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in both men and women, whereas augmentation index, reflected wave transit time, and reflection index were predictive only in men. In multivariate analysis accounting for age, height, and heart rate, Pb predicted cardiovascular mortality in both men and women, whereas Pa was predictive only in men. Per 1-SD increment (6 mm Hg), Pb predicted 15-year cardiovascular mortality independent of brachial but not central pressure, pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, Pa, and conventional cardiovascular risk factors with hazard ratios of approximately 1.60 (all Pwave magnitude, predicted long-term cardiovascular mortality in men and women independent of arterial stiffness.

  16. Prediction of five-year all-cause mortality in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus - A population-based retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Eric Yuk Fai; Fong, Daniel Yee Tak; Fung, Colman Siu Cheung; Yu, Esther Yee Tak; Chin, Weng Yee; Chan, Anca Ka Chun; Lam, Cindy Lo Kuen

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to develop and validate an all-cause mortality risk prediction model for Chinese primary care patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) in Hong Kong. A population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted on 132,462 Chinese patients who had received public primary care services during 2010. Each gender sample was randomly split on a 2:1 basis into derivation and validation cohorts and was followed-up for a median period of 5years. Gender-specific mortality risk prediction models showing the interaction effect between predictors and age were derived using Cox proportional hazards regression with forward stepwise approach. Developed models were compared with pre-existing models by Harrell's C-statistic and calibration plot using validation cohort. Common predictors of increased mortality risk in both genders included: age; smoking habit; diabetes duration; use of anti-hypertensive agents, insulin and lipid-lowering drugs; body mass index; hemoglobin A1c; systolic blood pressure(BP); total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio; urine albumin to creatinine ratio(urine ACR); and estimated glomerular filtration rate(eGFR). Prediction models showed better discrimination with Harrell"'s C-statistics of 0.768(males) and 0.782(females) and calibration power from the plots than previously established models. Our newly developed gender-specific models provide a more accurate predicted 5-year mortality risk for Chinese diabetic patients than other established models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sickness absence due to specific mental diagnoses and all-cause and cause-specific mortality: a cohort study of 4.9 million inhabitants of Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellenor Mittendorfer-Rutz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the magnitude and increase of sickness absence due to mental diagnoses, little is known regarding long-term health outcomes. The aim of this nationwide population-based, prospective cohort study was to investigate the association between sickness absence due to specific mental diagnoses and the risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality. METHODS: A cohort of all 4 857 943 individuals living in Sweden on 31.12.2004 (aged 16-64 years, not sickness absent, or on retirement or disability pension, was followed from 01.01.2005 through 31.12.2008 for all-cause and cause-specific mortality (suicide, cancer, circulatory disease through linkage of individual register data. Individuals with at least one new sick-leave spell with a mental diagnosis in 2005 were compared to individuals with no sickness absence. Hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated by Cox regression, adjusting for age, sex, education, country of birth, family situation, area of residence, and pre-existing morbidity (diagnosis-specific hospital inpatient (2000-2005 and outpatient (2001-2005 care. RESULTS: In the multivariate analyses, mental sickness absence in 2005 was associated with an increased risk for all-cause mortality: HR: 1.65, 95% CI: 1.47-1.86 in women and in men: 1.73, 1.57-1.91; for suicide, cancer (both smoking and non-smoking related as well as mortality due to circulatory disease only in men. Estimates for cause-specific mortality ranged from 1.48 to 3.37. Associations with all-cause mortality were found for all mental sickness absence diagnostic groups studied. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge about the prognosis of patients sickness absent with specific mental diagnoses is of crucial clinical importance in health care. Sickness absence due to specific mental diagnoses may here be used as a risk indictor for subsequent mortality.

  18. Plasma insulin-like growth factor I as predictor of progression and all cause mortality in chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Mikkel; Kistorp, Caroline; Raymond, Ilan

    2009-01-01

    ejection fraction (LVEF) (P=0.58) or levels of N-terminal B-Type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) (P=0.42). During follow-up 44 patients died and 94 were admitted to hospital due to worsening of CHF. Adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors (age, gender, NT-proBNP, lipids, diabetes mellitus, blood pressure......, renal function and LVEF) IGF-I levels did not influence the overall mortality risk or the admission rate to hospital, hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence intervals) 1.05 (0.75-1.47) (P=0.77) and 1.00 (0.80-1.26) (P=0.96), respectively per each SD increase in log IGF-I levels. CONCLUSIONS: IGF-I levels...

  19. [Socioeconomic inequalities in mortality due to all causes in the working age population of Poland in 2002 and 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikala, Małgorzata; Maniecka-Bryła, Irena

    2017-10-17

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of education, marital status, employment status and place of residence on mortality in the working age population of Poland in 2002 and 2011. All deaths of Poland's inhabitants aged 25-64, in 2002 (N = 97 004) and 2011 (N = 104 598) were analyzed. For individual socio-economic groups standardized mortality rates (SDR) per 100 000 and rate ratio (RR) were calculated. In the group of economically inactive men SDR decreased from 2244.3 in 2002 to 1781.9 in 2011, while in the group of economically active population increased from 253.8 to 298.9 (RR drop from 8.8 to 6). In the group of economically inactive women SDR decreased from 579.5 to 495.2, and among the economically active women population it increased from 78.8 to 90.9 (RR drop from 7.4 to 5.4). In the group of men with higher education SDR decreased from 285.7 to 246, while among men with primary education it increased from 1141 to 1183 (RR increase from 4 to 4.8). In the group of women with higher education SDR decreased from 127.2 to 115.6 and among women with primary education it increased from 375.8 to 423.1 (RR increase from 3 to 3.7). In the group of divorced/separated SDR also increased - from 1521.4 to 1729.8 among men and from 365.5 to 410.8 among women. Future prevention and educational programs should be addressed primarily to the population economically inactive, with primary education and those divorced/separated. Med Pr 2017;68(6):771-778. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  20. Socioeconomic inequalities in mortality due to all causes in the working age population of Poland in 2002 and 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Pikala

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of education, marital status, employment status and place of residence on mortality in the working age population of Poland in 2002 and 2011. Material and Methods: All deaths of Poland’s inhabitants aged 25–64, in 2002 (N = 97 004 and 2011 (N = 104 598 were analyzed. For individual socio-economic groups standardized mortality rates (SDR per 100 000 and rate ratio (RR were calculated. Results: In the group of economically inactive men SDR decreased from 2244.3 in 2002 to 1781.9 in 2011, while in the group of economically active population increased from 253.8 to 298.9 (RR drop from 8.8 to 6. In the group of economically inactive women SDR decreased from 579.5 to 495.2, and among the economically active women population it increased from 78.8 to 90.9 (RR drop from 7.4 to 5.4. In the group of men with higher education SDR decreased from 285.7 to 246, while among men with primary education it increased from 1141 to 1183 (RR increase from 4 to 4.8. In the group of women with higher education SDR decreased from 127.2 to 115.6 and among women with primary education it increased from 375.8 to 423.1 (RR increase from 3 to 3.7. In the group of divorced/separated SDR also increased – from 1521.4 to 1729.8 among men and from 365.5 to 410.8 among women. Conclusions: Future prevention and educational programs should be addressed primarily to the population economically inactive, with primary education and those divorced/separated. Med Pr 2017;68(6:771–778

  1. Late-career unemployment and all-cause mortality, functional disability and depression among the older adults in Taiwan: A 12-year population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wei-Min; Liao, Wen-Chun; Li, Chi-Rong; Lee, Shu-Hsin; Tang, Yih-Jing; Ho, Hsin-En; Lee, Meng-Chih

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate whether late-career unemployment is associated with increased all-cause mortality, functional disability, and depression among older adults in Taiwan. In this long-term prospective cohort study, data were retrieved from the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging. This study was conducted from 1996 to 2007. The complete data from 716 men and 327 women aged 50-64 years were retrieved. Participants were categorized as normally employed or unemployed depending on their employment status in 1996. The cumulative number of unemployment after age 50 was also calculated. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the effect of the association between late-career unemployment and cumulative number of late-career unemployment on all-cause mortality, functional disability, and depression in 2007. The average age of the participants in 1996 was 56.3 years [interquartile range (IQR)=7.0]. A total of 871 participants were in the normally employed group, and 172 participants were in the unemployed group. After adjustment of gender, age, level of education, income, self-rated health and major comorbidities, late-career unemployment was associated with increased all-cause mortality [Odds ratio (OR)=2.79; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.74-4.47] and functional disability [OR=2.33; 95% CI=1.54-3.55]. The cumulative number of late-career unemployment was also associated with increased all-cause mortality [OR=1.91; 95% CI=1.35-2.70] and functional disability [OR=2.35; 95% CI=1.55-3.55]. Late-career unemployment and cumulative number of late-career unemployment are associated with increased all-cause mortality and functional disability. Older adults should be encouraged to maintain normal employment during the later stage of their career before retirement. Employers should routinely examine the fitness for work of older employees to prevent future unemployment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Cystatin C as risk factor for cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in the general population. The Tromsø Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toft, Ingrid; Solbu, Marit; Kronborg, Jens; Mathisen, Ulla D; Eriksen, Bjørn O; Storhaug, Hilde; Melsom, Toralf; Løchen, Maja-Lisa; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B; Njølstad, Inger; Wilsgaard, Tom; Brox, Jan

    2012-07-01

    Glomerular filtration rateCystatin C is believed to be a better tool than creatinine for detection of mild renal dysfunction (>60 mL/min/1.73 m2) and possibly a more sensitive marker for cardiovascular risk and all-cause mortality. We examined the association of cystatin C with cardiovascular morbidity and all-cause mortality in a prospective population-based study. Cystatin C was measured in 2852 men and 3153 women in the Tromsø Study 1994/95. Gender-specific associations during 12 years of follow-up for all-cause mortality and 9.5 years for myocardial infarction (MI) and ischaemic stroke were assessed (Cox proportional hazard ratios, HRs). During follow-up, 591 MIs, 293 ischaemic strokes and 1262 deaths occurred. In women, HR for all-cause mortality was increased in the upper cystatin C quartile (≥0.93 mg/L) compared with the lowest quartile (≤0.73 mg/L); 1.38, 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.84. A significant interaction with gender was observed. One SD (0.17 mg/L) increase in cystatin C was associated with 9% higher risk of death in women, also when persons with a cancer history were excluded. Crude HRs for MI and ischaemic stroke were increased in both genders, but the associations did not persist after multivariable adjustments. No independent associations with end points were observed in non-gender-specific analyses. Cystatin C was not independently associated with fatal and non-fatal MI or ischaemic stroke in the general population. However, cystatin C was a risk factor for all-cause mortality in women.

  3. Plasma osteoprotegerin levels predict cardiovascular and all-cause mortality and deterioration of kidney function in type 1 diabetic patients with nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorsal, A; Tarnow, L; Flyvbjerg, A

    2008-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The bone-related peptide osteoprotegerin is produced by vascular cells and is involved in the process of vascular calcification. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of plasma levels of osteoprotegerin in relation to mortality, cardiovascular events and d....... CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: High levels of osteoprotegerin predict all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Furthermore, high levels of osteoprotegerin predict deterioration of kidney function towards end-stage renal disease....... and deterioration in kidney function in patients with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: This prospective observational follow-up study included 397 type 1 diabetic patients with overt diabetic nephropathy (243 men; age [mean+/-SD] 42.1 +/- 10.6 years, duration of diabetes 28.3 +/- 9.9 years, GFR 67 +/- 28 ml min(-1) 1.73 m......(2)) and a group of 176 patients with longstanding type 1 diabetes and persistent normoalbuminuria (105 men; age 42.6 +/- 9.7 years, duration of diabetes 27.6 +/- 8.3 years). RESULTS: The median (range) follow-up period was 11.3 (0.0-12.9) years. Among patients with diabetic nephropathy, individuals...

  4. Cardiovascular and All-Cause Mortality Risk Associated With Urinary Excretion of 8-oxoGuo, a Biomarker for RNA Oxidation, in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Laura K.; Cejvanovic, Vanja; Henriksen, Trine

    2017-01-01

    patients. We assessed whether 8-oxoGuo is associated with specific cardiovascular and all-cause mortality risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Urinary biomarkers for nucleic acid oxidation were measured in a cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes aged ≥60 years (n = 1,863), along with biochemical...... measurements, questionnaire findings, and Central Person Registry information to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) for log2-transformed RNA oxidation using Cox regression. RESULTS: During the 5-year follow-up, 173 of 1,863 patients had died (9.3%), including 73 patients who died of cardiovascular disease (42.......10 [95% CI 4.00-8.30]) and cardiovascular mortality (AR 5.49 [95% CI 3.44-7.55] vs. AR 3.16 [95% CI 1.59-4.73]) were approximately two times higher in the highest quartile of RNA oxidation than in the lowest quartile. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that high RNA oxidation is associated with all...

  5. Synergistic effects of cognitive impairment on physical disability in all-cause mortality among men aged 80 years and over: Results from longitudinal older veterans study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wan-Chen; Chou, Ming-Yueh; Peng, Li-Ning; Lin, Yu-Te; Liang, Chih-Kuang; Chen, Liang-Kung

    2017-01-01

    risk factor for all-cause mortality among men aged 80 years and older, and risk increased synergistically when cognitive impairment was present. Cognitive impairment alone without physical disability did not increase mortality risk in this population.

  6. Synergistic effects of cognitive impairment on physical disability in all-cause mortality among men aged 80 years and over: Results from longitudinal older veterans study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Chen Yu

    is a major risk factor for all-cause mortality among men aged 80 years and older, and risk increased synergistically when cognitive impairment was present. Cognitive impairment alone without physical disability did not increase mortality risk in this population.

  7. Early Fungicidal Activity as a Candidate Surrogate Endpoint for All-Cause Mortality in Cryptococcal Meningitis: A Systematic Review of the Evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo M Montezuma-Rusca

    Full Text Available Cryptococcal meningitis (CM is a leading cause of HIV-associated mortality. In clinical trials evaluating treatments for CM, biomarkers of early fungicidal activity (EFA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF have been proposed as candidate surrogate endpoints for all- cause mortality (ACM. However, there has been no systematic evaluation of the group-level or trial-level evidence for EFA as a candidate surrogate endpoint for ACM.We conducted a systematic review of randomized trials in treatment of CM to evaluate available evidence for EFA measured as culture negativity at 2 weeks/10 weeks and slope of EFA as candidate surrogate endpoints for ACM. We performed sensitivity analysis on superiority trials and high quality trials as determined by Cochrane measures of trial bias.Twenty-seven trials including 2854 patients met inclusion criteria. Mean ACM was 15.8% at 2 weeks and 27.0% at 10 weeks with no overall significant difference between test and control groups. There was a statistically significant group-level correlation between average EFA and ACM at 10 weeks but not at 2 weeks. There was also no statistically significant group-level correlation between CFU culture negativity at 2weeks/10weeks or average EFA slope at 10 weeks. A statistically significant trial-level correlation was identified between EFA slope and ACM at 2 weeks, but is likely misleading, as there was no treatment effect on ACM.Mortality remains high in short time periods in CM clinical trials. Using published data and Institute of Medicine criteria, evidence for use of EFA as a surrogate endpoint for ACM is insufficient and could provide misleading results from clinical trials. ACM should be used as a primary endpoint evaluating treatments for cryptococcal meningitis.

  8. Early Fungicidal Activity as a Candidate Surrogate Endpoint for All-Cause Mortality in Cryptococcal Meningitis: A Systematic Review of the Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montezuma-Rusca, Jairo M; Powers, John H; Follmann, Dean; Wang, Jing; Sullivan, Brigit; Williamson, Peter R

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a leading cause of HIV-associated mortality. In clinical trials evaluating treatments for CM, biomarkers of early fungicidal activity (EFA) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been proposed as candidate surrogate endpoints for all- cause mortality (ACM). However, there has been no systematic evaluation of the group-level or trial-level evidence for EFA as a candidate surrogate endpoint for ACM. We conducted a systematic review of randomized trials in treatment of CM to evaluate available evidence for EFA measured as culture negativity at 2 weeks/10 weeks and slope of EFA as candidate surrogate endpoints for ACM. We performed sensitivity analysis on superiority trials and high quality trials as determined by Cochrane measures of trial bias. Twenty-seven trials including 2854 patients met inclusion criteria. Mean ACM was 15.8% at 2 weeks and 27.0% at 10 weeks with no overall significant difference between test and control groups. There was a statistically significant group-level correlation between average EFA and ACM at 10 weeks but not at 2 weeks. There was also no statistically significant group-level correlation between CFU culture negativity at 2weeks/10weeks or average EFA slope at 10 weeks. A statistically significant trial-level correlation was identified between EFA slope and ACM at 2 weeks, but is likely misleading, as there was no treatment effect on ACM. Mortality remains high in short time periods in CM clinical trials. Using published data and Institute of Medicine criteria, evidence for use of EFA as a surrogate endpoint for ACM is insufficient and could provide misleading results from clinical trials. ACM should be used as a primary endpoint evaluating treatments for cryptococcal meningitis.

  9. Early Fungicidal Activity as a Candidate Surrogate Endpoint for All-Cause Mortality in Cryptococcal Meningitis: A Systematic Review of the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montezuma-Rusca, Jairo M.; Powers, John H.; Follmann, Dean; Wang, Jing; Sullivan, Brigit; Williamson, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a leading cause of HIV-associated mortality. In clinical trials evaluating treatments for CM, biomarkers of early fungicidal activity (EFA) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been proposed as candidate surrogate endpoints for all- cause mortality (ACM). However, there has been no systematic evaluation of the group-level or trial-level evidence for EFA as a candidate surrogate endpoint for ACM. Methods We conducted a systematic review of randomized trials in treatment of CM to evaluate available evidence for EFA measured as culture negativity at 2 weeks/10 weeks and slope of EFA as candidate surrogate endpoints for ACM. We performed sensitivity analysis on superiority trials and high quality trials as determined by Cochrane measures of trial bias. Results Twenty-seven trials including 2854 patients met inclusion criteria. Mean ACM was 15.8% at 2 weeks and 27.0% at 10 weeks with no overall significant difference between test and control groups. There was a statistically significant group-level correlation between average EFA and ACM at 10 weeks but not at 2 weeks. There was also no statistically significant group-level correlation between CFU culture negativity at 2weeks/10weeks or average EFA slope at 10 weeks. A statistically significant trial-level correlation was identified between EFA slope and ACM at 2 weeks, but is likely misleading, as there was no treatment effect on ACM. Conclusions Mortality remains high in short time periods in CM clinical trials. Using published data and Institute of Medicine criteria, evidence for use of EFA as a surrogate endpoint for ACM is insufficient and could provide misleading results from clinical trials. ACM should be used as a primary endpoint evaluating treatments for cryptococcal meningitis. PMID:27490100

  10. Effect of induced LV dyssynchrony by right ventricular apical pacing on all-cause mortality and heart failure hospitalization rates at long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Dominique; Hoke, Ulas; Marsan, Nina Ajmone; Tops, Laurens F; Leong, Darryl P; Bertini, Matteo; Schalij, Martin J; Bax, Jeroen J; Delgado, Victoria

    2014-06-01

    Right ventricular apical (RVA) pacing may induce left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony. The long-term prognostic implications of induction of LV dyssynchrony were retrospectively evaluated in a cohort of patients who underwent RVA pacing. A total of 169 patients (62 ± 13 years, 69% male) with high RVA pacing burden were included. Echocardiographic evaluation of LV volumes, ejection fraction, and dyssynchrony were performed before and after device implantation. LV dyssynchrony was assessed by 2-dimensional radial strain speckle tracking echocardiography. Based on the median LV dyssynchrony value after RVA pacing, the patient population was dichotomized (induced and noninduced LV dyssynchrony groups) and was followed up for the occurrence of all-cause mortality and heart failure (HF) hospitalization. Baseline mean LV ejection fraction was 51 ± 11%. Median LV dyssynchrony value was 40 ms (12-85 ms) before RVA pacing and increased to 91 ms (81-138 ms) after a median of 13 months (3-26 months) after RVA pacing. Median follow-up duration was 70 months (interquartile range 42-96 months). Patients with induced LV dyssynchrony, defined as LV dyssynchrony value superior to the median at follow-up (≥91 ms), showed higher mortality rates (5% and 27% vs. 1% and 3% at 3 and 5 years follow-up; log-rank P = 0.003) and HF hospitalization rates (18% and 24% vs. 3% and 4% at 3 and 5 years follow-up; log-rank P hospitalization. Induction of LV dyssynchrony was independently associated with increased risk of combined endpoint (HR [95% CI]: 3.369 [1.732-6.553], P long-term mortality and increased HF hospitalization rates. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Attendance at Religious Services, Prayer, Religious Coping, and Religious/Spiritual Identity as Predictors of All-Cause Mortality in the Black Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWeele, Tyler J; Yu, Jeffrey; Cozier, Yvette C; Wise, Lauren; Argentieri, M Austin; Rosenberg, Lynn; Palmer, Julie R; Shields, Alexandra E

    2017-04-01

    Previous longitudinal studies have consistently shown an association between attendance at religious services and lower all-cause mortality, but the literature on associations between other measures of religion and spirituality (R/S) and mortality is limited. We followed 36,613 respondents from the Black Women's Health Study from 2005 through December 31, 2013 to assess the associations between R/S and incident all-cause mortality using proportional hazards models. After control for numerous demographic and health covariates, together with other R/S variables, attending religious services several times per week was associated with a substantially lower mortality rate ratio (mortality rate ratio = 0.64, 95% confidence interval: 0.51, 0.80) relative to never attending services. Engaging in prayer several times per day was not associated with mortality after control for demographic and health covariates, but the association trended towards a higher mortality rate ratio when control was made for other R/S variables (for >2 times/day vs. weekly or less, mortality rate ratio = 1.28, 95% confidence interval: 0.99, 1.67; P-trend Religious coping and self-identification as a very religious/spiritual person were associated with lower mortality when adjustment was made only for age, but the association was attenuated when control was made for demographic and health covariates and was almost entirely eliminated when control was made for other R/S variables. The results indicate that service attendance was the strongest R/S predictor of mortality in this cohort. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Metabolic syndrome is associated with better nutritional status, but not with cardiovascular disease or all-cause mortality in patients on haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qian; Zhang, Ai-Hua; Chen, Shao-Yan; Lai, Xuan; Zhang, Feng; He, Lian; Zhuang, Zhen; Zhu, Ning; Fan, Min-Hua; Wang, Tao

    2012-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in the general population. To investigate whether metabolic syndrome affects CVD and all-cause mortality in chronic haemodialysis patients. This prospective, observational cohort study was carried out at Peking university third hospital from June 2006 to June 2010. Baseline anthropometric and laboratory parameters were evaluated, and causes and times of mortality were documented. Nutritional status of the patients was assessed using subject global assessment (SGA) and serum albumin levels. Of 162 haemodialysis patients recruited, five were lost to follow-up, leaving 157 in the final cohort, who were followed for 36-42 months. Mean age was 62 ± 11 years and 55.4% were men. Forty-six patients (30%) had metabolic syndrome. In the metabolic syndrome versus the non-metabolic syndrome group, there were fewer patients with malnutrition (by SGA) (15.2% vs. 55.0%; P Metabolic syndrome was associated with a better nutritional status, but not with CVD or all-cause mortality in the haemodialysis patients in this prospective cohort study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Intake of vegetables, legumes, and fruit, and risk for all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality in a European diabetic population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nöthlings, Ute; Schulze, Matthias B; Weikert, Cornelia

    2008-01-01

    We examined the associations of intake of vegetables, legumes and fruit with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a population with prevalent diabetes in Europe. A cohort of 10,449 participants with self-reported diabetes within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutritio...... that the protective potential of vegetable and fruit intake is larger for CVD than for cancer and suggest that diabetes patients may benefit from a diet high in vegetables and fruits. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Apr......We examined the associations of intake of vegetables, legumes and fruit with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a population with prevalent diabetes in Europe. A cohort of 10,449 participants with self-reported diabetes within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.......81-0.95] and 0.90 [0.82-0.99], respectively) but not cancer mortality (1.08 [0.99-1.17]). Intake of vegetables, legumes, and fruit was associated with reduced risks of all-cause and CVD mortality in a diabetic population. The findings support the current state of evidence from general population studies...

  14. Postdiagnostic Mediterranean and Healthy Nordic Dietary Patterns Are Inversely Associated with All-Cause Mortality in Long-Term Colorectal Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratjen, Ilka; Schafmayer, Clemens; di Giuseppe, Romina; Waniek, Sabina; Plachta-Danielzik, Sandra; Koch, Manja; Nöthlings, Ute; Hampe, Jochen; Schlesinger, Sabrina; Lieb, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    Background: Dietary factors are known to affect the risk of new-onset colorectal cancer (CRC), but information on the extent to which postdiagnostic diet affects mortality in long-term CRC survivors is scarce. Objective: We investigated the association of 2 a priori-defined postdiagnostic dietary patterns [Modified Mediterranean Diet Score (MMDS) and healthy Nordic Food Index (HNFI)] with all-cause mortality in long-term CRC survivors. Methods: Diet was assessed at a median time of 6 y after cancer diagnosis in 1404 CRC survivors (median age: 69 y; 56% men) in a prospective cohort study in Northern Germany by using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazard models, adjusting for clinical and sociodemographic characteristics, were used to assess associations of the MMDS and the HNFI with all-cause mortality. Results: A total of 204 patients died during a median follow-up time of 7 y after diet assessment. In multivariable-adjusted models, higher adherence to the modified Mediterranean diet was significantly associated with lower all-cause mortality (HR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.74 for highest compared with lowest score quartile and HR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.96 per 1-point increment in pattern score). Similarly, the HNFI was inversely associated with all-cause mortality when the highest was compared with the lowest index quartile (HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.39, 1.04) and when modeled as a continuous trait (HR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.82, 0.99 per 1-point increment in the score). Conclusions: Our results suggest that higher adherences to the Mediterranean diet and to the healthy Nordic diet after CRC diagnosis are associated with better overall survival in long-term CRC survivors. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Lower extremity strength, systemic inflammation and all-cause mortality: Application to the "fat but fit" paradigm using cross-sectional and longitudinal designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Samuel L; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2015-10-01

    No study has applied the "fat-but-fit" paradigm with respect to muscular strength as an index of fitness, despite muscular strength being independently associated with functional ability and mortality. To examine the relationship between lower extremity muscular strength, C-reactive protein (CRP), and all-cause mortality among normal weight, overweight and obese individuals. Data from the 1999-2002 NHANES were used (N=2740 adults; ≥ 50 years). CRP values were obtained from a blood sample. Lower body isokinetic knee extensor strength (IKES) was assessed using a Kin Kom MP isokinetic dynamometer. Participant data was linked to death certificate data from the National Death Index to ascertain all-cause mortality status. Participants were classified, based on body mass index (BMI) and strength as: normal weight and unfit (fit (≥ 75th IKES percentile); overweight and fit; and obese and fit. Independent of physical activity and other confounders, compared to those who were normal weight and unfit, unfit overweight (β=.14, p=0.009), unfit obese (β=.33, pfit (β=.17, p=0.008) participants, had higher CRP levels. However, there was no difference in CRP levels between normal weight and unfit participants and overweight and fit participants (β=0.04, p=0.35). Compared to normal weight unfit adults, overweight fit (HR=0.28; 95% CI: 0.11-0.70; p=0.008) adults had a lower hazard rate for all-cause mortality. These finding suggest that increased lower body strength, independent of physical activity, may reduce premature all-cause mortality and attenuate systemic inflammation among overweight adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. All-cause mortality of patients with dyslipidemia up to 19 years after a multidisciplinary lifestyle modification programme: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håglin, Lena; Lundström, Sara; Kaati, Gunnar; Bäckman, Lennart; Bygren, Lars Olov

    2011-02-01

    Many studies have shown that individual lifestyle factors are associated with cardiovascular mortality and all-cause mortality. Observational studies of comprehensive programmes have reported risk reductions. The objectives were to assess the long-term all-cause mortality by diagnosis in patients referred to a lifestyle modification programme, aimed at combating coronary heart disease and stroke. A randomized trial with 325 patients referred to the centre between 1988 and 1989 for dyslipidemia, hypertension, type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease; 239 patients were randomized to the programme, 86 randomized to usual care. Cases were admitted to the centre in groups of 30 for a 4-week residential comprehensive activity, in total 114 full-time hours, focusing on food preferences and selections, and physical exercise. The activities were repeated during a 4-day revisit to the centre 1 year and 5 years after the 4-week intervention. Controls were referred back to their doctors, mainly in primary care, for usual care. Main outcome measure was all-cause mortality during 11–12 and 18–19 years after intervention. At follow-up 11–12 years after referral, the relative risk reduction (RRR) was 76% with the intention-to-treat analysis among cases admitted for dyslipidemia (hazards ratio 0.24, confidence interval 0.06–0.89, P = 0.033). After 18–19 years, the RRR was 66% (hazards ratio 0.34, confidence interval 0.13–0.88, P = 0.026). No RRR was found for the other three diagnoses. Patients admitted for dyslipidemia reached a real long-term RRR of all-cause mortality. They had by definition a need for this programme.

  17. Associations of ikigai as a positive psychological factor with all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality among middle-aged and elderly Japanese people: findings from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanno, Kozo; Sakata, Kiyomi; Ohsawa, Masaki; Onoda, Toshiyuki; Itai, Kazuyoshi; Yaegashi, Yumi; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2009-07-01

    To determine whether presence of ikigai as a positive psychological factor is associated with decreased risks for all-cause and cause-specific mortality among middle-aged and elderly Japanese men and women. From 1988 to 1990, a total of 30,155 men and 43,117 women aged 40 to 79 years completed a lifestyle questionnaire including a question about ikigai. Mortality follow-up was available for a mean of 12.5 years and was classified as having occurred in the first 5 years or the subsequent follow-up period. Associations between ikigai and all-cause and cause-specific mortality were assessed using a Cox's regression model. Multivariate hazard ratios (HRs) were adjusted for age, body mass index, drinking and smoking status, physical activity, sleep duration, education, occupation, marital status, perceived mental stress, and medical history. During the follow-up period, 10,021 deaths were recorded. Men and women with ikigai had decreased risks of mortality from all causes in the long-term follow-up period; multivariate HRs (95% confidence intervals, CIs) were 0.85 (0.80-0.90) for men and 0.93 (0.86-1.00) for women. The risk of cardiovascular mortality was reduced in men with ikigai; the multivariate HR (95% CI) was 0.86 (0.76-0.97). Furthermore, men and women with ikigai had a decreased risk for mortality from external causes; multivariate HRs (95% CIs) were 0.74 (0.59-0.93) for men and 0.67 (0.51-0.88) for women. The findings suggest that a positive psychological factor such as ikigai is associated with longevity among Japanese people.

  18. Anthropometrics indices of obesity, and all-cause and cardiovascular disease-related mortality, in an Asian cohort with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, R B T; Chen, C; Naidoo, N; Gay, G; Tang, W E; Seah, D; Chen, R; Tan, N C; Lee, J; Tai, E S; Chia, K S; Lim, W Y

    2015-09-01

    The study investigated the relationship of general (body mass index [BMI]) and central (waist circumference [WC]; waist-hip ratio [WHipR]; waist-height ratio [WHeightR]) adiposity with all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related mortality in an Asian population with diabetes. A total of 13,278 participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) recruited from public-sector primary-care and specialist outpatients clinics in Singapore were followed-up for a median duration of 2.9 years, during which time there were 524 deaths. Cox proportional-hazards regression and competing-risk models were used to obtain hazard ratios (HRs) for anthropometric variables of all-cause and CVD-related mortality. After adjusting for BMI, the highest quintiles of WC, WHipR and WHeightR were all positively associated with mortality compared with the lowest quintiles, with WHeightR exhibiting the largest effect sizes [all-cause mortality HR: 2.13, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33-3.42; CVD-related mortality HR: 3.42, 95% CI: 1.62-7.19]. Being overweight but not obese (BMI:≥23.0 butobesity, was associated with a reduction in risk of mortality. This was seen in T2DM patients aged≥65 years, but not in those younger than this. At the same BMI, having higher central-obesity indices such as WC, WHipR and WHeightR also increased the risk of mortality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Resting heart rate is associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality after adjusting for inflammatory markers: The Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus Thorsten; Marott, Jacob L; Allin, Kristine H

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the association between resting heart rate (RHR) and markers of chronic low-grade inflammation. Also, to examine whether elevated resting heart rate is independently associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in the general population, or whether elevated RHR...... is merely a marker of chronic low-grade inflammation. Methods and results: A group of 6518 healthy subjects from the the Danish general population were followed for 18 years during which 1924 deaths occurred. Subjects underwent assessment of baseline RHR, conventional cardiovascular risk factors, high.......09 (1.05-1.14). Conclusion: RHR was associated with markers of chronic low-grade inflammation. However, RHR remained associated with both cardiovascular and all-cause mortality after adjusting for markers of chronic low-grade inflammation. This suggests that RHR is an independent risk factor...

  20. Extreme nonfasting remnant cholesterol vs extreme LDL cholesterol as contributors to cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in 90000 individuals from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Freiberg, Jacob J; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased nonfasting remnant cholesterol, like increased LDL cholesterol, is causally associated with increased risk for ischemic heart disease (IHD). We tested the hypothesis that extreme concentrations of nonfasting remnant and LDL cholesterol are equal contributors to the risk of IHD......, myocardial infarction (MI), and all-cause mortality. METHODS: We compared stepwise increasing concentrations of nonfasting remnant and LDL cholesterol for association with risk of IHD, MI, and all-cause mortality in approximately 90 000 individuals from the Danish general population. During up to 22 years.......4 (1.9-2.9) for remnant cholesterol of ≥1.5 mmol/L (58 mg/dL) (P for trend LDL cholesterol LDL cholesterol of 3-3.99 mmol/L (115.8-154 mg/dL) to 2.3 (1.9-2.8) for LDL cholesterol...

  1. Symmetric and asymmetric dimethylarginine as risk markers of cardiovascular disease, all-cause mortality and deterioration in kidney function in persons with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zobel, Emilie H; von Scholten, Bernt Johan; Reinhard, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    IDI for SDMA was 15.0% (p = 0.081) for the cardiovascular endpoint, 52.5% (p = 0.025) for all-cause mortality and 48.8% (p = 0.007) for decline in eGFR; for ADMA the rIDI was 49.1% (p = 0.017) for all-cause mortality. CONCLUSION: In persons with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria higher SDMA was associated...... for traditional risk factors (sex, age, systolic blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol, smoking, HbA1c, creatinine and urinary albumin excretion rate). To assess if SDMA or ADMA improved risk prediction beyond traditional risk factors we calculated c statistics and relative integrated discrimination improvement (r...

  2. All-cause, drug-related, and HIV-related mortality risk by trajectories of jail incarceration and homelessness among adults in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sungwoo; Harris, Tiffany G; Nash, Denis; Lennon, Mary Clare; Thorpe, Lorna E

    2015-02-15

    We studied a cohort of 15,620 adults who had experienced at least 1 jail incarceration and 1 homeless shelter stay in 2001-2003 in New York City to identify trajectories of these events and tested whether a particular trajectory was associated with all-cause, drug-related, or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related mortality risk in 2004-2005. Using matched data on jail time, homeless shelter stays, and vital statistics, we performed sequence analysis and assessed mortality risk using standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and marginal structural modeling. We identified 6 trajectories. Sixty percent of the cohort members had a temporary pattern, which was characterized by sporadic experiences of brief incarceration and homelessness, whereas the rest had the other 5 patterns, which reflected experiences of increasing, decreasing, or persistent jail or shelter stays. Mortality risk among individuals with a temporary pattern was significantly higher than those of adults who had not been incarcerated or stayed in a homeless shelter during the study period (all-cause SMR: 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14, 1.59; drug-related SMR: 4.60, 95% CI: 3.17, 6.46; HIV-related SMR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.03, 2.21); all-cause and HIV-related SMRs in other patterns were not statistically significantly different. When we compared all 6 trajectories, the temporary pattern was more strongly associated with higher mortality risk than was the continuously homelessness pattern. Institutional interventions to reduce recurrent cycles of incarceration and homelessness are needed to augment behavioral interventions to reduce mortality risk. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. The Impacts of Albuminuria and Low eGFR on the Risk of Cardiovascular Death, All-Cause Mortality, and Renal Events in Diabetic Patients: Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Tadashi; Furuichi, Kengo; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Shimizu, Miho; Hara, Akinori; Iwata, Yasunori; Kaneko, Shuichi; Wada, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Background Precise effects of albuminuria and low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) on cardiovascular mortality, all-cause mortality, and renal events in diabetic patients are uncertain. Materials and Methods A systematic review was conducted of the literature through MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINHAL from 1950 to December 2010. Cohort studies of diabetic patients providing adjusted relative risk (RR) of albuminuria and eGFR for risks of cardiovascular mortality, all-cause mortality, and renal events were selected. Two reviewers screened abstracts and full papers of each study using standardized protocol. Results We identified 31 studies fulfilling the criteria from 6546 abstracts. With regard to the risk of cardiovascular mortality, microalbuminuria (RR 1.76, 95%CI 1.38–2.25) and macroalbuminuria (RR 2.96 95%CI 2.44–3.60) were significant risk factors compared to normoalbuminuria. The same trends were seen in microalbuminuria (RR 1.60, 95%CI 1.42–1.81), and macroalbuminuria (RR 2.64, 95%CI 2.13–3.27) for the risk of all-cause mortality, and also in microalbuminuria (RR 3.21, 95%CI 2.05–5.02) and macroalbuminuria (RR 11.63, 95%CI 5.68–23.83) for the risk of renal events. The magnitudes of relative risks associated with low eGFR along with albuminuria were almost equal to multiplying each risk rate of low eGFR and albuminuria. No significant factors were found by investigating potential sources of heterogeneity using subgroup analysis. Conclusions High albuminuria and low eGFR are relevant risk factors in diabetic patients. Albuminuria and low eGFR may be independent of each other. To evaluate the effects of low eGFR, intervention, or race, appropriately designed studies are needed. PMID:24147148

  4. Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate, Proteinuria, and Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases and All-cause Mortality in Diabetic Population: a Community-based Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Anxin; Chen, Guojuan; Cao, Yibin; Liu, Xiaoxue; Su, Zhaoping; Luo, Yanxia; Zhao, Zhan; Li, Xia; Chen, Shuohua; Wu, Shouling; Guo, Xiuhua

    2017-01-01

    Data about associations between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and proteinuria with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and all-cause mortality among diabetic population is less described. We aimed to describe these associations in Chinese diabetic population, and investigate the difference between sexes. The study was based on 8,301 diabetic participants in the Kailuan study, who was free of CVDs at baseline. We used Cox proportional hazard models to examine the associations of eGFR ...

  5. Lifestyle Changes in Young Adulthood and Middle Age and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and All-Cause Mortality: The Doetinchem Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsegge, Gerben; Looman, Moniek; Smit, Henriëtte A; Daviglus, Martha L; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Verschuren, W M Monique

    2016-01-13

    The associations between overall lifestyle profile and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and death have been mainly investigated in cross-sectional studies. The full benefits of a healthy lifestyle may therefore be underestimated, and the magnitude of benefits associated with changes in lifestyle remains unclear. We quantified the association of changes in lifestyle profiles over 5 years with risk of CVD and all-cause mortality. Lifestyle factors (ie, diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption) and body mass index were assessed and dichotomized as healthy/unhealthy among 5263 adults ages 26 to 66 in 1993-1997 and 5 years later (1998-2002). Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to quantify associations of change in lifestyle with fatal/nonfatal CVD and all-cause mortality that occurred 8 to 15 years after 1998-2002. Independent of baseline lifestyles, each decrement in number of healthy lifestyle factors was, on average, associated with 35% higher risk of CVD (HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.12-1.63) and 37% higher risk of all-cause mortality (HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.10-1.70); no association was noted with increase in the number of healthy lifestyle factors (P>0.5). Individuals who maintained 4 to 5 healthy lifestyle factors had 2.5 times lower risk of CVD (HR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.25-0.63) and all-cause mortality (HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.22-0.73) than those who maintained only 0 to 1 healthy lifestyle factor. Our findings suggest that the benefits of healthy lifestyles may be easier lost than gained over a 5-year period. This underscores the need for efforts to promote maintenance of healthy lifestyles throughout the life course. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  6. Osteopontin is a strong predictor of incipient diabetic nephropathy, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordin, Daniel; Forsblom, Carol; Panduru, Nicolae M; Thomas, Merlin C; Bjerre, Mette; Soro-Paavonen, Aino; Tolonen, Nina; Sandholm, Niina; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Harjutsalo, Valma; Groop, Per-Henrik

    2014-09-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a multifunctional protein suggested to be a player in the arterial disease of patients with type 2 diabetes. However, its role for complications in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) is unknown. We therefore investigated the associations between OPN and diabetic vascular complications and all-cause mortality in patients with T1D. Serum OPN was measured in 2,145 adults with T1D without end-stage renal disease (ESRD; dialysis or transplantation) as part of the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy (FinnDiane) Study. Data on renal status, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and all-cause mortality during follow-up were verified from medical files, hospital discharge registries, and the Finnish National Death Registry, respectively. The median follow-up time was 10.5 (interquartile range 8.9-11.8) years. Serum OPN was higher at baseline in patients who developed incident microalbuminuria (16.0 ± 0.9 vs. 14.1 ± 0.2 µg/L; P = 0.04), progressed to ESRD (28.3 ± 1.7 vs. 15.4 ± 0.2 µg/L; P risk factors. Even after calculating reclassification indexes, OPN was predictive of CVD and all-cause mortality beyond the Framingham risk score covariates and hs-CRP. Serum OPN is a strong predictor of incipient diabetic nephropathy, a first-ever CVD event, and all-cause mortality in patients with T1D. Serum OPN may be of clinical significance for the risk prediction of CVD events in patients with T1D. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  7. Is this back pain killing me? All-cause and cardiovascular-specific mortality in older Danish twins with spinal pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, M; Boyle, E; Hartvigsen, J

    2017-01-01

    of all-cause and disease-specific cardiovascular mortality in older Danish twins aged ≥70 years. Data from 4391 participants collected at baseline were linked with the Danish Cause of Death Registry with the study ending on 31 December 2014. Two crude and adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression......-significant, although greater in magnitude for monozygotic twins. Conclusions: Older people reporting spinal pain have 13% increased risk of mortality per years lived but the connection is not causal. We found no association between spinal pain and cardiovascular-specific mortality. The influence of shared familial...... factors is unlikely. Significance: Older people reporting spinal pain have 13% increased risk of mortality per year lived. However, this association is not likely to be causal, with the relevant confounders contributing to this relationship. Thus, pain in the spine may be part of a pattern of poor health...

  8. Clarithromycin for stable coronary heart disease increases all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and cerebrovascular morbidity over 10years in the CLARICOR randomised, blinded clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Per; Hilden, Jørgen; Hansen, Jørgen Fischer

    2015-01-01

    -cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR): 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00-1.21) and cerebrovascular disease during 10years (HR: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.02-1.38). The increased mortality and morbidity were restricted to patients not on statin at entry (HR: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.04-1.31, and HR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1...... death outside hospital and cerebrovascular morbidity in patients with stable coronary heart disease who were not on statin. The increased cardiovascular mortality was years later compensated, likely through frailty attrition.......BACKGROUND: The CLARICOR trial reported that clarithromycin compared with placebo increased all-cause mortality in patients with stable coronary heart disease. This study investigates the effects of clarithromycin versus placebo during 10years follow up. METHODS: The CLARICOR trial is a randomised...

  9. Whole-grain products and whole grain types are associated with lower all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the Scandinavian HELGA cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Nina Føns; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Christensen, Jane

    2015-01-01

    No study has yet investigated the intake of different types of whole grain (WG) in relation to all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a healthy population. The aim of the present study was to investigate the intake of WG products and WG types in relation to all-cause and cause-specific mortali......%CI 0·86, 0·91) for a doubling of intake). In particular, intake of breakfast cereals and non-white bread was associated with lower mortality. We also found lower all-cause mortality with total intake of different WG types (women: MRR 0·88 (95%CI 0·86, 0·92); men: MRR 0·88 (95%CI 0·86, 0...... quartile compared with the lowest for breakfast cereals, non-white bread, total WG products, oat, rye (only men), wheat and total WG types. The MRR for highest v. lowest quartile of intake of total WG products was 0·68 (95% CI 0·62, 0·75, P for trend over quartiles , 0·0001) for women and 0·75 (95%CI 0...

  10. The U-shaped relationship between BMI and all-cause mortality contrasts with a progressive increase in medical expenditure: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wen-Harn; Yeh, Wen-Ting; Chen, Hsin-Jen; Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Chen, Likwang; Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2012-01-01

    The U-shaped relationship between body mass index (BMI) and all-cause mortality has generated uncertainty about optimal BMI. For clarification, we have related BMI to both mortality and medical expenditure. The MJ Health examination cohort of 111,949 examinees established during 1994-1996 was followed with endpoint information derived from death certificates and National Health Insurance records from 1996 to 2007. Age- and gender-specific relative risks between BMI groups were estimated by Cox and logistic regressions. The BMI and all-cause mortality relationship is U-shaped with the concave regions sitting in the region of BMI 22-26, butshifted rightward for the elderly. After excluding smokers and cancer patients at baseline, the low mortality region moved leftward to BMI 20-22. Cause-specific mortalities from respiratory disease, injury, and senility increased in the underweight group (BMI mortality from respiratory diseases and senility, but not with others. In contrast, irrespective of age and gender, the overall median and mean medical expenditures progressively increased with BMI, particularly beyond 22. Expenditures for injury, respiratory, circulatory diseases and senility all increased with BMI. The U-shaped BMI-mortality relation was a result of elevated death rate at both ends of the BMI scale. Increased mortality at the low end did not contribute to higher medical expenditure, maybe because the lean and frail deceased tend to die abruptly before large amount of medical expenditure was consumed. Our findings suggest that current recommendations to maintain BMI at the lower end of the desirable range remain tenable for the apparently healthy general public.

  11. Body Mass Index and the Risk of Cardiovascular and All-Cause Mortality Among Patients With Hypertension: A Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study Among Adults in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuibao Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies on the association between body mass index (BMI and death risk among patients with hypertension are limited, and the results are inconsistent. We investigated the association between BMI and cardiovascular disease (CVD and all-cause mortality among hypertensive patients in a population of Beijing, China. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 2535 patients with hypertension aged 40 to 91 years from Beijing, China. Participants with a history of CVD at baseline were excluded from analysis. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the association of different levels of BMI stratification with CVD and allcause mortality. Results: During a mean follow-up of 8.1 years, 486 deaths were identified, including 233 cases of CVD death. The multivariable-adjusted hazards ratios for all-cause mortality associated with BMI levels ( 0.05 for all interactions. Regarding the association of BMI with CVD mortality, a U-shaped trend was also observed. Conclusions: The present study showed a U-shaped association of BMI with CVD and all-cause mortality among patients with hypertension. A lowest risk of all-cause mortality was found among hypertensive patients with BMI between 24 and 26 kg/m2.

  12. Long-term all-cause and cardiovascular mortality following incident myocardial infarction in men and women with and without diabetes: Temporal trends from 1998 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedkoff, Lee; Knuiman, Matthew; Hung, Joseph; Briffa, Tom G

    2016-08-01

    Long-term mortality following myocardial infarction is higher in diabetic than non-diabetic individuals. Early case-fatality after myocardial infarction has improved but it is unclear whether trends extend to long-term mortality. We aimed to determine whether the disparity in long-term all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality by diabetes status has decreased. All incident myocardial infarction cases were identified from Western Australian whole-population linked data for 1998-2009. Mortality follow-up was available until 30 June 2011. Unadjusted survival was estimated using Kaplan-Meier survival curves. Hazard ratios comparing five-year mortality in diabetic versus non-diabetic people across three periods (1998-2001, 2002-2005, 2006-2009) were estimated from multivariable Cox regression models, and adjusted trends calculated from interaction (diabetes status × period) models. There were 22,594 30-day survivors of incident MI. There was little change across the three periods in all-cause mortality in diabetic men (27.1%, 28.2%, 25.5%) and women (34.9%, 36.8%, 36.1%), but small declines from first to last periods in non-diabetic men (14.5% to 12.1%, p = 0.03) and women (21.0% to 19.4%, p = 0.08). There was no temporal change in the increased all-cause mortality hazard ratios in diabetic versus non-diabetic men and women. Multivariable-adjusted relative risk for cardiovascular disease mortality remained elevated in diabetic women (2006-2009 hazard ratio 1.73, 95% confidence interval 1.29, 2.32) but not in men (2006-2009 hazard ratio 1.08, 95% confidence interval 0.85, 1.37). The excess long-term mortality associated with diabetes and excess cardiovascular disease mortality in diabetic women indicates a need for improved secondary prevention in diabetic patients, especially women. © The European Society of Cardiology 2016.

  13. Spatial variation of multiple air pollutants and their potential contributions to all-cause, respiratory, and cardiovascular mortality across China in 2015-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huan; Lin, Yun; Su, Qiong; Cheng, Liqiu

    2017-11-01

    Association of serious air pollution with adverse health effects in China has become a matter of public concern. However, many of studies that focused on a single air pollutant or a single city in China have rarely reflected the overall potential contribution of air pollution to unfavorable health outcomes. Therefore, our study estimated the spatial variation of particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) and gaseous pollutants (SO2, NO2, CO, and O3). Moreover, an additive approach was conducted to evaluate their overall potential contributions to mortality across China in 2015-2016 using the exposure-response coefficients. The results showed that cities with relatively high PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations were mainly distributed in the North China Plain (NCP). The average annual PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations in the NCP was 75.0 ± 14.7 and 131.2 ± 21.6 μg m-3. The potential contributions of six air pollutants ranged from 6.5% (95% confidence interval (CI): 5.4-7.5%) to 25.7% (95% CI: 22.2-28.9%) in all-cause mortality, from 6.5% (95% CI: 4.7-8.3%) to 24.9% (95% CI: 18.6-30.9%) in respiratory mortality, and from 7.0% (95% CI: 5.3-8.6%) to 29.5% (95% CI: 24.3-34.5%) in cardiovascular mortality. Many cities with high potential contributions of the multiple air pollutants were in the NCP. NCP had the average potential contribution of 20.0% (95% CI: 17.2-22.6%) in all-cause mortality, 19.5% (95% CI: 14.5-24.3%) in respiratory mortality, and 23.0% (95% CI: 18.8-27.0%) in cardiovascular mortality. Besides, the Taklimakan Desert (TD) also had high potential contribution of 19.9% (95% CI: 17.1-22.4%) in all-cause mortality, 19.5% (95% CI: 14.3-24.3%) in respiratory mortality, and 23.5% (95% CI: 19.2-27.5%) in cardiovascular mortality.

  14. Ethnic disparities in risk of cardiovascular disease, end-stage renal disease and all-cause mortality: a prospective study among Asian people with Type 2 diabetes.

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    Liu, J J; Lim, S C; Yeoh, L Y; Su, C; Tai, B C; Low, S; Fun, S; Tavintharan, S; Chia, K S; Tai, E S; Sum, C F

    2016-03-01

    To study prospectively the ethnic-specific risks of cardiovascular disease, end-stage renal disease and all-cause mortality in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus among native Asian subpopulations. A total of 2337 subjects with Type 2 diabetes (70% Chinese, 17% Malay and 13% Asian Indian) were followed for a median of 4.0 years. Time-to-event analysis was used to study the association of ethnicity with adverse outcomes. Age- and gender-adjusted hazard ratios for cardiovascular disease in ethnic Malay and Asian Indian subjects were 2.01 (1.40-2.88; PChinese subjects. Adjustment for conventional cardiovascular disease risk factors, including HbA1c , blood pressure and lipid profile, slightly attenuated the hazards in Malay (1.82, 1.23-2.71; P=0.003) and Asian Indian subjects (1.47, 0.95-2.30; P=0.086); However, further adjustment for baseline renal function (estimated GFR) and albuminuria weakened the cardiovascular disease risks in Malay (1.48, 0.98-2.26; P=0.065) but strengthened that in Asian Indian subjects (1.81, 1.14-2.87; P=0.012). Competing-risk regression showed that the age- and gender-adjusted sub-distribution hazard ratio for end-stage renal disease was 1.87 (1.27-2.73; P=0.001) in Malay and 0.39 (0.18-0.83; P=0.015) in Asian Indian subjects. Notably, the difference in end-stage renal disease risk among the three ethnic groups was abolished after further adjustment for baseline estimated GFR and albuminuria. There was no significant difference in risk of all-cause mortality among the three ethnic groups. Risks of cardiovascular and end-stage renal diseases in native Asian subjects with Type 2 diabetes vary substantially among different ethnic groups. Differences in prevalence of diabetic kidney disease may partially explain the ethnic disparities. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  15. Pattern of all-causes and cause-specific mortality in an area with progressively declining malaria burden in Korogwe district, north-eastern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challe, Daniel P; Kamugisha, Mathias L; Mmbando, Bruno P; Francis, Filbert; Chiduo, Mercy G; Mandara, Celine I; Gesase, Samuel; Abdul, Omari; Lemnge, Martha M; Ishengoma, Deus S

    2018-02-27

    Although death records are useful for planning and monitoring health interventions, such information is limited in most developing countries. Verbal autopsy (VA) interviews are alternatively used to determine causes of death in places without or with incomplete hospital records. This study was conducted to determine all causes and cause-specific mortality in Korogwe health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) undertaken in Korogwe district, northeastern Tanzania. The study was conducted from January 2006 to December 2012 in 14 villages under Korogwe HDSS. Vital events such as births, deaths and migrations were routinely updated quarterly. A standard VA questionnaire was administered to parents/close relatives of the deceased to determine cause of death. Overall, 1325 deaths of individuals with median age of 46 years were recorded in a population with 170,471.4 person years observed (PY). Crude mortality rate was 7.8 per 1000 PY (95% CI 7.2-8.4) and the highest rate was observed in infants (77.9 per 1000 PY; 95% CI 67.4-90.0). The overall mortality increased between 2006 and 2007, followed by a slight decline up to 2011, with the highest decrease observed in 2012. Causes of deaths were established in 942 (71.1%) deaths and malaria (198 deaths, 21.0%) was the leading cause of death in all age groups except adults (15-59 years). HIV/AIDS (17.6%, n = 365) was the leading cause of death in individuals aged 15-59 years followed by malaria (13.9%) and tuberculosis. Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) including stroke, hypertension, cancer, and cardiac failure caused majority of deaths in elderly (60 years and above) accounting for 37.1% (n = 348) of all deaths, although malaria was the single leading cause of death in this group (16.6%). The study showed a significant decline of deaths in the Korogwe HDSS site and malaria was the main cause of death in all age groups (except adults, aged 15-59 years) while HIV/AIDS and NCDs were the main causes in adults and

  16. Plasma high-sensitivity troponin T predicts end-stage renal disease and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes and diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galsgaard, Julie; Persson, Frederik; Hansen, Tine Willum; Jorsal, Anders; Tarnow, Lise; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Rossing, Peter

    2017-11-01

    High-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) is a marker of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and in type 2 diabetes also a marker of renal events, but has not been evaluated in type 1 diabetics. We therefore reviewed a type 1 diabetes cohort of 442 without and 458 with diabetic nephropathy. Baseline samples were analyzed for hsTnT levels. Cox regression analyses assessed predictive value in relation to the development of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in 99 patients, all-cause mortality in 178, and CVD events in 134 after up to 12 years of follow-up. To assess if hsTnT improved risk prediction beyond traditional clinical risk markers, we calculated c statistics and relative integrated discrimination improvement. HsTnT was significantly higher in patients with diabetic nephropathy compared to normoalbuminuria (median 8.9 vs 3.1 ng/L). For a doubling in hsTnT levels, and after adjustment for well-known risk factors, including NT-proBNP and hsCRP, the hazard ratio for ESRD at 1.26 was not significant in the diabetic nephropathy group, but there was a significant association with GFR decline after adjustment during follow-up (2.9 ml/min/1.73 m 2 annual decline per doubling in hsTnT). The unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios for mortality (1.64 and 1.32, respectively) were significant in patients with, but not for patients without, nephropathy. Adjusted hazard ratios for fatal and non-fatal CVD events were significant for the whole cohort (1.13), and those with nephropathy (1.14), but not significant for normoalbuminuria (1.06). Addition of hsTNT to traditional risk factors significantly increased the area under the curve by 0.01 in a receiver-operating characteristic curve for mortality. The relative integrated discrimination improvement was increased 15.7% for mortality, 6.3% for CVD, and 1.9% for ESRD (all significant). Thus, higher hsTnT is an independent predictor of renal decline and cardiovascular events in patients with type 1 diabetes and diabetic nephropathy. Copyright

  17. Effect of Oral Nitrates on All-Cause Mortality and Hospitalization in Heart Failure Patients with Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Propensity-Matched Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ural, Dilek; Kandemir, Aysen Şimşek; Karaüzüm, Kurtuluş; Baydemir, Canan; Karaüzüm, İrem Yılmaz; Bozyel, Serdar; Kozdağ, Güliz; Ağır, Ayşen Ağaçdiken

    2017-04-01

    Hydralazine-nitrate combination is recommended for patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF)/systolic heart failure who are symptomatic despite guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT). Use of nitrates alone for this indication is not well-established. This study aims to evaluate the effect of oral nitrates on all-cause mortality and hospitalization in HFrEF patients using GDMT. Nitrate prescription at discharge and its association with all-cause mortality and heart failure hospitalization were examined in a propensity-matched analysis of 648 HFrEF patients followed for a median of 56 months. A total of 269 (42%) patients died during that period. In Cox regression analysis, nitrate usage was associated with a slightly increased mortality risk compared with not using nitrates (hazard ratio 1.29; 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.65; P = .040), which continued modestly after the propensity-matched analysis (hazard ratio  1.26; 95% confidence interval 0.95-1.68; P = .102). In both prematch and propensity-matched analyses, nitrate use was not associated with risk of rehospitalization. No significant effect was detected on subgroups stratified by coronary artery disease, age, gender, and background medical therapy. In this study, oral nitrate use alone in addition to GDMT did not affect all-cause mortality and hospitalization risk in HFrEF patients during a long-term follow-up. There was even a modest tendency for increased risk of mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Inter-Ethnic Differences in Quantified Coronary Artery Disease Severity and All-Cause Mortality among Dutch and Singaporean Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystel M Gijsberts

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease (CAD is a global problem with increasing incidence in Asia. Prior studies reported inter-ethnic differences in the prevalence of CAD rather than the severity of CAD. The angiographic "synergy between percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI with taxus and cardiac surgery" (SYNTAX score quantifies CAD severity and predicts outcomes. We studied CAD severity and all-cause mortality in four globally populous ethnic groups: Caucasians, Chinese, Indians and Malays.We quantified SYNTAX scores of 1,000 multi-ethnic patients undergoing PCI in two tertiary hospitals in the Netherlands (Caucasians and Singapore (Chinese, Indians and Malays. Within each ethnicity we studied 150 patients with stable CAD and 100 with ST-elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI. We made inter-ethnic comparisons of SYNTAX scores and all-cause mortality.Despite having a younger age (mean age Indians: 56.8 and Malays: 57.7 vs. Caucasians: 63.7 years, multivariable adjusted SYNTAX scores were significantly higher in Indians and Malays than Caucasians with stable CAD: 13.4 [11.9-14.9] and 13.4 [12.0-14.8] vs. 9.4 [8.1-10.8], p<0.001. Among STEMI patients, SYNTAX scores were highest in Chinese and Malays: 17.7 [15.9-19.5] and 18.8 [17.1-20.6] vs. 15.5 [13.5-17.4] and 12.7 [10.9-14.6] in Indians and Caucasians, p<0.001. Over a median follow-up of 709 days, 67 deaths (stable CAD: 37, STEMI: 30 occurred. Among STEMI patients, the SYNTAX score independently predicted all-cause mortality: HR 2.5 [1.7-3.8], p<0.001 for every 10-point increase. All-cause mortality was higher in Indian and Malay STEMI patients than Caucasians, independent of SYNTAX score (adjusted HR 7.2 [1.5-34.7], p=0.01 and 5.8 [1.2-27.2], p=0.02.Among stable CAD and STEMI patients requiring PCI, CAD is more severe in Indians and Malays than in Caucasians, despite having a younger age. Moreover, Indian and Malay STEMI patients had a greater adjusted risk of all-cause mortality than Caucasians

  19. Social class, race/ethnicity and all-cause mortality in the US: longitudinal results from the 1986-1994 National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Carles; Hadden, Wilbur C; Kravets, Nataliya

    2004-01-01

    Occupational social class has become a leading indicator of social inequalities in health. In the US, economic sectors are distinct with respect to wages, benefits, job security, promotion ladders and working conditions. The growing economic sector of self-employed workers is characterized by lower wages and benefits, and greater job insecurity. Little attention has been given to the association between economic sector measures of social class and all-cause mortality, and there have been no studies of mortality among the self-employed. To determine risk of death associated with economic sector social class, this study entails a longitudinal analysis of the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), an annual household survey representative of the US population for the period 1986-1994 (n = 377,129). The sample includes 201,566 men and 175,563 women, aged 24-65 years of age, in the civilian labor force. Non- professionals are at higher risk of death than professionals across all sectors and self-employed professionals are at higher risk of death than professionals employed in government and production. Additional social class differences are accounted for by age, race, gender and marital status. Results are also partially explained by income. After controlling for income, Black professionals did not show a lower risk of death than Black non-professionals and self-employed Hispanic professionals had a higher risk of death than Hispanic professionals employed in the private sector. Given the growth of self-employment in the US, the noted increased risk of death among self-employed professionals merits further investigation and monitoring.

  20. Elevated levels of plasma osteoprotegerin are associated with all-cause mortality risk and atherosclerosis in patients with stages 3 to 5 chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Nascimento

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Osteoprotegerin (OPG regulates bone mass by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and activation, and plays a role in vascular calcification. We evaluated the relationship between osteoprotegerin levels and inflammatory markers, atherosclerosis, and mortality in patients with stages 3-5 chronic kidney disease. A total of 145 subjects (median age 61 years, 61% men; 36 patients on hemodialysis, 55 patients on peritoneal dialysis, and 54 patients with stages 3-5 chronic kidney disease were studied. Clinical characteristics, markers of mineral metabolism (including fibroblast growth factor-23 [FGF-23] and inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP] and interleukin-6 [IL-6], and the intima-media thickness (IMT in the common carotid arteries were measured at baseline. Cardiac function was assessed by color tissue Doppler echocardiography. After 36 months follow-up, the survival rate by Kaplan-Meier analysis was significantly different according to OPG levels (χ 2=14.33; P=0.002. Increased OPG levels were positively associated with IL-6 (r=0.38, P<0.001, FGF-23 (r=0.26, P<0.001 and hsCRP (r=0.0.24, P=0.003. In addition, OPG was positively associated with troponin I (r=0.54, P<0.001 and IMT (r=0.39, P<0.0001. Finally, in Cox analysis, only OPG (HR=1.07, 95%CI=1.02-1.13 and hsCRP (HR=1.02, 95%CI=1.01-1.04 were independently associated with increased risk of death. These results suggested that elevated levels of serum OPG might be associated with atherosclerosis and all-cause mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease.

  1. The joint association of physical activity, blood-pressure control, and pharmacologic treatment of hypertension for all-cause mortality risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ruth E; Riddell, Michael C; Macpherson, Alison K; Canning, Karissa L; Kuk, Jennifer L

    2013-08-01

    We conducted a study to determine the joint association of physical activity, pharmacologic treatment for hypertension, and the control of blood pressure (BP) on all-cause mortality risk. The study subjects were 10,665 adults from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) and the Continuous NHANES survey (1999-2000 and 2000-2001). Cox proportional hazards analyses were used to estimate differences in mortality risk according to physical activity, pharmacologic treatment for hypertension, and BP control, with physically active, treated, and controlled as the referent category. The average follow-up time in the study was 8.6±4.8 years. The main effect of physical activity was significant independently of pharmacologic treatment and BP control (P Physically inactive adults with hypertension had a higher risk of mortality than did physically active adults with treated and controlled hypertension (inactive, treated and controlled hypertension: HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.17-1.72; P physically active adults with hypertension did not differ significantly with or without treatment for hypertension if their hypertension remained uncontrolled (active, treated and uncontrolled hypertension: HR, 1.17; 95% CI 0.98-1.40; P = 0.08; active, untreated and uncontrolled hypertension: HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.76-1.08; P = 0.25). Physically active, normotensive individuals had a lower all-cause mortality risk than did the referent group of physically active individuals being treated with antihypertensive medication and who had controlled hypertension (HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.60-0.86; P physically inactive, normotensive individuals had a risk of mortality similar to that of the referent group (HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.90-1.30; P = 0.42). Physical activity may be as or even more important than pharmacotherapy for reducing the risk of mortality in adults with hypertension. However, the risk of mortality remained higher for physically active adults with treated and controlled

  2. No Obesity Paradox—BMI Incapable of Adequately Capturing the Relation of Obesity with All-Cause Mortality: An Inception Diabetes Cohort Study

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    Mohammadreza Bozorgmanesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To reconcile “the obesity paradox,” we tested if (1 the contribution of anthropometric measures to mortality was nonlinear and (2 the confounding of hip circumference contributed to the obesity paradox recently observed among diabetic patients. Methods. We analyzed data of diabetic patients attending a community-based prospective, “Tehran lipid and glucose study.” In the mortality analysis, anthropometric measures—body mass index (BMI, waist, and hip circumference—were assessed using Cox models incorporating cubic spline functions. Results. During 12 990 person-years follow-up, BMI levels below 27 and those above 40 kg·m−2 were associated with increased mortality. When we added waist circumference to the BMI in the multivariate-adjusted model, the steepness of BMI-mortality association curve slope for values below 27 kg·m−2 increased, whereas the steepness of BMI-mortality association curve slope for values above this threshold decreased. Further adjusting the model for hip circumference, the steepness of the slopes of the association curve moved towards null on both extremes and no associations between BMI and all-cause mortality remained. Conclusion. BMI harbors intermixed positive and negative confounding effects on mortality of waist and hip circumference. Failing to control for the confounding effect of hip circumference may stymie unbiased hazard estimation and render conclusions paradoxical.

  3. Desalinated seawater supply and all-cause mortality in hospitalized acute myocardial infarction patients from the Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli Survey 2002-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlezinger, Meital; Amitai, Yona; Goldenberg, Ilan; Shechter, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Consuming desalinated seawater (DSW) as drinking water (DW) may reduce magnesium in water intake causing hypomagnesemia and adverse cardiovascular effects. We evaluated 30-day and 1-year all-cause mortality of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients enrolled in the biannual Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli Survey (ACSIS) during 2002-2013. Patients (n=4678) were divided into 2 groups: those living in regions supplied by DSW (n=1600, 34.2%) and non-DSW (n=3078, 65.8%). Data were compared between an early period [2002-2006 surveys (n=2531) - before desalination] and a late period [2008-2013 surveys (n=2147) - during desalination]. Thirty-day all-cause-mortality was significantly higher in the late period in patients from the DSW regions compared with those from the non-DSW regions (HR=2.35 CI 95% 1.33-4.15, Pcause mortality in the late period in patients from DSW regions compared with those from the non-DSW regions (HR=1.87 CI 95% 1.32-2.63, Pcause mortality in AMI patients, found in the DSW regions may be attributed to reduced magnesium intake secondary to DSW consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Association of early repolarization pattern on ECG with risk of cardiac and all-cause mortality: a population-based prospective cohort study (MONICA/KORA.

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    Moritz F Sinner

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early repolarization pattern (ERP on electrocardiogram was associated with idiopathic ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac arrest in a case-control study and with cardiovascular mortality in a Finnish community-based sample. We sought to determine ERP prevalence and its association with cardiac and all-cause mortality in a large, prospective, population-based case-cohort study (Monitoring of Cardiovascular Diseases and Conditions [MONICA]/KORA [Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg] comprised of individuals of Central-European descent. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Electrocardiograms of 1,945 participants aged 35-74 y, representing a source population of 6,213 individuals, were analyzed applying a case-cohort design. Mean follow-up was 18.9 y. Cause of death was ascertained by the 9th revision of the International Classification of Disease (ICD-9 codes as documented in death certificates. ERP-attributable effects on mortality were determined by a weighted Cox proportional hazard model adjusted for covariables. Prevalence of ERP was 13.1% in our study. ERP was associated with cardiac and all-cause mortality, most pronounced in those of younger age and male sex; a clear ERP-age interaction was detected (p = 0.005. Age-stratified analyses showed hazard ratios (HRs for cardiac mortality of 1.96 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-3.68, p = 0.035 for both sexes and 2.65 (95% CI 1.21-5.83, p = 0.015 for men between 35-54 y. An inferior localization of ERP further increased ERP-attributable cardiac mortality to HRs of 3.15 (95% CI 1.58-6.28, p = 0.001 for both sexes and to 4.27 (95% CI 1.90-9.61, p<0.001 for men between 35-54 y. HRs for all-cause mortality were weaker but reached significance. CONCLUSIONS: We found a high prevalence of ERP in our population-based cohort of middle-aged individuals. ERP was associated with about a 2- to 4-fold increased risk of cardiac mortality in individuals between 35 and 54 y. An inferior

  5. Metabolic syndrome, major depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and ten-year all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in middle aged and elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butnoriene, Jurate; Bunevicius, Adomas; Saudargiene, Ausra; Nemeroff, Charles B; Norkus, Antanas; Ciceniene, Vile; Bunevicius, Robertas

    2015-01-01

    Studies investigating specifically whether metabolic syndrome (MetS) and common psychiatric disorders are independently associated with mortality are lacking. In a middle-aged general population, we investigated the association of the MetS, current major depressive episode (MDE), lifetime MDE, and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) with ten-year all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. From February 2003 until January 2004, 1115 individuals aged 45 years and older were randomly selected from a primary care practice and prospectively evaluated for: (1) MetS (The World Health Organization [WHO], National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III and International Diabetes Federation [IDF] definitions); (2) current MDE and GAD, and lifetime MDE (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview); and (3) conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Follow-up continued through January, 2013. During the 9.32 ± 0.47 years of follow-up, there were 248 deaths, of which 148 deaths were attributed to cardiovascular causes. In women, WHO-MetS and IDF-MetS were associated with greater all-cause (HR-values range from 1.77 to 1.91; p-values ≤ 0.012) and cardiovascular (HR-values range from 1.83 to 2.77; p-values ≤ 0.013) mortality independent of cardiovascular risk factors and MDE/GAD. Current GAD predicted greater cardiovascular mortality (HR-values range from 1.86 to 1.99; p-values ≤ 0.025) independently from MetS and cardiovascular risk factors. In men, the MetS and MDE/GAD were not associated with mortality. In middle aged women, the MetS and GAD predicted greater 10-year cardiovascular mortality independently from each other; 10-year all-cause mortality was independently predicted by the MetS. MetS and GAD should be considered important and independent mortality risk factors in women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. All-cause mortality from obstructive sleep apnea in male and female patients with and without continuous positive airway pressure treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Tønnesen, Philip; Ibsen, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: More information is needed about the effect on mortality of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), especially in women. METHODS: We employed a historical cohort study design, using data from 25,389 patients with a diagnosis of OSA...... selected from the Danish National Patient Registry for the period 1999-2009. We used Cox proportional hazard function to evaluate the all-cause mortality from OSA in middle-aged and elderly males and females who were treated, or not, with CPAP. RESULTS: Female OSA patients had a lower mortality than males....... Survival was increased by CPAP in 40- to 59-year-old and ≥60-year-old males, but no such effect was observed in females. Positive predictors of survival were young age, female gender, higher educational level, and low 3-year prior comorbidity as estimated by the Charlson Comorbidity Index. Negative...

  7. Hospitalization and 1-year all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease at Stages 1 and 2: Effect of mild anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nseir, William; Artul, Suheil; Nasrallah, Najib; Mograbi, Julnar; Mahamid, Mahmud

    2016-07-01

    The effect of anemia in advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) on morbidity and mortality is known. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of mild anemia on hospitalization and 1-year all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with Stage 1 and 2 CKD. Hospitalized T2DM patients (n = 307) with a glomerular filtration rate ≥ 60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) and urinary albumin excretion > 30 mg/24 h (Stage 1 and 2 CKD) were enrolled in the study and divided into two groups based on hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations: those with (mean [ ± SD] Hb 10.7 ± 0.7 g/dL) and without (mean Hb 13.3 ± 1.28 g/dL) anemia. There was no significant difference between patients with and without anemia in terms of age, gender, body mass index, HbA1c, and cardiovascular diseases. The mean length of hospitalization of the 130 anemic and 177 non-anemic patients was 4.3 ± 3.5 and 3.5 ± 1.9 days, respectively (P anemia (9.2% vs 1.7%, respectively; P = 0.002). After adjusting for confounding variables, multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that mild anemia was significantly associated with 1-year all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 2.15, 95% confidence interval 1.92-2.54; P = 0.033). Mild anemia may increase the length of hospitalization and was associated with 1-year all-cause mortality among hospitalized T2DM patients with Stage 1 and 2 CKD. © 2015 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Associations of specific types of sports and exercise with all-cause and cardiovascular-disease mortality: a cohort study of 80 306 British adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oja, Pekka; Kelly, Paul; Pedisic, Zeljko; Titze, Sylvia; Bauman, Adrian; Foster, Charlie; Hamer, Mark; Hillsdon, Melvyn; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2017-05-01

    Evidence for the long-term health effects of specific sport disciplines is scarce. Therefore, we examined the associations of six different types of sport/exercise with all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality risk in a large pooled Scottish and English population-based cohort. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to investigate the associations between each exposure and all-cause and CVD mortality with adjustment for potential confounders in 80 306 individuals (54% women; mean±SD age: 52±14 years). Significant reductions in all-cause mortality were observed for participation in cycling (HR=0.85, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.95), swimming (HR=0.72, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.80), racquet sports (HR=0.53, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.69) and aerobics (HR=0.73, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.85). No significant associations were found for participation in football and running. A significant reduction in CVD mortality was observed for participation in swimming (HR=0.59, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.75), racquet sports (HR=0.44, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.83) and aerobics (HR=0.64, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.92), but there were no significant associations for cycling, running and football. Variable dose-response patterns between the exposure and the outcomes were found across the sport disciplines. These findings demonstrate that participation in specific sports may have significant benefits for public health. Future research should aim to further strengthen the sport-specific epidemiological evidence base and understanding of how to promote greater sports participation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. All-Cause Mortality up to and After Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke Events in European Middle-Aged Men: The PRIME Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majed, Bilal; Montaye, Michèle; Wagner, Aline; Arveiler, Dominique; Ducimetiere, Pierre; Tafflet, Muriel; Ferrieres, Jean; Ruidavets, Jean-Bernard; Kee, Frank; Evans, Alun; Amouyel, Philippe; Prugger, Christof; Empana, Jean-Philippe

    2015-05-01

    The aim was to investigate prospectively the all-cause mortality risk up to and after coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke events in European middle-aged men. The study population comprised 10 424 men 50 to 59 years of age recruited between 1991 and 1994 in France (N=7855) and Northern Ireland (N=2747) within the Prospective Epidemiological Study of Myocardial Infarction. Incident CHD and stroke events and deaths from all causes were prospectively registered during the 10-year follow-up. In Cox's proportional hazards regression analysis, CHD and stroke events during follow-up were used as time-dependent covariates. A total of 769 CHD and 132 stroke events were adjudicated, and 569 deaths up to and 66 after CHD or stroke occurred during follow-up. After adjustment for study country and cardiovascular risk factors, the hazard ratios of all-cause mortality were 1.58 (95% confidence interval 1.18-2.12) after CHD and 3.13 (95% confidence interval 1.98-4.92) after stroke. These findings support continuous efforts to promote both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Association of Adiponectin With Cancer and All-Cause Mortality in a Japanese Community-Dwelling Elderly Cohort: A Case-Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Reiji; Ukawa, Shigekazu; Zhao, Wenjing; Suzuki, Koji; Yamada, Hiroya; Tsushita, Kazuyo; Kawamura, Takashi; Okabayashi, Satoe; Wakai, Kenji; Noma, Hisashi; Ando, Masahiko; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2018-03-24

    Most studies of plasma adiponectin (APN) and mortality among community-dwelling elderly focus on cardiovascular disease, but data on the relationship between plasma APN and cancer mortality is exiguous. We investigated whether APN is associated with cancer mortality in community-dwelling elderly people. We conducted a case-cohort study within the New Integrated Suburban Seniority Investigation (NISSIN) Project using a randomly drawn sub-cohort of 697 subjects (351 men and 346 women; mean age 64.5 [standard deviation, 0.5] years) among whom we compared cases of all-cause death (n = 269) and cancer death (n = 149) during a mean follow-up duration of 10.8 (standard deviation, 3.7) years. Associations between APN and mortality were assessed using weighted Cox regression analyses. We observed significant positive associations between the APN concentration and cancer death in the first and third APN tertiles compared with the second APN tertile (hazard ratio [HR] T1 vs T2 , 1.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-2.79 and HR T3 vs T2 , 2.10; 95% CI, 1.30-3.40). Further adjustment for possible confounders attenuated the association (HR T1 vs T2 , 1.63; 95% CI, 0.93-2.84 and HR T3 vs T2 , 2.10; 95% CI, 1.26-3.50). A similar but weaker association was seen for all-cause mortality (multivariate HR T1 vs T2 , 1.45; 95% CI, 0.95-2.21 and HR T3 vs T2 , 1.51; 95% CI, 1.01-2.25). Plasma APN and cancer mortality have a significant relationship among community-dwelling elderly people, which warrants further study.

  11. Effect of a Pediatric Early Warning System on All-Cause Mortality in Hospitalized Pediatric Patients: The EPOCH Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshuram, Christopher S; Dryden-Palmer, Karen; Farrell, Catherine; Gottesman, Ronald; Gray, Martin; Hutchison, James S; Helfaer, Mark; Hunt, Elizabeth A; Joffe, Ari R; Lacroix, Jacques; Moga, Michael Alice; Nadkarni, Vinay; Ninis, Nelly; Parkin, Patricia C; Wensley, David; Willan, Andrew R; Tomlinson, George A

    2018-03-13

    There is limited evidence that the use of severity of illness scores in pediatric patients can facilitate timely admission to the intensive care unit or improve patient outcomes. To determine the effect of the Bedside Paediatric Early Warning System (BedsidePEWS) on all-cause hospital mortality and late admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), cardiac arrest, and ICU resource use. A multicenter cluster randomized trial of 21 hospitals located in 7 countries (Belgium, Canada, England, Ireland, Italy, New Zealand, and the Netherlands) that provided inpatient pediatric care for infants (gestational age ≥37 weeks) to teenagers (aged ≤18 years). Participating hospitals had continuous physician staffing and subspecialized pediatric services. Patient enrollment began on February 28, 2011, and ended on June 21, 2015. Follow-up ended on July 19, 2015. The BedsidePEWS intervention (10 hospitals) was compared with usual care (no severity of illness score; 11 hospitals). The primary outcome was all-cause hospital mortality. The secondary outcome was a significant clinical deterioration event, which was defined as a composite outcome reflecting late ICU admission. Regression analyses accounted for hospital-level clustering and baseline rates. Among 144 539 patient discharges at 21 randomized hospitals, there were 559 443 patient-days and 144 539 patients (100%) completed the trial. All-cause hospital mortality was 1.93 per 1000 patient discharges at hospitals with BedsidePEWS and 1.56 per 1000 patient discharges at hospitals with usual care (adjusted between-group rate difference, 0.01 [95% CI, -0.80 to 0.81 per 1000 patient discharges]; adjusted odds ratio, 1.01 [95% CI, 0.61 to 1.69]; P = .96). Significant clinical deterioration events occurred during 0.50 per 1000 patient-days at hospitals with BedsidePEWS vs 0.84 per 1000 patient-days at hospitals with usual care (adjusted between-group rate difference, -0.34 [95% CI, -0.73 to 0.05 per 1000 patient

  12. Association of Visual Impairment and All-Cause 10-Year Mortality Among Indigenous Australian Individuals Within Central Australia: The Central Australian Ocular Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Soo Khai; Kahawita, Shyalle; Andrew, Nicholas Howard; Henderson, Tim; Craig, Jamie Evan; Landers, John

    2018-03-22

    It is well established from different population-based studies that visual impairment is associated with increased mortality rate. However, to our knowledge, the association of visual impairment with increased mortality rate has not been reported among indigenous Australian individuals. To assess the association between visual impairment and 10-year mortality risk among the remote indigenous Australian population. Prospective cohort study recruiting indigenous Australian individuals from 30 remote communities located within the central Australian statistical local area over a 36-month period between July 2005 and June 2008. The data were analyzed in January 2017. Visual acuity, slitlamp biomicroscopy, and fundus examination were performed on all patients at recruitment. Visual impairment was defined as a visual acuity of less than 6/12 in the better eye. Mortality rate and mortality cause were obtained at 10 years, and statistical analyses were performed. Hazard ratios for 10-year mortality with 95% confidence intervals are presented. One thousand three hundred forty-seven patients were recruited from a total target population number of 2014. The mean (SD) age was 56 (11) years, and 62% were women. The total all-cause mortality was found to be 29.3% at 10 years. This varied from 21.1% among those without visual impairment to 48.5% among those with visual impairment. After adjustment for age, sex, and the presence of diabetes and hypertension, those with visual impairment were 40% more likely to die (hazard ratio, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.16-1.70; P = .001) during the 10-year follow-up period compared with those with normal vision. Bilateral visual impairment among remote indigenous Australian individuals was associated with 40% higher 10-year mortality risk compared with those who were not visually impaired. Resource allocation toward improving visual acuity may therefore aid in closing the gap in mortality outcomes between indigenous and nonindigenous Australian

  13. Associations of suboptimal growth with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in children under five years: a pooled analysis of ten prospective studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibironke Olofin

    Full Text Available Child undernutrition affects millions of children globally. We investigated associations between suboptimal growth and mortality by pooling large studies.Pooled analysis involving children 1 week to 59 months old in 10 prospective studies in Africa, Asia and South America. Utilizing most recent measurements, we calculated weight-for-age, height/length-for-age and weight-for-height/length Z scores, applying 2006 WHO Standards and the 1977 NCHS/WHO Reference. We estimated all-cause and cause-specific mortality hazard ratios (HR using proportional hazards models comparing children with mild (-2≤Z<-1, moderate (-3≤Z<-2, or severe (Z<-3 anthropometric deficits with the reference category (Z≥-1.53 809 children were eligible for this re-analysis and contributed a total of 55 359 person-years, during which 1315 deaths were observed. All degrees of underweight, stunting and wasting were associated with significantly higher mortality. The strength of association increased monotonically as Z scores decreased. Pooled mortality HR was 1.52 (95% Confidence Interval 1.28, 1.81 for mild underweight; 2.63 (2.20, 3.14 for moderate underweight; and 9.40 (8.02, 11.03 for severe underweight. Wasting was a stronger determinant of mortality than stunting or underweight. Mortality HR for severe wasting was 11.63 (9.84, 13.76 compared with 5.48 (4.62, 6.50 for severe stunting. Using older NCHS standards resulted in larger HRs compared with WHO standards. In cause-specific analyses, all degrees of anthropometric deficits increased the hazards of dying from respiratory tract infections and diarrheal diseases. The study had insufficient power to precisely estimate effects of undernutrition on malaria mortality.All degrees of anthropometric deficits are associated with increased risk of under-five mortality using the 2006 WHO Standards. Even mild deficits substantially increase mortality, especially from infectious diseases.

  14. Predicting risk of coronary events and all-cause mortality: role of B-type natriuretic peptide above traditional risk factors and coronary artery calcium scoring in the general population: the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Kaffer; Mahabadi, Amir A; Berg, Marie H; Lehmann, Nils; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Kälsch, Hagen; Bauer, Marcus; Moebus, Susanne; Dragano, Nico; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Neumann, Till; Erbel, Raimund

    2014-09-01

    Several biomarkers including B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) have been suggested to improve prediction of coronary events and all-cause mortality. Moreover, coronary artery calcium (CAC) as marker of subclinical atherosclerosis is a strong predictor for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. We aimed to evaluate the predictive ability of BNP and CAC for all-cause mortality and coronary events above traditional cardiovascular risk factors (TRF) in the general population. We followed 3782 participants of the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall cohort study without coronary artery disease at baseline for 7.3 ± 1.3 years. Associations of BNP and CAC with incident coronary events and all-cause mortality were assessed using Cox regression, Harrell's c, and time-dependent integrated discrimination improvement (IDI(t), increase in explained variance). Subjects with high BNP levels had increased frequency of coronary events and death (coronary events/mortality: 14.1/28.2% for BNP ≥100 pg/ml vs. 2.7/5.5% for BNP < 100 pg/ml, respectively). Subjects with a BNP ≥100 pg/ml had increased incidence of hard endpoints sustaining adjustment for CAC and TRF (for coronary events: hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) 3.41(1.78-6.53); for all-cause mortality: HR 3.35(2.15-5.23)). Adding BNP to TRF and CAC increased measures of predictive ability: coronary events (Harrell's c, for coronary events, 0.775-0.784, p = 0.09; for all-cause mortality 0.733-0.740, p = 0.04; and IDI(t) (95% CI), for coronary events: 2.79% (0.33-5.65%) and for all-cause mortality 1.78% (0.73-3.10%). Elevated levels of BNP are associated with excess incident coronary events and all-cause mortality rates, with BNP and CAC significantly and complementary improving prediction of risk in the general population above TRF. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  15. Impact of persistence and non-persistence in leisure time physical activity on coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnohr, Peter; O'Keefe, James H.; Lange, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of persistence and non-persistence in leisure time physical activity on coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality. Methods and results: In the Copenhagen City Heart Study, we prospectively followed 12,314 healthy subjects for 33 years...... of maximum follow-up with at least two repeated measures of physical activity. The association between persistence and non-persistence in leisure time physical activity, coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality were assessed by multivariable Cox regression analyses. Coronary heart disease mortality...... for persistent physical activity in leisure compared to persistent sedentary activity were: light hazard ratio (HR) 0.76; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63–0.92, moderate HR 0.52; 95% CI 0.41–0.67, and high physical activity HR 0.51; 95% CI, 0.30–0.88. The differences in longevity were 2.8 years for light, 4...

  16. Higher plasma levels of advanced glycation end products are associated with incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nin, Johanna W; Jorsal, Anders; Ferreira, Isabel

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations of plasma levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetes and the extent to which any such associations could be explained by endothelial and renal dysfunction, low-gr......-related pathophysiological mechanisms. Thus, AGEs may explain, in part, the increased cardiovascular disease and mortality attributable to type 1 diabetes and constitute a specific target for treatment in these patients.......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations of plasma levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetes and the extent to which any such associations could be explained by endothelial and renal dysfunction, low......-grade inflammation, and arterial stiffness. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We prospectively followed 169 individuals with diabetic nephropathy and 170 individuals with persistent normoalbuminuria who were free of CVD at study entry and in whom levels of N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine, N...

  17. Association of Low B Cell Count and IgG Levels With Infection, and Poor Vaccine Response With All-Cause Mortality in an Immunosuppressed Vasculitis Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Morgan, Matthew; Richter, Alex; Al-Ali, Samer; Flint, Julia; Yiannakis, Constantina; Drayson, Mark; Goldblatt, David; Harper, Lorraine

    2016-06-01

    Patients with systemic vasculitis (SV) have an increased risk of all-cause mortality, often due to infection, compared to the healthy population. We investigated whether humoral response to vaccination and biomarkers of immune dysfunction were associated with infection and death. Patients with SV in remission were vaccinated with pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine and meningococcal polysaccharide groups A, C, Y, and W135 vaccines. Total IgG and antibody titers against specific antigens and lymphocyte subset analysis were performed before vaccination. Postvaccination antibody titers were measured at 4 weeks and 2 years, from which an antibody response score was calculated. Infections and death following vaccination were collected prospectively following vaccination. A total of 92 patients were safely vaccinated with no increase in disease relapse, median followup 4.6 years (interquartile range [IQR] 3.6-4.8 years). Eighteen patients died at a median of 2 years and the overall infection rate was 0.4 (IQR 0.2-1.3) infections/patient/year. Reduced serum IgG, B cell count, and CD4+ cell counts predicted poor vaccine response and infection but not death. The response rates to individual vaccine antigens was highly variable, with a median response rate of 46% (IQR 39-58%) of patients responding to each individual antigen. Vaccine response, age, and reduced renal function were independent predictors of all-cause mortality in multivariate analysis. Total IgG and B cell counts predict infection and response to vaccination. Vaccination in patients with SV in remission is safe and the response predicts all-cause mortality. Vaccine response is a surrogate marker of immune system health. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  18. The association of cold weather and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the island of Ireland between 1984 and 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeka, Ariana; Browne, Stephen; McAvoy, Helen; Goodman, Patrick

    2014-12-06

    This study aimed to assess the relationship between cold temperature and daily mortality in the Republic of Ireland (ROI) and Northern Ireland (NI), and to explore any differences in the population responses between the two jurisdictions. A time-stratified case-crossover approach was used to examine this relationship in two adult national populations, between 1984 and 2007. Daily mortality risk was examined in association with exposure to daily maximum temperatures on the same day and up to 6 weeks preceding death, during the winter (December-February) and an extended cold period (October-March), using distributed lag models. Model stratification by age and gender assessed for modification of the cold weather-mortality relationship. In the ROI, the impact of cold weather in winter persisted up to 35 days, with a cumulative mortality increase for all-causes of 6.4% (95% CI = 4.8%-7.9%) in relation to every 1°C drop in daily maximum temperature, similar increases for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and stroke, and twice as much for respiratory causes. In NI, these associations were less pronounced for CVD causes, and overall extended up to 28 days. Effects of cold weather on mortality increased with age in both jurisdictions, and some suggestive gender differences were observed. The study findings indicated strong cold weather-mortality associations in the island of Ireland; these effects were less persistent, and for CVD mortality, smaller in NI than in the ROI. Together with suggestive differences in associations by age and gender between the two Irish jurisdictions, the findings suggest potential contribution of underlying societal differences, and require further exploration. The evidence provided here will hope to contribute to the current efforts to modify fuel policy and reduce winter mortality in Ireland.

  19. Extracellular Fluid/Intracellular Fluid Volume Ratio as a Novel Risk Indicator for All-Cause Mortality and Cardiovascular Disease in Hemodialysis Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jung Kim

    Full Text Available In hemodialysis patients, fluid overload and malnutrition are accompanied by extracellular fluid (ECF expansion and intracellular fluid (ICF depletion, respectively. We investigated the relationship between ECF/ICF ratio (as an integrated marker reflecting both fluid overload and malnutrition and survival and cardiovascular disease (CVD in the context of malnutrition-inflammation-arteriosclerosis (MIA complex.Seventy-seven patients from a single hemodialysis unit were prospectively enrolled. The ECF/ICF volume was measured by segmental multi-frequency bioimpedance analysis. MIA and volume status were measured by serum albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP, pulse wave velocity (PWV and plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP, respectively.The mean ECF/ICF ratio was 0.56±0.06 and the cut-off value for maximum discrimination of survival was 0.57. Compared with the low ECF/ICF group, the high ECF/ICF group (ratio≥0.57, 42% had higher all-cause mortality, CVD, CRP, PWV, and BNP, but lower serum albumin. During the 5-year follow-up, 24 all-cause mortality and 38 CVD occurred (18 and 24, respectively, in the high ECF/ICF group versus 6 and 14 respectively in the low ECF/ICF group, P<0.001. In the adjusted Cox analysis, the ECF/ICF ratio nullifies the effects of the MIA and volume status on survival and CVD and was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality and CVD: hazard ratio (95% confidence interval; 1.12 (1.01-1.25 and 1.09 (1.01-1.18 for a 0.01 increase in the ECF/ICF ratio. The degree of malnutrition (albumin, inflammation (CRP, arteriosclerosis (PWV, and fluid overload (BNP were correlated well with the ECF/ICF ratio.Hemodialysis patients with high ECF/ICF ratio are not only fluid overloaded, but malnourished and have stiff artery with more inflammation. The ECF/ICF ratio is highly related to the MIA complex, and is a major risk indicator for all-cause mortality and CVD.

  20. Childhood IQ and all-cause mortality before and after age 65: prospective observational study linking the Scottish Mental Survey 1932 and the Midspan studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, C L; Taylor, M D; Smith, G Davey; Whalley, L J; Starr, J M; Hole, D J; Wilson, V; Deary, I J

    2005-05-01

    The objective was to investigate how childhood IQ related to all-cause mortality before and after age 65. The Midspan prospective cohort studies, followed-up for mortality for 25 years, were linked to individuals' childhood IQ from the Scottish Mental Survey 1932. The Midspan studies collected data on risk factors for cardiorespiratory disease from a questionnaire and at a screening examination, and were conducted on adults in Scotland in the 1970s. An age 11 IQ from the Scottish Mental Survey 1932, a cognitive ability test conducted on 1921-born children attending schools in Scotland, was found for 938 Midspan participants. The relationship between childhood IQ and mortality risk, adjusting for adulthood socio-economic confounders, was analysed. The effect of adjustment for childhood IQ on the relationship between established risk factors (blood pressure, smoking, height and respiratory function) and mortality was also investigated. For deaths occurring up to age 65, there was a 36% increased risk per standard deviation decrease (15 points) in childhood IQ which was reduced to 29% after adjusting for social class and deprivation category. There was no statistically significant relationship between childhood IQ and deaths occurring after the age of 65. Adjustment for childhood IQ attenuated the risk factor-mortality relationship in deaths occurring up to age 65, but had no effect in deaths occurring after age 65. Childhood IQ was significantly related to deaths occurring up to age 65, but not to deaths occurring after age 65.

  1. Fitness, work, and leisure-time physical activity and ischaemic heart disease and all-cause mortality among men with pre-existing cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Burr, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    , smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, diabetes, hypertension, physical work demands, leisure-time physical activity, and social class - showed a substantially reduced risk for IHD mortality among employees who were intermediately fit [VO (2)Max range 25-36; hazard ratio (HR) 0.54, 95% confidence......OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to study the relative impact of physical fitness, physical demands at work, and physical activity during leisure time on ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and all-cause mortality among employed men with pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHOD: We carried out a 30-year...... physical work demands and leisure-time physical activity using a self-reported questionnaire. Results Among 274 men with a history of CVD, 93 men died from IHD. Using male employees with a history of CVD and a low level of fitness as the reference group, our Cox analyses - adjusted for age, blood pressure...

  2. Serum adiponectin predicts all-cause mortality and end stage renal disease in patients with type I diabetes and diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorsal, A.; Tarnow, L.; Frystyk, J.

    2008-01-01

    Adiponectin levels are increased in patients with type I diabetes especially in the presence of microangiopathy. Here we determined the predictive value of serum adiponectin levels and 8 adiponectin gene polymorphisms for mortality, cardiovascular events and end-stage renal disease in type I...... diabetic patients. This prospective, observational follow-up study of type I diabetics consisted of 438 patients with overt diabetic nephropathy that were compared to 440 type I patients with normal albumin excretion. These two groups were followed an average of 8 years and generally matched for gender......, age and duration of diabetes. Cox regression analysis of 373 patients showed a covariate-adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause mortality of 1.46 for a change of one standard deviation in log10 of serum adiponectin. There was no association with cardiovascular events; however, serum adiponectin levels...

  3. Comparing the prognostic accuracy for all-cause mortality of frailty instruments: a multicentre 1-year follow-up in hospitalized older patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Pilotto

    Full Text Available Frailty is a dynamic age-related condition of increased vulnerability characterized by declines across multiple physiologic systems and associated with an increased risk of death. We compared the predictive accuracy for one-month and one-year all-cause mortality of four frailty instruments in a large population of hospitalized older patients in a prospective multicentre cohort study.On 2033 hospitalized patients aged ≥ 65 years from twenty Italian geriatric units, we calculated the frailty indexes derived from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (FI-SOF, based on the cumulative deficits model (FI-CD, based on a comprehensive geriatric assessment (FI-CGA, and the Multidimensional Prognostic Index (MPI. The overall mortality rates were 8.6% after one-month and 24.9% after one-year follow-up. All frailty instruments were significantly associated with one-month and one-year all-cause mortality. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves estimated from age- and sex-adjusted logistic regression models, accounting for clustering due to centre effect, showed that the MPI had a significant higher discriminatory accuracy than FI-SOF, FI-CD, and FI-CGA after one month (areas under the ROC curves: FI-SOF = 0.685 vs. FI-CD = 0.738 vs. FI-CGA = 0.724 vs. MPI = 0.765, p<0.0001 and one year of follow-up (areas under the ROC curves: FI-SOF = 0.694 vs. FI-CD = 0.729 vs. FI-CGA = 0.727 vs. MPI = 0.750, p<0.0001. The MPI showed a significant higher discriminatory power for predicting one-year mortality also in hospitalized older patients without functional limitations, without cognitive impairment, malnourished, with increased comorbidity, and with a high number of drugs.All frailty instruments were significantly associated with short- and long-term all-cause mortality, but MPI demonstrated a significant higher predictive power than other frailty instruments in hospitalized older patients.

  4. Prognostic value of physicians' assessment of compliance regarding all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes: primary care follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüter Gernot

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether the primary care physician's assessment of patient compliance is a valuable prognostic marker to identify patients who are at increased risk of death, or merely reflects measurement of various treatment parameters such as HbA1C or other laboratory markers is unclear. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the prognostic value of the physicians' assessment of patient compliance and other factors with respect to all-cause mortality during a one year follow-up period. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted among 1014 patients with type 2 diabetes aged 40 and over (mean age 69 years, SD 10.4, 45% male who were under medical treatment in 11 participating practices of family physicians and internists working in primary care in a defined region in South Germany between April and June 2000. Baseline data were gathered from patients and physicians by standardized questionnaire. The physician's assessment of patient compliance was assessed by means of a 4-point Likert scale (very good, rather good, rather bad, very bad. In addition, we carried out a survey among physicians by means of a questionnaire to find out which aspects for the assessment of patient compliance were of importance to make this assessment. Active follow-up of patients was conducted after one year to determine mortality. Results During the one year follow-up 48 (4.7% of the 1014 patients died. Among other factors such as patient type (patients presenting at office, nursing home or visited patients, gender, age and a history of macrovascular disease, the physician's assessment of patient compliance was an important predictor of all-cause mortality. Patients whose compliance was assessed by the physician as "very bad" (6% were significantly more likely to die during follow-up (OR = 2.67, 95% CI 1.02–6.97 after multivariable adjustment compared to patients whose compliance was assessed as "rather good" (45% or "very good

  5. Incidence and influence of hospitalization for recurrent syncope and its effect on short- and long-term all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruwald, Martin H; Numé, Anna-Karin; Lamberts, Morten; Hansen, Carolina M; Hansen, Morten L; Vinther, Michael; Kober, Lars; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Hansen, Jim; Gislason, Gunnar H

    2014-05-15

    Recurrence of syncope is a common event, but the influence of recurrent syncope on the risk of death has not previously been investigated on a large scale. We examined the prognostic impact of recurrent syncope in a nationwide cohort of patients with syncope. All patients (n = 70,819) hospitalized from 2001 to 2009 in Denmark with a first-time diagnosis of syncope aged from 15 to 90 years were identified from national registries. Recurrence of syncope was incorporated as a time-dependent variable in multivariable-adjusted Cox models on the outcomes of 30-day, 1-year, and long-term all-cause mortality and cardiovascular death. During a mean follow-up of 3.9 ± 2.6 years, a total of 11,621 patients (16.4%) had at least 1 hospitalization for recurrent syncope, with a median time to recurrence of 251 days (33 to 364). A total of 14,270 patients died, and 3,204 deaths were preceded by a hospitalization for recurrent syncope. The long-term risk of all-cause death was significantly associated with recurrent syncope (hazard ratio 2.64, 95% confidence interval 2.54 to 2.75) compared with those with no recurrence. On 1-year mortality, recurrent syncope was associated with a 3.2-fold increase in risk and on 30-day mortality associated with a threefold increase. The increased mortality risk was consistent over age groups 15 to 39, 40 to 59, and 60 to 89 years, and a similar pattern of increase in both long-term and short-term risk of cardiovascular death was evident. In conclusion, recurrent syncope is independently associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality across all age groups exhibiting a high prognostic influence. Increased awareness on high short- and long-term risk of adverse events in subjects with recurrent syncope is warranted for future risk stratification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The association of cycling with all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality: findings from the population-based EPIC-Norfolk cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlqvist, Shannon; Goodman, Anna; Simmons, Rebecca K; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Cavill, Nick; Foster, Charlie; Luben, Robert; Wareham, Nicholas J; Ogilvie, David

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate associations between modest levels of total and domain-specific (commuting, other utility, recreational) cycling and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Design Population-based cohort study (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study-Norfolk). Setting Participants were recruited from general practices in the east of England and attended health examinations between 1993 and 1997 and again between 1998 and 2000. At the first health assessment, participants reported their average weekly duration of cycling for all purposes using a simple measure of physical activity. At the second health assessment, participants reported a more detailed breakdown of their weekly cycling behaviour using the EPAQ2 physical activity questionnaire. Participants Adults aged 40–79 years at the first health assessment. Primary outcome measure All participants were followed for mortality (all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer) until March 2011. Results There were 22 450 participants with complete data at the first health assessment, of whom 4398 died during follow-up; and 13 346 participants with complete data at the second health assessment, of whom 1670 died during follow-up. Preliminary analyses using exposure data from the first health assessment showed that cycling for at least 60 min/week in total was associated with a 9% reduced risk of all-cause mortality (adjusted HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.99). Using the more precise measures of cycling available from the second health assessment, all types of cycling were associated with greater total moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; however, there was little evidence of an association between overall or domain-specific cycling and mortality. Conclusions Cycling, in particular for utility purposes, was associated with greater moderate-to-vigorous and total physical activity. While this study provides tentative evidence that modest levels of cycling may reduce

  7. Absolute versus relative measures of plasma fatty acids and health outcomes: example of phospholipid omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and all-cause mortality in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Kyoko; Hughes, Maria Celia B; Ungerer, Jacobus P J; Smith, David D; Green, Adèle C

    2018-03-01

    In a well-characterised community-based prospective study, we aimed to systematically assess the differences in associations of plasma omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid (FA) status with all-cause mortality when plasma FA status is expressed in absolute concentrations versus relative levels. In a community sample of 564 women aged 25-75 years in Queensland, Australia, baseline plasma phospholipid FA levels were measured using gas chromatography. Specific FAs analysed were eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, total long-chain omega-3 FAs, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, and total omega-6 FAs. Levels of each FA were expressed in absolute amounts (µg/mL) and relative levels (% of total FAs) and divided into thirds. Deaths were monitored for 17 years and hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals calculated to assess risk of death according to absolute versus relative plasma FA levels. In total 81 (14%) women died during follow-up. Agreement between absolute and relative measures of plasma FAs was higher in omega-3 than omega-6 FAs. The results of multivariate analyses for risk of all-cause mortality were generally similar with risk tending to inverse associations with plasma phospholipid omega-3 FAs and no association with omega-6 FAs. Sensitivity analyses examining effects of age and presence of serious medical conditions on risk of mortality did not alter findings. The directions and magnitude of associations with mortality of absolute versus relative FA levels were comparable. However, plasma FA expressed as absolute concentrations may be preferred for ease of comparison and since relative units can be deduced from absolute units.

  8. Seasonal variations of all-cause and cause-specific mortality by age, gender, and socioeconomic condition in urban and rural areas of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkart Katrin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality exhibits seasonal variations, which to a certain extent can be considered as mid-to long-term influences of meteorological conditions. In addition to atmospheric effects, the seasonal pattern of mortality is shaped by non-atmospheric determinants such as environmental conditions or socioeconomic status. Understanding the influence of season and other factors is essential when seeking to implement effective public health measures. The pressures of climate change make an understanding of the interdependencies between season, climate and health especially important. Methods This study investigated daily death counts collected within the Sample Vital Registration System (VSRS established by the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS. The sample was stratified by location (urban vs. rural, gender and socioeconomic status. Furthermore, seasonality was analyzed for all-cause mortality, and several cause-specific mortalities. Daily deviation from average mortality was calculated and seasonal fluctuations were elaborated using non parametric spline smoothing. A seasonality index for each year of life was calculated in order to assess the age-dependency of seasonal effects. Results We found distinctive seasonal variations of mortality with generally higher levels during the cold season. To some extent, a rudimentary secondary summer maximum could be observed. The degree and shape of seasonality changed with the cause of death as well as with location, gender, and SES and was strongly age-dependent. Urban areas were seen to be facing an increased summer mortality peak, particularly in terms of cardiovascular mortality. Generally, children and the elderly faced stronger seasonal effects than youths and young adults. Conclusion This study clearly demonstrated the complex and dynamic nature of seasonal impacts on mortality. The modifying effect of spatial and population characteristics were highlighted. While tropical regions have

  9. Relationships Between Serum and Urine Phosphorus with All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality: the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Julie R.; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Chonchol, Michel; Block, Geoffrey; Laughlin, Gail A.; Lewis, Cora E.; Katz, Ronit; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Cummings, Steve; Orwoll, Eric S.; Ix, Joachim H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Serum phosphorus is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population but may not comprehensively reflect phosphorus homeostasis. Whether urine phosphorus/creatinine ratio (UPi/UCr, a marker of intestinal absorption) or urine fractional excretion of phosphorus (FePi, a marker of urinary phosphorus handling) is associated with risk of mortality or CVD is uncertain. Study Design Prospective observational study. Setting and Participants 1,325 community-dwelling men aged ≥65 years. Predictors Serum phosphorus, UPi/UCr, and FePi. Outcomes All-cause and CVD death. Results Mean age was 74±6 years, eGFR was 75±16 ml/min/1.73m2, and serum phosphorus was 3.2±0.4 mg/dL. During 9.3 years median follow-up, there were 364 deaths (120 CVD deaths). After adjustment for demographics, CVD risk factors, and kidney function, the risks of all-cause death in the highest quartiles of serum phosphorus (≥3.6 mg/dL), UPi/UCr, and FePi were 1.63 (95% CI 1.23-2.17), 1.22 (95% CI 0.90-1.65), and 0.88 (95% CI 0.64-1.23), respectively. Results were similar for CVD death. Results were also similar irrespective of eGFR above or below 60 ml/min/1.73m2. Limitations Older, all male cohort. Few had advanced CKD. Specimens were collected in the morning after an overnight fast. Conclusions In community-living older men, higher serum phosphorus is associated with all-cause and CVD death. In contrast, UPi/UCr and FePi were not. These findings do not support using UPi/UCr or FePi as adjuvant measures to predict risk of mortality or CVD in the general population. PMID:23261120

  10. Relationships between serum and urine phosphorus with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality: the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Julie R; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Chonchol, Michel; Block, Geoffrey; Laughlin, Gail A; Lewis, Cora E; Katz, Ronit; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Cummings, Steve; Orwoll, Eric S; Ix, Joachim H

    2013-04-01

    Serum phosphorus is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population, but may not comprehensively reflect phosphorus homeostasis. Whether urine phosphorus-creatinine ratio (a marker of intestinal absorption) or urine fractional excretion of phosphorus (FEPi; a marker of urinary phosphorus handling) is associated with risk of mortality or CVD is uncertain. Prospective observational study. 1,325 community-dwelling men 65 years or older participating in the MrOS Study. Serum phosphorus, urine phosphorus-creatinine ratio, and FEPi. All-cause and CVD death. Mean age was 74 ± 6 (SD) years, estimated glomerular filtration rate was 75 ± 16 mL/min/1.73 m(2), and serum phosphorus level was 3.2 ± 0.4 mg/dL. During a median follow-up of 9.3 years, there were 364 (120 CVD) deaths. After adjustment for demographics, CVD risk factors, and kidney function, the risks of all-cause death in the highest quartiles of serum phosphorus (≥3.6 mg/dL), urine phosphorus-creatinine ratio (≥0.55), and FEPi (≥18%) were 1.63 (95% CI, 1.23-2.17), 1.22 (95% CI, 0.90-1.65), and 0.88 (95% CI, 0.64-1.23), respectively, compared to the lowest quartiles of each. Results were similar for CVD death. Results also were similar in those with estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥60 and urine specimens were used. In community-living older men, higher serum phosphorus concentrations are associated with all-cause and CVD death. In contrast, urine phosphorus-creatinine ratio and FEPi are not. These findings do not support using urine phosphorus-creatinine ratio or FEPi as adjuvant measures to predict risk of mortality or CVD in the general population. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Association between resting heart rate across the life course and all-cause mortality: longitudinal findings from the Medical Research Council (MRC) National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ó Hartaigh, Bríain; Gill, Thomas M; Shah, Imran; Hughes, Alun D; Deanfield, John E; Kuh, Diana; Hardy, Rebecca

    2014-09-01

    Resting heart rate (RHR) is an independent risk factor for mortality. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether elevations in childhood and mid-adulthood RHR, including changes over time, are associated with mortality later in life. We sought to evaluate the association between RHR across the life course, along with its changes and all-cause mortality. We studied 4638 men and women from the Medical Research Council (MRC) National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD) cohort born during 1 week in 1946. RHR was obtained during childhood at ages 6, 7 and 11, and in mid-adulthood at ages 36 and 43. Using multivariable Cox regression, we calculated the HR for incident mortality according to RHR measured at each time point, along with changes in mid-adulthood RHR. At age 11, those in the top fifth of the RHR distribution (≥97 bpm) had an increased adjusted hazard of 1.42 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.93) for all-cause mortality. A higher adjusted risk (HR, 95% CI 2.17, 1.40 to 3.36) of death was also observed for those in the highest fifth (≥81 bpm) at age 43. For a >25 bpm increased change in the RHR over the course of 7 years (age 36-43), the adjusted hazard was elevated more than threefold (HR, 95% CI 3.26, 1.54 to 6.90). After adjustment, RHR at ages 6, 7 and 36 were not associated with all-cause mortality. Elevated RHR during childhood and midlife, along with greater changes in mid-adulthood RHR, are associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Outcome Assessments in Clinical Trials of Cryptococcal Meningitis: Considerations on Use of Early Fungicidal Activity as a Potential Surrogate Endpoint for All-Cause Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montezuma-Rusca, Jairo Mauricio; Powers, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Opinion statement Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a common disease in resource-challenged settings, with a high mortality within weeks of disease onset. Mortality remains high with current treatments, so more effective interventions are needed to decrease mortality. There has been interest in using the outcome assessment of quantification of fungus from cerebrospinal fluid as a replacement (surrogate) endpoint for all-cause mortality (ACM) as a means of decreasing sample size in randomized clinical trials in CM. To evaluate a biomarker as a potential surrogate endpoint to replace ACM requires several steps. This paper discusses the issues of determining whether the context of a disease is one where a potential surrogate endpoint is rational, the types of outcome assessments that might qualify as potential surrogates, and the process for evaluation of the evidence that a chosen biomarker is a valid replacement for ACM in the given context of use. We then apply those principles to the context of randomized clinical trials of CM. PMID:26306077

  13. Fruit consumption and physical activity in relation to all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among 70,000 Chinese adults with pre-existing vascular disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaocao Tian

    Full Text Available To assess the associations of fresh fruit consumption and total physical activity with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among Chinese adults who have been diagnosed with cardiovascular disease (CVD or hypertension.During 2004-08, the China Kadoorie Biobank study recruited 70,047 adults, aged 30-79 years, with physician-diagnosed stroke or transient ischaemic attack, ischemic heart disease, or hypertension. Information on diet and physical activity was collected using an interviewer-administered electronic questionnaire. Cox regression was used to yield hazard ratios (HRs for the independent and joint associations of fresh fruit consumption and total physical activity with mortality.At baseline, 32.9% of participants consumed fresh fruit regularly (i.e. >3 days/week and the mean total physical activity were 15.8 (SD = 11.8 MET-hr/day. During ~7-years follow-up, 6569 deaths occurred with 3563 from CVD. Compared to participants with 16.53 MET-hr/day was associated with about 40% lower mortality.Among Chinese adults with pre-existing vascular disease, higher physical activity and fruit consumption were both independently and jointly associated with lower mortality.

  14. Adherence to Mediterranean Diet and All-Cause Mortality After an Episode of Acute Heart Failure: Results of the MEDIT-AHF Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miró, Òscar; Estruch, Ramon; Martín-Sánchez, Francisco J; Gil, Víctor; Jacob, Javier; Herrero-Puente, Pablo; Herrera Mateo, Sergio; Aguirre, Alfons; Andueza, Juan A; Llorens, Pere

    2018-01-01

    The authors sought to evaluate clinical outcomes of patients after an episode of acute heart failure (AHF) according to their adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet). It has been proved that MedDiet is a useful tool in primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. However, it is unknown whether adherence to MedDiet is associated with better outcomes in patients who have already experienced an episode of AHF. We designed a prospective study that included consecutive patients diagnosed with AHF in 7 Spanish emergency departments (EDs). Patients were included if they or their relatives were able to answer a 14-point score of adherence to the MedDiet, which classified patients as adherents (≥9 points) or nonadherents (≤8 points). The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality at the end of follow-up, and secondary endpoints were 1-year ED revisit without hospitalization, rehospitalization, death, and a combined endpoint of all these variables for patients discharged after the index episode. Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated. We included 991 patients (mean age of 80 ± 10 years, 57.8% women); 523 (52.9%) of whom were adherent to the MedDiet. After a mean follow-up period of 2.1 ± 1.3 years, no differences were observed in survival between adherent and nonadherent patients (HR of adherents [HR adh ] = 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.73 to 1.02). The 1-year cumulative ED revisit for the whole cohort was 24.5% (HR adh  = 1.10; 95% CI: 0.84 to 1.42), hospitalization 43.7% (HR adh  = 0.74; 95% CI: 0.61 to 0.90), death 22.7% (HR adh  = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.8 to 1.38), and combined endpoint 66.8% (HR adh  = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.76 to 1.04). Adjustment by age, hypertension, peripheral arterial disease, previous episodes of AHF, treatment with statins, air-room pulsioxymetry, and need for ventilation support in the ED rendered similar results, with no statistically significant differences in mortality (HR adh  = 0.94; 95% CI: 0.80 to 1

  15. High tobacco consumption is causally associated with increased all-cause mortality in a general population sample of 55,568 individuals, but not with short telomeres: a Mendelian randomization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Line; Bojesen, Stig E; Weischer, Maren; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-10-01

    High cumulative tobacco consumption is associated with short telomeres and with increased all-cause mortality. We tested the hypothesis that high tobacco consumption is causally associated with short telomeres and with increased all-cause mortality. We studied 55,568 individuals including 32,823 ever smokers from the Danish general population, of whom 3430 died during 10 years of follow-up. All had telomere length measured, detailed information on smoking history, and CHRNA3 rs1051730 genotype, which is associated with tobacco consumption, determined. In a Mendelian randomization study, we conducted observational, genetic, and mediation analyses. First, tobacco consumption was 21.1 pack-years in non-carriers, 22.8 in heterozygotes and 24.8 in homozygotes (P-trendMendelian randomization analysis, the hazard ratio was 1.08 (1.02, 1.14) per minor CHRNA3 allele in ever smokers. Third, in observational analysis telomeres shortened with -13 base pairs (-18, -8) per doubling in tobacco consumption. In Mendelian randomization analysis, the estimate was +3 base pairs (-10, +15) per minor CHRNA3 allele. Finally, individuals with the shortest vs longest telomeres had a multivariable adjusted hazard ratio of 1.30 (1.13, 1.50) for all-cause mortality; however, in mediation analysis short telomeres explained only +0.4% (-3.5%, +4.3%) of the association between high tobacco consumption and increased all-cause mortality. High tobacco consumption is causally associated with increased all-cause mortality. High cumulative tobacco consumption is associated with short telomeres observationally, but there is no clear genetic association. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  16. Lithium is associated with decrease in all-cause and suicide mortality in high-risk bipolar patients: A nationwide registry-based prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffol, Elena; Hätönen, Taina; Tanskanen, Antti; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Joffe, Grigori; Tiihonen, Jari; Haukka, Jari; Partonen, Timo

    2015-09-01

    Mortality rates, in particular due to suicide, are especially high in bipolar patients. This nationwide, registry-based study analyses the associations of medication use with hospitalization due to attempted suicides, deaths from suicide, and overall mortality across different psychotropic agents in bipolar patients. Altogether 826 bipolar patients hospitalized in Finland between 1996-2003 because of a suicide attempt were followed-up for a mean of 3.5 years. The relative risk of suicide attempts leading to hospitalization, completed suicide, and overall mortality during lithium vs. no-lithium, antipsychotic vs. no-antipsychotic, valproic acid vs. no-valproic acid, antidepressant vs. no-antidepressant and benzodiazepine vs. no-benzodiazepine treatment was measured. The use of valproic acid (RR=1.53, 95% CI: 1.26-1.85, p<0.001), antidepressants (RR=1.49, 95% CI: 1.23-1.8, p<0.001) and benzodiazepines (RR=1.49, 95% CI: 1.23-1.80, p<0.001) was associated with increased risk of attempted suicide. Lithium was associated with a (non-significantly) lower risk of suicide attempts, and with significantly decreased suicide mortality in univariate (RR=0.39, 95% CI: 0.17-0.93, p=0.03), Cox (HR=0.37, 95% CI: 0.16-0.88, p=0.02) and marginal structural models (HR=0.31, 95% CI: 0.12-0.79, p=0.02). Moreover, lithium was related to decreased all-cause mortality by 49% (marginal structural models). Only high-risk bipolar patients hospitalized after a suicide attempt were studied. Diagnosis was not based on standardized diagnostic interviews; treatment regimens were uncontrolled. Maintenance therapy with lithium, but not with other medications, is linked to decreased suicide and all-cause mortality in high-risk bipolar patients. Lithium should be considered for suicide prevention in high-risk bipolar patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980-2015 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Haidong; Naghavi, Mohsen; Allen, Christine; Barber, Ryan M.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Carter, Austin; Casey, Daniel C.; Charlson, Fiona J.; Chen, Alan Zian; Coates, Matthew M.; Coggeshall, Megan; Dandona, Lalit; Dicker, Daniel J.; Erskine, Holly E.; Ferrari, Alize J.; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Foreman, Kyle; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Fraser, Maya S.; Pullman, Nancy; Gething, Peter W.; Goldberg, Ellen M.; Graetz, Nicholas; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Hay, Simon I.; Huynh, Chantal; Johnson, Catherine; Kassebaum, Nicholas J.; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kulikoff, Xie Rachel; Kutz, Michael; Kyu, Hmwe H.; Larson, Heidi J.; Leung, Janni; Liang, Xiaofeng; Lim, Stephen S.; Lind, Margaret; Lozano, Rafael; Marquez, Neal; Mensah, George A.; Mikesell, Joe; Mokdad, Ali H.; Mooney, Meghan D.; Nguyen, Grant; Nsoesie, Elaine; Pigott, David M.; Pinho, Christine; Roth, Gregory A.; Salomon, Joshua A.; Sandar, Logan; Silpakit, Naris; Sligar, Amber; Sorensen, Reed J. D.; Stanaway, Jeffrey; Steiner, Caitlyn; Teeple, Stephanie; Thomas, Bernadette A.; Troeger, Christopher; VanderZanden, Amelia; Vollset, Stein Emil; Wanga, Valentine; Whiteford, Harvey A.; Wolock, Timothy; Zoeckler, Leo; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Abbafati, Cristiana; Abbas, Kaja M.; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Abreu, Daisy M. X.; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Abyu, Gebre Yitayih; Achoki, Tom; Adelekan, Ademola Lukman; Ademi, Zanfina; Adou, Arsene Kouablan; Adsuar, Jose C.; Afanvi, Kossivi Agbelenko; Afshin, Ashkan; Agardh, Emilie Elisabet; Agarwal, Arnav; Agrawal, Anurag; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Ajala, Oluremi N.; Akanda, All Shafqat; Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola; Akinyemiju, Tomi F.; Akseer, Nadia; Al Lami, Faris Hasan; Alabed, Sam