Lloyd, Gwynned; Stead, Joan
Examined the educational exclusion and inclusion of Gypsy Traveller students, exploring how some Scottish schools responded to Traveller student culture and how this led to exclusion. Interviews with school staff, Traveller students, and parents indicated that continuing prejudice and harassment promoted inappropriate school placement and…
Gray, Walter W.
Describes experimental Driver and Traffic Safety Education Center--a project involving a five-phase instructional program, a variety of teaching innovations, and a specially-constructed facility which includes a classroom building, multiple car driving range, simulators, communications equipment, and the most recent electronic teaching devices.…
R .C. SHARMA
Full Text Available Distance Education in Technological AgeRomesh Verma (Editor, New Delhi: Anmol Publications, 2005, ISBN 81-261-2210-2, pp. 419 Reviewed by R C SHARMARegional DirectorIndira Gandhi National Open University-INDIA The advancements in information and communication technologies have brought significant changes in the way the open and distance learning are provided to the learners. The impact of such changes is quite visible in both developed and developing countries. Switching over to online mode, joining hands with private initiatives and making a presence in foreign waters, are some of the hallmarks of the open and distance education (ODE institutions in developing countries. The compilation of twenty six essays on themes as applicable to ODE has resulted in the book, Distance Education in Technological Age. These essays follow a progressive style of narration, starting from describing conceptual framework of distance education, how the distance education was emerged on the global scene and in India, and then goes on to discuss emergence of online distance education and research aspects in ODE. The initial four chapters provide a detailed account of historical development and growth of distance education in India and State Open University and National Open University Model in India . Student support services are pivot to any distance education and much of its success depends on how well the support services are provided. These are discussed from national and international perspective. The issues of collaborative learning, learning on demand, life long learning, learning-unlearning and re-learning model and strategic alliances have also given due space by the authors. An assortment of technologies like communication technology, domestic technology, information technology, mass media and entertainment technology, media technology and educational technology give an idea of how these technologies are being adopted in the open universities. The study
Fossil fuels including coal play a key role as crucial energies in contributing to economic development in Asia. On the other hand, its limited quantity and the environmental problems causing from its usage have become a serious global issue and a countermeasure to solve such problems is very much demanded. Along with the pursuit of sustainable development, environmentally-friendly use of highly efficient fossil resources should be therefore, accompanied. Kyushu-university‧s sophisticated research through long years of accumulated experience on the fossil resources and environmental sectors together with the advanced large-scale commercial and empirical equipments will enable us to foster cooperative research and provide internship program for the future researchers. Then, this program is executed as a consignment business from the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry from 2007 fiscal year to 2009 fiscal year. The lecture that uses the textbooks developed by this program is scheduled to be started a course in fiscal year 2010.
Full Text Available There is a false notion that public school can educate great students. Facing diversity of students’ potential, different timing of growth pattern and varieties of home preparation of students to be a assiduous learner it is serious challenging task. Schools offer a general education to all with some attention to the diversity of students. It is home education, dealing with concentration habits during learning process, valuing educational process and respecting the rules of group learning that are influential in acquiring most from the educational opportunities. School is not able to go against the home culture and re-educate students to behave as a concern and diligent learner if these habits are not emphasized or supported at home. Public education in US is ranked between 18 to 22 in the world (according to different sources. Comparing with the world, American schools as the whole rank first for school structures, are number one for allocation of school budget, the emphasis and requirements of teacher education is number one. America expenditure per student exceed the top ten of the world combined. It is the lack of home education of learning demeanor and respecting the learning process that causes the inferiority. Physical education faces the same general dilemma at school having a very diverse group of students within variety of growth stages, potentials, sizes and capabilities based on their previous experiences. Decent general physical education at school can only offer a limited advancement. It is the responsibilities of parents to learn about the specifics of healthy growth and suitable skill development for their unique child. It is their parental task to act responsibly for the healthy growth of their child concerning: bone density and health, muscular strength, size and endurance, heart development to endure the stress of activities and function well, the range of motion of joints and finally their weight management. All the above
Ingman, Stan; Amin, Iftekhar; Clarke, Egerton; Brune, Kendall
As low income societies experience rapid aging of their populations, they face major challenges in developing educational policies to prepare their workforce for the future. We review modest efforts undertaken to assist colleagues in three societies: Mexico, China, and Jamaica. Graduate education in gerontology has an important opportunity to…
McGuire, Sandra L.
Life expectancy is increasing worldwide. Unfortunately, people are generally not prepared for this long life ahead and have ageist attitudes that inhibit maximizing the "longevity dividend" they have been given. Aging education can prepare people for life's later years and combat ageism. It can reimage aging as a time of continued…
Pill, Shane; SueSee, Brendan
Many physical education curriculum frameworks include statements about the inclusion of critical inquiry processes and the development of creativity and problem-solving skills. The learning environment created by physical education can encourage or limit the application and development of the learners' cognitive resources for critical and creative…
Tyree, Carolyn L.; And Others
Although the current educational climate stresses a back-to-basics approach, there is nonetheless overwhelming evidence of a need for an appropriately structured parenting education program in the public school curriculum. Reasons for this need include the large number of teenage pregnancies and abortions. These lead teens to miss high school…
Martorell, S.; Marton, I.; Carlos, S.; Sanchez, A.I.
This paper proposes a new approach to Ageing Probabilistic Safety Assessment (APSA) modelling, which is intended to be used to support risk-informed decisions on the effectiveness of maintenance management programs and technical specification requirements of critical equipment of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) within the framework of the Risk Informed Decision Making according to R.G. 1.174 principles. This approach focuses on the incorporation of not only equipment ageing but also effectiveness of maintenance and efficiency of surveillance testing explicitly into APSA models and data. This methodology is applied to a motor-operated valve of the auxiliary feed water system (AFWS) of a PWR. This simple example of application focuses on a critical safety-related equipment of a NPP in order to evaluate the risk impact of considering different approaches to APSA and the combined effect of equipment ageing and maintenance and testing alternatives along NPP design life. The risk impact of several alternatives in maintenance strategy is discussed
Wanda Pereira Patrocinio
Full Text Available In this study were performed educational interventions in two groups of elderly from the perspective of Paulo Freire and the politics of aging assets (WHO. The themes were chosen by the participants and the program consisted of a 150-minute weekly meeting, from August to December 2009. The present article focuses on the pedagogical course developed and carry out a reflection on the effectiveness of the program on attitudes toward aging, the subjective well-being and health of older people.
Breivik, Patricia Senn
To be effective in the current rapidly changing environment, individuals need more than a knowledge base. They also need information literacy which includes techniques for exploring new information, synthesizing it, and using it in practical ways. Undergraduate education should focus on such resource-based learning directed at problem solving.…
Wisniewski, Lech; Alper, Sandra
This paper presents five systematic phases for bringing about successful regular education inclusion of students with severe disabilities. Phases include develop networks within the community, assess school and community resources, review strategies for integration, install strategies that lead to integration, and develop a system of feedback and…
Mooij, Ton; Dijkstra, Elma; Walraven, Amber; Kirschner, Paul A.
At the start of preschool, four-year-old pupils differ in their development, including the capacity to self-regulate their playing and learning. In preschool and primary school, educational processes are generally adapted to the mean age of the pupils in class. The same may apply to ICT-based
Clarke, Paul T.
In the West, sex education has always been a taboo subject that continues to challenge the public schools. Drawing on recent developments in some Canadian provinces, I argue that we cannot begin to address the issue of responsible sex education until we first acknowledge that students themselves have a moral and constitutional right to this kind…
Heilman, Elizabeth E.
Linking to voices from the world is exciting for both students and teachers, but everyone needs to understand that global education is a form of citizenship education. The activities of the nation have a great effect on people in the rest of the world, whether in the realm of economics, diplomacy, the media, or the environment. Some states, like…
Jeronen, Eila; Palmberg, Irmeli; Yli-Panula, Eija
There are very few studies concerning the importance of teaching methods in biology education and environmental education including outdoor education for promoting sustainability at the levels of primary and secondary schools and pre-service teacher education. The material was selected using special keywords from biology and sustainable education…
Dennis, Everette E.; Meyer, Philip; Sundar, S. Shyam; Pryor, Larry; Rogers, Everett M.; Chen, Helen L.; Pavlik, John
Includes thoughts of seven educators on the place of digital communication in journalism and mass communication education. Discusses communication scholars and the professional field's readiness for the digital age. Notes educators' attitudes towards technology and technology's applications in education. (PM)
The rapid development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy has necessarily led to an increasing demand for manpower trained in the various branches of nuclear science and technology. The expansion of education and training in these fields has not always been able to keep pace with the steady rise in demand, and many countries have been faced with the problem of an acute shortage of trained personnel. Training in nuclear science and technology is one of the major problems that are being tackled by the International Atomic Energy Agency. But obviously a problem of this magnitude cannot be solved solely by the direct effort of international organizations; its solution would call for the concerted effort of every nation interested in the development of atomic energy. Besides, there must be a suitable educational base for the success of any kind of advanced training. In other words, general educational institutions will have to complete the groundwork that must precede any kind of specialization in nuclear science and technology. The need has long been felt for an exchange of expert views on the subject, for a detailed discussion of the problem as a whole. This was recently done at an international seminar organized jointly by IAEA and UNESCO, the two international bodies which have major responsibilities in this field. The opening session of the seminar was followed by four main sessions. The first session dealt with the role of the universities in nuclear education, the second was concerned with education in nuclear technology in the engineering colleges, the third one discussed the education and training at nuclear research centres and the fourth session was devoted to the role of international organizations in this field. The four main sessions were complemented by panel discussions on (a) nuclear education at the secondary school level, (b) nuclear education at the advanced University level, (c) training in health physics, and (d) special problems. During the
Heikkilä, Katriina; Kelly, Yvonne; Renfrew, Mary J; Sacker, Amanda; Quigley, Maria A
Our aim was to investigate whether the duration of breastfeeding, at all or exclusively, is associated with educational achievement at age 5. We used data from a prospective, population-based UK cohort study, the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS). 5489 children from White ethnic background born at term in 2000-2001, attending school in England in 2006, were included in our analyses. Educational achievement was measured using the Foundation Stage Profile (FSP), a statutory assessment undertaken by teachers at the end of the child's first school year. Breastfeeding duration was ascertained from interviews with the mother when the child was 9 months old. We used modified Poisson's regression to model the association of breastfeeding duration with having reached a good level of achievement overall (≥78 overall points and ≥6 in 'personal, social and emotional development' and 'communication, language and literacy' points) and in specific areas (≥6 points) of development. Children who had been breastfed for up to 2 months were more likely to have reached a good level of overall achievement [adjusted rate ratio (RR): 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.19] than never breastfed children. This association was more marked in children breastfed for 2-4 months (adjusted RR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.29) and in those breastfed for longer than 4 months (adjusted RR: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.26). The associations of exclusive breastfeeding with the educational achievement were similar. Our findings suggest that longer duration of breastfeeding, at all or exclusively, is associated with better educational achievement at age 5. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available The American Heart Association (AHA advocates for CPR education as a requirement of secondary school curriculum. Unfortunately, many states have not adopted CPR education. Our aim was to investigate a low-cost, time effective method to educate students on Basic Life Support (BLS, including reeducation. This is a prospective, randomized study. Retention was assessed at 4 months post-initial education. Education was performed by AHA-certified providers during a 45-minute physical education class in a middle school in Florida. This age provides opportunities for reinforcement through high school, with ability for efficient learning. The study included 41 Eighth grade students. Students were randomized into two groups; one group received repeat education 2 months after the first education, the second group did not. All students received BLS education limited to chest compressions and usage of an Automated External Defibrillator. Students had skills and knowledge tests administered pre- and post-education after initial education, and repeated 2 and 4 months later to assess retention. There was a significant increase in CPR skills and knowledge when comparing pre- and post-education results for all time-points (p < 0.001. When assessing reeducation, a significant improvement was noted in total knowledge scores but not during the actual steps of CPR. Our study indicates significant increase in CPR knowledge and skills following a one-time 45-minute session. Reeducation may be useful, but the interval needs further investigation. If schools across the United States invested one 45–60-minute period every school year, this would ensure widespread CPR knowledge with minimal cost and loss of school time.
Burdman, Geral Dene M.
This study of futurism is important to gerontology in order to bridge the gap between theory, policy statement, and actual practice in the field of aging. There is a need to prepare competent individuals for direct service, and to provide increased exposure to gerontology throughout the curriculum. (Author/LPG)
Magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy are presented. The booklet prepared is the second of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. Excerpts from the magazines include the history of solar energy, mythology and tales, and selected poetry on the sun. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)
McCrystal, Patrick; Winning, Kerry
Drug misuse in Northern Ireland, like many parts of the world, is becoming one of the major issues facing society today. A first stage to addressing this problem is effective drugs education and prevention strategies to school-aged young people. A survey of a range of education providers including mainstream and special needs schools, and school…
Kurth, Jennifer; Mastergeorge, Ann M.
The purpose of this study is to describe the educational programs for adolescents with autism (age 12-16 years) in inclusion and noninclusion settings as reflected in their Individual Education Plan (IEP) goals, services, and curricular adaptations. Students who were included in general education math and language arts instruction had fewer…
Some of the most common forms of renewable energy are presented in this textbook for students. The topics include solar energy, wind power hydroelectric power, biomass ocean thermal energy, and tidal and geothermal energy. The main emphasis of the text is on the sun and the solar energy that it yields. Discussions on the sun's composition and the relationship between the earth, sun and atmosphere are provided. Insolation, active and passive solar systems, and solar collectors are the subtopics included under solar energy. (BCS)
Long, David E.
A college science education instructor tells his students he rejects evolution. What should we think? The scene unfolds in one of the largest urban centers in the world. If we are surprised, why? Expanding on Federica Raia's (2012) first-hand experience with this scenario, I broaden her discussion by considering the complexity of science education in a secular age. Enjoining Raia within the framework of Charles Taylor's A Secular Age, I task the science education community to consider the broad strokes of science, religious faith, and the complexity of modernity in its evolving, hybridized forms. Building upon anthropological approaches to science education research, I articulate a framework to more fully account for who, globally, is a Creationist, and what this means for our views of ethically responsive science education.
Adams, Catherine A.; Thompson, Terrie Lynn
This article argues the importance of including significant technologies-in-use as key qualitative research participants when studying today's digitally enhanced learning environments. We gather a set of eight heuristics to assist qualitative researchers in "interviewing" technologies-in-use (or other relevant objects), drawing on concrete…
Lam, Max; Eng, Goi Khia; Rapisarda, Attilio; Subramaniam, Mythily; Kraus, Michael; Keefe, Richard S E; Collinson, Simon Lowes
The complex interplay of education, age, and cognitive performance on various neuropsychological tests is examined in the current study. New education indices were formulated and further investigated to reveal how age and education variances work together to account for performance on neuropsychological tests. Participants were 830 English-speaking ethnic Chinese. Neuropsychological measures such as Verbal Memory, Digit Sequencing, Token Motor Task, Semantic Fluency, Symbol Coding, Tower of London, Judgment of Line Orientation, and Matrix Reasoning of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale were administered. Education was measured by total years of education and adjusted years of education, as well as ratios of both measures with age. Age and education were associated with neuropsychological performance. Adjusted years of education was associated with fluency and higher cognitive processes, while the ratio between adjusted years of education and age was associated with tasks implicating working memory. Changes in education modalities implicated tasks requiring language abilities. Education and age represent key neurodevelopmental milestones. In light of our findings, special consideration should to be given when neuropsychological assessments are carried out in cross-cultural contexts and in societies where educational systems and pedagogy tend to be complex. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Wallin, Johan Albert; Tkocz, Izabella; Kristensen, Gustav
estimation, which includes the covariance matrix of four single equation residuals, improves the accuracy of age determination. The standard deviation, however, of age prediction remains 12.58 years. An experimental split of the data was made in order to demonstrate that the use of subgroups gives a false...
Full Text Available The article analyzes the phenomenon of the demographic ageing of the population and educational opportunities for older adults in Lithuania. Ageing population is a natural outcome of demographic evolution of society. However, a growing number of older people in Lithuania as well as in other European countries requires continuous revision of societal resources in social security, economics, education, health care areas and their adjustment to the new demands. Though current discussion in Lithuania highlights the inclusion of older adults into active social life through educational activities, the studies in diverse areas show that a small number of older people take part in lifelong learning. For this reason and in the attempt to make older people feel satisfaction with life it is necessary to encourage their activity, to promote their social roles, to give them opportunities to take up voluntary tasks, educational and cultural functions and study new subjects.
Dobie, Robert A; Wojcik, Nancy C
The US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Noise Standard provides the option for employers to apply age corrections to employee audiograms to consider the contribution of ageing when determining whether a standard threshold shift has occurred. Current OSHA age-correction tables are based on 40-year-old data, with small samples and an upper age limit of 60 years. By comparison, recent data (1999-2006) show that hearing thresholds in the US population have improved. Because hearing thresholds have improved, and because older people are increasingly represented in noisy occupations, the OSHA tables no longer represent the current US workforce. This paper presents 2 options for updating the age-correction tables and extending values to age 75 years using recent population-based hearing survey data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Both options provide scientifically derived age-correction values that can be easily adopted by OSHA to expand their regulatory guidance to include older workers. Regression analysis was used to derive new age-correction values using audiometric data from the 1999-2006 US NHANES. Using the NHANES median, better-ear thresholds fit to simple polynomial equations, new age-correction values were generated for both men and women for ages 20-75 years. The new age-correction values are presented as 2 options. The preferred option is to replace the current OSHA tables with the values derived from the NHANES median better-ear thresholds for ages 20-75 years. The alternative option is to retain the current OSHA age-correction values up to age 60 years and use the NHANES-based values for ages 61-75 years. Recent NHANES data offer a simple solution to the need for updated, population-based, age-correction tables for OSHA. The options presented here provide scientifically valid and relevant age-correction values which can be easily adopted by OSHA to expand their regulatory guidance to
Full Text Available Letter Digit Substitution Test (LDST is based on earlier developed substitution tests – the Wechsler's Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST and the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT. The performance on these tests depends on many different cognitive processes, including visual scanning, mental flexibility, sustained attention, psychomotor speed, and the speed of information processing. The LDST consists of "over-learned" signs – letters and digits – and participants only have to learn the letter-digit association, which makes performance relatively less dependent on memory and complex visual processes than it is in the DSST or SDMT. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent age, sex, level of education of the participants and level of education of their parents influence LDST performance. A total of 334 participants (191 females aged 18-25 years were included in the study. Females and higher-level educated participants outperformed males and lower-level educated participants. Parents educational level only indirectly influenced the performance on the LDST, possibly through the participants level of education. Additionally, we derived normative data for the LDST for the ages between 18 and 25 years. Normative data in percentiles and z-values for the ages 18 to 25 years are presented, according to sex and level of education, which is compatible with and supplements the previously reported norms in other studies.
Wallin, Johan Albert; Tkocz, Izabella; Kristensen, Gustav
estimation, which includes the covariance matrix of four single equation residuals, improves the accuracy of age determination. The standard deviation, however, of age prediction remains 12.58 years. An experimental split of the data was made in order to demonstrate that the use of subgroups gives a false...... impression of higher precision of age determination. The present study demonstrates that determination of age at death through microscopic bone morphometry is considerably less precise than generally stated in the literature.......Histomorphometric semi-automatic image analysis of cross-sections of 101 femoral diaphyseal bone sections were performed to reconsider to what degree osteon remodelling in the outer cortex is affected by age. The data were analysed statistically using the generalized least squares method. The model...
Philip, Donald N.
This paper examines the Knowledge Age and how economic factors are causing educators to rethink and reinvent education. Two key factors in education in the Knowledge Age will be education for an economy of innovation, and the increasing virtualization of education. We present knowledge building pedagogy as a model for education in the Knowledge…
Musso, Carlos G; Oreopoulos, Dimitrios G
In addition to the structural changes in the kidney associated with aging, physiological changes in renal function are also found in older adults, such as decreased glomerular filtration rate, vascular dysautonomia, altered tubular handling of creatinine, reduction in sodium reabsorption and potassium secretion, and diminished renal reserve. These alterations make aged individuals susceptible to the development of clinical conditions in response to usual stimuli that would otherwise be compensated for in younger individuals, including acute kidney injury, volume depletion and overload, disorders of serum sodium and potassium concentration, and toxic reactions to water-soluble drugs excreted by the kidneys. Additionally, the preservation with aging of a normal urinalysis, normal serum urea and creatinine values, erythropoietin synthesis, and normal phosphorus, calcium and magnesium tubular handling distinguishes decreased GFR due to normal aging from that due to chronic kidney disease. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Smith, J.S. Jr.; Wengrovitz, M.A.; DeLong, B.S.
One hundred twelve cases of blunt splenic rupture were prospectively entered (October 1987-October 1991) into surgical or nonsurgical management groups using these criteria for the nonsurgical group: hemodynamic stability-age less than 55 years-CT scan appearance of grade I, II, or III injury-absence of concomitant injuries precluding abdominal assessment+absence of other documented abdominal injuries. All ages were included and AAST injury scaling was used. Patients were grouped from the trauma room. The surgical treatment group included 66 patients (49 splenectomies, 17 splenorraphies). These patients were generally older and more severely injured, required more transfused blood, and a longer ICU stay. The nonsurgical group included 46 patients with 33 older than 14 years. There were 3 patients over the age of 55 years inappropriately included in this group, and nonsurgical therapy failed in all three. Statistical analysis (chi 2) showed that more splenic injuries were observed and more spleens were saved with these criteria applied prospectively compared with a previous retrospective series in the same institution. The series had a success rate of 93%, and validates the criteria used for safe, nonsurgical management of the ruptured spleen and adds a new criterion: a maximum age of 55 years
Smith, J.S. Jr.; Wengrovitz, M.A.; DeLong, B.S. (Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey (United States))
One hundred twelve cases of blunt splenic rupture were prospectively entered (October 1987-October 1991) into surgical or nonsurgical management groups using these criteria for the nonsurgical group: hemodynamic stability-age less than 55 years-CT scan appearance of grade I, II, or III injury-absence of concomitant injuries precluding abdominal assessment+absence of other documented abdominal injuries. All ages were included and AAST injury scaling was used. Patients were grouped from the trauma room. The surgical treatment group included 66 patients (49 splenectomies, 17 splenorraphies). These patients were generally older and more severely injured, required more transfused blood, and a longer ICU stay. The nonsurgical group included 46 patients with 33 older than 14 years. There were 3 patients over the age of 55 years inappropriately included in this group, and nonsurgical therapy failed in all three. Statistical analysis (chi 2) showed that more splenic injuries were observed and more spleens were saved with these criteria applied prospectively compared with a previous retrospective series in the same institution. The series had a success rate of 93%, and validates the criteria used for safe, nonsurgical management of the ruptured spleen and adds a new criterion: a maximum age of 55 years.
Jacobs, G. M.
Humane education has existed since at least the 18th century (Unti & DeRosa, 2003). This brief chapter begins with a brief definition of humane education and examples of how it can be incorporated in linguistics, cross cultural studies and foreign language education. Next, the chapter discusses why humane education constitutes an important…
Full Text Available There are very few studies concerning the importance of teaching methods in biology education and environmental education including outdoor education for promoting sustainability at the levels of primary and secondary schools and pre-service teacher education. The material was selected using special keywords from biology and sustainable education in several scientific databases. The article provides an overview of 24 selected articles published in peer-reviewed scientific journals from 2006–2016. The data was analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Altogether, 16 journals were selected and 24 articles were analyzed in detail. The foci of the analyses were teaching methods, learning environments, knowledge and thinking skills, psychomotor skills, emotions and attitudes, and evaluation methods. Additionally, features of good methods were investigated and their implications for teaching were emphasized. In total, 22 different teaching methods were found to improve sustainability education in different ways. The most emphasized teaching methods were those in which students worked in groups and participated actively in learning processes. Research points toward the value of teaching methods that provide a good introduction and supportive guidelines and include active participation and interactivity.
Leson, Suzanne M.; Van Dussen, Daniel J.; Ewen, Heidi H.; Emerick, Eric S.
Workers serving Ohio's aging population will require increased levels of gerontological education. Using data from 55 Ohio counties, this project investigated the educational needs and reasons for seeking education from professionals in aging. Respondents reported interest in attaining aging related education. Preferred delivery methods included…
Villar, Feliciano; Celdran, Montserrat; Fabà, Josep
The goals of this study were to determine the learning impact of an assignment that consisted of interviewing and analyzing older people's life stories, and to explore how the assignment was evaluated by students. Participants in the study were 122 first-year social education students enrolled in an adult development and aging course. They evaluated the assignment using an eight-adjective questionnaire and were asked about the benefits of the task. Their answers to the questionnaire were then reviewed using content analysis. The results indicated that marks on the life story assignment predicted marks on an exam about basic course concepts. Students considered that the assignment was interesting, useful, and integrated into the course, although most of them also thought that it was very time-consuming. They identified benefits related to the explicit goals of the course (improvement in the learning of developmental concepts, the acquisition of research-related skills, and the deactivation of aging stereotypes) and personal, growth-related benefits. The authors discuss the difficulties posed by the assignment and its usefulness as a complement to more traditional, lecture-based teaching methods in adult development and aging courses.
Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Barak, Sharon
Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are often mainstreamed into the general education system, but are likely to be excluded from physical education (PE) classes. A questionnaire was constructed and utilized to measure PE teachers' self-efficacy (SE) toward inclusion of students with CP in each of three mobility categories (independent, using assistive devices, using wheelchair mobility) and the impact of experience and training on teachers' SE. Participants in the study were 121 PE teachers from different parts of Israel (mean age: 41.02±9.33 years; range: 25.00-59.00 years). Exploratory factor analysis was used to determine the structure of the sub-scales' factors' structure and Cronbach's Alpha reliability was satisfactory (range 0.872-0.941). Independent t-tests were calculated in order to compare the SE of teachers with and without adapted PE experience. Repeated Analysis of Variance was performed to measure within-group differences in SE. Results revealed that the PE teachers' SE in teaching students who use mobility assistive devices or wheelchairs was significantly lower compared to teaching those who walk and run unaided (F=19.11; pteachers' SE towards including CP children who independently ambulate was influenced (pteacher's experience (elementary school practicum). SE in the mobility with assistive device group was also significantly influenced (pteachers' SE and enable greater participation of children with CP in general physical education classes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yenerall, Joseph D.
The University of the Third Age in Finland has evolved from English and French models to include lectures, discussion groups, and research groups. A survey of 165 adult learners found their primary reason for participating was to acquire general education and self-knowledge. Socializing and meeting people were among the lowest ranked motivations.…
... Digital River Education Services acquired Journey Education Marketing (JEM) in August 2010. Some workers... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,975] Digital River Education Services, Inc., a Division of Digital River, Inc., Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI...
The return of the Labour government to power in 1997 brought an increased focus upon inclusive education for children with special educational needs (SEN). Alongside this there has been a desire to enhance the opportunities young people have to access physical education (PE) and school sport. Previous research has shown that children with SEN…
As reflected in the nursing literature, nurses have only recently begun discussing professional responsibilities for avoidance of nuclear war. The literature of the 1950s and 1960s focused on issues of civil defense. The 1970s were mostly silent, but with the onset of the 1980s a few articles identified the need for the nursing profession to recognize the importance of nuclear war prevention. The responsibility of nursing education for including content about nuclear issues has not been discussed in the professional literature. The author surveyed baccalaureate programs of nursing education to determine whether this lack of discussion was reflected in nursing curricula. Responses indicated that the literature does not adequately reflect the level of activity and interest occurring within nursing education about nuclear issues. Nevertheless, because there is so little discussion in the professional literature, an implicit message is sent that nuclear issues are not of importance and that nurses should not openly address them.24 references
Hall, Jill Ann Perry
Through a consensual qualitative research and phenomenological approach, this study explored the function of serving students in Catholic schools with special educational needs. Utilizing a survey, a breadth of data were collected from teachers and administrators on the incidence of special educational needs, services available, accommodations and…
Lee, Yuh-Shiow; Lee, Chia-Lin; Yang, Hua-Te
This study examined the effects of aging and education on participants' false memory for words that were not presented. Three age groups of participants with either a high or low education level were asked to study lists of semantically related words. Both age and education were found to affect veridical and false memory, as indicated in the…
Dobie, Robert A; Wojcik, Nancy C
Objectives The US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Noise Standard provides the option for employers to apply age corrections to employee audiograms to consider the contribution of ageing when determining whether a standard threshold shift has occurred. Current OSHA age-correction tables are based on 40-year-old data, with small samples and an upper age limit of 60?years. By comparison, recent data (1999?2006) show that hearing thresholds in the US population have improved....
Bertelsen, Susan L.; Thompson, Ben
Although the primary focus of physical educators is to increase students' physical activity levels and their knowledge about the importance of movement, they also have the opportunity to affect students' overall wellness by teaching nutrition and how healthy eating contributes to overall health and weight management. Nutrition concepts…
Groot, W.J.N.; Maassen van den Brink, H.
Within marriages husbands typically tend to be older and higher educated than their wife. This paper tries to explain this by analyzing whether age and education differences between spouses have an effect on happiness. Two alternative hypotheses are tested on the relation between age and education
This article discusses relations between happiness and higher education in the age of information, focusing on the need for the university to pursue happiness. Three questions are addressed. First, why should higher education pursue happiness? Second, what are the shapes and characteristics of higher education in the information age? Third, what…
Hoot, James L.; Lumsden, D. Barry
A statewide survey of elementary and secondary teachers in Texas indicates that little attention is currently given to direct teaching about aging or to integrating this content area into the school curriculum. The following questions were asked: (1) To what extent is aging incorporated into the public school curricula? (2) Would increased…
Young, Honor; Költő, András; Reis, Marta; Saewyc, Elizabeth M; Moreau, Nathalie; Burke, Lorraine; Cosma, Alina; Windlin, Béat; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Godeau, Emmanuelle
This paper describes the methodological developments of the sexual health items included in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study since their mandatory inclusion in the study in 2002. The current methodological, ethical and pedagogical challenges in measuring young people's sexual health behaviours are discussed along with the issues associated with the sexual health items introduced to the HBSC study in 2002. The development and piloting of new cross-national items for use in the 2013/14 HBSC data collection are presented and discussed. An international pilot study was undertaken to determine the impact of these proposed changes. Questionnaires and classroom discussion groups were conducted in five pilot countries in 2012/2013 (France, Hungary, Ireland, Portugal and Romania) with a total of 612 school-aged children (age M = 15.55 years, SD = 0.95). The majority of participants in each country provided positive feedback about the appropriateness of the questions. Some small cross-national differences were found in the self-reported quantitative data relating to the appropriateness of the questions (χ 2 = 22.831, df = 9, p = .007, V = .117). Qualitative feedback suggests that for the vast majority of students the phrasing and age-targeting of the questions were considered appropriate. With the exception of a small number of respondents who commented on the clarity and/or personal nature of the content, no specific issues with the questions were identified. These findings provide guidance on the answerability (including the extent of missing and inconsistent data), understandability, acceptability (including in different cultures) and relevance of questions to potential participants. The findings from the pilot study suggest that in general, the questions are understandable, acceptable, and of a high priority to the target population, and that the simplification has significantly reduced the proportion of missing data
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the methodological developments of the sexual health items included in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study since their mandatory inclusion in the study in 2002. The current methodological, ethical and pedagogical challenges in measuring young people’s sexual health behaviours are discussed along with the issues associated with the sexual health items introduced to the HBSC study in 2002. The development and piloting of new cross-national items for use in the 2013/14 HBSC data collection are presented and discussed. Methods An international pilot study was undertaken to determine the impact of these proposed changes. Questionnaires and classroom discussion groups were conducted in five pilot countries in 2012/2013 (France, Hungary, Ireland, Portugal and Romania with a total of 612 school-aged children (age M = 15.55 years, SD = 0.95. Results The majority of participants in each country provided positive feedback about the appropriateness of the questions. Some small cross-national differences were found in the self-reported quantitative data relating to the appropriateness of the questions (χ2 = 22.831, df = 9, p = .007, V = .117. Qualitative feedback suggests that for the vast majority of students the phrasing and age-targeting of the questions were considered appropriate. With the exception of a small number of respondents who commented on the clarity and/or personal nature of the content, no specific issues with the questions were identified. Conclusions These findings provide guidance on the answerability (including the extent of missing and inconsistent data, understandability, acceptability (including in different cultures and relevance of questions to potential participants. The findings from the pilot study suggest that in general, the questions are understandable, acceptable, and of a high priority to the target population, and that the
Pauls, Franz; Petermann, Franz; Lepach, Anja Christina
Analysing the relationship between gender and memory, and examining the effects of age on the overall memory-related functioning, are the ongoing goals of psychological research. The present study examined gender and age group differences in episodic memory with respect to the type of task. In addition, these subgroup differences were also analysed in visual working memory. A sample of 366 women and 330 men, aged between 16 and 69 years of age, participated in the current study. Results indicate that women outperformed men on auditory memory tasks, whereas male adolescents and older male adults showed higher level performances on visual episodic and visual working memory measures. However, the size of gender-linked effects varied somewhat across age groups. Furthermore, results partly support a declining performance on episodic memory and visual working memory measures with increasing age. Although age-related losses in episodic memory could not be explained by a decreasing verbal and visuospatial ability with age, women's advantage in auditory episodic memory could be explained by their advantage in verbal ability. Men's higher level visual episodic memory performance was found to result from their advantage in visuospatial ability. Finally, possible methodological, biological, and cognitive explanations for the current findings are discussed.
Choi, Haeryun; Piro, Joseph M.
This article proposes a way to expand the study of arts education within new contexts of technology and globalization. Drawing upon theories that have informed arts and aesthetic education in the past, the authors suggest new applications for these ideas to ensure that arts education sustains its significance in twenty-first-century society. The…
Yakar, Halide Gamze Ince
Seeking the solution to the problems of contemporary man and approaching the social events through mythology is the other way to use the healing power of literature education. Having served as a guide for people in the past, mythology is the mirror of the past, which indicates the reasons and possible results of the events that have experienced…
failure to participate, school absenteeism, hunger, concentration difficulties, signs of sexual abuse, and accelerated adulthood. The efforts of teachers to create supportive learning environments include; impartial treatment, learning support provision, accessing support services and meeting their learners’ basic needs for food, clothing, love, belonging, reassurance, motivation and encouragement.
McLeod, Donald S.A.; Jonklaas, Jacqueline; Brierley, James D.; Ain, Kenneth B.; Cooper, David S.; Fein, Henry G.; Haugen, Bryan R.; Ladenson, Paul W.; Magner, James; Ross, Douglas S.; Skarulis, Monica C.; Steward, David L.; Xing, Mingzhao; Litofsky, Danielle R.; Maxon, Harry R.
Background: Thyroid cancer is unique for having age as a staging variable. Recently, the commonly used age cut-point of 45 years has been questioned. Objective: This study assessed alternate staging systems on the outcome of overall survival, and compared these with current National Thyroid Cancer Treatment Cooperative Study (NTCTCS) staging systems for papillary and follicular thyroid cancer. Methods: A total of 4721 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer were assessed. Five potential alternate staging systems were generated at age cut-points in five-year increments from 35 to 70 years, and tested for model discrimination (Harrell's C-statistic) and calibration (R2). The best five models for papillary and follicular cancer were further tested with bootstrap resampling and significance testing for discrimination. Results: The best five alternate papillary cancer systems had age cut-points of 45–50 years, with the highest scoring model using 50 years. No significant difference in C-statistic was found between the best alternate and current NTCTCS systems (p = 0.200). The best five alternate follicular cancer systems had age cut-points of 50–55 years, with the highest scoring model using 50 years. All five best alternate staging systems performed better compared with the current system (p = 0.003–0.035). There was no significant difference in discrimination between the best alternate system (cut-point age 50 years) and the best system of cut-point age 45 years (p = 0.197). Conclusions: No alternate papillary cancer systems assessed were significantly better than the current system. New alternate staging systems for follicular cancer appear to be better than the current NTCTCS system, although they require external validation. PMID:26203804
In the context of the managerial and economic restructuring currently underway, this article argues for a systematic policy of labour education meant to empower workers as active participants, critical members and knowledgeable negotiators at the workplace and in society at large. Such labour education is diagnosed firstly in terms of what it is not, by a critique of the dominant brand of "education for work" recently embarked upon by both state and private capital ...
Akelaitis, Arturas V.; Malinauskas, Romualdas K.
Research aim was to reveal peculiarities of the education of social skills among senior high school age students in physical education classes. We hypothesized that after the end of the educational experiment the senior high school age students will have more developed social skills in physical education classes. Participants in the study were 51…
Myers, David E.
Music learning among adults is witnessing rapid escalation as an important area of research and practice among music education professionals. In contrast to the years encompassed by childhood and adolescence, a significant challenge in teaching adults is that average life expectancies in developed countries include some 55 to 65 years beyond age…
An instructional aid is provided for home economics teachers who wish to integrate the subject of solar energy into their classroom activities. This teacher's guide was produced along with the student activities book for home economics by the US Department of Energy Solar Energy Education. A glossary of solar energy terms is included. (BCS)
Miller, Carol; Lacey, Penny; Layton, Lyn
This study evaluated how 30 British primary school classes implemented inclusion of students with special educational needs (SEN) in the curriculum's literacy hour. It examined resources, teaching techniques, timetabling, personnel, classroom organization, location, and training. Findings indicated most SEN students were included in literacy…
Patravali, P; Gaonkar, V
Professors conducted a survey of 160 18-24 year old students attending 4 colleges of Dharwad city of Karnataka in India to examine their opinion concerning ideal marriage age and age difference between spouses. Females tended to prefer a higher marriage age for males than did males (26.5 vs. 25.5), but the difference was not significant. Rural males believed the ideal marriage age for females be 20 years whereas rural females believed it to be 22 years (p .05). Urban females also believed it to be 22 years and urban males reported 21 years. Most students (57.5%), especially 18-19 year olds (77.5%) and females (61.77% vs. 56.36% for males), said the ideal age difference between spouses was under 5 years. Students who were at least 24 years old tended to state 5-10 (60%). Males also preferred this age difference (42.06% vs. 38.23% for females). 2 20-23 year old male students believed the ideal age difference to be more than 10 years. Students' age was significantly associated with their opinion on the ideal age difference between spouses (p .05). Students from extended families and rural areas tended to prefer a 5-10 year age difference between the spouses with a few mentioning more than 10 years whereas students from nuclear families and urban areas preferred under 5 years with no one mentioning more than 10 years (p .05). These results indicated that both males and females prefer to marry after they have completed their education. The advantages of schooling including improved thinking and decision-making abilities allow them to wisely allocate family resources and decide upon an ideal family size.
Care theory is used to describe an approach to global ethics and moral education. After a brief introduction to care ethics, the theory is applied to global ethics. The paper concludes with a discussion of moral education for personal, political, and global domains.
This document, intended for pilot education and flight safety specialists, consists chiefly of a review of the literature on physiological factors that affect pilot education and an examination of environmental factors that should be scrutinized in order to improve the effectiveness of aviation learning facilities. The physiological factors…
Wartman, Steven A; Combs, C Donald
Changes to the medical profession require medical education reforms that will enable physicians to more effectively enter contemporary practice. Proposals for such reforms abound. Common themes include renewed emphasis on communication, teamwork, risk-management, and patient safety. These reforms are important but insufficient. They do not adequately address the most fundamental change--the practice of medicine is rapidly transitioning from the information age to the age of artificial intelligence. Employers need physicians who: work at the top of their license, have knowledge spanning the health professions and care continuum, effectively leverage data platforms, focus on analyzing outcomes and improving performance, and communicate the meaning of the probabilities generated by massive amounts of data to patients given their unique human complexities.Future medical practice will have four characteristics that must be addressed in medical education: care will be (1) provided in many locations; (2) provided by newly-constituted health care teams; and (3) based on a growing array of data from multiple sources and artificial intelligence applications; and (4) the interface between medicine and machines will need to be skillfully managed. Thus, medical education must make better use of the findings of cognitive psychology, pay more attention to the alignment of humans and machines in education, and increase the use of simulations. Medical education will need to evolve to include systematic curricular attention to the organization of professional effort among health professionals, the use of intelligence tools like machine learning and robots, and a relentless focus on improving performance and patient outcomes. [end of abstract].
This study investigated the role of age in life satisfaction judgements among educated adults in Ado – Ekiti. Employing a sample of 544 participants of educated adults in the age cohorts of 20 – 39 years (276), 40 – 59 years (179), and 60+ years (89), selected through a multi-stage sampling, and administering on them Life ...
Objective: The purpose of this study is to explore the influence of age, education and reading ability on neuropsychological tests in Zambia. Methods and Materials: 324 adult participants were recruited from urban and rural areas in Zambia. They had an age range of 19-65 and education range of 5 – 19 years of schooling.
van Ours, J.C.; Veenman, J.M.C.
For immigrants who arrive in a country at a young age it is easier to assimilate than for teenagers.This paper investigates up to what immigration age the educational attainment of young immigrants in the Netherlands is similar to the educational attainment of secondgeneration immigrants, who were
This study investigates the educational attainment of an aging workforce from the perspective of educational credentialing. The research questions are defined as follows: Why are workers over age 50 attaining university degrees? How do they narratively construct the rational for pursuing well-recognized credentials in midlife? The specific focus…
Full Text Available Various design philosophies such as modernism, postmodernism, deconstructivism appeared following industrialization. Such developments have required today, including several research techniques in the design process. To discover “human being” on a user basis in general, the sciences of design have started to analyse researches and data in different disciplines as psychology, sociology, and environmental psychology. Embedding evolving technology to this process, such data are used to develop new topics in design like intangible design, interactive art, computational design, etc. The process of analysing and improving education methods may also add improvement of research methods to the agenda. Creativity, innovation and variations in design sail for infinite choices together with developing research methods, changing skilled new generation and developing technologies. The aim of this research is to point out the failures of design education for the new age learners.
... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must an educational agency or institution include... institution include in its annual notification? (a)(1) Each educational agency or institution shall annually... complaint under §§ 99.63 and 99.64 concerning alleged failures by the educational agency or institution to...
Full Text Available Abstract E–education or electronically transferred continuous education in pathology is one major application of virtual microscopy. The basic conditions and properties of acoustic and visual information transfer, of teaching and learning processes, as well as of knowledge and competence, influence its implementation to a high degree. Educational programs and structures can be judged by access to the basic conditions, by description of the teaching resources, methods, and its program, as well as by identification of competences, and development of an appropriate evaluation system. Classic teaching and learning methods present a constant, usually non-reversible information flow. They are subject to personal circumstances of both teacher and student. The methods of information presentation need to be distinguished between static and dynamic, between acoustic and visual ones. Electronic tools in education include local manually assisted tools (language assistants, computer-assisted design, etc., local passive tools (slides, movies, sounds, music, open access tools (internet, and specific tools such as Webinars. From the medical point of view information content can be divided into constant (gross and microscopic anatomy and variable (disease related items. Most open access available medical courses teach constant information such as anatomy or physiology. Mandatory teaching resources are image archives with user–controlled navigation and labelling, student–oriented user manuals, discussion forums, and expert consultation. A classic undergraduate electronic educational system is WebMic which presents with histology lectures. An example designed for postgraduate teaching is the digital lung pathology system. It includes a description of diagnostic and therapeutic features of 60 rare and common lung diseases, partly in multimedia presentation. Combining multimedia features with the organization structures of a virtual pathology institution will
Kayser, Klaus; Ogilvie, Robert; Borkenfeld, Stephan; Kayser, Gian
E-education or electronically transferred continuous education in pathology is one major application of virtual microscopy. The basic conditions and properties of acoustic and visual information transfer, of teaching and learning processes, as well as of knowledge and competence, influence its implementation to a high degree. Educational programs and structures can be judged by access to the basic conditions, by description of the teaching resources, methods, and its program, as well as by identification of competences, and development of an appropriate evaluation system. Classic teaching and learning methods present a constant, usually non-reversible information flow. They are subject to personal circumstances of both teacher and student. The methods of information presentation need to be distinguished between static and dynamic, between acoustic and visual ones. Electronic tools in education include local manually assisted tools (language assistants, computer-assisted design, etc.), local passive tools (slides, movies, sounds, music), open access tools (internet), and specific tools such as Webinars. From the medical point of view information content can be divided into constant (gross and microscopic anatomy) and variable (disease related) items. Most open access available medical courses teach constant information such as anatomy or physiology. Mandatory teaching resources are image archives with user-controlled navigation and labelling, student-oriented user manuals, discussion forums, and expert consultation. A classic undergraduate electronic educational system is WebMic which presents with histology lectures. An example designed for postgraduate teaching is the digital lung pathology system. It includes a description of diagnostic and therapeutic features of 60 rare and common lung diseases, partly in multimedia presentation. Combining multimedia features with the organization structures of a virtual pathology institution will result in a virtual pathology
Claudia P. Serrano R
Full Text Available Objective: to explore the factors enabling or hindering the implementation of inclusive education policies for the disabled population of Bucaramanga. Methodology: a descriptive study, involving representatives from governmental agencies (EG, members of the faculty boards of educational institutions (DIE and guardians of disabled individuals (APSD. Physical, social, and political obstacles and facilitating factors that could potentially determine the implementation of these policies were analyzed. Data was collected through interviews. Results: there was a total of 2, 32, and 34 participants from the EG, DIE, and APSD groups respectively. Identified obstacles included: lack of strategies to support educational institutions, poor or limited teacher training, high tuition fees, and negative attitude towards disability. The facilitating factors included: availability of places, inclusion of this issue in the political agenda, and desire of the disabled individuals’ families to provide them with education. Discussion: These findings provide useful information for further research on this issue and show how action has been taken, as well as how urgent it is to establish a direct relationship between academia and the public sector to propose strategies for assessing and modifying these policies.
Yutori education (more relaxed education policy) started with the revision of the Courses of Study to introduce 'five-day week system' in 1989, continued with the reduction of the content of school lessons by 30% in 1998, and ended with the introduction of the New Courses of Study in 2011. Focusing on science education, especially in the topics of plasma and nuclear fusion, the modality of the education system in Japan is discussed considering the transition of academic performance based on the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) in comparison with the examples in other countries. Particularly, the issues with high school textbooks are pointed out from the assessment of current textbooks, and the significance and the need for including the topic of 'plasma' in them are stated. Lastly, in order to make the general public acknowledged with plasma and nuclear fusion, it is suggested to include them also in junior high school textbooks, by briefly mentioning the terms related to plasma, solar wind, aurora phenomenon, and nuclear fusion energy. (S.K.)
Yehuda, Rachel; Bierer, Linda M; Andrew, Ruth; Schmeidler, James; Seckl, Jonathan R
In animal models, early life exposure to major environmental challenges such as malnutrition and stress results in persisting cardiometabolic, neuroendocrine and affective effects. While such effects have been associated with pathogenesis, the widespread occurrence of 'developmental programming' suggests it has adaptive function. Glucocorticoids may mediate 'programming' and their metabolism is known to be affected by early life events in rodents. To examine these relationships in humans, cortisol metabolism and cardiometabolic disease manifestations were examined in Holocaust survivors in relation to age at exposure and affective dysfunction, notably lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Fifty-one Holocaust survivors and 22 controls without Axis I disorder collected 24-h urine samples and were evaluated for psychiatric disorders and cardiometabolic diagnoses. Corticosteroids and their metabolites were assayed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS); cortisol was also measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Holocaust survivors showed reduced cortisol by RIA, and decreased levels of 5alpha-tetrahydrocortisol (5alpha-THF) and total glucocorticoid production by GC-MS. The latter was associated with lower cortisol metabolism by 5alpha-reductase and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD) type-2. The greatest decrements were associated with earliest age of Holocaust exposure and less severe PTSD symptomatology. Cardiometabolic manifestations were associated with decreased 11beta-HSD-2 activity. In controls, 5alpha-reductase was positively associated with trauma-related symptoms (i.e., to traumatic exposures unrelated to the Holocaust). Extreme malnutrition and related stress during development is associated with long-lived alterations in specific pathways of glucocorticoid metabolism. These effects may be adaptive and link with lower risks of cardiometabolic and stress-related disorders in later life.
Arpino, Bruno; Solé-Auró, Aïda
We assessed whether education inequalities in health among older people can be partially explained by different levels of active aging among educational groups. We applied logistic regression and the Karlson, Holm, & Breen (KHB) decomposition method using the 2010 and 2012 waves of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe on individuals aged 50+ years ( N = 27,579). Active aging included social participation, paid work, and provision of grandchild care. Health was measured by good self-perceived health, low number of depressive symptoms, and absence of limitations because of health in activities people usually do. We found a positive educational gradient for each of the three health measures. Up to a third of the health gaps between high and low educated were associated with differences in engagement in active aging activities. Policies devoted at stimulating an active participation in society among older people should be particularly focused on lower educated groups.
Cruickshank, Andrea; Porteous, Helen E; Palmer, Michelle A
Little is reported about the nutrition-related needs and preferences of women seeking maternity services, particularly Maori and Pasifika (M&P) women who have higher chronic disease rates in Queensland. Nutrition-related knowledge, needs, behaviours and education preferences were compared between women of M&P ancestry and non-Maori and Pasifika women (NMP). Women (≥18 years) admitted to the postnatal ward were surveyed. Anthropometry, dietary quality, nutrition education preferences, country of birth and ancestry were collected. Analysis included chi-squared and t-tests. The survey was completed by 399 eligible women. Country of birth data suggested 4% of respondents were Pasifika and failed to separately identify New Zealand Maori, whereas 18% of respondents (n=73) reported M&P ancestry. Descriptors were similar between groups (28±5 years; 91% any breastfeeding; 18% gestational diabetes mellitus; p>0.05). However M&P women were less often university educated (M&P:6(9%); NMP:71(22%), p2 children (M&P: 30(54%); NMP:70(30%), pwomen reported heavier weight at conception (M&P:79.0±20.2kg, 29.2±7.5kg/m 2 ; NMP:71.3±18.9kg, 26.3±6.5kg/m 2 , p75%) women did not know their recommended weight gain. Many respondents reported inadequate intake of vegetables (95%), fruit (29%) and dairy (69%) during pregnancy. Two-fifths (38-41%) reported interest in perinatal nutrition education, with topics including healthy eating postpartum. Findings enable targeted service delivery according to women's preferences. Collecting ancestral and maternal data to facilitate the provision of appropriate nutrition education may be critical for achieving optimal maternal outcomes in Maori and Pasifika women. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Roze, Elise; Meijer, Lisethe; Bakker, Attie; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Bos, Arend F.
BACKGROUND: Organohalogen compounds (OHCs) are known to have neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the influence of prenatal exposure to OHCs, including brominated flame retardants, on motor, cognitive, and behavioral outcome in healthy children of school age.
Long, David E.
A college science education instructor tells his students he rejects evolution. What should we think? The scene unfolds in one of the largest urban centers in the world. If we are surprised, why? Expanding on Federica Raia's (2012) first-hand experience with this scenario, I broaden her discussion by considering the complexity of science education…
Nowadays mass media shape the perception of social values and roles. Thus, aspects of media education that deal with various kinds of inequalities influence general sensitivity to diversity and its consequences. In this respect media and intercultural competences interrelate. Not only minorities' rights have to be secured, but also majorities…
Curation of group exhibition, with participating artists: Miren Doiz, Simon Merrifield, Redmond Entwistle, Steven Cottingham, and contributions by Madeline Jones, Dave Martin, Anna Lopatina, Jordan Hoctor, Bev Carter and Ana Daganzo. Grades, student-teacher ratios, employability rates, league tables, student satisfaction surveys, retention capacities, research outputs, fees and debt. We are all aware that a “data culture” dominates formal education, and that numbers define our relation to...
Pestka, Elizabeth; Lim, Swee Hia; Png, Hong Hock
The purpose of this study was to describe the impact of a genomic educational intervention by measuring the extent participants could apply the class content to practice. A sample of 76 nurses employed by Singapore Health Services, Singapore, participated in a nursing genomics seminar in 2008 and completed a survey form with a response rate of 89%. Every respondent was able to identify use of a genomic assessment or intervention item with a patient from their clinical practice. The mean use of genomic assessment and intervention items was 5.8 out of a possible 10. The most frequently used items were assessment of family history information, environmental factors and genomic physical findings. Findings provide evidence that nurses are able to include genomic assessments and interventions in their practice following targeted education. This study highlights how informed nurses are able to apply genomic assessments and interventions to individualize patient care.
There is much of value for educationists in the work of the great Russian novelist and thinker, Fyodor Dostoevsky. This paper explores a key theme in Dostoevsky's later writings: the notion of a "Golden Age". It compares the ideal depicted in Dostoevsky's story "The Dream of a Ridiculous Man" with the implied utopia of the…
Fonseca, Sandra Costa; Flores, Patricia Viana Guimarães; Camargo, Kenneth Rochel; Pinheiro, Rejane Sobrino; Coeli, Claudia Medina
Evaluate the interaction between maternal age and education level in neonatal mortality, as well as investigate the temporal evolution of neonatal mortality in each stratum formed by the combination of these two risk factors. A nonconcurrent cohort study, resulting from a probabilistic relationship between the Mortality Information System and the Live Birth Information System. To investigate the risk of neonatal death we performed a logistic regression, with an odds ratio estimate for the combined variable of maternal education and age, as well as the evaluation of additive and multiplicative interaction. The neonatal mortality rate time series, according to maternal education and age, was estimated by the Joinpoint Regression program. The neonatal mortality rate in the period was 8.09‰ and it was higher in newborns of mothers with low education levels: 12.7‰ (adolescent mothers) and 12.4‰ (mother 35 years old or older). Low level of education, without the age effect, increased the chance of neonatal death by 25% (OR = 1.25, 95%CI 1.14-1.36). The isolated effect of age on neonatal death was higher for adolescent mothers (OR = 1.39, 95%CI 1.33-1.46) than for mothers aged ≥ 35 years (OR = 1.16, 95%CI 1.09-1.23). In the time-trend analysis, no age group of women with low education levels presented a reduction in the neonatal mortality rate for the period, as opposed to women with intermediate or high levels of education, where the reduction was significant, around 4% annually. Two more vulnerable groups - adolescents with low levels of education and older women with low levels of education - were identified in relation to the risk of neonatal death and inequality in reducing the mortality rate.
Neiss, Michelle; Rowe, David C; Rodgers, Joseph L
This study presents a multivariate behavioural genetic analysis of the relationship between education, intelligence and age of first birth. Analyses investigated the mediational role of education in explaining the relationship between intelligence and age of first birth at both the phenotypic and behavioural genetic level. The data come from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), a nationally representative survey that included genetically informative full- and half-sibling pairs (n = 1423 pairs). Respondents were aged 14 to 22 when contacted in 1979. Heritability estimates were 0.32, 0.50 and 0.06 for IQ, education and age of first birth, respectively. Shared environment estimates were 0.35, 0.23 and 0.20 respectively. Common genetic and shared environmental factors were substantial in explaining the relationship between intelligence and education, and also education and age of first birth. Education partially mediated the relationship between intelligence and age of first birth only in the phenotypic analyses. After considering the genetic and shared environmental factors that influence all three variables, evidence for mediation was less convincing. This pattern of results suggests that the apparent mediational role of education at the phenotypic level is in fact the result of underlying genetic and shared environmental influences that affect education, IQ and age of first birth in common.
Harrower, J K; Dunlap, G
Children with autism can benefit from participation in inclusive classroom environments, and many experts assert that inclusion is a civil right and is responsible for nurturing appropriate social development. However, most children with autism require specialized supports to experience success in these educational contexts. This article provides a review of the empirical research that has addressed procedures for promoting successful inclusion of students with autism. Strategies reviewed include antecedent manipulations, delayed contingencies, self-management, peer-mediated interventions, and other approaches that have been demonstrated in the literature to be useful. The article concludes with a discussion of future research needs.
The reality of students' cyber lives has thrust upon educators a new approach: creating character education programs tuned to digital youth that are proactive and aggressive. This will help integrate students' digital activities within the context of the communities in which they live, both local and digital. The digital age beckons a new era of…
... the Higher Education Act including the Pell grant program. 627.220 Section 627.220 Employees' Benefits... of the Higher Education Act including the Pell grant program. (a) Coordination. Financial assistance programs under title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended (HEA) (the Pell Grant program, the...
... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial education programs that include the... Branches and Offices § 303.46 Financial education programs that include the provision of bank products and... participate in one or more financial education programs that involve receiving deposits, paying withdrawals...
Thorsteinsson, Troels; Helms, Anne Sofie; Adamsen, Lis; Andersen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Karen Vitting; Christensen, Karl Bang; Hasle, Henrik; Heilmann, Carsten; Hejgaard, Nete; Johansen, Christoffer; Madsen, Marianne; Madsen, Svend Aage; Simovska, Venka; Strange, Birgit; Thing, Lone Friis; Wehner, Peder Skov; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Larsen, Hanne Baekgaard
During cancer treatment children have reduced contact with their social network of friends, and have limited participation in education, sports, and leisure activities. During and following cancer treatment, children describe school related problems, reduced physical fitness, and problems related to interaction with peers. The RESPECT study is a nationwide population-based prospective, controlled, mixed-methods intervention study looking at children aged 6-18 years newly diagnosed with cancer in eastern Denmark (n=120) and a matched control group in western Denmark (n=120). RESPECT includes Danish-speaking children diagnosed with cancer and treated at pediatric oncology units in Denmark. Primary endpoints are the level of educational achievement one year after the cessation of first-line cancer therapy, and the value of VO2max one year after the cessation of first-line cancer therapy. Secondary endpoints are quality of life measured by validated questionnaires and interviews, and physical performance. RESPECT includes a multimodal intervention program, including ambassador-facilitated educational, physical, and social interventions. The educational intervention includes an educational program aimed at the child with cancer, the child's schoolteachers and classmates, and the child's parents. Children with cancer will each have two ambassadors assigned from their class. The ambassadors visit the child with cancer at the hospital at alternating 2-week intervals and participate in the intervention program. The physical and social intervention examines the effect of early, structured, individualized, and continuous physical activity from diagnosis throughout the treatment period. The patients are tested at diagnosis, at 3 and 6 months after diagnosis, and one year after the cessation of treatment. The study is powered to quantify the impact of the combined educational, physical, and social intervention programs. RESPECT is the first population-based study to examine the
Tan, Oon Seng
The twenty-first century is often described as an age of uncertainty and ambiguity with unprecedented challenges. Those with a creative mind-set however might call this millennium an age of wonder. New technologies and digital media are facilitating imagination and inventiveness. How are we innovating education? Are schools and classroom fostering…
Prevalence of Malnutrition and Effects of Maternal Age, Education and Occupation Amongst Preschool Children Attending Health Centres in a Semi Urban Area of South Western Nigeria. ... Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine ... Children between the ages of 6-11 months had the highest risk for malnutrition.
Christensen, Ivan Lind
of Science Teaching, Social Science Department and the Department of Education. Moving from the rhetoric of international ‘Big Politics’ to the local level of primary schools, the article explores how the Atom for Peace initiative was related to the general science teaching discourse and the already ongoing...... attention has been paid to the impact of the subsequent UNESCO Atoms for Peace initiatives within science education. This article traces the international ideas about the role of education in the atomic age, as they were formulated by central agents within UNESCO’s Natural Science Department, Section...... UNESCO projects. It thus yields new insights into how the ideas of the role of education in the atomic age were translated into action plans, text book revisions and concrete teaching and syllabus recommendations and carried into member states via UNESCO’s educational missions....
Herold, Frank; Dandolo, Jack
Following recent education policy and curriculum changes in England, the notion of inclusion of children with special educational needs in physical education has increasingly become a topic of research interest and concern. It was the aim of this study to explore personal experiences and perspectives of inclusion in physical education. To this end…
Steibel, Nicole Maineri; Olchik, Maira Rozenfeld; Yassuda, Mônica Sanches; Finger, Geisa; Gomes, Irênio
ABSTRACT Memory is a cognitive domain extensively evaluated in the neuropsychiatric setting. Assessment tools with appropriate norms for age and educational level are necessary for the proper interpretation of results. Objective: To present normative data for older adults stratified by age and education for the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT). The effect of age and education on the total and sub-test scores was also analyzed. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving a sample of 233 healthy elderly from a third-age group in Porto Alegre with an average age of 70 (SD 7.9) years and 10.7 (SD 4.8) years of education was carried out. The RBMT is considered an ecologically valid memory test, since it includes tasks similar to everyday situations. The sample was stratified into the following age groups: 60-69 years, 70-79 years and > 80 years. The sample was also divided into individuals with < 8 years and ≥ 8 years of education. Pearson's Chi-squared test and Spearman correlations were used. Results: The elderly participants with low educational level had worse performance on all sub-tests, except the Pictures, Messages, Belongings and Orientation. Older elderly performed worse for total RBMT score and on the Face Recognition, Immediate and Delayed Route, Messages and Belongings subtests (p ≤ 0.005). Conclusion: Education and age significantly influenced RBMT scores. Therefore, norms for this test should be stratified according to these factors. PMID:29213427
Bales, Alison M; Oddo, Anthony R; Dennis, David J; Siska, Robert C; VanderWal, Echo; VanderWal, Harry; Dlamini, Nompumelelo; Markert, Ronald J; McCarthy, Mary C
The Luke Commission, a provider of comprehensive mobile health outreach in rural Swaziland, focuses on human immunodeficiency virus testing and prevention, including the performance of over 100 circumcisions weekly. Educational objectives for medical student global health electives are essential. Learning research methodology while engaging in clinical activities reinforces curriculum goals. Medical care databases can produce clinically significant findings affecting international health policy. Engaging in academic research exponentially increased the educational value of student experiences during an international medical elective. Staff of the Luke Commission, a nongovernmental organization, collected and deidentified information from 1500 Swazi male patients undergoing circumcision from January through June of 2014. Medical students designed studies and analyzed these data to produce research projects on adverse event rates, pain perception, and penile malformations. Institutional review board approval was obtained from the home institution and accompanying senior surgical faculty provided mentorship. First-year medical students enrolled in an international medical elective to explore resource availability, cultural awareness, health care provision, and developing world endemic diseases. While in country, students learned research methodology, collected data, and engaged in research projects. Following the trip, students presented posters at over 10 regional and national meetings. All 4 articles are accepted or under consideration for publication by major journals. During international medical electives the combination of clinical experiences and access to databases from health aid organizations provides the foundation for productive medical student research. All participants benefit from the relationships formed by aid organizations, medical students, and patient populations. Global health research has many complexities, but through careful planning and
Kitamura, Soichiro; Yasuno, Fumihiko; Yamamoto, Akihide; Kazui, Hiroaki; Kudo, Takashi; Matsuoka, Kiwamu; Kiuchi, Kuniaki; Kosaka, Jun; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki; Iida, Hidehiro; Kishimoto, Toshifumi
When the relationship between ageing and changes in personality traits is considered, it is important to know how they are influenced by biological and environmental factors. The present study examined the relationships between various factors associated with the effect of ageing on personality traits, including structural changes of the brain and environmental factors such as education. We recruited 41 healthy subjects. We administered the NEO Five-Factor Inventory to assess personality factors. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed, and regional grey matter (GM) volumes were obtained. We identified associations in the correlation analysis of age, cerebral GM volume, years of education, and the personality trait of openness. Path analysis was used to estimate the relationships among these factors. The path analysis model of age, GM volume, years of education, and the personality trait of openness revealed that age has an indirect negative association with openness through GM volume and years of education. Ageing was related to a decrease in GM volume, which was in turn related to a decrease in the openness score. Older subjects generally had fewer years of education, which was related to a lower openness score. Maintaining openness against the effects of ageing is desirable, and our results imply that interventions against age-related cerebral atrophy and the promotion of opportunities for higher education may contribute to the development and stability of a healthy personality during the adult life course. © 2015 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2015 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.
Serin, Mehmet Koray; Incikabi, Semahat
Mathematics educators have reported on many issues regarding students' mathematical education, particularly students who received mathematics education at different departments such as engineering, science or primary school, including their difficulties with mathematical concepts, their understanding of and preferences for mathematical concepts.…
Macht, Stephanie Alexandra
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to bring attention to "entrepreneurial finance education", an aspect of entrepreneurship education that is widely taught but neglected by the educational literature. It does so by exploring how social capital, a key resource for entrepreneurs, can be incorporated into entrepreneurial finance…
Although multicultural education scholars and the National Association for Multicultural Education (NAME) have encouraged the implementation of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender themes in the classroom (NAME, 2005), many classroom educators look the other way because of fear, retaliation, or personal discomfort. The following article will…
Berge, Britt-Marie; Chounlamany, Kongsy; Khounphilaphanh, Bounchanh; Silfver, Ann-Louise
This article explores possibilities and constraints for the inclusion of female and ethnic minority students in Lao education in order to provide education for all. Females and ethnic minorities have traditionally been disadvantaged in Lao education and reforms for the inclusion of these groups are therefore welcome. The article provides rich…
New reformation project on engineering education, which is supported from 2005 to 2008FY by Support Program for Contemporary Educational Needs of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, started in Kyushu Institute of Technology. In this project, teaching experience of students is introduced into the curriculum of Faculty of Engineering. In the curriculum students try to prepare teaching materials and to teach local school pupils with them by themselves. Teaching experience is remarkably effective for them to strengthen their self-dependence and learning motivation. Science Education Center, Science Laboratory and Super Teachers College were also organized to promote the area cooperation on the education of science and mathematics.
Eckersten, Charlotte; Pylvänen, Lena; Schröder, Ulla; Twetman, Svante; Wennhall, Inger; Matsson, Lars
To investigate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in children who had participated in an oral health programme between the ages 2-5 years, including fluoride tablets from the age of 2 years. The study group consisted of 135 10- to 11-year-old children who had participated in the programme, including parent education, tooth-brushing instruction and prescribed fluoride tablets (0.25 mg NaF) (2-3 years: 1 tablet/day; 3-5 years: 2 tablets/day). The prevalence of dental fluorosis in the study group was compared with that in a nonintervention reference group consisting of 129 children of the same ages. The analysis was based on photos of the permanent maxillary front teeth using the Thylstrup & Fejerskov (TF) Index. No statistically significant difference in prevalence of dental fluorosis was seen between the two groups. Forty-three percent of the children in the study group and 38% in the reference group had fluorosis, the majority of a mild nature (TF-score 1). None had a TF score above 2. The pattern was the same after correction for parent reported intake of tablets at 3 and 5 years of age. Introduction of fluoride tablets at the age of 2 years did not result in increased prevalence of dental fluorosis.
Pound, Pandora; Denford, Sarah; Shucksmith, Janet; Tanton, Clare; Johnson, Anne M; Owen, Jenny; Hutten, Rebecca; Mohan, Leanne; Bonell, Chris; Abraham, Charles; Campbell, Rona
Objectives Sex and relationship education (SRE) is regarded as vital to improving young people’s sexual health, but a third of schools in England lacks good SRE and government guidance is outdated. We aimed to identify what makes SRE programmes effective, acceptable, sustainable and capable of faithful implementation. Design This is a synthesis of findings from five research packages that we conducted (practitioner interviews, case study investigation, National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles, review of reviews and qualitative synthesis). We also gained feedback on our research from stakeholder consultations. Settings Primary research and stakeholder consultations were conducted in the UK. Secondary research draws on studies worldwide. Results Our findings indicate that school-based SRE and school-linked sexual health services can be effective at improving sexual health. We found professional consensus that good programmes start in primary school. Professionals and young people agreed that good programmes are age-appropriate, interactive and take place in a safe environment. Some young women reported preferring single-sex classes, but young men appeared to want mixed classes. Young people and professionals agreed that SRE should take a ‘life skills’ approach and not focus on abstinence. Young people advocated a ‘sex-positive’ approach but reported this was lacking. Young people and professionals agreed that SRE should discuss risks, but young people indicated that approaches to risk need revising. Professionals felt teachers should be involved in SRE delivery, but many young people reported disliking having their teachers deliver SRE and we found that key messages could become lost when interpreted by teachers. The divergence between young people and professionals was echoed by stakeholders. We developed criteria for best practice based on the evidence. Conclusions We identified key features of effective and acceptable SRE. Our best practice
Roze, Elise; Meijer, Lisethe; Bakker, Attie; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N.J.A.; Sauer, Pieter J.J.; Bos, Arend F.
Background Organohalogen compounds (OHCs) are known to have neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. Objective We investigated the influence of prenatal exposure to OHCs, including brominated flame retardants, on motor, cognitive, and behavioral outcome in healthy children of school age. Methods This study was part of the prospective Groningen infant COMPARE (Comparison of Exposure-Effect Pathways to Improve the Assessment of Human Health Risks of Complex Environmental Mixtures of Organoha...
Louw, Adriaan; Zimney, Kory; Johnson, Eldon A; Kraemer, Chris; Fesler, Justin; Burcham, Tyler
Patients' beliefs about their condition have been shown to play a significant role in their pain experience and response to treatment, especially when a patient sees their tissue health as vulnerable or aged. Educational can alter these beliefs. Prior to new information, patients often have to be de-educated regarding common misbeliefs to undergo re-education. To determine if a brief de-education session regarding aging and low back pain (LBP) can shift pain ratings, fear-avoidance beliefs, beliefs regarding aging and LBP, and limited active trunk flexion. Fifty adults ranging from 50 to 93 years of age (SD = 10.73) with a 15.1 years of LBP were education on the poor correlation between aging and LBP. Prior to and immediately after the education pain ratings for LBP and leg pain (numeric pain rating scale-NPRS), fear-avoidance (fear avoidance beliefs questionnaire-FABQ), beliefs regarding aging and LBP (Likert scale) and active trunk flexion were measured. Significant changes were found in positive shifts with LBP (p = 0.002), leg pain (p = 0.042), FABQ-physical activity subscale (p = 0.004) and active trunk forward flexion (p aging result in a positive shift in pain, fear avoidance related to physical activity and active trunk flexion. Prior to providing patients with new healthcare information, de-educating them regarding poor beliefs may be helpful in shifting them towards new, healthier paradigms associated with their condition.
Full Text Available Introduction: Ageing brings different experiences for individuals. Any individual learn about ageing from childhood whatever formal or informal. No matter they learn, what and how they learn is important. This study aimed to assess impact of an educational program on ageism in those people lower 20 years of age. Methods: This interventional study was conducted among school and university students of Babol city, Mazandaran province, Iran. Study was carried out in two stages. First 373 participants (187 school students and 186 university undergraduate students under age of 20 who recruited form Babol department of education and Babol University of Medical Sciences went under study of assessing attitudes toward ageing. In the second stage, courses on lifespan human development were delivered in 10 workshops for 151 people. Sampling method was stratified randomly from different age groups. Workshops consisted of lecturing, discussion, watching movie, reading pamphlets and having conversations with experienced older adults. Data was gathered by a questionnaire consisting of demographic characteristics and The Fraboni Scale of Ageism. Results: The mean of ageism score among school and university students were 49.93 ± 9.25 and 46.96 ± 7.64 respectively. There was statistically significant difference between two groups in ageism scores (p = 0.001 so that ageism was higher among school students However after implementation of education program, ageism score reduced for all 151 students from 46.92 ± 7.82 to 45.85 ± 7.79 which was statistically significant (p = 0.001. Conclusion: Educational program to reduce ageism is beneficial and could reduce the level of ageism. Suggestions for educators to combat ageism are provided.
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Center for Educational and Cultural Opportunities for the Aging.
This document, a policy statement adopted by the New York State Board of Regents in 1986, describes program options to implement each of six policy directions adopted by the Regents and to be coordinated by the Center for Educational and Cultural Opportunities for the Aging. The six policy directions are (1) involve the elderly as active…
This study therefore examined the influence of age, educational achievement and marital status on compliance behaviour of bank automobile drivers to traffic rules and regulations. The sample size consists of 555 randomly selected bank automobile drivers currently employed in 6 commercial banks in Lagos, Nigeria.
Nikki Christina Lee
Full Text Available This study examined age-related changes in a specific aspect of adolescent decision-making, namely the preference for future versus immediate outcomes. A sample of 622 Dutch adolescents aged 12 -17 years completed a temporal discounting task. Participants were asked to choose between a delayed reward of €50 or an immediate reward of lower value. The delay interval was varied in three blocks (1 week, 1 month, 6 months. Results showed that preferences for large delayed rewards over smaller immediate rewards increased with age: late adolescents made more long-term decisions than early adolescents. This change was related to educational track. In the lower educational track, an age-related decrease in discounting was found for all three delay intervals. In the higher educational track this decrease only occurred for the six month delay interval. However, across all delay intervals enrolment in a higher level educational track was associated with an increased preference for long-term rewards. These results suggest that late adolescents are less susceptible to the competing presence of an immediate reward when making long-term decisions, a skill which becomes increasingly important as they transition into adulthood.
The aim of this paper is to describe whether gender, age, religion, education and personality variables (Psychoticism, Extroversion and. Neuroticism) can predict willingness to forgive among a sample of Mafikeng Residents in North West Province, South Africa. Data was collected from two hundred and twenty (220) ...
Ferguson, Roger C.; Leidig, Paul M.; Reynolds, John H.
General education is more than a list of required courses a student must take to complete their degree. For most universities, general education is the groundwork for the student's university experience. These courses span multiple disciplines and allow students to experience a wide range of topics on their path to graduation. Programming classes,…
... Education Tax Credits AGENCY: Department of the Treasury, Departmental Offices. ACTION: Notice and request... feasibility of instituting a community service requirement as a condition for receiving a tax credit for... requirement as a condition for receiving a tax credit for tuition and related expenses. Treasury and Education...
... an educational institution of higher learning for credit toward a standard college degree that the.... The enrollment in an instrument rating course alone does not establish that the individual is pursuing... program of education that leads to a standard college degree. (2) An individual described in paragraph (f...
Doyle, Mary Beth; Giangreco, Michael
This article provides teachers and administrators with a description of foundational principles and curricular approaches to create meaningful educational experiences for secondary students with intellectual disabilities in inclusive general education classes. The four principles provide: (a) the least dangerous assumption, (b) partial…
Menendez, Jose Ignacio; Fernandez-Rio, Javier
The present study aimed to explore the impact of the combination of two pedagogical models, Sport Education and Teaching for Personal and Social Responsibility, for learners with disabilities experiencing a contactless kickboxing learning unit. Twelve secondary education students agreed to participate. Five had disabilities (intellectual and…
Richardson, Kathryn; Bennett, Kathleen; Kenny, Rose Anne
polypharmacy is an important risk factor for falls, but recent studies suggest only when including medications associated with increasing the risk of falls. a prospective, population-based cohort study. 6,666 adults aged ≥50 years from The Irish Longitudinal study on Ageing. participants reported regular medication use at baseline. Any subsequent falls, any injurious falls and the number of falls were reported 2 years later. The association between polypharmacy (>4 medications) or fall risk-increasing medications and subsequent falls or injurious falls was assessed using modified Poisson regression. The association with the number of falls was assessed using negative binomial regression. during follow-up, 231 falls per 1,000 person-years were reported. Polypharmacy including antidepressants was associated with a greater risk of any fall (adjusted relative risk (aRR) 1.28, 95% CI 1.06-1.54), of injurious falls (aRR 1.51, 95% CI 1.10-2.07) and a greater number of falls (adjusted incident rate ratio (aIRR) 1.60, 95% CI 1.19-2.15), but antidepressant use without polypharmacy and polypharmacy without antidepressants were not. The use of benzodiazepines was associated with injurious falls when coupled with polypharmacy (aRR 1.40, 95% CI 1.04-1.87), but was associated with a greater number of falls (aIRR 1.32, 95% CI 1.05-1.65), independent of polypharmacy. Other medications assessed, including antihypertensives, diuretics and antipsychotics, were not associated with outcomes. in middle-aged and older adults, polypharmacy, including antidepressant or benzodiazepine use, was associated with injurious falls and a greater number of falls. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Auger, Nathalie; Delézire, Pauline; Harper, Sam; Platt, Robert W
Associations between risk factors and perinatal outcomes may be biased at preterm gestational ages, if preterm delivery behaves as an effect modifier due to other unmeasured factors in the causal pathway. We evaluated whether fetuses-at-risk denominators could be used in regression models instead of conventional denominators to obtain less biased estimates of the association between maternal education and stillbirth at preterm gestational intervals. Data included 2,143,134 live-born and 8946 stillborn singletons from 1981 through 2006 in Québec, Canada. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated for the relationship between education and stillbirth according to cause of fetal death, adjusting for maternal age, marital status, home language, parity, and period. We examined associations for 4 gestational intervals (education at all gestational intervals. Using conventional denominators, low education (relative to high education) was more strongly associated with term than preterm stillbirth and was apparently protective at education was more strongly associated with preterm stillbirth than term stillbirth, even at education was most strongly associated with diabetic-related stillbirth at ≥28 weeks (odds ratio = 5.04) relative to high education. Low education is associated with stillbirth throughout gestation, especially diabetic-related stillbirth. Use of fetuses-at-risk denominators in regression models can avoid potentially biased estimates obtained with conventional denominators at preterm gestational ages.
Pound, Pandora; Denford, Sarah; Shucksmith, Janet; Tanton, Clare; Johnson, Anne M; Owen, Jenny; Hutten, Rebecca; Mohan, Leanne; Bonell, Chris; Abraham, Charles; Campbell, Rona
Sex and relationship education (SRE) is regarded as vital to improving young people's sexual health, but a third of schools in England lacks good SRE and government guidance is outdated. We aimed to identify what makes SRE programmes effective, acceptable, sustainable and capable of faithful implementation. This is a synthesis of findings from five research packages that we conducted (practitioner interviews, case study investigation, National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles, review of reviews and qualitative synthesis). We also gained feedback on our research from stakeholder consultations. Primary research and stakeholder consultations were conducted in the UK. Secondary research draws on studies worldwide. Our findings indicate that school-based SRE and school-linked sexual health services can be effective at improving sexual health. We found professional consensus that good programmes start in primary school. Professionals and young people agreed that good programmes are age-appropriate, interactive and take place in a safe environment. Some young women reported preferring single-sex classes, but young men appeared to want mixed classes. Young people and professionals agreed that SRE should take a 'life skills' approach and not focus on abstinence. Young people advocated a 'sex-positive' approach but reported this was lacking. Young people and professionals agreed that SRE should discuss risks, but young people indicated that approaches to risk need revising. Professionals felt teachers should be involved in SRE delivery, but many young people reported disliking having their teachers deliver SRE and we found that key messages could become lost when interpreted by teachers. The divergence between young people and professionals was echoed by stakeholders. We developed criteria for best practice based on the evidence. We identified key features of effective and acceptable SRE. Our best practice criteria can be used to evaluate existing programmes
Yan, Xiang; Al-Hayek, Samih; Gan, Weidong; Zhu, Wei; Li, Xiaogong; Guo, Hongqian
This study was undertaken to assess the safety and efficacy of minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mini-PCNL) using ureteroscope and pneumatic intracorporeal lithotripsy in preschool age children with kidney calculi. We studied 27 renal units in 20 patients of preschool age (≤ 6 years) who underwent mini-PCNL at our institute. The mean age was 42.6 months (range 14-68 months). The average stone burden was 1.85 cm (range 0.9-2.8 cm). Eight patients aged 14 to 58 months had been exposed to melamine-tainted powdered formula. The mini-PCNL was performed with an X-ray-guided peripheral puncture. Minimal tract dilatation was undertaken to fit a 14-16 Fr peel-away sheath. Ureteroscope and pneumatic intracorporeal lithotripsy were used to fragment the stones. Complete clearance was achieved in 23 renal units (85.2 %) with mini-PCNL monotherapy. This has increased to 92.6 % after adjunctive ESWL. The average fall in hemoglobin was 1.28 g/dL. None of the patients required blood transfusion. The median length of hospital stay was 8.2 days. Patients were followed up every 6 months for 2 years. There has been only one recurrence of stone and no long-term complications. Mini-PCNL is a effective treatment for pediatric kidney stones refractory to extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, including stones induced by melamine-contaminated milk powder. The "mini-PCNL" technique, which uses ureteroscope and pneumatic intracorporeal lithotripsy, is a safe and feasible modality for treating renal calculi in preschool age children.
Simpson, Richard L.
The involvement of parents in developing individualized education programs (IEPs) for their children with autism is discussed. Essential components of IEP documents are outlined, and strategies that professionals can use to promote significant family involvement are considered. (Author/SW)
Hori, Shigeo; Cusack, Sandra
Lifelong learning is essential to participation in society, and presents important challenges for educational gerontology. This study compares Canadian and Japanese perspectives on (a) attitudes toward aging, (b) the learning needs of older adults, and (c) the role of centers of learning. Surveys were conducted of sample populations in two elder…
Despite legislative mandates, only 32% of states require specific licensure in adapted physical education (APE); consequently, general physical educators are challenged with including students with disabilities into regular classrooms. Although physical education teachers are considered qualified personnel to teach students with disabilities in…
Mirabelli, Maria C; Beavers, Suzanne F; Shepler, Samantha H; Chatterjee, Arjun B
Asthma self-management education improves asthma-related outcomes. We conducted this analysis to evaluate variation in the percentages of adults with active asthma reporting components of asthma self-management education by age at asthma onset. Data from 2011 to 2012 Asthma Call-back Surveys were used to estimate percentages of adults with active asthma reporting six components of asthma self-management education. Components of asthma self-management education include having been taught to what to do during an asthma attack and receiving an asthma action plan. Differences in the percentages of adults reporting each component and the average number of components reported across categories of age at asthma onset were estimated using linear regression, adjusted for age, education, race/ethnicity, sex, smoking status, and years since asthma onset. Overall, an estimated 76.4% of adults with active asthma were taught what to do during an asthma attack and 28.7% reported receiving an asthma action plan. Percentages reporting each asthma self-management education component declined with increasing age at asthma onset. Compared with the referent group of adults whose asthma onset occurred at 5-14 years of age, the percentage of adults reporting being taught what to do during an asthma attack was 10% lower among those whose asthma onset occurred at 65-93 years of age (95% CI: -18.0, -2.5) and the average number of components reported decreased monotonically across categories of age at asthma onset of 35 years and older. Among adults with active asthma, reports of asthma self-management education decline with increasing age at asthma onset.
Atanasoska, Tatjana; Proyer, Michelle
This paper offers first-hand accounts of refugees beyond the age of compulsory education having arrived in Austria during the last five years. Their accounts were collected using qualitative interviews and a visual method to allow for different approaches towards their educational biographies. Nine individual and two group interviews (altogether…
Turrin, M.; Lev, E.; Newton, R.; Xu, C.
Opportunities for authentic research experiences have been shown effective for recruiting and retaining students in STEM fields. Meaningful research experiences entail significant time in project design, modeling ethical practice, providing training, instruction, and ongoing guidance. We propose that in order to be sustainable, a new instructional paradigm is needed, one that shifts from being top-weighted in instruction to a distributed weight model. This model relies on partnerships where everyone has buy-in and reaps rewards, establishing broadened networks for support, and adjusting the mentoring model. We use our successful Secondary School Field Research Program as a model for this new paradigm. For over a decade this program has provided authentic geoscience field research for an expanding group of predominantly inner city high school youth from communities underrepresented in the sciences. The program has shifted the balance with returning participants now serving as undergraduate mentors for the high school student `researchers', providing much of the ongoing training, instruction, guidance and feedback needed. But in order to be sustainable and impactful we need to broaden our base. A recent NSF-INCLUDES pilot project has allowed us to expand this model, linking schools, informal education non-profits, other academic institutions, community partners and private funding agencies into geographically organized `clusters'. Starting with a tiered mentoring model with scientists as consultants, teachers as team members, undergraduates as team leaders and high school students as researchers, each cluster will customize its program to reflect the needs and strengths of the team. To be successful each organization must identify how the program fits their organizational goals, the resources they can contribute and what they need back. Widening the partnership base spreads institutional commitments for research scientists, research locations and lab space
Ajuwon, Paul M.; Lechtenberger, DeAnn; Griffin-Shirley, Nora; Sokolosky, Stephanie; Zhou, Li; Mullins, Frank E.
In this empirical study, the authors compare the perceptions of future general educators on two dichotomous scales (hostility/receptivity and anxiety/calmness) regarding the teaching of students with exceptionalities in their classrooms. A total of 116 teacher candidates from one southwestern and two Midwestern universities in the United States…
Li, Weidong; Rukavina, Paul
In this review, we propose a social ecological constraint model to study inclusion of overweight or obese students in physical education by integrating key concepts and assumptions from ecological constraint theory in motor development and social ecological models in health promotion and behavior. The social ecological constraint model proposes…
... (ii) Any music course, instrumental or vocal, public speaking course or courses in dancing, sports or athletics, such as horseback riding, swimming, fishing, skiing, golf, baseball, tennis, bowling, sports officiating, or other sport or athletic courses, except courses of applied music, physical education, or...
.... Generally, VA will approve, and will authorize payment of educational assistance for the reservist's... learning offers the course for credit toward the standard college degree the reservist is pursuing; or (ii... requirements of § 21.4263(a); and (F) The training for which payment is made occurs after September 29, 1990...
Bossaert, Goele; Colpin, Hilde; Pijl, Sip Jan; Petry, Katja
Social participation of students with special educational needs (SEN) is a key issue in the inclusion debate. However, the meaning of concepts like social integration, social inclusion and social participation used in current literature is often unclear. Recently, these concepts were clarified based on preschool and primary school literature. The…
Bossaert, Goele; Colpin, Hilde; Pijl, Sip Jan; Petry, Katja
Social participation of students with special educational needs (SEN) is a key issue in the inclusion debate. However, the meaning of concepts like social integration, social inclusion and social participation used in current literature is often unclear. Recently, these concepts were clarified based
Creerners, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas
We present results of a longitudinal study in which 50 schools, 113 classes and 2,542 Cypriot primary students participated. We tested the validity of the dynamic model of educational effectiveness and especially its assumption that the impact of school factors depends on the current situation of
The aim of this study was to examine discrepancies between immediate/delayed recall and recall/working memory in middle-aged and older persons by age and education. Participants were 322 healthy individuals from the community who were stratified into three age and three education groups. Immediate and delayed recall distributions of WMS-III Logical Memory (LM) scores approximated normal curves, and LM savings scores showed a significant, but small, effect of age. LM (immediate, delayed) and Letter-Number Sequencing (LNS) discrepancies varied as a function of age and education. The difference between LM and LNS was not significant in the younger and less educated participants, but increased with age in the most educated group, and in the oldest group LNS exceeded LM (immediate and delayed). The results indicate deterioration in encoding and retrieval, rather than storage, with age, and show a differential, but small, effect of age and education on the memory measures. Working memory was resistant to age-related decline relative to immediate and delayed recall in the oldest, most educated group. Delayed recall-working memory discrepancy is relatively stable with age and education and may be a useful index of the onset of memory pathology across different ages and levels of education.
Olson, Michele S.; Esco, Michael R.; Willifo, Hank
The purpose of this study was to examine body image concerns in college-aged male physical education majors. Sixty volunteers completed validated body image instruments including two-dimensional figure drawings. In general, the sample reported that they preferred a larger, more muscular physique reflective of male images that currently abound the…
Nanda van der Stap; Jeroen Bottema; Maurice Schols; Bas Bakker; Hans van Bergen; Jan-Willem Doornenbal; Joke Voogt; Anna Tomson; Michael Nieweg
The assumption underlying the symposium is that teacher education institutions have a dual challenge. On the one hand they need to prepare pre-service students for teaching and facilitating learning in the digital age, including the use of technology in teaching and learning. On the other hand
Voogt, J.; Schols, M.; Bottema, J.; van Bergen, H.; van der Stap, N.; Tomson, A.; Nieweg, M.; Doornenbal, J.W.; Bakker, B.; Smits, A.; Thompson, A.; Searson, M.; Ochoa, M.
The assumption underlying the symposium is that teacher education institutions have a dual challenge. At the one hand they need to prepare pre-service students for teaching and facilitating learning in the digital age, including the use of technology in teaching and learning. At the other hand
Abrams, Laura S.; Franke, Todd M.
In this study, the authors explore correlates of engagement in postsecondary educational programs (including technical/trade schools, 2-year colleges, and 4-year colleges) among young men who served mandatory probation camp sentences as juveniles. A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted with a sample of 75 men (average age of 20.5) who…
Full Text Available Studies have shown that a positive attitude towards physical education (PE is in connection with students' engagement in PE classes and with the development of an active lifestyle. The objective of this study was to examine attitudes of early adolescent age students towards physical education, as well as to examine whether such attitudes vary with regard to gender, grade they attend and students' engagement in sport and physical exercises in extracurricular activities. The research was conducted on the sample of 531 students from 6th to 8th grade. The instrument Student's Attitudes toward Physical Education - SATPE was used to measure student's attitude towards PE. A special questionnaire was used to collect data on gender, grade and engagement in sport and physical exercising outside school. The results have shown that students have positive attitudes of moderate intensity towards physical education. MANOVA has shown that male students have more positive attitudes than female students, as well as that positivity of attitudes declines with age. Likewise, it was shown that students with more positive attitudes towards PE are more often engaged in physical exercises outside school. The connection between the attitude towards PE and involvement in organized sport was not confirmed. The paper presents suggestions for further research of students' attitude towards PE and its connection with physical activity of students.
Gróf, Marek; Vagašová, Tatiana; Oltman, Marián; Skladaný, Ľubomír; Maličká, Lenka
The economy of each state provides a significant amount of money into the health care system with the aim of knowing the health status of its population in the context of socioeconomic characteristics for effective resource allocation. In recent years, there is a growing number of cancer deaths in Slovakia. Therefore, the structure of cancer deaths according to its primary determinants, such as age, sex and education with the aim of effective implementation of prevention programs in Slovakia was examined. Main source of data on deaths from 1996 to 2014 was provided by National Health Information Centre in Slovakia. However, data were available only from 2011. Standardized mortality rate per 100,000 inhabitants was estimated by the method of direct standardization using European standard population. The R project for statistical computing was used for calculation of statistically significant differences among various groups of mortality. The results show that people with primary education die from cancer later than people with higher education. However, major differences related to both sex and age are present in people with university education. A different variety of cancers occur in childhood (neoplasm of brain), adolescents (neoplasm of bone), young adults (neoplasm of brain), or adults (lung cancer and breast cancer). Malignant neoplasm of brain was more prevalent at higher education levels, Malignant neoplasm of bladder and Malignant melanoma of skin were more prevalent at the university level of education. The results can be useful for economists to define the health priorities in each country, make the financial decisions in economics, and thus contribute to better health, economic growth, as well as effective spending of health expenditures. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2017.
Costa, Nadia Pinheiro da; Polaro, Sandra Helena Isse; Vahl, Eloá Aparecida Caliari; Gonçalves, Lucia Hisako Takase
assessing relevance and effectiveness of care/educational technology in the form of "storytelling" as a strategy in the cultivation of active ageing (AA) for elderly users of a Basic Health Unit (BHU), from the Amazon region. convergent care research (CCR) held in a BHU in Belém, state of Pará, with eight elderly ladies for testing this technology. An active ageing assessment questionnaire and WHOQOL-BREF - quality of life assessment were applied. After training with a view to continuing education, elderly ladies told stories for an audience that addressed the question: "What did you learn from it for your life?" tThe popular stories elicited reactions from which the following categories emerged: solidarity; respect for the other; imagination, dreams, hopes and culture of the Amazonian. This practice had a positive result, producing changes in the quality of life of the elderly, particularly in the psychological domain. "storytelling" proved to be an innovative technology, a relevant and effective resource in health education, especially for active ageing.
C W Lin
Full Text Available The Visinin-like 1 (VSNL1 gene encodes Visinin-like protein 1, a peripheral biomarker for Alzheimer disease (AD. Little is known, however, about normal VSNL1 expression in brain and the biologic networks in which it participates. Frontal cortex gray matter from 209 subjects without neurodegenerative or psychiatric illness, ranging in age from 16–91, were processed on Affymetrix GeneChip 1.1 ST and Human SNP Array 6.0. VSNL1 expression was unaffected by age and sex, and not significantly associated with SNPs in cis or trans. VSNL1 was significantly co-expressed with genes in pathways for Calcium Signaling, AD, Long Term Potentiation, Long Term Depression, and Trafficking of AMPA Receptors. The association with AD was driven, in part, by correlation with amyloid precursor protein (APP expression. These findings provide an unbiased link between VSNL1 and molecular mechanisms of AD, including pathways implicated in synaptic pathology in AD. Whether APP may drive increased VSNL1 expression, VSNL1 drives increased APP expression, or both are downstream of common pathogenic regulators will need to be evaluated in model systems.
Thrasher, Linda; And Others
It is proposed that the most effective technique for teaching about aging and the aged at the secondary level is through the use of intergenerational activities, providing opportunities for the interaction of young and old. Including older adults in various class activities is suggested. Using these individuals as guest instructors and aides in…
Ballman, Kathleen; Garritano, Nicole; Beery, Theresa
Using standardized patients (SP) presenting with a specific complaint has been a mainstay in health care education. Increased use of technology has facilitated the move of instruction from the on-campus classroom to distance learning for many nurse practitioner programs. Using interactive case studies provides distance learners SP encounters. This technologically facilitated encounter gives the distance learner the opportunity for integrative thinking and development of problem solving and clinical reasoning skills.
Auger, Nathalie; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Park, Alison L; Wynant, Willy
Increasing numbers of women achieve extremely high education, but the association with preterm birth (PTB) is poorly understood, especially over the life course. We sought to determine how very high educational attainment is associated with PTB, and to assess differences by maternal age and nativity. Data included singleton live births to mothers aged ≥ 20 years in metropolitan areas of Québec, Canada, from 1995 to 2005 (n = 537,525). Hazard ratios of PTB (education (0-30 years) according to maternal age (20-24, 25-29, 30-34, ≥ 35 years) and nativity in a flexible survival model. The relationship between education and PTB was not linear, but suggested that extremely high education was not as protective against PTB as slightly lower education. Education thresholds that offered maximum protection increased with maternal age, and were lower for Canadian-born (17-21 years of education) than foreign-born (22-25 years of education) mothers. Extremely high education did not confer more protection against PTB than slightly lower education, and associations varied over the life course. The threshold number of years of education most protective against PTB: (1) increased with maternal age, especially for Canadian-born mothers, and (2) was higher for foreign-born mothers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ali, Aliaa A; Gomaa, Nancy A S; Awadein, Ahmed R; Al-Hayouti, Huda H; Hegazy, Ahmed I
This study described the characteristics and risk factors of neonates who developed retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and severe treatable ROP in two Egyptian neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). This retrospective cohort study comprised 108 preterm neonates who were screened for ROP after being admitted to the two NICUs run by Cairo University Hospital from June 2014 to May 2015. Patients were examined using digital fundus photography and indirect ophthalmoscopy was performed if ROP was detected. Retinopathy of prematurity occurred in 75 patients. Late-onset sepsis, ventilation and hypercapnia were independently associated with ROP. Patients who developed severe treatable ROP had a younger gestational age (GA) than patients who did not develop ROP or developed mild or moderate ROP (29 weeks, range 27-33 weeks versus 32 weeks, range 28-36 weeks, p = 0.002) and a lower birthweight (1200 g, range 980-1590 g versus 1460 g, range 770-2475 g, p = 0.029). The risk factors associated with severe treatable ROP included the duration of admission, the duration of incubator oxygen, late-onset sepsis, intraventricular haemorrhage, total parenteral nutrition and the duration of caffeine citrate therapy. This study showed that the risks for ROP were wide-ranging and included GA and weight, medical conditions and treatment. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: This research analyzes data on road traffic accidents (RTA in Fars province, whose roads are among the highly dangerous ones in Iran. It inves- tigates educational level and age involved in RTA in order to discover patterns that can prevent or decrease accidents. Methods: This research made use of data visualization techniques to find hidden patterns. The data included mor- tality rate related to RTA in Fars province and were obtained from Fars Forensic Medicine Registry covering a period of 1 year from March 21, 2010 to March 21, 2011. All data were analyzed using SPSS 11.5. The results were reported as de- scriptive indices such as frequency (percentage. The Chi- square test was applied to the data concerning educational level and age. P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: In the mentioned period, 1 831 people were killed, out of whom un/lowly educated people (69.6% ac- counted for the highest mortality rate. The significant rela- tionship between educational level and mortality rate was found (X2=275.98, P<0.0001. Also three was a significant association between age and mortality rate (X2=371.20, P<0.0001. Young people (age between 20 and 29 years contribute to higher RTA mortality rate compared with other age groups. Conclusion: The educational level and age are signifi- cantly correlated to mortality rate. The youth and un/lowly educated people suffer more fatal RTA. Key words: Accidents, traffic; Mortality; Education; Data mining; Iran
Ho, April J; Raji, Cyrus A; Becker, James T; Lopez, Oscar L; Kuller, Lewis H; Hua, Xue; Dinov, Ivo D; Stein, Jason L; Rosano, Caterina; Toga, Arthur W; Thompson, Paul M
Normal human aging is accompanied by progressive brain tissue loss and cognitive decline; however, several factors are thought to influence brain aging. We applied tensor-based morphometry to high-resolution brain MRI scans to determine whether educational level or physical activity was associated with brain tissue volumes in the elderly, particularly in regions susceptible to age-related atrophy. We mapped the 3D profile of brain volume differences in 226 healthy elderly subjects (130F/96M; 77.9 ± 3.6 SD years) from the Cardiovascular Health Study-Cognition Study. Statistical maps revealed the 3D profile of brain regions whose volumes were associated with educational level and physical activity (based on leisure-time energy expenditure). After controlling for age, sex, and physical activity, higher educational levels were associated with ~2-3% greater tissue volumes, on average, in the temporal lobe gray matter. After controlling for age, sex, and education, greater physical activity was associated with ~2-2.5% greater average tissue volumes in the white matter of the corona radiata extending into the parietal-occipital junction. Body mass index (BMI) was highly correlated with both education and physical activity, so we examined BMI as a contributing factor by including physical activity, education, and BMI in the same model; only BMI effects remained significant. This is one of the largest MRI studies of factors influencing structural brain aging, and BMI may be a key factor explaining the observed relationship between education, physical activity, and brain structure. Independent contributions to brain structure could not be teased apart as all these factors were highly correlated with one another. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Castiglioni, L; Schmiedeberg, C
This article aims at assessing the joint effect of maternal age and education on the risk of having a caesarean delivery. As high maternal education is often associated with lower caesarean-birth rates, but high-educated women tend to postpone motherhood, these effects may offset each other in traditional analyses. Secondary analysis of the data from the German Family Panel pairfam. The interview-based data refer to 1020 births between 2008 and 2015. We analyse only reports from mothers and calculate logistic regression models. The caesarean delivery rate differs strongly between education levels, and low-educated women are at higher risk of having a caesarean delivery when controlling for parity and age. A positive age gradient is found, indicating a higher risk of caesarean section for older mothers. Without controlling for age, the association of education and caesarean section risk is weaker, i.e., effects of age and education partially level each other out. A model including an interaction term between age and education confirms this result. The risk of having a caesarean delivery does not differ between levels of education when maternal age is not taken into account. Lower maternal education and higher age are both positively associated with the risk of experiencing a caesarean section in Germany. However, as higher educated women tend to have their children later, effects of education and age weigh each other out. Preventive campaigns should target women with lower education and raise women's awareness on the risks associated with late motherhood. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available We present results of a longitudinal study in which 50 schools, 113 classes and 2,542 Cypriot primary students participated. We tested the validity of the dynamic model of educational effectiveness and especially its assumption that the impact of school factors depends on the current situation of the school and on the type of problems/difficulties the school is facing. Reference is made to the methods used to test this assumption of the dynamic model by measuring school effectiveness in mathematics, Greek language, and religious education over two consecutive school years. The main findings are as follows. School factors were found to have situational effects. Specifically, the development of a school policy for teaching and the school evaluation of policy for teaching were found to have stronger effects in schools where the quality of teaching at classroom level was low. Moreover, time stability in the effectiveness status of schools was identified and thereby changes in the functioning of schools were found not to have a significant impact on changes in the effectiveness status of schools. Implications of the findings for the development of the dynamic model and suggestions for further research are presented.
Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Trzaskowski, Maciej; McMillan, Andrew; Rimfeld, Kaili; Krapohl, Eva; Haworth, Claire M A; Dale, Philip S; Plomin, Robert
We have previously shown that individual differences in educational achievement are highly heritable in the early and middle school years in the UK. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether similarly high heritability is found at the end of compulsory education (age 16) for the UK-wide examination, called the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE). In a national twin sample of 11,117 16-year-olds, heritability was substantial for overall GCSE performance for compulsory core subjects (58%) as well as for each of them individually: English (52%), mathematics (55%) and science (58%). In contrast, the overall effects of shared environment, which includes all family and school influences shared by members of twin pairs growing up in the same family and attending the same school, accounts for about 36% of the variance of mean GCSE scores. The significance of these findings is that individual differences in educational achievement at the end of compulsory education are not primarily an index of the quality of teachers or schools: much more of the variance of GCSE scores can be attributed to genetics than to school or family environment. We suggest a model of education that recognizes the important role of genetics. Rather than a passive model of schooling as instruction (instruere, 'to build in'), we propose an active model of education (educare, 'to bring out') in which children create their own educational experiences in part on the basis of their genetic propensities, which supports the trend towards personalized learning.
Li, Ye; Xu, Meihong; Fan, Rui; Ma, Xiaotao; Gu, Jiaojiao; Cai, Xiaxia; Liu, Rui; Chen, Qihe; Ren, Jinwei; Mao, Ruixue; Bao, Lei; Zhang, Zhaofeng; Wang, Junbo; Li, Yong
Many patients with type 2 diabetes find it difficult to maintain good glycemic control. Undesirable glycemic control occurs greatly due to deficiencies of nutritional knowledge and difficulty in obtaining dietary prescriptions. The late middle-aged and elder individuals are the main populations that are affected by type 2 diabetes. The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether intensive nutrition education would make benefits for late middle-aged patients with type 2 diabetes. 196 patients between 50 to 65 years old meeting type 2 diabetes criteria and eligible for the program were included in a single-blinded, 30-day centralized management of an education program in China. Participants in the program were randomly divided into a usual nutrition education group or an intensive nutrition education group. The usual nutrition education group was used as a control group and received only basic health advice and principles of diabetic diets at the beginning and the end of the study. Participants in the intensive nutrition education group were arranged to receive intensive nutritional lectures about diabetes for 30 days. The primary outcomes were the changes in weight, body mass index (BMI), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h postprandial plasma glucose (PG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total glycerin (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c). After 30 days of intervention, FPG, PG, and HbA1c in the treatment group decreased significantly than the control group (p education group. However, there was no statistical significance between groups. Intensive nutrition education has significant effects on blood glucose control in late middle-aged adults with type 2 diabetes. Intensive education can cultivate good diet habits and increase physical activity, which are important for diabetes patients in the short and long terms. These findings may contribute to improving education
Levy, Sheri R
The population of older adults is growing worldwide. Negative ageism (negative attitudes and behavior toward older adults) is a serious international concern that negatively influences not only older adults but also individuals across the age continuum. This article proposes and examines the application of an integrative theoretical model across empirical evidence in the literature on ageism in psychology, medicine, social work, and sociology. The proposed Positive Education about Aging and Contact Experiences (PEACE) model focuses on 2 key contributing factors expected to reduce negative ageism: (a) education about aging including facts on aging along with positive older role models that dispel negative and inaccurate images of older adulthood; and (b) positive contact experiences with older adults that are individualized, provide or promote equal status, are cooperative, involve sharing of personal information, and are sanctioned within the setting. These 2 key contributing factors have the potential to be interconnected and work together to reduce negative stereotypes, aging anxiety, prejudice, and discrimination associated with older adults and aging. This model has implications for policies and programs that can improve the health and well-being of individuals, as well as expand the residential, educational, and career options of individuals across the age continuum.
Eisenberg, Marla E; Bernat, Debra H; Bearinger, Linda H; Resnick, Michael D
Controversy about school-based sexuality education in public schools has continued over the past decade, despite mounting evidence that comprehensive sexuality education effectively promotes sexual health and that parents support these programs in public schools. The present study replicates and expands upon previous findings regarding public views on school-based sexuality education. One thousand six hundred five parents of school-age children in Minnesota responded to telephone surveys in 2006-2007 (63% participation rate), including items regarding general sexuality education, 12 specific topics, the grade level at which each should be taught, and attitudes toward sexuality education. The large majority of parents supported teaching about both abstinence and contraception (comprehensive sexuality education [CSE]; 89.3%), and support was high across all demographic categories of parents. All specific sexuality education topics received majority support (63.4%-98.6%), even those often viewed as controversial. Parents believed most topics should first be taught during the middle school years. Parents held slightly more favorable views on the effectiveness of CSE compared to abstinence-only education, and these views were strongly associated with support for CSE (odds ratio [OR](CSE) = 14.3; OR(abstinence) = 0.11). This study highlights a mismatch between parents' expressed opinions and preferences, and actual sexuality education content as currently taught in the majority of public schools. In light of broad parental support for education that emphasizes multiple strategies for prevention of pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (including abstinence), parents should be encouraged to express their opinions on sexuality education to teachers, administrators, and school boards regarding the importance of including a variety of topics and beginning instruction during middle school years or earlier.
Jones, Kristen J.; Block, Martin E.
Autism is a brain disorder that affects a person's social, communication, and behavioral skills. Social deficits are noted by the child's lack of interest or inability to interact with peers and family members. This article highlights some of the successful methods and techniques used to include an autistic middle school child in a general…
Eckersten, Charlotte; Pylvänen, Lena; Schröder, Ulla
To investigate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in children who had participated in an oral health programme between the ages 2-5 years, including fluoride tablets from the age of 2 years.......To investigate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in children who had participated in an oral health programme between the ages 2-5 years, including fluoride tablets from the age of 2 years....
Full Text Available This is a roundtable attended by educators of the major journalism and communication schools in the Chinese societies of Taiwan and Hong Kong. The first set of topics pertains to the fast-changing digital media environment, including news media’s working process, gatekeeping function, status of journalists, and criteria for excellent news, as well as the impact of digital technologies on the media. Most universities have already adopted online and technology-enhanced courses in their programs. The objectives of the program design reflect different wisdom in how to combine academic and practical pursuits and whether they follow industries’ concerns. The inclusion of new technology is the newest trend, serving to enhance a university’s competitiveness as a venue for quality education. The second set of topics relates to the challenges facing journalism education sector, the trend of curricular innovation, and the changing roles of educators in the digital age. One common problem facing universities is the difficulty in the recruitment of young, aspiring students for future journalism. How emerging technologies can be integrated into communication curricula has become a challenge for current educators. Many educators agree that the conceptual and theoretical contributions of this new trend in education remain to be developed. Another concern is how educators and students should ride the digital tide so as to best infuse accessibility into their own curriculum and to significantly improve their understanding of the outcomes of education.
Strand, Bjørn Heine; Langballe, Ellen Melbye; Rosness, Tor A; Bergem, Astrid Liv Mina; Engedal, Knut; Nafstad, Per; Tell, Grethe S; Ormstad, Heidi; Tambs, Kristian; Bjertness, Espen
An inverse relationship between educational level and dementia has been reported in several studies. In this study we investigated the relationship between educational level and dementia related deaths for cohorts of people all born during 1915-39. The cohorts were followed up from adulthood or old age, taking into account possible confounders and mediating paths. Our study population comprised participants in Norwegian health examination studies in the period 1974-2002; The Counties Study and Cohort of Norway (CONOR). Dementia related deaths were defined as deaths with a dementia diagnosis on the death certificate and linked using the Cause of Death Registry to year 2012. The study included 90,843 participants, 2.06 million person years and 2440 dementia related deaths. Cox regression was used to assess the association between education and dementia related deaths. Both high and middle educational levels were associated with lower dementia related death risk compared to those with low education when follow-up started in adulthood (35-49 years, high versus low education: HR=0.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-0.93; 50-69 years, high versus low education: HR=0.52, 95% CI 0.34-0.80). However, when follow-up started at old age (70-80 years) there was no significant association between education and dementia related death. Restricting the study population to those born during a five-year period 1925-29 (the birth cohort overlapping all three age groups), gave similar main findings. The protective effects found for both high and middle educational level compared to low education were robust to adjustment for cardiovascular health and life style factors, suggesting education to be a protective factor for dementia related death. Both high and middle educational levels were associated with decreased dementia related death risk compared with low educational level when follow-up started in adulthood, but no association was observed when follow-up started at old age
The objective of this experimental study is to determine the effect of leisure education programme including sportive activities on the perceived freedom in leisure of adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities. The research was designed with an experimental group (n = 37) and a control group (n = 34), and was conducted among a total of 71…
Levine, Todd P.; Liu, Jing; Das, Abhik; Lester, Barry; Lagasse, Linda; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S.; Bauer, Charles R.; Higgins, Rosemary
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on special education at age 7 with adjustment for covariates. METHODS As part of the prospective, longitudinal, multisite study of children with prenatal cocaine exposure (Maternal Lifestyle Study), school records were reviewed for 943 children at 7 years to determine involvement in special education outcomes: (1) individualized education plan; (2) special education conditions; (3) support services; (4) special education classes; and (5) speech and language services. Logistic regression was used to examine the effect of prenatal cocaine exposure on these outcomes with environmental, maternal, and infant medical variables as covariates, as well as with and without low child IQ. RESULTS Complete data for each analysis model were available for 737 to 916 children. When controlling for covariates including low child IQ, prenatal cocaine exposure had a significant effect on individualized education plan. When low child IQ was not included in the model, prenatal cocaine exposure had a significant effect on support services. Male gender, low birth weight, white race, and low child IQ also predicted individualized education plan. Low birth weight and low child IQ were significant in all models. White race was also significant in speech and language services. Other covariate effects were model specific. When included in the models, low child IQ accounted for more of the variance and changed the significance of other covariates. CONCLUSIONS Prenatal cocaine exposure increased the likelihood of receiving an individualized education plan and support services, with adjustment for covariates. Low birth weight and low child IQ increased the likelihood of all outcomes. The finding that white children were more likely to get an individualized education plan and speech and language services could indicate a greater advantage in getting educational resources for this population. PMID
Hansen, Bodil Winther; Hatt, Camusa
and their level of participation in this three-week course of “Conflict management”. To meet these challenges the university started a project within the frame of problembased learning and drama games. The idea was to develop strategies to motivate students and create a dynamic and stimulating learning......-based learning course including drama games, the other 210 represented 6 comparison classes where the course was not carried out as a PBL course. The evaluation design also contained dialogue with the students in two experimental classes and qualitative interviews with the lecturers in the experimental classes...... environment. In the qualitative part students from the two experimental classes highlighted that PBL was a challenging, but very satisfying method of study. Interviews with the lecturers supported these results and underlined the need for partner training and common preparation. Conclusion PBL and drama games...
Goldman, Juliette D. G.
This paper evaluates UNESCO's recommended sexuality educational framework for junior school students aged 5-8 years. It also compares it to an existing state-designed Health and Physical Education curriculum that includes sexual and reproductive health for the same cohort. Based on the universal values of respect and human rights, UNESCO's"…
Social Security Administration — This dataset provides annual volume of SSI Aged initial claims at the national level from federal fiscal year 2016 shown two ways—we base one on a 52-week reporting...
Social Security Administration — This dataset provides quarterly volumes of SSI Aged initial claims at the national level from federal fiscal year 2016 with quarter 4 shown two ways—we base one on a...
Gómez-Pérez, Esther; Ostrosky-Solís, Feggy
The developmental sequences of attention and memory were studied by utilizing normative data derived from the neuropsychological battery named NEUROPSI ATTENTION AND MEMORY. A sample of 521 Spanish-speaking individuals, aged 6 to 85 years, participated in this study. In the adult sample, educational level ranged from 0 to 22 years of education. Data from subtests measuring orientation, attention and concentration, executive functions, working memory, immediate and delayed verbal memory, and immediate and delayed visual memory were included. The factor structure of the analyzed battery is presented. The effects of age and education on this structure were analyzed. Results suggested that although attention and memory are related, their developmental sequences are separated from one another. During childhood, the development of selective and sustained attention, attentional-working memory, and executive functions showed a fast improvement in performance. Development of verbal memory and place and person orientation showed a slower increment in scores. In the adult sample it was found that factors related to memory are sensitive to age, whereas those related to attention and executive functions are sensitive to education. The consideration of both the developmental sequence, as well as differential effects of education, can improve the sensitivity and specificity of neuropsychological measures, allowing early diagnosis of cognitive dysfunction and implementation of adequate rehabilitation programs.
Andreenko, Emiliya; Mladenova, Silviya; Akabaliev, Valentin
The objective of this study was to estimate the level of obesity and its relationship to age, educational level, occupation and physical activity in adult Bulgarian men. The sample included 1010 men, aged 18-50 years old, from town of Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The study was made in period 2004-2008. The body height, weight and waist circumference were measured. Overweight and obesity were defined according to the international cut-off points of body mass index (BMI). The abdominal obesity was assess by the categories of waist-height ratio (WHTR).The age, educational level, occupation and physical activity of each person were investigated through inquiry. For statistical analysis the SPSS package was used. The results shown that 42.1% of investigated men were overweight and 19.4% of them were with obesity.With irregular WHTR and central obesity were 66.1% of all cases. The percent of men with general and central obesity increases with age. In the case of both general and central obesity, the differences between physical and intellectual workers are significance, even after controlling the age.WHTR has a greater potential for differentiating persons with different occupations than BMI. The age and occupation were the most significant factors affecting the general and abdominal obesity. The educational level has a significant impact on abdominal accumulation of fat.The connection between level of physical activity and BMI and WHTR was lower. The study finds that the men working and living in that particular urban area have significant differences in terms of overweight and obesity. The educational level, occupation and age have a serious potential to influenced their body nutritional status. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Vameghi, R; Mohammad, K; Karimloo, M; Soleimani, F; Sajedi, F
The aim of the study was to compare the effects of 'face-to-face education' and 'educational movies' on 'knowledge' and 'practice' of women of child-bearing-age, in terms of health-care during pregnancy and during infancy in a suburban region near Tehran City, Iran. In this quasi-experimental study, the sample included 873 married women. Questionnaires for knowledge and practice assessment were designed. The women were assigned to three groups: control (group I), face-to-face education (group II), and educational movie (group III). Knowledge questionnaires were completed before and immediately after intervention. Practice questionnaires were completed before and three months after intervention. Both questionnaires consisted of two types of questions: type A (concerning infant care issues) and type B (concerning prenatal health care). There was a significant difference in post-test knowledge between groups I and II and between groups I and III, but not between groups II and III. In terms of post-test practice, the changes were determined for every individual question, and significantly, better results were seen in group II, especially concerning type B questions. Face to face education lead to better practice than educational movies. In addition, significantly better practice occurred regarding child health care issues rather than prenatal issues in both groups. Realistic and tangible issues, those easy to practice, and with little or no economical burden imposed on the family, progressed from the knowledge state to the practice state more successfully in both groups.
Arora, Tiny C. M. J.
This paper reviews the literature on home education with reference to issues that may concern educational psychologists. It notes the fast growing number of families (at present, 1% of the UK school population) who have chosen to educate their school-aged children at home. The great majority of home-educated children are reported to be well…
Basheti, Iman A; Armour, Carol L; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia Z; Reddel, Helen K
To evaluate the feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of a brief intervention about inhaler technique, delivered by community pharmacists to asthma patients. Thirty-one pharmacists received brief workshop education (Active: n=16, CONTROL: n=15). Active Group pharmacists were trained to assess and teach dry powder inhaler technique, using patient-centered educational tools including novel Inhaler Technique Labels. Interventions were delivered to patients at four visits over 6 months. At baseline, patients (Active: 53, CONTROL: 44) demonstrated poor inhaler technique (mean+/-S.D. score out of 9, 5.7+/-1.6). At 6 months, improvement in inhaler technique score was significantly greater in Active cf. CONTROL patients (2.8+/-1.6 cf. 0.9+/-1.4, p<0.001), and asthma severity was significantly improved (p=0.015). Qualitative responses from patients and pharmacists indicated a high level of satisfaction with the intervention and educational tools, both for their effectiveness and for their impact on the patient-pharmacist relationship. A simple feasible intervention in community pharmacies, incorporating daily reminders via Inhaler Technique Labels on inhalers, can lead to improvement in inhaler technique and asthma outcomes. Brief training modules and simple educational tools, such as Inhaler Technique Labels, can provide a low-cost and sustainable way of changing patient behavior in asthma, using community pharmacists as educators.
Full Text Available In this paper the important parameters of customer loyalty and impact of education, gender and age of the respondents will be tested. The study was conducted in the Republic of Croatia, as part of research relevant parameters of customer loyalty, loyal consumer behavior and the role of social networks in building and maintaining a loyal behavior. The concept of loyalty has a strong foothold in marketing theories and in theories of intellectual capital companies. Loyalty has been related to the management of intellectual capital, especially relational capital, as a component of intellectual capital. In terms of loyalty, series of key parameters that describe it or have an effect on it, and thus impacting the company's business appear.
This chapter examines the changing nature of adult education in the age of transnational migration and proposes recognitive adult education as an inclusive model that acknowledges and affirms cultural difference and diversity as positive and desirable assets.
Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: How to approach the education of gifted children in preschool age to take advantage of all their natural potentials?Purpose:The aim of the research study was to categorize appropriate educational methods that can be used for gifted children in preschool age and to show that the classical form of punishment in such cases is not appropriate and effective. In addition, the purpose of this study is to inform all educators and parents of gifted children on the most appropriate approach that should be used with a gifted child and how to promote their talent and not suppressed it.Method:A qualitative method was used that used the interview approach with the application of the seven steps rule.Results:The study showed that gifted children in preschool age need a specialized approach to education and to punish such a child canlead to the inhibition of his/her abilities.Organization:The study will help educators that work with gifted children.Society:The research presents to parents and society the difficulties thatthey might encounter with gifted children in preschool age in cases where they do not establish an appropriate relationship.Originality:This research study examines the issue of gifted children’s reaction to punishment. Such studies are not common and are original in its method and sample.Limitations/Future Research:The study here is restricted to two cases of gifted children.A further direction of research would be to include more examples andexplore the various viewpoints of educators.
Bentholm, Anette Lisbeth
Ability to show shame can include children with autism and ADHD in physical education (PE) at primary school in Denmark. More children diagnosed with autism and ADHD have been included in primary school by law in Denmark over the last years (L379, 2012). In a new School reform (L406, 2014......) the children have to participate in physical activities at least 45 minutes each school day. Autism and ADHD are disabling conditions that affects social communication and interaction, and often also their motor skills and cognition (Harvey & Reid, 2003; Verret, 2010). Therefore these children can be challenge....... There will be used a process-oriented methodology (Baur & Ernst, 2011).The methods of the research are primarily based on qualitative methods: Analysis of the curriculum for PE from the Danish ministry of Education and political strategies of inclusion, field observations primarily in PE, interviews with the 11...
Tabuchi, Takahiro; Kondo, Naoki
Few studies have investigated differences in age- and gender-specific educational gradients in tobacco smoking among the whole range of adult age groups. We examined educational inequality in smoking among Japanese adults aged 25-94 years. Using a large nationally representative sample (167,925 men and 186,588 women) in 2010, prevalence of current smoking and heavy smoking among daily smokers and their inequalities attributable to educational attainment were analyzed according to sex and age groups. Among men aged 25-34 years, junior high school graduates had the highest current smoking prevalence at 68.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 66.0%-70.6%), and graduate school graduates had the lowest at 19.4% (95% CI, 17.2%-21.9%). High school graduates had the second highest current smoking prevalence (e.g., 55.9%; 95% CI, 54.9%-56.8% in men aged 25-34 years). Among men aged 75-94 years, the difference in current smoking across educational categories was small. A similar but steeper educational gradient in current smoking was observed among women. Among women aged 25-34 years, junior high school graduates had the highest current smoking prevalence at 49.3% (95% CI, 46.3%-52.3%), and graduate school graduates had the lowest at 4.8% (95% CI, 2.9%-7.4%). Compared with older age groups, such as 65-94 years, younger age groups, such as 25-54 years, had higher estimates of inequality indicators for educational inequality in both current and heavy smoking in both sexes. Educational inequalities in current and heavy smoking were apparent and large in the young population compared with older generations. The current study provides basic data on educational inequalities in smoking among Japanese adults. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Few studies have investigated differences in age- and gender-specific educational gradients in tobacco smoking among the whole range of adult age groups. We examined educational inequality in smoking among Japanese adults aged 25–94 years. Methods: Using a large nationally representative sample (167,925 men and 186,588 women in 2010, prevalence of current smoking and heavy smoking among daily smokers and their inequalities attributable to educational attainment were analyzed according to sex and age groups. Results: Among men aged 25–34 years, junior high school graduates had the highest current smoking prevalence at 68.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 66.0%–70.6%, and graduate school graduates had the lowest at 19.4% (95% CI, 17.2%–21.9%. High school graduates had the second highest current smoking prevalence (e.g., 55.9%; 95% CI, 54.9%–56.8% in men aged 25–34 years. Among men aged 75–94 years, the difference in current smoking across educational categories was small. A similar but steeper educational gradient in current smoking was observed among women. Among women aged 25–34 years, junior high school graduates had the highest current smoking prevalence at 49.3% (95% CI, 46.3%–52.3%, and graduate school graduates had the lowest at 4.8% (95% CI, 2.9%–7.4%. Compared with older age groups, such as 65–94 years, younger age groups, such as 25–54 years, had higher estimates of inequality indicators for educational inequality in both current and heavy smoking in both sexes. Conclusions: Educational inequalities in current and heavy smoking were apparent and large in the young population compared with older generations. The current study provides basic data on educational inequalities in smoking among Japanese adults.
Portalupi, Laura B; Lewis, Carmen L; Miller, Carl D; Whiteman-Jones, Kerry L; Sather, Kay A; Nease, Donald E; Matlock, Daniel D
People who have experienced illness due to significant disease, multimorbidity and/or advanced age are high utilizers of the health care system. Yet this population has had little formal opportunity to participate in guiding the health care research agenda, and few mechanisms exist for researchers to engage this population in an efficient way. We describe the process of developing a standing patient and family advisory panel to incorporate this population's voice into research in the USA. The panel was created at the University of Colorado. Preliminary panel development consisted of a needs assessment, information gathering and participant recruitment. We collected feedback from researchers who consulted with the panel and from panel members in order to better understand the experience from the patient and family member perspective. The patient and family research advisory panel consists of eight advisors who have experience with significant disease, multimorbidity and/or advanced age, two physicians and a program manager. The panel meets every other month for 2 hours with the main purpose of advising diverse researchers on health care studies. People with significant disease, multimorbidity and/or advanced age represent a growing demographic in the USA, and their engagement in research is essential as the model of health care delivery moves from volume to value. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Mannerkoski, Minna; Aberg, Laura; Hoikkala, Marianne; Sarna, Seppo; Kaski, Markus; Autti, Taina; Heiskala, Hannu
To explore how growth measurements and attainment of developmental milestones in early childhood reflect the need for full-time special education (SE). After stratification in this population-based study, 900 pupils in full-time SE groups (age-range 7-16 years, mean 12 years 8 months) at three levels and 301 pupils in mainstream education (age-range 7-16, mean 12 years 9 months) provided data on height and weight from birth to age 7 years and head circumference to age 1 year. Developmental screening was evaluated from age 1 month to 48 months. Statistical methods included a general linear model (growth measurements), binary logistic regression analysis (odds ratios for growth), and multinomial logistic regression analysis (odds ratios for developmental milestones). At 1 year, a 1 standard deviation score (SDS) decrease in height raised the probability of SE placement by 40%, and a 1 SDS decrease in head size by 28%. In developmental screening, during the first months of life the gross motor milestones, especially head support, differentiated the children at levels 0-3. Thereafter, the fine motor milestones and those related to speech and social skills became more important. Children whose growth is mildly impaired, though in the normal range, and who fail to attain certain developmental milestones have an increased probability for SE and thus a need for special attention when toddlers age. Similar to the growth curves, these children seem to have consistent developmental curves (patterns).
Courtright, Katherine R; Weinberger, Steven E; Wagner, Jason
Physician decision making is partially responsible for the roughly 30% of U.S. healthcare expenditures that are wasted annually on low-value care. In response to both the widespread public demand for higher-quality care and the cost crisis, payers are transitioning toward value-based payment models whereby physicians are rewarded for high-value, cost-conscious care. Furthermore, to target physicians in training to practice with cost awareness, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education has created both individual objective milestones and institutional requirements to incorporate quality improvement and cost awareness into fellowship training. Subsequently, some professional medical societies have initiated high-value care educational campaigns, but the overwhelming majority target either medical students or residents in training. Currently, there are few resources available to help guide subspecialty fellowship programs to successfully design durable high-value care curricula. The resource-intensive nature of pulmonary and critical care medicine offers unique opportunities for the specialty to lead in modeling and teaching high-value care. To ensure that fellows graduate with the capability to practice high-value care, we recommend that fellowship programs focus on four major educational domains. These include fostering a value-based culture, providing a robust didactic experience, engaging trainees in process improvement projects, and encouraging scholarship. In doing so, pulmonary and critical care educators can strive to train future physicians who are prepared to provide care that is both high quality and informed by cost awareness.
Torres-Pérez, Mario; Tellez-Ballesteros, Ruth Ivonne; Ortiz-López, Leonardo; Ichwan, Muhammad; Vega-Rivera, Nelly Maritza; Castro-García, Mario; Gómez-Sánchez, Ariadna; Kempermann, Gerd; Ramirez-Rodriguez, Gerardo Bernabe
Resveratrol (RVTL) is a flavonoid found in red wine and has been publicized heavily as an anti-aging compound. Indeed, basic research confirms that although there is much hype in the promotion of RVTL, flavonoids such as RVTL have a wide range of biological effects. We here investigated the effects of RVTL treatment on hippocampal plasticity and memory performance in female Balb/C mice, a strain with low baseline levels of adult neurogenesis. Two weeks of treatment with RVTL (40 mg/kg) induced the production of new neurons in vivo by increasing cell survival and possibly precursor cell proliferation. In addition, RVTL decreased the number of apoptotic cells. The number of doublecortin (DCX)-expressing intermediate cells was increased. RVTL stimulated neuronal differentiation in vitro without effects on proliferation. In the dentate gyrus, RVTL promoted the formation and maturation of spines on granule cell dendrites. RVTL also improved performance in the step down passive avoidance test. The RVTL-treated mice showed increase in the levels of two key signaling proteins, phospho-Akt and phospho-PKC, suggesting the involvement of these signaling pathways. Our results support the vision that flavonoids such as resveratrol deserve further examination as plasticity-inducing compounds in the context of successful cognitive aging. PMID:26695764
Torres-Pérez, Mario; Tellez-Ballesteros, Ruth Ivonne; Ortiz-López, Leonardo; Ichwan, Muhammad; Vega-Rivera, Nelly Maritza; Castro-García, Mario; Gómez-Sánchez, Ariadna; Kempermann, Gerd; Ramirez-Rodriguez, Gerardo Bernabe
Resveratrol (RVTL) is a flavonoid found in red wine and has been publicized heavily as an anti-aging compound. Indeed, basic research confirms that although there is much hype in the promotion of RVTL, flavonoids such as RVTL have a wide range of biological effects. We here investigated the effects of RVTL treatment on hippocampal plasticity and memory performance in female Balb/C mice, a strain with low baseline levels of adult neurogenesis. Two weeks of treatment with RVTL (40 mg/kg) induced the production of new neurons in vivo by increasing cell survival and possibly precursor cell proliferation. In addition, RVTL decreased the number of apoptotic cells. The number of doublecortin (DCX)-expressing intermediate cells was increased. RVTL stimulated neuronal differentiation in vitro without effects on proliferation. In the dentate gyrus, RVTL promoted the formation and maturation of spines on granule cell dendrites. RVTL also improved performance in the step down passive avoidance test. The RVTL-treated mice showed increase in the levels of two key signaling proteins, phospho-Akt and phospho-PKC, suggesting the involvement of these signaling pathways. Our results support the vision that flavonoids such as resveratrol deserve further examination as plasticity-inducing compounds in the context of successful cognitive aging.
Full Text Available Resveratrol (RVTL is a flavonoid found in red wine and has been publicized heavily as an anti-aging compound. Indeed, basic research confirms that although there is much hype in the promotion of RVTL, flavonoids such as RVTL have a wide range of biological effects. We here investigated the effects of RVTL treatment on hippocampal plasticity and memory performance in female Balb/C mice, a strain with low baseline levels of adult neurogenesis. Two weeks of treatment with RVTL (40 mg/kg induced the production of new neurons in vivo by increasing cell survival and possibly precursor cell proliferation. In addition, RVTL decreased the number of apoptotic cells. The number of doublecortin (DCX-expressing intermediate cells was increased. RVTL stimulated neuronal differentiation in vitro without effects on proliferation. In the dentate gyrus, RVTL promoted the formation and maturation of spines on granule cell dendrites. RVTL also improved performance in the step down passive avoidance test. The RVTL-treated mice showed increase in the levels of two key signaling proteins, phospho-Akt and phospho-PKC, suggesting the involvement of these signaling pathways. Our results support the vision that flavonoids such as resveratrol deserve further examination as plasticity-inducing compounds in the context of successful cognitive aging.
Quirk, D Adam; Hubley-Kozey, Cheryl L
While healthy aging is associated with physiological changes that can impair control of trunk motion, few studies examine how spinal muscle responses change with increasing age. This study examined whether older (over 65 years) compared to younger (20-45 years) adults had higher overall amplitude and altered temporal recruitment patterns of trunk musculature when performing a functional transfer task. Surface electromyograms from twelve bilateral trunk muscle (24) sites were analyzed using principal component analysis, extracting amplitude and temporal features (PCs) from electromyographic waveforms. Two PCs explained 96% of the waveform variance. Three factor ANOVA models tested main effects (group, muscle and reach) and interactions for PC scores. Significant (pactivity, demonstrated continuous activation levels in specific muscle sites despite changing external moments, and had altered temporal synergies within abdominal and back musculature. In summary both older and younger adults recruit highly organized activation patterns in response to changing external moments. Differences in temporal trunk musculature recruitment patterns suggest that older adults experience different dynamic spinal stiffness and loading compared to younger adults during a functional lifting task. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lemmens, K P H; Abraham, C; Ruiter, R A C; Veldhuizen, I J T; Dehing, C J G; Bos, A E R; Schaalma, H P
Understanding blood donation motivation among non-donors is prerequisite to effective recruitment. Two studies explored the psychological antecedents of blood donation motivation and the generalisability of a model of donation motivation across groups differing in age and educational level. An older well-educated population and a younger less well-educated population were sampled. The studies assessed the role of altruism, fear of blood/needles and donation-specific cognitions including attitudes and normative beliefs derived from an extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Across both samples, results showed that affective attitude, subjective norm, descriptive norm, and moral norm were the most important correlates of blood donation intentions. Self-efficacy was more important among the younger less well-educated group. Altruism was related to donation motivation but only indirectly through moral norm. Similarly, fear of blood/needles only had an indirect effect on motivation through affective attitude and self-efficacy. Additional analyses with the combined data set found no age or education moderation effects, suggesting that this core model of donation-specific cognitions can be used to inform future practical interventions recruiting new blood donors in the general population.
Gathogo, Patrick N; Brown, Francis H
Recent geologic study shows that all hominins and nearly all other published mammalian fossils from Paleontological Collection Area 123, Koobi Fora, Kenya, derive from levels between the KBS Tuff (1.87+/-0.02 Ma) and the Lower Ileret Tuff (1.53+/-0.01 Ma). More specifically, the fossils derive from 53 m of section below the Lower Ileret Tuff, an interval in which beds vary markedly laterally, especially those units containing molluscs and algal stromatolites. The upper Burgi Member (approximately 2.00-1.87 Ma) crops out only in the southwestern part of Area 123. Adjacent Area 110 contains larger exposures of the member, and there the KBS Tuff is preserved as an airfall ash in lacustrine deposits and also as a fluvially redeposited ash. We observed no mammalian fossils in situ in this member in Area 123, but surface specimens have been documented in some monographic treatments. Fossil hominins from Area 123 were attributed to strata above the KBS Tuff in the 1970s, but later they were assigned to strata below the KBS Tuff (now called the upper Burgi Member). This study definitively places the Area 123 hominins in the KBS Member. Most of these hominins are between 1.60 and 1.65 myr in age, but the youngest may date to only 1.53 Ma, and the oldest, to 1.75 Ma. All are 0.15-0.30 myr younger than previously estimated. The new age estimates, in conjunction with published taxonomic attributions of fossils, suggest that at least two species of Homo coexisted in the region along with A. boisei until at least 1.65 Ma. Comparison of crania KNM-ER 1813 and KNM-ER 1470, which were believed to be of comparable age, is at the focus of the debate over whether Homo habilis sensu lato is in fact composed of two species: Homo habilis and Homo rudolfensis. These two crania are separated in time by approximately 0.25 myr, and therefore, arguments for their conspecificity no longer need to confront the issue of unusually high contemporaneous variation within a single species.
McLean, James E.; And Others
Age differences in intellect as reflected by performance on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (Revised) (WAIS-R) were evaluated for persons aged 20 to 74 years. Educational attainment levels were held constant. The WAIS-R sample included 1,480 men and women in the following seven age groups--20-24 years (n=250), 25-34 years (n=250), 35-44…
Full Text Available Objective: Many patients with type 2 diabetes find it difficult to maintain good glycemic control. Undesirable glycemic control occurs greatly due to deficiencies of nutritional knowledge and difficulty in obtaining dietary prescriptions. The late middle-aged and elder individuals are the main populations that are affected by type 2 diabetes. The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether intensive nutrition education would make benefits for late middle-aged patients with type 2 diabetes. Method: 196 patients between 50 to 65 years old meeting type 2 diabetes criteria and eligible for the program were included in a single-blinded, 30-day centralized management of an education program in China. Participants in the program were randomly divided into a usual nutrition education group or an intensive nutrition education group. The usual nutrition education group was used as a control group and received only basic health advice and principles of diabetic diets at the beginning and the end of the study. Participants in the intensive nutrition education group were arranged to receive intensive nutritional lectures about diabetes for 30 days. The primary outcomes were the changes in weight, body mass index (BMI, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, 2-h postprandial plasma glucose (PG, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, total glycerin (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c. Results: After 30 days of intervention, FPG, PG, and HbA1c in the treatment group decreased significantly than the control group (p < 0.05. HbA1c reduced significantly by 0.6% in the intervention group. No significant differences in the change of blood lipids were observed between groups. However, TG, TC, and HDL-c made improvements compared with the baseline in the experimental group. Both groups had a reduction in weight and BMI within groups, especially in intensive nutrition education group. However
This standard presents program criteria and implementation guidance for an operational configuration management program for DOE nuclear and non-nuclear facilities in the operational phase. Portions of this standard are also useful for other DOE processes, activities, and programs. This Part 1 contains foreword, glossary, acronyms, bibliography, and Chapter 1 on operational configuration management program principles. Appendices are included on configuration management program interfaces, and background material and concepts for operational configuration management
Subbiondo, Joseph L.
This article discusses the emergence of a "postsecular age" in American higher education: an age in which the academic study and practice of spirituality is alive and well. This emerging age stands in contrast to the centuries-old secular age with its origins in the empirical revolution of seventeenth-century Europe. In the secular age,…
Münch, C.; van Wijnbergen, S.
We analyze the determinants of female labor market participation for different age-groups in the European Union. We show that female participation is positively affected by tertiary education at any age. But upper secondary education increases participation only up to an age of 40 while after that
Kuhn, S; Jungmann, F
The increasing digitization of our lives and work has also reached medicine and is changing the profession of medical doctors. The modern forms of communication and cooperation in everyday medical practice demand new skills and qualifications. To enable future doctors to comply with this digitally competent profile, an innovative blended learning curriculum was developed and first implemented at the University Medical Center Mainz in summer semester 2017-Medicine in the Digital Age. The teaching concept encompasses five modules, each consisting of an e‑learning unit and a 3-hour classroom course. This publication presents the teaching concept, the initial implementation and evaluation of the module "Telemedicine". The competency development in the field of telemedicine showed a significant increase for the subcomponents "knowledge" and "skills". The neutral attitude towards telemedicine at the beginning of the module could be changed to a positive opinion after the session. The teaching of digital skills is a relevant component of future curriculum development in medical studies and also a challenge for continuing medical education.
McIntyre, Laura Lee; Pelham, William E; Kim, Matthew H; Dishion, Thomas J; Shaw, Daniel S; Wilson, Melvin N
To test whether a language screener administered during early childhood predicts special education referrals and placement in middle childhood. A series of logistic regressions was conducted in a longitudinal study of 731 children. Predictor variables included scores on the early language screener (Fluharty Preschool Speech and Language Screening Test-Second Edition [Fluharty-2]) at ages 3 and 4 years, a standardized measure of academic achievement at age 5 years, and parent report of special education services at ages 7.5, 8.5, and 9.5 years. Results showed that higher scores on the Fluharty-2 predicted a reduced likelihood of having an individualized education program (OR 0.48), being referred for special education (OR 0.55), and being held back a grade (OR 0.37). These findings did not vary by sex, race, or ethnicity, and remained significant after controlling for male sex, behavior problems, parental education, and family income. The Fluharty-2 remained predictive of special education outcomes even after controlling for children's academic skills at age 5 years. Results suggest that structured, brief assessments of language in early childhood are robust predictors of children's future engagement in special education services and low academic achievement. Primary care physicians may use a multipronged developmental surveillance and monitoring protocol designed to identify children who may need comprehensive evaluation and intervention. Early intervention may reduce the need for costly special education services in the future and reduce comorbid conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Education is positively associated with completed fertility rate (CFR among men in Nordic countries, but the age patterns of fertility by educational level are poorly documented. Moreover, it is not known what parities contribute to the higher CFR among more highly educated men. Objective: To describe men's fertility by age, parity, and education in Finland. Methods: The study is based on register data covering the male cohort born in 1940‒1950 (N=38,838. Education was measured at ages 30‒34 and classified as basic, lower secondary, upper secondary, and tertiary. Fertility was measured until ages 59‒69. We calculated completed and age-specific fertility rates, and decomposed the educational gradient in CFR into parity-specific contributions. Results: The more highly educated men had more children (CFR: basic 1.71 and tertiary 2.06, had them later (mean age at having the first child: basic 26.1 and tertiary 28.1, and had them within a shorter interval (interquartile range of age at having the first child: basic 5.8 and tertiary 5.2. The educational gradient in the cumulative fertility rate was negative at young ages but turned positive by the early thirties. High levels of childlessness among those with a basic education explained three-quarters of the CFR difference between the lowest and highest educational groups. Fertility at ages above 45 was low and did not widen the educational gradient in CFR. Conclusions: The fact that highly educated men have more children than their counterparts with less education is largely attributable to higher fertility levels at older ages and the lower probability of remaining childless. Variation in fertility timing and quantity is wider among men with a low level of education.
Stokas, Ariana Gonzalez
Recently, due in part to the research of Angela Duckworth, the cultivation of dispositions in education, grit in particular, has gained the attention of educational policymakers and the educational research community. While much of the research has focused on how to detect grit, there has been little discussion regarding how grit came to be valued…
Full Text Available A retrospective study was made of sports injuries occurring in physical education classes in 51 junior and senior high schools in Israel during a period of 14 months (2000-2002. The survey covered a total population of 11439 students aged 12 to 18, 52% male, 48% female. The aim of the study was to assess the incidence, types and risk factors involving sports injuries among students in physical education classes. Physical education teachers were asked to complete questionnaires recording injuries that occurred during their lessons. Data included: socio-demographic parameters (gender, age, height and weight of the injured students, area and type of injury, time of injury during the class, type of sport activity, previous injuries, assessment of sport capabilities and performance. A total of 192 injuries were recorded in the survey (1.70%. Male and female students had fairly similar injury rates (49% female, 51% male. 12-14 year old students showed the greatest number of injuries (52%. The ankle was the most common site of injury in both genders (48% mostly involving ankle sprain. Athletics was the most common sport involving injury (38%. 45% of injuries were reported to occur in the start of the class, whereas 26% of injuries were repeat injuries. This survey showed that the incidence of injuries during supervised physical education classes in high schools in Israel is relatively low and is similar to that of other Western countries.
Li, Chunxiao; Wang, Lijuan; Block, Martin E; Sum, Raymond K W; Wu, Yandan
Teachers' self-efficacy is a critical predictor for successful inclusive physical education. However, little is known about preservice physical educators' self-efficacy toward teaching students with autism spectrum disorders in China. A sound instrument is necessary to measure their self-efficacy level. This validation study examined the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Physical Educators' Self-Efficacy Toward Including Students with Disabilities-Autism. A multisection survey form was administered to preservice physical educators in Mainland China (n = 205) and Hong Kong (n = 227). The results of confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the one-factor model of the scale in the total sample and each of the two samples. Invariance tests across the two samples supported configural and metric invariance but not scalar invariance. The scale scores showed good internal reliability and were correlated with theoretically relevant constructs (i.e., burnout and life satisfaction) in the total sample and subsamples. These findings generally support the utility of the scale for use among Chinese preservice physical educators.
Wircenski, Michelle; Walker, Michelle; Allen, Jeff; West, Lynda
Aging and ageism are diversity issues and should be addressed in diversity training. A balanced understanding of aging can be developed using appropriate techniques at all levels of education. Instructors should vary teaching approaches to accommodate older adult students. (SK)
A significant gap in evidence characterizes the process of establishing patient-centered health priorities for older men. A cross-sectional postal survey of 2325 Canadian community dwelling men aged 55-97 years old was conducted in 2008 to gauge older men's level of concern for 24 different health items, to determine the impact of age, education and health status on these perceptions, and to ascertain whether men perceive that their health concerns are being attended to. Health issues of greatest concern to men were mobility impairment (64% of respondents), memory loss (64%), and medication side effects (63%). Respondents with lower educational attainment expressed greater concern about their health and were almost 2-fold times more likely to report being concerned about stroke, heart disease and prostate disorders in analyses that controlled for age and health status. Physical and mental health were independently associated with various concerns about health, but old age was not a reliable predictor, with only younger men (erectile dysfunction. Health items of greatest concern to men tended to be those with the lowest screening or counseling rates: these included incontinence, osteoporosis, mobility impairment, falls, anxiety issues, memory loss and depression. An improved consumer-guided agenda for addressing older men's health in the coming decade is urgently required.
Reynolds, Arthur J; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Temple, Judy A
Educational attainment is the leading social determinant of health, but few studies of prevention programs have examined whether the programs are associated with educational attainment outcomes after the mid-20s, especially for large-scale programs that provide a longer duration of services. To examine the association between a preschool to third grade intervention and educational attainment at midlife and differences by program duration, sex, and parental educational level. This matched-group, alternative intervention study assessed 1539 low-income minority children born in 1979 or 1980 who grew up in high-poverty neighborhoods in Chicago, Illinois. The comparison group included 550 children primarily from randomly selected schools participating in the usual early intervention. A total of 989 children who entered preschool in 1983 or 1984 and completed kindergarten in 1986 were included in the Chicago Longitudinal Study and were followed up for 27 to 30 years after the end of a multicomponent intervention. A total of 1398 participants (90.8%) in the original sample had educational attainment records at 35 years of age. The study was performed from January 1, 2002, through May 31, 2015. The Child-Parent Center Program provides school-based educational enrichment and comprehensive family services from preschool to third grade (ages 3-9 years). Educational outcomes from administrative records and self-report included school dropout, 4-year high school graduation, years of education, postsecondary credential, and earned degrees from associate's to master's or higher. A total of 1539 participants (mean [SD] age, 35.1 [0.32] years; 1423 [92.9%] black and 108 [7.1%] Hispanic) were included in the study. After weighting on 2 propensity scores, preschool participants had higher rates of postsecondary degree completion, including associate's degree or higher (15.7% vs 10.7%; difference, 5.0%; 95% CI, 1.0%-9.0%), master's degree (4.2% vs 1.5%; difference, 2.7%; 95% CI, 1
Angel, Lucie; Fay, Séverine; Bouazzaoui, Badiâa; Baudouin, Alexia; Isingrini, Michel
The aim of the present experiment was to investigate whether educational level could modulate the effect of aging on episodic memory and on the electrophysiological correlates of retrieval success. Participants were divided into four groups based on age (young vs. older) and educational level (high vs. low), with 14 participants in each group. Event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded while participants performed a word-stem cued-recall task. Age-related memory deficits were greater for the less educated individuals. Age differences in the ERP old/new effects were also modulated by the level of education. This study demonstrated that the effects of age on episodic memory and ERP correlates of retrieval success are smaller in participants with high educational levels than those with lower levels. These findings provide support for the reserve hypothesis and highlight the need to consider individual differences when studying cognitive and cerebral changes in aging. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Richardson, Janet; Heidenreich, Thomas; Álvarez-Nieto, Carmen; Fasseur, Fabienne; Grose, Jane; Huss, Norma; Huynen, Maud; López-Medina, Isabel M; Schweizer, Angélick
Education in sustainable development is a goal recognised by a large number of countries and a vital concept in healthcare. It is therefore important that nurse education incorporates elements of sustainable development into nursing education curricula. However, there is limited research on student nurses' attitudes towards sustainability and no comparison of attitudes towards sustainability and its inclusion in the nursing curriculum across Europe. This project aims to assess student nurses' attitudes towards sustainability, its relevance to nursing and its inclusion in the nursing curricula. 1. To assess base-line attitudes at the start of nursing and midwifery training; 2. To compare sustainability awareness between students participating in training in a number of European universities. A comparative survey design using the Sustainability Attitudes in Nursing Survey (SANS_2) questionnaire. Nursing classes of Universities and Nursing Schools in four European countries were investigated using a questionnaire consisting of five sustainability-related items. 916 nursing students (UK: 450, Germany: 196, Spain: 124, Switzerland: 146). Standard descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used to establish psychometric quality (Principal Components Analysis, Cronbach's alpha, Pearson correlations) and compare student nurses from the four countries. The reliability of SANS_2 was good (Cronbach's alpha=.82) and the five items loaded on a single factor which explained 58% of variance. ANOVA of the SANS_2 total score showed significant differences between countries with German nursing students showing more sustainability awareness than students from the UK and Spain. SANS_2 is a reliable instrument to assess nursing students' sustainability awareness; there are significant differences in sustainability awareness of students of different European countries. Limitations of the study include non-random sampling, possible method effects and social desirability effects
Spuling, Svenja M; Huxhold, Oliver; Wurm, Susanne
Previous studies have demonstrated that while health factors lose importance for the individual conceptualization of self-rated health (SRH) with advancing age, subjective well-being (SWB) factors gain in importance. The present study examined whether this age-related pattern differs between educational groups. Longitudinal data of adults aged 40 years and older of the German Ageing Survey was used (N = 6,812). The role of education in age-related changes in the predictive value of different health and SWB facets for SRH was investigated with a cross-lagged panel regression model. Physical conditions were a stronger predictor in lower than in higher educated individuals while the association did not change with age. In contrast, positive affect and life satisfaction only gained in importance with advancing age for higher educated individuals. Negative affect was an equally strong predictor independent of education, and loneliness had a stronger association with SRH in people with lower education compared to those with high education while the associations did not change with age. The findings highlight the importance of considering the multidimensionality of SWB and the educational background of individuals for the study of SRH and indicate possible limits to adjustment to age-related declines in health. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
de Vries, Anna H; Schout, Barbara M A; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J G; Pelger, Rob C M; Koldewijn, Evert L; Muijtjens, Arno M M; Wagner, Cordula
Although simulation training is increasingly used to meet modern technology and patient safety demands, its successful integration within surgical curricula is still rare. The Dutch Urological Practical Skills (D-UPS) curriculum provides modular simulation-based training of technical and non-technical basic urological skills in the local hospital setting. This study aims to assess the educational impact of implementing the D-UPS curriculum in the Netherlands and to provide focus points for improvement of the D-UPS curriculum according to the participants. Educational impact was assessed by means of qualitative individual module-specific feedback and a quantitative cross-sectional survey among residents and supervisors. Twenty out of 26 Dutch teaching hospitals participated. The survey focussed on practical aspects, the D-UPS curriculum in general, and the impact of the D-UPS curriculum on the development of technical and non-technical skills. A considerable survey response of 95 % for residents and 76 % for supervisors was obtained. Modules were attended by junior and senior residents, supervised by a urologist, and peer teaching was used. Ninety percent of supervisors versus 67 % of residents judged the D-UPS curriculum as an important addition to current residency training (p = 0.007). Participants' aggregated general judgement of the modules showed a substantial percentage favorable score (M ± SE: 57 ± 4 %). The impact of training on, e.g., knowledge of materials/equipment and ability to anticipate on complications was high, especially for junior residents (77 ± 5 and 71 ± 7 %, respectively). Focus points for improvement of the D-UPS curriculum according to the participants include adaptation of the training level to residents' level of experience and focus on logistics. The simulation-based D-UPS curriculum has a high educational impact. Residents and supervisors consider the curriculum to be an important addition to current residency
Stocchetti, Matteo, Ed.
This book is an invitation to informed and critical participation in the current debate on the role of digital technology in education and a comprehensive introduction to the most relevant issues in this debate. After an early wave of enthusiasm about the emancipative opportunities of the digital "revolution" in education, recent…
In this article, the author explores how technological change is affecting most aspects of our society. In this vein, it is noted that even though education has historically been more resistant to technological change than other societal sectors, recent advances in distance education, specifically online learning, promise to radically disrupt…
Policy makers, teachers, students and members of the society are normally referred to as major stakeholders in education. The role of stakeholders in facilitating decisions that affect educational policies cannot be undermined. Although technology is considered a veritable platform for enhancing the teaching-learning ...
Individual differences in gender role perceptions have been described copiously in the psychological literature. The effects of education and gender have been established cross-culturally. The joint effects of education and gender have not however been discussed adequately, especially among African populations where ...
This paper explores the challenges facing educators in a time when modern technology, and especially modern social technology, has an increasingly powerful hold on our lives. The educational challenge does not primarily concern questions concerning the use of technology in the classroom, or as part of the learning environment, but a changeover in…
The reality of students' cyber lives has thrust upon educators a new approach: creating character education programs tuned to digital youth that are both proactive and aggressive. Taking this approach will help integrate students' digital activities within the context of the communities in which they live, both local and digital. The digital age…
Parks, Michael E.
Discusses the history of modern art and the emergence of post-modernism, assessing the implications for art education. Stating that viewers must be culturally literate to comprehend post-modern art, Parks argues that discipline-based art education will better prepare students to deal with the images, issues, and ambiguity they will be confronted…
Burden, Kevin; Kearney, Matthew
Mobile technologies have been described as 'boundary' objects which enable teachers and learners to transcend many of the barriers such as rigid schedules and spaces which have hitherto characterised traditional forms of education. However, educators need to better understand how to design learning scenarios which genuinely exploit the unique…
Erickson, Kirk I; Leckie, Regina L; Weinstein, Andrea M; Radchenkova, Polina; Sutton, Bradley P; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Voss, Michelle W; Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F
Greater educational attainment is associated with better neurocognitive health in older adults and is thought to reflect a measure of cognitive reserve. In vivo neuroimaging tools have begun to identify the brain systems and networks potentially responsible for reserve. We examined the relationship between education, a commonly used proxy for cognitive reserve, and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) in neurologically healthy older adults (N=135; mean age=66 years). Using single voxel MR spectroscopy, we predicted that higher levels of education would moderate an age-related decline in NAA in the frontal cortex. After controlling for the variance associated with cardiorespiratory fitness, sex, annual income, and creatine levels, there were no significant main effects of education (B=0.016, P=0.787) or age (B=-0.058, P=0.204) on NAA levels. However, consistent with our predictions, there was a significant education X age interaction such that more years of education offset an age-related decline in NAA (B=0.025, P=0.031). When examining working memory via the backwards digit span task, longer span length was associated with greater education (Peducation interaction on digit span performance nor a significant moderated mediation effect between age, education, and NAA on digit span performance. Taken together, these results suggest that higher levels of education may attenuate an age-related reduction in neuronal viability in the frontal cortex.
Onyeizugbo, Eucharia U.
Two hundred fourteen (214) married persons, 101 men and 113 women aged 20-60, with at least high school education, participated in the study which investigated the effects of gender, age, and educational attainment on assertiveness among married persons in Nigeria. The Assertive Behavior Assessment scale (ABAS; Onyeizugbo, 1998) was used to…
A movement known as the Universities of the Third Age (U3As) provides educational, cultural and social services for mature-age people in Australia and internationally. This paper focuses on the educational courses run by U3As and discusses two basic questions: What are the expectations of learners who enrol in these classes? and How can tutors…
Angel, Lucie; Fay, Severine; Bouazzaoui, Badiaa; Baudouin, Alexia; Isingrini, Michel
The aim of the present experiment was to investigate whether educational level could modulate the effect of aging on episodic memory and on the electrophysiological correlates of retrieval success. Participants were divided into four groups based on age (young vs. older) and educational level (high vs. low), with 14 participants in each group.…
Lindenbach, Jeannette M.; Jessup-Falcioni, Heather
This environmental scan aimed to discover research interests and educational needs of faculty, graduate, and undergraduate students to inspire research, education, and practice in the development of a center on aging and well-being for older adults. The scan consisted of a search of university faculty and researchers regarding research on aging; a…
The purpose of this study is to analyse the educational policies for Syrian school-aged refugees in Turkey. In this study, we identified the policy priorities for refugees by first examining the theoretical approaches to refugee education and the common problems observed for refugee education in different countries. Using this framework, we…
Geers, Ann; Brenner, Chris
This study documents child, family and educational characteristics of a large representative sample of 8- to 9-yr-old prelingually deaf children who received a cochlear implant by 5 yr of age. Because pre-existing factors such as the child's gender, family characteristics, additional handicaps, age at onset of deafness and at implant, may affect postimplant outcomes, these variables must be accounted for before the impact of educational factors on performance with an implant can be adequately determined. Classroom variables that may affect postimplant outcomes include placement in public or private, mainstream or special education, oral or total communication environments. Other intervention variables include type and amount of individual therapy, experience of the therapist and parent participation in therapy. Documenting these characteristics for a large representative sample of implanted children can provide clinicians and researchers with insight regarding the types of families who sought early cochlear implantation for their children and the types of educational programs in which they placed their children after implantation. It is important to undertake studies that control for as many of these factors as possible so that the relative benefits of specific educational approaches for helping children to get the most benefit from their cochlear implant can be identified. Over a 4-yr period, 181 children from across the US and Canada, accompanied by a parent, attended a cochlear implant research camp. Parents completed questionnaires in which they reported the child's medical and educational history, characteristics of the family, and their participation in the child's therapy. The parent listed names and addresses of clinicians who had provided individual speech/language therapy to the child and signed permission for these clinicians to complete questionnaires describing this therapy. To the extent that this sample is representative of those families seeking a
Annear, Michael; Walker, Kim; Lucas, Peter; Lo, Amanda; Robinson, Andrew
This article examines the reflective discourses of medical, nursing, and paramedic students participating in interprofessional education (IPE) activities in the context of aged-care clinical placements. The intent of the research is to explore how students engage with their interprofessional colleagues in an IPE assessment and care planning activity and elucidate how students configure their role as learners within the context of a non-traditional aged-care training environment. Research participants included cohorts of volunteer medical (n = 61), nursing (n = 46), and paramedic (n = 20) students who were on clinical placements at two large teaching aged-care facilities in Tasmania, Australia, over a period of 18 months. A total of 39 facilitated focus group discussions were undertaken with cohorts of undergraduate student volunteers from three health professions between February 2013 and October 2014. Thematic analysis of focus group transcripts was assisted by NVIVO software and verified through secondary coding and member checking procedures. With an acceptable level of agreement across two independent coders, four themes were identified from student focus group transcripts that described the IPE relations and perceptions of the aged-care environment. Emergent themes included reinforcement of professional hierarchies, IPE in aged care perceived as mundane and extraneous, opportunities for reciprocal teaching and learning, and understanding interprofessional roles. While not all students can be engaged with IPE activities in aged care, our evidence suggests that within 1 week of clinical placements there is a possibility to develop reciprocal professional relations, affirm a positive identity within a collaborative healthcare team, and support the health of vulnerable older adults with complex care needs. These important clinical learnings support aged-care-based IPE as a potentially powerful context for undergraduate learning in the 21st Century.
Palmer-Keenan, Debra M.; Corda, Kirsten
Limited-resource adults' dietary intakes and nutrition behaviors improve as a result of Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)/Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) participation; however, physical activity education is needed for improved health. The experimental study reported here assessed if spending time…
Richardson, Janet; Heidenreich, Thomas; Álvarez-Nieto, Carmen; Fasseur, F; Grose, Jane; Huss, N; Huynen, Maud; López-Medina, IM; A, Schweizer
INTRODUCTION: Education in sustainable development is a goal recognised by a large number of countries and a vital concept in healthcare. It is therefore important that nurse education incorporates elements of sustainable development into nursing education curricula. However, there is limited
Kerr, Mônica de Souza; Pagliarin, Karina Carlesso; Mineiro, Ana; Ferré, Perrine; Joanette, Yves; Fonseca, Rochele Paz
To verify age and education effects on communication performance of healthy adults in the Montreal Communication Evaluation Battery, Portuguese version (MAC-PT). The sample comprised 90 healthy adults from Portugal, European Portuguese speakers, divided into nine groups according to educational level (4-9, 10-13, and > 13 years of formal schooling) and age (19-40, 41-64, and 65-80 years). The influence of age and education was assessed by comparing mean scores between groups, using a two-way analysis of variance followed by Bonferroni post hoc tests (p ≤ 0.05). The results showed that participants' performance was influenced by age in pragmatic-inferential, discursive, and prosodic tasks. Education had the greatest influence on the performance in all processes evaluated by the MAC-PT. Age and education seem to influence the communicative performance and should be considered in the assessment of neurological patients.
Siu, Jessica; Giskes, Katrina; Shaw, Jonathan; Turrell, Gavin
To examine education differences in five-year weight change among mid-aged adults, and to ascertain if this may be due to socioeconomic differences in perceived weight status or weight control behaviours (WCBs). Data were used from the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study. Mid-aged men and women with measured weights at both baseline (1999-2000) and follow-up (2004-2005) were included. Percent weight change over the five-year interval was calculated and perceived weight status, WCBs and highest attained education were collected at baseline. Low-educated men and women were more likely to be obese at baseline compared to their high-educated counterparts. Women with a certificate-level education had a greater five-year weight gain than those with a bachelor degree or higher. Perceived weight status or WCBs did not differ by education among men and women, however participants that perceived themselves as very overweight had less weight gain than those perceiving themselves as underweight or normal weight. WCBs were not associated with five-year weight change. The higher prevalence of overweight/obesity among low-educated women may be a consequence of greater weight gain in mid-adulthood. Education inequalities in overweight/obesity among men and women made be due (in part) to overweight or obese individuals in low-educated groups not perceiving themselves as having a weight problem. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.
Schoj, Veronica; Allemandi, Lorena; Ianovsky, Oscar; Lago, Manuel; Alderete, Mariela
There is scarce evidence of secondhand smoke (SHS) and disparity in developing countries. We evaluated the relationship between socio-demographic variables and secondhand smoke-related factors in Argentina. We conducted a randomized telephone survey (2008/2009) in 25 Argentinean cities. We included a sample of 160 respondents per city stratified by sex and age. We used different generalized multivariate regression models with a confidence interval of 95 % for the five outcome variables. We sampled 4,000 respondents, 52.2 % women, 36 % adolescents and young adults (15-29 years), 58 % ≥12 years of education, and 72.6 % nonsmokers. Support to 100 % smoke-free environment legislation was higher in older than in younger respondents, OR = 1.5 (IC: 1.2-2.0), and in people with higher education levels, OR = 1.2 (IC: 1.1-1.4). Exposure to SHS was significantly lower in men than in women at home and in public places, IRR = 0.7 (IC: 0.5-0.9) and IRR = 0.8 (IC: 0.6-0.9), respectively. Older respondents reported lower exposure at home and in public places than adolescents and young adults, IRR = 0.6 (IC: 0.4-0.8) and IRR = 0.4 (IC: 0.3-0.5), respectively. People with higher education levels had a higher level of exposure in indoor public places than less educated people, IRR = 1.1 (IC: 1.1-1.2). Knowledge of respiratory disease in children caused by SHS exposure was lower in men than in women, RRR = 0.3 (IC: 0.1-0.6). Perceived compliance was higher in men than in women, OR = 1.4 (IC: 1.1-1.8) and in people with higher education levels, OR = 1.2 (IC: 1.1-1.4). Older and more educated respondents were more empowered than. younger and less educated people, OR = 1.5 (IC: 1.2-1.9) and OR = 1.2 (IC: 1.1-1.3), respectively. Reference groups for each variable were age: 15-29; education: ≤7 years; and sex: men. This is the first study to explore socio-demographic variables regarding secondhand smoke in our country. Women and younger people are more
He, Hong-Ling; Yan, Hong; Zuo, Ling; Liu, Ling; Zhang, Xi-Ping
To compare the effects of Montessori education and traditional education on the intellectual development in children aged 2 to 4 years. Children aged between 2 to 3 years who were enrolled in a kindergarten in September 2006 were randomly assigned to the Montessori education and the traditional education groups. In addition to receiving the traditional education, the Montessori education group participated in the two-hour Montessori pedagogical activities every day. The intellectual development was evaluated by the Neuropsychological Development Examination Format for Children Aged 0~6 years published by Capital Pediatrics Research Institute at enrollment and one year after the trial. There were no significant differences in the intelligence growth level between the Montessori education and the traditional education groups at enrollment. After one year, the levels of fine movements, adaptation ability, language, and social behavior developments in the Montessori education group were significantly higher than those in the traditional education group (pMontessori education group were also higher than those in the traditional education group (pMontessori education can promote the development of large motor ability, fine movements, language, and social behavior in children.
Cosco, Theodore D; Stephan, Blossom C M; Brayne, Carol; Muniz, Graciela
As the population ages, interest is increasing in studying aging well. However, more refined means of examining predictors of biopsychosocial conceptualizations of successful aging (SA) are required. Existing evidence of the relationship between early-life education and later-life SA is unclear. The Successful Aging Index (SAI) was mapped onto the Cognitive Function and Aging Study (CFAS), a longitudinal population-based cohort (n = 1,141). SAI scores were examined using growth mixture modelling (GMM) to identify SA trajectories. Unadjusted and adjusted (age, sex, occupational status) ordinal logistic regressions were conducted to examine the association between trajectory membership and education level. GMM identified a three-class model, capturing high, moderate, and low functioning trajectories. Adjusted ordinal logistic regression models indicated that individuals in higher SAI classes were significantly more likely to have higher educational attainment than individuals in the lower SAI classes. These results provide evidence of a life course link between education and SA.
Damman, Olga C; Vonk, Suzanne I; van den Haak, Maaike J; van Hooijdonk, Charlotte M J; Timmermans, Danielle R M
To study how comprehension of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is influenced by: (1) infographics about qualitative risk information, with/without risk numbers; (2) which qualitative risk dimension is emphasized; (3) heart age vs. traditional risk format. For aim 1, a 2 (infographics versus text) x 2 (risk number versus no risk number) between-subjects design was used. For aim 2, three pieces of information were tested within-subjects. Aim 3 used a simple comparison group. Participants (45-65 yrs old) were recruited through an online access panel; low educated people were oversampled. They received hypothetical risk information (20%/61yrs). Primary outcomes: recall, risk appraisals, subjective/objective risk comprehension. behavioral intentions, information evaluations. Infographics of qualitative risk dimensions negatively affected recall, subjective risk comprehension and information evaluations. No effect of type of risk dimension was found on risk perception. Heart age influenced recall, comprehension, evaluations and affective risk appraisals. Infographics of hypothetical CVD risk information had detrimental effects on measures related to risk perception/comprehension, but effects were mainly seen in undereducated participants. Heart age influenced perceptions/comprehension of hypothetical risk in a way that seemed to support understanding. Heart age seems a fruitful risk communication approach in disease risk calculators. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pérez-Suárez, V; Carrillo-Diaz, M; Crego, A; Romero, M
Although discouraged, pacifier usage is widespread and often practiced beyond two years of age. The current study explored the effects of maternal education and dental visits on the age of pacifier withdrawal. The dental histories of 213 children (53.1% male) attending a primary school in Madrid were obtained along with maternal education level and age at pacifier withdrawal. Data were analyzed by using independent samples t-test, one-way ANOVA two-way ANOVA and a complementary non-parametric approach was also used. There was a significant effect of maternal education on the age of pacifier withdrawal; the higher the maternal education, the younger the age of withdrawal. The frequency of dental visits influenced the relationship between maternal education and the age of pacifier withdrawal. Dental visits considerably shortened pacifier use among children with low- and medium-educated mothers. Pediatric dentists play a critical role in the correction of unhealthy oral habits such as prolonged pacifier use. The educational component of pediatric dentistry could reverse the lack of knowledge or misinformation among high-risk groups (e.g. low maternal education). As a consequence, we recommend that children start dental visits at an early age and maintain visits with a high frequency.
Lima, Kenio Costa; Caldas, Celia Pereira; Veras, Renato Peixoto; Correa, Renata de Freitas; Bonfada, Diego; de Souza, DyegoLeandro Bezerra; Jerez-Roig, Javier
Considering the population aging and the failure of biologistic and hospital-based treatment model, health promotion programs based on scientific evidence are necessary. A comprehensive review of literature was performed, aiming to identify and analyze health promotion and education experiments focused on the aging process. Papers published in eight databases, together with the database of the Pan-American Health Organization, were selected based on review of titles and abstracts, followed by a full text review conducted by two independent reviewers. A total of 22 studies were included, the majority of which adopted a quantitative approach, with a sample larger than 100 elderly or pre-retirement individuals. The majority of studies reported positive results in terms of health promotion and education. One study obtained minimum improvement and one reported that no statistically significant improvement had occurred. The positive effects most indicated by authors were: general or self-perceived improvement in physical health, improvement in psychosocial aspects and in relation to the aging process, improvement in adherence to preventative actions and in healthy conduct and lifestyle, increase in level of physical activity, improvement in quality of life and/or physical well-being, and improvement in activities of daily living or reduction of the risk of developing disabilities.
Schurink, M. M.; Braber, T. L.; Prakken, N. H. J.; Doevendans, P. A. F. M.; Backx, F. J. G.; Grobbee, D. E.; Rienks, R.; Nathoe, H. M.; Bots, M. L.; Velthuis, B. K.; Mosterd, A.
Background Psychological distress caused by cardiovascular pre-participation screening (PPS) may be a reason not to implement a PPS program. We assessed the psychological impact of PPS, including cardiac computed tomography (CT), in 318 asymptomatic sportsmen aged >= 45 years. Methods Coronary
Schurink, M. M.; Braber, T. L.; Prakken, N. H J; Doevendans, P. A F M; Backx, F. J G; Grobbee, D. E.; Rienks, R.; Nathoe, H. M.; Bots, M. L.; Velthuis, B. K.; Mosterd, A.
Background Psychological distress caused by cardiovascular pre-participation screening (PPS) may be a reason not to implement a PPS program. We assessed the psychological impact of PPS, including cardiac computed tomography (CT), in 318 asymptomatic sportsmen aged ≥45 years. Methods Coronary artery
Cabello, Rosario; Navarro Bravo, Beatriz; Latorre, José Miguel; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo
Numerous studies have suggested that educational history, as a proxy measure of active cognitive reserve, protects against age-related cognitive decline and risk of dementia. Whether educational history also protects against age-related decline in emotional intelligence (EI) is unclear. The present study examined ability EI in 310 healthy adults ranging in age from 18 to 76 years using the Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). We found that older people had lower scores than younger people for total EI and for the EI branches of perceiving, facilitating, and understanding emotions, whereas age was not associated with the EI branch of managing emotions. We also found that educational history protects against this age-related EI decline by mediating the relationship between age and EI. In particular, the EI scores of older adults with a university education were higher than those of older adults with primary or secondary education, and similar to those of younger adults of any education level. These findings suggest that the cognitive reserve hypothesis, which states that individual differences in cognitive processes as a function of lifetime intellectual activities explain differential susceptibility to functional impairment in the presence of age-related changes and brain pathology, applies also to EI, and that education can help preserve cognitive-emotional structures during aging. PMID:24653697
Cabello, Rosario; Navarro Bravo, Beatriz; Latorre, José Miguel; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo
Numerous studies have suggested that educational history, as a proxy measure of active cognitive reserve, protects against age-related cognitive decline and risk of dementia. Whether educational history also protects against age-related decline in emotional intelligence (EI) is unclear. The present study examined ability EI in 310 healthy adults ranging in age from 18 to 76 years using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). We found that older people had lower scores than younger people for total EI and for the EI branches of perceiving, facilitating, and understanding emotions, whereas age was not associated with the EI branch of managing emotions. We also found that educational history protects against this age-related EI decline by mediating the relationship between age and EI. In particular, the EI scores of older adults with a university education were higher than those of older adults with primary or secondary education, and similar to those of younger adults of any education level. These findings suggest that the cognitive reserve hypothesis, which states that individual differences in cognitive processes as a function of lifetime intellectual activities explain differential susceptibility to functional impairment in the presence of age-related changes and brain pathology, applies also to EI, and that education can help preserve cognitive-emotional structures during aging.
Zajacova, Anna; Montez, Jennifer Karas
Functional limitations and disability declined in the US during the 1980s and 1990s, but reports of early 21st century trends are mixed. Whether educational inequalities in functioning increased or decreased is also poorly understood. Given the importance of disability for productivity, independent living, and health care costs, these trends are critical to US social and health policies. We examine recent trends in functional limitations and disability among women and men aged 45-64. Using 2000-2015 National Health Interview Surveys data on over 155,000 respondents, semiparametric and logistic regression models visualize and test functioning trends by education. Among women and men with at least a college degree, there was no change in disability and mild increase in limitations over time. All other education levels experienced significant increases in functioning problems ranging from 18% higher odds of functional limitations in 2015 compared to 2000 among men with some college to about 80% increase in the odds of disability among women and men with less than high school education. The similar trends for both genders suggest common underlying causes, possibly including the worsening economic well-being of middle- and working-class families. The pervasive growth of functioning problems is a cause for concern that necessitates further scholarly investigation.
Nikolaev, Boris; Pavlova, Nataliia
The need to ensure equal rights to different age groups without discrimination in our country necessitates the study of international experience. One of the traditional and at the same time, urgent problems in the USA is the problem of age equality and the overcoming of discriminatory theory and practice. The goal of the study is to analyze the…
Yue Qian; Zhenchao Qian
Objective: Chinese media labels highly educated, urban women who are still single in their late 20s as "leftover ladies". We investigate whether indeed highly educated women are less likely to marry than their less-educated counterparts, and how assortative mating patterns by age and education play a role in singleness. Methods: We use data from the urban samples of the Chinese General Social Surveys in the 2000s. In the analysis we calculate marriage rates to examine the likelihood of ent...
Economou, Alexandra; Papageorgiou, Sokratis; Karageorgiou, Clementine
Performance on neuropsychological tests is affected by age and education, which makes the early detection of cognitive impairment difficult when assessing individuals of varying levels of education. We examined the effects of age, education, and gender on three memory indexes of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III, Delayed Memory, Working Memory and the difference between Working-Delayed Memory in a sample of patients with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment, patients with mild probable Alzheimer's disease, and a nondemented elderly comparison group. Whereas Delayed and Working Memory scores were affected by participant type, age, and education, the Working-Delayed Memory difference score was affected by participant type, only. Our preliminary conclusions, pending replication of the findings with a larger sample, are that working-delayed memory difference was sensitive to early memory decline without being affected by age and education.
Proios, Miltiadis; Doganis, George
The present aim was to investigate the effect of age and education on the moral reasoning of the same 535 individuals in sports for whom nature of sport experience was reported. All 535 participants (M age = 24.9 yr., SD = 8.3) were involved in sports at the time of the study as athletes (n = 342), referees (n = 145), or coaches (n = 48), and had a wide range of education. Analysis of variance of scores on the Defining Issues Test of Rest showed moral judgment in sports differs significantly amongst different age groups (F5.510 = 5.37, p education (F4.511 = 6.24, p education, higher moral judgment can be expected. It is apparent that moral development in sport is related to age and education, as also holds for a wider social setting.
Full Text Available New knowledge media provide new opportunities and means for addressing fundamental problems in education. But there are now so many designs for educational environments that choosing between them is difficult. Advancing the state of the art will require greater clarity regarding different possibilities and the ways in which designs reflect different underlying theoretical frameworks and research bases. This article highlights a particular form of online environment, a knowledge building environment (KBE, and contrasts it with online environments designed more specifically for course delivery, computer-mediated projects, and distance learning. Although a KBE can be used for these purposes, its distinctive strengths emerge in contexts—educational and other—where the emphasis is on knowledge creation and sustained idea improvement.
Accelerated developments in the computer and telecommunication technologies have been well exploited in production and provision of information to meet needs of different groups of agricultural user population; however, in developing countries topmost computerized agricultural scientific and technical services available serve groups who by profession are scientists and academics. User education became of crucial importance for optimum utilization of information. General user educational requirement, particular user response and problems, information resources, services, and available facilities were taken into consideration in designing an information service training course for agricultural researchers, a detailed outline of the course is given in this paper as well as trainees and trainers evaluation. (author). 6 refs
Reading level predicted performance on neuropsychological tests better than years of schooling. INTRODUCTION. Assessment of neurocognitive impairment relies on .... Working Memory. Paced Serial Addition Test. WMS Spatial Span. Motor Dexterity. Grooved Pegboard (Dominant & Non Dominant Hands). Domain. Age.
Slagsvold, Britt; Sørensen, Annemette
High sense of control is related to benefits in many aspects of life, and education is known to be strongly related to sense of control. In this article we explore why women tend to feel a lower sense of control than men, and why the sense of control tends to be lower among the elderly than among younger people. In particular we explore the role played by education in explaining age- and gender differences in sense of control. The analysis is based on data from the first wave of the Norwegian NorLAG study, with a representative sample of adults aged 40-79 in 30 municipalities. We find that education accounts for some of the age and gender differences in sense of control, but the mediating effects of education are rather modest. We find an increasing gender gap in sense of control with age, and this increasing gap is completely explained by differences in education. Gender differences in sense of control is explained completely by four factors, which are related to resources and power; physical health, education, living with a partner, and leadership experience. Age differences in sense of control are only partially explained. Education, physical health and employment status cuts the age effect on sense of control to half. The effect of education on sense of control is partly mediated through what we suggest are tangible benefits of education, namely health, employment, and leadership experience. Education also influences individuals through socialization mechanisms. We view agentive orientation as a psychological benefit of education, and measure this characteristic with Bem's (1981) sex-role scale on masculinity. Agentive orientation completely explains the remaining effect of education on sense of control.
Corn, Anne L.; And Others
This monograph identifies and discusses eight goals for students with visual impairments, which are intended to be integrated with educational reform efforts called for by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, the Goals 2000 program, and the School to Work initiatives. The goals are: (1) students and their families will be referred to…
Van Buren, Maurie
This teaching guide accompanies a videocassette for teaching about the Victorian Era in the United States through the study of homes from that period. The teaching unit can be adopted for students in grades 4 through 12 and can also be used in college classes and in adult education. Skills are identified to help students interpret their physical…
Breivik, Patricia Senn; Jones, Dan L.
The challenge for higher education today is to develop better ways to guide individuals through rapidly expanding old and new resources in their search for knowledge. This means helping undergraduates develop skills in information literacy, the effective seeking and packaging of information. (MSE)
Stresses the need for chemical engineering education to keep abreast of current needs. Explores the need for global economics, marketing strategy, product differentiation, and patent law in the curriculum. Questions the abilities of current chemical engineering graduate students in those areas. (MVL)
A great many New England institutions of higher education are about to find out if demography will determine their fate because unprecedented and substantial population change is sweeping across the region. With fewer than 15 million year-round residents, it is the nation's smallest and one of the slowest-growing of the nine census divisions. This…
teaching-learning process, nevertheless the operators of this process are crucial to the strategic integration of this innovative tool to effective instructional delivery. The benefits accruable in the interface between mobile technology and basic education can only be fully harnessed when the views of stakeholders are.
Parsons, Talcott; Platt, Gerald M.
Socialization of affective and moral components of the personality is usually conceived of as completed by the end of adolescence. In contrast, this paper analyzes certain aspects of undergraduate college education which constitute a new level of socialization; although to a degree previously extant, it never before involved such a mass population…
Solias, A; Skapinakis, P; Degleris, N; Pantoleon, M; Katirtzoglou, E; Politis, A
For the last 38 years, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) has been widely used as a dementia screening measure in everyday clinical practice as well as in both cohort and cross-sectional studies. Its validity and reliability for the Greek population has explicitly been documented. However, the effect of age and education on the subject's performance makes it necessary to reckon them in the estimation of the "cutoff score". The purpose of this study is to estimate the prevalence of dementia in Greek population and determine the "cutoff score" by age and education-corrected norms. Cross sectional study of 630 patients older than 55 years, who live independently in Ilion and Helioupolis Municipalities was conducted, 27.3% of the subjects tested in the study were diagnosed with memory disorder according to their MMSE scores and the validation for the Greek population. The effect of age and education to the subjects' performance was statistically significant (p=.000). The use of standard "cutoff score" was not proved to be useful for the personalized interpretation of the results, as documented by the fact that older individuals with lower education had a poorer performance relatively to younger, highly educated subjects. Comparatively to the group age of 55-60 years, the odds ratio after the age of 75 years varies from 2.58 to 4.91. Regarding the variable factor of education, the odds ratio for the first degree education graduates decreases from 1.43 to 3.19 for the third degree education graduates in comparison with the group of illiterates. In conclusion, the use of the "cutoff score" algorithm and the simultaneous estimation of age and education effect on MMSE score may prove useful for the proper evaluation of MMSE performance. According to the age and education of examine candidates in the community and the primary care, we propose the use of the 25th percentile as a more useful cutoff score in order to decrease the false positive results.
Buster, Kesha J; You, Zhiying; Fouad, Mona; Elmets, Craig
Studies of noncutaneous and cutaneous malignancies support the hypothesis that poor risk-perception status contributes to health disparity. We evaluated skin cancer (SC) risk perceptions across race and other demographic markers using the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) and compared them to discover differences in perception that may contribute to the disparities in SC diagnosis and treatment. Respondents with no history of SC were randomly selected to answer questions assessing perceived risk and knowledge of preventive strategies of SC. Logistic regression was performed to identify associations between perceptions of SC and demographic variables including self-described race, age, sex, education, income, and health insurance status. Blacks, the elderly, and people with less education perceived themselves as at lower risk of developing SC. They, along with Hispanics, were also more likely to believe that one cannot lower their SC risk and that there are so many different recommendations on how to prevent SC that it makes it difficult to know which ones to follow. Lower education also correlated with greater reluctance to have a skin examination. HINTS is a cross-sectional instrument, thus it only provides a snapshot of SC perceptions. Uncertainty and altered perceptions are more common in the SC risk perceptions of ethnic minorities, the elderly, and those with less education. These are the same groups that are subject to disparities in SC outcomes. Educational programs directed at these demographic groups may help to reduce the SC-related health disparities. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
No Abstract. Global Journal of Educational Research Vol. 2(1&2) 2003: 7-12. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gjedr.v2i1.29394 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...
A systematic review of pedagogical approaches that can effectively include children with special educational needs in mainstream classrooms with a particular focus on peer group interactive approaches
Nind, Melanie; Wearmouth, Janice
Background The broad background to this review is a long history of concepts of special pupils and special education and a faith in special pedagogical approaches. The rise of inclusive schools and some important critiques of special pedagogy (e.g. Hart, 1996; Norwich and Lewis, 2001; Thomas and Loxley, 2001) have raised the profile of teaching approaches that ordinary teachers can and do use to include children with special educational needs in mainstream classrooms. Inclusive education i...
Fenerty, Lynne; Heatley, Jennifer; Young, Julian; Thibault-Halman, Ginette; Kureshi, Nelofar; Bruce, Beth S; Walling, Simon; Clarke, David B
Nova Scotia is the first jurisdiction in the world to mandate ski and snowboard helmet use for all ages at ski hills in the province. This study represents a longitudinal examination of the effects of social marketing, educational campaigns and the introduction of helmet legislation on all-age snow sport helmet use in Nova Scotia. A baseline observational study was conducted to establish the threshold of ski and snowboarding helmet use. Based on focus groups and interviews, a social marketing campaign was designed and implemented to address factors influencing helmet use. A prelegislation observational study assessed the effects of social marketing and educational promotion on helmet use. After all-age snow sport helmet legislation was enacted and enforced, a postlegislation observational study was conducted to determine helmet use prevalence. Baseline data revealed that 74% of skiers and snowboarders were using helmets, of which 80% were females and 70% were males. Helmet use was high in children (96%), but decreased with increasing age. Following educational and social marketing campaigns, overall helmet use increased to 90%. After helmet legislation was enacted, 100% compliance was observed at ski hills in Nova Scotia. Results from this study demonstrate that a multifaceted approach, including education, legislation and enforcement, was effective in achieving full helmet compliance among all ages of skiers and snowboarders. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Elwan, Osamah; Madkour, Obsis; Elwan, Fadia; Mostafa, Mervat; Abbas Helmy, Azza; Abdel-Naseer, Maged; Abdel Shafy, Sanaa; El Faiuomy, Nervana
Studying the cognitive and immunological changes that occur in old age as well as genetic function have been considered an important subject to differentiate between normal brain aging and early dementia especially Alzheimer's disease. The aim of this study is to stress on age-related neuropsychological and electrophysiological (P(300)) changes in normal Egyptian subjects, to throw light on the value of genetic (Apo-E(4) genotype) and immunological markers [interleukin-6 (IL-6) and intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAM-1) in the serum] as tools used in early detection of cognitive decline in cerebral aging. Ninety-four normal Egyptian subjects (below and above 60 years) were submitted to the following: (1) neuropsychological tests for testing memory, perception, psychomotor performance and attention, (2) Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) for personality traits, (3) event-related potential study (P(300), latency and amplitude), (4) genetic test for detection of Apolipoprotein E genotype and (5) immunological studies including detection of the level of IL-6 and ICAM-1 in serum. There was a significant impairment of memory, psychomotor performance and perception in elderly subjects particularly males and subjects with low level of education. Regarding personality, significantly high scores were obtained in neuroticism scale of EPQ in elderly subjects. Apo-E(3)/E(3) was the most common genotype encountered in Egyptian subjects (49.1%). It was found that subjects with Apo-E(4) genotype did significantly worse in scores of intentional memory test (sensory memory) when compared with other genotypes. Statistically significant impairment in attention and sensory memory was found in subjects with high IL-6 level. This could not be detected in subjects with high ICAM-1 level. In conclusion, advancing age and lower levels of education are considered risk factors for cognitive decline in normal brain aging. Neuropsychological tests remain as the highly sensitive tools
Wishon, Phillip M.
Each year in the United States, thousands of school-aged children become involved in sexual activities arranged by adults for purposes of pleasure and profit. Nationwide, annual profits from the child pornography industry and from female and male child prostitution are in the tens of millions of dollars. Heretofore, the majority of…
With the advent of an aging society, the older population is gradually increasing and people are living longer than ever before. However, older people are often portrayed in school textbooks as insignificant, unhealthy, sad, passive, and dependent. That is, ageism emerges in school textbooks in subtle ways. Under this circumstance, children may…
Gergokova, Zh. Kh.
It was acknowledged by the Second United Nations World Assembly on Aging that this process is a global social and demographic reality that has had its impact on the entire world in all aspects of its existence--the traditional national, financial economic, political, and moral-ethical aspects. At the present time every state is confronted by the…
Full Text Available Objective: Chinese media labels highly educated, urban women who are still single in their late 20s as "leftover ladies". We investigate whether indeed highly educated women are less likely to marry than their less-educated counterparts, and how assortative mating patterns by age and education play a role in singleness. Methods: We use data from the urban samples of the Chinese General Social Surveys in the 2000s. In the analysis we calculate marriage rates to examine the likelihood of entry into marriage, and then apply log-linear models to investigate the assortative mating patterns by age and education. Results: We find that as education increases, the likelihood of marriage increases among men but decreases among women, especially among those over age 30. The results from log-linear models reveal that more marriages involve better-educated, older men and less-educated, younger women. Conclusions: We argue that persistent traditional gender roles, accompanied by the rapid rise in women's education, contribute to low marriage rates among older, highly educated women.
Tooth, Leigh R; Mishra, Gita D
The educational mobility of mid-age women is rarely studied. We analysed the baseline socio-economic position (SEP) and health factors associated with obtaining further education in 4117 mid-age Australian women between 1996 and 2010 (aged 45-50 at baseline, 62-67 at follow-up) from a population-based study. Women either unemployed or working part-time at baseline had higher odds of a stable low and middle education over time (ORs ranging from 1.61 to 3.86) versus educational mobility. Apart from obesity, characteristics that may signal an unhealthy lifestyle in early mid-life were not useful indicators of women's future educational mobility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Homel, Jacqueline; Thompson, Kara; Leadbeater, Bonnie
This study examined associations between longitudinal trajectories of marijuana use from adolescence to young adulthood and postsecondary education (PSE) experiences. Outcomes examined included the type of PSE undertaken, the timing of enrollment, and the likelihood of dropping out. Participants (N = 632; 332 females) were from the Victoria Healthy Youth Survey, a five-wave multicohort study of young people interviewed biennially between 2003 and 2011. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify distinct trajectories of the frequency of marijuana use from ages 15 to 25. Logistic regression analyses evaluated class membership as a predictor of the three PSE outcomes, with sex, maternal education, family structure, high school grades, and conduct problems controlled for. Three trajectory groups of marijuana use were identified: abstainers (31%), occasional users (44%), and frequent users (25%). Compared with abstainers, frequent users had the lowest high school grades and the most conduct problems and were least likely to enroll in PSE, especially in a university. Occasional users did not differ from abstainers on high school grades or conduct problems and were no less likely than abstainers to enroll in PSE. However, they delayed enrollment longer and were more likely to drop out of PSE. Frequent marijuana use from adolescence to young adulthood may close off opportunities for entering PSE, whereas occasional use may create delays in starting and finishing PSE among less at-risk young people. The mechanisms underlying associations between marijuana use and educational difficulties during emerging adulthood as well as adolescence need to be better understood.
Silventoinen, Karri; Pankow, James; Jousilahti, Pekka; Hu, Gang; Tuomilehto, Jaakko
Previous studies have shown socioeconomic inequalities in the metabolic syndrome and coronary heart disease (CHD), but it is not known whether educational disparities in the metabolic syndrome explain educational inequalities in CHD. We investigated this question in a prospective study of middle-aged men and women. Baseline data were collected in 1992 in Finland from 864 men and 1045 women aged 45-64 years without history of CHD. A total of 113 new CHD cases were identified by the end of 2001. Logistic and Cox regression models were used in data analysis. The metabolic syndrome defined by NCEP criteria was less prevalent in subjects with university education (21% in men and 14% in women) compared with basic level education (41% and 27%, respectively). Adjusting for health behavioural factors had only a slight effect on the educational gradient in the metabolic syndrome. An educational gradient in CHD incidence was clear [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.67 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.48-0.94, men and women combined]. Adjustment for the metabolic syndrome attenuated this gradient only slightly, but when individual components of the metabolic syndrome were included as covariates the attenuation was more substantial (HR = 0.73 95% CI 0.52-1.04). Educational differences in the metabolic syndrome and CHD incidence are clear. Metabolic risk factors explain the gradient in CHD incidence partly, but only when they are treated as independent risk factors. Screening for the metabolic syndrome alone is not sufficient to account for socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular disease.
Joung, I. M.; Kunst, A. E.; van Imhoff, E.; Mackenbach, J. P.
This article describes to what extent the expected rise in the educational level of the Dutch population can counterbalance the increases in the prevalence of ill-health and health care utilization based on the aging of the population for the period 1996-2020. Logistic regression models are used to
... ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.426 Determining total disability: Age, education, and work...
Joseph, Robert M; O'Shea, Thomas M; Allred, Elizabeth N; Heeren, Tim; Kuban, Karl K
BackgroundTo determine if a key marker of socioeconomic status, maternal education, is associated with later neurocognitive and academic outcomes among children born extremely preterm (EP).MethodEight hundred and seventy-three children born at 23 to 27 weeks of gestation were assessed for cognitive and academic ability at age 10 years. With adjustments for gestational age (GA) and potential confounders, outcomes of children whose mothers had fewer years of education at the time of delivery and children whose mother advanced in education between birth and 10 years were examined.ResultsChildren of mothers in the lowest education stratum at birth were significantly more likely to score ≥2 SDs below normative expectation on 17 of 18 tests administered. Children of mothers who advanced in education (n=199) were at reduced risk for scoring ≥2 SDs on 15 of 18 measures, but this reduction was statistically significant on only 2 of 18 measures.ConclusionAmong EP children, socioeconomic disadvantage at birth, indexed by maternal education, is associated with significantly poorer neurocognitive and academic outcomes at 10 years of age, independently of GA. Maternal educational advancement during the child's first 10 years of life is associated with modestly improved neurocognitive outcomes.Pediatric Research advance online publication, 22 November 2017; doi:10.1038/pr.2017.267.
Tattooing has become more acceptable in the mainstream American culture in recent years. Based on a survey with face-to-face interviews of 335 nontattooed adults randomly selected from a city with a population of 444,000, this study explored the relationship of individuals' demographic variables, attitudes toward religion, and their perceptions of tattoos. The hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that age and attitude toward religion were associated with individuals' perception of tattoos.
Chee, Yam San; Mehrotra, Swati; Liu, Qiang
Educational systems worldwide are being challenged to respond effectively to the digital revolution and its implications for learning in the 21st century. In the present new media age, educational reforms are desperately needed to support more open and flexible structures of on-demand learning that equip students with competencies required in a…
McDonnall, Michele Capella
A limited amount of information is available about the employment and postsecondary educational status of transition-age youths with visual impairments. Reports on the employment and postsecondary education tend to focus on overall results and usually do not provide detailed analyses by disability groups. In this article, the author presents the…
Banerjee, Swapna M.
Research Framework: This essay attempts to reclaim Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941), the “Myriad-Minded Man” from colonial India, through his “ages of life” – as a son, father, and educator – and his conceptualization of an alternate education and masculinity. Tagore’s critique of colonial education, his experiments with institutions, and his curriculum emphasizing arts and moral aesthetics over muscular nationalism challenged the dominant culture of masculinity. His paternalism embraced a “ma...
Zahabioun, Shahla; Yousefy, Alireza; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad H.; Keshtiaray, Narges
As the inevitable process of the 21st century, globalization has affected and altered all aspects of human life including education. Therefore, one of the main tasks of any education system is to identify the features and impacts of such process. Thus, the present study was conducted aiming to discuss and examine global citizenship education and…
Lentz, Linda P.; And Others
This paper describes the activities of the Michigan Department of Education and local districts in establishing a statewide plan for using microcomputers in education. Components of the plan include the design of a computer literacy grant program known as TIME (Technology in Michigan Education); the establishment and funding of a statewide network…
Jang, Yuri; Yoon, Hyunwoo; Marti, C. Nathan; Kim, Miyong T.
Using the translated contents of the National Institute on Aging (NIA)'s Aging IQ, an educational intervention was delivered to older Korean Americans. The educational program was delivered via two different modalities, Internet-based education (n = 12) and in-class education (n = 11), and the overall feasibility and efficacy were evaluated by the…
A discussion of the relative lack of research into e-leadership in educational technology in education is followed by an outline of selected prior literature in the field. The paper proposes that, as part of a natural evolution of educational technology research, considerably more attention needs to be focused on research and development in…
Barlow, Melvin L.
The beginnings of vocational education are more readily seen during the period 1876-1926. They are characterized by the rise of manual training, trade schools, home economics movements, and agricultural education. The Smith-Hughes Act was passed in response to the demands of the National Society for the Promotion of Industrial Education. (EC)
Mengoni, Silvana E.; Oates, John
Early intervention is key for children with special educational needs or disabilities (SEND), and therefore early assessment is crucial. Information from parents about children's current ability and their developmental history can make valid and useful contributions to developmental assessments. Parental input is also important in early education…
Baines, Ed; Blatchford, Peter; Webster, Rob
Findings from two studies are discussed in relation to the experiences and challenges faced by teachers trying to implement effective group work in schools and classrooms and to reflect on the lessons learnt about how to involve pupils with special educational needs (SEN). The first study reports on UK primary school teachers' experiences of…
Parent engagement plays an essential role in student achievement and well-being, but not all families are able to participate in their children's education. This article focuses on strategies for reaching and supporting parents who face challenges to engagement such as poverty and cultural diversity. Five district-level parent engagement projects…
For a university service learning educational research project addressing Legionnaires' disease (LD), a Yes/No questionnaire on community awareness of LD was developed and distributed in an urban community in North Carolina, USA. The 456 questionnaires completed by the participants were sorted into yes and no sets based on responses obtained to…
Many career and technical education (CTE) courses not only provide students with vocational and technical skills and knowledge, but engage them in academic content as well. Designed thoughtfully, these courses can address rigorous academic content standards and be as intellectually demanding as traditional academic courses (Southern Regional…
Ferrer, R; Zaragoza, R; Llinares, P; Maseda, E; Rodríguez, A; Quindós, G
Infections caused by Candida species are common in critically ill patients and contribute to significant morbidity and mortality. The EPICO Project (Epico 1 and Epico 2.0 studies) recently used a Delphi approach to elaborate guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of this condition in critically ill adult patients. We aimed to evaluate the impact of a multifaceted educational intervention based on the Epico 1 and Epico 2.0 recommendations. Specialists anonymously responded to two online surveys before and after a multifaceted educational intervention consisting of 60-min educational sessions, the distribution of slide kits and pocket guides with the recommendations, and an interactive virtual case presented at a teleconference and available for online consultation. A total of 74 Spanish hospitals. Specialists of the Intensive Care Units in the participating hospitals. Specialist knowledge and reported practices evaluated using a survey. The McNemar test was used to compare the responses in the pre- and post-intervention surveys. A total of 255 and 248 specialists completed both surveys, in both periods, respectively. The pre-intervention surveys showed many specialists to be unaware of the best approach for managing invasive candidiasis. After both educational interventions, specialist knowledge and reported practices were found to be more in line with nearly all the recommendations of the Epico 1 and Epico 2.0 guidelines, except as regards de-escalation from echinocandins to fluconazole in Candida glabrata infections (p=0.055), and the duration of antifungal treatment in both candidemia and peritoneal candidiasis. This multifaceted educational intervention based on the Epico Project recommendations improved specialist knowledge of the management of invasive candidiasis in critically ill patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.
Satya Sundar SETHY
ABSTRACT The aim of this paper is to discuss the nature and status of distance education in the age of globalization, i.e. how best it fits for the present educational scenario. In this connection, we will discuss how Blended Learning (hence after, BL) is one among the other learning strategies mostly helpful for the learners. Keeping this view in mind, this paper is divided into three sections. The first section aims to discuss the nature of distance education in the age of globalization. Th...
Ginsburg, Herbert P.
This paper offers an account of what early mathematics education could look like in an age of young digital natives. Each "Tubby," as the tablets are called, presents Nicole (our generic little child) with stimulating mathematics microworlds, from which, beginning at age 3, she can learn basic math concepts, as well as methods of…
van Veen, S.; Aarnoudse-Moens, C. S. H.; Oosterlaan, J.; Van Sonderen, L.; de Haan, T. R.; van Kaam, A. H.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A. G.
To explore changes in motor and cognitive outcomes in very preterm (VP; gestational age <30weeks) born children between ages five and six years, and to determine whether changes in these outcomes were associated with the use of healthcare therapies and educational provisions. Single-center
Aune, Tore Kristian; Pedersen, Arve Vorland; Ingvaldsen, Rolf Petter; Dalen, Terje
The relative age effect (RAE) refers to that children born early in their year of birth show higher performance compared to children born late in the same cohort. The present study evaluated whether RAE exists within non-competitive physical education (PE) attainments, change in RAE magnitude with age, and possible gender differences. The results…
Hansen, Tom G; Pedersen, Jacob K; Henneberg, Steen W
Immature animals exposed to anesthetics display apoptotic neurodegeneration with subsequent long-term cognitive dysfunctions. Young age at anesthetic exposure is believed to be critical, but human studies are scarce. This study investigated the association between exposure to surgery and anesthesia...... for pyloric stenosis (PS) before 3 months of age and subsequent educational outcome in adolescence....
Lytle, Ashley; Levy, Sheri R; Meeks, Suzanne
Ageism is of increasing concern due to the growing older population worldwide and youth-centered focus of many societies. The current investigation tested the PEACE (Positive Education about Aging and Contact Experiences) model for the first time. Two online experimental studies examined 2 key factors for reducing ageism: education about aging (providing accurate information about aging) and extended contact (knowledge of positive intergenerational contact) as well as their potential combined effect (education plus extended contact). In Study 1, 354 undergraduates in all 3 experimental conditions (vs. control participants) reported less negative attitudes toward older adults (delayed post-test) and greater aging knowledge (immediate and delayed post-tests), when controlling for pre-study attitudes. In Study 2, 505 national community participants (ages 18-59) in all experimental conditions (vs. control participants) reported less negative attitudes toward older adults (immediate post-test) and greater aging knowledge (immediate and delayed post-tests). In summary, across 2 online studies, education about aging and knowledge of intergenerational extended contact improved attitudes toward older adults and aging knowledge. Thus, brief, online ageism-reduction strategies can be an effective way to combat ageism. These strategies hold promise to be tested in other settings, with other samples, and to be elaborated into more in-depth interventions that aim to reduce ageism in everyday culture. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Mulder, K.; Hulstijn, J.H.
This study assessed, in a sample of 98 adult native speakers of Dutch, how their lexical skills and their speaking proficiency varied as a function of their age and level of education and profession (EP). Participants, categorized in terms of their age (18-35, 36-50, and 51-76 years old) and the
This chapter first highlights major demographic trends in the OECD area and compares them to trends in other major areas of the world. It then presents a simulation to show how the ageing of staff in higher education is an outcome of two processes – ageing in place and evolution of the student
Full Text Available Education and training research for business environment has become an important subject to debate in nowadays, because it allows the design of scenarios that contribute to economic and social development. In this paper, we propose to analyse the evolution of business educational models, in terms of new forms of learning: e-learning and MOOC. It will also be analysed the impact of educational methods in the virtual environment in the classic educational system. Last but not least there will be outlined the perspectives and opportunities of business education in the context of educational reform at European and global level. In this regard, it will be drawn the direction and position of Romania towards the reorganization of business education model.
Zahodne, Laura B; Glymour, M Maria; Sparks, Catharine; Bontempo, Daniel; Dixon, Roger A; MacDonald, Stuart W S; Manly, Jennifer J
Although the relationship between education and cognitive status is well-known, evidence regarding whether education moderates the trajectory of cognitive change in late life is conflicting. Early studies suggested that higher levels of education attenuate cognitive decline. More recent studies using improved longitudinal methods have not found that education moderates decline. Fewer studies have explored whether education exerts different effects on longitudinal changes within different cognitive domains. In the present study, we analyzed data from 1014 participants in the Victoria Longitudinal Study to examine the effects of education on composite scores reflecting verbal processing speed, working memory, verbal fluency, and verbal episodic memory. Using linear growth models adjusted for age at enrollment (range, 54-95 years) and gender, we found that years of education (range, 6-20 years) was strongly related to cognitive level in all domains, particularly verbal fluency. However, education was not related to rates of change over time for any cognitive domain. Results were similar in individuals older or younger than 70 at baseline, and when education was dichotomized to reflect high or low attainment. In this large longitudinal cohort, education was related to cognitive performance but unrelated to cognitive decline, supporting the hypothesis of passive cognitive reserve with aging.
Relman, A S
The corporate transformation of medicine raises questions about the basic purposes and values of the profession and the physician's social role that have not been adequately considered in medical school and residency curricula. Medical schools and graduate programs need to make students and trainees more aware of the conflict between traditional professional values and the imperatives of the market, so they will be better prepared to defend these values in the new business climate. Otherwise, medical schools and teaching hospitals could simply become trade schools, turning out sophisticated technicians, future entrepreneurs, and managers. As a starting point for educational reform, the author suggests that students (1) learn the social and political history of the medical profession of the United States over the past 200 years; (2) be introduced to the economic dimensions of health care--where the money comes from and how it is spent; (3) learn the history of health maintenance organizations, and understand the different forms of managed care and how they work; (4) become familiar with the health care reforms proposed by the Clinton Administration in the early 1990s, and understand why they were defeated and what has happened to health care reform since then; (5) examine the conflict between the culture of business managers and that of practicing physicians, and consider the recent efforts to achieve "quality control" as a balance to the emphasis on price; (6) be challenged to think about the important ethical, legal, and professional issues raised by the industrialization of health care; and (7) consider the political and professional options that might preserve the most important principles of medical professionalism while still addressing the social objectives of cost control, community service, and universal access. The author concludes that to prevent medicine from becoming merely a technologic business, the medical profession will have to become more actively
Full Text Available Inter-subject variability in age-related brain changes may relate to educational attainment, as suggested by cognitive reserve theories. This voxel-based morphometry study investigated the impact of very low educational level on the relationship between regional gray matter (rGM volumes and age in healthy elders. Magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired in elders with low educational attainment (less than 4 years (n = 122 and high educational level (n = 66, pulling together individuals examined using either of three MRI scanners/acquisition protocols. Voxelwise group comparisons showed no rGM differences (p<0.05, family-wise error corrected for multiple comparisons. When within-group voxelwise patterns of linear correlation were compared between high and low education groups, there was one cluster of greater rGM loss with aging in low versus high education elders in the left anterior cingulate cortex (p<0.05, FWE-corrected, as well as a trend in the left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (p<0.10. These results provide preliminary indication that education might exert subtle protective effects against age-related brain changes in healthy subjects. The anterior cingulate cortex, critical to inhibitory control processes, may be particularly sensitive to such effects, possibly given its involvement in cognitive stimulating activities at school or later throughout life.
Gill, D; Del Greco M, F; Rawson, T M; Sivakumaran, P; Brown, A; Sheehan, N A; Minelli, C
Menarche signifies the primary event in female puberty and is associated with changes in self-identity. It is not clear whether earlier puberty causes girls to spend less time in education. Observational studies on this topic are likely to be affected by confounding environmental factors. The Mendelian randomization (MR) approach addresses these issues by using genetic variants (such as single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) as proxies for the risk factor of interest. We use this technique to explore whether there is a causal effect of age at menarche on time spent in education. Instruments and SNP-age at menarche estimates are identified from a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) meta-analysis of 182,416 women of European descent. The effects of instruments on time spent in education are estimated using a GWAS meta-analysis of 118,443 women performed by the Social Science Genetic Association Consortium (SSGAC). In our main analysis, we demonstrate a small but statistically significant causal effect of age at menarche on time spent in education: a 1 year increase in age at menarche is associated with 0.14 years (53 days) increase in time spent in education (95% CI 0.10-0.21 years, p = 3.5 × 10 -8 ). The causal effect is confirmed in sensitivity analyses. In identifying this positive causal effect of age at menarche on time spent in education, we offer further insight into the social effects of puberty in girls.
Munoz, Patricio Calderon; Torres, Miguel Reyes
In response to a series of problem symptoms related to the influence of television on students, a team of professors at the Universidad de Playa Ancha de Ciencias de la Educacion in Chile undertook a project designed to train television viewers to become critical viewers of the medium. Specific objectives of the project included: (1) to design a…
This book examines issues of citizenship, citizenship education, and social change in China, exploring the complexity of interactions among global forces, the nation-state, local governments, schools, and individuals--including students--in selecting and identifying with elements of citizenship and citizenship education in a multileveled polity.…
Roldán-Tapia, María D; Cánovas, Rosa; León, Irene; García-Garcia, Juan
Aging is related to a deterioration of cognitive performance and to multiple alterations in the brain. Even before the beginning of a noticeable cognitive decline, the framework which holds cognitive function experiences these alterations. From a system-vulnerability point of view of cognition, the deterioration associated with age would be the collection of repercussions during a life. Brain function and structure are modified in a multidimensional way, which could concern different aspects like structural integrity, functional activity, connectivity, or glucose metabolism. From this point of view, the effects of aging could affect the most brain systems and their functional activity. In this study, we analyze the functional development of three cognitive domains in relation to aging, educational level, and cognitive reserve (CR). A total of 172 healthy subjects were divided into two age groups (young and old), and completed a battery of classic neuropsychological tests. The tests were organized and analyzed according to three cognitive domains: working memory and flexibility, visuoconstructive functions, and declarative memory. Subjects also completed a questionnaire on CR. Results showed that the performance in all cognitive domains decreased with age. In particular, tests related to working memory, flexibility, and visuoconstructive abilities were influenced by age. Nevertheless, this effect was attenuated by effects of education, mainly in visuoconstructive domain. Surprisingly, visual as well as verbal memory tests were not affected either by aging, education, or CR. Brain plasticity plays a prominent role in the aging process, but, as other studies have shown, the plasticity mechanism is quite different in healthy vs. pathological brains. Moreover, this plasticity brain mechanism could be modulated by education and CR. Specially, cognitive domains as working memory, some executive functions and the visuoconstructive abilities seem to be modulated by
Roldán-Tapia, María D.; Cánovas, Rosa; León, Irene; García-Garcia, Juan
Aging is related to a deterioration of cognitive performance and to multiple alterations in the brain. Even before the beginning of a noticeable cognitive decline, the framework which holds cognitive function experiences these alterations. From a system-vulnerability point of view of cognition, the deterioration associated with age would be the collection of repercussions during a life. Brain function and structure are modified in a multidimensional way, which could concern different aspects like structural integrity, functional activity, connectivity, or glucose metabolism. From this point of view, the effects of aging could affect the most brain systems and their functional activity. In this study, we analyze the functional development of three cognitive domains in relation to aging, educational level, and cognitive reserve (CR). A total of 172 healthy subjects were divided into two age groups (young and old), and completed a battery of classic neuropsychological tests. The tests were organized and analyzed according to three cognitive domains: working memory and flexibility, visuoconstructive functions, and declarative memory. Subjects also completed a questionnaire on CR. Results showed that the performance in all cognitive domains decreased with age. In particular, tests related to working memory, flexibility, and visuoconstructive abilities were influenced by age. Nevertheless, this effect was attenuated by effects of education, mainly in visuoconstructive domain. Surprisingly, visual as well as verbal memory tests were not affected either by aging, education, or CR. Brain plasticity plays a prominent role in the aging process, but, as other studies have shown, the plasticity mechanism is quite different in healthy vs. pathological brains. Moreover, this plasticity brain mechanism could be modulated by education and CR. Specially, cognitive domains as working memory, some executive functions and the visuoconstructive abilities seem to be modulated by
Marrinan, Hannah; Firth, Sonja; Hipgrave, David; Jimenez-Soto, Eliana
In modern decentralised health systems, district and local managers are increasingly responsible for financing, managing, and delivering healthcare. However, their lack of adequate skills and competencies are a critical barrier to improved performance of health systems. Given the financial and human resource, constraints of relying on traditional face-to-face training to upskill a large and dispersed number of health managers, governments, and donors must look to exploit advances in the education sector. In recent years, education providers around the world have been experimenting with blended learning; that is, amalgamating traditional face-to-face education with web-based learning to reduce costs and enrol larger numbers of students. Access to improved information and communication technology (ICT) has been the major catalyst for such pedagogical innovations. We argue that with many developing countries already improving their ICT systems, the question is not whether but how to employ technology to facilitate the continuous professional development of district and local health managers in decentralised settings. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.
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David Gutiérrez Díaz del Campo
Full Text Available Differences on chronological age within a peer/age group are known as Relative Age, and its consecuences as Relative Age Effec (RAE. This article is a review of the most relevant publications in both the educative and sportive contexts. The decision of reviewing both contexts in the same article is based on the existence of many points in common between them. Furthermore when research is made on youth sport, all the participants are at the same time in the educational system. The hypothesis of the origin of RAE and possible solutions are discussed and analysed at the end of the paper. Besides the objective of compiling and analyse what literature says about RAE, this article has the aim of raisig awareness about this problem and wish of intervention in educators and sportive managers.
Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to evaluate the recognition level of bladder cancer in the society by conducting a survey with regards to social awareness in early diagnosis of bladder cancer in this study. Materials and Methods: The survey was conducted on 100 randomly selected patients who were admitted to our clinic in May 2016 for any complaints. In the survey, the main focus was hematuria which is the first and the most common symptom of bladder cancer and questions and statements on this subject was used. Results: Of 100 patients, 67 (66.7% were male, and 33 (33.3% were female. Thirty six of the patients were younger than 50 (36%, and 64 of them (64% were 50 years and older. Education level of 40 (40% patients was found to be university level, and 60 (60% patients we high school graduates or lower. Twenty seven (27% patients had complains about blood in the urine, while 67 (67% of them had no such complaint. Of 27 patients that had complaint about hematuria, which is the most important symptom of bladder cancer 22 (81% were male and 5 (19% were female. We divided the patients into two groups based on 50 age limit. Group 1 included patients who were below 50, while the group 2 consisted of patients who were 50 years old and above. The rates of immediate consultation were determined to be significantly higher in group 2 than group 1. The rate of consulting urology department in the presence of hematuria, and the rates of considering the risk of bladder cancer as a possible diagnosis were higher in group 2, but the difference was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference found between the two groups who were separated by age in terms of required diagnostic tests. The patients were divided into two more groups based on their education level. Group 3 included patients of university graduates, and group 4 included patients with high school graduates or lower. The rates of immediate consultation were significantly higher in group 4
Kabuba, Norma; Menon, J Anitha; Franklin, Donald R; Lydersen, Stian; Heaton, Robert K; Hestad, Knut A
Older age and lower education levels are known to be associated with worse neurocognitive (NC) performance in healthy adults, and individuals with HIV infection may experience accelerated brain/cognition aging. However, higher education may possibly protect against HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The aim of the current cross-sectional study was to assess the effect of age and education in an HIV-1 clade C infected adult population in urban Zambia. Demographically corrected Zambian norms on a neuropsychological (NP) test battery were used to correct for normal age and education effects. The study assessed 286 HIV positive (+) males (37.1%) and females (62.9%) with a mean age of 41.35 (SD = 8.56) and mean years of education = 10.16 (SD = 2.18). A comprehensive NP test battery was used to assess cognitive domains frequently affected by HIV: attention/working memory, learning/and delayed recall, executive function, verbal fluency, processing speed, verbal and visual episodic memory, and fine motor skills. In younger HIV+ Zambians, higher education evidenced protective effects against NC impairments overall, and for the specific domains of executive functions, learning and speed of information processing. Impairment scores did not support accelerated overall brain aging although the restricted age range and relative youth of our total sample may have precluded detection of such tendencies. The present study raises the need to investigate factors that could be implicated in the poor neurocognitive performance among the younger, less educated HIV+ individuals in Zambia. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Background : In Sweden, the smoking prevalence has declined. In 2007, it was among the lowest in the industrialized world. A steady increase in the use of Swedish oral moist snuff, snus, has occurred in parallel. This development is neither solicited by authorities nor the medical establishment, but rather has occurred along with increased awareness of the dangers of smoking, and has been promoted by product development and marketing of snus. Objective : To evaluate time trends in patterns of tobacco use in northern Sweden during 1990–2007. Design : Cross-sectional (99,381 subjects and longitudinal (26,867 subjects data from the Västerbotten Intervention Programme (VIP 1990–2007 were analyzed. All adults in Västerbotten County are invited to a VIP health examination at ages 40, 50, and 60 years, and until 1995 also 30 years. Smoking and use of snus were evaluated by gender, age and educational groups. Intermittent smoking was categorized as smoking. Results : From the period 1990–1995 to the period 2002–2007, smoking prevalence decreased from 26 to 16% among men and from 27 to 18% among women. The differences in prevalence increased between educational groups. The decline in smoking was less and the increase of snus use was greater among those with basic education. The use of snus among basic-educated 40-year-olds reached 35% among men and 14% among women during 2002–2007. Dual smoking and snus use increased among men and women with basic education. Smoking without snus use was more prevalent among women. Gender differences in total smoking prevalence (smoking only plus dual use were small in all age groups, but increased among those with basic education reaching 7.3% during 2002–2007, with women being more frequent smokers. Smoking prevalences were similar among never, former and current snus users. Among the 30,000 former smokers, 38% of men and 64% of women had never used snus. Longitudinal data showed a decline in total tobacco
The profound influence of globalization seems helping outshine the concept of "education" with the more flexible notion of "learning" in the education policies of major transnational organizations. With considerable differences in concepts, all of them are promoting "learning", more specifically LLL (lifelong…
Twardzik, Erica; Smit, Ellen; Hatfield, Bridget; Odden, Michelle C; Dixon-Ibarra, Alicia; MacDonald, Megan
Current policy in Oregon limits eligibility of children diagnosed with developmental delay for school-based services. Due to eligibility definitions, children with developmental delay may face additional barriers transitioning from early intervention/early childhood special education into school-based special education services. Examine the relationship between enrollment in school-based special education programs given a change in primary disability diagnosis. Logistic regression models were fit for children who enrolled in early intervention/early childhood special education services with a primary disability diagnosis of developmental delay and changed primary disability diagnosis before third grade (n=5076). Odds of enrollment in future special education were greater in children with a change in primary disability diagnosis after the age of five in comparison to children that had a change in primary disability diagnosis before the age of five, while adjusting for demographic characteristics (adjusted odds ratio: 2.37, 95% CI 1.92, 2.92). Results suggest that children who are diagnosed with a developmental delay and exit early childhood special education due to maximum age of eligibility are more likely to enroll in special education compared to children without a gap in service access. Gaps in service access during early development are associated with the need for supportive services later on in life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The rapid change in the communication technologies plays a significant role in the transformation processes of societies. The studies studying the industrial revolution in two phases inform us that the first phase of the revolution involved a revolution in machinery while the second phase saw a revolution in technology. Fast forwarding to the twentieth century, however, one of the areas that has been affected greatly from the said technological revolution is education. The structural changes in education are essential for a new educational process that is consistent with a heterogeneous student population and independent of time and space. In this respect, the new education system in information age has been come to be called open and distance education. In the 21st century, when the information age gave way to the human age, we see learner oriented education system. Putting the learner at the center of the educational process, this particular system puts an end to binary opposition between the subject and object. Having aimed at identifying students’ perception of open and distance education system -being the educational technology of the twenty first century-, the present study has been conducted with 69 students that were presently enrolled to the Anadolu University Faculty of Open Education and entitled to the certificate of honor. A metaphor analysis method was employed within the scope of this study. In order to evaluate the students’ perception of open education system, this study adopted a "phenomenological method" as its qualitative research method as it seemed to be more suited to its purpose. In order to identify the students' perception of open education system, they were given a semi structured questionnaire form that contained the following statement “Open Education is like ………… Because it is ………………” and asked to convey their thoughts by focusing exclusively on a single metaphor. The answers from the
Doub, Allison E; Small, Meg; Birch, Leann
This study analyzed child feeding beliefs and behaviors, types of recipes, and their associations in blogs focused on child feeding. The authors selected 13 blogs using purposive snowball sampling, from which 158 blog posts were sampled and coded using directed qualitative content analysis. Child feeding beliefs and behaviors and types of recipes were coded using schemes developed from existing literature. Code frequencies were calculated. Chi-square tests for independence examined associations between child feeding and recipe codes. Bonferroni corrections were applied: P feeding beliefs and behaviors were coded in 78% and 49% of posts, respectively. Beliefs about children's food preferences (48% of posts) and involving children in food preparation (27% of posts) were the most frequent codes. Recipes were included in 66% of posts. Most recipes were for mixed dishes (32% of recipes), followed by sweets and desserts (19% of recipes). Vegetable recipes were more likely in posts that included behavior encouraging balance and variety (χ2 [1, n = 104] = 18.54; P feeding practices. Future research should explore how mothers use blogs to learn about child feeding. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Volken, T; Wieber, F; Rüesch, P; Huber, M; Crawford, R J
Our study aimed to describe the temporal changes in self-rated health status (SRH) from 1997 to 2012 in adults aged 25 to 84 residing in Switzerland, with a view to identifying groups at risk for declining health. Secondary analysis of population-based cross-sectional health surveys. Data were collected from the cross-sectional, population-based, five-year Swiss Health Survey, from 1997, 2002, 2007 and 2012. A total of 63,861 individuals' data were included. Multilevel mixed-effect logistic regression analysis was employed to estimate the probability of very good and good health within the framework of a hierarchical cross-classified age-period-cohort model (HAPC), adjusting for education level, gender, civil status, smoking status and body mass index. Individuals with higher education were substantially more likely than those with primary education to report good SRH (OR = 2.12; 95% CI = 1.93-2.33 for secondary education and OR = 3.79; 95% CI = 3.39-4.23 for tertiary education). The education effect depended on birth cohort and age: higher proportions of good SRH were reported by secondary (8%-17%) and tertiary (10%-22%) compared with primary educated individuals from the 1940 birth cohort onward; the proportion of secondary/tertiary (compared to primary) educated people reporting good SRH increased with age (by 10/11% at 45-50 years and 25/36% at 80-84 years). Gender health equality was achieved by the 1955 (primary educated) and 1960 (secondary educated) birth cohorts, while these women overtook men in reporting good SRH from the 1975 birth cohort onward. Tertiary educated younger women were significantly less likely to report good SRH than men but parity was achieved at around pension age. Similarly, gender inequality in those with primary and secondary education reduced in the younger ages to not be significant at around age 55, with women overtaking men from age 65. Younger birth cohorts with lower education levels appear most vulnerable in terms of
Rius, Anna; Artazcoz, Lucía; Guisasola, Laura; Benach, Joan
The objectives of this study were to examine for the first time the prevalence of visual impairment and blindness among adults in Spain, to explore regional differences, and to assess whether they may vary as a function of sex or be explained by age and individual or regional socioeconomic position. Data were obtained from the 2008 Spanish Survey on Disability, Personal Autonomy, and Dependency Situations, a cross-sectional survey based on a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized population of Spain. The sample was composed of 213 626 participants aged ≥15 years (103 093 men and 110 533 women); 360 were blind (160 men and 200 women), 4048 had near visual impairment (1397 men and 2651 women), and 4034 had distance visual impairment (1445 men and 2589 women). The prevalence of near and distance visual impairment was calculated for each region. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. All analyses were stratified by sex. Visual impairment was based on 3 questions aimed at identifying blindness and near and distance visual impairment. The prevalence (percentage) of blindness was 0.17 (men, 0.16; women, 0.18): 1.89 for near visual impairment (men, 1.36; women, 2.40), 1.89 for distance visual impairment (men, 1.40; women, 2.34), and 2.43 for any visual impairment (men, 1.81; women, 3.02). Regional inequalities in the prevalence of visual impairment were observed, correlated with regional income, and the prevalence was consistently higher among women than men. The magnitude of the inequalities remained after adjusting for age and educational level, and a north-to-south pattern of increasing prevalence was observed. Regional and sex inequalities in the prevalence of visual impairment and blindness were observed in Spain, with a north-to-south gradient of increasing prevalence that was not explained by age or individual educational level but was correlated with regional level of economic
Vidal, S M; Fajardo, P I; González, C G
The animal foodstuffs industry has changed in recent decades as a result of factors such as: human population growth and longer life expectancy, increasing urbanisation and migration, emerging zoonotic infectious diseases and foodborne diseases (FBDs), food security problems, technological advances in animal production systems, globalisation of trade and environmental changes. The Millennium Development Goals and the 'One Health' paradigm provide global guidelines on efficiently addressing the issues of consumer product safety, food security and risks associated with zoonoses. Professionals involved in the supply chain must therefore play an active role, based on knowledge and skills that meet current market requirements. Accordingly, it is necessary for the veterinary medicine curriculum, both undergraduate and postgraduate, to incorporate these skills. This article analyses the approach that veterinary education should adopt in relation to food safety, with an emphasis on animal health, food pathogens and FBD surveillance.
... frequency, number of times per week/month and intensity, amount of times each day) and the extent to which... school activities, including meals and recess periods, with students who do not have a disability. E...
Mulkey, Sarah B; Bai, Shasha; Luo, Chunqiao; Cleavenger, Jordyn E; Gibson, Neal; Holland, Greg; Mosley, Bridget S; Kaiser, Jeffrey R; Bhutta, Adnan T
To evaluate test proficiency and the receipt of special education services in school-age children who had undergone surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD) at age Education longitudinal database containing achievement test scores in literacy and mathematics for grades 3-4 and special education codes. The primary negative outcome was not achieving grade-level proficiency on achievement tests. Logistic regression accounting for repeated measures was used to evaluate for associations between achieving proficiency and demographic data, maternal education, and clinical factors. A total of 362 of 458 (79%) children who underwent surgery for CHD were matched to the Arkansas Department of Education database, 285 of whom had grade 3 and/or 4 achievement tests scores. Fewer students with CHD achieved proficiency in literacy and mathematics (P education predicted proficiency in literacy (P special education services (26.9% vs 11.6%; P special education services than all state students. Results from this study support the need for neurodevelopmental evaluations as standard practice in children with CHD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jordan, A; El Haloui, O; Breaud, J; Chevalier, D; Antomarchi, J; Bongain, A; Boucoiran, I; Delotte, J
Evaluate an educational program in the training of residents in gynecology-obstetrics (GO) with a theory session and a practical session on simulators and analyze their learning curve. Single-center prospective study, at the university hospital (CHU). Two-day sessions were leaded in April and July 2013. An evaluation on obstetric and gynecological surgery simulator was available to all residents. Theoretical knowledge principles of obstetrics were evaluated early in the session and after formal lectures was taught to them. At the end of the first session, a satisfaction questionnaire was distributed to all participants. Twenty residents agreed to participate to the training sessions. Evaluation of theoretical knowledge: at the end of the session, the residents obtained a significant improvement in their score on 20 testing knowledge. Obstetrical simulator: a statistically significant improvement in scores on assessments simulator vaginal delivery between the first and second session. Subjectively, a larger increase feeling was seen after breech delivery simulation than for the cephalic vaginal delivery. However, the confidence level of the resident after breech delivery simulation has not been improved at the end of the second session. Simulation in gynecological surgery: a trend towards improvement in the time realized on the peg-transfer between the two sessions was noted. In the virtual simulation, no statistically significant differences showed, no improvement for in salpingectomy's time. Subjectively, the residents felt an increase in the precision of their gesture. Satisfaction: All residents have tried the whole program. They considered the pursuit of these sessions on simulators was necessary and even mandatory. The approach chosen by this structured educational program allowed a progression for the residents, both objectively and subjectively. This simulation program type for the resident's training would use this tool in assessing their skills and develop
Bambang Budi Wiyono
Full Text Available Teachers’ Educational Qualification, Rank Level, Working Duration, Age, Working Motivation, and Working Effectiveness The study investigated the effects of educational qualification, rank level, working duration and age on the elementary school teachers’ working motivation and working effectiveness. The sample of the study consisted of 438 elementary school teachers in Malang which were selected through cluster sampling technique. The study was conducted using explanatory design in the form of causal model. The data were collected using questionnaire and documentation, and were analyzed descriptively employing structural equation technique. The study revealed that that the effect of the educational qualification, rank level, working duration and age on teachers’ working motivation and working effectiveness, both directly and indirectly, was not significant.
Lewis, Helen; Arber, Sara
Previous medical research has shown that children with end-stage renal failure experience delay or underachievement of key markers of transition to adulthood. This article analyses 35 qualitative interviews with end-stage renal failure patients, aged 20-30 years, first diagnosed at 0-19 years of age, to explore how far delayed or underachievement in education and employment is related to their age at onset of end-stage renal failure. This study shows how unpredictable failures of renal replacement therapies, comorbidities and/or side effects of treatment in the early life course often coincided with critical moments for education and employment. Entering school, college, work-related training or employment, and disclosing health status or educational underachievement to an employer, were particularly critical, and those who were ill before puberty became progressively more disadvantaged in terms of successful transition into full-time employment, compared with those first diagnosed after puberty. © The Author(s) 2014.
Norberg, Margareta; Lundqvist, Gunnar; Nilsson, Maria; Gilljam, Hans; Weinehall, Lars
In Sweden, the smoking prevalence has declined. In 2007, it was among the lowest in the industrialized world. A steady increase in the use of Swedish oral moist snuff, snus, has occurred in parallel. This development is neither solicited by authorities nor the medical establishment, but rather has occurred along with increased awareness of the dangers of smoking, and has been promoted by product development and marketing of snus. To evaluate time trends in patterns of tobacco use in northern Sweden during 1990-2007. Cross-sectional (99,381 subjects) and longitudinal (26,867 subjects) data from the Västerbotten Intervention Programme (VIP) 1990-2007 were analyzed. All adults in Västerbotten County are invited to a VIP health examination at ages 40, 50, and 60 years, and until 1995 also 30 years. Smoking and use of snus were evaluated by gender, age and educational groups. Intermittent smoking was categorized as smoking. From the period 1990-1995 to the period 2002-2007, smoking prevalence decreased from 26 to 16% among men and from 27 to 18% among women. The differences in prevalence increased between educational groups. The decline in smoking was less and the increase of snus use was greater among those with basic education. The use of snus among basic-educated 40-year-olds reached 35% among men and 14% among women during 2002-2007. Dual smoking and snus use increased among men and women with basic education. Smoking without snus use was more prevalent among women. Gender differences in total smoking prevalence (smoking only plus dual use) were small in all age groups, but increased among those with basic education reaching 7.3% during 2002-2007, with women being more frequent smokers. Smoking prevalences were similar among never, former and current snus users. Among the 30,000 former smokers, 38% of men and 64% of women had never used snus. Longitudinal data showed a decline in total tobacco use from baseline until follow-up and this was mainly due to a smoking
Ejermo, Olof; Jung, Taehyun
This paper uses register-linked patent records covering an extended period 1985-2007 to analyze detailed demographic profiles of inventors. The analysis covers about 80 percent of all inventors with Swedish addresses listed on European Patent Office records. Examining temporal trends of gender, age, and education shows that the body of inventors is becoming more balanced in gender, younger, and more educated. However, the rate at which female inventors are entering into patenting has slowed d...
Rzezak, Patricia; Squarzoni, Paula; Duran, Fabio L; de Toledo Ferraz Alves, Tania; Tamashiro-Duran, Jaqueline; Bottino, Cassio M; Ribeiz, Salma; Lotufo, Paulo A; Menezes, Paulo R; Scazufca, Marcia; Busatto, Geraldo F
Inter-subject variability in age-related brain changes may relate to educational attainment, as suggested by cognitive reserve theories. This voxel-based morphometry study investigated the impact of very low educational level on the relationship between regional gray matter (rGM) volumes and age in healthy elders. Magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired in elders with low educational attainment (less than 4 years) (n = 122) and high educational level (n = 66), pulling together individuals examined using either of three MRI scanners/acquisition protocols. Voxelwise group comparisons showed no rGM differences (peducation groups, there was one cluster of greater rGM loss with aging in low versus high education elders in the left anterior cingulate cortex (peducation might exert subtle protective effects against age-related brain changes in healthy subjects. The anterior cingulate cortex, critical to inhibitory control processes, may be particularly sensitive to such effects, possibly given its involvement in cognitive stimulating activities at school or later throughout life.
Piccinin, Andrea M; Muniz-Terrera, Graciela; Clouston, Sean; Reynolds, Chandra A; Thorvaldsson, Valgeir; Deary, Ian J; Deeg, Dorly J H; Johansson, Boo; Mackinnon, Andrew; Spiro, Avron; Starr, John M; Skoog, Ingmar; Hofer, Scott M
We describe and compare the expected performance trajectories of older adults on the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) across six independent studies from four countries in the context of a collaborative network of longitudinal studies of aging. A coordinated analysis approach is used to compare patterns of change conditional on sample composition differences related to age, sex, and education. Such coordination accelerates evaluation of particular hypotheses. In particular, we focus on the effect of educational attainment on cognitive decline. Regular and Tobit mixed models were fit to MMSE scores from each study separately. The effects of age, sex, and education were examined based on more than one centering point. Findings were relatively consistent across studies. On average, MMSE scores were lower for older individuals and declined over time. Education predicted MMSE score, but, with two exceptions, was not associated with decline in MMSE over time. A straightforward association between educational attainment and rate of cognitive decline was not supported. Thoughtful consideration is needed when synthesizing evidence across studies, as methodologies adopted and sample characteristics, such as educational attainment, invariably differ.
Full Text Available It is considered the features of the system of physical education students in higher education at this stage. It is determined the need of introducing a mechanism of age differentiation of students in the process of physical training on the basis of analysis of local researchers. It is investigated the age-dynamics of physical development and functional capabilities of students of pedagogical professions, who are trained in basic medical group. There were statistically significant changes in the results of the study components functional training boys from 17 to 18 and from 19 to 20 years.
Hiza, Hazel A B; Casavale, Kellie O; Guenther, Patricia M; Davis, Carole A
An index that assesses the multidimensional components of the diet across the lifecycle is useful in describing diet quality. The purpose of this study was to use the Healthy Eating Index-2005, a measure of diet quality in terms of conformance to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, to describe the diet quality of Americans by varying sociodemographic characteristics in order to provide insight as to where diets need to improve. The Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores were estimated using 1 day of dietary intake data provided by participants in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Mean daily intakes of foods and nutrients, expressed per 1,000 kilocalories, were estimated using the population ratio method and compared with standards that reflect the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Participants included 3,286 children (2 to 17 years), 3,690 young and middle-aged adults (18 to 64 years), and 1,296 older adults (65+ years). Results are reported as percentages of maximum scores and tested for significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education levels. Children and older adults had better-quality diets than younger and middle-aged adults; women had better-quality diets than men; Hispanics had better-quality diets than blacks and whites; and diet quality of adults, but not children, generally improved with income level, except for sodium. The diets of Americans, regardless of socioeconomic status, are far from optimal. Problematic dietary patterns were found among all sociodemographic groups. Major improvements in the nutritional health of the American public can be made by improving eating patterns. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Szajer, Jacquelyn; Murphy, Claire
The current study investigated the effect of education on retrospective metamemory accuracy in 143 healthy older adults and 143 early to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, using retrospective measures of confidence in the accuracy of retrieval responses in an episodic odor recognition memory task. Relative confidence accuracy was computed as the difference between confidence judgments for correct and incorrect responses. In both AD patients and controls, individuals reporting 17 years of education or more had significantly more accurate levels of confidence than individuals with 12 years or less. Thus, education was a significant predictor of retrospective metamemory accuracy in healthy aging and AD.
Full Text Available In this paper, the subject of embedded systems education in the Arduino age is examined. Arduino is an open-source microcontroller platform that has been widely popular in the past decade among hobbyists and academics. Arduino is increasingly being adopted in courses that span different disciplines in schools and universities. As a result, numerous papers are being published every year in different engineering education conferences and journals reporting the integration of Arduino in teaching. In this work, the impact of Arduino on embedded systems education is investigated. First, challenges facing embedded systems education are identified from the literature. Second, different Arduino teaching integration methodologies reported in the literature are surveyed and analyzed. Third, the question whether Arduino successfully addresses embedded education challenges or not is discussed taking both surveyed findings and recent market trends into consideration. Finally, a number of open-ended research directions are proposed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the relationship among socioeconomic status factors, the risk of anemia, and iron deficiency among school-aged children in Korea. Methods The sample consisted of fourth-grade students aged 10 y recruited from nine elementary schools in Korean urban areas in 2008 (n = 717. Anthropometric and blood biochemistry data were obtained for this cross-sectional observational study. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin levels lower than 11.5 g/dl. Iron deficiency was defined as serum iron levels lower than 40 ug/dl. We also obtained data on parental education from questionnaires and on children's diets from 3-day food diaries. Parental education was categorized as low or high, with the latter representing an educational level beyond high school. Results Children with more educated mothers were less likely to develop anemia (P = 0.0324 and iron deficiency (P = 0.0577 than were those with less educated mothers. This group consumed more protein (P = 0.0004 and iron (P = 0.0012 from animal sources than did the children of less educated mothers, as reflected by their greater consumption of meat, poultry, and derivatives (P Conclusions As a contributor to socioeconomic status, maternal education is important in reducing the risk of anemia and iron deficiency and in increasing children's consumption of animal food sources.
Mungas, Dan; Early, Dawnté R; Glymour, M Maria; Zeki Al Hazzouri, Adina; Haan, Mary N
This study examined the influence of education, country where education occurred, and monolingual-bilingual (English/Spanish) language usage on late life cognitive trajectories in the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging (SALSA), an epidemiological study of health and cognition in Hispanics, mostly of Mexican origin, age 60 and over (N = 1,499). SALSA followed a large cohort of older Latinos for up to 7 assessment waves from 1998 to 2007. Global cognition was assessed by using the Modified Mini Mental State Examination, and the Spanish English Verbal Learning Test was used to measure episodic memory. Education, country of origin, and language usage patterns were collected at the baseline assessment and used as predictors of longitudinal trajectories of cognition. Parallel process mixed effects models were used to examine effects of education and language variables on baseline cognition and rate of cognitive decline. Mixed effects longitudinal models showed that education had strong effects on baseline global cognition and verbal memory but was not related to decline over up to 9 years of longitudinal follow-up. Differences in education effects between subgroups educated in Mexico and in the United States were minor. Monolingual-bilingual language usage was not related to cognitive decline, and bilinguals did not significantly differ from monolingual English speakers on baseline cognitive scores. Hypotheses that higher education and bilingualism protect against late life cognitive decline were not supported and education effects on late-life cognitive trajectories did not substantially differ across U.S.- and Mexico-educated groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Jung-Choi, Kyunghee; Khang, Young-Ho; Cho, Hong-Jun; Yun, Sung-Cheol
Decomposition of socioeconomic inequalities in life expectancy by ages and causes allow us to better understand the nature of socioeconomic mortality inequalities and to suggest priority areas for policy and intervention. This study aimed to quantify age- and cause-specific contributions to socioeconomic differences in life expectancy at age 25 by educational level among South Korean adult men and women. We used National Death Registration records in 2005 (129,940 men and 106,188 women) and national census data in 2005 (15, 215, 523 men and 16,077,137 women aged 25 and over). Educational attainment as the indicator of socioeconomic position was categorized into elementary school graduation or less, middle or high school graduation, and college graduation or higher. Differences in life expectancy at age 25 by educational level were estimated by age- and cause-specific mortality differences using Arriaga's decomposition method. Differences in life expectancy at age 25 between college or higher education and elementary or less education were 16.23 years in men and 7.69 years in women. Young adult groups aged 35-49 in men and aged 25-39 in women contributed substantially to the differences between college or higher education and elementary or less education in life expectancy. Suicide and liver disease were the most important causes of death contributing to the differences in life expectancy in young adult groups. For older age groups, cerebrovascular disease and lung cancer were important to explain educational differential in life expectancy at 25-29 between college or higher education and middle or higher education. The contribution of the causes of death to socioeconomic inequality in life expectancy at age 25 in South Korea varied by age groups and differed by educational comparisons. The age specific contributions for different causes of death to life expectancy inequalities by educational attainment should be taken into account in establishing effective policy
Shin, Kyung Rim; Park, Hyojung; Cha, Chiyoung
Sex education is provided routinely to school-aged children in many countries without enough evidence that it will benefit them when they become adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the long-term influence of the sex education that was provided during the school-aged years on the attitudes, behaviors, and sexual health among male and female college students in Korea. For this descriptive, comparative study, the data were obtained from 3609 male and 2180 female college students by using the proportional quota sampling method. Overall, the female students had more opportunities for sex education. Receiving this education during the school-aged years lowered the sexual double standard score but was not related to sexual activity among the male and female students. Receiving sex education at different time points during the school-aged years had differential influences on the sexual attitudes and indicators of sexual health between the male and the female students. The results of this study suggest extending the role of school nurses to include redesigning the content of sex education programs, based on the sex and age of the students, and using midwives to provide sex education in community settings. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Breivik, Patricia Senn
This book discusses resource-based learning in higher education. One premise of resource-based learning is that as students become able to select their own learning materials from information resources, they become active, independent learners, while professors become learning facilitators in cooperation with librarians and other information…
Lung, For-Wey; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Lin, Shio-Jean; Lee, Meng-Chih; Shu, Bih-Ching
Objective Previous studies have shown inconsistent results with regard to the association between advanced parental age and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The sociodemographic status of parents has been found to be associated with children with ASD, however. Therefore, a pathway analysis was undertaken of the roles of maternal age and education in ASD diagnosis and community screening, in a national birth cohort database, using a propensity score matching (PSM) method. Method The 6- and 66-month Taiwan Birth Cohort Study dataset was used (N = 20,095). The PSM exact matching method was used to select 1700 families (ratio of 1:4 between ASD diagnosis and control) from the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study dataset. Results (1) The results from the complete dataset and the PSM exact matching dataset both show that the risk of a child being diagnosed with ASD was increased by the mother being over 40 years old. (2) Although more children of mothers with lower-than-average education were positive on screening, more children of mothers with higher-than-average education were also diagnosed with ASD. Conclusions for Practice Advanced maternal age had a higher association with the diagnosis of ASD, and maternal educational disparity was found between ASD clinical diagnosis and community screening. Community and primary medical care services should pay more attention to children of parents with lower education during ASD screening to prevent delayed diagnosis.
Kingo, Osman S; Berntsen, Dorthe; Krøjgaard, Peter
Childhood amnesia (i.e., a marked paucity of memories from the first 3-4 years of life) has often been examined by asking people for their earliest memory. Such studies have generally been conducted with college students, and thus been unable to examine possible effects of education and current age. We here report the first study on adults' earliest memories based on a large, stratified sample covering the adult life span from age 20 to 70 (n = 1,043). Because of the nature and size of our sample we have been able to investigate a range of factors simultaneously that typically have been studied separately in other studies. Participants with higher education reported earlier first memories than respondents with lower education. Women reported earlier memories than men. There was no interaction between gender and educational level. The current age of the respondents did not affect age of earliest memory, but older respondents had more vivid and more coherent earliest memories relative to younger respondents. Finally, the data provided some support for the claim that elaborative parents have children with earlier memories.
Full Text Available Purpose: the improvement of process of physical education of women of the first mature age by means of Pilates with use of information technologies. Material & Methods: the experience of development and deployment of computer technologies in the process of physical education of women of mature age was systematized by means of the analysis of scientific and methodical and special literature and the best pedagogical and coach's practices, which is presented in mass media. The ways of application of computer programs were revealed, and the computer program ‘’Pilates’’ was developed by means of programming in the system Visual Basic. Results: the computer program ‘’Pilates’’, which consists of directory, settlement and recreational blocks, is offered for the purpose of improvement of the process of physical education of women of the first mature age by means of Pilates and increase in their motivation to classes by physical exercises. Conclusions: it is revealed that application of the computer programs has the positive effect in practice of physical education of women of the first mature age. The computer program ‘’Pilates’’ is submitted.
Akelaitis, Arturas V.
The main purpose of the present study is to reveal the peculiarities of social skills expression of senior high school age students in physical education classes. The independent random sample consisted of 244 (15-16 years old) students and 258 (17-18 years old) students, of which there were 224 boys and 278 girls. L. Bulotaite and V. Gudžinskiene…
The study sought to find out whether gender, level of education and age have any effect on socio-cultural perceptions of women in leadership positions. Twelve school heads, 100 teachers and 100 school development association members from 15 Kadoma urban district secondary schools were used as research subjects.
Ana Cristina Cevallos-Neira
Full Text Available This investigation was conducted as a result of the lack of studies, specifically on children’s sex education and the role that parents play in it, despite the major advances in the knowledge on sexuality and its education. The main goal of this qualitative study was to understand parents’ perceptions regarding sexual education of their children ages 3 to 5. Three focus group sessions were conducted with parents from Cuenca pre-schools. Data was processed using thematic analysis. The study indicated that parents have a limited conception of sexuality, completely based on the biological aspect. In addition, it was clear that parents have traditional ideas, conceptions and beliefs, which are reflected when educating their children. This research shows parents’ lack of knowledge about sexuality and sex education and gives important data about the need for parents and the school to work jointly to provide children with adequate and appropriate sex education, as well as the need for parent training in order to establish a common language between home and school and to avoid a double discourse in children’s education and to ensure a proper implementation of sex education programs at this level.
Carinci, Sherrie; Wong, Pia Lindquist
Using a convenience sample and survey research methods, the authors seek to better understand how perspectives on gender are shaped by individuals' age, level of education and gender. Study participants responded in writing to scenarios and survey questions, revealing their personal views on gender as an identity category and as a marker in the social hierarchy. Analysis indicated that there were differences between male and female views on these dimensions of gender, and that age and educational levels were also influential. While younger respondents from both genders demonstrated flexibility in their definitions of gender and expressed strong support for gender equality, they were noticeably lacking in their knowledge of the historical context of gender relations and did not show the skills required to realise their ideals of gender equality, especially when compared to older respondents of both genders with higher levels of educational attainment.
S. A. Penzie
Full Text Available It is presented characteristic of physical state of the second mature age men working as teachers of higher educational establishments. The experiment involved 46 teachers - men second mature age.The investigation shows that the studied people have most data of cardiovascular and respiratory system of a low level. It indicates the necessity of improvement of body’s functional systems and increasing a hypoxia tolerance level. Planning of selection of physical education means in the sphere of preventive and sanitary classes with male – teachers of higher educational establishments is substantiated. It is marked that in the system prophylactic health-improvement employments it is necessary to utillize individual approach for men with the high, middle and low level of physical preparedness. The necessity of account of motivational priorities, decisions of the personal aims and tasks, specifics of pedagogical activity, is marked, selection of facilities which have a high health effect.
Raymond, Michelle; Christensen, Krista Y; Thompson, Brooke; Anderson, Henry
Describe mercury exposures among women of childbearing age before and after an educational intervention. Women age 18 to 45 were recruited to participate in an educational intervention concerning fish consumption. Fish consumption habits and total mercury concentration in hair were assessed pre- and post-intervention. Regression models examined associations between mercury, fish consumption, and demographics. Overall, 234 women completed the study. On average, mercury concentrations increased by 0.01 ppm (parts per million) following the intervention, despite declines in fish consumption; however, women in the 90th percentile for mercury at baseline decreased concentrations significantly while maintaining high rates of fish consumption. Mercury concentrations were positively correlated with fish consumption and certain demographic characteristics. The intervention reached individuals most at-risk. Healthcare providers should discuss fish consumption habits with women to encourage consumption of low-risk fish, and identify women needing education and counseling.
Gollan, Tamar H; Salmon, David P; Montoya, Rosa I; Galasko, Douglas R
The current study investigated the relationship between bilingual language proficiency and onset of probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) in 44 Spanish-English bilinguals at the UCSD Alzheimer's Disease Research Center. Degree of bilingualism along a continuum was measured using Boston Naming Test (BNT) scores in each language. Higher degrees of bilingualism were associated with increasingly later age-of-diagnosis (and age of onset of symptoms), but this effect was driven by participants with low education level (a significant interaction between years of education and bilingualism) most of whom (73%) were also Spanish-dominant. Additionally, only objective measures (i.e., BNT scores), not self-reported degree of bilingualism, predicted age-of-diagnosis even though objective and self-reported measures were significantly correlated. These findings establish a specific connection between knowledge of two languages and delay of AD onset, and demonstrate that bilingual effects can be obscured by interactions between education and bilingualism, and by failure to obtain objective measures of bilingualism. More generally, these data support analogies between the effects of bilingualism and "cognitive reserve" and suggest an upper limit on the extent to which reserve can function to delay dementia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sabbah-Karkaby, Maha; Stier, Haya
This study focuses on the link between education and marriage timing among Israeli-Palestinian women. Theoretical discussions on marriage timing center on the effect of the time women spend in educational institutions on their age at marriage, and on the change in the desirable traits of women in the marriage market. But most of these arguments overlook situations where significant changes in education take place alongside retention of traditional patriarchal values. Based on data from three population censuses - in 1983, 1995 and 2008-our results suggest that staying longer in schooling delays marriage, so women with less education are more likely to marry earlier than others. While young age is still considered an important characteristic in the Israeli-Palestinian marriage market, and women who delay marriage face a greater risk of remaining single, education becomes more important over the years so that postponing marriage becomes especially problematic for low-educated women. Our findings suggest that traditional norms and structural conditions together shape marriage timing. © 2017 The Population Council, Inc.
Full Text Available Background: Considering current demographic trends in society, education of seniors has become real needs and a challenge for the field of education and training institutions. Universities of the Third Age (UTA represent one option for senior education allowing them to study various fields at university level. Within UTA studies, the seniors are interested in studying mainly the issues of health and disease, aging and the social and legal issues. Seniors represent a group of students with specific educational needs. In teaching them it is therefore important to choose teaching methods that take account of developmental changes of the period, contain elements of clearness, and provide the space for communication and activity with the use of previous experiences of seniors. In the framework of elderly education at the UTA at Jessenius Faculty of Medicine in Martin (JFM CU the simulation methods are also used that bring elements of clarity and attractiveness into the teaching and serve to bridge theoretical education and practical training. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the UTA senior students’ views on the use of simulation models and simulations in education and to find out what is their satisfaction with the training in the Simulation Center at JFM CU in Martin. Methods: Questionnaire of own construction was used to gather empirical data. The study involved 30 senior students of the third year of studies in the program “Elderly Care”, out of which 25 were women and 5 men. The average age of respondents was 67.3 years (SD 5.6. Results: Within education and training in Simulation Center, the seniors most positively evaluated preparedness, presentation and interpretation of the lecturer (4.96 and the way in which information were administered (4.76. They had the opportunity of hands-on work with the simulation models and practical training of their skills and such experience was evaluated as excellent (4.70. Seniors also
Lee, Jin San; Shin, Hee Young; Kim, Hee Jin; Jang, Young Kyoung; Jung, Na-Yeon; Lee, Juyoun; Kim, Yeo Jin; Chun, Phillip; Yang, Jin-Ju; Lee, Jong-Min; Kang, Mira; Park, Key-Chung; Na, Duk L; Seo, Sang Won
We investigated the association between self-reported physical exercise and cortical thickness in a large sample of cognitively normal individuals. We also determined whether a combination of physical exercise and education had more protective effects on age-related cortical thinning than either parameter alone. A total of 1,842 participants were included in this analysis. Physical exercise was assessed using a questionnaire regarding intensity, frequency, and duration. Cortical thickness was measured using a surface-based method. Longer duration of exercise (≥1 hr/day), but not intensity or frequency, was associated with increased mean cortical thickness globally (P-value = 0.013) and in the frontal regions (P-value = 0.007). In particular, the association of exercise with cortical thinning had regional specificity in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal, precuneus, left postcentral, and inferior parietal regions. The combination of higher exercise level and higher education level showed greater global and frontal mean thickness than either parameter alone. Testing for a trend with the combination of high exercise level and high education level confirmed this finding (P-value = 0.001-0.003). Our findings suggest that combined exercise and education have important implications for brain health, especially considering the paucity of known protective factors for age-related cortical thinning.
Karlstedt, Michaela; Wadensten, Barbro; Fagerberg, Ingegerd; Pöder, Ulrika
Previous studies suggest that not only education but also personal aspects such as experience of working as a registered nurse (RN) and age can influence competence. The objective was to explore the educational and self-rated competence of RNs and their duties within the care of older people. A cross-sectional descriptive design was used. All RNs in two counties in Sweden were asked to complete a written questionnaire: a study specific questionnaire with educational and work related questions using the Nurse Competence Scale. The response rate was 61% (n 344). Higher self-rated satisfaction with own professional competence was related to older age, more years after nursing education and possessing at least one postgraduate education in specialist nursing. Educational needs were related to younger age and fewer years since nursing graduation. Education within elder care, including education about drugs was rated the most urgently needed area of education. The most frequently reported tasks were found in the domain helping role, whereas ensuring quality was less present in their daily work. Educational level, age and years of experience had an impact on RNs' self-perceived competence, which is in accordance with previous descriptions of the concept competence. It seems imperative that RNs working in care of the old and with the demands placed on them are given the opportunity to take a postgraduate specialist education in order to gain a competence level in their desired area of work. It is also important that RNs working in care of the old get tailored education in line with the requirements the organisation places on them. © 2014 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Pilar, Denise Ranghetti; Jaeger, Antonio; Gomes, Carlos F A; Stein, Lilian Milnitsky
The present article reports a survey conducted to identify the practices on passwords usage, focusing particularly on memory limitations and the use of passwords across individuals with different age and education backgrounds. A total of 263 participants were interviewed, with ages ranging from 18 to 93 years, and education level ranging from grade school to graduate degree. Contrary to our expectations, effects of cognitive decline due to aging were not observed on memory performance for passwords. The results suggested instead, that the number of password uses was the most influential factor on memory performance. That is, as the number of circumstances in which individuals utilized passwords increased, the incidence of forgotten and mixed-up passwords also increased. The theoretical significance of these findings and their implications for good practices on password usage are discussed.
Pilar, Denise Ranghetti; Jaeger, Antonio; Gomes, Carlos F. A.; Stein, Lilian Milnitsky
The present article reports a survey conducted to identify the practices on passwords usage, focusing particularly on memory limitations and the use of passwords across individuals with different age and education backgrounds. A total of 263 participants were interviewed, with ages ranging from 18 to 93 years, and education level ranging from grade school to graduate degree. Contrary to our expectations, effects of cognitive decline due to aging were not observed on memory performance for passwords. The results suggested instead, that the number of password uses was the most influential factor on memory performance. That is, as the number of circumstances in which individuals utilized passwords increased, the incidence of forgotten and mixed-up passwords also increased. The theoretical significance of these findings and their implications for good practices on password usage are discussed. PMID:23227232
Messinis, Lambros; Nasios, Grigorios; Mougias, Antonios; Politis, Antonis; Zampakis, Petros; Tsiamaki, Eirini; Malefaki, Sonia; Gourzis, Phillipos; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis
Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is a widely used neuropsychological test to assess episodic memory. In the present study we sought to establish normative and discriminative validity data for the RAVLT in the elderly population using previously adapted learning lists for the Greek adult population. We administered the test to 258 cognitively healthy elderly participants, aged 60-89 years, and two patient groups (192 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, aMCI, and 65 with Alzheimer's disease, AD). From the statistical analyses, we found that age and education contributed significantly to most trials of the RAVLT, whereas the influence of gender was not significant. Younger elderly participants with higher education outperformed the older elderly with lower education levels. Moreover, both clinical groups performed significantly worse on most RAVLT trials and composite measures than matched cognitively healthy controls. Furthermore, the AD group performed more poorly than the aMCI group on most RAVLT variables. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to examine the utility of the RAVLT trials to discriminate cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients. Area under the curve (AUC), an index of effect size, showed that most of the RAVLT measures (individual and composite) included in this study adequately differentiated between the performance of healthy elders and aMCI/AD patients. We also provide cutoff scores in discriminating cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients, based on the sensitivity and specificity of the prescribed scores. Moreover, we present age- and education-specific normative data for individual and composite scores for the Greek adapted RAVLT in elderly subjects aged between 60 and 89 years for use in clinical and research settings.
Cameron, Adrian J; Ball, Kylie; Hesketh, Kylie D; McNaughton, Sarah A; Salmon, Jo; Crawford, David A; Lioret, Sandrine; Campbell, Karen J
To assess the effectiveness of the Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Program according to maternal education and age. A cluster-randomised controlled trial involving 542 mother/infant pairs from 62 existing first-time parent groups was conducted in 2008 in Melbourne, Australia. The intervention involved 6 × 2-hour dietitian-delivered sessions, DVD and written resources from infant age 4-15 months. Outcomes included infant diet (3 × 24 h diet recalls), physical activity (accelerometry), television viewing and body mass index. We tested for moderation by maternal education (with/without a University degree) and age (Child obesity prevention interventions may be differentially effective according to maternal education and age. Evidence of differential effects is important for informing more sensitively targeted/tailored approaches. © 2013.
Price, Kay; Kennedy, Kate J; Rando, Tabatha L; Dyer, Anthony R; Boylan, Jo
We report on an intervention and evaluation in relation to changes in staff knowledge, time spent on healing and wound prevention and proportion of wounds in the facilities before and after. A rapid review of recent peer-reviewed literature (2006-2016) found 14 education-based intervention articles and provided the background and context for this intervention. A cohort of 164 nurses and personal care workers and 261 residents at two aged care-approved facilities contributed to this intervention on the effect of education, mentoring and practice change on staff knowledge and wound prevalence between 2015 and 2016. There was a significant decrease in pressure injury prevalence and an increase in the early identification of potential wounds between phase 1 and 3 across the two facilities. Overall, registered nurses and enrolled nurses showed significant increase in mean knowledge scores. There was a reorganisation of time spent on various wound care and prevention strategies that better represented education and knowledge. Wound management or prevention education alone is not enough; this study, using an educational intervention in conjunction with resident engagement, practice change, mentorship, onsite champions for healthy skin and product choice suggestions, supported by an organisation that focuses on a healthy ageing approach, showed improvement across two residential sites. © 2017 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Damman, Olga C; Vonk, Suzanne I; Van den Haak, Maaike J; van Hooijdonk, Charlotte M J; Timmermans, Danielle R M
To study how comprehension of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is influenced by: (1) infographics about qualitative risk information, with/without risk numbers; (2) which qualitative risk dimension is emphasized; (3) heart age vs. traditional risk format.
Lawlis, Tanya; Wicks, Alison; Jamieson, Maggie; Haughey, Amy; Grealish, Laurie
Health professional clinical education is commonly conducted in single discipline modes, thus limiting student collaboration skills. Aged care residential facilities, due to the chronic and complex health care needs of residents, provide an ideal placement to provide a collaborative experience. Interprofessional education is widely acknowledged as the pedagogical framework through which to facilitate collaboration. The aim of the evaluation was to assess student attitudes towards collaboration after active involvement in an interprofessional education program. Students studying nursing, occupational therapy, and aged care were invited to complete a version of the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale before and after participating in a three-week pilot interprofessional program. A positive change in student attitudes towards other health professionals and the importance of working in interprofessional teams was reported with significant differences between two statements indicated: Learning with health-care students before qualifications would improve relationships after qualifications; and I learned a lot from the students from the other disciplines. The innovative pilot project was found to enhance student learning in interprofessional teams and the aged care environment. Further development of this and similar interprofessional programs is required to develop sustainable student projects that have health benefits for residents in aged care residential facilities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alladi, Suvarna; Bak, Thomas H; Duggirala, Vasanta; Surampudi, Bapiraju; Shailaja, Mekala; Shukla, Anuj Kumar; Chaudhuri, Jaydip Ray; Kaul, Subhash
The purpose of the study was to determine the association between bilingualism and age at onset of dementia and its subtypes, taking into account potential confounding factors. Case records of 648 patients with dementia (391 of them bilingual) diagnosed in a specialist clinic were reviewed. The age at onset of first symptoms was compared between monolingual and bilingual groups. The influence of number of languages spoken, education, occupation, and other potentially interacting variables was examined. Overall, bilingual patients developed dementia 4.5 years later than the monolingual ones. A significant difference in age at onset was found across Alzheimer disease dementia as well as frontotemporal dementia and vascular dementia, and was also observed in illiterate patients. There was no additional benefit to speaking more than 2 languages. The bilingual effect on age at dementia onset was shown independently of other potential confounding factors such as education, sex, occupation, and urban vs rural dwelling of subjects. This is the largest study so far documenting a delayed onset of dementia in bilingual patients and the first one to show it separately in different dementia subtypes. It is the first study reporting a bilingual advantage in those who are illiterate, suggesting that education is not a sufficient explanation for the observed difference. The findings are interpreted in the context of the bilingual advantages in attention and executive functions.
The range of peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer and optic disc parameters in children aged up to but not including 18 years of age, as measured by optical coherence tomography: protocol for a systematic review.
Creavin, Alexandra L; Williams, Cathy; Tilling, Kate; Timpson, Nicholas; Higgins, Julian P T
The parameters of the optic disc and peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (pRNFL) in children may vary with disease processes that contribute to visual impairment and blindness and so could be useful as an objective measure in at-risk children. There is no standardised reference for the normal parameters of the optic disc and pRNFL in children; however, there are a large number of small individual studies that have been undertaken to look at these measures. A systematic review of current literature on the range of pRNFL and optic disc parameters in children aged less than 18 years will be performed. Studies will be considered for review if they report numerical data on optic disc and pRNFL parameters, measured using optical coherence tomography. Outcome measures will include mean pRNFL thickness and cup-disc ratio. The bibliographic databases Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, Scopus and Web of Science will be systematically searched from 1991. Screening of search results will be conducted by two authors working independently, as will extraction of primary and secondary outcome data. Ten per cent of all other data extraction will be checked by a second author. Results will be compiled and presented in evidence tables. Where possible and appropriate, study-specific estimates will be combined to obtain an overall summary estimate of pRNFL thickness and cup-disc ratio across studies and results will be presented by age of population. Subgroup analyses will be undertaken for children of different ethnicities. This review aims to provide an overview of the parameters of the optic disc and pRNFL in children of different ages in order to identify gaps in knowledge and to improve understanding of what might be considered within/outside the range of normality. The findings will be presented in peer-reviewed journals and will be presented at conferences. PROSPERO CRD42016033068.
Stiby, Alexander I; Hickman, Matthew; Munafò, Marcus R; Heron, Jon; Yip, Vikki L; Macleod, John
To investigate the relationship between cannabis and tobacco use by age 15 and subsequent educational outcomes. Birth cohort study. England. The sample was drawn from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children; a core sample of 1155 individuals had complete information on all the variables. The main exposures were cannabis and tobacco use at age 15 assessed in clinic by computer-assisted questionnaire and serum cotinine. The main outcomes were performance in standardized assessments at 16 [Key Stage 4, General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE)] in English and mathematics (mean scores), completion of five or more assessments at grade C level or higher and leaving school having achieved no qualifications. Analyses were sequentially adjusted for multiple covariates using a hierarchical approach. Covariates considered were: maternal substance use (ever tobacco or cannabis use, alcohol use above recommended limits); life course socio-economic position (family occupational class, maternal education, family income); child sex; month and year of birth; child educational attainment prior to age 11 (Key Stage 2); child substance use (tobacco, alcohol and cannabis) prior to age 15 and child conduct disorder. In fully adjusted models both cannabis and tobacco use at age 15 were associated with subsequent adverse educational outcomes. In general, the dose-response effect seen was consistent across all educational outcomes assessed. Weekly cannabis use was associated negatively with English GCSE results [grade point difference (GPD), -5.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -8.34, -3.53] and with mathematics GCSE results (GPD, -6.91, 95% CI = -9.92, -3.89). Daily tobacco smoking was associated negatively with English GCSE (GPD, -11.90, 95% CI = -13.47, -10.33) and with mathematics GCSE (GPD, -16.72, 95% CI = -18.57, -14.86). The greatest attenuation of these effects was seen on adjustment for other substance use and conduct disorder. Following
Boswell, Stefanie S.
This study investigated the effect of a semester-long aging and adult development course that included an intergenerational, service-learning component on attitudes toward older adult men and women, aging anxiety, and interest in occupations that serve older adults among individuals training for careers in healthcare and social services. It also…
Kane, T T
In Gambia, more than 50% of the population is less than 20 years old. Adolescent fertility comprises 15% of total fertility. It is linked with certain health problems and socioeconomic problems. Adolescent fertility contributes to population growth and can influence socioeconomic development and the level of mortality risks among reproductive age women and their children. In 1983, the total fertility rate for Gambia was 6.4 births per woman compared to 6.5 in 1973. In the urban areas of Banjul and Kombo St. Mary Districts, it was 5.5 and 5.6, respectively. In Gambia overall, women have on average one child during adolescence. In metropolitan Banjul, 61% of all sexually active women and 37% of all sexually active single women had a child during adolescence. 40% of married girls aged 14-15 have been pregnant at least once. Based on the 1983 census, fertility among 15-19 year olds in metropolitan Banjul was 148 births/1000 women. In 1973, it was 199/1000 nationwide. The 1986-1987 fertility survey found their fertility to be 113/1000 based on registered births. Increase of the mean marriage age, higher educational level, and more contraceptive use in metropolitan Banjul may explain the decline in adolescent fertility here. 23% of women aged 15-19 in metropolitan Banjul were married in 1987 compared to 30% in 1983 and 53% for all Gambia in 1987. During 1986-1987, 83% of unschooled 19 year old females in greater Banjul were married compared to 13% of same-aged females with at least 7 years of education. In all of Gambia in 1983, women aged 15-19 with primary education had a fertility rate more than two times greater than that of same-aged women with superior education (220 vs. 103/1000). Adolescent fertility can limit education possibilities and darken economic perspectives. As societies continue to develop and modernize, it will be important to survey adolescent fertility and its socioeconomic and health impact on all youth as well as on the rest of society.
Schofield, Deborah J; Meachem, Sarah; West, Catherine; Kavallaris, Maria; Callander, Emily J
this study aims to project attrition from the Australian health and medical research workforce for those aged > 40 years in 2009, through to 2019, and to draw conclusions about the future of this workforce and the international implications of ageing workforce populations. the study uses recently collected unpublished demographic data on the 2009 health and medical research workforce drawn from an Australian Society for Medical Research survey of health and medical research organisations. about 6250 members of the health and medical research workforce aged > 40 years in 2009 are expected to leave the workforce during 2009-2019; the bulk of these will be aged 50-69 years. It is estimated that 35% of women and 49% of men aged 40-49 years in 2009 will retire by the age of 50-59 years, and 85% of women and 70% of men aged 50-59 years in 2009 are also projected to retire over the next 10 years. Of the 6250 members who are expected to leave the workforce by 2019, about 4000 hold a PhD. As a result of population growth, a further 1700 persons with a PhD will be required if Australia is to maintain its current ratio of PhD-qualified persons in the health and medical research workforce: working population to 2019, at a cost of about AU$240 million. there is a need to plan for the replacement of the retiring generation of the health and medical research workforce and for the growth required to match that of the working population. If Australia is to fulfil its ambition for a highly educated, optimally skilled and highly trained health and medical research sector, it must heighten its focus on the higher education of young medical researchers. As population ageing is an emerging phenomenon worldwide, all first world nations are likely to face the challenges involved in replacing a rapidly retiring generation of the health and medical research workforce.
Perreira, P T
"This paper presents an analysis of the determinants of the age of marriage and the probability of divorce among women in the United States." The author hypothesizes that the possibility of divorce enters into women's decision to marry. "As expected, empirical results indicate that in the United States, where it is easier to obtain divorce, women tend to marry earlier. Furthermore, Catholic women tend to marry later....Results seem to indicate the age at marriage and education should not be considered to be exogenous in the study of the probability of divorce. Another important result is that women who marry earlier...show a lower probability of divorce...." excerpt
van Gerven, P.W.; van Boxtel, M.P.J.; Bekers, O.; Ausems, E.E.B.; Jolles, J.
Objective: We investigated suspected longitudinal interaction effects of apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype and educational attainment on cognitive decline in normal aging. Method: Our sample consisted of 571 healthy, nondemented adults aged between 49 and 82 years. Linear mixed-models analyses were
Douglas D. Garrett
Full Text Available Intraindividual variability (IIV in trial-to-trial reaction time is a robust and stable within-person marker of aging. However, it remains unknown whether IIV can be modulated experimentally. In a sample of healthy younger and older adults, we examined the effects of motivation- and performance-based feedback, age, and education level on IIV in a choice RT task (four blocks over 15 minutes. We found that IIV was reduced with block-by-block feedback, particularly for highly educated older adults. Notably, the baseline difference in IIV levels between this group and the young adults was reduced by 50%; by the final testing block, this advantaged older group had improved such that they were statistically indistinguishable from young adults on two of three preceding testing blocks. Our findings confirmed that response IIV is indeed modifiable, within mere minutes of feedback and testing.
Barber, Larissa K; Cucalon, Maria S
University students often have sleep issues that arise from poor sleep hygiene practices and technology use patterns. Yet, technology-related behaviors are often neglected in sleep hygiene education. This study examined whether the Sleep Treatment Education Program for Students-modified to include information regarding managing technology use (STEPS-TECH)-helps improve both subjective and objective sleep outcomes among university students. Results of an experimental study among 78 university students showed improvements in objective indicators of sleep quantity (total sleep time) and sleep quality (less awakenings) during the subsequent week for students in the STEPS-TECH intervention group compared to a control group. Exploratory analyses indicated that effects were driven by improvements in weekend days immediately following the intervention. There were also no intervention effects on subjective sleep quality or quantity outcomes. In terms of self-reported behavioral responses to educational content in the intervention, there were no group differences in sleep hygiene practices or technology use before bedtime. However, the intervention group reported less technology use during sleep periods than the control group. These preliminary findings suggest that STEPS-TECH may be a useful educational tool to help improve objective sleep and reduce technology use during sleep periods among university students. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Scherr, Rachel E.; Reed, Heather; Briggs, Marilyn; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri
Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to develop and evaluate nutrition education competencies and a competency-based resource guide, Connecting the Dots...Healthy Foods, Healthy Choices, Healthy Kids (CTD), for preschool-aged children in California. Methods: Nutrition education experts and California Department of Education staff…
Kauer, Bruno; Schütz, Jasper; Colussi, Paulo R G; Oppermann, Rui V; Haas, Alex N; Rösing, Cassiano K
To determine whether family income, age and educational level of the mother of the family are associated with self-reported use of dental floss over a 13-year period in a city in southern Brazil. A comparison of two household surveys was carried out where mothers of the family were interviewed using a structured questionnaire in order to obtain demographic, behavioural and socioeconomic information. In total, 852 and 984 households were included in 1996 and 2009, respectively. Self-reported use of dental floss was assessed dichotomously (yes/no). Poisson regression models were fitted to study the association between sociodemographic variables with the use of dental floss. Proportion ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were reported. The proportion of dental floss use increased from 48% to 59% over 13 years. The probability of dental floss use increased 1.23 times from 1996 to 2009 (PR = 1.23; 95% CI 1.13-1.34). Households with mothers ≥50 years old presented a 28% lower probability of using dental floss than households with mothers ≤35 years old. In households with higher family income and higher educational level of the mother, probabilities of flossing were 90% and 97% higher. Family income, age and educational level of the mother of the family are associated with self-reported use of dental floss over 13 years.
Cackett, P; Tay, W T; Aung, T; Wang, J J; Shankar, A; Saw, S M; Mitchell, P; Wong, T Y
Low socio-economic status is increasingly being identified as a risk marker for chronic diseases, but few studies have investigated the link between socio-economic factors and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The present study aimed to assess the association between socio-economic status and the prevalence of AMD. A population-based cross-sectional study of 3280 (78.7% response rate) Malay adults aged 40-80 years residing in 15 south-western districts of Singapore. AMD was graded from retinal photographs at a central reading centre using the modified Wisconsin AMD scale. Early and late AMD signs were graded from retinal photographs following the Wisconsin grading system. Socio-economic status including education, housing type and income were determined from a detailed interview. Of the participants, 3265 had photographs of sufficient quality for grading of AMD. Early AMD was present in 168 (5.1%) and late AMD in 21 (0.6%). After adjusting for age, gender, smoking, hypertension, diabetes and body mass index, participants with lower educational levels were significantly more likely to have early AMD (multivariate OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 4.0). This association was stronger in persons who had never smoked (multivariate OR 3.6, 95% confidence CI 1.4 to 9.4). However, no association with housing type or income was seen. Low educational level is associated with a higher prevalence of early AMD signs in our Asian population, independent of age, cardiovascular risk factors and cigarette smoking.
Van Zanten, Eva; Van der Ploeg, Tjeerd; Van Hoof, Joris J; Van der Lely, Nicolaas
The prevalence of adolescents hospitalized with acute alcohol intoxication, mainly because of severe reduced consciousness, is increasing. However, the characteristics of these adolescents are mainly unidentified. In this clinical research, we aimed to identify factors that attribute to higher ethanol concentration, on which targeted alcohol health interventions can be designed. Since 2007, alcohol intoxication among adolescents has been one of the leading topics of the Dutch Pediatric Surveillance System. In the current study, we have analyzed which demographic characteristics, general alcohol use behaviors, and clinical intoxication data were related to the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels at hospital admittance. We included all adolescents aged 0.0 g/l, and reduced consciousness during the years 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010. A total of 2,023 adolescents with alcohol intoxication were reported, and 1,618 questionnaires were returned, of which 1,350 met our inclusion criteria. In univariate analysis, age, gender, educational level, place of alcohol purchase, place of alcohol consumption, age of first drink, and regular alcohol use during the weekend correlated with higher BAC. After multivariate analysis, older adolescents, boys, and higher educational level significantly attributed to higher BAC at admittance. In alcohol-intoxicated adolescents with reduced consciousness, gender, age, and also educational level correlate with BAC at admittance. Explanatory factors could be found in sensitivity to alcohol, but also in socioeconomic factors, which influence availability. Intervention strategies could be targeted more specific now for the subgroups found in this study to decrease the growing burden of adolescent alcohol intoxication, both on the societal level and on the clinical level. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Phillips, C Y; Palmer, C V; Wettig, V S; Fenwick, J W
Survey research was undertaken to measure relationships between gender, age, ethnicity, education, income level, and an individual's attitude toward using a nurse practitioner (NP) for health care. Pender's Health Promotion Model provided the theoretical basis for the research initiative and instrument design. Following initial pilot work, 238 individuals were surveyed. While no significant differences on the basis of gender and race were found, high school graduates demonstrated significantly more positive attitudes toward NPs than non-high school graduates, and older subjects and those with lower incomes were less positively inclined to use NP services. These findings have implications for the marketing of NP services, NP education, and public education, and should be used as a basis for additional research in this area.
Nadejda V. Babinova
Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is selection and justification background components to teaching activity and indicators of its formedness among preschool children.Results. The alternatives of using project activity for forming backgrounds for learning activities of high preschool aged children are shown as a form of learning process organization. The concepts «learning activity» and «general learning activities» are considered. The conditions of project activity realization in preschool education organizations are determined.Scientific novelty. The concept «backgrounds for learning activities» is defined; it is proposed to consider it as necessary certain qualities for the emergence of personal, regulatory, cognitive and communicative aspects of learning activities that reflect different aspects of training activity.Practical significance. The research implementations can be used in the teacher’s practice at pre-school education, and in the family education.
Population aging is a key public health issue facing many nations, and is particularly pronounced in many Asian countries. At the same time, attitudes toward filial obligation are also rapidly changing, with a decreasing sense that children are responsible for caring for elderly parents. This investigation blends the family versus nonfamily mode of social organization framework with a life course perspective to provide insight into the processes of ideational change regarding filial responsibility, highlighting the influence of education and international travel. Using data from a longitudinal study in Nepal-the Chitwan Valley Family Study-results demonstrate that education and international travel are associated with a decrease in attitudes toward filial obligation. However, findings further reveal that the impact of education and international travel vary both across the life course and by gender.
Rosati, Francesco; Calabrese, Armando; Costa, Roberta
Engaging employees can have a positive effect on turnover reduction, client satisfaction, company profitability, innovation and growth. Engaging employees in corporate social responsibility (CSR) can also generate positive impacts on environment and society. To do this, companies need to understand...... their employees' CSR attitudes. In this regard, many studies show that individual characteristics can influence CSR attitudes. This research aims to identify the influence of three sociodemographic characteristics such as gender, educational level and age on three employee CSR attitudes, such as CSR demandingness...... and satisfied than female colleagues. Educational level differences also have a significant influence on CSR trust and CSR satisfaction, with graduated employees generally more trustful and satisfied than not graduated colleagues. However, employee gender and education do not influence CSR demandingness...
The aim of this thesis is to present some problems connected with sexual education of junior school-age children suffering from Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and to examine to which extent their parents are informed about this topic. The thesis is divided into two parts, theoretical and practical. The theoretical part focuses on describing the individual disorders, which are encompassed in the overall diagnosis under the label ASD, such as Infantile Autism, Asperger Disorder, Rett Syndrome,...
Kusurkar, Rashmi; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle; Croiset, Gerda
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of selection, educational background, age and gender on strength of motivation to attend and pursue medical school. Graduate entry (GE) medical students (having Bachelor's degree in Life Sciences or related field) and Non-Graduate Entry (NGE) medical students (having only completed high school), were asked to fill out the Strength of Motivation for Medical School (SMMS) questionnaire at the start of medical school. The questionnaire measures the willingness of the medical students to pursue medical education even in the face of difficulty and sacrifice. GE students (59.64 ± 7.30) had higher strength of motivation as compared to NGE students (55.26 ± 8.33), so did females (57.05 ± 8.28) as compared to males (54.30 ± 8.08). 7.9% of the variance in the SMMS scores could be explained with the help of a linear regression model with age, gender and educational background/selection as predictor variables. Age was the single largest predictor. Maturity, taking developmental differences between sexes into account, was used as a predictor to correct for differences in the maturation of males and females. Still, the gender differences prevailed, though they were reduced. Pre-entrance educational background and selection also predicted the strength of motivation, but the effect of the two was confounded. Strength of motivation appears to be a dynamic entity, changing primarily with age and maturity and to a small extent with gender and experience.
Gbadamosi, Gbolahan; Bello, M.
This study investigates attitude towards corruption and the role of gender, religion, education and age using a Nigerian survey data. It also seeks to establish how attitudes towards corruption relates to some other reported ethical measures such as Islamic work ethics, money ethic and corruption perception. Over 3800 questionnaires were administered with 1833 or about 48% response rate. Results revealed no significant gender differences in corruption but women reported being more religious. ...
Sasaki, Hideo; Kodama, Kazunori; Yamada, Michiko
The hypothesis that exposure to ionizing radiation accelerates the aging process has been actively investigated at ABCC-RERF since 1958, when longitudinal cohort studies of the Adult Health Study (AHS) and the Life Span Study (LSS) were initiated. In their 1975 overall review of aging studies related to the atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors, Finch and Beebe concluded that while most studies had shown no correlation between aging and radiation exposure, they had not involved the large numbers of subjects required to provide strong evidence for or against the hypothesis. Extending LSS mortality data up to 1978 did not alter the earlier conclusion that any observed life-shortening was associated primarily with cancer induction rather than with any nonspecific cause. The results of aging studies conducted during the intervening 15 years using data from the same populations are reviewed in the present paper. Using clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory techniques, a broad spectrum of aging parameters have been studied, such as postmortem morphological changes, tests of functional capacity, physical tests and measurements, laboratory tests, tissue changes, and morbidity. With respect to the aging process, the overall results have not been consistent and are generally thought to show no relation to radiation exposure. Although some preliminary results suggest a possible radiation-induced increase in atherosclerotic diseases and acceleration of aging in the T-cell-related immune system, further study is necessary to confirm these findings. In the future, applying the latest gerontological study techniques to data collected from subjects exposed 45 years ago to A-bomb radiation at relatively young ages will present a new body of data relevant to the study of late radiation effects. (author) 103 refs
Saczuk, Jerzy; Wasiluk, Agnieszka; Zalech, Miroslaw
Study aim: To assess the size of secular trends in the physical fitness of boys from eastern Poland taking into consideration stages of education. Material and methods: The physical fitness results of boys aged 7-19 years living in eastern regions of Poland were analyzed: 3188 students were examined in 1986 while in 2006 the research included 10…
Roberts, Graham J; McDonald, Fraser; Andiappan, Manoharan; Lucas, Victoria S
The final stage of dental development of third molars is usually helpful to indicate whether or not a subject is aged over 18 years. A complexity is that the final stage of development is unlimited in its upper border. Investigators usually select an inappropriate upper age limit or censor point for this tooth development stage. The literature was searched for appropriate data sets for dental age estimation and those that provided the count (n), the mean (x¯), and the standard deviation (sd) for each of the tooth development stages. The Demirjian G and Demirjian H were used for this study. Upper and lower limits of the Stage G and Stage H data were calculated limiting the data to plus or minus three standard deviations from the mean. The upper border of Stage H was limited by appropriate censoring at the maximum value for Stage G. The maximum age at attainment from published data, for Stage H, ranged from 22.60 years to 34.50 years. These data were explored to demonstrate how censoring provides an estimate for the correct maximum age for the final stage of Stage H as 21.64 years for UK Caucasians. This study shows that confining the data array of individual tooth developments stages to ± 3sd provides a reliable and logical way of censoring the data for tooth development stages with a Normal distribution of data. For Stage H this is inappropriate as it is unbounded in its upper limit. The use of a censored data array for Stage H using Percentile values is appropriate. This increases the reliability of using third molar Stage H alone to determine whether or not an individual is over 18 years old. For Stage H, individual ancestral groups should be censored using the same technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Education as an important factor in the development of economy has a major impact on the development of hunting and hunting tourism. In this research, it has conducted a survey of hunters from the territory of Vojvodina Province regarding their attitude and motives for hunting, importance of education, importance of GIS in hunting, poaching as well as their level of hunting ethics. Using SPSS program, it was cross-referenced the individual responses in relation to age category and level of education. The results show that the youngest hunters (18 to 35 years compared to middle age hunters (35-59 years and old hunters (over 60 visit hunting events more, they are the most informed about GIS and they are most willing to learn about these technologies. The number of hunters that took part in the poaching is proportional with their level of education, so that most hunters that participate in poaching hold a university degree. However, hunters holding a university degree in the highest percentage believe that GIS can contribute to the development of hunting largely, and are willing to participate in training.
Satya Sundar SETHY
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this paper is to discuss the nature and status of distance education in the age of globalization, i.e. how best it fits for the present educational scenario. In this connection, we will discuss how Blended Learning (hence after, BL is one among the other learning strategies mostly helpful for the learners. Keeping this view in mind, this paper is divided into three sections. The first section aims to discuss the nature of distance education in the age of globalization. The second section devotes a discussion on why we need blended learning in ODL system and in which way it plays a vital role for maximizing the benefit of the learners, tutors, and the institutions. The third section explains the pros and cons of blended learning to evaluate how successfully it can be implemented in the ODL system. The paper concludes with an established view that blended learning is a globalized approach to the distance education.
Banu Inanc Uyan Dur
Full Text Available Scientific and technologic developments in the last century facilitate people’s lives while also causing them to face more information. Information design has become much more important as a result of the chaos created by the unprocessed heap of data and information traffic. Therefore, people need designed information like infographics and data visualisation today. Design of information, which is among the most significant requirements of our age, has become a subject which needs to be dealt with more systematically in the education of visual communication design. Visual design of information and data is important not only for increasing perceptibility but also revealing the patterns within complex information, and being educative, persuasive and guiding depending on the content and objective. In this sense, incorporating data visualization and infographics works into the education of visual communication design would have significant contributions to train designers with sufficient qualification to meet the requirements of today’s world. This study examines the current/potential expansion of data visualization and infographics in the education of visual communication design at the age of information. With respect to students, it deals with its effects to the design method, process and perception and its contributions to the multidisciplinary design approach.
Martín-Casado, Laura; Barquín, Christian
To analyze the changes in foot morphology in school-age children, after a Physical Education lesson. A total of 10 school-age children (5 girls and 5 boys) were recruited with a mean age of 9.3 ± 0.5 years that voluntary participated in this study. Measurements of both feet were obtained using a 3D foot digitizer model IFU-S-01 (Japan) in two different moments, before and after a physical education lesson (per-exercise and post-exercise), where different activities involving displacements, jumps and landings were performed. By comparing foot morphology before and after exercise, significant differences in the arch height were found, which increased after exercise (p<0.05). The ball width shows greater changes after exercise but without significant differences (p= 0.07; effect size [ES] = 0.2). Furthermore, a positive correlation between the ball width and the arch height (p<0.05) and negative correlation between the distance from the heel to the first metatarsal and the ball width (r = - 0.7; p<0.05), were observed. The type of activities undertaken during physical education lesson (displacements, jumps and landings) increased the pressure on the forefoot, which would lead to a lager arch height. Development of children's sport footwear systems should take into account the foot lengths, widths and heights, for a better fit, preventing future musculoskeletal injuries. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A.
Full Text Available Abstract The Brief Cognitive Battery-Edu (BCB-Edu contains nine tests, seven of which are related to the memory of drawings, and has good accuracy in the diagnosis of cognitive impairment. Objectives: To evaluate the influence of age, gender and educational level on the performance in tests related to memory of drawings of the BCB-Edu in healthy subjects. Methods: Participants were adult volunteers; exclusion criteria were illiteracy, neurologic or psychiatric disorders, visual or hearing impairment, untreated chronic clinical conditions, alcoholism, use of drugs, and for those aged 65 or over, an informant report of cognitive or functional impairment. We evaluated 325 individuals (207 women, with a mean age of 47.1 (±16.8 years, ranging from 19 to 81, and a mean of 9.8 (±5.0 schooling-years. Univariate analyses, correlations and logistic regression were employed (a=0.05. Results: There were significant negative correlations between age and the scores in four of the seven tests. However, schooling-years were positively correlated to the scores, where schooling-years decreased with age in this sample (rho= -0.323; p<0.001. Logistic regression confirmed that gender influenced the learning of drawings, where women performed better, while age influenced incidental memory, immediate memory, learning and delayed recall of the drawings, and schooling-years influenced visual identification, immediate memory, learning, delayed recall and recognition of the drawings. Conclusion: Gender, age and education influence the performance on the memory of drawings of the BCB-Edu, although the extent of these influences differs according to the nature of the test.
Welmer, Anna-Karin; Kåreholt, Ingemar; Rydwik, Elisabeth; Angleman, Sara; Wang, Hui-Xin
Having a low level of education has been associated with worse physical performance. However, it is unclear whether this association varies by age, gender or the occupational categories of manual and non-manual work. This study examined whether there are education-related differences across four dimensions of physical performance by age, gender or occupational class and to what extent chronic diseases and lifestyle-related factors may explain such differences. Participants were a random sample of 3212 people, 60 years and older, both living in their own homes and in institutions, from the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care, in Kungsholmen, Stockholm. Trained nurses assessed physical performance in grip strength, walking speed, balance and chair stands, and gathered data on education, occupation and lifestyle-related factors, such as physical exercise, body mass index, smoking and alcohol consumption. Diagnoses of chronic diseases were made by the examining physician. Censored normal regression analyses showed that persons with university education had better grip strength, balance, chair stand time and walking speed than people with elementary school education. The differences in balance and walking speed remained statistically significant (p < 0.05) after adjustment for chronic diseases and lifestyle. However, age-stratified analyses revealed that the differences were no longer statistically significant in advanced age (80+ years). Gender-stratified analyses revealed that women with university education had significantly better grip strength, balance and walking speed compared to women with elementary school education and men with university education had significantly better chair stands and walking speed compared to men with elementary school education in multivariate adjusted models. Further analyses stratified by gender and occupational class suggested that the education-related difference in grip strength was only evident among female manual workers
Kim, Jung Ki; Baker, Lindsey A; Seirawan, Hazem; Crimmins, Eileen M
Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 1999-2004, the authors examined age patterns in oral health indicators by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status related to edentulism, presence of root caries, and periodontal disease. Our analysis included subjects who were non-Hispanic White, Mexican American, and African American over the age of 20, and who participated in the NHANES oral health examination. African Americans experienced more oral health problems at younger ages; as age increased, so did racial disparities in oral health problems. Lower educational attainment was strongly associated with more oral health problems at all ages. These results may indicate a faster progression of oral health problems with age among African Americans, thus suggesting that the "earlier aging" of members of racial/ethnic minorities which has been reported in prior research may also be found in oral health. © 2012 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Rojkova, K; Volle, E; Urbanski, M; Humbert, F; Dell'Acqua, F; Thiebaut de Schotten, M
In neuroscience, there is a growing consensus that higher cognitive functions may be supported by distributed networks involving different cerebral regions, rather than by single brain areas. Communication within these networks is mediated by white matter tracts and is particularly prominent in the frontal lobes for the control and integration of information. However, the detailed mapping of frontal connections remains incomplete, albeit crucial to an increased understanding of these cognitive functions. Based on 47 high-resolution diffusion-weighted imaging datasets (age range 22-71 years), we built a statistical normative atlas of the frontal lobe connections in stereotaxic space, using state-of-the-art spherical deconvolution tractography. We dissected 55 tracts including U-shaped fibers. We further characterized these tracts by measuring their correlation with age and education level. We reported age-related differences in the microstructural organization of several, specific frontal fiber tracts, but found no correlation with education level. Future voxel-based analyses, such as voxel-based morphometry or tract-based spatial statistics studies, may benefit from our atlas by identifying the tracts and networks involved in frontal functions. Our atlas will also build the capacity of clinicians to further understand the mechanisms involved in brain recovery and plasticity, as well as assist clinicians in the diagnosis of disconnection or abnormality within specific tracts of individual patients with various brain diseases.
Silventoinen, K; Lahelma, E
Study objective: To compare the age pattern of educational health inequalities in four Nordic countries in the mid-1980s and the mid-1990s. Design: Cross sectional interview surveys at two points of time. Setting: Data on self reported limiting longstanding illness, and perceived health were collected from Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden in 1986/87 and in 1994/95. Participants: Representative samples of the non-institutionalised population at 15 years or older. Analyses were restricted to respondents aged between 25 and 75 (n= 23 325 men and 24 184 women). Response rates varied from 73% to 87%. Main results: The age adjusted prevalence of limiting longstanding illness in Finland was 10% higher in men and 6% higher in women than in other Nordic countries in 1986/87 but the gap narrowed by 1994/95. Educational health inequalities were largest in Norway. In 1986/87 the odds ratio (OR) for limiting longstanding illness was 11.25 (95% CI 8.66 to 14.62) among men and 8.23 (95% CI 6.60 to 10.27) among women in the oldest age group (65–74 years old) in Finland when the youngest age group (25–34 years old) was used as the reference category (OR=1.00). The age pattern in Finland was steeper than in Sweden (OR=5.02, 95% CI 3.97 to 6.34 in men and 5.29, 95% CI 4.18 to 6.71 in women) or Norway (OR=6.32, 95% CI 4.06 to 9.84 and 5.45, 95% CI 3.81 to 7.82, respectively). In 1994/95 relative health improved in the oldest age group in Finland (OR=5.80, 95% CI 4.33 to 7.78 in men and 5.94, 95% CI 4.52 to 7.79 in women) and in Norway (OR=4.55, 95% CI 3.01 to 6.88 and 3.96, 95% CI 2.70 to 5.81, respectively) but remained stable in Sweden. The study compared health differences by age in different educational categories and found that in Finland in 1986/87 the health in the oldest age group was poorer for secondary (OR=10.59, 95% CI 5.96 to 18.82) or basic educated (OR=9.76, 95% CI 6.66 to 14.30) men than for men with higher education (OR=5.15, 95% CI 2.59 to 10.22). The
Full Text Available The goals of the study were to analyze differences as a function of gender, age, and educational level in sexism and alexithymia in a nonclinical and in a clinical sample, and to explore the relation between these constructs. A descriptive and correlational cross-sectional methodology was used. The Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (Glick & Fiske, 1996 and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (Parker et al. 1993 were administered. The sample comprised 989 participants from the Basque Country, aged between 18 and 65 years. The results revealed: 1 Significantly higher scores in the males in sexism (hostile, benevolent, and ambivalent and in alexithymia (difficulties to express emotions and external-oriented thinking in both samples; in the total alexithymia score, the males had significantly higher scores only in the nonclinical sample; 2 As of 55 years of age, a significant increase in benevolent and ambivalent sexism, and in difficulties to identify emotions, external-oriented thinking, and in the total alexithymia score were observed (only in the nonclinical sample; however, no changes with age were observed in hostile sexism and in difficulties to express emotions; 3 A decrease in sexism and alexithymia as the educational level increased; and 4 Significant positive correlations between sexism and alexithymia.
Francis, Sarah L; Taylor, Martha L
Social Marketing Theory is a comprehensive approach of program development encompassing the needs and preferences of the intended audience. It was hypothesized a Social Marketing Theory-based, registered dietitian-led, in-home, cardiovascular disease-targeted diet-education program would improve the dietary status of community-residing older women. Using a randomized control group design, this 90-day program in two North Carolina counties included 58 women (30 control; 28 intervention) ages 54 to 83 years. Data were collected using the Mini Nutritional Assessment, three 3-day food records, and program evaluations. The intervention group received two individual registered dietitian-led in-home education sessions and the control group received education material mailings (Visits 2 and 3). Pretested education materials were used. Visits/mailings were scheduled 28 to 30 days apart. Variables measured included cardiovascular disease-related dietary practices and dietary status (Mini Nutritional Assessment). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, paired sample t tests, multivariant analyses, and independent t tests. Intervention and control Mini Nutritional Assessment scores improved (P=0.0001). Intervention subjects consumed more fiber than control (P=0.013) and reduced sodium intake (P=0.02). Controls reduced energy (P=0.01) and cholesterol intakes (P=0.029), likely because of the decreased food intake. The majority (n=51, 87.9%) rated the program as good to excellent and almost all (n=55, 94.8%) would recommend the program to a friend. The most popular features of the program were the individualized sessions (n=20, 34.5%) and diet analyses (n=11, 19%). These results suggest that cardiovascular disease diet-education materials utilizing Social Marketing Theory principles can lead to improved dietary status among community-residing older women.
Płotek, Włodzimierz; Łyskawa, Wojciech; Kluzik, Anna; Grześkowiak, Małgorzata; Podlewski, Roland; Żaba, Zbigniew; Drobnik, Leon
Human cognitive functioning can be assessed using different methods of testing. Age, level of education, and gender may influence the results of cognitive tests. The well-known Trail Making Test (TMT), which is often used to measure the frontal lobe function, and the experimental test of Interval Timing (IT) were compared. The methods used in IT included reproduction of auditory and visual stimuli, with the subsequent production of the time intervals of 1-, 2-, 5-, and 7-seconds durations with no pattern. Subjects included 64 healthy adult volunteers aged 18-63 (33 women, 31 men). Comparisons were made based on age, education, and gender. TMT was performed quickly and was influenced by age, education, and gender. All reproduced visual and produced intervals were shortened and the reproduction of auditory stimuli was more complex. Age, education, and gender have more pronounced impact on the cognitive test than on the interval timing test. The reproduction of the short auditory stimuli was more accurate in comparison to other modalities used in the IT test. The interval timing, when compared to the TMT, offers an interesting possibility of testing. Further studies are necessary to confirm the initial observation.
Chuzaimah Dahlan Diem
Full Text Available To see the relationship between the age at which EFL is introduced in some Indonesian public schools and student outcomes a survey involving 229 students both from elementary and junior high schools in Palembang is conducted. These students are given the test comprising vocabulary, reading comprehension, and grammar. It is hypothesized that those who start learning English earlier have better achievement. Factors such as school and home environments are also considered in the analysis. Stepwise regression analysis is applied to identify which variable contributes to students outcomes. The results show that there is no correlation between age alone and the students EFL achievement. However, significant influence is found when teacher education level and teacher ELT experience are added to the prediction model predicting EFL achievement from age.
Cangoz, Banu; Karakoc, Ebru; Selekler, Kaynak
Trail Making Test (TMT) is a neuropsychological test, which has parts A and B that can precisely measure executive functions, like complex visual-motor conceptual screening, planning, organization, abstract thinking and response inhibition. The main purpose of this study is to standardize TMT for Turkish adults and/or elderly population. This study primarily consists of two main parts; norm determination study and reliability/validity studies, respectively. The standardization study was carried on 484 participants (238 female and 246 male). Participants at the age of 50 years and older were selected from a pool of people employed in or retired from governmental and/or private institutions. The research design of this study involves the following variables mainly; age (7 subgroups), sex (2 subgroups) and education (3 subgroups). Age, sex and education variables have significant influence on eight different kinds of TMT scores. Statistical analysis by ANOVA revealed a major effect of age (peducation (psex (p<0.05) on time spent on Part A or B, or sum of Parts A and B was shown to be significant. Kruskal-Wallis Test was performed and chi-square (chi(2)) values revealed that, correction scores for Part A and B were found to be influenced by age groups (p<0.001). Test-retest reliability and inter-rater reliability coefficients for time scores of Parts A and B were estimated as 0.78, 0.99 and 0.73, 0.93, respectively. This study provides normative data for a psychometric tool that reliably measures the executive functions in Turkish elderly population at the age of 50 and over.
Gila Cohen Zilka
Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: This study was designed to examine the effectiveness of mentor’s work with immigrant children and adolescents at risk, using the Elements Way. Background: The New Media offers our “screen kids” a lot of information, many behavioral models, and a new type of social communication. The Elements Way is an educational method designed to enhance openness, development, breakthroughs, goal achievement, and transformation in the age of media and social networks. Methodology: The Elements Way was developed following research on communication in the diversified media, especially new media such as Facebook, WhatsApp, and television reality shows, and the study is an examination of the effectiveness of mentors’ work with immigrant children and adolescents at risk, using the Elements Way. All mentors had been trained in the Elements Way. The study population included 640 mentors working with immigrants’ children in Israel. The work was conducted in 2010-2013. The mixed-methods approach was selected to validate findings. Contribution: Empowering children and enhancing their ability to cope; Creating openness and sharing, making children more attentive to the significant adults in their lives; Supporting children who face the complex reality that characterizes our age. Findings: Significant differences were found in the mentors’ conduct with the children. Work programs were designed and implemented with care and consistency, and mentors succeeded in generating change within the children and achieving desired goals. Of the 640 participating mentors, 62 were not able to promote the child, and interviews with them revealed that their work with the children was not consistent with the Elements Way and began from a different vantage point. Recommendations for Practitioners: Success factors: Self-awareness and awareness of one’s surroundings. Empathy. Willingness to engage in significant interactions. Self-cleansing and self
Chiu, Ching-Ju; Wray, Linda A.
Purpose: This research combined cross-sectional and longitudinal data to characterize age-related trajectories in physical disability for adults with and without diabetes in the United States and to investigate if those patterns differ by age, gender, race or ethnicity, and education. Design and Methods: Data were examined on 20,433 adults aged 51…
Osler, M; Prescott, E; Gottschau, A
BACKGROUND: Studies of time trends in smoking prevalence provide a better understanding of the determinants of smoking. The present study analyses changes over time in the prevalence of smoking and heavy smoking in relation to sex, age, and education. METHODS: Data on smoking behaviour were...... the effects of sex, age, education, time period, and study group on the prevalence of smoking and of heavy smoking were assessed. RESULTS: Smoking was least prevalent in women, in the oldest age group (more than 70 years), and among those with 8 years or more of school education. During the study period (from......, and among the well educated. During the study period, the unadjusted prevalence of heavy smoking decreased from 52% to 38% in men, while it increased from 17% to 21% in women. The multivariate analysis showed that the time trend for heavy smoking only depended on sex, while educational attainment and age...
Hasan, Md Tanvir; Soares Magalhaes, Ricardo J; Williams, Gail M; Mamun, Abdullah A
Malnutrition in children under 5 years of age (U5s) is a serious public health problem in low- and middle-income countries including Bangladesh. Improved maternal education can contribute effectively to reduce child malnutrition. We examined the long-term impact of maternal education on the risk of malnutrition in U5s and quantified the level of education required for the mothers to reduce the risk. We used pooled data from five nationwide demographic and health surveys conducted in 1996-1997, 1999-2000, 2004, 2007 and 2011 in Bangladesh involving 28 941 U5s. A log-binomial regression model was used to examine the association between maternal education (no education, primary, secondary or more) and malnutrition in children, measured by stunting, underweight and wasting controlling for survey time, maternal age, maternal body mass index, maternal working status, parity, paternal education and wealth quintile. An overall improvement in maternal educational attainment was observed between 1996 and 2011. The prevalence of malnutrition although decreasing was consistently high among children of mothers with lower education compared with those of mothers with higher education. In adjusted models incorporating time effects, children of mothers with secondary or higher education were at lower risk of childhood stunting [risk ratio (RR): 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.81, 0.89], underweight (RR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.78, 0.88) and wasting (RR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.74, 0.91) compared with children of mothers with no education. We demonstrated the importance of promoting women's education at least up to the secondary level as a means to tackle malnutrition in Bangladesh. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Fischer, Claude S; Beresford, Lauren
This paper tests whether differences by gender and by educational attainment in contact with friends and family and in support expected from friends and family narrow or widen in late middle age. The data are drawn from about 4,800 members of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Survey who answered questions about their frequency of contact with social ties and expectations of 3 kinds of help in both 1993, when they were in their early 50s, and again in 2004. Using lagged dependent variable models, we find that between their 50s and 60s women's network advantages over men and college graduates' network advantages over high school graduates in frequency of social contact widened. The same was roughly true as well for expectations of social support, although here the divergences depended partly on the type of the support: Women gained relative to men in "talk" support and in help from nonkin if ill, but lost ground in financial support. The college-educated gained ground in all sorts of support from nonkin. These results reinforce concern that late middle age is a period when men and the less educated become yet more disadvantaged in social support, making attention to connectedness yet more critical. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Chuzaimah Dahlan Diem
Full Text Available This study tries to see the relationship between the age at which EFL is introduced in public schools and educational processes and outcomes. A survey involving 229 students from elementary and junior high schools in Palembang is conducted. The population consists of those who have never taken extra non-formal English courses. These students are given the same English tests comprising mostly vocabulary and reading comprehension followed by a small portion of grammar. It is hypothesized that those who start learning English earlier have better achievement. Curriculum, intensity of instruction, teacher education level, years of ELT experience are considered in the analysis, in addition to class size, students' SES and gender. Stepwise regression analysis is applied to identify which variable contributes to students' outcomes. The results show there is no correlation between age alone and the students' EFL achievement. However, negative significant correlation is found between the students' achievement and teacher education level and also between the students' achievement and SES. Finally, some implications of research for theory, policy, and practice are suggested.
Kupprat, Sandra Anne; Halkitis, Perry N; Pérez-Figueroa, Rafael; Solomon, Todd M; Ashman, Teresa; Kingdon, Molly J; Levy, Michael David
Little is known about the impact of HIV and aging on cognitive functioning. This New York City cross-sectional study of aging HIV-positive gay and bisexual men assessed their neuropsychological state. Working memory and verbal abstract reasoning were relatively intact. After 55 years of age, attention abilities were impaired. Executive function impairment was present regardless of age and education. Results suggest the need for HIV-specific norms, and the use of neuropsychological assessments (i.e. baseline and over time) as a cost-effective way to assess HIV-related cognitive decline in developed and under-developed countries. © The Author(s) 2013.
Ch. Megawati Tirtawinata
Lack of sex education in children could cause the violence or sexual abuse done by adults. Parents should give the lesson about early sex education to the children so that they had the right knowledge about it and knew how to treat and look after it. The method in this research was a discourse analysis of the literature in which the readings were taken in context with the research topic. Besides that, it included the observations and everyday practical experience in social life. This article ...
Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Manxhuka-Kerliu, Suzana; Pallaska, Kelmend; Murtezani, Ardiana; Osmani-Vllasolli, Teuta; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Rexhepi, Blerta
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between disability status and duration of morning stiffness in hands with regard to age, level of education, and gender in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Also, the authors wanted to investigate this relationship with regard to the presence of rheumatoid factor, i.e., the serological status. A retrospective study was conducted in 250 patients with the classic form of RA (186 females, s64 males, mean age Xb = 49.96 y ears, range 25-60 years, disease duration 1-27 years, Xb = 6.41) previously diagnosed with RA according to the ACR (American College of Rheumatology 1987 criteria). All patients were in Steinbrocker functional classes II and III. The probability level was expressed by p 0.05) seronegative, (r = 0.12, y = 0.00x + 2.30, p > 0.05) seropositive]. High positive values were obtained for the linear correlation coefficient between duration of the disease and functional class (p educational level, and was more pronounced in older age, regardless of RA serological status. With regard to serological status and sex, the differences were non-significant.
Lassi, Zohra S; Das, Jai K; Zahid, Guleshehwar; Imdad, Aamer; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
About one third of deaths in children less than 5 years of age are due to underlying undernutrition. According to an estimate, 19.4% of children <5 years of age in developing countries were underweight (weight-for-age Z score <-2) and about 29.9% were stunted in the year 2011 (height-for-age Z score <-2). It is well recognized that the period of 6-24 months of age is one of the most critical time for the growth of the infant. We included randomized, non-randomized trials and programs on the effect of complementary feeding (CF) (fortified or unfortified, but not micronutrients alone) and education on CF on children less than 2 years of age in low and middle income countries (LMIC). Studies that delivered intervention for at least 6 months were included; however, studies in which intervention was given for supplementary and therapeutic purposes were excluded. Recommendations are made for input to the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) model by following standardized guidelines developed by Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG). We included 16 studies in this review. Amongst these, 9 studies provided education on complementary feeding, 6 provided complementary feeding (with our without education) and 1 provided both as separate arms. Overall, education on CF alone significantly improved HAZ (SMD: 0.23; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.36), WAZ (SMD 0.16, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.27), and significantly reduced the rates of stunting (RR 0.71; 95% CI: 0.56, 0.91). While no significant impact were observed for height and weight gain. Based on the subgroup analysis; ten studies from food secure populations indicated education on CF had a significant impact on height gain, HAZ scores, and weight gain, however, stunting reduced non-significantly. In food insecure population, CF education alone significantly improved HAZ scores, WAZ scores and significantly reduced the rates of stunting, while CF provision with or without education improved HAZ and WAZ scores significantly. Complementary feeding
Tam, Joyce W; Van Son, Catherine; Dyck, Dennis; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen
Aging services technologies (ASTs), health technology that meets the needs of seniors, are being underutilized due to a lack of awareness. This study evaluated a video-based educational program to increase AST awareness. Two hundred and thirty-one older adults completed AST measures pre- and post-program. Participants endorsed significantly improved AST knowledge and attitude and a lower level of perceived stigma post-program. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that a greater reduction in stigma post-program and a higher number of physical/cognitive needs supported by ASTs at baseline were significant predictors of a greater increase in expressed intention to use ASTs following the video program. Furthermore, individuals living in their own homes, with a lower level of education, fewer physical and/or cognitive needs supported by ASTs at baseline, and greater functional limitations were found to be more likely to report a significant reduction in perceived stigma post-program. Four-week follow-up data from 75 individuals showed stable program gains. Program feedback was positive. The current findings provide support for the utility of the AST videos. The educational materials used in this study can be used clinically or for public health education to increase awareness and adoption of ASTs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ana Maria Klein
Full Text Available This paper investigates the teaching continuing education as a public policy focused on confronting the illiteracy problem in the early years of elementary school, through the perceptions of 1.515 literacy teachers from the northwestern region of São Paulo that participated in the federal program Pacto Nacional pela Alfabetização na Idade Certa (National Pact for Literacy at the Right Age during the year 2013. Teacher education is discussed based on the authors Tardif, Imbernón and Nóvoa. To collect data, a questionnaire with open and closed questions available on an online server for researches was used. The methodology was qualitative and the data shows that the processes involved in conducting training, such as group work and methodology, are as valued as access to new knowledge.
Ergin, Isil; Hassoy, Hur; Tanik, Feride A; Aslan, Gokce
Smoking during pregnancy has been associated with socioeconomic determinants and it is recognized as the most important preventable risk factor for an unsuccessful pregnancy outcome. Turkey has national data on the prevalance of smoking during pregnancy; however there is no data on the characteristics of the high-risk population. This is a field study that aims to identify socioeconomic determinants for smoking during pregnancy as well as differentiating the daily and occasional smokers. Cross sectional study was conducted among women with 0-5 year old children living in the area served by Primary Health Care Center (PHCC) in Burhaniye, Turkey. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by the researchers during January-March 2008 at the home of the participants with 83.7% response rate (n = 256). The relation of "smoking during pregnacy" and "daily smoking during pregnancy" with the independent variables was determined with chi2 tests. Women's age, educational level, number of previous births, place of origin, migration, partner's educational level, poverty, perceived income, social class were evaluated. Statistical significance was achieved when the p value was less than 0.05. The variables in relation with the dependent variables in the chi2 tests were included in the forward-stepwise logistic analysis. Prevalance of smoking during pregnancy was 22.7%. The majority (74.1%) were daily smokers. Young mothers (educated women and migrants were at increased risk for smoking during pregnancy. Low education and being a migrant were risk factors for daily consumption (p educated women and migrants are important groups to focus on.
Helio Marconi Gerth
Full Text Available Introduction: Numerous strategies have been employed as a means to promote health to the older population. It is believed that information is the primary tool in achieving this goal. Therefore, we used the text “Active aging: a policy framework” as a reference point. Objective: To identify the social representation of a group of elderly women who underwent educational training regarding active aging and to assess their response to this methodological approach, in order to develop an actual educational program for the elderly for future use. Method: This training was performed during six meetings, realized twice a week for one hour each day, which utilized the popular education as the pedagogic theory. The group assessed in this study was composed of 10 elderly women, between 60 and 80 years of age, who attended a community exercise program offered by the city of Sorocaba, São Paulo, Brazil. Data were obtained during individual semi-structured interviews. Since this trial consists of a transversal, exploratory, and qualitative study, data were organized and analyzed according to the theoretical reference discourse of collective subject, based on the theory of social representation and analysis of content. Results: The methodology was well accepted by the participants, who responded positively to the method and believed to have learned new information regarding the topics covered. New knowledge was constructed by exchanging ideas and experiences. The method favors networking, strengthens friendship bonds, stimulates physical activity, and promotes healthy habits. Conclusion: The methodology was appropriate for the population studied. Participants really enjoyed the program and recommend that other people attend it.
Tzeng, Yu-Fen; Gau, Bih-Shya
To investigate the suitability of asthma education materials for school-age children with asthma and elucidate how these children used their health-literacy abilities to identify whether the materials can be accepted, comprehended and applied. Effective asthma self-management education is influenced by the suitability of materials and an individual's health literacy. A mixed-method research design was developed using quantitative and qualitative surveys. The suitability of the materials was assessed on the basis of the Chinese version of the Suitability Assessment of Materials by five experts. In addition, five school-age children (age: 8-12 years) were recruited and interviewed. In total, 25 pieces of asthma education material for children were collected. On the basis of their type, the materials were categorised as nine brochures, 11 leaflets and five videos. Of the 25 materials, 17 were rated as superior materials, whereas eight were rated as adequate materials. The suitability scores of the video-based materials were significantly higher than those of the brochures and leaflets (p = .006). One print material was considered to have a reading level suitable for fifth-grade or younger children, whereas the remaining materials were considered suitable for sixth-grade or older children. The following six health-literacy domains were identified: recognising asthma through body knowledge, posing reflective questions, identifying self-care difficulties, receiving adult guidance, learning with enjoyment and addressing learning requirements. The video-based materials had integrated content and were appealing to children. Cartoon animations, interactive computer games, and skill demonstrations may enhance learning stimulation and motivation and increase learning effects in children. The present results may help healthcare providers to understand children's capacities to manage their disease, effectively address children's requirements and function as a key resource for
Lynch, C D; Ash, P J; Chadwick, B L; Herbert, R A; Cowpe, J G
Despite advances in evidence-based dental school educational programmes, the charge is sometimes made that dental students are 'no longer as good as they used to be'. Recent modifications have meant that dental education is now a 'life-long experience', of which dental school is the initial, albeit very important, component. Contemporary dental students will normally enter dental foundation (DF) training on completion of dental school. As such there may be value in including DF trainers in dental school teaching programmes. The aim of this paper is to report the experiences, feedback and opinions of these DF trainers following their first-hand experience of the community-based clinical teaching programme at Cardiff, and assess if their perspectives of contemporary dental student education changed following this. DF trainers were invited to attend the community-based clinical teaching programme at Cardiff on an observer basis. Twenty-four DF trainers attended, following which evaluation questionnaires were completed. Information sought included opinions and attitudes to the teaching programme, the physical environment in which the teaching programme took place, knowledge and attitudes towards community-based clinical teaching and modifications that DF trainers would make to the teaching programme to further improve the knowledge, skills and attributes of dental school graduates for DF training. Responses were received from 20 DF trainers (response rate = 83%). All 20 respondents felt that the teaching provided within the community-based clinical teaching programme was appropriate, with one respondent noting that it was like 'a day in the life of a dental practice', 'where anything could present'. Sixteen respondents were satisfied with the scope and content of the community-based clinical teaching programme, with a small number recommending inclusion of teaching in relation to inlays/onlays (n = 2), simple orthodontics (n = 1) and splinting (n = 1). Eighteen
Full Text Available Motivation can be changed significantly in dependence on meeting human needs, life situations, internal and external environment, etc. It is caused by different factors which affect motivation in different ways. These factors do not act separately but they are a part of mutually connected network of specific relations. In the paper we show the possibility of the impact of age, education and seniority on the motivation of employees. The level of employee motivation and employee performance can be influenced by means of their detailed knowledge.
Camargo Plazas, Maria del Pilar; Cameron, Brenda L
Many approaches and efforts have been used to better understand chronic diseases worldwide. Yet, little is known about the meaning of living with chronic illness under the pressures of globalization and neoliberal ideologies. Through Freire's participatory educational method, this article presents an innovative approach to understanding the multiple dimensions of living with chronic illness. In this way, we hope to use an innovative approach to address the impact of globalization on the daily life of chronically ill people and thus expand to the body of knowledge on nursing. This article uses Freire's participatory educational method to understand the multiple dimensions of living with chronic illness. This qualitative study follows an interpretive inquiry approach and uses a critical hermeneutic phenomenological method and critical research methodologies. Five participants were recruited for this participatory educational activity. Data collection methods included digitally recorded semistructured individual interviews and a Freire's participatory educational method session. Data analysis included a thematic analysis. Participants reported lacking adequate access to healthcare services because of insurance policies; a general perception that they were an unwanted burden on the healthcare system; and a general lack of government support, advocacy, and political interest. This research activity assisted participants to gain a new critical perspective about the condition of others with chronic diseases and thus provided an enlightening opportunity to learn about the illnesses and experiences of others and to realize that others experienced the same oppression from the healthcare system. Participants became agents of change within their own families and communities. Chronic diseases cause many economic and social consequences in their victims. These findings urge us to move from merely acknowledging the difficulties of people who live with chronic illness in an age of
Amaya-Castellanos, Claudia; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Escalante-Izeta, Ericka; Morales-Ruán, María Del Carmen; Jiménez-Aguilar, Alejandra; Salazar-Coronel, Araceli; Uribe-Carvajal, Rebeca; Amaya-Castellanos, Alejandra
Mexico has the highest and most alarming rates of childhood obesity worldwide. A study conducted in the State of Mexico revealed that one of every three children presents overweight or obesity. The objective of this paper is to provide a step-by-step description of the design and implementation of an educational intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity called "Healthy Recess". The educational intervention was designed using the six stages of the Health Communication Process. This methodological model allowed identifying the needs of school-age children on information and participation in activities. In order to improve the strategy, adjustments were made to the print and audiovisual materials as well as to assessment tools. Typography was modified as well as the color of the images in student's workbook and facilitator's; special effects of the videos were increased; the narration of the radio spots was improved and common words and phrases were included. The Health Communication Process is an effective tool for program planners to design interventions aimed at managing prevalent health problems such as overweight and obesity in school-age children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Millán-Calenti, José C; Tubío, Javier; Pita-Fernández, Salvador; González-Abraldes, Isabel; Lorenzo, Trinidad; Maseda, Ana
To examine the prevalence of cognitive impairment in a Spanish elderly population and to analyse its association with some social and medical factors. We randomly selected a representative sample (n = 600) of people over 65 from Narón Council (A Coruña). Socio-demographic and biomedical data were collected and cognitive status was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). We determined variations in the prevalence from 35.2%, when age or level of education distribution was not applied, to 22.2% when they were applied. Women showed a higher probability of cognitive impairment than men. Negative correlation was observed between the age of the subject and the MMSE score (Spearman correlation rho = -0.45, p Knowledge of the real prevalence rates, together with the establishment of adequate preventive and intervention measures, can be factors that may diminish the socio-sanitary impact of cognitive impairment. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Helmes, Edward; Van Gerven, Pascal W. M.
The construct of cognitive reserve has primarily been defined in terms of a single proxy measure, education. There may, however, be alternative, potentially additive, proxy measures of cognitive reserve, such as rural or urban residence. Using a large sample of 10,263 older Canadians, ranging in age between 64 and 99 years (mean age = 75.7 years,…
Damm, Anna Piil; Larsen, Britt Østergaard; Nielsen, Helena Skyt
This paper exploits a Danish policy reform combined with population-wide administrative registers to investigate whether being above the minimum age of criminal responsibility deters juveniles from crime. We study young individuals’ tendency to commit crime as well as their likelihood of recidivism...... by exploiting police records on offenses committed by the population of children and youth, including those below the minimum age of criminal responsibility. The reform lowered the minimum age of criminal responsibility from 15 to 14 years. We find that the reform did not deter 14-year-olds from committing...... crime. Moreover, conditional on committing crime in the first place, youths affected by the lower minimum age of criminal responsibility were more likely to recidivate and less likely to be enrolled in the 9th grade, just as they have lower grades at the 9th grade exit exam, conditional on participating...
Conclusion: : Living in a non-intact family, more than low maternal educational level and having a working mother, appears to be associated with sedentary lifestyle in overweight primary school-age children.
Sandora, Thomas J; Taveras, Elsie M; Shih, Mei-Chiung; Resnick, Elissa A; Lee, Grace M; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Goldmann, Donald A
Good hand hygiene may reduce the spread of infections in families with children who are in out-of-home child care. Alcohol-based hand sanitizers rapidly kill viruses that are commonly associated with respiratory and gastrointestinal (GI) infections. The objective of this study was to determine whether a multifactorial campaign centered on increasing alcohol-based hand sanitizer use and hand-hygiene education reduces illness transmission in the home. A cluster randomized, controlled trial was conducted of homes of 292 families with children who were enrolled in out-of-home child care in 26 child care centers. Eligible families had > or =1 child who was 6 months to 5 years of age and in child care for > or =10 hours/week. Intervention families received a supply of hand sanitizer and biweekly hand-hygiene educational materials for 5 months; control families received only materials promoting good nutrition. Primary caregivers were phoned biweekly and reported respiratory and GI illnesses in family members. Respiratory and GI-illness-transmission rates (measured as secondary illnesses per susceptible person-month) were compared between groups, adjusting for demographic variables, hand-hygiene practices, and previous experience using hand sanitizers. Baseline demographics were similar in the 2 groups. A total of 1802 respiratory illnesses occurred during the study; 443 (25%) were secondary illnesses. A total of 252 GI illnesses occurred during the study; 28 (11%) were secondary illnesses. The secondary GI-illness rate was significantly lower in intervention families compared with control families (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.19-0.90). The overall rate of secondary respiratory illness was not significantly different between groups (IRR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.72-1.30). However, families with higher sanitizer usage had a marginally lower secondary respiratory illness rate than those with less usage (IRR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.65-1.09). A
Dane, Ernest B.
A bibliography on national security in the nuclear age is divided into three sections. The first section describes a proposal calling for the compilation of a balanced and up-to-date collection of books and other materials on this issue to be included in all U.S. public libraries. Also discussed are selection criteria for the book list, project…
Rumokoy, Farlane Stevie; Saerang, David Paul Elia; Rambi, Fiano Michael
This study aims to analyze the influence of age, gender, education and income on consumer buying behavior of online shop. This studys data is primary data obtained through the questionnaire distributed to online store consumers in Manado City. Multiple linear regression analysis Regression analysis was used and showed that the age education and income the same positive influence on consumer buying behavior, while gender has the opposite impact. Testing hypotheses partially shows that the va...
Marquis, Grace S; Colecraft, Esi K; Sakyi-Dawson, Owuraku; Lartey, Anna; Ahunu, Ben K; Birks, Katherine A; Butler, Lorna M; Reddy, Manju B; Jensen, Helen H; Huff-Lonergan, Elizabeth
Poor diet quality is a determinant of the high prevalence rates of malnutrition in Ghana. There is little evidence on the effectiveness of a multisector intervention to improve children's diets and nutritional status. The project tested whether participation in an entrepreneurial and nutrition education intervention with microcredit was associated with the nutritional status of children 2-5 y of age. A quasi-experimental 16-mo intervention was conducted with microcredit loans and weekly sessions of nutrition and entrepreneurship education for 179 women with children 2-5 y of age [intervention group (IG)]. Nonparticipating women and their children from the same villages (nonparticipant, n = 142) and from similar neighboring villages (comparison, n = 287) were enrolled. Repeated measures linear regression models were used first to examine children's weight-for-age (WAZ), height-for-age (HAZ), and body mass index-for-age (BAZ) z scores at baseline and at 4 follow-up time points ∼4 mo apart. Time, intervention status, time-by-intervention interaction terms, region of residence, household wealth rank, household head occupation, number of children sex and age were included. There was a significant interaction between the IG and time for BAZ (P = 0.02) with significant Bonferroni-corrected pairwise comparisons between the IG and comparison group (CG) at 8 mo (difference of 0.36 ± 0.09 z score, P education may improve nutritional outcomes of children living in poor, rural communities. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
Chaudhury, R H
Data from the 1975 Bangladesh Fertility Survey were used to analyze the relationship between female education, labor force participation, and age at marriage on the 1 hand and fertility and use of contraception on the other hand. It was hypothesized that the 3 aspects of women's status would be positively associated with contraceptive use and negatively correlated with fertility. Education emerged as the variable most strongly correlated with contraceptive use; current use of contraception ranged from 8% among those with no education to 42% among women with a secondary education or above. A similar pattern was noted between age at marriage and contraceptive use. Current use increased from 11% among women married below the age of 15 years to 32% among those who married at age 22 years or above. On the other hand, current use of contraception was only 2 percentage points higher among women who had ever worked (14%) than among those who had never worked (12%). Age at marriage was found to be the most important variable explaining fertility behavior. Women who married under the age of 15 years had an average of 4.22 children compared to 1.77 among those who married at 20-21 years of age and 2.65 among those marrying at age 22 years or above. The number of children ever born declined from 4.15 among women with no education to 1.96 among those with at least a secondary school education. Labor force participation did not exert as strong an effect on fertility: women who had ever worked had an average of 4.24 children compared with 3.85 among those who had never worked. The general associations noted in this study were stronger among urban than rural women. These results point to a need to improve women's status, particularly female education, and also to raise the age at marriage to obtain more widespread use of contraception and lower fertility levels.
Evers, Connie Liakos
This book presents nutrition education activities and strategies that are child-tested and teacher-endorsed. It targets educators, nutrition professionals, parents, and other caregivers, offering the tools to teach children ages 6-10 years about nutrition in a meaningful, integrated way. Divided by subject, this resource integrates nutrition into…
Lam, Sarah; Tracz, Susan; Lucey, Christopher
This study explored the counselling self-efficacy of students in a counsellor education programme, in regard to age, gender, and ethnicity characteristics. To assess counselling self-efficacy, the Counselling Self-Estimate Inventory (COSE) of Larson "et al." ("Counsellor Education & Supervision" 41: 120-130, 1992) was…
Lightner, Nancy J
Preferences for certain characteristics of an online shopping experience may be related to demographic data. This paper discusses the characteristics of that experience, demographic data and preferences by demographic group. The results of an online survey of 488 individuals in the United States indicate that respondents are generally satisfied with their online shopping experiences, with security, information quality and information quantity ranking first in importance overall. The sensory impact of a site ranked last overall of the seven characteristics measured. Preferences for these characteristics in e-commerce sites were differentiated by age, education and income. The sensory impact of sites became less important as respondents increased in age, income or education. As the income of respondents increased, the importance of the reputation of the vendor rose. Web site designers may incorporate these findings into the design of e-commerce sites in an attempt to increase the shopping satisfaction of their users. Results from the customer relationship management portion of the survey suggest that current push technologies and site personalization are not an effective means of achieving user satisfaction.
Helmes, Edward; van Gerven, Pascal W.M.
The construct of cognitive reserve has primarily been defined in terms of a single proxy measure, education. There may, however, be alternative, potentially additive, proxy measures of cognitive reserve, such as rural or urban residence. Using a large sample of 10,263 older Canadians, ranging in age
This paper considers a key text in the field of Cultural Studies for its relevance to questions about the identity of knowledge in education. The concept of "aura" arises as being of special significance in "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction" as a way of understanding the change that occurs to art when mass reproduction becomes…
Full Text Available ICT revolution with direct impact on digital economy and society involves new knowledge, skills and competences for students striving to compete and succeed in a technological rich marketplace. The higher education providers are accountable for inspiring and helping students to acquire relevant and updated skills i.e. entrepreneurial and digital skills needed to innovate in the world of work. These challenges require designing entrepreneurial curriculum to promote innovation and exploitation of the potential of new technologies and digital content. The paper aims to support the modernisation initiatives of organisational organisations i.e. higher education institutions in the attempt to embrace digital technologies in teaching and learning practices. It proposes a process-based model to integrate and leverage digital learning technologies in teaching, learning and organisational practices. The results depict a coherent methodology for designing, applying, over sighting and fine-tuning the entrepreneurial curriculum with embedded digital-age learning practices as key means for stepping up digital changes in educational practices.
Gruber, Reut; Somerville, Gail; Bergmame, Lana; Fontil, Laura; Paquin, Soukaina
The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based sleep education program aimed at improving the sleep and academic performance of school-age children. Using a community-based participatory research approach, we created a school-based sleep education program, "Sleep for Success"™ (SFS), composed of four distinct modules that addressed the children, their family and community, the school staff, and decision makers within the school setting. Implementation was carried out in three elementary schools. Seventy-one students participated in the evaluation of the program. The effectiveness of the SFS program was evaluated using non-randomized controlled before-and-after study groups (intervention and control) assessed over two time points (pre- and post-program implementation). Before (baseline) and after implementation, sleep and academic performance were measured using actigraphy and report card marks, respectively. In the intervention group, true sleep was extended by 18.2 min per night, sleep efficiency improved by 2.3%, and sleep latency was shortened by 2.3 min, and report card grades in mathematics and English improved significantly. No changes were noted in the control group. Participation in the sleep education program was associated with significant improvements in children's sleep and academic performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Vaillant, G E; Mukamal, K
Until now, prospective studies of aging have begun with 50-60-year-olds, not adolescents. Premature death, childhood variables, and alcohol abuse have been often ignored, as has successful aging. The authors reviewed the existing literature on health in late life in order to highlight that, increasingly, successful aging is not an oxymoron. The present study followed two cohorts of adolescent boys (237 college students and 332 core-city youth) for 60 years or until death. Complete physical examinations were obtained every 5 years and psychosocial data every 2 years. Predictor variables assessed before age 50 included six variables reflecting uncontrollable factors: parental social class, family cohesion, major depression, ancestral longevity, childhood temperament, and physical health at age 50 and seven variables reflecting (at least some) personal control: alcohol abuse, smoking, marital stability, exercise, body mass index, coping mechanisms, and education. The six outcome variables chosen to assess successful aging at age 70-80 included four objectively assessed variables (physical health, death and disability before age 80, social supports, and mental health) and two self-rated variables (instrumental activities of daily living and life enjoyment). Multivariate analysis suggested that "good" and "bad" aging from age 70-80 could be predicted by variables assessed before age 50. More hopeful still, if the seven variables under some personal control were controlled, depression was the only uncontrollable predictor variable that affected the quality of subjective and objective aging. One may have greater personal control over one's biopsychosocial health after retirement than previously recognized.
Maragakis, A.; van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.; Maragakis, Alexandros
Higher education institutions play an important role in sustainability, in their own management and operation, in research and education, and in the undergraduate and graduate degrees they deliver. Often ignored, economic sustainability and future perspectives of students are important indicators
Milić, Mirjana; Grgantov, Zoran; Katić, Ratko
The aim of this study was to define processes of orientation and/or selection towards sports game of volleyball in schoolgirls of Kastela, aged 10-12, by examining the relations between regular classes of physical education (PE) and extracurricular sport activities. For this purpose, two morphological measures were used (body height and body mass) and a set of 11 motor tests (6 basic motor abilities tests and 5 motor achievement tests) on a sample of 242 girls aged 10-12 was used, divided into a subsample of 42 girls participating in volleyball training (Volleyball players) and a subsample of 200 girls who do not participate in volleyball training (volleyball non-players). Based on the comparison of test results of schoolgirls from Kastela and Croatian norms, factor analysis of applied variables and discriminant analysis of these variables between volleyball players and non-players, processes and/or phases of selection in forming quality volleyball players were defined. Selection processes are preceded by orientation processes in physical education classes, i.e. choosing those sport activities which are in accordance with the biomotor status of students. Results have shown that orientation and initial selection in female volleyball needs to be executed based on the motor set of psychomotor speed, repetitive strength of the trunk and flexibility (muscle tone regulation), and body height. Volleyball training has affected the muscle mass development and the development of strength factors, so that explosive strength of jumping and/or takeoff along with body height, has predominantly differentiated female volleyball players from non-players, aged 10 to 12, and serve and spike quality will have dominant influence on the match outcome.
Heflin, Mitchell T; Bragg, Elizabeth J; Fernandez, Helen; Christmas, Colleen; Osterweil, Dan; Sauvigné, Karen; Warshaw, Gregg; Cohen, Harvey Jay; Leipzig, Rosanne; Reuben, David B; Durso, Samuel C
Most U.S. medical schools and training programs lack sufficient faculty expertise in geriatrics to train future physicians to care for the growing population of older adults. Thus, to reach clinician-educators at institutions and programs that have limited resources for enhancing geriatrics curricula, the Donald W. Reynolds Foundation launched the Faculty Development to Advance Geriatrics Education (FD~AGE) program. This consortium of four medical schools disseminates expertise in geriatrics education through support and training of clinician-educators. The authors conducted this study to measure the effects of FD~AGE. Program leaders developed a three-pronged strategy to meet program goals: FD~AGE offers (1) advanced fellowships in clinical education for geriatricians who have completed clinical training, (2) mini-fellowships and intensive courses for faculty in geriatrics, teaching skills, and curriculum development, and (3) on-site consultations to assist institutions with reviewing and redesigning geriatrics education programs. FD~AGE evaluators tracked the number and type of participants and conducted interviews and follow-up surveys to gauge effects on learners and institutions. Over six years (2004-2010), FD~AGE trained 82 fellows as clinician-educators, hosted 899 faculty scholars in mini-fellowships and intensive courses, and conducted 65 site visits. Participants taught thousands of students, developed innovative curricula, and assumed leadership roles. Participants cited as especially important to program success expanded knowledge, improved teaching skills, mentoring, and advocacy. The FD~AGE program represents a unique model for extending concentrated expertise in geriatrics education to a broad group of faculty and institutions to accelerate progress in training future physicians.
New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton. Div. of Research, Planning, and Evaluation.
This survey, generated in planning sessions for the 5th National Seminar on Year-Round Education, puts into usable form needed information important to the year-round education movement. The document contains tables with data by State on number of programs, status of the programs, funding sources, grade levels, type of project, purpose of…
Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Schøtt, Thomas
The purpose is to account for entrepreneurs’ networking in private and public spheres, as influenced by gender, age and education in the context of culture. The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor has surveyed 17,742 entrepreneurs’ networking for advice in Denmark and 14 countries representative...... broader than female entrepreneurs, especially in the public sphere and especially in traditional culture, whereas women network more intensely in the private sphere. Age influences networking in the way that networking in the private sphere is more extensive among young than among older entrepreneurs....... Education influences networking in the way that networking in the public sphere is especially extensive among educated entrepreneurs....
Roberts, Simon J.; Fairclough, Stuart J.
The common practice of annually age grouping children in education, likely done under the assumption of similarly aged children sharing similar abilities and learner characteristics, may actually undermine equity and fairness in student assessments. This strategy has received criticism for (dis) advantaging those older children born closer to the…
Camenga, D R; Fiellin, L E; Pendergrass, T; Miller, Erica; Pentz, M A; Hieftje, K
Flavored tobacco products have been shown to appeal to youth, however tobacco control strategies have traditionally not focused on these products. To inform the adaptation of an existing videogame to focus on the prevention of flavored tobacco product use, this study explored adolescents' perceptions, beliefs, and social norms surrounding these products, including flavored e-cigarettes. We conducted and analyzed transcripts from seven focus groups with 11-17-year-old adolescents (n = 33) from after-school programs in CT and CA in 2016. Participants discussed flavored tobacco product beliefs and experiences, and how these compared to traditional cigarettes. Thematic analysis of transcripts revealed that participants could name flavors in tobacco products, even though few discussed first-hand experience with the products. Most groups perceived that flavored tobacco product and flavored e-cigarette use facilitated peer approval and acceptance. All groups discussed how youth could easily access flavored tobacco products, including e-cigarettes. Flavoring was a salient aspect of e-cigarette advertisements; however the groups did not recall exposure to other types of flavored tobacco product counter-marketing. These data can help inform the development of tobacco control strategies, novel interventions (such as videogames), and future FDA efforts to prevent adolescent tobacco product use through education and risk communication. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Rejane Prevot Nascimento
Full Text Available In the face of changes in the demographic profile of Brazilian population with the increase in the number of elderly people, the subject population aging has been extensively studied by areas of Human and Health Sciences. There is still a big gap regarding to these studies in the area of administration. The goal of this article is to understand the meaning of work for elderly professor of higher education. In order to support the study, theories are redeemed about the centrality of work, aging and meaning of work, retirement and on teaching. The research is qualitative and data were collected through field research. The corpus of interviewees was composed of 16 teachers. The interviews were analyzed in depth by the method of content analysis. It could be perceived that the work for the interviewees is something very important, that retirement is unwanted and feared and that teachers feel prejudice at work because of their age. In existing gender relations in the workplace, showed the existence of prejudice is not declared by the men against the women work.
Gisele de Cássia Gomes
Full Text Available Gait variability is related to functional decline in the elderly. The dual-task Timed Up and Go Test (TUG-DT reflects the performance in daily activities. Objective To evaluate the differences in time to perform the TUG with and without DT in elderly women with different ages and levels of education and physical activity. Method Ninety-two elderly women perfomed the TUG at usual and fast speeds, with and without motor and cognitive DT. Results Increases in the time to perform the TUG-DT were observed at older ages and lower educational levels, but not at different levels of physical activity. More educated women performed the test faster with and without DT at both speeds. When age was considered, significant differences were found only for the TUG-DT at both speeds. Conclusion Younger women with higher education levels demonstrated better performances on the TUG-DT.
Odd, David; Evans, David; Emond, Alan
To investigate if the detrimental impact of year of entering education in preterm infants persists into adolescence. Preterm infants are often enrolled in school a year earlier than would be expected if this decision is based on their actual date of birth rather than their due date. Initially these infants appear to do disproportionately worse than those who do not 'skip' a year. However, it is unclear if this effect remains as the infants grow, to have an important effect on long term achievements in education. A cohort study, drawn from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The exposure measurement was gestational age (defined as preterm (educational assessment or receiving special educational needs support (both at age 16). We derived conditional regression models matching preterm to term infants on their date of birth (DOB), their expected date of delivery (EDD), or their expected date of delivery and year of school entry. After matching for DOB, preterm infants had an increased odds of SEN (OR 1.57 (1.33-1.86)) and the association remained after adjusting for potential confounders (OR 1.39 (1.14-1.68)). The association remained in the analysis matching for EDD (fully adjusted OR 1.43 (1.17-1.74)) but attenuated after restricting to those infants who were enrolled in school in the same year as the control infants (fully adjusted OR 1.21 (0.97-1.52)). There was less evidence for an impact of prematurity on the KS4 score (Matched for DOB; OR 1.10 (0.91 to 1.34), matched for EDD OR 1.17 (0.96 to 1.42) and EDD and same year of schooling, OR 1.00 (0.80 to 1.26)). This modifiable effect of going to school a year earlier than predicted by their due date appears to have measurable consequences for ex-preterm infants in adolescence and is likely to limit adulthood opportunities.
Perry, Alistair; Wen, Wei; Kochan, Nicole A; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Sachdev, Perminder S; Breakspear, Michael
Healthy aging is accompanied by a constellation of changes in cognitive processes and alterations in functional brain networks. The relationships between brain networks and cognition during aging in later life are moderated by demographic and environmental factors, such as prior education, in a poorly understood manner. Using multivariate analyses, we identified three latent patterns (or modes) linking resting-state functional connectivity to demographic and cognitive measures in 101 cognitively normal elders. The first mode (P = 0.00043) captures an opposing association between age and core cognitive processes such as attention and processing speed on functional connectivity patterns. The functional subnetwork expressed by this mode links bilateral sensorimotor and visual regions through key areas such as the parietal operculum. A strong, independent association between years of education and functional connectivity loads onto a second mode (P = 0.012), characterized by the involvement of key hub regions. A third mode (P = 0.041) captures weak, residual brain-behavior relations. Our findings suggest that circuits supporting lower level cognitive processes are most sensitive to the influence of age in healthy older adults. Education, and to a lesser extent, executive functions, load independently onto functional networks-suggesting that the moderating effect of education acts upon networks distinct from those vulnerable with aging. This has important implications in understanding the contribution of education to cognitive reserve during healthy aging. Hum Brain Mapp 38:5094-5114, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Whipps, Mackenzie D M
Prior research in high-income countries finds that young mothers tend to breastfeed their infants for shorter durations than older mothers; however, there are gaps in our understanding of the processes by which age influences breastfeeding. Research aim: The primary objective of this study was to test the mediating effects of parity and education attainment on the association between maternal age and two breastfeeding outcomes: total duration and duration of exclusive breastfeeding. This study was a secondary data analysis of the IFPS II, a prospective, longitudinal study of ~ 4,900 American mothers. Robust and bias-corrected regression analyses tested the direct effect of age and the indirect effects of age through parity and education for each outcome of interest. Parity and education attainment together explain nearly all of the association between maternal age and both measures of breastfeeding duration. The mediating role of education is significantly larger than parity for both outcomes. These findings indicate that maternal age primarily indexes parity and education but contributes minimally to breastfeeding duration via a direct effect. The findings have implications for intervention development and targeting strategies.
Phillipson, Chris, Ed.
Includes "Foreword. Social Theory and Educational Gerontology: Themes and Future Perspectives" (Phillipson); "Can There Be a Cultural Sociology of Ageing?" (Blaikie); "Consumers, Identity and Old Age" (Vincent); "Population Ageing: Critical Gerontology and the Sociological Tradition" (Phillipson, Biggs);…
Appel, Yetta; Berken, Ruth R.
This project for pregnant school age girls is an ESEA Title I program operating in five facilities in Manhattan, Bronx, and Brooklyn. The primary objective of the project was to assist pregnant school age girls complete their education by being able to attend school. Additional objectives included provision of information and training in personal…
Ihle, Andreas; Oris, Michel; Fagot, Delphine; Baeriswyl, Marie; Guichard, Eduardo; Kliegel, Matthias
One of the fundamental challenges for gerontological research is how to maintain and promote intact cognitive functioning in old age. Previous research revealed that high educational level, good health status, and an active lifestyle during adulthood seem to be protective against cognitive impairment in old age. However, up to now, a detailed examination of the interaction of these relations based on a broader variety of activities and considering past and current activities is missing. The present study set out to extend the literature by investigating in more detail the interactions of educational level and health status with a broad variety of past and current leisure activities in their association with cognitive functioning in a large sample of older adults with a wide age range. A total of 2,812 older adults (aged 65-101 years) served as the sample for the present study. A test on verbal abilities and one on processing speed were applied. In addition, individuals were retrospectively interviewed regarding their educational level, current general health status, and 18 leisure activities (in terms of currently performed activities and those that had been carried out at the age of 45 years). Regressions indicated that engaging in more current activities and in more activities at the age of 45 years (both analyzed as an overall activity measure) was related to better cognitive performance in old age (r values up to 0.39, p values <0.001). These associations were more pronounced in individuals with a low (compared to a high) educational level. Present results suggest that an active lifestyle during middle adulthood may be related to better cognitive functioning in old age, particularly in individuals with a low educational level. These findings are discussed with respect to models of cognitive aging. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Schmitt, Thomas R.
The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of teachers' perceptions of the value and effects of a residential Outdoor Education experience during an age of accountability, which was defined as the era which commenced with the passage of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. Focus group interviews were conducted with four groups of teachers who participated in a residential Outdoor Education experience with their students during the 2004-2005 school year. The major findings of this study were: (1) Teachers perceive value in the OE experience because of the multi-faceted effects upon their students and classes; (2) Teachers perceived the OE experience positively affected their students' learning through providing hands-on and authentic experiences, development of thinking skills, and enhancing the school's curriculum; (3) Teachers perceived the OE experience positively affected their students' social and emotional development as evidenced by an increase in self esteem, independence, maturity, personal responsibility, and an expanded worldview; (4) Teachers perceived the OE experience positively affected their students' sense of community as evidenced by an increase in team building and cohesiveness, more productive staff-student relationships, the emergence of different "star" students, and greater inclusion of special needs students; (5) Teachers perceived students' appreciation of the environment increased; and (6) Teachers did not perceive any imminent changes to their school's Outdoor Education programming due to the accountability provisions of No Child Left behind (2001). This study's findings suggested implications for school administrators, which were that they should: articulate desired effects to stakeholders; communicate connections to learning standards; and expand the OE experience to foster greater environmental issue focus.
de Azeredo Passos, Valéria Maria; Giatti, Luana; Bensenor, Isabela; Tiemeier, Henning; Ikram, M Arfan; de Figueiredo, Roberta Carvalho; Chor, Dora; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Barreto, Sandhi Maria
Brazil has gone through fast demographic, epidemiologic and nutritional transitions and, despite recent improvements in wealth distribution, continues to present a high level of social and economic inequality. The ELSA-Brasil, a cohort study, aimed at investigating cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, offers a great opportunity to assess cognitive decline in this aging population through time-sequential analyses drawn from the same battery of tests over time. The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of sex, age and education on cognitive tests performance of the participants at baseline. Analyses pertain to 14,594 participants with aged 35 to 74 years, who were functionally independent and had no history of stroke or use of neuroleptics, anticonvulsants, cholinesterase inhibitors or antiparkinsonian agents. Mean age was 52.0 ± 9.0 years and 54.2% of participants were women. Cognitive tests included the word memory tests (retention, recall and recognition), verbal fluency tests (VFT, animals and letter F) and Trail Making Test B. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to determine the influence of sociodemographic characteristics on the distribution of the final score of each test. Women had significant and slightly higher scores than men in all memory tests and VFT, but took more time to perform Trail B. Reduced performance in all tests was seen with an increase age and, more importantly, with decrease level of education. The word list and VFT scores decreased at about one word for every 10 years of age; whereas higher-educated participants scored four words more on the word list test, and six or seven more correct words on VFT, when compared to lower-educated participants. Additionally, the oldest and less educated participants showed significant lower response rates in all tests. The higher influence of education than age in this Brazilian population reinforce the need for caution in analyzing and diagnosing cognitive impairments based
Murr, Annette; Pink, Christiane; Hammer, Elke; Michalik, Stephan; Dhople, Vishnu M; Holtfreter, Birte; Völker, Uwe; Kocher, Thomas; Gesell Salazar, Manuela
Whole saliva is gaining more and more attention as a diagnostic tool to study disease-specific changes in human subjects. Prior to the actual disease-related analyses, it is important to understand the influence of various demographic variables and coupled phenotypes on salivary protein signatures. In a cross-sectional approach, we analyzed the influence of age, sex, body mass index (BMI), smoking, and education on salivary protein signatures in whole saliva samples of 187 individuals. Subjects were randomly selected from the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-Trend). Stimulated whole saliva was collected, and proteins were precipitated and proteolytically digested. Samples were analyzed by label-free tandem mass spectrometry. Of the 602 human proteins identified in at least 40% of the saliva samples, we used 304 proteins, which could be identified with at least two unique peptides, for statistical analyses. Univariate and multivariate linear models were used to reveal associations with the phenotypes. The largest number of proteins was associated with smoking status. Moreover, age had a distinct influence on the salivary protein composition. The study discloses the influence of common phenotypes on the salivary protein pattern of human subjects. These results should be considered when studying disease-related proteome signatures in saliva.
Bahk, Jinwook; Jang, Sung-Mi; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee
A steadily increasing pattern of breast cancer mortality has been reported in South Korea since the late 1980s. This paper explored the trends of educational inequalities of female breast cancer mortality between 1983 and 2012 in Korea, and conducted age-period-cohort (APC) analysis by educational level. Age-standardized mortality rates of breast cancer per 100,000 person-years were calculated. Relative index of inequality (RII) for breast cancer mortality was used as an inequality measure. APC analyses were conducted using the Web tool for APC analysis provided by the Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics at the U.S. National Cancer Institute. An increasing trend in breast cancer mortality among Korean women between 1983 and 2012 was due to the increased mortality of the lower education groups (i.e., no formal education or primary education and secondary education groups), not the highest education group. The breast cancer mortality was higher in women with a tertiary education than in women with no education or a primary education during 1983-1992, and the reverse was true in 1993-2012. Consequently, RII was changed from positive to negative associations in the early 2000s. The lower education groups had the increased breast cancer mortality and significant cohort and period effects between 1983 and 2012, whereas the highest group did not. APC analysis by socioeconomic position used in this study could provide an important clue for the causes on breast cancer mortality. The long-term monitoring of socioeconomic patterning in breast cancer risk factors is urgently needed.
Maragakis, Antonios; van den Dobbelsteen, Andy; Maragakis, Alexandros
Higher education institutions play an important role in sustainability, in their own management and operation, in research and education, and in the undergraduate and graduate degrees they deliver. Often ignored, economic sustainability and future perspectives of students are important indicators too. The research presented in this paper validates…
Gutek, Gerald Lee
An essential resource for all students and scholars of early childhood education, this book offers a rich array of material about Maria Montessori and the Montessori Method. Distinguished education scholar Gerald Gutek begins with an in-depth biography of Montessori, exploring how a determined young woman overcame the obstacles that blocked her…
Zhao, Chunyan; Zhou, Ruihua; Tian, Yongzhi; Tang, Yongmei; Ning, Hongzhen; Liu, Haiyan
To study the effect of the nutritional education and dietary intervention on nutritional status and bone mineral density (BMD) of middle-aged and senile patients with osteoporosis. Ninty middle-aged and senile osteoporosis patients were enrolled. They were randomly divided into two groups (intervention and control group) with 45 cases each. The control group was received conventional therapy and the intervention group added with nutritional education and dietary intervention for six months on the basis of conventional therapy. The methods of education and intervention included seminars, brochures distribution, dietary survey and individual guidance. The nutritional status and BMD were analyzed at the beginning and the end of the intervention respectively. After the intervention, the ratios of subjects whose intake of grain, vegetables, fruits, eggs, milk and beans in line with recommended intake of the intervention group were higher than those of the control group (P nutritional education and dietary intervention could promote middle-aged and senile patients' reasonable diet, improve their nutritional status, enhance bone mineral density and improve the effect of conventional therapy for osteoporosis.
Full Text Available This text aims to discuss the indications for child education present in the Inter-American Program for Education under the coordination of the Summit of the Americas. For that purpose, analytical reference to Roger Dale’s policies was used and the studies of Shiroma, Campos, and Garcia (2004 were engaged as a methodology for the analysis of documents. Our analyses showed a twofold way for the organization of child education, that is, a curriculum for children under three years of age and another for the education of children aged closer to compulsory education. The curriculum for children under three is organized from two perspectives: the idea of educating their families – promoting child development and the idea of assistance – education oriented to health and nutrition. The lines of action are articulated from two poles: compensatory policies and vulnerable population. When contemplating child education following these perspectives, the Inter-American Program takes it away from the law sphere and ratifies curriculum concepts historically discussed in the area.
Tamayo, Teresa; Jacobs, David R; Strassburger, Klaus; Giani, Guido; Seeman, Teresa E; Matthews, Karen; Roseman, Jeffrey M; Rathmann, Wolfgang
Low childhood socioeconomic status (SES) has been linked with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in adulthood. Our aim was to examine if maternal and paternal education, as indicators of childhood SES, equally contributed to increased HOMA-IR in later life. Of 5,115 adults from the Coronary Artery Disease Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study aged 18-30 years in 1985-1986, data on 1,370 females and 1,060 males with baseline and 20 year follow-up data were used to estimate associations of maternal and paternal education with HOMA-IR, adjusting for personal education, BMI, lipids, blood pressure, and lifestyle factors. Parental education was determined as high with ≥ 12 years of schooling and classified as both high, only mother high, only father high, both low education. Distinct combinations of maternal and paternal education were associated with HOMA-IR across race and sex groups. Lowest year 20 HOMA-IR in European American (EA) females occurred when both parents were better educated, but was highest when only the father had better education. HOMA-IR was lowest in African American (AA) participants when the mother was better educated but the father had less education, but was highest when both parents were better educated. Parental education was unrelated to HOMA-IR in EA males. Associations of parental education with HOMA-IR are seen in AA females, AA males, and EA females but not in EA males. The distinct combinations of parental education and their associations with HOMA-IR especially in AA participants need to be addressed in further research on health disparities.
Giuliano, J D
Violence is devastating the lives of children in America's major cities. The problem of violence is particularly acute among disadvantaged young urban males. This program focuses on violence prevention in school-age boys using creative educational techniques and community partnership. The goal of this school-based program is to decrease the incidence of violent episodes in the school by teaching conflict resolution skills. Conflict resolution skills are taught in the health education componen...
Bayley, Julie E; Baines, Darrin; Brown, Katherine E
Positive adolescent sexual health is supported by effective school-based sex education. Methods to promote positive sexual health need to reflect determinants of contraception intention, which must include understanding gender and age (year group) differences. To date, there has been limited theory-based exploration of these determinants in school age participants, placing limitations on sexual health educators to tailor learning most effectively. Cross-sectional survey data were collected from UK school pupils (n=1378) aged 12-16 years. Measures included theory of planned behaviour, prototype willingness, anticipated regret and knowledge items. Linear regression determined significant predictors of intention to use condoms, the oral contraceptive pill and emergency contraception (EC). The significance of differences by gender and school year was evaluated using t-tests and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Three distinct predictive models emerged for condom, pill and EC use, predicting 36%, 18% and 23% of variance respectively. Attitude, gender and anticipated regret for unprotected sex significantly predicted intention for all types of contraception (Psex education.
Scott, Jennifer; Hacker, Michele; Averbach, Sarah; Modest, Anna M; Cornish, Sarah; Spencer, Danielle; Murphy, Maureen; Parmar, Parveen
Prolonged conflict in South Sudan exacerbated gender disparities and inequities. This study assessed differences in attitudes towards gender inequitable norms and practices by sex, age and education to inform programming. Applying community-based participatory research methodology, 680 adult respondents, selected by quota sampling, were interviewed in seven South Sudanese communities from 2009 to 2011. The verbally administered survey assessed attitudes using the Gender Equitable Men scale. Data were stratified by sex, age and education. Of 680 respondents, 352 were female, 326 were male and two did not report their sex. The majority of respondents agreed with gender inequitable household roles, but the majority disagreed with gender inequitable practices (i.e., early marriage, forced marriage and inequitable education of girls). Respondents who reported no education were more likely than those who reported any education to agree with gender inequitable practices (all p sex and by age. The study reveals agreement with gender inequitable norms in the household but an overall disagreement with gender inequitable practices in sampled communities. The findings support that education of both women and men may promote gender equitable norms and practices.
Peterson, Dwight J; Gargya, Sanchita; Kopeikin, Ksenia S; Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe
Older adults have difficulty forming associations and binding distinct item components despite mostly preserved item memory potentially because they rely on more automatic, rather than strategic, processing when attempting to form, store, and retrieve associations from memory. An intriguing possibility is that older adults with greater access to strategic processes (e.g., those with a high level of education) may be less susceptible to age-related associative memory deficits. Two experiments assessed the degree to which a high level of education provides an effective dose of cognitive reserve (CR), potentially preserving associative memory. Standard younger and older adults' item and associative memory performance was compared to older adults who had attained a high level of education (mostly doctoral degrees). In both experiments (Experiment 1: person-action pairs; Experiment 2: unrelated word pairs), consistent evidence was found that older adults, regardless of the level of education, exhibited an age-related associative memory deficit relative to younger adults. Interestingly, neuropsychological assessment of both older adult groups revealed greater frontal lobe, but not enhanced medial temporal lobe, functioning in the highly educated. As such, although the highly educated older adults exhibited greater frontal lobe functioning than the standard older adults, this did not aid in the reduction of the age-related associative memory deficit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nadash, Pamela; Miller, Edward Alan; Porell, Frank W; Birchander, Ellen; Glickman, Lillian; Burr, Jeffrey A
This article describes the online Management of Aging Services Masters Program at the University of Massachusetts Boston and reports on a recent Program review. The Program has experienced rapid growth, evolving from seven matriculating students in 2003 to 108 in 2012. It has graduated 125 students and boasts a 78% completion rate. The authors describe the Program and report on faculty and student perceptions of performance. The Program demonstrates sound pedagogical practice for online education, incorporating techniques to foster community and encourage students and faculty interaction. Distance learning holds considerable promise for expanding access to gerontological education to reach future aging services professionals.
Distance education and web-based courses are mainstream in the United States higher education and growing (NCES, 2003) involving over 80% of four year public universities in 2002. The National Academy of Science review of “how people learn” suggests that technology-mediated learning can be used to respond to students’ preferences and related characteristics. This investigation of the relationships between learners’ characteristics and their perception of web-based learning and satisfactio...
Hoebel, Jens; Finger, Jonas D; Kuntz, Benjamin; Lampert, Thomas
Regular physical activity has positive effects on health at all ages. This study aims to investigate how far physical activity and regular sports engagement, as a more specific type of physical activity, are associated with socioeconomic factors in the middle-aged working population. Data were obtained from 21,699 working men and women aged between 30 and 64 years who participated in the 2009 and 2010 population-based national German Health Update (GEDA) surveys conducted by the Robert Koch Institute. Besides a multi-dimensional index of socioeconomic status (SES), three single dimensions of SES (education, occupation, and income) were used to analyse socioeconomic differences in total physical activity and regular sports engagement. While the prevalence of total physical activity increased with lower SES, the proportion of people with regular sports engagement decreased with lower SES. These associations remained after adjusting for age in men and women. After mutual adjustment of the three single socioeconomic dimensions, physical activity was independently associated with lower education and lower occupational status. Regular sports engagement was observed to be independently associated with higher education, higher occupational status, as well as higher income after mutual adjustment. This study demonstrates significant socioeconomic differences in physical and sports activity in the middle-aged working population. Education, occupation, and income show varying independent associations with physical activity behaviour. Such differences need to be considered when identifying target groups for health-enhancing physical activity interventions.
Full Text Available Multiculturalism is an established feature of the UK and other European States since the establishment of the Treaty of Rome in 1959. Enlargement has brought EU membership from six (1952 to twenty eight members since its foundation, and allowed free migration across its borders. However, many countries, in spite of agreements to adhere to ‘democratic’ practices, deny minority citizens their full rights, particularly in education contexts. Some recent accession EU States have education systems that are less adaptive to expected policy responsibilities. It is a more unstable aspect of Eastern Europe because of the failure of many of these countries to reduce social and educational inequalities and to establish rights for minority groups, particularly the Roma. An educational focus is used as a platform to highlight issues re the segregation, and discrimination against, Roma children in Europe, typically through the use of special education, which is not suitable for them. Europe generally, both East and West has failed to fully integrate the Roma. Often, institutional blame is placed on Roma communities, rather than situate them socially and economically due to ingrained structural inequalities. Stereotyped categories are often used to ‘label’ them. Countries with high Roma populations, four in Western and five in Eastern Europe are evaluated and compared in relation to the education of Roma children.
Van der Elst, Wim; Hurks, Petra; Wassenberg, Renske; Meijs, Celeste; Jolles, Jelle
The Animal Verbal Fluency (AVF) and Design Fluency (DF) structured and unstructured test versions were administered to N = 294 healthy native Dutch-speaking children who were aged between 6.56 and 15.85 years. The AVF and DF structured test scores increased linearly as a function of age, whilst the relation between age and the DF unstructured test score was curvilinear (i.e., the improvement in test scores was much more pronounced for younger children than for older children). A higher mean level of parental education was associated with significantly higher AVF and DF structured test scores. Sex was not associated with any of the outcomes. Demographically corrected norms for the AVF and DF tests were established, and an automatic scoring program was provided.
Demmler, Joanne C; Hill, Rebecca A; Rahman, Muhammad A; Bandyopadhyay, Amrita; Healy, Melanie A; Paranjothy, Shantini; Murphy, Simon; Fletcher, Adam; Hewitt, Gillian; John, Ann; Lyons, Ronan A; Brophy, Sinead T
To examine the effect of educational attainment in primary school on later adolescent health. Education data attainments at age 7 and 11 were linked with (1) primary and secondary care injury consultation/admissions and (2) the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey. Cox regression was carried out to examine if attainment in primary school predicts time to injury in adolescence. Pupils that achieve attainment at age 7 but not at age 11 (i.e., declining attainment over time in primary school) are more likely to have an injury during adolescence. These children are also more likely to self-report drinking in adolescence. Interventions aimed at children with declining attainment in primary school could help to improve adolescent health. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hashimoto, Ryusaku; Meguro, Kenichi; Lee, Eunjoo; Kasai, Mari; Ishii, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Satoshi
The Trail Making Test (TMT) is a common two-part neuropsychological test, in which visuospatial ability (TMT-A) and executive function (TMT-B) are evaluated. Normative data for this test have not been reported for Japanese subjects; therefore, the purpose of the present paper was to investigate the effect of age and education on the TMT in 155 healthy elderly adults with clinical dementia rating 0 (healthy). The participants were classified into three groups based on age (70-74 years, 75-84 years and >or=85 years), and also into three groups based on educational level (6 years, 8 years and >or=10 years). The time to complete TMT-A and TMT-B were measured, and the difference in score between TMT-A and TMT-B (B-A) and the ratio of the score (B/A) were calculated as indices of executive function. The time for completion of both parts of the TMT increased markedly in the >or=85-years group. For TMT-A, there was a significant difference between the 6-years and 8-years groups, and between the 6-years and >or=10-years groups, and for TMT-B, there was a significant difference between the 6-years and >or=10-years groups, and between the 8-years and >or=10-years groups. The difference and ratio scores increased in the >or=85-years group, but the educational level did not significantly influence these scores. Our data suggest that cognitive functions evaluated by TMT-A and TMT-B are not affected by aging until the subjects are >or=85 years old. For TMT-A, an educational effect becomes apparent when the population includes poorly educated subjects, but this part of the test is not affected by educational level provided that the subjects have some education (>6 years). The time to complete TMT-B is affected by educational level, consistent with previous reports. However, when adjusted using the results for TMT-A [(B-A) or (B/A)], the educational effect on executive function disappeared. Thus, the effect of educational level on executive function was unclear in normal elderly
At the 100th anniversary of Abraham Flexner's landmark report on medical education, critical reassessment of the direction of medical education reform evinced valuable interdisciplinary contributions from biomedicine, sociology, psychology and education theory. However, to date, philosophy has been absent from the discussion despite its long standing contribution to studies on education in other professions. This discussion paper examines how the philosophical tradition can contribute to scholarship in medical education. It begins with an explanation of the scholarly tradition of philosophy of education and its role in thinking in education more generally. It then makes links between this tradition and the context of medical education in the Flexner era of education reform. The paper then argues that this tradition is necessary to the understanding of medical education reform post-Flexner and that doctors must benefit from an education derived from this tradition in order to be able to carry out their work. These foundations are characterised as a hidden, but always present, tradition in medical education. Two ways in which this 'lost tradition' can inform medical education theory and practice are identified: firstly, by the establishment of a public canon of medical education texts that express such a tradition, and, secondly, by the incorporation of a variety of 'signature pedagogies' exemplary of liberal education. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2013.
Giuliano, J D
Violence is devastating the lives of children in America's major cities. The problem of violence is particularly acute among disadvantaged young urban males. This program focuses on violence prevention in school-age boys using creative educational techniques and community partnership. The goal of this school-based program is to decrease the incidence of violent episodes in the school by teaching conflict resolution skills. Conflict resolution skills are taught in the health education component of the school health program. Skills are taught using a peer education model supervised by the school health nurse and planned in partnership with a Violence Prevention Advisory Board. Peer education teams consisting of fifth and sixth grade boys are trained and serve as peer educators for the boys in grades K-4. The violence prevention peer education program stresses primary prevention and targets at-risk school age males. The proposal uses a model that promotes the development of student leadership skills and self esteem. The proposal suggests ways to promote school and community involvement using an advisory board made up of student, community, and school leaders. The peer education program is cost effective and demonstrates how existing resources can be used creatively within the school setting.
Bahaudin G. M ujtaba; Frank J. Cavico; Albert A. Williams; Jatuporn Sungkhawan
This manuscript explores age discrimination in employment and the challenges that managers confront in seeking to establish and maintain a legal, ethical, and productive workplace. The data regarding age and older workers comes from 218 respondents in the United States and 379 respondents in Thailand. A factor analysis was done ; and the results demonstrate that race, gender, education, country where you live the most, country where you presently live, and diversity training were statisticall...
Jahns, Lisa; Raatz, Susan; Johnson, LuAnn; Kranz, Sibylle; Silverstein, Jeffrey; Picklo, Matthew
Current US federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of seafood eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Data from 15,407 adults aged 19+ p...
Gerstenecker, Adam; Eakin, Amanda; Triebel, Kristen; Martin, Roy; Swenson-Dravis, Dana; Petersen, Ronald C; Marson, Daniel
Financial capacity is an instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) that comprises multiple abilities and is critical to independence and autonomy in older adults. Because of its cognitive complexity, financial capacity is often the first IADL to show decline in prodromal and clinical Alzheimer's disease and related disorders. Despite its importance, few standardized assessment measures of financial capacity exist and there is little, if any, normative data available to evaluate financial skills in the elderly. The Financial Capacity Instrument-Short Form (FCI-SF) is a brief measure of financial skills designed to evaluate financial skills in older adults with cognitive impairment. In the current study, we present age- and education-adjusted normative data for FCI-SF variables in a sample of 1344 cognitively normal, community-dwelling older adults participating in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging (MCSA) in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Individual FCI-SF raw scores were first converted to age-corrected scaled scores based on position within a cumulative frequency distribution and then grouped within 4 empirically supported and overlapping age ranges. These age-corrected scaled scores were then converted to age- and education-corrected scaled scores using the same methodology. This study has the potential to substantially enhance financial capacity evaluations of older adults through the introduction of age- and education-corrected normative data for the FCI-SF by allowing clinicians to: (a) compare an individual's performance to that of a sample of similar age and education peers, (b) interpret various aspects of financial capacity relative to a normative sample, and (c) make comparisons between these aspects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
American Bar Association, Washington, DC. Commission on Legal Problems of the Elderly.
The purposes of the project that developed this education package for business were as follows: (1) enhance employer knowledge and understanding of the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA), especially in its application to corporate downsizing and the use of early retirement incentives; (2) discourage employer practices that violate the act…
Mostowfi, Sara; Mamaghani, Nasser Koleini; Khorramar, Mehdi
Due to a progressive deterioration of our planet and its resources, environmental education has become important and children are required to understand environmental issues at an early ages. So, they can cultivate the positive changes in the future. Over the past decade, many new evaluation methods have developed for evaluating user experience…
The Real Education for Healthy Youth Act (S. 1782/H.R. 3324), introduced in November 2011 by Senator Frank Lautenberg (D-NJ) and Representative Barbara Lee (D-CA), would ensure that federal funding is allocated to comprehensive sexual health education programs that provide young people with the skills and information they need to make informed,…
Collins, Allan; Halverson, Richard
The digital revolution has hit education, with more and more classrooms plugged into the whole wired world. But are schools making the most of new technologies? Are they tapping into the learning potential of today's Firefox/Facebook/cell phone generation? Have schools fallen through the crack of the digital divide? In "Rethinking Education in the…
Webster, Colin; Silova, Iveta; Moyer, Amy; McAllister, Suzanne
As the former socialist countries of Southeastern/Central Europe and the former Soviet Union have embarked on their journeys from authoritarian to democratic societies in the early 1990s, education systems across the region have experienced major changes. From curriculum revision to education finance reforms, virtually no aspect of the education…
Flagg, Lee A; Sen, Bisakha; Kilgore, Meredith; Locher, Julie L
To examine the extent to which the gendered division of labour persists within households in the USA in regard to meal planning/preparation and food shopping activities. Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data. 2007-2008 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Sub-sample of 3195 adults at least 20 years old who had a spouse or partner. Analyses revealed that the majority of women and men reported they shared in both meal planning/preparing and food shopping activities (meal planning/preparation: women 54 % and men 56 %; food shopping: women 60 % and men 57 %). Results from multinomial logistic regression analyses indicated that, compared with men, women were more likely to take primary responsibility than to share this responsibility and less likely to report having no responsibility for these tasks. Gender differences were observed for age/cohort, education and household size. This study may have implications for public health nutritional initiatives and the well-being of families in the USA.
Stein, Janine; Luppa, Melanie; Maier, Wolfgang; Tebarth, Franziska; Heser, Kathrin; Scherer, Martin; Zimmermann, Thomas; Eisele, Marion; Bickel, Horst; Mösch, Edelgard; Weyerer, Siegfried; Werle, Jochen; Pentzek, Michael; Fuchs, Angela; Wiese, Birgitt; Prokein, Jana; König, Hans-Helmut; Leicht, Hanna; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G
The diagnostic criteria for dementia include reliable evidence of cognitive deterioration over time measured by cognitive tests. The Structured Interview for the Diagnosis of Dementia of the Alzheimer Type, Multi-infarct Dementia and Dementia of other Etiology according to DSM-III-R, DSM-IV and ICD-10 (SIDAM) is a neuropsychological instrument to determine cognitive status in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. Normative data for changes in cognitive functioning that normally occur in cognitively healthy individuals are required to interpret changes in SIDAM test scores. A sample of 1,090 cognitively healthy individuals participating in the German Study on Ageing, Cognition and Dementia in Primary Care Patients (AgeCoDe) aged 75 years and older was assessed four times at 1.5-year intervals over a period of 4.5 years using the SIDAM. Age- and education-specific reliable change indices (RCIs) accounting for probable measurement error and practice effects were computed for a 90% confidence interval. Across different age and education subgroups, changes from at least 3-5 points indicated significant (i.e. reliable) changes in SIDAM test scores at the 90% confidence level. This study offers age- and education-specific normative data for the SIDAM based upon established RCI methods. The RCI scores provided in this study may help clinicians and researchers to interpret cognitive changes in SIDAM test scores and may contribute to the early detection and diagnosis of MCI and dementia in the elderly. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available Background. According to the meta-analysis of studies, patients with diabetes mellitus (DM have worse memory performance, information processing speed, executive functions compared to patients without DM. The level of education, the age of the patient are also important factors in the development of dementia. But research was conducted on selected populations, and the impact of demographic and social factors was studied in a particular area. The purpose of our work was to study the influence of sex, age, education level on the state of cognitive function in patients with type 2 DM in the Ukrainian population. Materials and methods. Eighty one patients with type 2 DM were examined, including 43 women and 38 men. Evaluation of the cognitive impairment was carried out in the morning using the following methods: a “5 words” test, a mental status assessment scale, a battery of tests for frontal dysfunction, an assessment of a clock drawing test. Results. The average age of patients was 55.03 ± 0.37 years, the average level of HbA1c — 8.75 ± 0.16 %, the average duration of DM — 10.03 ± 1.03 years. There was no reliable difference between men and women in the performance of neuropsychological tests. Also, no differences were found between the groups by age and level of education and the state of cognitive function. But the negative effect of age on cognitive function was found according to the Mini-Mental State Examination. Conclusions. A negative relationship between age and the state of cognitive functions was found. It is necessary to carry out further studies on the effect of other socio-cultural factors on the state of cognitive function in patients with type 2 DM.
Mantovani-Nagaoka, Joana; Ortiz, Karin Zazo
Apraxia is defined as a disorder of learned skilled movements, in the absence of elementary motor or sensory deficits and general cognitive impairment, such as inattention to commands, object-recognition deficits or poor oral comprehension. Limb apraxia has long been a challenge for clinical assessment and understanding and covers a wide spectrum of disorders, all involving motor cognition and the inability to perform previously learned actions. Demographic variables such as gender, age, and education can influence the performance of individuals on different neuropsychological tests. The present study aimed to evaluate the performance of healthy subjects on a limb apraxia battery and to determine the influence of gender, age, and education on the praxis skills assessed. Forty-four subjects underwent a limb apraxia battery, which was composed of numerous subtests for assessing both the semantic aspects of gestural production as well as motor performance itself. The tasks encompassed lexical-semantic aspects related to gestural production and motor activity in response to verbal commands and imitation. We observed no gender effects on any of the subtests. Only the subtest involving visual recognition of transitive gestures showed a correlation between performance and age. However, we observed that education level influenced subject performance for all sub tests involving motor actions, and for most of these, moderate correlations were observed between education level and performance of the praxis tasks. We conclude that the education level of participants can have an important influence on the outcome of limb apraxia tests.
Papalexopoulou, Konstantina; Chalkias, Athanasios; Dontas, Ioannis; Pliatsika, Paraskevi; Giannakakos, Charalampos; Papapanagiotou, Panagiotis; Aggelina, Afroditi; Moumouris, Theodoros; Papadopoulos, Georgios; Xanthos, Theodoros
To examine whether education and age affect skill acquisition and retention in lay rescuers after a European Resuscitation Council (ERC) CPR/AED course. Because of the importance of bystander CPR/AED skills in the setting of cardiac arrest, acquisition and retention of resuscitation skills has gained a great amount of interest. The ERC CPR/AED course format for written and practical evaluation was used. Eighty lay people were trained and evaluated at the end of the course, as well as at one, three, and six months. Retention of CPR/AED skills improved over time, recording the lowest practical scores at one month after initial training and the lowest written scores at initial training. In practical evaluation scores, when examined longitudinally, age presented a significant adverse effect and higher background education presented a non-significant positive effect. Moreover, regarding written evaluation scores, when examined longitudinally, education presented a significant positive effect while age did not significantly correlate with written scores. Education and age affected retention of CPR/AED skills in lay rescuers. Also, our results suggest that the ERC CPR/AED course format may be poorly designed to discriminate between participants with different levels of practical and written resuscitation skills and merit a thorough investigation in future studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Slootmaker, S.M.; Schuit, A.J.; Chin A Paw, J.M.M.; Seidell, J.C.; van Mechelen, W.
Background: The purpose of this study is to compare self-reported time (by questionnaire) and objectively measured time (by accelerometer) spent on physical activity at moderate (MPA) and vigorous intensity (VPA) in subgroups of age, gender, education and weight status. Methods: In total, 236
Gegenfurtner, Andreas; Vauras, Marja
This meta-analysis (k = 38, N = 6977) examined age-related differences in the relation between motivation to learn and transfer of training, using data derived from the literature on adult continuing education of the past 25 years. Based on socioemotional selectivity theory, a lifespan approach to expectancy theory, and research on interest and…
Zhang, George X.
British higher education is becoming more and more market-driven following the increase in tuition fees in 2012. As a result, universities need to respond more readily to the market, and student demand and the high employability of graduates are now a priority for most universities. With the growing importance of Asian economies in the new age of…
Tašner, Veronika; Gaber, Slavko
In the present paper, we discuss the time before the "age of reports". Besides the Coleman Report in the period of Coleman, the Lady Plowden Report also appeared, while there were important studies in France (Bourdieu & Passeron, 1964; Peyre, 1959) and studies that inaugurated comprehensive education in Nordic countries. We focus on…
This article discusses the first year of the Project for Introductory Piano Education (the PIPO project) at The Hague, a training programme for young pianists starting at age 5–6. The programme combines general music activities, aiming at the development of general musical skills, with piano lessons
Kuipers, Mirte A. G.; de Korte, Rosaline; Soto, Victoria Eugenia; Richter, Matthias; Moor, Irene; Rimpelä, Arja H.; Perelman, Julian; Federico, Bruno; Kunst, Anton E.; Lorant, Vincent
Studies on the effects of school smoking policies are inconclusive and there is no research on whether the effects of school policies vary by educational level. We examined the association between school smoking policies and smoking behaviour among adolescents aged 14-17 years in Europe and assessed
James, Alana I.
Two challenges identified for psychology higher education are supporting entry students' transition, and supporting graduates' transition into employment. The evaluation of the first phase of a cross-age mentoring action research project targeting these issues is presented; eight psychology undergraduates mentored 20 A-level psychology pupils in…
Sun, Jeffrey C., Ed.; Baez, Benjamin, Ed.
This monograph examines in great detail two kinds of intellectual property: copyrights and patents. Though the authors recognize the significance of trademarks and trade secrets, they focus primarily on copyrights and patents in this monograph because they represent the most significant issues in higher education in the information age.…
Veronika Tašner and Slavko Gaber
Full Text Available In the present paper, we discuss the time before the “age of reports”. Besides the Coleman Report in the period of Coleman, the Lady Plowden Report also appeared, while there were important studies in France (Bourdieu & Passeron, 1964; Peyre, 1959 and studies that inaugurated comprehensive education in Nordic countries. We focus on the period after the World War II, which was marked by rising economic nationalism, on the one hand, and by the second wave of mass education, on the other, bearing the promise of more equality and a reduction of several social inequalities, both supposed to be ensured by school. It was a period of great expectations related to the power of education and the rise of educational meritocracy. On this background, in the second part of the paper, the authors attempt to explore the phenomenon of the aforementioned reports, which significantly questioned the power of education and, at the same time, enabled the formation of evidence-based education policies. In this part of the paper, the central place is devoted to the case of socialist Yugoslavia/Slovenia and its striving for more equality and equity through education. Through the socialist ideology of more education for all, socialist Yugoslavia, with its exaggerated stress on the unified school and its overemphasised belief in simple equality, overstepped the line between relying on comprehensive education as an important mechanism for increasing the possibility of more equal and just education, on the one hand, and the myth of the almighty unified school capable of eradicating social inequalities, especially class inequalities, on the other. With this radical approach to the reduction of inequalities, socialist policy in the then Yugoslavia paradoxically reduced the opportunity for greater equality, and even more so for more equitable education.
Fatiloro, Oluwayemisi Florence; Adesola, Oyekola Adebimpe; Hameed, Bilkis Alaba; Adewumi, Oseni Muinat
Reading is the gateway to success in education. It is the heartbeat of all courses offered in institutions. It is therefore crucial to investigate Colleges of Education students reading habits and how to improve the skill. The study was a descriptive survey with a validated questionnaire on "Reading Habits among Colleges of Education students…
King, Sharon V.; Gachuhi, Mugo; Ice, Gillian; Cattell, Maria; Whittington, Frank
This article reprises four presentations on "Gerontology Education in Kenya," a seminar at the 2004 Annual Meeting of the Association of Gerontology in Higher Education. It describes the process by which the Gerontology Institute of Georgia State University established a 3-year gerontology education and research partnership with Kenyatta…
In western nations, the social and economic changes of the past 30 years have facilitated a reorientation of the focus of educational institutions. Global capitalism has placed education at the forefront of national competitiveness, and governments have responded with education policies primarily designed to serve the needs of the market. Such…
Springvloet, Linda; Lechner, Lilian; de Vries, Hein; Candel, Math J J M; Oenema, Anke
Web-based, computer-tailored nutrition education interventions can be effective in modifying self-reported dietary behaviors. Traditional computer-tailored programs primarily targeted individual cognitions (knowledge, awareness, attitude, self-efficacy). Tailoring on additional variables such as self-regulation processes and environmental-level factors (the home food environment arrangement and perception of availability and prices of healthy food products in supermarkets) may improve efficacy and effect sizes (ES) of Web-based computer-tailored nutrition education interventions. This study evaluated the short- and medium-term efficacy and educational differences in efficacy of a cognitive and environmental feedback version of a Web-based computer-tailored nutrition education intervention on self-reported fruit, vegetable, high-energy snack, and saturated fat intake compared to generic nutrition information in the total sample and among participants who did not comply with dietary guidelines (the risk groups). A randomized controlled trial was conducted with a basic (tailored intervention targeting individual cognition and self-regulation processes; n=456), plus (basic intervention additionally targeting environmental-level factors; n=459), and control (generic nutrition information; n=434) group. Participants were recruited from the general population and randomly assigned to a study group. Self-reported fruit, vegetable, high-energy snack, and saturated fat intake were assessed at baseline and at 1- (T1) and 4-months (T2) postintervention using online questionnaires. Linear mixed model analyses examined group differences in change over time. Educational differences were examined with group×time×education interaction terms. In the total sample, the basic (T1: ES=-0.30; T2: ES=-0.18) and plus intervention groups (T1: ES=-0.29; T2: ES=-0.27) had larger decreases in high-energy snack intake than the control group. The basic version resulted in a larger decrease in
Tanik Feride A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking during pregnancy has been associated with socioeconomic determinants and it is recognized as the most important preventable risk factor for an unsuccessful pregnancy outcome. Turkey has national data on the prevalance of smoking during pregnancy; however there is no data on the characteristics of the high-risk population. This is a field study that aims to identify socioeconomic determinants for smoking during pregnancy as well as differentiating the daily and occasional smokers. Method Cross sectional study was conducted among women with 0-5 year old children living in the area served by Primary Health Care Center (PHCC in Burhaniye, Turkey. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by the researchers during January-March 2008 at the home of the participants with 83.7% response rate (n = 256. The relation of "smoking during pregnacy" and "daily smoking during pregnancy" with the independent variables was determined with χ2 tests. Women's age, educational level, number of previous births, place of origin, migration, partner's educational level, poverty, perceived income, social class were evaluated. Statistical significance was achieved when the p value was less than 0.05. The variables in relation with the dependent variables in the χ2 tests were included in the forward-stepwise logistic analysis. Results Prevalance of smoking during pregnancy was 22.7%. The majority (74.1% were daily smokers. Young mothers ( Conclusions Systematic attention should be paid to socioeconomic determinants in smoking for pregnant women, especially in countries like Turkey with high rates of infant and mother mortality and substantial health inequalities. Young mothers (
Chiu, Ching-Ju; Kuo, Su-E; Lin, Dai-Chan
Mobile technology provides young adults important support for self-directed learning, but whether there is related support for older adults is not clear. This study aims to determine whether 1) nutrition education combined with mobile technology-supported teaching improves knowledge of and self-efficacy for a healthy diet; 2) if adults who reported reviewing the electronic course material or searching health information online, showed significantly greater progress in knowledge of and self-efficacy for a healthy diet than did those who did not adopt the electronic support. A total of 35 middle-aged and older adults were recruited from the community. Enrollees who were unable to read, who participated in the course fewer than five times, who did not take the post-test, or who did not return complete questionnaires at the pre-test were excluded. Overall, 21 participants were finally analyzed, and 14 participated in the qualitative investigation. The study interventions included three traditional nutrition lectures and three touch-screen tablet computer lessons to access the Internet and nutrition applications. Structured and semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect both quantitative and qualitative data and record participants' Internet use conditions at home. Participants' nutrition knowledge significantly improved (meanpost-pre = 1.19, p = 0.001) and their self-efficacy about a healthy diet showed marginal improvement (meanpost-pre = 0.22, p = 0.07). Nutrition knowledge was positively correlated with their intensity of surfing the Internet ( r = 0.46, p health education might provide great opportunities for positive behavioral change, even in older adults without any previous Internet experience.
Friedrich, Mariola; Goluch-Koniuszy, Zuzanna
After several years of experience with guiding of an original program on health-promoting nutritional education for women during menopause, which by inducing changes in nutritional behaviour resulted in many favorable health promoting effects, on request of the students of the Association of Third Age University, an original educational program “Comprehensive stimulation of senior citizens to activity” was developed out and implemented. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of four-month nutritional education and adjustments in diets of women aged 60-85, on the basis of the measurements of the selected lipid parameters in their blood tests This research project was joined by 37 female subjects aged 60-85, who are the members of the University of the Third Age in Szczecin, and whose average BMI was 31.7 kg/m2. Before the nutritional education commenced and after it was completed, the female subjects’ nutritional status was assessed (BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR) and the energy and nutritional value of their diets was examined based on the subjects’ regular journalkeeping. Keys’ atherogenic score in their diets were also computed. The applied nutritional education led to changes in the energy and nutritional value of the female subjects’ diets, which specifically improved their anthropometric parameters and the resulting BMI, WC and WHtR parameters. This fact was also reflected in a substantial decrease of the glucose level and a substantial increase of HDL-C level in the blood of the examined female subjects, as well as in the improvements in the assessed parameters TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/ HDL-C, TG/HDL-C. The analysis of the results allows to confirm, that the four-month nutritional education of elderly women resulted in changes of their erroneous dietary habits and an improvement in their nutrition.
Beaufils, Emilie; Hommet, Caroline; Brault, Florence; Marqué, Aurélie; Eudo, Charlotte; Vierron, Emilie; De Toffol, Bertrand; Constans, Thierry; Mondon, Karl
Pictograms, designed to be a universal communication system, are often created from several concrete and easily recognizable drawings. Does understanding depend on a logical approach? Or is it the ability to inhibit the concrete sense of each picture that allows access to a higher level of comprehension? (ability to abstract). These executive functions are sensitive to the effects of aging and educational level. The aim of our study was to evaluate the nature of the cognitive processes underlying the meaning of pictograms and to test the effect of aging and educational level. We enrolled 19 older adults (60-69 years old) and 63 young adults (20-29 years old). Of these 63 young adults, 43 had a high educational level (Young-High participants), and 20 had a lower educational level (Young-Low participants). Each participant was asked the meaning of 20 pictograms and underwent an assessment of abstraction and logical abilities with WAIS-III test. Older adults had lower pictogram assessment scores and abstraction and logical abilities when compared with young adults. In both groups, abstraction and logical abilities were correlated with the interpretation of pictograms but only abstraction ability remains strongly correlated with pictogram comprehension in the older group after adjustment of sex, age and educational level. Consequently, the poorer performances of older adults to determine the meaning of pictograms could be explained by the decline of abstraction ability in elderly. Pictograms are not the universal communication system as we formerly thought. Age and educational level may influence the performance in determining the meaning of pictograms.
Rita de Cássia da Silva Oliveira
Full Text Available The Brazilian age pyramid shows an aging population. The Active Aging Paradigm is now evident, in which education assumes relevance. Brazilian universities have offered specific projects / programs for the elderly, which are Open Universities for the Elderly. They focus on valuing the elderly, placing them at the center of the educational process. This article aims to present the UATI / UEPG Program; explain the objectives and structure of this extensionist action. This research was bibliographical and documentary. The State University of Ponta Grossa created the UATI in 1992. The UATI is based on 4 articulating axes, offers theoretical and practical disciplines in the different areas of knowledge, totaling 240 hours. The UATI program consists of the Open University Courses for the Elderly and the Continuing University Course for the Elderly. UATI is a program of success and social and academic recognition in its 26 years of activities.
Full Text Available Background: When asked what a desirable fertility level for populations might be, most politicians, journalists, and even social scientists would say it is around two children per woman, a level that has been labelled by demographers "replacement-level fertility." The reasons given for considering this level of fertility as something to aim at usually include maintaining the size of the labour force and stabilizing the old-age-dependency ratio. Objective: In this paper, we scrutinize this wide-spread view by introducing education in addition to age and sex as a further relevant source of observable population heterogeneity. We consider several criteria for assessing the long-term implications of alternative fertility levels and present numerical simulations with a view on minimizing the education-weighted total dependency ratio and complement this with the goal of reducing the amount of greenhouse gas emission in the context of climate change. Methods: We perform thousands of alternative simulations for different fertility levels (assumed to be constant over time starting from empirically given population structures and derive the rate of fertility which yields the lowest level of our education-weighted dependency ratio. We study the sensitivity of our results to different parameter values and choose to focus on the actual populations of Europe and China over the course of the 21st century. Results: The results show that when education is assumed to present a cost at young age and results in higher productivity during adult age, then the fertility rate that on the long run keeps dependency at a minimum turns out to lie well below replacement fertility both in Europe and in China under a set of plausible assumptions. The optimal fertility level falls even lower when climate change is factored in as well. Conclusions: We conclude that there is nothing magical or particularly desirable about replacement level fertility.
Full Text Available Background: The use of over-the-counter (OTC drugs has increased tremendously, however, information on risk perception regarding the use of OTC drugs and their potential toxicity is scarce. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the perception of OTC drug safety and efficacy based on reading product packaging and the effect of race, education, age and income. Methods: We used the HINTS 2012 data set with total sample size of 2,554. Results: OTC drug users having some high school education had a lower chance of frequently reading information included in the product labeling with the OTC medication. OTC drug users less than 50 years of age were always likely to read drug information on the OTC drug labeling. Also, Non-Hispanic blacks were more likely to read OTC drug labeling than Non-Hispanic whites. OTC drug users less than 50 years of age consider OTC drugs safer than prescription drugs. Conversely, OTC drug users with a high school, some college or bachelor’s degree consider OTC drugs less safe than prescription drugs. Non-Hispanic blacks, non-Hispanic whites, and subjects of lower income were less likely to consider OTC drugs safer than prescription drugs. OTC drug users with a high school education and some college perceive OTC drugs to be less effective than prescription drugs.Conclusion: To conclude, age, education, race, and income affect risk perception on OTC drugs. Consumer information programs need to be designed so that meaningful results can be incorporated into public policy. Providing information on the labeling of OTC drugs and likelihood of patients reading this information require further study.
There is little research on professional development for informal science educators (ISEs). One particular area that ISEs need support in is how to engage preschool-age audiences in science practices. This study is part of a NSF-funded project, My Sky Tonight (MST), which looked at how to support ISEs in facilitating astronomy-themed activities with preschool-age audiences. This dissertation focuses on the influence of a six-week, online professional development workshop designed for ISEs working with preschool-age audiences. I used three primary sources of data: pre/post interviews and a video analysis task from data of 16 participants, as well as observations of implementation from a subset of seven participants who agreed to participate further. I developed and used the Phenomena-driven Practices of Science (PEPS) Framework as an analysis tool for identifying engagement in science practices. Findings from this study show that ISEs identified affective goals and rarely goals that reflect science practice engagement for their preschool-age audiences. They maintained these initial goals after the professional development workshop. ISEs describe the ways in which they engage children in science using primarily science practice-related words, but these descriptions did not show full use of science practices according to the PEPS framework. When observed implementing science activities with their preschool audiences, the ISEs demonstrated a variety of forms of science engagement, but only a few used science practices in ways consistent with the PEPS framework. Engagement in the professional development workshop did not result in a transition in the ways ISEs talk about and implement science with young children. While the write-ups for MST activities were not written in a way that supported engagement in science practices, a subset of MST activities were designed with it in mind. The professional development workshop included little time focusing on how ISEs could
Full Text Available Introduction. In the aging process a weakening of the multiple organ systems and endocrine system occur, which in turn, leads to male hormones deficiency – androgens release, including testosterone. It is believed that the year-to-year, women awareness of the menopausal problems increases, however, their knowledge of the consequences of menopause is still insufficient. Unfortunately, only a small percentage of the population is aware that the same problem can also affect men. Male menopause symptoms are still largely an area of social taboo subject, which is not discussed at all or very little. As a consequence, men are not informed, enlightened, and therefore also ready for the changes that are to take place in themselves and their lives.