Sample records for include actual hours

  1. Wanting more or wanting less? Mismatches between actual and preferred working hours in Spain, 2005-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Torre Fernández


    Full Text Available Mismatches between the number of hours people actually work and the hours they would prefer to work are common, and they have important consequences for individual, family and organizational life. This study contributes to prior research examining how the quality of work is affected by the economic crisis. Using data from the Spanish Labor Force Survey from 2005 to 2014, it tests three possible competing predictions for trends in working hour mismatches during the economic downturn. The study reveals that the level of mismatches has increased significantly with the economic recession due to the growing number of people who would wish to work more hours than they actually do. Findings show that the increase in hour mismatches has been particularly striking among workers employed under fixed term contracts, part-time contracts, those in low-status occupations and women. The economic crisis has widened the gap between high- and low-status workers over the last decade.

  2. Daily temporal patterns of heroin and cocaine use and craving: relationship with business hours regardless of actual employment status. (United States)

    Phillips, Karran A; Epstein, David H; Preston, Kenzie L


    Real-time monitoring of behavior using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) has provided detailed data about daily temporal patterns of craving and use in cigarette smokers. We have collected similar data from a sample of cocaine and heroin users. Here we analyzed it in the context of its relationship with a societal construct of daily temporal organization: 9-to-5 business hours. In a 28-week prospective study, 112 methadone-maintained polydrug-abusing individuals initiated an electronic-diary entry and provided data each time they used cocaine, heroin, or both during weeks 4 to 28. EMA data were collected for 10,781 person-days and included: 663 cocaine-craving events, 710 cocaine-use events, 288 heroin-craving events, 66 heroin-use events, 630 craving-both-drugs events, and 282 use-of-both-drugs events. At baseline, 34% of the participants reported full-time employment in the preceding 3-year period. Most participants' current employment status fluctuated throughout the study. In a generalized linear mixed model (SAS Proc Glimmix), cocaine use varied by time of day relative to business hours (pBusiness Hours (pbusiness hours (pBusiness Hours (p=.57). Heroin craving and use were mostly reported during business hours, but data were sparse. Cocaine craving is most frequent during business hours while cocaine use is more frequent after business hours. Cocaine use during business hours, but not craving, seems suppressed on most weekdays, but not weekends, suggesting that societal conventions reflected in business hours influence drug-use patterns even in individuals whose daily schedules are not necessarily dictated by employment during conventional business hours. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Including Children with Special Educational Needs in the Literacy Hour: A Continuing Challenge. (United States)

    Miller, Carol; Lacey, Penny; Layton, Lyn


    This study evaluated how 30 British primary school classes implemented inclusion of students with special educational needs (SEN) in the curriculum's literacy hour. It examined resources, teaching techniques, timetabling, personnel, classroom organization, location, and training. Findings indicated most SEN students were included in literacy…

  4. Is the Office Hour Obsolete? (United States)

    Behrens, Susan


    A colleague can't make a coffee date at a time the author proposes because it would conflict with his office hour. No student has actually made an appointment with him during the hour, but he is committed to being in his office as promised in case someone drops by. The author's reaction to her colleague's faithfulness to his posted office hour…

  5. Impact on total population health and societal cost, and the implication on the actual cost-effectiveness of including tumour necrosis factor-α antagonists in management of ankylosing spondylitis: a dynamic population modelling study. (United States)

    Tran-Duy, An; Boonen, Annelies; van de Laar, Mart A F J; Severens, Johan L


    Sequential treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) that includes tumour necrosis factor-α antagonists (anti-TNF agents) has been applied in most of the Western countries. Existing cost-effectiveness (CE) models almost exclusively presented the incremental CE of anti-TNF agents using a closed cohort while budget impact studies are mainly lacking. Notwithstanding, information on impact on total population health and societal budget as well as on actual incremental CE for a given decision time span are important for decision makers. This study aimed at quantifying, for different decision time spans starting from January 1, 2014 in the Dutch society, (1) impact of sequential drug treatment strategies without and with inclusion of anti-TNF agents (Strategies 1 and 2, respectively) on total population health and societal cost, and (2) the actual incremental CE of Strategy 2 compared to Strategy 1. Dynamic population modelling was used to capture total population health and cost, and the actual incremental CE. Distinguishing the prevalent AS population on January 1, 2014 and the incident AS cohorts in the subsequent 20 years, the model tracked individually an actual number of AS patients until death or end of the simulation time. During the simulation, data on patient characteristics, history of drug use, costs and health at discrete time points were generated. In Strategy 1, five nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were available but anti-TNF agents withdrawn. In Strategy 2, five NSAIDs and two anti-TNF agents continued to be available. The predicted size of the prevalent AS population in the Dutch society varied within the range of 67,145-69,957 with 44-46 % of the patients receiving anti-TNF agents over the period 2014-2034. The use of anti-TNF agents resulted in an increase in the annual drug costs (168.54-205.28 million Euros), but at the same time caused a decrease in the annual productivity costs (12.58-31.21 million Euros) and in annual costs of

  6. Living hours under pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna; Larsen, Trine Pernille; Felbo-Kolding, Jonas


    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of part-time work on absolute wages. The empirical focus is wages and working hours in three selected sectors within private services in the Danish labour market – industrial cleaning, retail, hotels and restaurants – and their agreem......Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of part-time work on absolute wages. The empirical focus is wages and working hours in three selected sectors within private services in the Danish labour market – industrial cleaning, retail, hotels and restaurants...... in industrial cleaning includes a minimum floor of 15 weekly working hours – this is not the case in retail, hotels and restaurants. This creates a loophole in the latter two sectors that can be exploited by employers to gain wage flexibility through part-time work. Originality/value The living wage literature...

  7. The impact of nurse working hours on patient safety culture: a cross-national survey including Japan, the United States and Chinese Taiwan using the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture. (United States)

    Wu, Yinghui; Fujita, Shigeru; Seto, Kanako; Ito, Shinya; Matsumoto, Kunichika; Huang, Chiu-Chin; Hasegawa, Tomonori


    A positive patient safety culture (PSC) is one of the most critical components to improve healthcare quality and safety. The Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPS), developed by the US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, has been used to assess PSC in 31 countries. However, little is known about the impact of nurse working hours on PSC. We hypothesized that long nurse working hours would deteriorate PSC, and that the deterioration patterns would vary between countries. Moreover, the common trends observed in Japan, the US and Chinese Taiwan may be useful to improve PSC in other countries. The purpose of this study was to clarify the impact of long nurse working hours on PSC in Japan, the US, and Chinese Taiwan using HSOPS. The HSOPS questionnaire measures 12 sub-dimensions of PSC, with higher scores indicating a more positive PSC. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using a generalized linear mixed model to evaluate the impact of working hours on PSC outcome measures (patient safety grade and number of events reported). Tukey's test and Cohen's d values were used to verify the relationships between nurse working hours and the 12 sub-dimensions of PSC. Nurses working ≥60 h/week in Japan and the US had a significantly lower OR for patient safety grade than those working Japan and Chinese Taiwan. Patient safety grade deteriorated and the number of events reported increased with long working hours. Among the 12 sub-dimensions of PSC, long working hours had an impact on 'staffing' and 'teamwork within units' in Japan, the US and Chinese Taiwan.

  8. Budget and Actuals (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This dataset contains the Town's Year-to-Date Budget and Actuals for Fiscal Years 2016, 2017, and 2018. Fiscal years run from July 1 to June 30. The data comes from...

  9. Surface Weather Observations Hourly (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard hourly observations taken at Weather Bureau/National Weather Service offices and airports throughout the United States. Hourly observations began during the...

  10. Correlation of 2 hour, 4 hour, 8 hour and 12 hour urine protein with 24 hour urinary protein in preeclampsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita Rani Singhal


    Full Text Available To find shortest and reliable time period of urine collection for determination of proteinuria.It is a prospective study carried out on 125 pregnant women with preeclampsia after 20 weeks of gestation having urine albumin >1 using dipstick test. Urine was collected in five different time intervals in colors labeled containers with the assistance of nursing staff; the total collection time was 24 hours. Total urine protein of two-hour, four-hour, eight-hour, 12-hour and 24-hour urine was measured and compared with 24-hour collection. Data was analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient.There was significant correlation (p value < 0.01 in two, four, eight and 12-hour urine protein with 24-urine protein, with correlation coefficient of 0.97, 0.97, 0.96 and 0.97, respectively. When a cut off value of 25 mg, 50 mg. 100 mg, and 150 mg for urine protein were used for 2-hour, 4-hours, 8-hour and 12-hour urine collection, a sensitivity of 92.45%, 95.28%, 91.51%, and 96.23% and a specificity of 68.42%, 94.74%, 84.21% and 84.21% were obtained, respectively.Two-hour urine proteins can be used for assessment of proteinuria in preeclampsia instead of gold standard 24-hour urine collection for early diagnosis and better patient compliance.

  11. Rumbos actuales del arte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Vidales


    Full Text Available Si se nos preguntase cual podría ser la síntesis de los problemas actuales del arte, acaso deberíamos decir que no hay nada que la exprese tan cabalmente como la lucha por los espacios plásticos. Y agregar que este fenómeno no es privativo de nuestro tiempo.

  12. Linac project - actual stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlin Filho, N.


    The actual development stage of Pelletron accelerator to study heavy ion reactions, nuclear structures and applied nuclear physics is presented. The construction of acceleration systems able to provide beams of several mass and energies up to 20 MeV/A, is discussed, describing acceleration structures and implemented systems. (M.C.K.)

  13. Tracing Actual Causes (United States)


    was articu- lated by David Lewis in his work on causal ex- planations [Lewis, 1986a]. We address the prob- lem by defining the causal history of the...of actual causation involve coun- terfactuals. The counterfactual tradition goes back to Hume [ Hume , 1748] whose position was that an event c is We present a new take on the old problem of tracing ac- tual causes articulated by David Lewis in his work on causal explanations [Lewis, 1986a]. We

  14. Cracking the Credit Hour (United States)

    Laitinen, Amy


    The basic currency of higher education--the credit hour--represents the root of many problems plaguing America's higher education system: the practice of measuring time rather than learning. "Cracking the Credit Hour" traces the history of this time-based unit, from the days of Andrew Carnegie to recent federal efforts to define a credit…

  15. New Approach To Hour-By-Hour Weather Forecast (United States)

    Liao, Q. Q.; Wang, B.


    Fine hourly forecast in single station weather forecast is required in many human production and life application situations. Most previous MOS (Model Output Statistics) which used a linear regression model are hard to solve nonlinear natures of the weather prediction and forecast accuracy has not been sufficient at high temporal resolution. This study is to predict the future meteorological elements including temperature, precipitation, relative humidity and wind speed in a local region over a relatively short period of time at hourly level. By means of hour-to-hour NWP (Numeral Weather Prediction)meteorological field from Forcastio ( and real-time instrumental observation including 29 stations in Yunnan and 3 stations in Tianjin of China from June to October 2016, predictions are made of the 24-hour hour-by-hour ahead. This study presents an ensemble approach to combine the information of instrumental observation itself and NWP. Use autoregressive-moving-average (ARMA) model to predict future values of the observation time series. Put newest NWP products into the equations derived from the multiple linear regression MOS technique. Handle residual series of MOS outputs with autoregressive (AR) model for the linear property presented in time series. Due to the complexity of non-linear property of atmospheric flow, support vector machine (SVM) is also introduced . Therefore basic data quality control and cross validation makes it able to optimize the model function parameters , and do 24 hours ahead residual reduction with AR/SVM model. Results show that AR model technique is better than corresponding multi-variant MOS regression method especially at the early 4 hours when the predictor is temperature. MOS-AR combined model which is comparable to MOS-SVM model outperform than MOS. Both of their root mean square error and correlation coefficients for 2 m temperature are reduced to 1.6 degree Celsius and 0.91 respectively. The

  16. 10 CFR 26.205 - Work hours. (United States)


    ..., training, or pre-shift briefings for special evolutions; and holdovers for interviews needed for event... of this subpart, a break is defined as an interval of time that falls between successive work periods... shall— (1) Review the actual work hours and performance of individuals who are subject to this section...

  17. Vivienda ecoconfortable, tendencias actuales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcial Calero


    Conocer y manejar el comportamiento mecánico y el uso de componentes de la vivienda, como por ejemplo, materiaJes, agua y energía utilizados y disponibles, constituye el objetivo de investigación; sus resultados pueden revertir la situación actual, aJ obtener materiales y hacer posible la reutilización del agua a partir de la construcción de viviendas ecos confortables. Estas acciones contribuirán al desarrollo socio productivo del país en general y de la colectividad en particular.

  18. Estimations of actual availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molan, M.; Molan, G.


    Adaptation of working environment (social, organizational, physical and physical) should assure higher level of workers' availability and consequently higher level of workers' performance. A special theoretical model for description of connections between environmental factors, human availability and performance was developed and validated. The central part of the model is evaluations of human actual availability in the real working situation or fitness for duties self-estimation. The model was tested in different working environments. On the numerous (2000) workers, standardized values and critical limits for an availability questionnaire were defined. Standardized method was used in identification of the most important impact of environmental factors. Identified problems were eliminated by investments in the organization in modification of selection and training procedures in humanization of working .environment. For workers with behavioural and health problems individual consultancy was offered. The described method is a tool for identification of impacts. In combination with behavioural analyses and mathematical analyses of connections, it offers possibilities to keep adequate level of human availability and fitness for duty in each real working situation. The model should be a tool for achieving adequate level of nuclear safety by keeping the adequate level of workers' availability and fitness for duty. For each individual worker possibility for estimation of level of actual fitness for duty is possible. Effects of prolonged work and additional tasks should be evaluated. Evaluations of health status effects and ageing are possible on the individual level. (author)

  19. 24-hour urine protein (United States)

    Urine protein - 24 hour; Chronic kidney disease - urine protein; Kidney failure - urine protein ... Heart failure High blood pressure during pregnancy ( preeclampsia ) Kidney disease caused by diabetes, high blood pressure, autoimmune disorders, ...

  20. Marijuana and actual driving performance (United States)


    This report concerns the effects of marijuana smoking on actual driving performance. It presents the results of one pilot and three actual driving studies. The pilot study's major purpose was to establish the THC dose current marijuana users smoke to...

  1. How People Actually Use Thermostats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Alan; Aragon, Cecilia; Hurwitz, Becky; Mujumdar, Dhawal; Peffer, Therese; Perry, Daniel; Pritoni, Marco


    Residential thermostats have been a key element in controlling heating and cooling systems for over sixty years. However, today's modern programmable thermostats (PTs) are complicated and difficult for users to understand, leading to errors in operation and wasted energy. Four separate tests of usability were conducted in preparation for a larger study. These tests included personal interviews, an on-line survey, photographing actual thermostat settings, and measurements of ability to accomplish four tasks related to effective use of a PT. The interviews revealed that many occupants used the PT as an on-off switch and most demonstrated little knowledge of how to operate it. The on-line survey found that 89% of the respondents rarely or never used the PT to set a weekday or weekend program. The photographic survey (in low income homes) found that only 30% of the PTs were actually programmed. In the usability test, we found that we could quantify the difference in usability of two PTs as measured in time to accomplish tasks. Users accomplished the tasks in consistently shorter times with the touchscreen unit than with buttons. None of these studies are representative of the entire population of users but, together, they illustrate the importance of improving user interfaces in PTs.

  2. New gate opening hours

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department


    Please note the new opening hours of the gates as well as the intersites tunnel from the 19 May 2009: GATE A 7h - 19h GATE B 24h/24 GATE C 7h - 9h\t17h - 19h GATE D 8h - 12h\t13h - 16h GATE E 7h - 9h\t17h - 19h Prévessin 24h/24 The intersites tunnel will be opened from 7h30 to 18h non stop. GS-SEM Group Infrastructure and General Services Department

  3. Determining the Difference between Predicted vs. Actual Lighting Use in Higher Education Corridors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine L. van Someren


    Full Text Available The performance gap is a measure of the difference between design assumptions and actual in field data. Estimating terms, specifically the operational hours of use, when making such design assumptions in order to predict the impact of lighting upgrades can potentially result in either an overestimate or underestimate of the savings to be made. In this paper, the background of performance gap measurement is outlined and field measurements are gathered and applied retrospectively to lighting upgrades in corridors. The lighting upgrade projects in three university buildings and their assumptions are explained in relation to the operational hours proposed using the industry “Energy assessment and reporting method.” We then describe a simple and relatively inexpensive means of taking in field measurements using small unobtrusive environmental loggers to record the lighting use and occupancy. This method, which can be implemented prior to upgrade works or energy efficiency retrofits, reveals substantially different patterns of annual electricity consumption, and carbon dioxide equivalent emissions from those assumed by a priori estimates. Patterns of use emerge that include additional hours of use by cleaners, out of hours working, and weekend working not anticipated in original estimates. These results also suggest a valuable distinction between lighting on hours and occupancy hours not captured in the current “Energy assessment and reporting method.” The results find the differences between predicted vs. actual data are considerably different, with lights on hours ranging from −67% lower to 25% and 138% higher when compared with predicted operational hours. We conclude that the estimates the industry uses in calculating energy efficiency upgrades should be accompanied by clear and adequate information about occupancy use. In our study, the consequence of reporting energy savings using assumptions and estimates in calculations resulted in a

  4. Geneva 24 hours swim

    CERN Multimedia


    The 18th edition of the Geneva 24 hours swim competition will take place at the Vernets Swimming Pool on the 4th and 5th of October. More information and the results of previous years are given at: Last year, CERN obtained first position in the inter-company category with a total of 152.3 kms swam by 45 participants. We are counting on your support to repeat this excellent performance this year. For those who would like to train, the Livron swimming pool in Meyrin is open as from Monday the 8th September. For further information please do not hesitate to contact us. Gino de Bilio and Catherine Delamare

  5. Geneva 24 Hours Swim

    CERN Multimedia


    The 18th edition of the Geneva 24 hours swim competition will take place at the Vernets Swimming Pool on the 4th and 5th of October. More information and the results of previous years are given at: Last year, CERN obtained first position in the inter-company category with a total of 152.3 kms swam by 45 participants. We are counting on your support to repeat this excellent performance this year. For those who would like to train, the Livron swimming pool in Meyrin is open as from Monday the 8th September. For further information please do not hesitate to contact us. Gino de Bilio and Catherine Delamare

  6. Fixed Costs and Hours Constraints (United States)

    Johnson, William R.


    Hours constraints are typically identified by worker responses to questions asking whether they would prefer a job with more hours and more pay or fewer hours and less pay. Because jobs with different hours but the same rate of pay may be infeasible when there are fixed costs of employment or mandatory overtime premia, the constraint in those…

  7. Discrepancies Between Planned and Actual Operating Room Turnaround Times at a Large Rural Hospital in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regula Morgenegg


    retrospective study examined the OR turnaround data of 875 elective surgery cases scheduled at the Marienhospital, Vechta, Germany, between July and October 2014. The frequency distributions of planned and actual OR turnaround times were compared and correlations between turnaround times and various factors were established, including the time of day of the procedure, patient age and the planned duration of the surgery. Results: There was a significant difference between mean planned and actual OR turnaround times (0.32 versus 0.64 hours; P <0.001. In addition, significant correlations were noted between actual OR turnaround times and the time of day of the surgery, patient age, actual duration of the procedure and staffing changes affecting the surgeon or the medical specialty of the surgery (P <0.001 each. The quotient of actual/planned OR turnaround times ranged from 1.733–3.000. Conclusion: Significant discrepancies between planned and actual OR turnaround times were noted during the study period. Such findings may be potentially used in future studies to establish a tool to improve OR planning, measure OR management performance and enable benchmarking.

  8. Java programming 24-hour trainer

    CERN Document Server

    Fain, Yakov


    Quick and painless Java programming with expert multimedia instruction Java Programming 24-Hour Trainer, 2nd Edition is your complete beginner's guide to the Java programming language, with easy-to-follow lessons and supplemental exercises that help you get up and running quickly. Step-by-step instruction walks you through the basics of object-oriented programming, syntax, interfaces, and more, before building upon your skills to develop games, web apps, networks, and automations. This second edition has been updated to align with Java SE 8 and Java EE 7, and includes new information on GUI b

  9. HTML5 24-Hour Trainer

    CERN Document Server

    Lowery, Joseph W


    Comprehensive written and interactive instruction for learning HTML5 HTML is the core technology for building websites. Today, with HTML5 opening the Internet to new levels of rich content and dynamic interactivity, developers are looking for information to learn and utilize HTML5. HTML5 24-Hour Trainer provides that information, giving new and aspiring web developers the knowledge they need to achieve early success when building websites. Covers the most basic aspects of a web page, including a brief introduction to Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) Provides lessons that are backed up by prof

  10. Actualities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    This paper is a summary of the Cedigaz annual report about the economic analysis of the worldwide natural gas statistical data for the year 1994. This report gives an up-to-date balance sheet of: the proved reserves, the production and consumption rates, the evolutions and tendencies of the international trade, the retail prices on the international market. (J.S.). 2 tabs

  11. Hourly Precipitation Data (HPD) Publication (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly Precipitation Data (HPD) Publication is archived and available from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). This publication contains hourly precipitation...

  12. US Naval Observatory Hourly Observations (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly observations journal from the National Observatory in Washington DC. The observatory is the first station in the United States to produce hourly observations...

  13. Effect of daylight hours on performance of growing grasscutters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of daylight hours on growing grasscutters was determined using sixteen 8-months old femalegrasscutters. The grasscutters were separated into four groups and allotted to four treatments of varying daylight hours. The treatments included; zero (0) hours of daylight and twenty four (24) hours (6.00 am-6.00 am) of ...

  14. 7 positions in 2 hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Ackerman


    Full Text Available 7 positions in 2 hours (2013 is a drawing that documents the process of making the short film Role Reversal Rehearsal. It became quickly apparent that the process of making the work was more dynamic and interesting than the finished piece itself. Relationships between the childcare arrangements of the participants and the collective working process brought about the necessity of collaboration for parent artists. Each participant gave their time, energy and creative insight towards filming a series of birthing positions with roles reversed. The male performer became the central figure in an attempt to prompt empathy, humour, and to embody the importance of the male role in childbirth. There were two hours to choreograph, rehearse, and film the sequence. The drawing by Ackerman encapsulates the 'rhizomatic' approach to producing creative work under the constraints of parenthood. The 'arborescent' structure of hierarchy encouraged in industrial filmmaking is subsumed in favour of a horizontal structure. This new structure allows for the creative input, and flow of collaboration between all people involved - including the 3 and 5 year olds, who contributed ideas for camera and soundtrack in situ.

  15. Dancers' Perceived and Actual Knowledge of Anatomy. (United States)

    Kotler, Dana H; Lynch, Meaghan; Cushman, Daniel; Hu, Jason; Garner, Jocelyn


    Dancers are highly susceptible to musculoskeletal injuries and frequently require interaction with medical professionals. While many dancers have a finely tuned awareness of their bodies, their knowledge of the fundamentals of human anatomy is not uniform. There is a paucity of literature on the benefits of human anatomy education in dancers, though it seems intuitive that there should be a relationship. The purpose of this study was to assess dancers' perceived and actual knowledge of basic musculoskeletal anatomy and its relationship to function. Adult dancers at the undergraduate, pre-professional, and professional levels were surveyed through an anonymous online questionnaire. Questions included demographic information, dance techniques studied, anatomy training, and injury history. Subjects rated their perceived knowledge of anatomy and were tested with 15 multiple-choice questions on basic musculoskeletal anatomy. Four hundred seventy-five surveys were completed. Ordinal regression showed a correlation of perceived to actual knowledge of anatomy (p < 0.001). Factors that correlated with increases in both perceived and actual knowledge of anatomy included having taken an anatomy course of any type (p < 0.001) and increased age (p ≤ 0.001). Years of dance training and professional dancer status both significantly correlated with increased knowledge of anatomy (p < 0.001) but not perceived knowledge. Chi-square analysis showed that dancers with training in either modern or jazz dance had a significantly higher perceived, but not actual, knowledge when compared to those without training in those styles of dance (p < 0.001 and p = 0.011, respectively). In conclusion, dancers generally scored well on questions pertaining to basic musculoskeletal anatomy, and their perception correlated with their actual knowledge of anatomy. Factors that contribute to dancers' knowledge of anatomy include age, years of experience, professional dancer status, and anatomy training.

  16. An analysis of actual evapotranspiration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijtema, P.E.


    The main interacting factors determining the actual evapotranspiration from crops were analysed.

    The apparent diffusion resistance of the crop was introduced because of the geometry of the evaporative surface. Its relation to light intensity and to suction in the leaves had been estimated for

  17. Long Working Hours and Cognitive Function (United States)

    Singh-Manoux, Archana; Ferrie, Jane E.; Gimeno, David; Marmot, Michael G.; Elovainio, Marko; Jokela, Markus; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimäki, Mika


    This study examined the association between long working hours and cognitive function in middle age. Data were collected in 1997–1999 (baseline) and 2002–2004 (follow-up) from a prospective study of 2,214 British civil servants who were in full-time employment at baseline and had data on cognitive tests and covariates. A battery of cognitive tests (short-term memory, Alice Heim 4-I, Mill Hill vocabulary, phonemic fluency, and semantic fluency) were measured at baseline and at follow-up. Compared with working 40 hours per week at most, working more than 55 hours per week was associated with lower scores in the vocabulary test at both baseline and follow-up. Long working hours also predicted decline in performance on the reasoning test (Alice Heim 4-I). Similar results were obtained by using working hours as a continuous variable; the associations between working hours and cognitive function were robust to adjustments for several potential confounding factors including age, sex, marital status, education, occupation, income, physical diseases, psychosocial factors, sleep disturbances, and health risk behaviors. This study shows that long working hours may have a negative effect on cognitive performance in middle age. PMID:19126590

  18. ATHENA: an actual antihydrogen annihilation

    CERN Document Server


    This is an image of an actual matter-antimatter annihilation due to an atom of antihydrogen in the ATHENA experiment, located on the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at CERN since 2001. The antiproton produces four charged pions (yellow) whose positions are given by silicon microstrips (pink) before depositing energy in CsI crystals (yellow cubes). The positron also annihilates to produce back-to-back gamma rays (red).

  19. Flexible Work Hours and Other Job Factors in Parental Time with Children (United States)

    Baxter, Jennifer


    Flexible working hours are typically seen to be advantageous to working parents, as the flexible hours more easily allow responsibilities of care and employment be balanced. But do flexible work hours actually mean that parents can spend more time with their children? This article explores this for parents of young children in Australia. The…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Carrasco M.


    Full Text Available Este trabajo define y sistematiza distintos aspectos de la interculturalidad textual, sus actuales manifestaciones literarias en Chile -la poesía etnocultural, la literatura del exilio y la escritura de inmigrantes- y sugiere su importancia en la alteración del canon de la modernidadThis work defines and systematizes different aspects of textual interculture, its literary manifestations in Chile to-day -ethnocultural poetry, exile literature, and the immigrants’ writing- suggesting its special importance in the alteration of the modernity canon

  1. Tendencias actuales del constitucionalismo latinoamericano


    Jorge Carpizo


    El artículo analiza los cambios constitucionales que ha habido en América Latina y que han tenido incidencia directa en el progreso de la democracia en la región; de esta manera, hace una amplia comparación de la creación de instituciones que persiguen este fin en los diferentes estados. Desde una definición amplia y actual de democracia, se revelan sus principales focos de peligro como la ilegitimidad del Estado de derecho o la percepción de corrupción predominante en la población. El escrit...

  2. Ozone Nonattainment Areas - 1 Hour (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Ozone - 1hour (Legacy...

  3. Early life adversity and/or posttraumatic stress disorder severity are associated with poor diet quality, including consumption of trans fatty acids, and fewer hours of resting or sleeping in a US middle-aged population: A cross-sectional and prospective study. (United States)

    Gavrieli, Anna; Farr, Olivia M; Davis, Cynthia R; Crowell, Judith A; Mantzoros, Christos S


    Early life adversity (ELA) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are associated with poorer psychological and physical health. Potential underlying mechanisms and mediators remain to be elucidated, and the lifestyle habits and characteristics of individuals with ELA and/or PTSD have not been fully explored. We investigated whether the presence of ELA and/or PTSD are associated with nutrition, physical activity, resting and sleeping and smoking. A cross-sectional sample of 151 males and females (age: 45.6±3.5 years, BMI: 30.0±7.1 kg/m(2)) underwent anthropometric measurements, as well as detailed questionnaires for dietary assessment, physical activity, resting and sleeping, smoking habits and psychosocial assessments. A prospective follow-up visit of 49 individuals was performed 2.5 years later and the same outcomes were assessed. ELA and PTSD were evaluated as predictors, in addition to a variable assessing the combined presence/severity of ELA-PTSD. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance after adjusting for several socioeconomic, psychosocial and anthropometric characteristics. Individuals with higher ELA or PTSD severity were found to have a poorer diet quality (DASH score: p=0.006 and p=0.003, respectively; aHEI-2010 score: ELA p=0.009), including further consumption of trans fatty acids (ELA p=0.003); the differences were significantly attenuated null after adjusting mainly for education or income and/or race. Further, individuals with higher ELA severity reported less hours of resting and sleeping (p=0.043) compared to those with zero/lower ELA severity, and the difference remained significant in the fully adjusted model indicating independence from potential confounders. When ELA and PTSD were combined, an additive effect was observed on resting and sleeping (p=0.001); results remained significant in the fully adjusted model. They also consumed more energy from trans fatty acids (p=0.017) tended to smoke more (p=0.008), and have less physical

  4. Estimator's electrical man-hour manual

    CERN Document Server

    Page, John S


    This manual's latest edition continues to be the best source available for making accurate, reliable man-hour estimates for electrical installation. This new edition is revised and expanded to include installation of electrical instrumentation, which is used in monitoring various process systems.

  5. Los Retos del Mercado Actual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Quirós Sáenz


    Full Text Available Probablemente la empresa que sobreviva en laeconomía actual, no será la que tenga el mejor productoo servicio, sino la que tenga la mayor eficienciaoperacional y ofrezca un servicio sorprendente paraobtener la lealtad de sus clientes. Pero también, la quetenga ejecutivos de mercadeo con el conocimiento,carácter y determinación, para enfrentar estos retos deuna manera creativa.   ABSTRACT Most probably the companies that will survive presentday’s economy will not be the ones with the better productor service but the ones with greater operational efficiencywho offers outstanding service to attain customer loyalty.But also the companies with marketing executives thatpossess the knowledge, temper and determination to facethese challenges in a creative way.

  6. Operator alertness and performance on 8-hour and 12-hour work shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, T.L.; Campbell, S.S.; Dawson, D.; Moore-Ede, M.


    Recently, much attention has been paid to the alertness and performance problems of rotational shiftworkers in the nuclear power industry. Growing awareness of higher rates of human errors and accidents on night shifts and reports of operations personnel falling asleep on the job have contributed to the heightened interest in this subject. The industry is now considering the effects of different shift rotation systems, including evaluation of the most recent of industry trends in shift scheduling-schedules that include 12 hour work shifts. Surveys show that within the past 5 years about 20% of commercially operational nuclear power plants have instituted schedules that use only 12 hour shifts, or schedules using a combination of 8-hour and 12-hour shifts. Many more plants routinely use 12-hour work shifts during plant outages and refueling operations. In response to this growing trend, the NRC has funded research which is a first attempt to compare alertness, operator performance, and sleep-wake patterns in subjects working simulated 8-hour and 12-hour shifts at the Human Alertness Research Center (HARC), located at the Institute of Circadian Physiology in Boston, MA. This paper will describe in greater detail the design of the study, measurement techniques for alertness and sleep, work routine, work task performance measures, and cognitive performance test protocols. It will review the role of circadian factors in human alertness and performance, and discuss previous research findings in this area. It will discuss other variables that are known to influence human alertness in the workplace, such as caffeine, alcohol, and working environment. The physiological basis for shift worker sleep problems will be explained in the context of the ongoing research project at HARC. Finally, the paper presents previous research on shift work and fatigue which may be relevant to a comparison of 8-hour and 12-hour shifts

  7. Excel VBA 24-hour trainer

    CERN Document Server

    Urtis, Tom


    Master VBA automation quickly and easily to get more out of Excel Excel VBA 24-Hour Trainer, 2nd Edition is the quick-start guide to getting more out of Excel, using Visual Basic for Applications. This unique book/video package has been updated with fifteen new advanced video lessons, providing a total of eleven hours of video training and 45 total lessons to teach you the basics and beyond. This self-paced tutorial explains Excel VBA from the ground up, demonstrating with each advancing lesson how you can increase your productivity. Clear, concise, step-by-step instructions are combined wit

  8. 168 Hours Salt Fog Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Ubaidah Saidin; Muhamad Daud; Siti Radiah Mohd Kamarudin


    This report explained the test conducted in salt fog chamber to evaluate the effectiveness of mild steel, coated with rust converter, for 168 hours in artificial seawater exposure. The samples were compared with mild steel coated with commercial primer. The tests were conducted followed ASTM B117. Individual pictures were taken of each sample before the tests began, at 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144 and 168 hours to see the progression of the corrosion. Results showed that the samples coated with rust converter provide a good significant protection against corrosion phenomenon than the samples coated with commercial primer that available in the market. (author)

  9. Effect of a 12-hour/day shift on performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, P.M.; Swaim, D.J.


    The operating crews at the Fast Flux Facility near Richland, Washington, changed their rotating shift schedule from an 8- to 12- hour/day work schedule. The primary reason for the change was to reduce the attrition of operators by increasing their job satisfaction. Eighty-four percent of the operators favored the change. Plant performance and safety were not adversely affected. A statistical analysis of 53 operator-related, off-normal events in 28 months concluded that there was no significant difference in either the number or the severity of off-normal events on the 12-hour shift. A statistical analysis of 200,000 log entries concluded that the error rate in completing logs actually declined by 25 percent on the 12-hour shift. Alertness, which was measured using computerized tests of mathematics and logical reasoning, reach a nadir on the first night shift for the 8- and 12-hour schedules alike, which indicates that the primary cause of fatigue was sleep disruption, not cumulative hours of work. All supervisors and 52 percent of the operators believe their crews work more effectively on the 12-hour shift; only 12 percent of the operators believe that their crews work less effectively. The evaluation indicated that the 12-hour shift scheduled is a reasonable alternative to an 8-hour schedule at this facility. 2 refs

  10. Home within 24 hours of laparoscopic hysterectomy. (United States)

    Chou, D C; Rosen, D M; Cario, G M; Carlton, M A; Lam, A M; Chapman, M; Johns, C


    We assessed the feasibility of safe discharge home within 24 hours following laparoscopic hysterectomy in 30 patients who met the inclusion criteria and consented to be enrolled in the study group. Patients were admitted on the day of their surgery with the expectation of discharge within 24 hours. Appropriate home nursing follow-up and phone contact by the surgical team were organized preoperatively. Inclusion criteria were: age 30-65 years, absence of any major medical history that would require prolonged hospitalization, availability of home support for the first 48 hours after discharge and presence of a working telephone line and an address within the area of the Community Home Nursing service. All 30 operative procedures were completed without incident. Six patients underwent total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) (all the procedures of hysterectomy being performed laparoscopically including the suturing of uterine arteries, colpotomy and closure of the vaginal vault. The uterus was removed vaginally) and 24 patients underwent laparoscopic hysterectomy (LH) (this techniques differs from TLH in that the colpotomy was performed laparoscopically but the uterosacral ligaments were divided vaginally and the vault also was closed vaginally after the uterus was removed vaginally). The average operating time was 115 minutes (range 85-150 minutes) and the average blood loss was 97 mL (20-250 mL). There were no intraoperative complications, no requirement for transfusion and no readmission to hospital for any of the patients in the study. Postoperative complications were minor (umbilical cellulitis (1), intestinal colic (1)) and both were treated with resolution of the symptoms. Ninety per cent of patients in the study were discharged within 24 hours of their surgery, the average duration of stay being 22.9 hours (20-24 hours). Three patients were not fit for discharge at 24 hours postoperatively due to general lethargy, migraine and nausea; their average discharge time

  11. Tendencias actuales del constitucionalismo latinoamericano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Carpizo


    Full Text Available El artículo analiza los cambios constitucionales que ha habido en América Latina y que han tenido incidencia directa en el progreso de la democracia en la región; de esta manera, hace una amplia comparación de la creación de instituciones que persiguen este fin en los diferentes estados. Desde una definición amplia y actual de democracia, se revelan sus principales focos de peligro como la ilegitimidad del Estado de derecho o la percepción de corrupción predominante en la población. El escrito hace un estudio de los atributos más importantes que pueden encontrarse actualmente en esta parte del continente, y no todos ellos parecen ser siempre optimistas; tal es el caso, por ejemplo, de los referendos cuando no son conducidos conforme a la ley o los no siempre exitosos gobiernos divididos y de coalición. Es claro que el avance en materia de democracia ha sido significativo en los últimos treinta años, pero aún existen factores de riesgo que no deben perderse de vista puesto que resulta imperativo seguir el camino sin retroceder.

  12. Tendencias Actuales del Constitucionalismo Latinoamericano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Carpizo


    Full Text Available El artículo analiza los cambios constitucionales que ha habido en América Latina y que han tenido incidencia directa en el progreso de la democracia en la región; de esta manera, hace una amplia comparación de la creación de instituciones que persiguen este fin en los diferentes estados. Desde una definición amplia y actual de democracia, se revelan sus principales focos de peligro como la ilegitimidad del Estado de derecho o la percepción de corrupción predominante en la población. El escrito hace un estudio de los atributos más importantes que pueden encontrarse actualmente en esta parte del continente, y no todos ellos parecen ser siempre optimistas; tal es el caso, por ejemplo, de los referendos cuando no son conducidos conforme a la ley o los no siempre exitosos gobiernos divididos y de coalición. Es claro que el avance en materia de democracia ha sido significativo en los últimos treinta años, pero aún existen factores de riesgo que no deben perderse de vista puesto que resulta imperativo seguir el camino sin retroceder.

  13. Ethylene Oxide: Acute Four-Hour and One-Hour Inhalation Toxicity Testing in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William M. Snellings


    Full Text Available Ethylene oxide was tested on groups of rats for either 4-hour or 1-hour inhalation exposure, followed by 14 days of observation. Groups of five Sprague-Dawley rats/sex were exposed, and clinical signs and mortality were recorded. Clinical signs noted included irregular breathing, absence of certain reflexes, and tremors. Rats that died had moderate to severe pulmonary congestion. The calculated LC50 values, reported as ppm by volume (with 95% confidence limits, were as follows. 4-hour LC50 values were 1972 (1887 to 2061 ppm for males; 1537 (1391 to 1698 ppm for females; 1741 (1655 to 1831 ppm for the combined sexes. The 1-hour LC50 values were 5748 (5276 to 6262 ppm for males; 4439 (4034 to 4884 ppm for females; 5029 (4634 to 5459 ppm for the combined sexes.

  14. Self-actualization and poststroke rehabilitation. (United States)

    Couture, Mélanie; Desrosiers, Johanne; Leclerc, Gilbert


    Rehabilitation is influenced by the individual's abilities and resources and extent to which they are used. This study explored self-actualization (capacity to maximize use of one's abilities and resources) in 37 individuals attending in-patient rehabilitation following a stroke by (1) comparing the level of self-actualization of the participants to the level of self-actualization of 562 healthy community-dwelling individuals without stroke; (2) assessing changes in the level of self-actualization during rehabilitation (admission vs. discharge); and (3) exploring the relationships between self-actualization and changes in functional independence during rehabilitation, length of stay in the rehabilitation unit and change in living environment at discharge. Self-actualization was assessed with the measure of actualization of potential. The results showed that individuals with stroke had significantly lower self-actualization levels (PSelf-actualization levels remained stable during rehabilitation (P=0.07). No significant relationships were found between self-actualization and changes in functional independence (P=0.36), length of stay (P=0.82) or change in living environment (P=0.65). This study suggests that many individuals with stroke are poorly actualized and self-actualization levels do not improve during rehabilitation. Further studies are needed to explore the relationship between self-actualization and other outcome measures in poststroke rehabilitation such as depressive symptoms or social participation.

  15. The actual goals of geoethics (United States)

    Nemec, Vaclav


    The most actual goals of geoethics have been formulated as results of the International Conference on Geoethics (October 2013) held at the geoethics birth-place Pribram (Czech Republic): In the sphere of education and public enlightenment an appropriate needed minimum know how of Earth sciences should be intensively promoted together with cultivating ethical way of thinking and acting for the sustainable well-being of the society. The actual activities of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Changes are not sustainable with the existing knowledge of the Earth sciences (as presented in the results of the 33rd and 34th International Geological Congresses). This knowledge should be incorporated into any further work of the IPCC. In the sphere of legislation in a large international co-operation following steps are needed: - to re-formulate the term of a "false alarm" and its legal consequences, - to demand very consequently the needed evaluation of existing risks, - to solve problems of rights of individuals and minorities in cases of the optimum use of mineral resources and of the optimum protection of the local population against emergency dangers and disasters; common good (well-being) must be considered as the priority when solving ethical dilemmas. The precaution principle should be applied in any decision making process. Earth scientists presenting their expert opinions are not exempted from civil, administrative or even criminal liabilities. Details must be established by national law and jurisprudence. The well known case of the L'Aquila earthquake (2009) should serve as a serious warning because of the proven misuse of geoethics for protecting top Italian seismologists responsible and sentenced for their inadequate superficial behaviour causing lot of human victims. Another recent scandal with the Himalayan fossil fraud will be also documented. A support is needed for any effort to analyze and to disclose the problems of the deformation of the contemporary

  16. Tratamiento actual de la fibromialgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Dúo Uriarte


    Full Text Available La fibromialgia (FM es una patología crónica de etiología desconocida que provoca dolor muscular generalizado, asociado a un mal descanso nocturno y fatiga, afectando a factores físicos, psíquicos y sociales del paciente. Dada su elevada prevalencia en la población general, que afecta al 2,4% de la población española mayor de 20 años y la complejidad de su tratamiento, exige consensos de actuación que sirvan de guía a los profesionales de la salud. En esta revisión queremos aunar los conocimientos actuales en la literatura médica, aunque hay que resaltar que diariamente multitud de estudios y referencias médicas abordan el tema con mayor o menor rigor científico. Explicaremos las diversas modalidades terapéuticas que se han descrito, basándonos en la mejor evidencia científica disponible sobre los hallazgos y recomendaciones más relevantes para el tratamiento y manejo de los pacientes con FM. No existe en la actualidad un criterio unánime para su tratamiento, ni ningún fármaco aprobado específicamente para la FM, por ello, en su tratamiento resulta fundamental el abordaje multidisciplinar basado en ejercicio físico moderado, tratamiento farmacológico y psicológico.

  17. Social Participation and Hours Worked


    Stefano Bartolini; Ennio Bilancini


    We investigate the relationship between social participation and the hours worked in the market. Social participation is the component of social capital that measures individuals? engagement in groups, associations and non-governmental organizations. We provide a model of consumer choice where social participation may be either a substitute or a complement to material consumption ? depending on whether participation is instrumentally or non-instrumentally motivated ? and where a local environ...


    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division


    Due to the extra workload generated by the global renewal of French cards and in order to preserve the level of service offered by the cards office, please note that this office will in future be open every morning from 8.30 a.m. to 12.30 p.m. until further notice. The service can be contacted by telephone during the same hours. Thank you for your understanding.

  19. Actualizing scholarship in senior baccalaureate nursing students. (United States)

    Sevean, Patricia A; Poole, Karen; Strickland, D Shane


    Nursing scholarship is difficult to define and often equated with either research and publication in academia or academic achievement of students, but the definition has recently been broadened to include clinical scholarship. This article emphasizes the connections between the theory of nursing scholarship and its application to advanced clinical practice for senior baccalaureate nursing students. Strategies used to enhance students' ability to operationalize scholarship include reflective journals, development of an abstract and professional paper, and presentation of a paper or poster at the student-led Nursing Scholarship Forum. The Forum is evaluated as a learning activity that helps students actualize scholarship. The results of the evaluation indicate this type of scholarly activity enhances nursing students' transition into the professional practice role.

  20. Comparison of nurse, system and quality patient care outcomes in 8-hour and 12-hour shifts. (United States)

    Stone, Patricia W; Du, Yunling; Cowell, Rhabia; Amsterdam, Norma; Helfrich, Thomas A; Linn, Robert W; Gladstein, Amy; Walsh, Mary; Mojica, Lorraine A


    Many nurses desire 12-hour shifts. However, there are concerns about implementation. We sought to compare the effects of 8- and 12-hour shifts on nurse, system, and quality patient care outcomes. We used a cross-sectional design with data collected from multiple sources in 2003-2004, including a nurse survey and administrative and patient records. We studied hospital nurses and patients in general adult wards, with outcomes including burnout, job satisfaction, scheduling satisfaction, preferences, intention to stay, and employee safety. System outcomes included recruitment and turnover, staffing, absenteeism, and related costs. A variety of quality patient care outcomes were measured from the 3 different types of data. Thirteen New York City hospitals participated; 805 surveys were examined from 99 nursing units (response rate 42%). Compared with nurses working 8-hour shifts, those working 12-hour shifts were on average more satisfied with their jobs, experienced less emotional exhaustion, 10 times more likely to be satisfied with schedules, 2 times as likely to perceive 12-hour schedules as important, and 58% less likely to report missing shifts; units with 12-hour shifts had lower vacancy rates and weeks to fill the position (all P values < or =0.05). There were no differences in patient outcomes. Nurses working 12-hour shifts were more satisfied. There were no differences in quality outcomes. Flexibility and choice in shift length are important elements in a positive nurse work environment. This study represents an innovative attempt by a labor-management bargaining group to make an evidence-based decision. We encourage others to conduct similar studies.

  1. The parameters of a national minimum hourly wage


    Askenazy, Philippe


    Both academic and political debates over the minimum wage generally focus on the minimum wage rate. However, the minimum wage is a complex institution composed of a wide variety of parameters. In this note, I show that nominal rates provide a very crude picture of minimal compensation and of actual employer cost by the comparison of the French, British and US Federal national minimum hourly wages. The extent of their coverage, enforcement procedures, and how the “wage” is defined differ widel...

  2. The analysis of actual versus perceived risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covello, V.T.; Flamm, W.G.; Rodricks, J.V.; Tardiff, R.G.


    The major aims of the Society for Risk Analysis, as stated in its constitution, are to promote knowledge and understanding of risk analysis techniques and their applications; to promote communication and interaction among those engaged in risk analysis; and to disseminate risk analysis information and promote the advancement of all aspects of risk analysis. Members of the Society are drawn from a variety of disciplines, including the health sciences, engineering, the physical sciences, the humanities, and the behavioral and social sciences. An important function of the Society is the annual meeting, at which various aspects of risk analysis are discussed. The first annual meeting, represented by this volume, was the International Workshop on the Analysis of Actual vs. Perceived Risks, held from June 1-3, 1981, at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC

  3. Compatibility of self-actualization and anxiety. (United States)

    Dodez, O; Zelhart, P F; Markley, R P


    Dabrowski's (1972) theory of positive disintegration argues that anxiety appears to be the dynamic of self-actualization. A study to assess this hypothesis (Wilkins, Hjelle, & Thompson, 1977) reported that self-actualization was incompatible with chronic, debilitating or neurotic anxiety. The current study further examined the empirical and conceptual relation between anxiety and self-actualization. A measure of self-actualization (the POI) and two measures of anxiety were taken from Ss (N = 126). Thirty-three items from the POI were found to be measures of anxiety and were scored negatively for self-actualization. Removal of anxiety items and rescoring of the POI yielded self-actualization measures that were related positively to anxiety test scores. The results indicate that the POI theoretically is biased against anxiety, the conclusion of Wilkins et al. is not necessary, and Dabrowski's theory remains viable.

  4. Short hours, long hours: Hour levels and trends in the retail industry in the United States, Canada, and Mexico


    Carré, Françoise; Tilly, Chris


    In settings where most workers have full-time schedules, hourly wages are appropriate primary indicators of job quality and worker outcomes. However, in sectors where full-time schedules do not dominate - primarily service-producing activities - total hours matter, in addition to hourly wages, for job quality and worker outcomes. In this paper we employ a sector-focused, comparative framework to further examine hours levels - measured as average weekly hours - and trends in Canada, the United...

  5. Estimating actual, potential, reference crop and pan evaporation using standard meteorological data: a pragmatic synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. McMahon


    Full Text Available This guide to estimating daily and monthly actual, potential, reference crop and pan evaporation covers topics that are of interest to researchers, consulting hydrologists and practicing engineers. Topics include estimating actual evaporation from deep lakes and from farm dams and for catchment water balance studies, estimating potential evaporation as input to rainfall-runoff models, and reference crop evapotranspiration for small irrigation areas, and for irrigation within large irrigation districts. Inspiration for this guide arose in response to the authors' experiences in reviewing research papers and consulting reports where estimation of the actual evaporation component in catchment and water balance studies was often inadequately handled. Practical guides using consistent terminology that cover both theory and practice are not readily available. Here we provide such a guide, which is divided into three parts. The first part provides background theory and an outline of the conceptual models of potential evaporation of Penman, Penman–Monteith and Priestley–Taylor, as well as discussions of reference crop evapotranspiration and Class-A pan evaporation. The last two sub-sections in this first part include techniques to estimate actual evaporation from (i open-surface water and (ii landscapes and catchments (Morton and the advection-aridity models. The second part addresses topics confronting a practicing hydrologist, e.g. estimating actual evaporation for deep lakes, shallow lakes and farm dams, lakes covered with vegetation, catchments, irrigation areas and bare soil. The third part addresses six related issues: (i automatic (hard wired calculation of evaporation estimates in commercial weather stations, (ii evaporation estimates without wind data, (iii at-site meteorological data, (iv dealing with evaporation in a climate change environment, (v 24 h versus day-light hour estimation of meteorological variables, and (vi uncertainty in

  6. Hourly and Daily Precipitation Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Precipitation reports submitted on many form types, including tabular and autographic charts. Reports are almost exclusively from the US Cooperative Observer Network.

  7. Subjective biological self and self-actualization. (United States)

    Sumerlin, J R; Berretta, S A; Privette, G; Bundrick, C M


    Ginsburg, Rogers, and Maslow, humanistic theorists, have maintained that the self is an emergent characteristic of one's biological makeup. The relationship between physical self-efficacy as an appraisal of subjective biology and self-actualization was examined in a sample of 160 black and white participants. An r of .46 supports the association of subjective biology and self-actualization. Whereas there were no gender or racial differences in scores on self-actualization, men scored higher on physical self-efficacy and subscales of perceived physical ability and perceived self-presentation confidence.

  8. CERN restaurants: opening hours during summer

    CERN Multimedia


    In the summer, the three CERN restaurants remain open during their usual hours. On Monday 1st August and Thursday 8 September, the Restaurant 1 will be open from 7:00 a.m. to 10:00 p.m.   The satellites will be open as follows: Building 6: normal hours Building 13: normal hours Building 30: normal hours Building 40: closing at 4:30 p.m. instead of 5:00 pm Building 54: normal hours in July, closed in August Building 864: normal hours Building 865: normal hours Building 774: normal hours

  9. Tolerance for ambiguity and self-actualization. (United States)

    Foxman, P


    This study was designed to test the hypothesis, implicit in several areas of previous research, that high tolerance for ambiguity is a cognitive style which reflects high levels of underlying psychological health. Using Self-Actualization scores on the Tennessee Self Concept Scale, 36 adult subjects were defined as relatively high or low in self-actualization with equal numbers of males and females in each group. All subjects then performed individually on the Rorschach test and the Rorschach protocols were rated reliably for degree of tolerance for ambiguity. It was found that regardless of sex the high self-actualization group exhibited a significantly higher level of tolerance for ambiguity than the low self-actualization group. The finding was interpreted as confirmation of the study's hypothesis.

  10. Marijuana, alcohol and actual driving performance (United States)


    The purpose of this study was to empirically determine the separate and combined effects of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and alcohol on actual driving performance. This was the first study ever in which the drugs' combined effects were measured...

  11. Self-Actualization, Liberalism, and Humanistic Education. (United States)

    Porter, Charles Mack


    The relationship between personality factors and political orientation has long been of interest to psychologists. This study tests the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between self-actualization and liberalism-conservatism. The hypothesis is supported. (Author)

  12. Las neurosis actuales y las psicosis ordinarias


    Aguirre, Javier


    El trabajo tiene por finalidad poner en tensión las categorías de psicosis ordinaria y neurosis actuales. En primer lugar, se procede a examinar ambas categorías para luego establecer sus puntos de coincidencia y disidencia. Se concluye que la categoría de neurosis actual propuesta por Freud, es una posible expresión de lo que en la actualidad se llama psicosis ordinaria.

  13. [Sujective evaluation of the duration of sleep periods: role of actual time and the representation rate of different EEG stages]. (United States)

    Danilin, V P; Latash, L P


    Subjective estimations of the duration of night sleep periods and their actual duration were compared in 29 healthy men 21--36 years of age, awoken from the night sleep. The comparisons concerned the duration of consecutive sleep cycles, long (almost whole sleep cycles) and short ("parts of the cycles") periods, short periods ("parts of the cycle") without REM and with it. It has been found that long and short sleep periods are correspondingly reflected in the subjective estimation of their duration. The comparison of the estimation rates of various stages revealed that the highest subjective estimation, reduced to an hour of real time (subjective "hour estimation") in the first three sleep cycles characterises the cycle parts, including REM, whereas the lowest one--cycle parts, represented only by slow sleep stages, including delta-sleep. Subjective estimation of the sleep cycle duration regularly lowers throughout night sleep from evening till morning. Thus, subjective estimation of the duration of sleep periods is determined by two factors: their actual duration and manifestation rate of different sleep stages. The course of subjective time count in the sleep cycle seems to be uneven: it is slowed down in delta-sleep and accelerated in REM sleep following delta-sleep.

  14. Progressive Digressions: Home Schooling for Self-Actualization. (United States)

    Rivero, Lisa


    Maslow's (1971) theory of primary creativeness is used as the basis for a self-actualization model of education. Examples of how to use the model in creative homeschooling are provided. Key elements include digressive and immersion learning, self-directed learning, and the integration of work and play. Teaching suggestions are provided. (Contains…

  15. Physician job satisfaction related to actual and preferred job size. (United States)

    Schmit Jongbloed, Lodewijk J; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Borleffs, Jan C C; Stewart, Roy E; Schönrock-Adema, Johanna


    Job satisfaction is essential for physicians' well-being and patient care. The work ethic of long days and hard work that has been advocated for decades is acknowledged as a threat for physicians' job satisfaction, well-being, and patient safety. Our aim was to determine the actual and preferred job size of physicians and to investigate how these and the differences between them influence physicians' job satisfaction. Data were retrieved from a larger, longitudinal study among physicians starting medical training at Groningen University in 1982/83/92/93 (N = 597). Data from 506 participants (85%) were available for this study. We used regression analysis to investigate the influence of job size on physicians' job satisfaction (13 aspects) and ANOVA to examine differences in job satisfaction between physicians wishing to retain, reduce or increase job size. The majority of the respondents (57%) had an actual job size less than 1.0 FTE. More than 80% of all respondents preferred not to work full-time in the future. Respondents' average actual and preferred job sizes were .85 FTE and .81 FTE, respectively. On average, respondents who wished to work less (35% of respondents) preferred a job size reduction of 0.18 FTE and those who wished to work more (12%) preferred an increase in job size of 0.16 FTE. Job size influenced satisfaction with balance work-private hours most (β = -.351). Physicians who preferred larger job sizes were - compared to the other groups of physicians - least satisfied with professional accomplishments. A considerable group of physicians reported a gap between actual and preferred job size. Realizing physicians' preferences as to job size will hardly affect total workforce, but may greatly benefit individual physicians as well as their patients and society. Therefore, it seems time for a shift in work ethic.

  16. The actual technological progress of NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florescu, Gheorghe; Popa, Adrian; Panaitescu, Valeriu


    The actual nuclear R and D issues require new technologies and continuous progress in order to find adequate and effective solutions in sustained and increasing energy demand. The current tendency in energy consumption and occurring of large consumers, especially from Asian countries, imposes finding new means for energy clean, large scale and sustained production. NPPs reliability and availability were permanently monitored and improved; in the mean time the safety of the nuclear energy production was under surveillance. Corresponding development of the new technologies and discovery of improved materials and adequate technological processes offers the possibilities for appropriate implementation and use of them in the NPPs systems configuration and functioning/operation. The modern technologies and scientific discoveries, also the international cooperation, offer the opportunities to brake the actual barriers in order to cumulate and use advanced energy production processes in finding new energy sources and to build improved, reliable and safety power plants. The monitoring systems, intelligent sensors and intelligent SSCs, nanotechnologies and and modern and intelligent materials constitute the main reasons in improvement of the NPPs systems configuration and processes. The paper presents: - The state of the art in the level of actual and useful technologies for nuclear power systems development; - The actual technological limits that need to be over passed for NPPs systems improvements; - The main systems that need improvement and reconfiguration for actual NPPs development and increase in efficient operation, appropriate availability and total safety; - The actual energy production issues; - The key arguments in sustaining the R and D new NPPs systems development; - Future trends in NPPs development; - The limitations in industrial processes knowledge and use. Appropriate R and D in the field of NPPs systems has a specific characteristic that is highlighted in

  17. The New Federal Wage-Hour, Equal Pay, and Equal Employment Opportunity Laws. Including 1974 Revisions. (United States)

    Institute For Management, Old Saybrook, CT.

    The book is designed to explain the entire Fair Labor Standards Act. The 1974 amendments are detailed regarding new and previously covered employees, agricultural labor, government employees, domestics, conglomerates, small stores, other revisions, overtime exemptions, and age discrimination. The document elaborates on specifications for overtime…

  18. 29 CFR 776.10 - Employees participating in the actual movement of commerce. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employees participating in the actual movement of commerce... commerce. (a) Under the principles stated in § 776.9, the wage and hours provisions of the Act apply... instrumentalities and channels of interstate and foreign commerce. Similarly, employees of such businesses as...

  19. Perceived and actual social discrimination: the case of overweight and social inclusion. (United States)

    Hartung, Freda-Marie; Renner, Britta


    The present study examined the correspondence between perceived and actual social discrimination of overweight people. In total, 77 first-year students provided self-ratings about their height, weight, and perceived social inclusion. To capture actual social inclusion, each participant nominated those fellow students (a) she/he likes and dislikes and (b) about whom she/he is likely to hear social news. Students with lower Body Mass Index (BMI) felt socially included, irrespective of their actual social inclusion. In contrast, students with higher BMI felt socially included depending on the degree of their actual social inclusion. Specifically, their felt social inclusion accurately reflected whether they were actually liked/disliked, but only when they were part of social news. When not part of social news, they also showed insensitivity to their actual social inclusion status. Thus, students with a lower BMI tended to be insensitive, while students with a higher BMI showed a differential sensitivity to actual social discrimination.

  20. Comparison of 44-hour and fixed 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in dialysis patients. (United States)

    Liu, Wenjin; Ye, Hong; Tang, Bing; Sun, Zhiping; Wen, Ping; Wu, Wenhui; Bian, Xueqing; Shen, Xia; Yang, Junwei


    The two most commonly used strategies to evaluate dialysis patients' blood pressure (BP) level are 44-hour and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). The objective of this study was to find an appropriate 24-hour period that correlated well with the 44-hour BP level and determine the differences between these strategies. In a group of 51 dialysis patients, the authors performed 44-hour ABPM and extracted data for a fixed 24-hour ABPM. The fixed 24-hour ABPM started at 6 am on the nondialysis day. A strong correlation was found between all parameters of 44-hour and the fixed 24-hour ABPM, with paired sample t test showing only small magnitude changes in a few parameters. Both 24-hour ABPM and 44-hour ABPM were superior to clinic BP in predicting left ventricular mass index (LVMI) by multiple regression analysis. It was found that 44-hour ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI), but not 24-hour AASI, had a positive association with LVMI (r=0.328, P=.021). However, after adjustment for 44-hour systolic blood pressure, this association disappeared. Fixed 24-hour ABPM is a good surrogate of 44-hour ABPM to some extent, while 44-hour ABPM can provide more accurate and detailed information. ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The actual universe of valuation standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Anghel


    Full Text Available In the actual context (with issues like as viability of the global markets, cross-border transactions, transparency in financial reporting etc. it is a common interest for professional valuers, investors, universities, researchers etc. to consider a convergent set of global professional valuation standards. It is also in their best interest to work towards enhancement and refinement of valuation methodologies and applications to be prepared to address valuation issues that are bound to arise in the future. The paper is a view of actual universe of valuation standards and options for national valuation standard enforcements starting from the operating system named International Valuation Standards (IVS.

  2. Towards Designing Android Faces after Actual Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik


    human) and its’ Original (the actual human). The emotional judgments were achieved through an online survey with video-stimuli and questionnaires, following a forced-choice design. Analysis of the results indicated that the emotional judgments for the Geminoid-DK highly depend on the emotional judgments...... initially made for the Original, suggesting that androids inherit the same style of facial expression as their originals. Our findings support the case of designing android faces after specific actual persons who portray facial features that are familiar to the users, and also relevant to the notion...

  3. Actual and preferred personality characteristics of physical educators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Cecić Erpič


    Full Text Available The Five-Factor Model of personality, which includes dimensions energy, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness, gained a growing acceptance by personality researchers. In the present study the actual personality characteristics of physical educators and the personality profile of an ideal (according to subjective evaluations of experts physical educator were investigated. The aim of the study was to examine differences between profiles of actual and preferred personality characteristics and to present differences in personality characteristics between male and female physical educators of different ages. The study included 76 (40 male, 36 female 24 to 58 year-old physical educators (mean age 39.7 years. 34 experts from the field of sport, physical education, and kinesiology evaluated the preferred personality structure of an ideal physical educator. The Big Five Observer (BFO was used to assess actual and preferred personality structures. These results show that the actual personality profile of physical educators is described with all five moderately high dimensions, which is relatively congruent with the social type from Holland's typology, characteristic of educators. In comparison with participants, an ideal physical educator should have equally expressed agreeableness, while other four dimensions should be highly expressed. Gender differences in energy and agreeableness (women have higher results in both dimensions were found significant. No significant age differences in the personality structure were obtained by a cross-sectional comparison.

  4. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential (United States)

    Clarken, Rodney H.


    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  5. Self-Actualizing: Myth or Reality? (United States)

    Butler, Robert R.


    The Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) was used to assess the impact of a semester-long encounter-group, personal-growth experience on students seeking degrees in counseling. Both the experimental and control groups showed gains in self-actualization. (Author)

  6. What is Process Tracing actually tracing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beach, Derek; Pedersen, Rasmus Brun

    and when we use PT case studies. First, there are differences in what we are actually tracing in the three variants, resulting in different methodological prescriptions for each variant. Second, the types of inferences being made are also different; the variants therefore have different analytical uses...

  7. Humanistic Education and Self-Actualization Theory. (United States)

    Farmer, Rod


    Stresses the need for theoretical justification for the development of humanistic education programs in today's schools. Explores Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and theory of self-actualization. Argues that Maslow's theory may be the best available for educators concerned with educating the whole child. (JHZ)

  8. Actual global problems of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninkovic, M.


    Personal views on some actual problems in radiation protection are given in this paper. Among these problems are: evolution methodology used in radiation protection regulations; radiation protection, nuclear energy and safety, and new approaches to the process of the hazardous substances management. An interesting fact relating to the X-ray, radiation protection and Nikola Tesla are given also. (author)

  9. Development and validation of a direct-comparison method for cardiac {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine washout rates derived from late 3-hour and 4-hour imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuda, Koichi; Hashimoto, Mitsumasa [Kanazawa Medical University, Department of Physics, Kahoku, Ishikawa (Japan); Nakajima, Kenichi; Matsuo, Shinro; Taki, Junichi; Kinuya, Seigo [Kanazawa University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan); Sugino, Shuichi [Okayama Kyokuto Hospital, Department of Radiology, Okayama, Okayama (Japan); Kirihara, Yumiko [FUJIFILM RI Pharma Co., Ltd., Chuo-Ku, Tokyo (Japan)


    The washout rate (WR) has been used in {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging to evaluate cardiac sympathetic innervation. However, WR varies depending on the time between the early and late MIBG scans. Late scans are performed at either 3 or 4 hours after injection of MIBG. The aim of this study was to directly compare the WR at 3 hours (WR{sub 3h}) with the WR at 4 hours (WR{sub 4h}). We hypothesized that the cardiac count would reduce linearly between the 3-hour and 4-hour scans. A linear regression model for cardiac counts at two time-points was generated. We enrolled a total of 96 patients who underwent planar {sup 123}I-MIBG scintigraphy early (15 min) and during the late phase at both 3 and 4 hours. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: a model-creation group (group 1) and a clinical validation group (group 2). Cardiac counts at 15 minutes (count{sub early}), 3 hours (count{sub 3h}) and 4 hours (count{sub 4h}) were measured. Cardiac count{sub 4h} was mathematically estimated using the linear regression model from count{sub early} and count{sub 3h}. In group 1, the actual cardiac count{sub 4h}/count{sub early} was highly significantly correlated with count{sub 3h}/count{sub early} (r = 0.979). In group 2, the average estimated count{sub 4h} was 92.8 ± 31.9, and there was no significant difference between this value and the actual count{sub 4h} (91.9 ± 31.9). Bland-Altman analysis revealed a small bias of -0.9 with 95 % limits of agreement of -6.2 and +4.3. WR{sub 4h} calculated using the estimated cardiac count{sub 4h} was comparable to the actual WR{sub 4h} (24.3 ± 9.6 % vs. 25.1 ± 9.7 %, p = ns). Bland-Altman analysis and the intraclass correlation coefficient showed that there was excellent agreement between the estimated and actual WR{sub 4h}. The linear regression model that we used accurately estimated cardiac count{sub 4h} using count{sub early} and count{sub 3h}. Moreover, WR{sub 4h} that was mathematically calculated using

  10. The importance of individual preferences when evaluating the associations between working hours and indicators of health and well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Kecklund, Göran; Ingre, Michael


    Previous studies indicate that the effect of a given shift schedule may depend on individual factors. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a misfit between individual preferences and actual working hours affected the association between working hours and self-reported indicator...

  11. Whiteheadian Actual Entitities and String Theory (United States)

    Bracken, Joseph A.


    In the philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead, the ultimate units of reality are actual entities, momentary self-constituting subjects of experience which are too small to be sensibly perceived. Their combination into "societies" with a "common element of form" produces the organisms and inanimate things of ordinary sense experience. According to the proponents of string theory, tiny vibrating strings are the ultimate constituents of physical reality which in harmonious combination yield perceptible entities at the macroscopic level of physical reality. Given that the number of Whiteheadian actual entities and of individual strings within string theory are beyond reckoning at any given moment, could they be two ways to describe the same non-verifiable foundational reality? For example, if one could establish that the "superject" or objective pattern of self- constitution of an actual entity vibrates at a specific frequency, its affinity with the individual strings of string theory would be striking. Likewise, if one were to claim that the size and complexity of Whiteheadian 'societies" require different space-time parameters for the dynamic interrelationship of constituent actual entities, would that at least partially account for the assumption of 10 or even 26 instead of just 3 dimensions within string theory? The overall conclusion of this article is that, if a suitably revised understanding of Whiteheadian metaphysics were seen as compatible with the philosophical implications of string theory, their combination into a single world view would strengthen the plausibility of both schemes taken separately. Key words: actual entities, subject/superjects, vibrating strings, structured fields of activity, multi-dimensional physical reality.

  12. ACGME proposes dropping the 16 hour resident shift limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA


    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME is proposing that first-year residents would no longer be limited to 16-hour shifts during the 2017-2018 academic year under a controversial proposal released today (1. Instead, individual residency programs could assign first-year trainees to shifts as long as 28 hours, the current limit for all other residents. The 28-hour maximum includes 4 transitional hours that's designed in part to help residents improve continuity of care. The plan to revise training requirements does not change other rules designed to protect all residents from overwork. including the maximum80 hours per week. The ACGME capped the shifts of first-year residents at 16 hours in 2011 as a part of an ongoing effort to make trainee schedules more humane and avoid clinical errors caused by sleep deprivation. ACGME CEO Thomas Nasca, MD, told Medscape Medical News that the problem arises largely from first-year residents not being ...

  13. Actual evaporation estimation from infrared measurement of soil surface temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Pognant


    Full Text Available Within the hydrological cycle, actual evaporation represents the second most important process in terms of volumes of water transported, second only to the precipitation phenomena. Several methods for the estimation of the Ea were proposed by researchers in scientific literature, but the estimation of the Ea from potential evapotranspiration often requires the knowledge of hard-to-find parameters (e.g.: vegetation morphology, vegetation cover, interception of rainfall by the canopy, evaporation from the canopy surface and uptake of water by plant roots and many existing database are characterized by missing or incomplete information that leads to a rough estimation of the actual evaporation amount. Starting from the above considerations, the aim of this study is to develop and validate a method for the estimation of the Ea based on two steps: i the potential evaporation estimation by using the meteorological data (i.e. Penman-Monteith; ii application of a correction factor based on the infrared soil surface temperature measurements. The dataset used in this study were collected during two measurement campaigns conducted both in a plain testing site (Grugliasco, Italy, and in a mountain South-East facing slope (Cogne, Italy. During those periods, hourly measurement of air temperature, wind speed, infrared surface temperature, soil heat flux, and soil water content were collected. Results from the dataset collected in the two testing sites show a good agreement between the proposed method and reference methods used for the Ea estimation.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hourly meteorological data of both dry bulb temperature and relative humidity for 18 locations in Nigeria for the period 1995 to 2009 were analysed to obtain the mean monthly average and monthly hourly average of each of the two meteorological variables for each month for each location. The difference between the ...

  15. 24-Hour Academic Libraries: Adjusting to Change (United States)

    Bowman, Adam C.


    The purpose of this study was to explore the adaptive measures that academic libraries perform when implementing and operating a 24-hour schedule. Five in-depth interviews were conducted with current managerial-level librarians at 24-hour academic libraries. The exploratory interviews revealed similar measures for security, budgeting, employee…

  16. 75 FR 2467 - Hours of Service (United States)


    ...-consecutive-hour off-duty period long enough to provide restorative sleep regardless of the number of hours... short rest periods during the work day improve driver alertness in the operation of a CMV? How long should these rest periods be? At what point in the duty cycle or drive-time would short rest periods...

  17. Registrar working hours in Cape Town

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    In the past surgical registrars were expected to work unusual- ly long hours. This was thought to provide better patient care, and to result in better registrar training. Junior doctors in the USA worked between 95 and 136 hours per week.1. The paradigm changed in 1984 after the death of Libby Zion in a New York hospital ...

  18. Cost-efficient staffing under annualized hours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Egbert; Hans, Elias W.; Veltman, Bart; Berrevoets, Leo M.; Berden, Hubert J.J.M.


    We study how flexibility in workforce capacity can be used to efficiently match capacity and demand. Flexibility in workforce capacity is introduced by the annualized hours regime. Annualized hours allow organizations to measure working time per year, instead of per month or per week. An additional

  19. 20 CFR 801.304 - Business hours. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business hours. 801.304 Section 801.304 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ESTABLISHMENT AND OPERATION OF THE BOARD Action by the Board § 801.304 Business hours. The office of the Clerk of the Board at Washington, DC...

  20. 17 CFR 201.104 - Business hours. (United States)


    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business hours. 201.104 Section 201.104 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Rules of Practice General Rules § 201.104 Business hours. The Headquarters office of the Commission, at...

  1. Ergonomic Microscope: Need of the Hour (United States)

    Mhaske, Shubhangi Ashok; Ahmad, Malik Ajaz; Yuwanati, Monal B.; Prabhu, Shweta; Pardhe, Nilesh


    Background Prolonged use of conventional microscope develops musculo-skeletal injuries like chronic pain syndrome, including shoulder, neck, back aches & fatigue. Since the problems go unnoticed, the injuries can lead to some serious permanent damages. This further leads to a compromise in the health and welfare of the person and the institute. Hence, an understanding about the ergonomics is the need of the hour in this postmodern era. Inspite of few studies and surveys about ergonomics, there is still a steep rise in the musculoskeletal disorders. Aim of the Study The aim of our study was to gauge the general awareness of pathologists, microbiologists and oral pathologists towards ergonomics in their profession. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional survey based study was de­signed, which included a questionnaire. The questionnaire included multiple choice questions with four alternatives. Professionals (pathologists, microbiologists and oral pathologists) were included in the survey. Teaching faculty (Professors, Associate Professors and Lecturers) and Post graduate students formed the study group. Results and Observations The response to the questionnaire was 100%. Less than 50% of oral pathologists were aware of the importance of ergonomics in their profession. The most common site affected was neck and back. One of the drastic observations was that, Oral Pathologists suffered from a combination of problems affecting neck, back, eyes, headache, shoulders, arms and wrists. Conclusion Increase in our understanding regarding ergonomic­ally designed microscopes can increase our efficiency and in turn improve our general well-being. With improvements in ergonomics, professionals would be able to modify and optimize their working conditions. Certain guidelines need to be followed by the profes­sionals to reduce chances of musculoskeletal disorders. PMID:26155565

  2. Mismatch in working hours and affective commitment : Differential relationships for distinct employee groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmerik, I.J. Hetty van; Sanders, Karin


    Purpose – This study examined the relationship between two types of mismatch (i.e. non-correspondence between preferred and actual number of hours), and affective commitment. It was argued that specific groups of employees, i.e. women and part-time working employees, attach more importance to their

  3. Long-term leach rates of glasses containing actual waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiley, J.R.; LeRoy, J.H.


    Leach rates of borosilicate glasses that contained actual Savannah River Plant waste were measured. Leaching was done by water and by buffer solutions of pH 4, 7, and 9. Leach rates were then determined from the amount of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, and Pu released into the leach solutions. The cumulative fractions leached were fit to a mathematical model that included leaching by diffusion and glass dissolution

  4. Actuality and fake tense in conditionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Mackay


    Full Text Available Sabine Iatridou (2000 and Katrin Schulz (2014 defend accounts of the past tense in subjunctive conditionals according to which the past tense has a modal reading that excludes the world of utterance or some set of epistemically possible worlds. I argue here that these views give an unsatisfactory treatment of certain subjunctive conditionals that contain embedded indicative clauses pertaining to the actual world. BibTeX info

  5. Paradigmas de control en las organizaciones actuales


    Basabe-Aldecoa, M. (Marisol)


    Los sistemas de control han adquirido en la última década rango de herramienta estratégica para la gestión. Apoyándose en este cometido y estudiando el entorno competitivo actual este artículo ofrece un esquema conceptual desde el que plantear el diseño más apropiado para los sistemas de control.



    Подгорный, И. П.


    Medical gas oxygen is one of the most popular medicines. Its production is the major branch of the pharmaceutical industry. Provision of its high quality in the process of obtaining is an actual problem for companies of cryogenic oxygen production. For this purpose a concrete enterprise necessary to implement a quality assurance system in the production of medicinal products (QAS). The main component of the QAS is good manufacturing practice (Good Manufacturing Practice, GMP). It is shown how...

  7. Cesium ion exchange using actual waste: Column size considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, K.P.


    It is presently planned to remove cesium from Hanford tank waste supernates and sludge wash solutions using ion exchange. To support the development of a cesium ion exchange process, laboratory experiments produced column breakthrough curves using wastes simulants in 200 mL columns. To verify the validity of the simulant tests, column runs with actual supernatants are being planned. The purpose of these actual waste tests is two-fold. First, the tests will verify that use of the simulant accurately reflects the equilibrium and rate behavior of the resin compared to actual wastes. Batch tests and column tests will be used to compare equilibrium behaviors and rate behaviors, respectively. Second, the tests will assist in clarifying the negative interactions between the actual waste and the ion exchange resin, which cannot be effectively tested with simulant. Such interactions include organic fouling of the resin and salt precipitation in the column. These effects may affect the shape of the column breakthrough curve. The reduction in column size also may change the shape of the curve, making the individual effects even more difficult to sort out. To simplify the evaluation, the changes due to column size must be either understood or eliminated. This report describes the determination of the column size for actual waste testing that best minimizes the effect of scale-down. This evaluation will provide a theoretical basis for the dimensions of the column. Experimental testing is still required before the final decision can be made. This evaluation will be confined to the study of CS-100 and R-F resins with NCAW simulant and to a limited extent DSSF waste simulant. Only the cesium loading phase has been considered


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Aleksanyan


    Full Text Available Dispatch reliability – is one of the key criteria of aircraft technical operation process efficiency which reflects economic efficiency of airline activity. The higher the operational reliability, the better the level of aircraft operation in airline, the higher maintenance quality and safety policy is more effective. Due to the lack of unified procedure of dispatch reliability control both for aircraft manufacturers and Russian Federation aircraft operators and based on international experience it was concluded that there is a need for dispatch reliability specification by introducing a number of parameters, definitions and development, thereby the unified updated methodic of calculation. In this work six basic and three auxiliary parameters are introduced, the following terms and definitions are established: dispatch reliability, operational reliability, ground operational interruptions, operational interruptions, in-flight  interruptions. A unified actualized methodic of dispatch reliability and operational reliability calculation is developed, which is reasonable and more accurate. Since the aircraft dispatch reliability includes the notion of Regularity and Punctuality, definitions and criteria calculation are given.  The detailed example of criteria calculation is shown: dispatch reliability, dispatch regularity, flight punctuality, operational reliability, flight delays for a hundred landings, aircraft changes for a hundred landings, flight cancellations for a hundred landings.

  9. Long working hours and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkila, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T.; Madsen, Ida E. H.


    per week was associated with 1.60-fold (95% confidence interval 1.12–2.29) increase in female breast cancer risk independently of age, socioeconomic position, shift- and night-time work and lifestyle factors, but this observation may have been influenced by residual confounding from parity......Background: Working longer than the maximum recommended hours is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the relationship of excess working hours with incident cancer is unclear. Methods: This multi-cohort study examined the association between working hours and cancer risk...... in 116 462 men and women who were free of cancer at baseline. Incident cancers were ascertained from national cancer, hospitalisation and death registers; weekly working hours were self-reported. Results: During median follow-up of 10.8 years, 4371 participants developed cancer (n colorectal cancer: 393...

  10. SO2 8 Hour Nonattainment Areas (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Sulfur dioxide 8 hour...

  11. Ozone Nonattainment Areas - 8 Hour (1997 Standard) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone over 8 hours and...

  12. U.S. Hourly Precipitation Data Publication (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This publication contains hourly precipitation amounts obtained from recording rain gages located at National Weather Service, Federal Aviation Administration, and...

  13. U.S. Hourly Precipitation Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly Precipitation Data (HPD) is digital data set DSI-3240, archived at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). The primary source of data for this file is...

  14. Comparative study of methods for potential and actual evapotranspiration determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolev, B.


    Two types of methods for potential and actual evapotranspiration determining were compared. The first type includes neutron gauge, tensiometers, gypsum blocks and lysimeters. The actual and potential evapotranspiration were calculated by water balance equation. The second type of methods used a simulation model for all calculation. The aim of this study was not only to compare and estimate the methods using. It was mainly pointed on calculations of water use efficiency and transpiration coefficient in potential production situation. This makes possible to choose the best way for water consumption optimization for a given crop. The final results find with the best of the methods could be used for applying the principles of sustainable agriculture in random region of Bulgarian territory. (author)

  15. Neoadjuvant Treatment in Rectal Cancer: Actual Status (United States)

    Garajová, Ingrid; Di Girolamo, Stefania; de Rosa, Francesco; Corbelli, Jody; Agostini, Valentina; Biasco, Guido; Brandi, Giovanni


    Neoadjuvant (preoperative) concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has become a standard treatment of locally advanced rectal adenocarcinomas. The clinical stages II (cT3-4, N0, M0) and III (cT1-4, N+, M0) according to International Union Against Cancer (IUCC) are concerned. It can reduce tumor volume and subsequently lead to an increase in complete resections (R0 resections), shows less toxicity, and improves local control rate. The aim of this review is to summarize actual approaches, main problems, and discrepancies in the treatment of locally advanced rectal adenocarcinomas. PMID:22295206

  16. Actuality of the Einstein theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanenko, D.D.


    Problems of actuality of the Einstein theory of gravitation are lightened. The great Einstein theory of gravitation is shown to remain a reliable base of understanding of modern physical world pattern and its inevitable further inexhaustible precising. The main GRT difficulties are enumirated: determination of reference systems, presence of singularities in the theory, absence of consistent determination of the gravity energy, impossibility of accounting the relations between atomic, gravitational and cosmological characteristics. The attention is paid to gauge, twistor problems and to unified interaction theory. The great contribution of the soviet science in the theory of gravitation is stressed

  17. Hourly Updated GNSS Orbit and Clock (United States)

    Song, S.; Xue, J.


    With the development of the performance of GNSS, the hourly updated orbit and clock of GNSS are paid much more attention and used by more and more users because of the timeliness and high accuracy. The hourly GNSS orbit and clock are produced routinely in Shanghai Analysis Center(AC) of the International GNSS Monitoring and Assessment Service (iGMAS).In this article, the accuracy of hourly and 6-hourly updated ultra-rapid GPS,GLONASS,GALILEO,BDS orbit and clock (SHU1 and SHU6) are analyzed relative to the final production in detail. The analysis show that, in calculation session, there's no much difference between the mean SHU1 and SHU6 RMS and STD for GNSS orbit and clock. However, for BDS clock in prediction session, the RMS and STD of BDS SHU1 are 2.6ns and 0.5ns respectively, the RMS of BDS SHU6 increase from 2.7ns to 4.5ns from the 1st to the 6th hour prediction session, but there's no much changes of STD. For GPS clock in prediction session, the RMS and STD of GPS SHU1 is quite stable with 0.5ns and 0.2ns.The RMS of GPS SHU6 clock increase from 0.6ns to 1.0ns from the 1st to the 6th hour, but STD is stable at about 0.2ns.For the orbit in calculate session, the RMS of BDS SHU1 is a little less than that of SHU6,the RMS of GPS SHU1 and SHU6 orbit are approximately at the same level. In prediction session, the RMS of IGSO/MEO for BDS SHU1 is relative stable, but the RMS of SHU6 1st-6th hour prediction session increase from about 26.5cm to 32.7cm. The RMS of GPS SHU1 orbit's prediction session is about 3.4cm,but which increase from 3.3cm to 4.3cm for GPS SHU6 1st-6th hour prediction session.The comparison of GLONASS and GALILEO orbit and clock also will be described.The results show that the hourly update is more important for BDS at this stage.Moreover,some problems appearing in satellites and stations can be found earlier by 1 hourly updated frequency.

  18. Accuracy of 24- and 48-Hour Forecasts of Haines' Index (United States)

    Brian E. Potter; Jonathan E. Martin


    The University of Wisconsin-Madison produces Web-accessible, 24- and 48-hour forecasts of the Haines Index (a tool used to measure the atmospheric potential for large wildfire development) for most of North America using its nonhydrostatic modeling system. The authors examined the accuracy of these forecasts using data from 1999 and 2000. Measures used include root-...

  19. 77 FR 64093 - Hours of Service of Drivers (United States)


    ... public listening session to solicit information, concepts, ideas, and information on hours-of- service..., the Agency would like to know what factors, issues, and data it should consider as it determines..., please include a self- addressed, stamped envelope or postcard or print the acknowledgement page that...

  20. Estimation of global solar radiation from sunshine hours for Warri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple linear regression models were developed to estimate the monthly daily sunshine hours using four parameters during a period of eleven years (1997 to 2007) for Warri, Nigeria (Latitude of 5o 34' 21.0''); the parameters include, Relative Humidity, Maximum and Minimum Temperature, Rainfall and Wind Speed.

  1. estimation of global solar radiation from sunshine hours for warri

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Multiple linear regression models were developed to estimate the monthly daily sunshine hours using four parameters during a period of eleven years (1997 to 2007) for Warri, Nigeria (Latitude of 5o. 34' 21.0''); the parameters include, Relative Humidity, Maximum and Minimum Temperature, Rainfall and Wind Speed.

  2. La escritura intermedial en la escena actual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Thenon


    Full Text Available Las escrituras artísticas actuales integran, en el marco determinado por las realidades intermediales de la escena tecnológica, el concepto de diseño como manipulación perceptiva del espacio, lo que constituye uno de los instrumentos determinantes en la puesta en marcha de un cuadro compositivo de resonancias transformacionales. Podríamos en este sentido hablar de una nueva ecología artística y en especial, teatral. En la renovación del pensamiento teatral actualizado, fuertemente influenciado por la estructura discursiva cinematográfica y por los universos sensoriales de la cultura tecnológica de la imagen y del sonido, está la base de la multiplicación diegética, de la superposición, de la fragmentación de los discursos y de la praxis inter-relacional en la que radica, en gran medida, la potencia intermedial de la escena actual.

  3. Periodicity and self-actualization in women. (United States)

    Niesz, N L


    Studied the relationship between menstrual cycle phase and self-actualization as measured by the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI). In classroom testing sessions, 160 high school students completed the POI and personal data sheets, which gave information about their menstrual cycle phase. Premenstrual, menstrual, and midcycle groups of 20 Ss each were formed from those girls eligible for inclusion in each condition. Three one-by-three analyses of variance were run using the TC, I, and TC + I scores of the POI, which were selected as the best overall measures of self-actualization. A significant (p less than .05) difference on TC + I was found; subsequent t-tests revealed that the menstrual group's TC + I score was significantly (p less than .02) higher than that of the midcycle group. The difference between menstrual and premenstrual Ss on TC + I, though not significant, lay in the same direction and was of the same order of magnitude. Possible explanations for the results and implications for future testing that involves females are presented briefly.

  4. Maximizing utilization of sport halls during peak hours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Evald Bundgård; Forsberg, Peter

    the number of participants 7.5 persons higher pr. activity compared to club activities. This implies that clubs during peak hours could include more participants. Another possibility to increase utilization is if the management of sport facilities forced sport clubs and other organisers to adapt......BACKGROUNDDuring peak hours (4.30pm-8pm) demand for timeslots in sport halls in Denmark are high and there are few timeslots available. Further, focus on how public resources are spent most efficient is increasing (Iversen, 2013). This makes it interesting to analyse how utilization could...... be increased during peak hours. DATA AND METHODOLOGYData is collected by observation of activities during two weeks on for example whether halls are used or not; the amount of playing field used; and number of participants (Iversen, 2012). Data on 1.331 activities in 36 sport halls across 4 municipalities have...

  5. Epidemiology of hyperbilirubinemia in the first 24 hours after birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarrinkoub F


    Full Text Available   Background: Jaundice is one of the most frequent problems observed in newborns. Our purpose was to investigate the incidence and the risk factors on jaundice noted in the first 24 hours after birth.Methods: All newborns observed to have jaundice within the first 24 hours after birth were enrolled prospectively in this study. Laboratory evaluations included blood group typing of mother and newborn, hemoglobin and hematocrit, complete blood count, peripheral blood smear, reticulocyte count, G6PD activity, maternal indirect and neonatal direct Coombs test, and serum total, conjugated, and unconjugated bilirubin. In all cases, gender, birth weight, Apgar scores, gestational age, mode of delivery, birth trauma, cephalhematoma, maternal age, parity, or any siblings with neonatal jaundice were recorded. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Student's t-, and chi-square tests.Results: Of a total of 2096 newborns delivered in one year, 122 (5.8% developed jaundice within the first 24 hours after birth. Risk factors for hyperbilirubinemia were ABO incompatibility, prematurity, infection, G6PD deficiency, cephalhematoma, asphyxia, and Rh disease. There were no statistically significant relationships between jaundice and maternal age, parity, mode of delivery, neonatal gender or previous siblings with jaundice (p>0.05.Conclusions: Jaundice observed in the initial 24 hours after birth was infrequent, but clinically significant. All newborns should be followed by repeated exams within the first 24 hours after birth and before discharge, especially if the maternal blood group is O.

  6. Self-Actualization Level as Predictor of Practicum Supervision Effectiveness. (United States)

    Deming, Anne L.


    Counselor growth in self-actualization was not affected by the level of self-actualization of the supervisor. Counseling students gained in self-actualization whether or not they were enrolled in a practicum and regardless of the level of self-actualization of their supervisors. (Author)

  7. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The APH...

  8. Long working hours and alcohol use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Nyberg, Solja T


    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the association between long working hours and alcohol use. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. DATA SOURCES: A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases in April 2014 for published studies......, supplemented with manual searches. Unpublished individual participant data were obtained from 27 additional studies. REVIEW METHODS: The search strategy was designed to retrieve cross sectional and prospective studies of the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Summary estimates were...... countries. The pooled maximum adjusted odds ratio for the association between long working hours and alcohol use was 1.11 (95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.18) in the cross sectional analysis of published and unpublished data. Odds ratio of new onset risky alcohol use was 1.12 (1.04 to 1...

  9. Persistence and Cycles in US Hours Worked


    Guglielmo Maria Caporale; Luis A. Gil-Alana


    This paper analyses monthly hours worked in the US over the sample period 1939m1 – 2011m10 using a cyclical long memory model; this is based on Gegenbauer processes and characterised by autocorrelations decaying to zero cyclically and at a hyperbolic rate along with a spectral density that is unbounded at a non-zero frequency. The reason for choosing this specification is that the periodogram of the hours worked series has a peak at a frequency away from zero. The empirical results confirm th...

  10. Hourly wind speed analysis in Sicily

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bivona, S.; Leone, C. [Palermo Univ., Dip di Fisica e Technologie Relative, Palermo (Italy); Burlon, R. [Palermo Univ., Dip. di Ingegnaria Nucleare, Palermo (Italy)


    The hourly average wind speed data recorded by CNMCA (Centro Nazionale di Meteorologia e Climatologia Aeronautica) have been used to study the statistical properties of the wind speed at nine locations on Sicily. By grouping the observations month by month, we show that the hourly average wind speed, with calms omitted, is represented by a Weibull function. The suitability of the distribution is judged by the discrepancies between the observed and calculated values of the monthly average wind speed and of the standard deviation. (Author)

  11. Effectiveness of Policies Restricting Hours of Alcohol Sales in Preventing Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms (United States)

    Hahn, Robert A.; Kuzara, Jennifer L.; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S.; Toomey, Traci; Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Lawrence, Briana


    Local, state, and national policies that limit the hours that alcoholic beverages may be available for sale might be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of such policies. All of the studies included in this review assessed the effects of increasing hours of sale in on-premises settings (in which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) in high-income nations. None of the studies was conducted in the U.S. The review team’s initial assessment of this evidence suggested that changes of less than 2 hours were unlikely to significantly affect excessive alcohol consumption and related harms; to explore this hypothesis, studies assessing the effects of changing hours of sale by less than 2 hours and by 2 or more hours were assessed separately. There was sufficient evidence in ten qualifying studies to conclude that increasing hours of sale by 2 or more hours increases alcohol-related harms. Thus, disallowing extensions of hours of alcohol sales by 2 or more should be expected to prevent alcohol-related harms, while policies decreasing hours of sale by 2 hours or more at on-premises alcohol outlets may be an effective strategy for preventing alcohol-related harms. The evidence from six qualifying studies was insufficient to determine whether increasing hours of sale by less than 2 hours increases excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:21084080

  12. The History of the Student Credit Hour. (United States)

    Shedd, Jessica M.


    Traces the history of the student credit hour, designed at the end of the 19th century to translate high school work to college admissions officers. It was expanded to higher education to record elective course work and became widespread in response to calls to document workload and institutional productivity. (SLD)

  13. 75 FR 9376 - Hours of Service (United States)


    ... is the minimum time in each period necessary to provide restorative sleep? 2. Could the 14-hour on... FMCSA. A. Rest and On-Duty Time 1. Would mandatory short rest periods during the work day improve driver alertness in the operation of a CMV? How long should these rest periods be? At what point in the duty cycle...

  14. 75 FR 285 - Hours of Service (United States)


    ... period long enough to provide restorative sleep regardless of the number of hours worked prior to the... split into two periods, what is the minimum time in each period necessary to provide restorative sleep... periods during the work day improve driver alertness in the operation of a CMV? How long should these rest...

  15. Installation Service - Changes in opening hours

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department


    For organizational matters, please note that, as from 15 March 2010, the Installation Service will have wen opening hours. The new schedule will be from 14:00 to 17:00 (Monday to Friday). Contact persons are: Martine Briant, Karine Robert and Claudia Bruggmann. The office address remains 73-3-014. Installation Service

  16. Electoral (Amendment) (Hours of Polling) Bill 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham; Hunt, Brian; Doyle, Andrew


    Private Members' Bill (legislation) introduced in Dáil Éireann (House of Deputies), Houses of the Oireachtas (Parliament of Ireland). An Act to set voting hours for Dáil Elections, Dáil Bye-Elections, Presidential Elections, European Parliament Elections, Local Government Elections and Referenda ...

  17. The 24-Hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge (United States)

    Galluzzo, Benjamin J.; Wendt, Theodore J.


    Across the mathematics curriculum there is a renewed emphasis on applications of mathematics and on mathematical modeling. Providing students with modeling experiences beyond the ordinary classroom setting remains a challenge, however. In this article, we describe the 24-hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge, an extracurricular event that exposes…

  18. Production Facility Prototype Blower 1000 Hour Test Results II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wass, Alexander Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dalmas, Dale Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Frank Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Long duration tests of the Aerzen GM 12.4 roots style blower in a closed loop configuration provides valuable data and lessons learned for long-term operation at the Mo-99 production facility. The blower was operated in a closed loop configuration with the flow conditions anticipated in plant operation with a Mo-100 target inline. The additional thermal energy generated from beam heating of the Mo-100 disks were not included in these tests. Five 1000 hour tests have been completed since the first test was performed in January of 2016. All five 1000 hour tests have proven successful in exposing preventable issues related to oil and helium leaks. All blower tests to this date have resulted in stable blower performance and consistency. A summary of the results for each test, including a review of the first and second tests, are included in this report.

  19. The relationship between self-actualization and psychosocial maturity. (United States)

    Olczak, P V; Goldman, J A


    Similarities were noted between Maslow's notion of self-actualization (SA) and Erikson's notion of psychosocial maturity. Previous research by Simmons has shown a significant relationship between identity achievement status and the degree of SA as measured by the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI). Results of the present study extend these findings to include one's total level of psychosocial maturity as measured by Constantinople's Inventory of Psychosocial Development (IPD). Highly significant positive correlations were obtained between one's overall score on the IPD and the two major dimensions of the POI. Implications of this relationship were discussed.

  20. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Prediction of Cesium Extraction from Actual Wastes and Actual Waste Simulants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Sloop, F.V. Jr.; Moyer, B.A.


    This report presents the work that followed the CSSX model development completed in FY2002. The developed cesium and potassium extraction model was based on extraction data obtained from simple aqueous media. It was tested to ensure the validity of the prediction for the cesium extraction from actual waste. Compositions of the actual tank waste were obtained from the Savannah River Site personnel and were used to prepare defined simulants and to predict cesium distribution ratios using the model. It was therefore possible to compare the cesium distribution ratios obtained from the actual waste, the simulant, and the predicted values. It was determined that the predicted values agree with the measured values for the simulants. Predicted values also agreed, with three exceptions, with measured values for the tank wastes. Discrepancies were attributed in part to the uncertainty in the cation/anion balance in the actual waste composition, but likely more so to the uncertainty in the potassium concentration in the waste, given the demonstrated large competing effect of this metal on cesium extraction. It was demonstrated that the upper limit for the potassium concentration in the feed ought to not exceed 0.05 M in order to maintain suitable cesium distribution ratios

  1. Tolerable versus actual soil erosion rates in Europe (United States)

    Verheijen, F. G. A.; Jones, R. J. A.; Rickson, R. J.; Smith, C. J.


    Erosion is a major threat to soil resources in Europe, and may impair their ability to deliver a range of ecosystem goods and services. This is reflected by the European Commission's Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection, which recommends an indicator-based approach for monitoring soil erosion. Defined baseline and threshold values are essential for the evaluation of soil monitoring data. Therefore, accurate spatial data on both soil loss and soil genesis are required, especially in the light of predicted changes in climate patterns, notably frequency, seasonal distribution and intensity of precipitation. Rates of soil loss are reported that have been measured, modelled or inferred for most types of soil erosion in a variety of landscapes, by studies across the spectrum of the Earth sciences. Natural rates of soil formation can be used as a basis for setting tolerable soil erosion rates, with soil formation consisting of mineral weathering as well as dust deposition. This paper reviews the concept of tolerable soil erosion and summarises current knowledge on rates of soil formation, which are then compared to rates of soil erosion by known erosion types, for assessment of soil erosion monitoring at the European scale. A modified definition of tolerable soil erosion is proposed as 'any actual soil erosion rate at which a deterioration or loss of one or more soil functions does not occur,' actual soil erosion being 'the total amount of soil lost by all recognised erosion types.' Even when including dust deposition in soil formation rates, the upper limit of tolerable soil erosion, as equal to soil formation, is ca. 1.4 t ha - 1 yr - 1 while the lower limit is ca. 0.3 t ha - 1 yr - 1 , for conditions prevalent in Europe. Scope for spatio-temporal differentiation of tolerable soil erosion rates below this upper limit is suggested by considering (components of) relevant soil functions. Reported rates of actual soil erosion vary much more than those for soil formation

  2. La estructura resistente en la arquitectura actual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manterola Armisén, J.


    Full Text Available A significant portion in nowadays architecture uses the resistant structures as a fundamental element conveying expression to a building. Resistant structures usually designed, calculated and built by engineers are in some occasions -those that draw our attention now- designed by architects who stress the plastic dimension. Sometimes architects have just tried to soften the elementality of the resistance per se. To abandon the quantitative element to get centered in the qualitative and expressive is a leitmotiv in the architectural proceedings that has been brilliantly fruitful in many an occasion -notice Frei Otto's work among others- but that, in other cases, damages the understanding of the resistant aspect by excessively priorizing the structure appearance upon the structure itself. This article makes a critical account of a series of structures in recent buildings, classified by resistance typologies, flat or spatial trusses, frames, domes, hanging and distensible roofs, tensigrity structures, etc., preceded by a retrospect on how resistance has been traditionally understood.

    Una parte de la arquitectura actual se caracteriza por utilizar la estructura resistente como el elemento expresivo fundamental del edificio. Las estructuras resistentes, diseñadas, calculadas y construidas hasta ahora por ingenieros, han pasado, en algunas ocasiones -las que aquí nos interesan-, a ser diseñadas por arquitectos que acentúan su dimensión plástica. En otras ocasiones los arquitectos se han reducido a dulcificar la elementalidad de lo resistente en cuanto tal. El abandono de lo cuantitativo, para centrarse en lo cualitativo y expresivo, es el "leit motiv" de ese proceder arquitectónico que ha dado frutos muy brillantes en bastantes ocasiones, no hay sino que ver el trabajo de Frei Otto y otros, pero que, en otros casos, perjudican el entendimiento de lo resistente al primar, excesivamente, la apariencia de estructura sobre lo que es la

  3. Radiation safety actuality in Republic of Moldova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuharuk, E.S.


    Radioecological monitoring issues and radiation safety are actual in the Republic of Moldova. Japan events show us the possibility of natural disasters. Republic of Moldova is surrounded by 8 NPPs, the closest being at the distance of 160 km. Moldovas territory is in seismic zone where underground earthquake shocks reaches 7 points or more. Thatis why radiation safety and radioecological monitoring is actual in our republic. Traces of Chernobyl were left in Moldovas soils. The fallouts of radio nuclides formed on the soil surfaces in the Republic of Moldova following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station Accident have been continuously affected by attacks of both natural and technicaly generated agents since the time of fallout. During the past decade a shift in emphasis has taken place regarding the need for more complete and accurate information on reservoir sedimentation. Classical sedimentation surveys involve repeated field measurement and, therefore, this is probably the most costly and time consuming method. The application of radio nuclides, particularly Cs 137, for water erosion and sedimentation studies in Republic of Moldova has not been attempted so far. This paper presents the results obtained on reservoir sedimentation rates in an area subjected to wide range in land degradation dy sheet-rill erosion. The profil characteristics support the assumption that in most undisturbed sites there is a sharp decline in Cs 137 activity with increasing dept. Such an asymmetrical distribution of the Cs 137 would suggest a standard pattern in the form of a cantilever. If the validity of this assamption is accepted it is possible to define two major types of Cs 137 cantilever distribution: shallow and deep buried cantilever. The main criterion in classifying these pattents lies generally in the shape of Cs 137 depth profile and particularly in burial magnitude of Cs 137 peak derived from Chernobyl. Hills area has been impacted by greatest sendimentation. This regional

  4. Nanomaterials environmental risks and recycling: Actual issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Dragana


    Full Text Available Nanotechnologies are being spoken of as the driving force behind a new industrial revolution. Nanoscience has matured significantly during the last decade as it has transitioned from bench top science to applied technology. Presently, nanomaterials are used in a wide variety of commercial products such as electronic components, sports equipment, sun creams and biomedical applications. The size of nanoparticles allows them to interact strongly with biological structures, so they present potential human and environmental health risk. Nanometer size presents also a problem for separation, recovery, and reuse of the particulate matter. Therefore, industrial-scale manufacturing and use of nanomaterials could have strong impact on human health and the environment or the problematic of nanomaterials recycling. The catch-all term ''nanotechnology' is not sufficiently precise for risk governance and risk management purposes. The estimation of possible risks depends on a consideration of the life cycle of the material being produced, which involves understanding the processes and materials used in manufacture, the likely interactions between the product and individuals or the environment during its manufacture and useful life, and the methods used in its eventual disposal. From a risk-control point of view it will be necessary to systematically identify those critical issues, which should be looked at in more detail. Brief review of actual trends in nanomaterials environmental risks and recycling is given in this paper.

  5. The Actual Problems of Modern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya E. Anikeeva


    Full Text Available The important aim of national and Spanish historiography and political science is to study history and foreign policy of modern Spain. The author studied articles and monographies of spanish politicians and researchers ( M. Rahoy, I. Aries, A. Rubalcaba, I. Molina for the preparation of this article during the scientific trip to Madrid (Complutense University, Faculty of Political Science and Sociology, which was held in the framework of cooperation between the Bank Santander and MGIMO (University. The paper analyzes the political and economic aspects of life in Spain, and its foreign policy of the period of government of Mariano Rajoy (from 2011 to the present time. The article is dedicated to actual problems of modern Spain: the economy and the priorities of the government of M.Rajoy, the problem of separatism and political system of the country. Modern Spain is still recovering economically from the euro debt crisis and continues to struggle with near-record unemployment. Domestic economic recovery of Spain and the country's foreign position are closely linked. The European integration process still remains the main strategic task of the spanish foreign policy. Spain increases its role in world politics and obtains a non-permanent UN's Security Council seat for the 2015-2016 term.

  6. Long working hours and alcohol use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Nyberg, Solja T


    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the association between long working hours and alcohol use. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. DATA SOURCES: A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases in April 2014 for published studies......, supplemented with manual searches. Unpublished individual participant data were obtained from 27 additional studies. REVIEW METHODS: The search strategy was designed to retrieve cross sectional and prospective studies of the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Summary estimates were...... obtained with random effects meta-analysis. Sources of heterogeneity were examined with meta-regression. RESULTS: Cross sectional analysis was based on 61 studies representing 333 693 participants from 14 countries. Prospective analysis was based on 20 studies representing 100 602 participants from nine...

  7. Long working hours and alcohol use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Nyberg, Solja T


    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the association between long working hours and alcohol use. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. DATA SOURCES: A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases in April 2014 for published studies......, supplemented with manual searches. Unpublished individual participant data were obtained from 27 additional studies. REVIEW METHODS: The search strategy was designed to retrieve cross sectional and prospective studies of the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Summary estimates were...... obtained with random effects meta-analysis. Sources of heterogeneity were examined with meta-regression. RESULTS: Cross sectional analysis was based on 61 studies representing 333,693 participants from 14 countries. Prospective analysis was based on 20 studies representing 100,602 participants from nine...

  8. Late-night hours draw busy patients. (United States)


    Planned Parenthood of Houston and southeast Texas is currently implementing a reproductive health care clinic with night-time hours. The clinic provides for the reproductive health care needs of college students with after-class jobs, women with two jobs or with night-shift employment, and all other women who do not have time to go to a daytime clinic. The clinic operates twice a month on Fridays and was initially open 10:30 p.m. - 7 a.m., but now it has changed its hours to 7:30 p.m. - 3:30 a.m. The clinic is staffed by one clinician and two clinic assistants, which attend to an average of 17-22 patients per night's schedule. Women who use the clinic keep their appointments better and do not have to wait so long for care.

  9. Resolving issues concerning Eskdalemuir geomagnetic hourly values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Macmillan


    Full Text Available The hourly values of the geomagnetic field from 1911 to 1931 derived from measurements made at Eskdalemuir observatory in the UK, and available online from the World Data Centre for Geomagnetism at, have now been corrected. Previously they were 2-point averaged and transformed from the original north, east and vertical down values in the tables in the observatory yearbooks. This paper documents the course of events from discovering the post-processing done to the data to the final resolution of the problem. As it was through the development of a new index, the Inter-Hour Variability index, that this post-processing came to light, we provide a revised series of this index for Eskdalemuir and compare it with that from another European observatory. Conclusions of studies concerning long-term magnetic field variability and inferred solar variability, whilst not necessarily consistent with one another, are not obviously invalidated by the incorrect hourly values from Eskdalemuir. This series of events illustrates the challenges that lie ahead in removing any remaining errors and inconsistencies in the data holdings of different World Data Centres.

  10. CERN takes part in Earth Hour

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Vernède


    From 8.30 to 9.30 p.m. on Saturday, 26 March 2011, the Globe of Science and Innovation will be plunged into darkness to mark CERN's participation in Earth Hour. A growing number of countries and cities across the planet are involved in this global initiative against climate change, which was launched by the WWF in 2007.   The lights on the Globe were switched off for the 2009 Earth Hour event. Along with individuals, companies and tourist attractions in thousands of towns and cities all over the world participating in the fourth annual Earth Hour event, CERN will turn off the lights of the Globe for 60 minutes at 8.30 p.m. on Saturday 26 March. CERN's participation in the initiative is one of several examples of its commitment to respect the environment and keep its ecological footprint to the minimum. A recent example under the green transport heading was the replacement of part of CERN's petrol vehicle fleet with cars running on natural gas with a view to reducing air pollution. Other examples...

  11. Capitalismo actual y precios de monopolio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Tarassiouk


    Full Text Available El objetivo de este ensayo es redimensionar dos elementos de la herencia teórica de R. Hilferding que no se enfatizan mucho en la literatura, aunque son de gran valor teórico y metodológico para el estudio del capitalismo actual. Se trata del análisis de la naturaleza económica de los precios de los monopolios, realizado en "El capital financiero", y a la metodología que aplica el autor en su obra maestra para investigar una nueva etapa en la evolución del capitalismo. La importancia del primer tema es evidente porque vivimos en el mundo donde las grandes corporación transnacionales determinan los precios de sus productos en la medida mucho mayor que lo hacían los cárteles y los trusts del inicio del siglo XX. Y en lo que se refiere al segundo elemento, su actualidad esta dada por el hecho de que, al parecer, de nuevo vivimos en el período de grandes cambios del sistema económico del capitalismo que se manifiestan en: el creciente papel del capital ficticio en la reproducción del capital global; el paso en las políticas económicas de la lógica de Bretton Woods a la de neoconservadurismo y de Consenso de Washington; y, en las modificaciones de la forma y del mecanismo del ciclo económico.

  12. Effect of a Protected Sleep Period on Hours Slept During Extended Overnight In-hospital Duty Hours Among Medical Interns (United States)

    Volpp, Kevin G.; Shea, Judy A.; Small, Dylan S.; Basner, Mathias; Zhu, Jingsan; Norton, Laurie; Ecker, Adrian; Novak, Cristina; Bellini, Lisa M.; Dine, C. Jessica; Mollicone, Daniel J.; Dinges, David F.


    Context A 2009 Institute of Medicine report recommended protected sleep periods for medicine trainees on extended overnight shifts, a position reinforced by new Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requirements. Objective To evaluate the feasibility and consequences of protected sleep periods during extended duty. Design, Setting, and Participants Randomized controlled trial conducted at the Philadelphia VA Medical Center medical service and Oncology Unit of the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania (2009–2010). Of the 106 interns and senior medical students who consented, 3 were not scheduled on any study rotations. Among the others, 44 worked at the VA center, 16 at the university hospital, and 43 at both. Intervention Twelve 4-week blocks were randomly assigned to either a standard intern schedule (extended duty overnight shifts of up to 30 hours; equivalent to 1200 overnight intern shifts at each site), or a protected sleep period (protected time from 12:30 AM to 5:30 AM with handover of work cell phone; equivalent to 1200 overnight intern shifts at each site). Participants were asked to wear wrist actigraphs and complete sleep diaries. Main Outcome Measures Primary outcome was hours slept during the protected period on extended duty overnight shifts. Secondary outcome measures included hours slept during a 24-hour period (noon to noon) by day of call cycle and Karolinska sleepiness scale. Results For 98.3% of on-call nights, cell phones were signed out as designed. At the VA center, participants with protected sleep had a mean 2.86 hours (95% CI, 2.57–3.10 hours) of sleep vs 1.98 hours (95% CI, 1.68–2.28 hours) among those who did not have protected hours of sleep (P < .001). At the university hospital, participants with protected sleep had a mean 3.04 hours (95% CI, 2.77–3.45 hours) of sleep vs 2.04 hours (95% CI, 1.79–2.24) among those who did not have protected sleep (P <.001). Participants with protected sleep were

  13. Student midwives' duty hours: risks, standards, and recommendations. (United States)

    Lawrence, Rachel; Kantrowitz-Gordon, Ira; Landis, Andrea


    A growing body of literature has emerged describing the risks of extended-duty shifts and sleep deprivation. Worldwide, midwifery organizations have not adopted standards for practitioner or student duty shifts. This project reviews the literature related to extended-duty shifts in an effort to develop evidence-based recommendations for student nurse-midwives/student midwives (SNMs/SMs). A comprehensive literature search was conducted through electronic databases, major journals, and reference lists published in English since January 2001. Primary research studies evaluating sleep deprivation and shift duration were included. Studies that did not include the target population (shift workers) and those that formed conclusions related to extended-duty shifts greater than 30 hours were excluded. In addition, an extensive worldwide review of duty-hour recommendations from more than 300 health care organizations was conducted. A total of 40 studies met the inclusion criteria. Extended-duty shifts (those greater than 12 hours) increased the risk for cognitive and physical functional errors, safety concerns, and decreased quality of life from sleep deprivation. Cognitive function errors included attention lapses, visual tracking errors, decreased mentation and immediate recall, and decreased learning capacity. Physical errors included decreased motor skills and slowed reaction times in clinical simulations. These deficits led to an increased risk of motor vehicle accidents, needle sticks, and performance equivalent to unsafe blood alcohol concentrations. An overall decrease in quality of life and job satisfaction was linked to extended-duty shifts. Seven organizations for medical residents or advanced practice nurses have developed policy statements on duty shifts, with extended-duty shift limitations between 12 and 24 hours. The risks associated with extended-duty shifts may inhibit the development of SNMs/SMs into competent practitioners and place patients at risk. It

  14. RBC Models and the Hours-Wages Puzzle: Puzzle Solved!


    Vasilev, Aleksandar


    This paper shows that a modified real business cycle (RBC) model, one that includes home production and fiscal spending shocks, can solve one of the RBC puzzles and generates zero correlation between wages and hours. In addition, the micro-founded model presented here provides a sound theoretical model to analyze fiscal policy in a neoclassical framework and is able to capture many aspects of the data that the benchmark RBC model was missing.

  15. Interpersonal Compatibility and Self-Actualization in Sensitivity Training (United States)

    Reddy, W. Brendan


    Significant positive changes in self actualization were attained in members of both intensive residential sensitivity training laboratories and nonintensive nonresidential sensitivity training laboratories. Affection compatibility was the prime interpersonal variable associated with self actualization gains. (Author)

  16. The Relationship of Counselor Self-Actualization to Counselor Facilitativeness. (United States)

    Thames, Terri B.; Hill, Clara E.


    Correlational analyses indicate that counselor trainees who view themselves as more self-actualized are not perceived by clients or by themselves as being more encouraging. Some elements of self-actualization, however, are related to facilitative conditions. (Author)

  17. Expected satiation alone does not predict actual intake of desserts. (United States)

    Guillocheau, Etienne; Davidenko, Olga; Marsset-Baglieri, Agnès; Darcel, Nicolas; Gaudichon, Claire; Tomé, Daniel; Fromentin, Gilles


    The degree to which consumers expect foods to satisfy hunger, referred to as expected satiation, has been reported to predict food intake. Yet this relationship has not been established precisely, at a quantitative level. We sought to explore this relationship in detail by determining whether expected satiation predicts the actual intake of semi-solid desserts. Two separate experiments were performed: the first used variations of a given food (eight apple purées), while the second involved a panel of different foods within a given category (eight desserts). Both experiments studied the consumption of two products assigned to volunteers based on their individual liking and expected satiation ratings, given ad libitum at the end of a standardised meal. A linear model was used to find predictors of food intake and included expected satiation scores, palatability scores, BMI, age, sex, TFEQ-R, TFEQ-D, water consumption during the meal, reported frequency of eating desserts, and reported frequency of consuming tested products as explanatory variables. Expected satiation was a significant predictor of actual food intake in both experiments (apple purée: F(1,97) = 18.60, P < .001; desserts: F(1,106) = 9.05, P < .01), along with other parameters such as product palatability and the volunteers' age, sex and food restriction (variation explained by the model/expected satiation in the experiments: 57%/23% and 36%/17%, respectively). However, we found a significant gap between expected and actual consumption of desserts, on group and on individual level. Our results confirm the importance of expected satiation as a predictor of subsequent food intake, but highlight the need to study individual consumption behaviour and preferences in order to fully understand the role of expected satiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Self-actualization of youth in a summer camp. (United States)

    Cartwright, G F; Tabatabai, D; Beaudoin, M C; Naidoo, L


    The self-actualization scores of 57 youths who attended a summer day camp for gifted students were assessed using the Reflections Of Self by Youth (ROSY). Significant sex differences were confirmed. Contrary to Lewis's significant difference (1996) in mean self-actualization between Grades 7 and 8, self-actualization scores in this study were uncorrelated with grade.

  19. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew


    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  20. Temporary new opening hours for Gate C

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department


    Please note the new temporary opening hours for the gate C as from 22 September 2010 until 29 October 2010 (working days): Morning: between 7:00 a.m. and 9:00 a.m. Lunch: between 12:00 and 2:00 p.m. Evening: between 5:00 pm and 7:00 p.m. Traffic flow will be permitted in both directions during this period. Please minimize your speed accordingly and respect all road signs. GS-SEM Group General Infrastructure Services Department

  1. Gate A: changes to opening hours

    CERN Multimedia


    Due to maintenance work, the opening hours of Gate A (near Reception) will be modified between Monday, 13 and Friday, 17 April 2015.   During this period, the gate will be open to vehicles between 7 a.m. and 9.30 a.m., then between 4.30 p.m. and 7 p.m. It will be completely closed to traffic between 9.30 a.m. and 4.30 p.m. Pedestrians and cyclists may continue to use the gate. We apologise for any inconvenience and thank you for your understanding.

  2. New opening hours of the gates

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department


    Please note the new opening hours of the gates as well as the intersites tunnel from the 19 May 2009: GATE A 7h - 19h GATE B 24h/24 GATE C 7h - 9h\t17h - 19h GATE D 8h - 12h\t13h - 16h GATE E 7h - 9h\t17h - 19h Prévessin 24h/24 The intersites tunnel will be opened from 7h30 to 18h non stop. GS-SEM Group Infrastructure and General Services Department

  3. Birth after 12 hours of oocyte refrigeration. (United States)

    Coban, Onder; Hacifazlioglu, Oguzhan; Ciray, H Nadir; Ulug, Ulun; Tekin, H Ibrahim; Bahceci, Mustafa


    To assess cycle outcome after oocyte refrigeration. Case report. Private IVF center. One couple in a donor oocyte program. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection and blastocyst culture after refrigeration of oocytes for 12 hours. Birth. Fourteen two-pronuclei zygotes from 17 metaphase II refrigerated oocytes resulted in transfer of two blastocysts at day 5 and cryopreservation of six excess embryos at day 6. The patient delivered one healthy male baby after 38 weeks' gestation. The successful outcome of oocyte refrigeration indicates that this protocol could be useful in circumstances in which a delay in obtaining spermatozoa arises. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. WordPress 24-hour trainer

    CERN Document Server

    Plumley, George


    Create and expand feature-rich sites with no programming experience Ready to build, maintain, and expand your web site with WordPress but have no prior programming experience? WordPress 24-Hour Trainer, 3rd Edition is your book-and-video learning solution that walks you step-by-step through all the important features you will need to know. Lessons range from focused, practical everyday tasks to more advanced, creative features. Learn from an industry professional how to enter content, create pages, manage menus, utilize plug-ins, connect to social media, create membership and e-commerce site

  5. Three Mile Island - The hour-by-hour account of what really happened

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, M.


    An hour-by-hour account is given of the progression of events leading up to and during the accident at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor. The emergency procedures followed, the evacuation of local residents and the decisions taken as the possibility of a meltdown became apparent are recorded in detail together with aspects of the media coverage and the problems of communication. (U.K.)

  6. Fatigue life prediction of autofrettage tubes using actual material behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahed, Hamid; Farshi, Behrooz; Hosseini, Mohammad


    There is a profound Bauschinger effect in the behaviour of high-strength steels used in autofrettaged tubes. This has led to development of methods capable of considering experimentally obtained (actual) material behaviour in residual stress calculations. The extension of these methods to life calculations is presented here. To estimate the life of autofrettaged tubes with a longitudinal surface crack emanating from the bore more accurately, instead of using idealized models, the experimental loading-unloading stress-strain behaviour is employed. The resulting stresses are then used to calculate stress intensity factors by the weight function method as input to fatigue life determination. Fatigue lives obtained using the actual material behaviour are then compared with the results of frequently used ideal models including those considering Bauschinger effect factors and strain hardening in unloading. Using standard fatigue crack growth relationships, life of the vessel is then calculated based on recommended initial and final crack length. It is shown that the life gain due to autofrettage above 70% overstrain is considerable

  7. Optical modulator including grapene (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang


    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  8. Six-Hours-Rule - A Dogma for Military Surgery?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gerngross, Heinz; Kahle, Wilhelm


    Today, the six-hours-rule is a delicate item for military logistics and it is a great challenge for medical services to provide an adequate treatment during the first hours after wounding. DEFINITION: Six-hour-rule...

  9. Make a movie in 48 hours

    CERN Multimedia

    Brokk Toggerson


    This year, the 48-hour film project (48hfp) returns to Geneva after a one-year hiatus. Organized by Neal Hartman and the CERN film-making club, Open Your Eyes Films, the 48hfp challenges teams of film-makers to write, shoot, soundtrack and edit a 4 to 7 minute film in 48 hours from 4 to 6 November.   At the start of the festival, contestants picked their film genre from a hat. The films will be screened on 8 and 9 November, with the awards presentation on the 9th. The winner will receive a trip to the US to compete in the international version of the competition. “There are so many short films being made now," says Hartman, “I think, however, that the 48hfp allows a critical creative mass to form. The result is that these 20 teams make 20 better films than if each participant were making their own." Each team draws a genre from a hat and is given a character, a prop and a line of dialogue that must appear in their film. The genres run the gamut from &am...

  10. Cimentaciones actuales de los rascacielos de Chicago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Ruiz, Álvaro


    Full Text Available The main characteristics of the land and the supporting rock are given, and the pattern of present performance of Chicago's deep foundations is briefly described. This city probably has some of the highest skyscrapers in the world with deep foundations resting on rock, and possibly as well, the highest building with foundations resting on soil. The construction of piles of large diameter, resting on rock and concreted dry, as prescribed by the City Code, is the weak point which sometimes makes it necessary to insert a permanent lining tube deep into the rock in order to obtain the required leaktightness, or to pump out significant quantities of water from the bottom of the excavations. The latter can cause the dragging away of earth from adjacent foundations resting on soil at a higher level, as with the drift of the phreatic level, with the consequent risk of producing appreciable subsidence, and even undermining. To overcome this problem we carried out for the first time in Chicago, a pre-sealing, by means of chemical injections, of the supporting rock of the periphery piles of some deep foundations, by drilling into the centre of each pile, which has also been useful as a means of examining the subsoil before proceeding to the perforation of each pile. This operation was carried out on the large diameter piles of the foundations of the Northern Trust Bank skyscraper, at present under construction, with very satisfactory results. The method of pre-sealing the rock used and the results obtained are described.Se presentan las características principales del terreno y de la roca de apoyo y se describe someramente la forma de ejecución actual de las cimentaciones profundas de Chicago. Esta ciudad tendrá (en breve varios de los rascacielos más altos del mundo apoyados en cimentaciones profundas sobre roca y, posiblemente, también el edificio más alto apoyado sobre suelo. La construcción de pilotes de gran diámetro apoyados sobre roca y

  11. A Study of Postmodern Narrative in Michael Cunningham's The Hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Abbasi Narinabad


    Full Text Available This project aims at providing a detailed analysis of the major features of the theory of postmodern narrative and at going through the novel The Hours by the American writer Michael Cunningham concentrating on some postmodern narrative techniques. To do so, the researcher goes through the theories set forth by some postmodern theoreticians like Roland Barthes, Jacque Derrida, Jean-François Lyotard and Julia Kristeva to investigate the postmodern narrative techniques and elements used in the novel. The researcher first examines the theories and then critically applies them on the novel. The article goes through the most eminent elements of postmodern narrative including intertextuality, stream of consciousness style, fragmentation and representation respectively which are delicately utilized in The Hours. The article concludes by recommending a few directions for the further research.

  12. A Comparison of 4- and 24-Hour Urine Samples for the Diagnosis of Proteinuria in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsane Amirabi


    Full Text Available Background: Preeclampsia is a serious complication of pregnancy, and it is vital to diagnosis the condition as early as possible. Proteinuria is an important symptom of preeclampsia, and repeated urine analysis to screen for the condition is part of the standard antenatal care. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between 4- and 24-hour urine total protein values to examine whether the 4-hour urine samples could be used for the diagnosis of proteinuria in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 110 pregnant (after gestational week 20 of pregnancy patients who were hypertensive (blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg and had proteinuria as defined by positive urinary protein of at least 1+ in dipstick. Patients' urine samples were collected over 24 hours; the first 4 hours were collected separately from the next 20-hours. Patients, who did not collect the 24-hour urine, were excluded from the study. One hundred patients met the criteria, and were included in the study. The urine volume, total protein and creatinine levels of 4- and 24-hours samples were measured. The correlation between 4-hour and 24-hour samples was examined using Pearson correlation test. Results: Of the 100 patients, 42 had no proteinuria, 44 had mild proteinuria, and 14 had severe proteinuria. The urine protein values of 4-hour samples correlated with those of the 24-hours samples for patients with mild and severe forms of the disease (P<0.001, r=0.86. Conclusion: This study showed there was a correlation between 4-hour and 24-hour urine proteins. The finding indicates that a random 4-hour sample might be used for the initial assessment of proteinuria

  13. Perceived and Actual Social Discrimination: The Case of Overweight and Social Inclusion


    Hartung, Freda-Marie; Renner, Britta


    The present study examined the correspondence between perceived and actual social discrimination of overweight people. In total, 77 first-year students provided self-ratings about their height, weight, and perceived social inclusion. To capture actual social inclusion, each participant nominated those fellow students (a) she/he likes and dislikes and (b) about whom she/he is likely to hear social news. Students with lower Body Mass Index (BMI) felt socially included, irrespective of their act...

  14. Environmental actual situation in Guatemala. Executive brief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    In this brief prepared by the Consejo Permanente de Cambio y Variabilidad Climatica the climate in Guatemala is described including the current situation on variation of rainy season, air humidity, influence of the Nino current. This brief was prepared in order to plan a strategy to be adopted by all the institutions that are involved in environmental issues and in this way to deal with the climate change and the impact of the different energy sources in the environment

  15. Aggressive behavior during the first 24 hours of psychiatric admission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Crestani Calegaro


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between aggression in the first 24 hours after admission and severity of psychopathology in psychiatric inpatients.METHODS: This cross-sectional study included psychiatric patients admitted to Hospital Universitário de Santa Maria, in Santa Maria, southern Brazil, from August 2012 to January 2013. At their arrival at the hospital, patients were interviewed to fill in the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS form, and any aggressive episodes in the first 24 hours after admission were recorded using the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare patients according to aggressiveness: aggressive versus non-aggressive, hostile versus violent, and aggressive against others only versus self-aggressive.RESULTS: The sample was composed of 110 patients. Aggressive patients in general had higher BPRS total scores (p = 0.002 and individual component scores, and their results showed more activation (p < 0.001 and thinking disorders (p = 0.009, but less anxious-depression (p = 0.008. Violent patients had more severe psychomotor agitation (p = 0.027, hallucinations (p = 0.017 and unusual thought content (p = 0.020. Additionally, self-aggressive patients had more disorientation (p = 0.011 and conceptual disorganization (p = 0.007.CONCLUSIONS: Aggression in psychiatric patients in the first 24 hours after admission is associated with severity of psychopathology, and severity increases with severity of patient psychosis and agitation.

  16. Capturing Neutrinos from a Star's Final Hours (United States)

    Hensley, Kerry


    What happens on the last day of a massive stars life? In the hours before the star collapses and explodes as a supernova, the rapid evolution of material in its core creates swarms of neutrinos. Observing these neutrinos may help us understand the final stages of a massive stars life but theyve never been detected.A view of some of the 1,520 phototubes within the MiniBooNE neutrino detector. Observations from this and other detectors are helping to illuminate the nature of the mysterious neutrino. [Fred Ullrich/FNAL]Silent Signposts of Stellar EvolutionThe nuclear fusion that powers stars generates tremendous amounts of energy. Much of this energy is emitted as photons, but a curious and elusive particle the neutrino carries away most of the energy in the late stages of stellar evolution.Stellar neutrinos can be created through two processes: thermal processesand beta processes. Thermal processes e.g.,pair production, in which a particle/antiparticle pair are created depend on the temperature and pressure of the stellar core. Beta processes i.e.,when a proton converts to a neutron, or vice versa are instead linked to the isotopic makeup of the stars core. This means that, if we can observe them, beta-process neutrinos may be able to tell us about the last steps of stellar nucleosynthesis in a dying star.But observing these neutrinos is not so easilydone. Neutrinos arenearly massless, neutral particles that interact only feebly with matter; out of the whopping 1060neutrinos released in a supernova explosion, even the most sensitive detectors only record the passage of just a few. Do we have a chance of detectingthe beta-process neutrinos that are released in the final few hours of a stars life, beforethe collapse?Neutrino luminosities leading up to core collapse. Shortly before collapse, the luminosity of beta-process neutrinos outshines that of any other neutrino flavor or origin. [Adapted from Patton et al. 2017]Modeling Stellar CoresTo answer this question, Kelly

  17. Quits and job changes among home care workers in Maine: the role of wages, hours, and benefits. (United States)

    Morris, Lisa


    Figuring out how to make home care jobs more attractive has become a top policy priority. This study investigates the impact of wages, hours, and benefits on the retention of home care workers. Using a 2-wave survey design and a sample of home care workers from Maine, the factors associated with turnover intentions, actual turnover, and job-to-job transitions are examined. The analysis uses actual data on hours, wages, and benefits at current and subsequent jobs and controls for perceived rewards and work conditions, personal characteristics, and local labor market conditions. Although the analysis finds that improved work conditions and non-pecuniary rewards of home-based direct care work have significant negative effects on turnover intentions, compensation accounts for more actual job turnover. Higher wages, more hours, and travel cost reimbursement are found to be significantly associated with reduced turnover. Although wages and hours appear to have stronger effects, health benefits do appear to have some significance in predicting job-to-job transitions. Although improving compensation presents budgetary challenges to home care agencies, for this low-income workforce, the ability to earn higher wages and work more hours may be more of an imperative than improved work conditions.

  18. Residents’ perception of duty hour limits through teaching hospital accreditation status—experience in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Hsi Wang


    Full Text Available Residents’ work overload is a rising issue in Taiwan. Duty hours of the residents in the United States have been limited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Common Program Requirements since 2003; similar standards were not implemented in Taiwan until 2013. Taiwanese duty hour standards are the work hour limits adopted as part of the required teaching hospital accreditation status. In January 2015, the Ministry of Health and Welfare conducted a national survey for all house officers in Taiwan. We collected data including those on demographics and perceptions of residents regarding duty hour limits. Most respondents reported positive perceptions of the duty hour standards. They felt that these limits will improve resident education, quality of life, and patient safety. The strong incentive to follow the regulations (through teaching hospital accreditation could help protect residents (and patients from unsafe working conditions. However, further studies on the influence of shortened duty hour on professional development are necessary for future improvement.

  19. Nonpersister Study: Zero Credit Hours Earned, Spring 1976 to Fall 1976. (United States)

    Baratta, Mary Kathryne

    Questionnaires were sent to 601 zero credit-hour earned nonpersisting students at Moraine Valley Community College (MVCC) who enrolled in spring but did not re-enroll for fall 1976. The survey response rate, which included 85 students contacted by telephone, was 40%. Information on educational goals, withdrawal from classes, hours employed while…

  20. Forecasting Kp from solar wind data: input parameter study using 3-hour averages and 3-hour range values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wintoft Peter


    Full Text Available We have developed neural network models that predict Kp from upstream solar wind data. We study the importance of various input parameters, starting with the magnetic component Bz, particle density n, and velocity V and then adding total field B and the By component. As we also notice a seasonal and UT variation in average Kp we include functions of day-of-year and UT. Finally, as Kp is a global representation of the maximum range of geomagnetic variation over 3-hour UT intervals we conclude that sudden changes in the solar wind can have a big effect on Kp, even though it is a 3-hour value. Therefore, 3-hour solar wind averages will not always appropriately represent the solar wind condition, and we introduce 3-hour maxima and minima values to some degree address this problem. We find that introducing total field B and 3-hour maxima and minima, derived from 1-minute solar wind data, have a great influence on the performance. Due to the low number of samples for high Kp values there can be considerable variation in predicted Kp for different networks with similar validation errors. We address this issue by using an ensemble of networks from which we use the median predicted Kp. The models (ensemble of networks provide prediction lead times in the range 20–90 min given by the time it takes a solar wind structure to travel from L1 to Earth. Two models are implemented that can be run with real time data: (1 IRF-Kp-2017-h3 uses the 3-hour averages of the solar wind data and (2 IRF-Kp-2017 uses in addition to the averages, also the minima and maxima values. The IRF-Kp-2017 model has RMS error of 0.55 and linear correlation of 0.92 based on an independent test set with final Kp covering 2 years using ACE Level 2 data. The IRF-Kp-2017-h3 model has RMSE = 0.63 and correlation = 0.89. We also explore the errors when tested on another two-year period with real-time ACE data which gives RMSE = 0.59 for IRF-Kp-2017 and RMSE = 0.73 for IRF

  1. Forecasting Kp from solar wind data: input parameter study using 3-hour averages and 3-hour range values (United States)

    Wintoft, Peter; Wik, Magnus; Matzka, Jürgen; Shprits, Yuri


    We have developed neural network models that predict Kp from upstream solar wind data. We study the importance of various input parameters, starting with the magnetic component Bz, particle density n, and velocity V and then adding total field B and the By component. As we also notice a seasonal and UT variation in average Kp we include functions of day-of-year and UT. Finally, as Kp is a global representation of the maximum range of geomagnetic variation over 3-hour UT intervals we conclude that sudden changes in the solar wind can have a big effect on Kp, even though it is a 3-hour value. Therefore, 3-hour solar wind averages will not always appropriately represent the solar wind condition, and we introduce 3-hour maxima and minima values to some degree address this problem. We find that introducing total field B and 3-hour maxima and minima, derived from 1-minute solar wind data, have a great influence on the performance. Due to the low number of samples for high Kp values there can be considerable variation in predicted Kp for different networks with similar validation errors. We address this issue by using an ensemble of networks from which we use the median predicted Kp. The models (ensemble of networks) provide prediction lead times in the range 20-90 min given by the time it takes a solar wind structure to travel from L1 to Earth. Two models are implemented that can be run with real time data: (1) IRF-Kp-2017-h3 uses the 3-hour averages of the solar wind data and (2) IRF-Kp-2017 uses in addition to the averages, also the minima and maxima values. The IRF-Kp-2017 model has RMS error of 0.55 and linear correlation of 0.92 based on an independent test set with final Kp covering 2 years using ACE Level 2 data. The IRF-Kp-2017-h3 model has RMSE = 0.63 and correlation = 0.89. We also explore the errors when tested on another two-year period with real-time ACE data which gives RMSE = 0.59 for IRF-Kp-2017 and RMSE = 0.73 for IRF-Kp-2017-h3. The errors as function

  2. Actual service life prediction of building components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Niels-Jørgen; Brandt, Erik; Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place


    , the paper presents an analysis of service life of buildings as such with respect to the use of the building partially based on analysis of data from the nationwide Danish register of buildings and housing as well as turnover in the Danish construction industry from refurbishment and demolition activities......In recent years, sustainability and life cycle cost in the construction industry have been given great attention in many countries due to the heavy climatic and environmental impact from this sector. In Denmark, a sustainability certification scheme for buildings has been developed including...... a condensed method for assessment of life cycle costs for buildings. Estimation of life cycle costs has traditionally been based on predicted service life for building components in terms of technical performance. This paper suggests a method for taking into account other contributing factors...

  3. Eleventh Hour Network+ Exam N10-004 Study Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Alpern, Naomi


    The 11th Hour Network+ Study Guide is keyed to the N10-004 revision of the CompTIA Network+ exam. This book is streamlined to include only core certification information and is presented for ease of last-minute studying. Main objectives of the exam are covered with key concepts highlighted. ..: ..; Fast Facts quickly review fundamentals ..; Exam Warnings highlight particularly tough sections of the exam ..; Crunch Time sidebars point out key concepts to remember ..; Did You Know? sidebars cover sometimes forgotten details ..; Top Five Toughest Questions and answers help you to prepare ..

  4. LinkedIn Marketing An Hour a Day

    CERN Document Server

    von Rosen, Viveka


    A step-by-step guide for succeeding on the for ''business'' social media network LinkedIn Marketing: An Hour a Day helps you create, customize, and optimize a presence on LinkedIn, the world's largest social network for professionals. In this detailed, step-by-step book, LinkedIn expert Viveka von Rosen reveals how to use this powerful platform to ensure that you or your company get noticed by the right audience. Discover previously undocumented tips and tricks for community growth and management, including how to best use Groups, events, and other LinkedIn features and applications. Offers a

  5. The Next Big Thing is Actually Small (United States)

    Garcia, Carlos D.


    Summary Recent developments in materials, surface modifications, separation schemes, detection systems, and associated instrumentation have allowed significant advances in the performance of lab-on-a-chip devices. These devices, also referred to as micro total analysis systems (µTAS), offer great versatility, high throughput, short analysis time, low cost, and more importantly, performance that is comparable to standard bench-top instrumentation. To date, µTAS have demonstrated advantages in a significant number of fields including biochemical, pharmaceutical, military, and environmental. Perhaps most importantly, µTAS represent excellent platforms to introduce students to microfabrication and nanotechnology, bridging chemistry with other fields such as engineering and biology, enabling the integration of various skills and curricular concepts. Considering the advantages of the technology and the potential impact to society, our research program aims to address the need for simpler, more affordable, faster, and portable devices to measure biologically-active compounds. Specifically, the program is focused on the development and characterization of a series of novel strategies towards the realization of integrated microanalytical devices. One key aspect of our research projects is that the developed analytical strategies must be compatible with each other, therefore enabling their use in integrated devices. The program combines spectroscopy, surface chemistry, capillary electrophoresis, electrochemical detection, and nanomaterials. This article discusses some of the most recent results obtained in two main areas of emphasis: ▪Capillary Electrophoresis, Microchip-CE, Electrochemical Detection, and▪Interaction of Proteins with Nanomaterials PMID:22877217

  6. Firearms training: what is actually taught? (United States)

    Hemenway, David; Rausher, Steven; Violano, Pina; Raybould, Toby A; Barber, Catherine W


    Firearm safety instructors and public health professionals are natural allies in the quest to prevent firearm injuries. We audited basic firearm classes to provide information that can help familiarise public health professionals and others with the content covered. With the advice of expert instructors, we created an audit form. Volunteers audited 20 basic firearm classes in seven north-eastern states. All trainers covered a wide variety of safety issues. Some specific basics were covered in 90+% of the classes, including how to safely load/unload a gun, keeping your finger off the trigger until ready to shoot, and being aware of your target and what is behind it. In 50%-75% of the classes, the trainer covered topics such as operating a safety, clearing jams and cartridge malfunctions, and recommended storing guns unloaded and locked when not in use. Few instructors covered firearm suicide prevention (10%) or domestic violence (10%). Most encouraged gun ownership, gun carrying, gun use in self-defence and membership in a gun rights group. From a public health standpoint, we would like to see more instructors covering topics such as firearm suicide and alternatives to gun use in self-defence, and to recommend safer storage of firearms. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Analysis of 24-hour versus 48-hour traffic counts for HPMS sampling. (United States)


    The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) has requested a waiver from the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) to : allow IDOT to implement a 24-hour traffic-count program on the non-state HPMS routes, as opposed to the current Highway : Perf...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Panasyuk


    Full Text Available The aim of the publication is the analysis of the place and the role of scientific categories and application of the concept of «quality» as a threepronged science of quality, quality management, quality assessment in contemporary global processes, as well as applied aspects with regard to the adoption of specific management decisions.Methods. Methodology of interdisciplinary approach to the analysis of the "quality" category is used; the methods of theoretical analysis, synthesis and generalization.Analysis of the «quality» of the concept is carried out in conjunction with the global processes and trends in the economy, the crisis in the world, due to the emerging new technological order. The theoretical foundation that can be laid at the base of the further development of the theory of quality and making the qualitative nature of the reforms in the social sphere and the economic sphere is considered in details.Results. The tendencies, risks, problems and suggestions on the practical application of some or other quality concepts, approaches to enforcement are signified. The author's vision of the future development direction, associated with quality, including in international breaking is given.Scientific novelty consists in determining of qualitology potential applied to solve complex theoretical and practical problems, its place and role among emerging new classification of classical and non-classical sciences. The promising directions of the quality theory in relation to the economy, social sphere, education are identified.Practical significance. The proposed recommendations on use of ideas for management approaches reconsideration, organization of research and training in the field of quality.

  9. [Staff Satisfaction within Duty Hour Models: Longitudinal Survey on Suitability and Legal Conformity at a Surgical Maximum Care Department]. (United States)

    Langelotz, C; Koplin, G; Pascher, A; Lohmann, R; Köhler, A; Pratschke, J; Haase, O


    Background Between the conflicting requirements of clinic organisation, the European Working Time Directive, patient safety, an increasing lack of junior staff, and competitiveness, the development of ideal duty hour models is vital to ensure maximum quality of care within the legal requirements. To achieve this, it is useful to evaluate the actual effects of duty hour models on staff satisfaction. Materials and Methods After the traditional 24-hour duty shift was given up in a surgical maximum care centre in 2007, an 18-hour duty shift was implemented, followed by a 12-hour shift in 2008, to improve handovers and reduce loss of information. The effects on work organisation, quality of life and salary were analysed in an anonymous survey in 2008. The staff survey was repeated in 2014. Results With a response rate of 95% of questionnaires in 2008 and a 93% response rate in 2014, the 12-hour duty model received negative ratings due to its high duty frequency and subsequent social strain. Also the physical strain and chronic tiredness were rated as most severe in the 12-hour rota. The 18-hour duty shift was the model of choice amongst staff. The 24-hour duty model was rated as the best compromise between the requirements of work organisation and staff satisfaction, and therefore this duty model was adapted accordingly in 2015. Conclusion The essential basis of a surgical department is a duty hour model suited to the requirements of work organisation, the Working Time Directive and the needs of the surgical staff. A 12-hour duty model can be ideal for work organisation, but only if augmented with an adequate number of staff members, the implementation of this model is possible without the frequency of 12-hour shifts being too high associated with strain on surgical staff and a perceived deterioration of quality of life. A staff survey should be performed on a regular basis to assess the actual effects of duty hour models and enable further optimisation. The much

  10. Humanization of medical education: Need of the hour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Kumar


    Full Text Available Though the importance of psychological factors in maintenance of health, as well as etiology and prognosis of diseases have been recognized in ancient medicine by discerning and thoughtful clinicians in all ages, for the large majority of the practitioners such a perception has not been there. A cross-sectional, organ-based, and symptom-centered clinical approach was largely prevalent in day-to-day medicine. Medical training also followed more or less the same path. The positive psychological and behavioral qualities needed in the physician are left to the individual student to develop on his own during studies or to the physician afterwards. Some do, many do not. The importance of communication, doctor-patient relationship, empathy and psychological sensitivity in the making of a physician started getting identified in advanced medical universities in western countries by the middle of the last century. Since then behavioral science and medical humanities have been incorporated as important modules in the graduate medical training curriculum not only in advanced western medical universities, but also in good universities elsewhere. The situation in India, till now has been quite unsatisfactory. The undergraduate medical students had only 2 weeks of clinical posting and few hours of lectures, allotted for psychiatry: Even these were not actually carried out in many institutions properly. Responding to repeated representations from mental health experts in the country and abroad, medical universities and educationists, the Medical Council of India in 2012 has made 2 weeks of Residential Internship in Psychiatry (CRRI mandatory, and also recommended incorporation of medical humanities in the MBBS curriculum. The paper presents a brief outline of how a Clinical Behavioral Sciences Training Program l incorporating medical humanities can be developed and carried out as a mainstream component for the undergraduate medical training in the country. The

  11. The feature of the self-actualization of infancy A longitudinal study about development of a self-actualization tendency


    倉盛, 美穂子; 畠山, 美穂; 山崎, 晃


    This study examined the developmental feature of the self-actualization of infancy in a longitudinal study. One hundred one 6 years-old children were participated in this study. The preschool teachers accessed self-actualization tendency on each child twice a year and recorded their impressive episode. It was found that 70 percent of the children increased the score for self-actualization tendency. Although, as for the child whose self-actualization score was low at the 1st time raised the sc...

  12. Rational Behavioral Training and Changes in Self-Actualization. (United States)

    Johnson, Norbert; And Others


    Examined the effects on self-actualization of CETA supervisors who participated in a Rational Behavioral Training (RBT) group. The Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) was administered to experimental and control groups before and after the group. Results indicated the RBT experience enabled participants to move toward self-actualization. (RC)

  13. Counseling Practicum as a Facilitator of Self-Actualization. (United States)

    Osborne, John W.; Steeves, Liliane


    Uses 12 subscale scores on the Personal Orientation Inventory to assess effects of a practicum experience upon self-actualization of 79 University of Alberta graduate students (counseling students with and without practicum, and noncounseling students). Results indicate a facilitative effect of practicum upon self-actualization. (AH)




  15. Self-Actualization of Elite Blind Athletes: An Exploratory Study. (United States)

    Sherrill, C.; And Others


    This study used the Personal Orientation Inventory to compare self-actualization of 52 elite blind athletes with sighted athletes. Self-actualization profiles of blind athletes were lower for measures of existentiality and self-acceptance but otherwise identical to those of sighted athletes. Both sighted and blind athletes scored below test-manual…

  16. Beneficial academic orientations and self-actualization of college students. (United States)

    Davidson, William B; Bromfield, Jeffrey M; Beck, Hall P


    This study tested the prediction that individual differences in self-actualization would be associated with six academic orientations which influence college students' adjustment to their studies. Volunteer undergraduates, solicited from courses in the sciences and liberal arts and invited to complete internet measures of the academic orientations and self-actualization were 137 men and 311 women (M age=21.1, SD=4.8). Statistically significant bivariate correlations obtained between scores on self-actualization with all six orientations: creative expression, reading for pleasure, academic efficacy, and, inversely, structure dependence, academic apathy, and mistrust of instructors. Regression analysis showed that four orientations were independently related to self-actualization scores. The role of these four orientations in actualizing students' adjustment was discussed, and implications were drawn about the interpretation of scores on the four orientations.

  17. Clinical learning environments (actual and expected): perceptions of Iran University of Medical Sciences nursing students (United States)

    Bigdeli, Shoaleh; Pakpour, Vahid; Aalaa, Maryam; Shekarabi, Robabeh; Sanjari, Mahnaz; Haghani, Hamid; Mehrdad, Neda


    Background: Educational clinical environment has an important role in nursing students' learning. Any difference between actual and expected clinical environment will decrease nursing students’ interest in clinical environments and has a negative correlation with their clinical performance. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study is an attempt to compare nursing students' perception of the actual and expected status of clinical environments in medical-surgical wards. Participants of the study were 127 bachelor nursing students of Iran University of Medical Sciences in the internship period. Data gathering instruments were a demographic questionnaire (including sex, age, and grade point average), and the Clinical Learning Environment Inventory (CLEI) originally developed by Professor Chan (2001), in which its modified Farsi version (Actual and Preferred forms) consisting 42 items, 6 scales and 7 items per scale was used. Descriptive and inferential statistics (t-test, paired t-test, ANOVA) were used for data analysis through SPSS version 16. Results: The results indicated that there were significant differences between the preferred and actual form in all six scales. In other word, comparing with the actual form, the mean scores of all items in the preferred form were higher. The maximum mean difference was in innovation and the highest mean difference was in involvement scale. Conclusion: It is concluded that nursing students do not have a positive perception of their actual clinical teaching environment and this perception is significantly different from their perception of their expected environment. PMID:26034726

  18. BOREAS AFM-08 ECMWF Hourly Surface and Upper Air Data for the SSA and NSA (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Hourly data from the ECMWF operational model from below the surface to the top of the atmosphere, including the model fluxes at the surface, at Candle...

  19. BOREAS AFM-08 ECMWF Hourly Surface and Upper Air Data for the SSA and NSA (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hourly data from the ECMWF operational model from below the surface to the top of the atmosphere, including the model fluxes at the surface, at Candle Lake,...

  20. Supporting Scientific Modeling Practices in Atmospheric Sciences: Intended and Actual Affordances of a Computer-Based Modeling Tool (United States)

    Wu, Pai-Hsing; Wu, Hsin-Kai; Kuo, Che-Yu; Hsu, Ying-Shao


    Computer-based learning tools include design features to enhance learning but learners may not always perceive the existence of these features and use them in desirable ways. There might be a gap between what the tool features are designed to offer (intended affordance) and what they are actually used (actual affordance). This study thus aims at…

  1. CMAQv502 Base AQS Hourly site compare output (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Monthly AQS hourly site compare output files for the CMAQv502 Base simulation. Monthly files contain hourly paired model/ob data for the AQS network. These data were...

  2. 19 CFR 360.107 - Hours of operation. (United States)


    ... ANALYSIS SYSTEM § 360.107 Hours of operation. The automatic licensing system will generally be accessible... Commerce directly via fax during regular business hours. Should the system be inaccessible for an extended...

  3. Actualization rate and environment policies: a review on the debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The aim of this report is to present the theoretical basis which underlies the actualization of future values of gains and losses associated with the degradation of the environment on a long term, and even on a very long term. After having recalled some elements related to the actualization rate, the report discusses how to determine the actualization rate parameters through a descriptive or prescriptive approach, and outlines the multiplicity of choices and the sensitivity to parameters. It discusses the impact of relative prices and which hypothesis on these relative prices is to be retained. It finally discusses how risks are to be taken into account

  4. "Hour of Code": Can It Change Students' Attitudes toward Programming? (United States)

    Du, Jie; Wimmer, Hayden; Rada, Roy


    The Hour of Code is a one-hour introduction to computer science organized by, a non-profit dedicated to expanding participation in computer science. This study investigated the impact of the Hour of Code on students' attitudes towards computer programming and their knowledge of programming. A sample of undergraduate students from two…

  5. Hourly Electricity Prices in Day-Ahead Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Huisman (Ronald); C. Huurman; R.J. Mahieu (Ronald)


    textabstractThis paper focuses on the characteristics of hourly electricity prices in day-ahead markets. In these markets, quotes for day-ahead delivery of electricity are submitted simultaneously for all hours in the next day. The same information set is used for quoting all hours of the day. The

  6. 19 CFR 101.6 - Hours of business. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hours of business. 101.6 Section 101.6 Customs... GENERAL PROVISIONS § 101.6 Hours of business. Except as specified in paragraphs (a) through (g) of this section, each CBP office shall be open for the transactions of general CBP business between the hours of 8...

  7. Health and psychosocial effects of flexible working hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Janssen


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine whether any impairments in health and social lives can be found under different kinds of flexible working hours, and whether such effects are related to specific characteristics of these working hours. METHODS: Two studies - a company based survey (N=660 and an internet survey (N=528 - have been conducted. The first one was a questionnaire study (paper and pencil on employees working under some 'typical' kinds of different flexible working time arrangements in different companies and different occupational fields (health care, manufacturing, retail, administration, call centres. The second study was an internet-based survey, using an adaptation of the questionnaire from the first study. RESULTS: The results of both studies consistently show that high variability of working hours is associated with increased impairments in health and well-being and this is especially true if this variability is company controlled. These effects are less pronounced if variability is self-controlled; however, autonomy does not compensate the effects of variability. CONCLUSIONS: Recommendations for an appropriate design of flexible working hours should be developed in order to minimize any impairing effects on health and psychosocial well-being; these recommendations should include - besides allowing for discretion in controlling one's (flexible working hours - that variability in flexible working hours should be kept low (or at least moderate, even if this variability is self-controlled.OBJETIVO: Investigar se ocorre prejuízo à saúde e à vida social com diferentes tipos de horas de trabalho flexíveis e se há relação entre estes efeitos e características específicas das horas de trabalho. MÉTODOS: Foram realizados dois estudos, uma pesquisa em uma empresa (N=660 e outra pela Internet (N=528. O primeiro estudo consistiu de um questionário (papel e lápis aplicado a funcionários sujeitos a diferentes ajustes "típicos" de horas de

  8. Condom negotiation strategies and actual condom use among Latino youth. (United States)

    Tschann, Jeanne M; Flores, Elena; de Groat, Cynthia L; Deardorff, Julianna; Wibbelsman, Charles J


    To examine which condom negotiation strategies are effective in obtaining or avoiding condom use among Latino youth. Interviews were conducted with 694 Latino youth, 61% female, aged 16-22. Participants reported on their condom negotiation strategies, perceptions of whether their sexual partner wanted to use condoms, and actual condom use. Three strategies to obtain condom use (risk information, direct verbal/nonverbal communication, insist) and four strategies to avoid condom use (emotional coercion, ignore condom use, dislike condoms, seduction) were examined. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression, and included youth (n = 574) who reported wanting to use or avoid condoms. Almost 60% of participants reported wanting to use condoms, and nearly all of these used some strategy to obtain condom use. Young men who wanted to use condoms were more likely to do so, compared with young women. Risk information and direct verbal/nonverbal communication were effective strategies to obtain condom use, even among youth who perceived their sexual partners as not wanting to use condoms. Ignoring condom use was an effective condom avoidance strategy, even when youth thought their partners wanted to use condoms. Unexpectedly, young men who expressed dislike of condoms had higher rates of condom use than young men not using this condom avoidance strategy. This research identified condom negotiation strategies that are effective among Latino youth, even when they believe their partners do not want to use condoms. Health care providers could encourage Latino youth to use such condom negotiation strategies.

  9. Family Business in the Czech Republic: Actual Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia PETLINA


    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: The purpose of this paper is to define the actual situation of family business on the market, particularly focused on qualities of family business and its strengths or weaknesses. The object of research is the family business as an economical phenomenon. The study includes two subjects: firstly, to find out a specification of the family business, to analyze family ties within the business in accordance with the laws of the Czech Republic or to find out the current economic situation in family business and, secondly, to identify the features of family business as well as the difficulties faced thereby, lying in a base of two main components, namely the family system and the same of entrepreneurship. Methodology/methods: The article was prepared on the basis of general theoretical scientific methods, particularly on those of analysis, synthesis, analogy, comparison, generalization and deduction, or the method of expert estimates. For the analysis of the actual situation in big Czech family business enterprises, it was decided to use the secondary data of a top research-journal for this area, namely the In accordance with one of the paper goals, a SWOT analysis was applied to find out the basic strengths and weaknesses of family business. It was decided to verify the received information by interviewing several representatives of the family business in the Czech Republic. Scientific aim: The aim of scientific research is to improve the understanding of family business from the perspective of difficulties faced by family business and its economic perspectives. Findings: The results of this study have allowed the finding of a definition for the family business based on family ties and the laws of the Czech Republic. Another finding is that family business as a motor of the Czech economy has a real potencial for its development and it is able to enhance the Czech economy competitiveness on the world market. In

  10. ρDCCA applied between air temperature and relative humidity: An hour/hour view (United States)

    Zebende, G. F.; Brito, A. A.; Silva Filho, A. M.; Castro, A. P.


    In this paper we propose to study the cross-correlation between the air temperature and the air relative humidity using the DCCA cross-correlation coefficient ρDCCA. We choose four cities (meteorological stations) located in the State of Bahia (Brazil), as our case study. Our data were available hourly from the Brazilian Institute of Meteorology. Accordingly, in addition to showing that the variables have a negative cross-correlation, we present a new vision about these variables, producing the detrended cross-correlation contour map. As a result, we can see (or not) islands of cross-correlations, that depend on the local time and also the time scale involved.

  11. Estimating actual irrigation application by remotely sensed evapotranspiration observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogers, P.; Immerzeel, W.W.; Lorite, I.J.; SWAP, PEST


    Water managers and policy makers need accurate estimates of real (actual) irrigation applications for effective monitoring of irrigation and efficient irrigation management. However, this information is not readily available at field level for larger irrigation areas. An innovative inverse

  12. Criterion validity of a new measure of self-actualization. (United States)

    Leclerc, G; Lefrançois, R; Dubé, M; Hébert, R; Gaulin, P


    Many authors have questioned the validity of the major existing measures of self-actualization (the Personal Orientation Inventory, the Personal Orientation Dimensions, and the Short Index of Self-actualization), given their serious theoretical and methodological limitations. A new inventory was developed, the Measure of Actualization of Potential, and various studies were conducted to assess its theoretical and empirical content as well as its construct validity, internal consistency, and temporal reliability. The present aim was to estimate the criterion validity of the new measure using humanistic clinical psychologists' assessments as the criterion. The results show that eight clinical psychologists' rankings of 73 individuals are positively and highly correlated with the scores obtained by the same individuals on the Measure of Actualization of Potential.

  13. Microclimate and actual evapotranspiration in a humid coastal-plain environment (United States)

    Dennehy, K.F.; McMahon, P.B.


    Continuous hourly measurements of twelve meteorologic variables recorded during 1983 and 1984 were used to examine the microclimate and actual evapotranspiration at a low-level radioactive-waste burial site near Barnwell, South Carolina. The study area is in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of southwestern South Carolina. Monthly, daily, and hourly trends in net radiation, incoming and reflected short-wave radiation, incoming and emitted long-wave radiation, soil-heat flux, dry- and wet-bulb temperatures, soil temperatures, wind direction and speed, and precipitation were used to characterize the microclimate. Average daily air temperatures ranged from -9 to 32?? Celsius during the period of study. Net radiation varied from about -27 to 251 watts m-2 and was dominated by incoming short-wave radiation throughout the year. The peak net radiation during a summer day generally occurred 2-3h before the peak vapor pressure deficit. In the winter, these peaks occurred at about the same time of day. Monthly precipitation varied from 15 to 241 mm. The Bowen ratio method was used to estimate hourly evapotranspiration, which was summed to also give daily and monthly evapotranspiration. Actual evapotranspiration varied from 0.0 to 0.7 mm h-1, 0.8-5 mm d-1, and 20-140 mm month-1 during 1983 and 1984. The maximum rate of evapotranspiration generally occurred at the same time of day as maximum net radiation, suggesting net radiation was the main driving force for evapotranspiration. Precipitation exceeded evapotranspiration during 14 months of the 2yr study period. Late fall, winter, and early spring contained the majority of these months. The maximum excess precipitation was 115 mm in February 1983. ?? 1987.

  14. An Hourly Dose-Escalation Desensitization Protocol for Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease. (United States)

    Chen, Justin R; Buchmiller, Brett L; Khan, David A


    Aspirin desensitization followed by maintenance therapy effectively improves symptom control in patients with aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD). The majority of current desensitization protocols use 3-hour dosing intervals and often require 2 to 3 days to complete. We evaluated hourly dose escalations in a subset of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyps, and asthma who historically reacted to aspirin within 1 hour or were avoiding aspirin with the goal of developing a safe and efficient desensitization protocol. Fifty-seven aspirin desensitizations were performed under the hourly protocol. All patients had refractory nasal polyposis as an indication for aspirin desensitization. The clinical characteristics of each subject were analyzed in relation to aspects of his or her reactions during the procedure. Ninety-eight percent of study patients were successfully treated under the hourly protocol, including those with a history of severe reactions and intubation. None required further medication than is available in an outpatient allergy clinic. A total of 96% of reactors recorded a bronchial or naso-ocular reaction within 1 hour of the preceding dose. Of the total patients on this protocol, 40% were able to complete the procedure in a single day, and 60% within 2 days. Patients with AERD who have a history of symptoms less than 1 hour after aspirin exposure can be safely desensitized with a 1-hour dose-escalation protocol that can often be completed in a single day. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of nursing care hours on the outcomes of Intensive Care assistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana do Altíssimo Nogueira

    Full Text Available To correlate the average number of nursing care hours dedicated to Intensive Care Unit (ICU patients with nursing care indicators.Transverse, descriptive study conducted between 2011 and 2013. Data were obtained from the electronic records system and from the nursing staff daily schedule. Generalized Linear Models were used for analysis.A total of 1,717 patients were included in the study. The average NAS (Nursing Activities Score value was 54.87. The average ratio between the number of nursing care hours provided to the patient and the number of nursing care hours required by the patient (hours ratio was 0.87. Analysis of the correlation between nursing care indicators and the hours ratio showed that the indicators phlebitis and ventilator-associated pneumonia significantly correlated with hours ratio; that is, the higher the hours ratio, the lower the incidence of phlebitis and ventilator-associated pneumonia.The number of nursing care hours directly impacts patient outcomes, which makes adjustment of nurse staffing levels essential.

  16. Precarious employment, working hours, work-life conflict and health in hotel work. (United States)

    McNamara, Maria; Bohle, Philip; Quinlan, Michael


    Precarious or temporary work is associated with adverse outcomes including low control over working hours, work-life conflict and stress. The rise in precarious employment is most marked in the service sector but little research has been done on its health effects in this sector. This study compares permanent and temporary workers in the hotel industry, where working hours are highly variable. Survey data from 150 workers from eight 3-Star hotels in urban and regional areas around Sydney were analyzed. Forty-five per cent were male and 52 per cent were female. Fifty four per cent were permanent full-time and 46 per cent were temporary workers. The effects of employment status on perceived job security, control over working hours, and work-life conflict are investigated using PLS-Graph 3.0. The effects of control over working hours, on work-life conflict and subsequent health outcomes are also explored. Temporary workers perceived themselves as less in control of their working hours, than permanent workers (β = .27). However, they also reported lower levels of work intensity (β = .25) and working hours (β = .38). The effects of low hours control (β = .20), work intensity (β = .29), and excessive hours (β = .39) on work-life conflict (r² = .50), and subsequent health effects (r² = .30), are illustrated in the final structural equation model. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Construction-man hour estimation for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paek, J.H.


    This study centers on a statistical analysis of the preliminary construction time, main construction time, and total construction man hours of nuclear power plants. The use of these econometric techniques allows the major man hour driving variables to be identified through multivariate analysis of time-series data on over 80 United States nuclear power plants. The analysis made in this study provides a clearer picture of the dynamic changes that have occurred in the man hours of these plants when compared to engineering estimates of man hours, and produces a tool that can be used to project nuclear power plant man hours

  18. Actual Nursing Competency among Nurses in Hospital in Vietnam


    Do Thi Ha; Khanitta Nuntaboot


    Background: Competency of nurses is vital to safe nursing practice as well as essential component to drive quality of nursing services. There exists little up to date information concerning actual competency among Vietnamese nurses. Purposes: The purpose of this study is to identify the actual nursing competency among nurses in clinical settings in Vietnam. Methods: A qualitative study, ethnographic method, comprised of the participant-observation, in-depth interview, and focus group discussi...

  19. « Optimal » vs actual hematocrit in obesity and overweight. (United States)

    Brun, Jean-Frédéric; Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Fédou, Christine; Raynaud de Mauverger, Eric


    Equations of blood viscosity provide a prediction of the 'optimal' hematocrit' (hct) as the hct resulting in the highest value of the bell-shaped curve of hematocrit/viscosity ratio h/η. We investigated if overweight and obesity have an influence on these parameters. We compared 32 normal weight subjects, 40 overweight (BMI 25-30) and 38 obese subjects. There was no difference in the theoretical curve of h/η. The actual h/η is the same in the 3 groups but is always higher than the theoretical h/η in all groups. The actual h/η is lower in overweight than controls (p = 0.011). Modeling yields the same value of theoretical optimal hct across BMI classes. The 3 groups have the same values of actual hct, but actual is significantly lower than optimal in all cases (p Hematocrit is lower than predicted due to a discrepancy between predicted and actual h/η which is due to the inter-subject variability of RBC rigidity ...   The discrepancy between optimal and actual h/η is negatively correlated to RBC rigidity indexes even if the model uses a fixed value of these indexes. Thus keeping in mind that the optimal hct should not be the same in the various parts of the vascular bed, its theoretical prediction with Quemada's equation appears to predict a value higher than actual hematocrit but well correlated to it, and the agreement between optimal and actual hct is dependent on RBC flexibility. This leads to think that the body sets hematocrit below its ideal value in sedentary subjects in order to cope with the need of increasing blood viscosity factors in case of exercise without impairing O2 supply to tissues.

  20. Limitation of duty hour regulations for pediatric resident wellness: A mixed methods study in Japan. (United States)

    Nomura, Osamu; Mishina, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Ishiguro, Akira; Sakai, Hirokazu; Kato, Hiroyuki


    Duty hour regulations have been placed in residency programs to address mental health concerns and to improve wellness. Here, we elucidate the prevalence of depressive symptoms after implementing an overnight call shift system and the factors associated with burnout or depression among residents.A sequential exploratory mixed methods study was conducted in a tertiary care pediatric and perinatal hospital in Tokyo, Japan. A total of 41 pediatric residents participated in the cross-sectional survey. We determined and compared the prevalence of depressive symptoms and the number of actual working hours before and after implementing the shift system. A follow-up focus-group interview with 4 residents was conducted to explore the factors that may trigger or prevent depression and burnout.Mean working hours significantly decreased from 75.2 hours to 64.9 hours per week. Prevalence of depressive symptoms remained similar before and after implementation of the shift system. Emotional exhaustion and depersonalization from the burnout scale were markedly associated with depression. High workload, stress intolerance, interpersonal difficulties, and generation gaps regarding work-life balance could cause burnout. Stress tolerance, workload monitoring and balancing, appropriate supervision, and peer support could prevent burnout.Although the overnight call shift system was effective in reducing working hours, its effectiveness in managing mental health issues among pediatric residents remains unclear. Resident wellness programs represent an additional strategy and they should be aimed at fostering peer support and improvement of resident-faculty interactions. Such an approach could be beneficial to the relationship between physicians of different generations with conflicting belief structures.

  1. Estimation of Regional-Scale Actual Evapotranspiration in Okayama prefecture in Japan using Complementary Relationship (United States)

    Moroizumi, T.; Yamamoto, M.; Miura, T.


    It is important to estimate accurately a water balance in watershed for proposing a reuse of water resources and a proper settlement of water utilization. Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important factor of water balance. Therefore, it is needed to estimate accurately the actual ET. The objective of this study is to estimate accurately monthly actual ET in Yoshii, Asahi, and Takahashi River watersheds in Okayama prefecture from 1999 to 2000. The monthly actual ET was calculated by a Morton and a modified Brutsaert and Stricker (B&S) method, using Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition Systems (AMeDAS) in the basin. The actual ET was estimated using land covers which were classified in 11 categories. The land covers includes the effects of albedo. The actual ET was related to the elevation at each AMeDAS station. Using this relationship, the actual ET at the 1 or 5 km grid-interval mesh in the basin was calculated, and finally, the distribution of actual ET was mapped. The monthly ET estimated by the modified B&S method were smaller than that by Morton method which showed a same tendency as the Penman potential ET (PET). The annual values of Morton"fs ET, modified B&S"fs ET, and PET were estimated as 796, 645, and 800 mm, respectively. The ET by the modified B&S was larger in hilly and mountainous areas than in settlement or city. In general, it was a reasonable result because city or settlement areas were covered with concrete and asphalt and the ET was controlled.

  2. Hourly distributions of the diffuse fraction of global solar irradiation in Cordoba (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posadillo, R.; Lopez Luque, R. [Grupo de Investigacion de Fisica para las Energias y Recursos Renovables, Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada/UCO, Edificio C2 Campus de Rabanales, 14071 Cordoba (Spain)


    Hourly global irradiations on tilted planes are required for dimensioning PV systems. However, for most sites, only global irradiations on a horizontal plane are available, and, given that to calculate the global irradiation on inclined planes the first step is to determine the diffuse component and this is not collected, we have studied the behaviour of the diffuse component on an hourly basis. Most parametrization models for the derivation of hourly diffuse irradiance from hourly global irradiance involve the clearness index, a parameter that implicitly includes solar altitude. The present paper has focused on the possibility of also including ''mean solar altitude anti {alpha}'' explicitly as a parameter in addition to the clearness index. Several analytical models are proposed, validated and compared here, using solar data collected on our station located in Cordoba (Spain). (author)

  3. Freeze substitution in 3 hours or less. (United States)

    McDonald, K L; Webb, R I


    Freeze substitution is a process for low temperature dehydration and fixation of rapidly frozen cells that usually takes days to complete. New methods for freeze substitution have been developed that require only basic laboratory tools: a platform shaker, liquid nitrogen, a metal block with holes for cryotubes and an insulated container such as an ice bucket. With this equipment, excellent freeze substitution results can be obtained in as little as 90 min for cells of small volume such as bacteria and tissue culture cells. For cells of greater volume or that have significant diffusion barriers such as cuticles or thick cell walls, one can extend the time to 3 h or more with dry ice. The 3-h method works well for all manner of specimens, including plants and Caenorhabditis elegans as well as smaller samples. Here, we present the basics of the techniques and some results from Nicotiana leaves, C. elegans adult worms, Escherichia coli and baby hamster kidney tissue culture cells. © 2011 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2011 Royal Microscopical Society.

  4. First Hours of the GW170817 Kilonova: Why So Blue? (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    rise is best matched by models in which the emission is produced by radioactive decay of ejecta with lots of heavier elements (likely from tidal tails). The subsequent decline of the emission, however, is fit as well or better by models that include lighter, faster outflows, or additional emission due to shock-heating from a wind or a cocoon surrounding a jet.Optical and ultraviolet light curves for the first 3 days after merger, as compared to four different emission models. Observations at earlier times, where the models differ more substantially, could provide stronger constraints for future mergers. [Arcavi 2018]Missing UltravioletThe takeaway from Arcavis work is that we cant yet eliminate any models for the GW170817 kilonovas early blue emission we simply dont have enough data.Why not? It turns out we had some bad luck with GW170817: a glitch in one of the detectors slowed down localization of the source, preventing earlier discovery of the kilonova. The net result was that the electromagnetic signal of this merger was only found 11 hours after the gravitational waves were detected and the ultraviolet signal was detected 4 hours after that, when the kilonova light curves are already decaying.If we had ultraviolet observations that tracked the earlier, rising emission, Arcavi argues, we would be able to differentiate between the different emission models for the kilonova. So while this may be the best we can do with GW170817, we can hope that with the next merger well have a full set of early observations allowing us to better understand where its emission comes from.CitationIair Arcavi 2018 ApJL 855 L23. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aab267

  5. Actual proliferating index in oral squamous cell carcinoma and leukoplakia. (United States)

    Chandak, Abhay R; Gadbail, Amol Ramchandra; Chaudhary, Minal S; Chandak, Shweta A; Wadhwani, Ritesh


      To examine the possible association between epithelial proliferation and disease progression in the oral mucosa using the actual proliferation index.   The actual proliferation index was measured by the Ki-67 labeling index and argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region count per nucleus. Immunohistochemistry was carried out for Ki-67 by using the molecular immunology borstel-1 clone in 20 leukoplakias, 20 oral squamous cell carcinomas, and 10 normal oral mucosae.   The argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region count per nucleus, Ki-67 labeling index, and actual proliferation index were significantly higher in oral squamous cell carcinoma, followed by leukoplakia and normal oral mucosa. Leukoplakia with dysplasia showed a significantly higher Ki-67 labeling index and actual proliferation index, compared to leukoplakia without dysphasia. There was a significant correlation of Bryne's histological malignancy grading with the argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region count and the Ki-67 labeling index. There was a significant positive correlation between the argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region count and the Ki-67 labeling index among all groups.   Leukoplakia or suspected epithelial dysplasia should be stained for argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions and Ki-67. The actual proliferation index is not only useful as a prognostic factor, but could also be a promising treatment determining modality for patients with premalignant and malignant lesions. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikishkova Mariya Sergeevna


    Full Text Available The article presents the overview of linguistic research on gastronomic / gluttony communicative environment as ethnocultural phenomenon from the standpoint of conceptology, discourse study and linguosemiotics. The authors study the linguosemiotic encoding / decoding in the English gastronomic (gluttony discourse. The peculiarities of gastronomic gluttonyms "immersion" into everyday communication are studied. The anglophone ethnicities are revealed and different ways of gluttony texts (including the precedent ones formation are investigated. The linguosemiotic parameters of ethnocultural (anglophone gastronomic coded communication are established, their discursive characteristics are identified. It is determined that in English gastronomic communication, the discursive actualization of ethno-linguocultural code has a dynamic nature; the constitutive features of gastronomic discourse have symbolic (semiotic basics and are connected with such semiotic categories as code, encoding, decoding. It was found that food is semiotic in its origin and represents the cultural code. It was revealed that the semiosis of English gastronomic text is regularly filled with the codes of traditional "English-likeness" (ethnic term by Roland Barthes expressed by gluttonyms. "Nationality" code is detected through the names of products specific to certain areas; national identity of ethnic code also allows highlighting ways of dish garnishing and serving, typical characteristics of particular local preparation methods. The authors analyze the "lingualization" of food images having an ambivalent character, determined, firstly, by food signs (gluttonyms which structure the common space of gastronomic discourse and provide it with ethnic linguocultural food source; secondly, by immerging formed images into a specific ethnic code that is decoded in gastronomic discourse unfolding. The precedent texts accumulate ethnic information supplying adequate gastronomic worldview

  7. Estado actual y perspectivas de la domótica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recuero, A.


    Full Text Available An Intelligent House is the one that allows "a better quality of living through technology, a reduction of domestic tasks, an increase of the well-being and safety of dwellers, and a rationalization of the different consumers power; it includes automatized groups of equipments, usually associated by functions, which have the capacity of interactively communicate between them through an "integrated multimedia domestic bus". For this purpose, the Intelligent House foresees the execution of certain functions, depending on the information captured by measuring systems and sent through the communication network according to specific standards. This paper presents an overview of the present situation regarding these aspects, and their foreseen evolution.

    Una vivienda domótica es aquélla que, a través de la tecnología, permite "una mayor calidad de vida, una reducción del trabajo doméstico, un aumento del bienestar y la seguridad de sus habitantes, y una racionalización de los distintos consumos; en ella existen agrupaciones automatizadas de equipos, normalmente asociadas por funciones, que tienen la capacidad de comunicarse interactivamente entre ellas a través de un "bus doméstico multimedia que las integra ". Para ello, la Domótica prevé la ejecución de ciertas funciones, dependiendo de la información captada por sistemas de medida y trasmitidas a través de redes de comunicación de acuerdo con ciertos estándares. En este trabajo se revisa cuál es la situación actual de estos aspectos y cuál es su evolución previsible.

  8. Interns shall not sleep: the duty hours boomerang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan SF


    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. On March 10, 2017, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME announced revisions to its common program requirements related to duty hours (1. Effective on July 1, 2017, the most important change will be an increase in the maximum consecutive hours that an intern may work. Interns will now be able to continuously perform patient care work up to a maximum of 24 hours with an additional 4 hours for managing care transitions. This reverses the controversial reduction to 16 hours that occurred in 2011 (2. The regulation of house staff duty hours formally began in the late 1980s. It was precipitated largely because of the publicity resulting from the 1984 death of Libby Zion in a New York teaching hospital that was attributed partly to poor decisions made by fatigued and overworked house staff (3. Consequently, the state of New York in 1989 passed laws restricting the …

  9. Forecasting Day-Ahead Electricity Prices: Utilizing Hourly Prices


    Raviv, Eran; Bouwman, Kees E.; van Dijk, Dick


    This discussion paper led to a publication in 'Energy Economics' , 2015, 50, 227-239. The daily average price of electricity represents the price of electricity to be delivered over the full next day and serves as a key reference price in the electricity market. It is an aggregate that equals the average of hourly prices for delivery during each of the 24 individual hours. This paper demonstrates that the disaggregated hourly prices contain useful predictive information for the daily average ...

  10. Review of 12-hour shifts at nuclear generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smiley, A.; Moray, N.P.


    This project reviewed the practice of 12-hour shift work schedules at nuclear power plants, and its relationship to safety. The current literature was examined for information on accidents, fatigue and personal preferences. Interviews with operators and maintainers showed that these groups had attitude and preference differences related to both 12 hour shift schedules and overtime work opportunities. Several factors related to 12-hour schedules were identified which could affect safety, but which have not been adequately considered. (24 refs.)

  11. The impact of the implementation of work hour requirements on residents' career satisfaction, attitudes and emotions. (United States)

    Choi, Dongseok; Dickey, Jamie; Wessel, Kristen; Girard, Donald E


    To assess the impact of work hours' limitations required by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) on residents' career satisfaction, emotions and attitudes. A validated survey instrument was used to assess residents' levels of career satisfaction, emotions and attitudes before and after the ACGME duty hour requirements were implemented. The "pre" implementation survey was distributed in December 2002 and the "post" implementation one in December 2004. Only the latter included work-hour related questions. The response rates were 56% for the 2002 and 72% for the 2004 surveys respectively. Although career satisfaction remained unchanged, numerous changes occurred in both emotions and attitudes. Compared to those residents who did not violate work-hour requirements, those who did were significantly more negative in attitudes and emotions. With the implementation of the ACGME work hour limitations, the training experience became more negative for those residents who violated the work hour limits and had a small positive impact on those who did not violate them. Graduate medical education leaders must innovate to make the experiences for selected residents improved and still maintain compliance with the work hour requirements.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viacheslav M. Oleksenko


    Full Text Available Urgency of the material presented in the article is stipulated by the pressing needs of the society to provide high quality of education and training of highly skilled specialists. The ways of forming future specialists’ self-actualization of engineer specialities by the studactive pedagogical technology are revealed. It is established that such process obtains a practically oriented character and it is realized with regard for correlation of inner intentions of a person and conditions in which he/she gets a speciality. The basic methods of a teacher to form a person’s self-actualization are exposed. The aspects of a technological process considered in the article define the directions of the further research of forming self-actualization of pupils and future specialists of any speciality.

  13. Experimental philosophy of actual and counterfactual free will intuitions. (United States)

    Feltz, Adam


    Five experiments suggested that everyday free will and moral responsibility judgments about some hypothetical thought examples differed from free will and moral responsibility judgments about the actual world. Experiment 1 (N=106) showed that free will intuitions about the actual world measured by the FAD-Plus poorly predicted free will intuitions about a hypothetical person performing a determined action (r=.13). Experiments 2-5 replicated this result and found the relations between actual free will judgments and free will judgments about hypothetical determined or fated actions (rs=.22-.35) were much smaller than the differences between them (ηp(2)=.2-.55). These results put some pressure on theoretical accounts of everyday intuitions about freedom and moral responsibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sex Differences in Jealousy in Response to Actual Infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Edlund


    Full Text Available The present studies address two criticisms of the theory of evolved sex differences in jealousy: (a that the sex difference in jealousy emerges only in response to hypothetical infidelity scenarios, and (b that the sex difference emerges only using forced-choice measures. In two separate studies, one a paper-and-pencil survey with a student sample and the other a web-based survey targeting a non-student sample, men and women showed significant sex differences in jealousy in response to actual infidelity experiences; men experienced more jealousy in response to the sexual aspects of an actual infidelity, whereas women experienced more jealousy in response to the emotional aspects of the infidelity. Sex differences emerged using both continuous measures of jealousy as well as the traditional forced-choice measure. Overall, our results demonstrate that sex differences in jealousy are not limited to responses to hypothetical infidelity scenarios; they also emerge in response to actual infidelity experiences.

  15. Hourly rounding and patient falls: what factors boost success? (United States)

    Goldsack, Jennifer; Bergey, Meredith; Mascioli, Susan; Cunningham, Janet


    Falls are a persistent problem in all healthcare settings, with rates in acute care hospitals ranging from 1.3 to 8.9 falls per 1,000 inpatient days, about 30% resulting in serious injury. A 30-day prospective pilot study was conducted on two units with pre- and postimplementation evaluation to determine the impact of patient-centered proactive hourly rounding on patient falls as part of a Lean Six Sigma process improvement project. Nurse leaders and a staff champion from Unit 1 were involved in the process from the start of the implementation period, while Unit 2 was introduced to the project for training shortly before the intervention began. On Unit 1, where staff and leadership were engaged in the project from the outset, the 1-year baseline mean fall rate was 3.9 falls/1,000 patient days. The pilot period fall rate of 1.3 falls/1,000 patient days was significantly lower than the baseline fall rate (P = 0.006). On Unit 2, where there was no run-in period, the 1-year baseline mean fall rate was 2.6 falls/1,000 patient days, which fell, but not significantly, to 2.5 falls/1,000 patient days during the pilot period (P = 0.799). Engaging an interdisciplinary team, including leadership and unit champions, to complete a Lean Six Sigma process improvement project and implement a patient-centered proactive hourly rounding program was associated with a significant reduction in the fall rate in Unit 1. Implementation of the same program in Unit 2 without engaging leadership or front-line staff in program design did not impact its fall rate. The active involvement of leadership and front-line staff in program design and as unit champions during the project run-in period was critical to significantly reducing inpatient fall rates and call bell use in an adult medical unit.

  16. Working hours and health behaviour among nurses at public hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana da Costa Fernandes


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to analyse the differences between genders in the description in the professional, domestic and total work hours and assess its association with health-related behaviour among nurses. METHODS: this is a transversal study carried out in 18 different public hospitals in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro. The data collection procedure was based on questionnaires. All nurses working with assistance were considered eligible (n=2,279. RESULTS: men and women showed significant differences in relation to working hours. The female group showed longer domestic and total work hours when compared to the group of men. In contrast, the number of hours spent on professional work was higher among men. For the women, both the professional hours and total work hours were often associated with excessive consumption of fried food and also coffee, lack of physical exercise and also the greater occurrence of overweight and obesity. CONCLUSION: both the professional hours and the domestic work hours need to be taken into account in studies about health, self-care and also the care provided within the context of nursing workers, particularly among women. The results add weight to the need for actions for health promotion in this occupational group and the importance of assessing the impact of long working hours on the health of workers.

  17. Evaluation of a twelve-hour/day shift schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, P.M.; Swaim, D.J.


    In April 1985, the operating crews at the Fast Flux Test Facility near Richland, Washington, changed their rotating shift schedule from an 8-hour to a 12-hour a day work schedule. The primary purpose of the change was to reduce the attrition of operators by increasing their job satisfaction. Eighty-four percent of the operators favored the change. A program was established to evaluate the effects on plant performance, operator alertness, attrition, sleep, health, job satisfaction, and off-the-job satisfaction. Preliminary results from that evaluation program indicate that the 12-hour shift schedule is a reasonable alternative to an 8-hour schedule at this facility

  18. Do economic stresses influence child work hours on family farms? (United States)

    Gadomski, Anne; de Long, Rachel; Burdick, Patrick; Jenkins, Paul


    Economic stresses are a frequently cited reason for children doing farm work. To explore the relationship between economic indicators and child agricultural work hours between January 2001 and October 2003. This ecologic study design compares trends in aggregate child work hours with national and regional economic indicators. Child work hours were obtained from quarterly surveillance data from a randomized field trial of agricultural task guidelines for children. 2,360 children living or working on 845 farms in central New York participated in the original study. The relationship between child work hours and three economic indicators: national all farm index (AFI) ratio, national fuel index, and regional milk prices was analyzed using times series plots, correlation, and multiple linear regression. The AFI ratio was positively correlated with child work hours (r = 0.49, p = 0.008) but there was no significant correlation between child work hours and fuel or milk prices. Multiple linear regression demonstrated that the relationship between AFI and child work hours is independent of a seasonal effect. Increased child work hours may be associated with periods of higher farm sector productivity, rather than economic stress per se. Findings are limited by the ecologic study design, use of national economic indicators, and the limited number of cycles of child work hours available for time series analysis. Economic conditions may influence decisions about children's farm work.

  19. Migration plans and hours of work in Malaysia. (United States)

    Gillin, E D; Sumner, D A


    "This article describes characteristics of prospective migrants in the Malaysian Family Life Survey and investigates how planning to move affects hours of work. [The authors] use ideas about intertemporal discuss the response to temporary and permanent wage expectations on the part of potential migrants. [An] econometric section presents reduced-form estimates for wage rates and planned migration equations and two-stage least squares estimates for hours of work. Men currently planning a move were found to work fewer hours. Those originally planning only a temporary stay at their current location work more hours." excerpt

  20. Long working hours as a risk factor for atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kivimäki, Mika; Nyberg, Solja T.; Batty, G. David


    Aims Studies suggest that people who work long hours are at increased risk of stroke, but the association of long working hours with atrial fibrillation, the most common cardiac arrhythmia and a risk factor for stroke, is unknown. We examined the risk of atrial fibrillation in individuals working...... confounding factors, such as obesity, risky alcohol use and high blood pressure, had little impact on this association. Conclusion Individuals who worked long hours were more likely to develop atrial fibrillation than those working standard hours....

  1. Working hours, work-life conflict and health in precarious and "permanent" employment. (United States)

    Bohle, Philip; Quinlan, Michael; Kennedy, David; Williamson, Ann


    The expansion of precarious employment in OECD countries has been widely associated with negative health and safety effects. Although many shiftworkers are precariously employed, shiftwork research has concentrated on full-time workers in continuing employment. This paper examines the impact of precarious employment on working hours, work-life conflict and health by comparing casual employees to full-time, "permanent" employees working in the same occupations and workplaces. Thirty-nine convergent interviews were conducted in two five-star hotels. The participants included 26 full-time and 13 casual (temporary) employees. They ranged in age from 19 to 61 years and included 17 females and 22 males. Working hours ranged from zero to 73 hours per week. Marked differences emerged between the reports of casual and full-time employees about working hours, work-life conflict and health. Casuals were more likely to work highly irregular hours over which they had little control. Their daily and weekly working hours ranged from very long to very short according to organisational requirements. Long working hours, combined with low predictability and control, produced greater disruption to family and social lives and poorer work-life balance for casuals. Uncoordinated hours across multiple jobs exacerbated these problems in some cases. Health-related issues reported to arise from work-life conflict included sleep disturbance, fatigue and disrupted exercise and dietary regimes. This study identified significant disadvantages of casual employment. In the same hotels, and doing largely the same jobs, casual employees had less desirable and predictable work schedules, greater work-life conflict and more associated health complaints than "permanent" workers.

  2. Meditation and college students' self-actualization and rated stress. (United States)

    Janowiak, J J; Hackman, R


    This paper concerns the efficacy of meditation and relaxation in promoting self-actualization and changes in self-reported stress among 62 college students. Two groups were given mantra meditation and a yogic relaxation technique referred to as Shavasana. Pre- and posttest measures were taken on the Personal Orientation Inventory and the Behavioral Relaxation Scale. Both groups showed significant increases in scores on self-actualization; however, no differences were found between groups. Meditation training was associated with larger gains in scores on measures of systematic relaxed behavior than of the relaxation training.

  3. Cibersociedad y ciencias humanas: el caso de la Historia Actual


    Molina Rabadán, David; Fernandez-Garcia, Jesus


    La intención del presente artículo es presentar cómo los avances en el nuevo patrón de producción y difusión de conocimientos de la sociedad presente, ejemplificado en Internet, pueden influir en la reconceptualización de las ciencias humanas y en especial de la Historia Actual. Se analizarán los puntos de convergencia y divergencia de la práctica de la Historia Actual con los nuevos paradigmas intelectuales de la “tercera cultura”, y la posibilidad de que desde la filosofía y organización...

  4. Associations among somatotype, temperament and self-actualization. (United States)

    Catell, P; Metzner, R


    Based on a sample of 45 subjects, 28 men and 17 women, examination was made of the relationships among body type according to Sheldon's methodology, temperament as measured by Cortes and Gatti, and self-actualization as assessed by the Personal Orientation Inventory developed by Shostrom. No significant associations between somatotype and temperament but some significant results were found by examining the self-actualization scores and the body type/temperament match or mismatch. Significant findings were seen on the Spontaneity, Self-regard, Inner-directed, and Feeling Reactivity scales.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vinayachandran


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pre-eclampsia is defined as the development of new-onset hypertension in the second half of pregnancy often accompanied by new-onset proteinuria with other signs and symptoms. Proteinuria is defined by the excretion of 300 mg or more of protein in a 24-hour urine collection. To avoid time consumed in collection of 24-hour urine specimens, efforts have been made to develop faster methods to determine concentration of urine protein. Preliminary studies have suggested that 12-hour urine protein collection maybe adequate for evaluation of pre-eclampsia with advantage of early diagnosis and treatment of pre-eclampsia as well as potential for early hospital discharge and increased compliance with specimen collection. The aim of the study is to evaluate and correlate spot urine albumin and 12-hour urine protein with 24-hour urine protein in pre-eclampsia. MATERIALS AND METHODS A diagnostic evaluation study- a 24-hour urine protein, 12-hour urine protein and spot urine albumin results are analysed. Correlation of 12-hour urine protein and spot urine albumin with 24-hour urine protein is analysed using SPSS software. The strength of correlation was measured by Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r. Student’s t-test and Chi-square tests were used to compare patients with and without 24-hour urine protein ≥300 mg. Probability value of 165 mg with 24-hour urine protein ≥300 mg suggest that this test has role in the evaluation of women with suspected pre-eclampsia and could be substituted for 24-hour urine protein as a simple, faster and cheaper method.

  6. Effects of a marathon group on self-actualization and attitudes toward women. (United States)

    Kilmann, P R; Follingstad, D R; Price, M G; Rowland, K F; Robinson, E A


    This study investigated the impact of a 16-hour marathon session on levels of self-actualization and attitudes toward women both 1 day and 5 weeks after the group experience. Female undergraduates were assigned randomly to one of two marathon groups or to a no-treatment control group. Ss in both marathon groups experienced a significant shift toward increased independence or self-supportedness on both posttests. However, a differential group effect was found from separate comparisons of each marathon group with the control group reflected significantly shifts in attitudes toward women; Ss in one marathon group reflected significantly greater agreement with profeminist attitudes on the first posttest and experienced an even greater shift in that direction on the second posttest, while Ss in the other marathon group did not differ significantly from the control Ss on either posttest.

  7. Purpose in life and self-actualization in agency-supported caregivers. (United States)

    Rhoades, D R; McFarland, K F


    When families cannot serve as full-time caregivers for severely, mentally ill family members, agency-supported caregivers provide an alternative to chronic hospitalization. Caregivers who provide 24 hour per day care experience caregiver burden; they also find rewards and meaning in their work. The purpose of this study is to observe positive experiences of paid caregivers for seriously, mentally ill individuals, especially the meaning or purpose it gives their lives and the self-fulfillment or self-actualization that caregiving provides. The caregivers in this study possessed a high purpose in life suggesting that caregiving may give meaning to life. Also, the caregivers of these individuals with severe, mental illness tend to be highly other-oriented (altruistic), an external focus that may decrease their own self-awareness. Thus, caregivers who provide continuous residential care may benefit from therapeutic interventions designed to reinforce self-care skills.

  8. Computed tomography to operating room in less than 3 hours minimizes complications from appendicitis. (United States)

    Harmon, Laura A; Davis, Matthew L; Jupiter, Daniel C; Frazee, Richard C; Regner, Justin L


    The aim of our study is to select patients with nonperforated appendicitis verified by computed tomography (CT) scan and to determine if there is a temporal component to perforation. A retrospective cohort study of patients with CT scan evidence of nonperforated appendicitis from 2007 to 2012. 411 patients, aged 39.7 ± 16.25 years (47.5% male) were included in the study. 330 patients (80.3%) were nonperforated at surgery. Analysis of 3-hour intervals from CT scan to operating room (OR) revealed an absolute reduction in the rate of perforation from 27% at the 6- to 9-hour interval, to 17% and 10% at the 3- to 6-hour and 0- to 3-hour intervals, respectively, (P appendicitis patients (P appendicitis had shorter hospitalization and fewer postoperative wound infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Marriage markets as explanation for why heavier people work more hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoshana Grossbard


    Full Text Available Abstract Is BMI related to hours of work through marriage market mechanisms? We empirically explore this issue using data from the NLSY79 and NLSY97 and a number of estimation strategies (including OLS, IV, and sibling FE. Our IV estimates (with same-sex sibling’s BMI as an instrument and a large set of controls including wage suggest that a one-unit increase in BMI leads to an almost 2% increase in White married women’s hours of work. However, BMI is not associated with hours of work of married men. We also find that a one-unit increase in BMI leads to a 1.4% increase in White single women’s hours of work, suggesting that single women may expect future in-marriage transfers that vary by body weight. We show that the positive association between BMI and hours of work of White single women increases with self-assessed probability of future marriage and varies with expected cumulative spousal income. Comparisons between the association between BMI and hours of work for White and Black married women suggest a possible racial gap in intra-marriage transfers from husbands to wives.

  10. No Correlation Between Work-Hours and Operative Volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Jane; Sillesen, Martin; Beier-Holgersen, Randi


    OBJECTIVE: Since 2003, United States residents have been limited to an 80-hour workweek. This has prompted concerns of reduced educational quality, especially inadequate operating exposure. In contrast, the Danish surgical specialty-training program mandates a cap on working hours of 37 per week....

  11. Human prolactin - 24-hour pattern with increased release during sleep. (United States)

    Sassin, J. F.; Weitzman, E. D.; Kapen, S.; Frantz, A. G.


    Human prolactin was measured in plasma by radioimmunoassay at 20-minute intervals for a 24-hour period in each of six normal adults, whose sleep-wake cycles were monitored polygraphically. A marked diurnal variation in plasma concentrations was demonstrated, with highest values during sleep. Periods of episodic release occurred throughout the 24 hours.

  12. Correlation between sunshine hours and climatic parameters at four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the most important factors in solar energy production is related to the predictability of sunshine hours. The objective of this study is to assess the correlation between sunshine hours and relative humidity, cloud cover, maximum and minimum temperature, for the purpose of identifying the most appropriate ...

  13. Breastfeeding during the first hour of life and neonatal mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Siqueira Boccolini


    Conclusion: The protective effect of breastfeeding during the first hour of life on neonatal mortality in this ecological study is consistent with findings from previous observational studies, indicating the importance of adopting breastfeeding within the first hour as a routine neonatal care practice.

  14. 12 CFR 905.3 - Location and business hours. (United States)


    ... Location and business hours. (a) Location. All office units of the Finance Board are located at 1777 F... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Location and business hours. 905.3 Section 905.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD ORGANIZATION AND...

  15. Stochastic Simulation of Hourly Average Wind Speed in Umudike ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten years of hourly average wind speed data were used to build a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model. The model was used to simulate hourly average wind speed and recommend possible uses at Umudike, South eastern Nigeria. Results showed that the simulated wind behaviour was ...

  16. Emotional exhaustion may trigger cut in working hours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppes, L.


    Researchers in the Netherlands have been examining to what extent workers are modifying their hours to cope with high levels of work-related emotional exhaustion. Findings reveal that most full-time employees would prefer a cut in their hours, with those reporting emotional exhaustion wanting a

  17. Estimating Software Effort Hours for Major Defense Acquisition Programs (United States)

    Wallshein, Corinne C.


    Software Cost Estimation (SCE) uses labor hours or effort required to conceptualize, develop, integrate, test, field, or maintain program components. Department of Defense (DoD) SCE can use initial software data parameters to project effort hours for large, software-intensive programs for contractors reporting the top levels of process maturity,…

  18. Surgical resident working hours in South Africa | Kong | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Surgical training has undergone major changes worldwide, especially with regard to work hour regulations. Very little is known regarding the situation in South Africa, and how it compares with other countries. Method: We conducted a retrospective review of the hours worked by surgical residents in a major ...

  19. Reducing Teaching Hours in Tertiary Japanese: A Case Study (United States)

    Ascione, Judith; Bramley, Nicolette


    The primary objective of this study is to identify the effect of reducing teaching hours from five to four face-to-face teaching hours in a beginners' Japanese course at the University of Canberra, Australia. The results of 2007, 2008 and 2009 cohorts of Japanese students' results are compared to consider the effect of the reduction in classroom…

  20. Mortality Pattern within Twenty-Four Hours of Emergency Paediatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The highest mortality within the first 24 hours of admission was recorded among patients with malaria (89.0%) followed by protein energy malnutrition. CONCLUSION: Majority of deaths among emergency paediatric admission occur within the first 24 hours of admission and are associated with clinical conditions such as ...

  1. 17 CFR 12.3 - Business address; hours. (United States)


    ... REPARATIONS General Information and Preliminary Consideration of Pleadings § 12.3 Business address; hours. The... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business address; hours. 12.3..., DC 20581. It is open each day, except Saturdays, Sundays, and legal public holidays, from 8:15 a.m...

  2. 39 CFR 959.3 - Office, business hours. (United States)


    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office, business hours. 959.3 Section 959.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE PRIVATE EXPRESS STATUTES § 959.3 Office, business hours. The offices of the officials mentioned in these rules are...

  3. 39 CFR 952.4 - Office business hours. (United States)


    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office business hours. 952.4 Section 952.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.4 Office business hours. The offices of the officials mentioned in these...

  4. 39 CFR 954.4 - Office business hours. (United States)


    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office business hours. 954.4 Section 954.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE DENIAL, SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF PERIODICALS MAIL PRIVILEGES § 954.4 Office business hours. The offices of the...

  5. Correlation of ultrasonographic estimated fetal weight with actual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Sonographic fetal weight estimation is an important component of antenatal care. Aim: To sonographically estimate fetal weight at term and to compare estimated with actual birth weights to determine the validity of estimated fetal weights. Subjects and methods: In the prospective study, a convenience ...

  6. Actual Leisure Participation of Norwegian Adolescents with Down Syndrome (United States)

    Dolva, Anne-Stine; Kleiven, Jo; Kollstad, Marit


    This article reports the actual participation in leisure activities by a sample of Norwegian adolescents with Down syndrome aged 14. Representing a first generation to grow up in a relatively inclusive context, they live with their families, attend mainstream schools, and are part of common community life. Leisure information was obtained in…

  7. Served versus actual nutrient intake of hospitalised patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To assess whether actual nutrient intake of hospitalised patients with tuberculosis differed from that served by the hospital and from that required according to current recommendations. Design: Descriptive, cross-sectional study. Setting: Brooklyn Chest Hospital in Brooklyn, Cape Town, Western Cape, South ...

  8. Probability: Actual Trials, Computer Simulations, and Mathematical Solutions. (United States)

    Walton, Karen Doyle; Walton, J. Doyle

    The purpose of this teaching unit is to approach elementary probability problems in three ways. First, actual trials are performed and results are recorded. Second, a simple computer simulation of the problem provided on diskette and written for Apple IIe and IIc computers, is run several times. Finally, the mathematical solution of the problem is…

  9. A Taxometric Analysis of Actual Internet Sports Gambling Behavior (United States)

    Braverman, Julia; LaBrie, Richard A.; Shaffer, Howard J.


    This article presents findings from the first taxometric study of actual gambling behavior to determine whether we can represent the characteristics of extreme gambling as qualitatively distinct (i.e., taxonic) or as a point along a dimension. We analyzed the bets made during a 24-month study period by the 4,595 most involved gamblers among a…

  10. Political Protest Songs and Actual Protest Values: Analysis of Fela's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Tears and Blood and Bob Marley's Stand up, Get up, using in-depth analysis of the songs' lyrics plus opinion survey of their listeners. Finding is that the actual protest values of the two songs are high in meditation upon protest problem and ...

  11. Sensitivity Training... and the Healthy Become Self-Actualized (United States)

    Reddy, W. Brendan; Beers, Thomas


    Explores the dimensions of self-concept in response to sensitivity training, i.e., that psychologically healthy participants would make greater gains in self-actualization than would those participants who viewed themselves as less healthy. Results support the hypothesis. (Author/HMV)

  12. From nascent to actual entrepreneurship: the effect of entry barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van Stel (André); D. Storey (David); A.R.M. Wennekers (Sander); A.R. Thurik (Roy)


    textabstractThis exploratory study focuses on the conversion from nascent to actual entrepreneurship and the role of entry barriers in this process. Using data for a sample of countries participating in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor between 2002 and 2004, we estimate a twoequation model

  13. Actual development of the chenier coast of suriname (South America)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augustinus, P.G.E.F.

    The Holocene coastal plain of Suriname is a chenier plain. Its actual sedimentological development has been studied during three field-work periods (1966, 1967/1968, 1972). Clay is the predominant sediment in this low- to medium-energy environment. It accumulates in extensive shoreface-attached

  14. Managing Actual Problems of Peatsoils Associated with Soil Acidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Edi Armanto


    Full Text Available The research objective is to manage actual problems of peatsoils associated with soil acidity. The research has been conducted on peatsoils in river backswamps located in Subdistricts of East Pedamaran and Pedamaran, District of OKI South Sumatra. Soil sampling was taken in cultivated and uncultivated types of landuse; cultivated peatsoils consist of Site A (intercropping between oil palm and pineapple and Site B (oil palm, uncultivated peatsoils are divided into Site C (peat forest, Site D (swamp bush and Site E (swamp grass. The research resulted that actual problems of soil acidity is associated with base saturation, cations exchange capacity, soil organic matters and C/N ratio, balances of soil nutrients, and toxicity potency. The climatic condition and drought can accelerate the occurrence of actual problems of peatsoils associated with acidity peatsoils. Some ameliorant have been applied in order of importance in the fields, namely lime/dolomite, mineral soils, organic fertilizers, combustion ash, and volcanic ash. Application of ameliorant materials is capable to minimize the actual problems of peatsoils associated with soil acidity.

  15. Correlation of ultrasonographic estimated fetal weight with actual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experienced sonographer estimated fetal weights by measuring BPD, HC, AC and FL using a scanner with Hadlock 3 weight estimation model. Actual birth weights were measured with a Crown weighing scale by a midwife. Data was analyzed with SPSS software version 17.0 while descriptive and inferential statistics ...

  16. Perceived and Actual Learning Difficulties of Students in Secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Abstract. This study investigated students' perceived and actual learning difficulties in secondary school mathematics. A total of 120 secondary school students were involved in the study. This number was made up of 60 males and 60 females from four co-educational secondary schools in Etinan Local. Government Area of ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryawati P.


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to know and understand the re-actualization of bale banjar function in Denpasar City. This study was conducted due to the imbalance between the assumptions and current reality. The data sources of this study were some bale banjar-s in Denpasar City, related informants, and previous research findings. All data were collected using observation, interviews, and literature studies techniques and were analyzed using sociocultural evolution, community rationalization, and commodification theories. The research findings showed that re-actualization of bale banjar function in Denpasar City happened due to the high demand of economic space of capitalist economy and the changes of local society’s way of thinking; re-actualization of bale banjar’s form in Denpasar City could be seen from the changes in style and appearance of the spaces that are now widely designed into two floors. The society used the upper floors as a gathering place and the lower floors are rented as a center of economic activity; re-actualization of bale banjar function in Denpasar City had the implications on the way of thinking, the conception of bale banjar form and function and material culture such as the weakening of social relations among krama banjar.

  18. Actual situation of radioactive waste management in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez O, P.


    This paper focuses on the actual radioactive waste management situation in Guatemala, as well as on the sources and facilities that have obtained the license, and the way to disposal them, when they are considered as radioactive waste. The Direccion General de Energia Nuclear is the entity responsible for the proper and normal performance of the regulatory activity in the country. (author). 3 refs

  19. Lexical inferencing: perceptions and actual behaviours of Turkish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to examine Turkish English as a Foreign Language Learners' (EFL) handling of unknown words while reading English texts. The study also examines the relationship between these learners' perceptions and actual practices in the employment of knowledge sources while trying to guess the ...

  20. Perceived and Actual Learning Difficulties of Students in Secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated students' perceived and actual learning difficulties in secondary school mathematics. A total of 120 secondary school students were involved in the study. This number was made up of 60 males and 60 females from four co-educational secondary schools in Etinan Local Government Area of Akwa ...

  1. Specialized Middle Level Teacher Preparation: Moving from Advocacy to Actualization (United States)

    Cook, Chris M.; Howell, Penny B.; Faulkner, Shawn A.


    Is specialized middle level teacher preparation necessary? This essay offers the authors' thoughts regarding middle level teaching and the necessity of specialized middle level teacher preparation. The reader is encouraged to further the discussion of middle level teacher preparation from advocacy to actualization.

  2. Field dependence and self-actualization in alcoholics. (United States)

    McWilliams, J; Brown, C C; Minard, J C


    Field independence and self-actualization were significantly increased in alcoholic patients following a 6-week treatment program. There were no differences, however, between patients treated by drug-assisted individual therapy, individual therapy, or milieu therapy. Some causal factors are hypothesized, and implications for treatment are discussed.

  3. The body type/temperament mismatch and self-actualization. (United States)

    Eisenman, R


    The Catell and Metzner (1993) finding of higher self-actualization among people with body type/temperament mismatch is important and could be viewed as support for a link of creativity with deviance. Also, there is an error in one of their statements, which is corrected here.

  4. Self-actualization and empathy as predictors of marital satisfaction. (United States)

    Rowan, D G; Compton, W C; Rust, J O


    The relationships between marital satisfaction, self-actualization, and empathy scores were tested for 30 intact couples. Analyses indicated that both satisfaction and empathy scores were independent predictors of marital satisfaction scores for men, but not for women. Implications were discussed.

  5. Commitment to Change Statements Can Predict Actual Change in Practice (United States)

    Wakefield, Jacqueline; Herbert, Carol P.; Maclure, Malcolm; Dormuth, Colin; Wright, James M.; Legare, Jeanne; Brett-MacLean, Pamela; Premi, John


    Introduction: Statements of commitment to change are advocated both to promote and to assess continuing education interventions. However, most studies of commitment to change have used self-reported outcomes, and self-reports may significantly overestimate actual performance. As part of an educational randomized controlled trial, this study…

  6. Teachers' Beliefs and Actual Practice of Problem Solving Approach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major purpose of this study was to examine teachers' beliefs and actual classroom practices of problem-solving teaching in mathematics at grade nine and ten. More specifically, the study assessed teachers' confessed beliefs about the application of problematic situations, contextualizing of the lesson and application ...

  7. Actual issues of organ donation. Introduction. The lecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. V.L. Vinogradov


    Full Text Available Further development of transplantation is becoming increasingly problematic despite the impressive achievements. A deficit of donor organs is becoming the main constraint factor of its development in the world and in Russia. This article is an introduction to a series of review articles on actual issues of organ donation.

  8. In-Situ Determination Of Actual Evapotranspiration Using Zero Flux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a method of determining in-situ actual evapotranspiration using water balance method in the case of maize crop grown for two seasons at the Experimental Farm of the Department of Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Akure in a non-saturated soil condition. The crop was ...

  9. Physician job satisfaction related to actual and preferred job size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmit Jongbloed, Lodewijk J.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Stewart, Roy E.; Schonrock-Adema, Johanna


    Background: Job satisfaction is essential for physicians' well-being and patient care. The work ethic of long days and hard work that has been advocated for decades is acknowledged as a threat for physicians' job satisfaction, well-being, and patient safety. Our aim was to determine the actual and

  10. Challenges in actual implementation of health policies: a review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges in actual implementation of health policies: a review of payment exemption in Nigeria. CA Onoka, OE Onwujekwe, BSC Uzochukwu. Abstract. Background: As a response to the negative impact of implementation of user fees for health care services, an exemption scheme from payment was developed in many ...

  11. An Hourly Streamflow Forecasting Model Coupled with an Enforced Learning Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chang Wu


    Full Text Available Floods, one of the most significant natural hazards, often result in loss of life and property. Accurate hourly streamflow forecasting is always a key issue in hydrology for flood hazard mitigation. To improve the performance of hourly streamflow forecasting, a methodology concerning the development of neural network (NN based models with an enforced learning strategy is proposed in this paper. Firstly, four different NNs, namely back propagation network (BPN, radial basis function network (RBFN, self-organizing map (SOM, and support vector machine (SVM, are used to construct streamflow forecasting models. Through the cross-validation test, NN-based models with superior performance in streamflow forecasting are detected. Then, an enforced learning strategy is developed to further improve the performance of the superior NN-based models, i.e., SOM and SVM in this study. Finally, the proposed flow forecasting model is obtained. Actual applications are conducted to demonstrate the potential of the proposed model. Moreover, comparison between the NN-based models with and without the enforced learning strategy is performed to evaluate the effect of the enforced learning strategy on model performance. The results indicate that the NN-based models with the enforced learning strategy indeed improve the accuracy of hourly streamflow forecasting. Hence, the presented methodology is expected to be helpful for developing improved NN-based streamflow forecasting models.

  12. Factors influencing accruement of contact hours for nurses. (United States)

    Kubsch, Sylvia; Henniges, Amy; Lorenzoni, Nancy; Eckardt, Sally; Oleniczak, Sandra


    A decline in attendance at continuing education (CE) in nursing activities was observed in a Midwest state where CE attendance is not required. The purpose of this research study was to identify the effect of attitude, extrinsic and intrinsic reinforcement, and deterrents on contact hour accrual. A convenience sample of 282 registered nurses was surveyed using a researcher-constructed instrument determined to be valid and reliable. Registered nurses earning 0 to 15 contact hours annually reported accruing fewer contact hours in 1999 than in an average year. Registered nurses who earned 16 to 45+ contact hours annually reported earning more contact hours in 1999 than in an average year. Intrinsic reinforcement was found to be a significant motivator (r [257] = .242; p Operant Conditioning Theory has use in explaining registered nurse attendance at CE activities. CE planners should consider placing more emphasis on intrinsic rather than extrinsic reinforcement to encourage staff to attend CE activities.

  13. Working Hours, Promotion and the Gender Gap in the Workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kato, Takao; Owan, Hideo; Ogawa, Hiromasa

    hours: and (ii) the worker's OJT ability (the worker's ability to accumulate valuable human capital on the job through learning by doing). The worker's cost of working long hours is known only to the worker, while the worker's OJT ability is accurately assessed only by the firm observing him......This paper presents a novel model of promotion within the firm which sheds new light on the interplay between working hours and the odds of subsequent promotion. The model's key feature is the coexistence of two different sources of asymmetric information: (i) the worker's cost of long working....../her on the job. Long working hours signal the worker's commitment to the firm, which determines the surplus produced when the worker is promoted. Thus, the firm provides the worker with managerial training only after observing the employee's hours worked, a signal of his/her commitment to the firm or lack...

  14. Hour-glass ceilings: Work-hour thresholds, gendered health inequities. (United States)

    Dinh, Huong; Strazdins, Lyndall; Welsh, Jennifer


    Long workhours erode health, which the setting of maximum weekly hours aims to avert. This 48-h limit, and the evidence base to support it, has evolved from a workforce that was largely male, whose time in the labour force was enabled by women's domestic work and care giving. The gender composition of the workforce has now changed, and many women (as well as some men) combine care-giving with paid work, a change viewed as fundamental for gender equality. However, it raises questions on the suitability of the work time limit and the extent it is protective of health. We estimate workhour-mental health thresholds, testing if they vary for men and women due to gendered workloads and constraints on and off the job. Using six waves of data from a nationally representative sample of Australian adults (24-65 years), surveyed in the Household Income Labour Dynamics of Australia Survey (N = 3828 men; 4062 women), our study uses a longitudinal, simultaneous equation approach to address endogeneity. Averaging over the sample, we find an overall threshold of 39 h per week beyond which mental health declines. Separate curves then estimate thresholds for men and women, by high or low care and domestic time constraints, using stratified and pooled samples. We find gendered workhour-health limits (43.5 for men, 38 for women) which widen further once differences in resources on and off the job are considered. Only when time is 'unencumbered' and similar time constraints and contexts are assumed, do gender gaps narrow and thresholds approximate the 48-h limit. Our study reveals limits to contemporary workhour regulation which may be systematically disadvantaging women's health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. After-hours respiratory physiotherapy for intubated and mechanically ventilated patients with community-acquired pneumonia: An Australian perspective. (United States)

    van der Lee, Lisa; Hill, Anne-Marie; Patman, Shane


    Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common reason for admission to an intensive care unit for intubation and mechanical ventilation, and results in high morbidity and mortality. The primary aim of the study was to investigate availability and provision of respiratory physiotherapy, outside of normal business hours, for intubated and mechanically ventilated adults with CAP in Australian hospitals. A cross-sectional, mixed methods online survey was conducted. Participants were senior intensive care unit physiotherapists from 88 public and private hospitals. Main outcome measures included presence and nature of an after-hours physiotherapy service and factors perceived to influence the need for after-hours respiratory physiotherapy intervention, when the service was available, for intubated adult patients with CAP. Data were also collected regarding respiratory intervention provided after-hours by other ICU professionals. Response rate was 72% (n=75). An after-hours physiotherapy service was provided by n=31 (46%) hospitals and onsite after-hours physiotherapy presence was limited (22%), with a combination of onsite and on-call service reported by 19%. Treatment response (83%) was the most frequent factor for referring patients with CAP for after-hours physiotherapy intervention by the treating day-time physiotherapist. Nurses performing respiratory intervention (77%) was significantly associated with no available after-hours physiotherapy service (p=0.04). Physiotherapy after-hours service in Australia is limited, therefore it is common for intubated patients with CAP not to receive any respiratory physiotherapy intervention outside of normal business hours. In the absence of an after-hours physiotherapist, nurses were most likely to perform after-hours respiratory intervention to intubated patients with CAP. Further research is required to determine whether the frequency of respiratory physiotherapy intervention, including after-hours provision of treatment

  16. Mothers' Working Hours and Children's Obesity: Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2010. (United States)

    Lee, Goeun; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul


    The aim of this study is to find the association between mothers' working hours and obesity of their children according to children's age and gender. This study used data from the second and third year of KNHANES IV and the first year in KNHANES V (2008-2010). We calculate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) by using survey logistic regression to assess association of mother's working hours with overweight or obesity of her children. The model was adjusted with household income, mothers' education and obesity and mothers' job characteristics. 13-18 aged boys whose mothers worked under 40 hours per week were higher risk for obesity and overweight (including obesity) than 13-18 aged boys whose mothers worked 40-48 hours. 6-12 aged girls whose mothers worked 49-60 hours per week were more overweight (including obesity) than girls whose mothers worked 40-48 hours per week. 13-18 aged girls whose mothers worked over 60 hours were more overweight (including obesity) than the reference. This study showed that girls' obesity was associated with mothers' long working hours. Long working hours can influence health of workers' family.

  17. 34 CFR 668.9 - Relationship between clock hours and semester, trimester, or quarter hours in calculating Title... (United States)


    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relationship between clock hours and semester, trimester, or quarter hours in calculating Title IV, HEA program assistance. 668.9 Section 668.9 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS General § 668.9 Relationship between clock...

  18. [Relationships between walking hours, sleeping hours, meaningfulness of life (ikigai) and mortality in the elderly: prospective cohort study]. (United States)

    Seki, N


    The purpose of this study was to determine lifestyle factors in the elderly that affected longevity, using a population-based prospective study. The participants were 440 men and 625 women aged 60 to 74 living in a rural Japanese community. The baseline data such as age, sex, present illness, walking hours per day, sleeping hours per day, alcohol consumption, a history of smoking, and "ikigai" (meaningfulness of life) were collected in July 1990. During 90 months of follow-up from July 1990 to December 31 1997, there were 123 deaths. By Cox's multivariate hazard model adjusted age, sex, and medical histories, walking > or = 1 hour/day (HR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.44-0.91) and an "ikigai" (HR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.44-0.99) lowered the risk for all-cause mortality independently. In regard to hours of sleep, the cumulative survival curve showed that 7 hours/day was the border and sleeping > or = 7 hours/day lowered the risk (HR = 0.49 95% CI 0.33-0.74). Based on the findings in this study, walking > or = 1 hour/day, sleeping > or = 7 hours/day, and "ikigai" are important factors for longevity in the elderly.

  19. The effect of perceived and actual social support on the mental health of HIV-positive persons




    The purpose of this paper is to compare the ways in which perceived and actual social support affect the mental health of gay men, straight or bisexual men, and women living with HIV/AIDS. Participants included 125 women and 232 men with an HIV-positive or AIDS diagnosis involved in three larger investigations of HIV, disclosure and mental health. Results suggest each sub-group experienced perceived social support as significantly predictive of better mental health while the effect of actual ...

  20. Perceived Versus Actual Risk of Type 2 Diabetes by Race and Ethnicity. (United States)

    Yang, Kyeongra; Baniak, Lynn M; Imes, Christopher C; Choi, JiYeon; Chasens, Eileen R


    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine associations between perceived risk and actual risk of type 2 diabetes by race and/or ethnicity. Methods The study sample included 10 999 adults from the 2011 to 2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral data were collected using interviews and physical examinations. Participants were asked if they felt at risk for diabetes or prediabetes and then asked the reasons why. Data analyses were conducted with SAS to properly analyze complex survey data. Results About 86% of the sample (n = 9496) answered the risk perception question for diabetes, and among those, 28.4% indicated having a high perceived risk. Among this subsample, 38.3% were identified as having an actual risk for prediabetes or diabetes according to the American Diabetes Association guidelines. Across all race groups, the most frequently reported risk factors participants believed to contribute to their risk for diabetes were family history of diabetes, obesity, and poor diet habits. When the percentage of participants with an actual risk factor who correctly perceived it as a risk factor was examined, fewer Asians correctly perceived weight status and physical activity level as a risk for diabetes in contrast to the other racial/ethnic groups. Conclusions Our study showed that when perception was compared to actual risks, associations differed statistically by race. It will be essential to discuss their risk perception to proper screening for diabetes and relevant lifestyle modifications to prevent and delay the onset of diabetes.

  1. Actual versus perceived peer sexual risk behavior in online youth social networks. (United States)

    Black, Sandra R; Schmiege, Sarah; Bull, Sheana


    Perception of peer behaviors is an important predictor of actual risk behaviors among youth. However, we lack understanding of peer influence through social media and of actual and perceived peer behavior concordance. The purpose of this research is to document the relationship between individual perception of and actual peer sexual risk behavior using online social networks. The data are a result of a secondary analysis of baseline self-reported and peer-reported sexual risk behavior from a cluster randomized trial including 1,029 persons from 162 virtual networks. Individuals (seeds) recruited up to three friends who then recruited additional friends, extending three waves from the seed. ANOVA models compared network means of actual participant behavior across categories of perceived behavior. Concordance varied between reported and perceived behavior, with higher concordance between perceived and reported condom use, multiple partners, concurrent partners, sexual pressure, and drug and alcohol use during sex. Individuals significantly over-reported risk and under-reported protective peer behaviors related to sex.

  2. Association Between Flexible Duty Hour Policies and General Surgery Resident Examination Performance: A Flexibility in Duty Hour Requirements for Surgical Trainees (FIRST) Trial Analysis. (United States)

    Blay, Eddie; Hewitt, D Brock; Chung, Jeanette W; Biester, Thomas; Fiore, James F; Dahlke, Allison R; Quinn, Christopher M; Lewis, Frank R; Bilimoria, Karl Y


    Concerns persist about the effect of current duty hour reforms on resident educational outcomes. We investigated whether a flexible, less-restrictive duty hour policy (Flexible Policy) was associated with differential general surgery examination performance compared with current ACGME duty hour policy (Standard Policy). We obtained examination scores on the American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination, Qualifying Examination (written boards), and Certifying Examination (oral boards) for residents in 117 general surgery residency programs that participated in the Flexibility in Duty Hour Requirements for Surgical Trainees (FIRST) Trial. Using bivariate analyses and regression models, we compared resident examination performance across study arms (Flexible Policy vs Standard Policy) for 2015 and 2016, and 1 year of the Qualifying Examination and Certifying Examination. Adjusted analyses accounted for program-level factors, including the stratification variable for randomization. In 2016, FIRST trial participants were 4,363 general surgery residents. Mean American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination scores for residents were not significantly different between study groups (Flexible Policy vs Standard Policy) overall (Flexible Policy: mean [SD] 502.6 [100.9] vs Standard Policy: 502.7 [98.6]; p = 0.98) or for any individual postgraduate year level. There was no difference in pass rates between study arms for either the Qualifying Examination (Flexible Policy: 90.4% vs Standard Policy: 90.5%; p = 0.99) or Certifying Examination (Flexible Policy: 86.3% vs Standard Policy: 88.6%; p = 0.24). Results from adjusted analyses were consistent with these findings. Flexible, less-restrictive duty hour policies were not associated with differences in general surgery resident performance on examinations during the FIRST Trial. However, more years under flexible duty hour policies might be needed to observe an effect. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons

  3. [A systematic review of working hours and mental health burden]. (United States)

    Fujino, Yoshihisa; Horie, Seichi; Hoshuyama, Tsutomu; Tsutsui, Takao; Tanaka, Yayoi


    There is growing concern over the possible increase in mental health problems among Japanese workers. This trend is generally regarded as a reflection of Japan's prolonged economic depression and changes in working environment. In fact, claims for compensation for industrial accidents related to mental health diseases have been rapidly increasing in recent years. Working hours, personal-relationships, support from supervisors/co-workers, job demand, job control, and payment are known to affect workers mental health. In 2004, the Government announced a guideline to combat overwork and mental health problems at work places. This guideline articulates that long overtime working is a major indicator, and workers who work over 100 h overtime in a month should be encouraged to see an occupational physician. This guideline takes into account the practicalities of occupational health at work places and the empiric knowledge that long working hours might associate with workers mental health status. It may be reasonable to assume that long working hours affect workers health status both psychologically and physiologically, interacting with a variety of occupational factors, particularly job stress. However, the association between working hours and workers mental health status has not been fully clarified. The present article aimed to provide a systematic review of the association between working hours and mental health problems. The authors conducted a systematic review of the published literature on the association between working hours and mental health problems using PubMed. Of 131 abstracts and citations reviewed, 17 studies met the predefined criteria. Ten of these are longitudinal studies, and the others are cross-sectional studies. Seven of the 17 studies report statistically significant associations between working hours and mental health problems, while the others report no association. In addition, comparison among these studies is difficult because a variety of

  4. Production Facility Prototype Blower 1000 Hour Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Frank Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dalmas, Dale Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The roots blower in use at ANL for in-beam experiments and also at LANL for flow tests was sized for 12 mm diameter disks and significantly less beam heating. Currently, the disks are 29 mm in diameter, with a 12 mm FWHM Gaussian beam spot at 42 MeV and 2.86 μA on each side of the target, 5.72 μA total. The target design itself is reported elsewhere. With the increased beam heating, the helium flow requirement increased so that a larger blower was needed for a mass flow rate of 400 g/s at 2.76 MPa (400 psig). An Aerzen GM 12.4 blower was selected, and is now installed at the LANL facility for target and component flow testing. Two extended tests of >1000 hr operation have been completed. Those results and discussion thereof are reported herein. Also included in Appendix A is the detailed description of the blower and its installation, while Appendix B documents the pressure vessel design analysis. The blower has been operated for 1000 hours as a preliminary investigation of long-term performance, operation and possible maintenance issues. The blower performed well, with no significant change in blower head or mass flow rate developed under the operating conditions. Upon inspection, some oil had leaked out of the shaft seal of the blower. The shaft seal and bearing race have been replaced. Test results and conclusions are in Appendix B.

  5. Inflight Exercise Regimen for the 2-Hour Prebreathe Protocol (United States)

    Foster, Philip P.; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Woodruff, Kristin K.; Schneider, Susan M.; Homick, Jerry L. (Technical Monitor)


    A 10 min aerobic prebreathe exercise up to 75% V-O2(sub max) on a dual-cycle ergometer, included in the 2-hour prebreathe protocol, has been shown to dramatically reduce the incidence of decompression sickness (DCS) at altitude. In-flight only leg ergometry will be available. A balanced exercise was developed using surgical tubing with the ergometer on-orbit. We hypothesize that a 75% V02max workload, individually prescribed, would be achieved using a target heart rate to regulate the intensity of the arm exercise. VO2, heart rate (HR) / ECG, V-CO2 /V-O2, V(sub E), and V(sub T), and rate of perceived exertion (Borg scale) were measured in eleven healthy subjects who passed a US Air Force Class III Physical examination. A V-O2 peak test was performed to assess the sub-maximal exercise prescription. Two series of sub-maximal tests were performed: (1) leg ergometer/hand ergometer and (2) leg ergometer/surgical tubes. We found no significant differences (P > 0.05) in comparing the means for V-O2 and HR between the predicted and measured values during the final 4 minute-stage at "75% V-O2 workload" or between the two types of sub-maximal tests. The prescribed prebreathe sub-maximal exercise performed with flight certified surgical tubes was achieved using the target HR.

  6. 12-hour-shift plant schedule improves operator productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, S.


    Twelve-hour scheduling has been a mainstay of the petrochemical industry, is common in the papermill industry, and is relatively new to the nuclear utility industry. A review of industry experiences, research, and a federal Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) study of the 12-hour shift (NUREG/CR-4248) demonstrate that the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. The primary advantages are greater job satisfaction, fewer errors, and the better communications inherent in two shift turnovers versus three. Several companies that implemented the 12-hour shift found an increase in employee morale, no adverse effect on worker health, and no decline in safety. They experienced greater productivity, fewer operator errors, and better communication

  7. Canadian Plastic Surgery Resident Work Hour Restrictions: Practices and Perceptions of Residents and Program Directors. (United States)

    McInnes, Colin W; Vorstenbosch, Joshua; Chard, Ryan; Logsetty, Sarvesh; Buchel, Edward W; Islur, Avinash


    The impact of resident work hour restrictions on training and patient care remains a highly controversial topic, and to date, there lacks a formal assessment as it pertains to Canadian plastic surgery residents. To characterize the work hour profile of Canadian plastic surgery residents and assess the perspectives of residents and program directors regarding work hour restrictions related to surgical competency, resident wellness, and patient safety. An anonymous online survey developed by the authors was sent to all Canadian plastic surgery residents and program directors. Basic summary statistics were calculated. Eighty (53%) residents and 10 (77%) program directors responded. Residents reported working an average of 73 hours in hospital per week with 8 call shifts per month and sleep 4.7 hours/night while on call. Most residents (88%) reported averaging 0 post-call days off per month and 61% will work post-call without any sleep. The majority want the option of working post-call (63%) and oppose an 80-hour weekly maximum (77%). Surgical and medical errors attributed to post-call fatigue were self-reported by 26% and 49% of residents, respectively. Residents and program directors expressed concern about the ability to master surgical skills without working post-call. The majority of respondents oppose duty hour restrictions. The reason is likely multifactorial, including the desire of residents to meet perceived expectations and to master their surgical skills while supervised. If duty hour restrictions are aggressively implemented, many respondents feel that an increased duration of training may be necessary.

  8. Actual expense associated with patients with Alzheimer's disease in Colombia. (United States)

    Prada, Sergio I; Takeuchi, Yuri; Merchán-Galvis, Angela M; Ariza-Araújo, Yoseth


    There is paucity in the level of knowledge on the actual insurer expenses associated with patients suffering with dementia in the developing world. Less is known about direct costs by severity and how costs vary because of the presence of other comorbidities. Using claims data from an insurer for three years, we identified patients with AD with an algorithm that takes advantage of information on age, primary diagnosis, and services and drugs provided. Distribution by dementia stage was as follows: mild 21%, moderate 53%, severe 17%, and undetermined 9%. Expenses paid for all causes by the insurer were at least double than estimated in the literature and were increasing annually at rates higher than 30%. Also, 92% of patients have at least another chronic condition. Worldwide costs of dementia estimates maybe underestimating the actual costs to health systems in the developing world.

  9. Tourism guide cloud service quality: What actually delights customers? (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Ping; Yang, Chen-Lung; Pi, Han-Chung; Ho, Thao-Minh


    The emergence of advanced IT and cloud services has beneficially supported the information-intensive tourism industry, simultaneously caused extreme competitions in attracting customers through building efficient service platforms. On response, numerous nations have implemented cloud platforms to provide value-added sightseeing information and personal intelligent service experiences. Despite these efforts, customers' actual perspectives have yet been sufficiently understood. To bridge the gap, this study attempts to investigate what aspects of tourism cloud services actually delight customers' satisfaction and loyalty. 336 valid survey questionnaire answers were analyzed using structural equation modeling method. The results prove positive impacts of function quality, enjoyment, multiple visual aids, and information quality on customers' satisfaction as well as of enjoyment and satisfaction on use loyalty. The findings hope to provide helpful references of customer use behaviors for enhancing cloud service quality in order to achieve better organizational competitiveness.

  10. Monitoring actual temperatures in Susquehanna SES reactor buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derkacs, A.P.


    PP and L has been monitoring temperatures in the Susquehanna SES reactor building with digital temperature recorders since 1986. In early 1990, data from four representative areas was analyzed to determine the temperature in each area which would produce the same rate of degradation as the distribution of actual temperatures recorded over about 40 months. From these effective average temperatures, qualified life multipliers were determined for activation energies in the range of 0.5 to 1.5 and those multipliers were used to estimate new qualified lives and the number of replacements which might be saved during the life of the plant. The results indicate that pursuing a program of determining EQ qualified lives from actual temperatures, rather than maximum design basis temperatures, will provide a substantial payback in reduced EQ driven maintenance

  11. [The Actual Legal and Organizational Problems of Licensing of Military Medical Expertise]. (United States)

    Sogiiainen, A A; Schepin, V O; Telnova, E A; Chicherin, L P


    The article presents analysis of problems of organization of functioning of military medical commissions in the light of implementation of complex of activities related to licensing of military medical expertise as a type of medical activity. The conceptual definitions and main legislative acts regulating procedures of licensing of the given type of expertise are considered. The characteristics of functioning of military medical expertise in actual conditions of Russia, including experience of Moscow and the Moskovskaia oblast are established.

  12. The Effects of Perceived and Actual Financial Knowledge on Credit Card Behavior


    Sam Allgood; William B. Walstad


    This study uses a combined measure of financial literacy or financial knowledge that includes both a test score of actual financial knowledge and a self-assessment of overall financial knowledge. The combined measure provides greater understanding about how financial knowledge affects financial behavior. The study uses a large national survey of U.S. adults and households (n=28,146) to investigate how financial knowledge affects typical behaviors related to credit card use. The five behaviors...

  13. After-hours Power Status of Office Equipment and Inventory of Miscellaneous Plug-load Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberson, Judy A.; Webber, Carrie A.; McWhinney, Marla C.; Brown, Richard E.; Pinckard, Margaret J.; Busch, John F.


    This research was conducted in support of two branches of the EPA ENERGY STAR program, whose overall goal is to reduce, through voluntary market-based means, the amount of carbon dioxide emitted in the U.S. The primary objective was to collect data for the ENERGY STAR Office Equipment program on the after-hours power state of computers, monitors, printers, copiers, scanners, fax machines, and multi-function devices. We also collected data for the ENERGY STAR Commercial Buildings branch on the types and amounts of ''miscellaneous'' plug-load equipment, a significant and growing end use that is not usually accounted for by building energy managers. This data set is the first of its kind that we know of, and is an important first step in characterizing miscellaneous plug loads in commercial buildings. The main purpose of this study is to supplement and update previous data we collected on the extent to which electronic office equipment is turned off or automatically enters a low power state when not in active use. In addition, it provides data on numbers and types of office equipment, and helps identify trends in office equipment usage patterns. These data improve our estimates of typical unit energy consumption and savings for each equipment type, and enables the ENERGY STAR Office Equipment program to focus future effort on products with the highest energy savings potential. This study expands our previous sample of office buildings in California and Washington DC to include education and health care facilities, and buildings in other states. We report data from twelve commercial buildings in California, Georgia, and Pennsylvania: two health care buildings, two large offices (> 500 employees each), three medium offices (50-500 employees), four education buildings, and one ''small office'' that is actually an aggregate of five small businesses. Two buildings are in the San Francisco Bay area of California, five are in

  14. Effects of two antihistamine drugs on actual driving performance.


    Betts, T; Markman, D; Debenham, S; Mortiboy, D; McKevitt, T


    A double blind placebo controlled experiment was conducted measuring the effects of the centrally active antihistamine triprolidine and the peripherally acting antihistamine terfenadine on actual driving performance in a group of experienced women drivers. Triprolidine greatly impaired driving behaviour, whereas terfenadine did not. Triprolidine also impaired subjective and objective measures of mood and arousal, and despite an awareness that their driving was impaired while they were taking ...



    Viacheslav M. Oleksenko


    Urgency of the material presented in the article is stipulated by the pressing needs of the society to provide high quality of education and training of highly skilled specialists. The ways of forming future specialists’ self-actualization of engineer specialities by the studactive pedagogical technology are revealed. It is established that such process obtains a practically oriented character and it is realized with regard for correlation of inner intentions of a person and conditions in whi...

  16. NUEN-618 Class Project: Actually Implicit Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, R. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brunner, T. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    This research describes a new method for the solution of the thermal radiative transfer (TRT) equations that is implicit in time which will be called Actually Implicit Monte Carlo (AIMC). This section aims to introduce the TRT equations, as well as the current workhorse method which is known as Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC). As the name of the method proposed here indicates, IMC is a misnomer in that it is only semi-implicit, which will be shown in this section as well.

  17. Informe sobre el estado actual del comercio cafetero en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer S. Dickson


    Full Text Available Informe sobre el estado actual del comercio cafetero en Colombia (1903/ Por Spencer S. Dickson, Vice-consul de Gran Bretaña // En: Anuario No. 8 (1976; p. 101-106. Descripción del proceso de cultivo y beneficio del café en esa época con algunos datos sobre precios del grano y cantidades exportadas entre 1894-1898.

  18. Physician job satisfaction related to actual and preferred job size


    Schmit Jongbloed, Lodewijk J.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Stewart, Roy E.; Schonrock-Adema, Johanna


    Background: Job satisfaction is essential for physicians' well-being and patient care. The work ethic of long days and hard work that has been advocated for decades is acknowledged as a threat for physicians' job satisfaction, well-being, and patient safety. Our aim was to determine the actual and preferred job size of physicians and to investigate how these and the differences between them influence physicians' job satisfaction. Method: Data were retrieved from a larger, longitudinal study a...

  19. Superconductivity: actual stage forcasting and subsidies for national policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morato, S.P.


    An overview on the situation of metallic superconductors, their applications and market, and a brief history about the superconductivity at high T c (new ceramic superconductors), describing the actual level of research and development in the world and national plans are presented. Some comments about incentives and markets for rare earths are done. The scientific and technological challengers are discussed and some suggestions to lead a superconductivity national program are proposed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  20. Is There a Link Between Actual and Perceived Wildfire Danger?


    Kaval, Pamela


    Over the last 20 years, costs for wildfire initial attack in the U.S. have increased significantly. The increased cost relates to wildfire suppression practices as well as the growing number of wildland urban interface (WUI) homes. Requiring WUI residents to pay an annual tax for their wildfire risk would lower costs to the general taxpayer. Willingness-to-pay (WTP) for wildfire prevention, in relation to both perceived and actual wildfire danger, was the focus of this study. Colorado WUI res...

  1. Posibilidad de la ética en el mundo actual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar de J. Areiza A.


    Full Text Available RESUMEN En el mundo actual la ética cumple un papel fundamental en la vida de las personas, porque  son  muy frecuentes  las críticas que se le ha hecho  a la  ética como un sistema dogmático de verdades y recetas que solucionan los problemas humanos

  2. 77 FR 44059 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Payments Under Time-and-Materials and Labor-Hour Contracts (United States)


    ... receive more frequent payments than every two weeks. The Contractor shall substantiate vouchers (including...] RIN 9000-AM01 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Payments Under Time-and-Materials and Labor-Hour... the authorization to use time-and-materials and labor-hour contract payment requirements. DATES...

  3. Calculation of the actual cost in the chemical fertilizer industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Ionescu


    Full Text Available The main goal of the research is to present a way of organising the managerial accounting of totally and semi finished product obtained in chemical fertilizer industry entities. For this study, we analyzed the current principle of managerial accounting to an entity in the studied area, in order to emphasize the need of organizing and implementing a modern accounting management to control the cost and increase the performance of the entities in this area, starting from the premise that there are sufficient similarities between entities in the field. The research has highlighted the fact that, nowadays, the cost calculation is organized using traditional methods, which focus on the monthly determination of the actual unit cost per product (semi-fabric and that it is necessary to organize and implement a managerial accounting, based on the use of a modern method, namely the standard cost method combined with cost centre method. The major implications of the proposed system for the researched field are the monthly calculation of actual costs per cost centres, the calculation of the actual cost per product, as the final cost carrier, to be performed over longer periods of time, usually, quarterly.

  4. Developing an Intelligent Generator for Semi-Actual Test Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Hameed, A. M. A. Al-Abbasi


    Full Text Available The actual test data generation is one of the difficult and expensive parts of applying software-testing techniques. Many of the current test data generators suffer from the reduction of user’s confidence in generated test data and testing process. This is because of focusing on developer and database administrator viewpoints regardless of users concerns and focusing on data type and structure regardless of meaning. This paper proposes a model of an intelligent generator for semi-actual test data with the aim of increasing users confidence in software testing. The model uses samples of real data as a resource data and a set of efficient generation techniques based on statistical methods such as permutations, combination, sampling, and statistical distributions. The selection of the suitable structure and generation technique is based on one of the intelligent soft computing techniques such as fuzzy logic, neural network, heuristic, or genetic algorithm. The generated test data is validated according to the data specifications then tested by one of the normality testing techniques to be close to the real world or environment of the testing processes. This model offers the ability of simulating real environments.Key Words: Software Testing, Test Data Generation, Semi-Actual Data, Intelligent Generator, Simulation.

  5. Performance of a piezoelectric energy harvester in actual rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Voon-Kean; Ho, Jee-Hou; Chai, Ai-Bao


    When raindrops impact on the surface of a piezoelectric beam, strain energy produced by the impinging raindrop will be converted to harvestable electrical energy by the piezoelectric layers in a cantilever beam. The novelty of this study is to investigate the performance of the harvester in actual rain and provide practical insights on implementation. The influences of rain parameters such as rain rate, rainfall depth, raindrop count, and drop size distribution (DSD) are discussed in this study. The raindrops accumulated on the surface of the piezoelectric beam will form a water layer. It is described using added mass coefficient in this study. In an actual rain experiment, a piezoelectric beam with surface area of 0.0018 m 2 is able to produce 2076 μJ of energy over a duration of 301 min. The energy generation of a raindrop impact piezoelectric energy harvester is highly dependent on the rain rate. Due to the inconsistency of the energy generation, the piezoelectric energy harvester would require an integration of suitable energy storage device for continuous operation. Nevertheless, this work shows the feasibility of harvesting raindrop energy using a piezoelectric beam. - Highlights: • The performance of a piezoelectric rain energy harvester is tested in actual rain. • The energy generation is highly dependent on the rain rate. • Practical insights on the implementation of the harvester are discussed. • A total energy of 2076 μJ is generated over a duration of 301 min.

  6. Body weight: relationship to conversational distance and self-actualization. (United States)

    Clarke, P N


    Body weight is a major concern for women. This study investigated the relationship between body weight deviation, perceived effect of weight, conversational distance, and self-actualization in healthy caucasian college women (N = 109) between the ages of 18 and 50. The perception of body weight was measured with a structured questionnaire. Conversational distance was measured by having the participant approach the investigator, and self-actualization was determined using the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI). Significant correlations were found between the Time Competence (TC) subscale of the POI and Perceived Effect (PE) and between conversational distance and TC. Further analysis of the data revealed a relationship between body weight deviation, using the actual deviation from the norm, and the combined effect (magnitude and direction) of body weight (r = .54, p less than .001). Path analysis revealed the multidimensional nature of the issue of body weight for women. The usual assumptions about body fat for women are questioned and implications for future research are discussed.

  7. Effect of a protected sleep period on hours slept during extended overnight in-hospital duty hours among medical interns: a randomized trial. (United States)

    Volpp, Kevin G; Shea, Judy A; Small, Dylan S; Basner, Mathias; Zhu, Jingsan; Norton, Laurie; Ecker, Adrian; Novak, Cristina; Bellini, Lisa M; Dine, C Jessica; Mollicone, Daniel J; Dinges, David F


    A 2009 Institute of Medicine report recommended protected sleep periods for medicine trainees on extended overnight shifts, a position reinforced by new Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requirements. To evaluate the feasibility and consequences of protected sleep periods during extended duty. Randomized controlled trial conducted at the Philadelphia VA Medical Center medical service and Oncology Unit of the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania (2009-2010). Of the 106 interns and senior medical students who consented, 3 were not scheduled on any study rotations. Among the others, 44 worked at the VA center, 16 at the university hospital, and 43 at both. Twelve 4-week blocks were randomly assigned to either a standard intern schedule (extended duty overnight shifts of up to 30 hours; equivalent to 1200 overnight intern shifts at each site), or a protected sleep period (protected time from 12:30 AM to 5:30 AM with handover of work cell phone; equivalent to 1200 overnight intern shifts at each site). Participants were asked to wear wrist actigraphs and complete sleep diaries. Primary outcome was hours slept during the protected period on extended duty overnight shifts. Secondary outcome measures included hours slept during a 24-hour period (noon to noon) by day of call cycle and Karolinska sleepiness scale. For 98.3% of on-call nights, cell phones were signed out as designed. At the VA center, participants with protected sleep had a mean 2.86 hours (95% CI, 2.57-3.10 hours) of sleep vs 1.98 hours (95% CI, 1.68-2.28 hours) among those who did not have protected hours of sleep (P < .001). At the university hospital, participants with protected sleep had a mean 3.04 hours (95% CI, 2.77-3.45 hours) of sleep vs 2.04 hours (95% CI, 1.79-2.24) among those who did not have protected sleep (P < .001). Participants with protected sleep were significantly less likely to have call nights with no sleep: 5.8% (95% CI, 3.0%-8.5%) vs 18.6% (95% CI, 13

  8. Impacts of licensed premises trading hour policies on alcohol-related harms. (United States)

    Atkinson, Jo-An; Prodan, Ante; Livingston, Michael; Knowles, Dylan; O'Donnell, Eloise; Room, Robin; Indig, Devon; Page, Andrew; McDonnell, Geoff; Wiggers, John


    Evaluations of alcohol policy changes demonstrate that restriction of trading hours of both 'on'- and 'off'-licence venues can be an effective means of reducing rates of alcohol-related harm. Despite this, the effects of different trading hour policy options over time, accounting for different contexts and demographic characteristics, and the common co-occurrence of other harm reduction strategies in trading hour policy initiatives, are difficult to estimate. The aim of this study was to use dynamic simulation modelling to compare estimated impacts over time of a range of trading hour policy options on various indicators of acute alcohol-related harm. An agent-based model of alcohol consumption in New South Wales, Australia was developed using existing research evidence, analysis of available data and a structured approach to incorporating expert opinion. Five policy scenarios were simulated, including restrictions to trading hours of on-licence venues and extensions to trading hours of bottle shops. The impact of the scenarios on four measures of alcohol-related harm were considered: total acute harms, alcohol-related violence, emergency department (ED) presentations and hospitalizations. Simulation of a 3 a.m. (rather than 5 a.m.) closing time resulted in an estimated 12.3 ± 2.4% reduction in total acute alcohol-related harms, a 7.9 ± 0.8% reduction in violence, an 11.9 ± 2.1% reduction in ED presentations and a 9.5 ± 1.8% reduction in hospitalizations. Further reductions were achieved simulating a 1 a.m. closing time, including a 17.5 ± 1.1% reduction in alcohol-related violence. Simulated extensions to bottle shop trading hours resulted in increases in rates of all four measures of harm, although most of the effects came from increasing operating hours from 10 p.m. to 11 p.m. An agent-based simulation model suggests that restricting trading hours of licensed venues reduces rates of alcohol-related harm and extending trading hours of bottle

  9. High-resolution grids of hourly meteorological variables for Germany (United States)

    Krähenmann, S.; Walter, A.; Brienen, S.; Imbery, F.; Matzarakis, A.


    We present a 1-km2 gridded German dataset of hourly surface climate variables covering the period 1995 to 2012. The dataset comprises 12 variables including temperature, dew point, cloud cover, wind speed and direction, global and direct shortwave radiation, down- and up-welling longwave radiation, sea level pressure, relative humidity and vapour pressure. This dataset was constructed statistically from station data, satellite observations and model data. It is outstanding in terms of spatial and temporal resolution and in the number of climate variables. For each variable, we employed the most suitable gridding method and combined the best of several information sources, including station records, satellite-derived data and data from a regional climate model. A module to estimate urban heat island intensity was integrated for air and dew point temperature. Owing to the low density of available synop stations, the gridded dataset does not capture all variations that may occur at a resolution of 1 km2. This applies to areas of complex terrain (all the variables), and in particular to wind speed and the radiation parameters. To achieve maximum precision, we used all observational information when it was available. This, however, leads to inhomogeneities in station network density and affects the long-term consistency of the dataset. A first climate analysis for Germany was conducted. The Rhine River Valley, for example, exhibited more than 100 summer days in 2003, whereas in 1996, the number was low everywhere in Germany. The dataset is useful for applications in various climate-related studies, hazard management and for solar or wind energy applications and it is available via doi: 10.5676/DWD_CDC/TRY_Basis_v001.

  10. Balancing Authority Cooperation Concepts - Intra-Hour Scheduling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsaker, Matthew; Samaan, Nader; Milligan, Michael; Guo, Tao; Liu, Guangjuan; Toolson, Jacob


    The overall objective of this study was to understand, on an Interconnection-wide basis, the effects intra-hour scheduling compared to hourly scheduling. Moreover, the study sought to understand how the benefits of intra-hour scheduling would change by altering the input assumptions in different scenarios. This report describes results of three separate scenarios with differing key assumptions and comparing the production costs between hourly scheduling and 10-minute scheduling performance. The different scenarios were chosen to provide insight into how the estimated benefits might change by altering input assumptions. Several key assumptions were different in the three scenarios, however most assumptions were similar and/or unchanged among the scenarios.

  11. U.S. Hourly Climate Normals (1981-2010) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Hourly Climate Normals for 1981 to 2010 are 30-year averages of meteorological parameters for thousands of U.S. stations located across the 50 states, as...

  12. Surface Airways Observations (SAO) Hourly Data 1928-1948 (CDMP) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset consists of hourly U.S. surface airways observations (SAO). These observations extend as far back as 1928, from the time when commercial aviation began...

  13. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Verified, Hourly (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has verified (quality-controlled), hourly, water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS)....

  14. Evaluating Pediatric Intussusception Using 24-hour Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Jung Chang


    Conclusion: Radiographic imaging at night results in higher radiation exposure and negative enema findings. Twenty-four-hour ultrasound availability would decrease the radiation exposure and unnecessary enemas for intussusceptions suspected clinically.

  15. Enhanced Hourly Wind Station Data for the Contiguous United States (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — U.S. Enhanced Hourly Wind Station Data is digital data set DSI-6421, archived at the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI; formerly National Climatic...

  16. Off-Hours Admission and Acute Stroke Care Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Nina Sahlertz; Mainz, Jan; Nørgård, Bente Mertz


    chance of compliance with 8 out of 10 performance measures; however, these differences diminished over time. Unadjusted odds ratio for 30 days case-fatality, for patients admitted off-hours compared with patients admitted on-hours, was 1.15 (95% confidence interval, 1.09-1.21). Adjusting for patient...... characteristics (in particular, stroke severity) decreased the odds ratio to 1.03 (95% confidence interval, 0.97-1.10). Additional adjustment for hospital characteristics and compliance with performance measures had no effect on the odds ratio. Conclusion-Patients admitted off-hours received a poorer quality......Background and Purpose-Studies have reported higher risks of death and other adverse outcomes in acute stroke patients admitted off-hours; however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. According to time of admission, our aim was to examine compliance with performance measures for acute...

  17. [Medical justification of the eight-hour shift work]. (United States)

    Haro-García, Luis; Sánchez-Román, Raúl; Juárez-Pérez, Cuauhtémoc Arturo; Larios-Díaz, Enrique


    The 8-hour shift work is one of the main achievements of the organized workers. International solidarity with United States miners, who were massacred in Chicago in 1886, and the aftermath of World War I promoted the establishment of 8-hour shift work in many countries. In Mexico, the 1917 Social Rights Declaration adhered to this position under the idea that the excessive workload above the 8-hour limit had negative effects on the health of workers; nevertheless, this statement seems to be sustained only by testimonies, anecdotal opinions and/or by the logic and common sense that then prevailed. For this reason, a literature review was carried out in search for the evidence supporting this apparently immovable length of the shift work. The globalization of the economy and the tendency towards flexibility and deregulation of current contractual relationships, are the new challenges that the 8-hour shift work is facing.

  18. Characteristics and outcomes for women physicians who work reduced hours. (United States)

    Carr, Phyllis L; Gareis, Karen C; Barnett, Rosalind C


    To understand the characteristics of women physicians who work reduced hours in dual-earner couples and how such work schedules affect the quality of the marital role, parental role, and job role, as well as indicators of psychological distress, burnout, career satisfaction, and life satisfaction. Survey of a random sample of female physicians between 25 and 50 years of age, working within 25 miles of Boston, whose names were obtained from the Registry of Board Certification in Medicine in Massachusetts. Interviewers conducted a 60-minute face-to-face close-ended interview after a 20-minute mailed questionnaire had been completed. Fifty-one full-time physicians and 47 reduced-hours physicians completed the study, for a completion rate of 49.5%. There was no difference in age, number of years as a physician, mean household income, number of children, or presence of an infant in the home between reduced-hours and full-time physicians. Reduced-hours physicians, however, were more likely to be in a generalist specialty (40% vs. 12%, p = 0.001) and to spend a greater portion of their time in patient care (64.5% vs. 50.1%, p = 0.003) and less time in research (4.9% vs. 18.0%, p = 0.002) than full-time physicians. In addition, there was no difference between the two groups in the perception of work interfering with family life (1.8 vs. 1.7, p = 0.17; scale 1-7 with 7 high) or family life interfering with work (1.4 vs. 1.5, p = 0.62). Physicians who worked their preferred number of hours (25% of full-time and 57% of reduced-hours physicians), regardless of full-time (self-reported hours 35-90 hours per week) or reduced-hours (20-60 hours per week) status, reported better job role quality (r = 0.35, p = 0.001), schedule fit (r = 0.41, p Women physicians who work their preferred number of hours achieve the best balance of work and family outcomes.

  19. Effectiveness and Safety of 2-Hourly 20 MCG Oral Misoprostol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The overall induction success rates in the misoprostol arm was 81% versus 83% in the oxytocin arm (P=0.447). The mean induction to vaginal delivery interval in the misoprostol arm was 8.4 hours as compared to 9.45 hours in the oxytocin arm (P=0.116). The induction to active labour interval was similar in the two ...

  20. “Friday off”: Reducing Working Hours in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Rossiter


    Full Text Available This article explores the pros and cons for reducing working hours in Europe. To arrive to an informed judgment we review critically the theoretical and empirical literature, mostly from economics, concerning the relation between working hours on the one hand, and productivity, employment, quality of life, and the environment, on the other. We adopt a binary economics distinction between capital and labor productiveness, and are concerned with how working hours may be reduced without harming the earning capacity of workers. There are reasons to believe that reducing working hours may absorb some unemployment, especially in the short-run, even if less than what is advocated by proponents of the proposal. Further, there may well be strong benefits for the quality of peoples’ lives. Environmental benefits are likely but depend crucially on complementary policies or social conditions that will ensure that the time liberated will not be directed to resource-intensive or environmentally harmful consumption. It is questionable whether reduced working hours are sustainable in the long-term given resource limits and climate change. We conclude that while the results of reducing working hours are uncertain, this may be a risk worth taking, especially as an interim measure that may relieve unemployment while other necessary structural changes are instituted.

  1. Flexible working hours and well-being in Finland. (United States)

    Kandolin, I; Härmä, M; Toivanen, M


    Flexibility of working hours became more prevalent in the 1990s in Finland. According to a representative survey on Finnish wage and salary earners (n = 1790) at the beginning of 2000, a great majority of male (76%) and female (65%) employees regularly worked overtime and/or had irregular working hours every month. These employees were flexible in meeting the needs of their companies/employers. Individual flexibility of working hours was far less common, only one third of male and female employees were able to regulate their working hours. A better balance between company-controlled and individual flexibility would, however, improve the well-being of employees. Employees working overtime without being allowed to regulate their working hours felt more symptoms of distress and had more conflicts in combining workplace and family roles than those who could individually determine their working hours flexibly. An investment in individually determined flexibility, for example by means of participatory planning, would improve the well-being of employees, and thus also improve the productivity of the organization.

  2. Perception of Not Having Enough Milk and Actual Milk Production of First-Time Breastfeeding Mothers: Is There a Difference? (United States)

    Galipeau, Roseline; Dumas, Louise; Lepage, Mario


    This study aimed to determine the relationship between perceived insufficient milk supply (PIMS) and actual insufficient milk supply (AIMS) and the relative contributions of physiological and psychosocial variables on both PIMS and AIMS of first-time breastfeeding mothers. Data were collected among 123 breastfeeding mothers at a Canadian, French-speaking maternal care hospital. Birth events, breastfeeding practices, infant and maternal capacities, and PIMS and AIMS were collected at 48 hours after birth, postnatal weeks 2 and 6. No significant relationship was found between PIMS and AIMS. Maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy and number of feeds were related to PIMS at week 2, and skin-to-skin contact at birth and number of feeds were related to AIMS as measured by 24-hour milk production at week 2. Maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy impacts PIMS. Interventions should be directed to increase maternal confidence in breastfeeding, which in turn influences breastfeeding duration.

  3. Twenty-Four-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Hypertension (United States)


    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this health technology assessment was to determine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) for hypertension. Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population Hypertension occurs when either systolic blood pressure, the pressure in the artery when the heart contracts, or diastolic blood pressure, the pressure in the artery when the heart relaxes between beats, are consistently high. Blood pressure (BP) that is consistently more than 140/90 mmHg (systolic/diastolic) is considered high. A lower threshold, greater than 130/80 mmHg (systolic/diastolic), is set for individuals with diabetes or chronic kidney disease. In 2006 and 2007, the age-standardized incidence rate of diagnosed hypertension in Canada was 25.8 per 1,000 (450,000 individuals were newly diagnosed). During the same time period, 22.7% of adult Canadians were living with diagnosed hypertension. A smaller proportion of Canadians are unaware they have hypertension; therefore, the estimated number of Canadians affected by this disease may be higher. Diagnosis and management of hypertension are important, since elevated BP levels are related to the risk of cardiovascular disease, including stroke. In Canada in 2003, the costs to the health care system related to the diagnosis, treatment, and management of hypertension were over $2.3 billion (Cdn). Technology The 24-hour ABPM device consists of a standard inflatable cuff attached to a small computer weighing about 500 grams, which is worn over the shoulder or on a belt. The technology is noninvasive and fully automated. The device takes BP measurements every 15 to 30 minutes over a 24-to 28-hour time period, thus providing extended, continuous BP recordings even during a patient’s normal daily activities. Information on the multiple BP measurements can be downloaded to a computer. The main detection methods used by the device are auscultation and

  4. The problem of self-actualization of student in order to obtain a guality education in the context of globalization and the information society: philosophical and educational perspective


    I. M. Bezena


    The problems of self­actualization of a student in the secondary education. The maximum possible completeness and implementation process of positive aspects of personal fulfillment based on its physical and spiritual potential. The process of self­actualization is a system included into the socio­cultural and educational determination and this system is defined with benchmarks, goals and attitudes of the individual at school. The feature of the process of the student self­actualization that d...

  5. A Statistical Model for Hourly Large-Scale Wind and Photovoltaic Generation in New Locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrom, Jussi; Koivisto, Matti Juhani; Mellin, Ilkka


    The analysis of large-scale wind and photovoltaic (PV) energy generation is of vital importance in power systems where their penetration is high. This paper presents a modular methodology to assess the power generation and volatility of a system consisting of both PV plants (PVPs) and wind power...... through distances between the locations, which allows the methodology to be used to assess scenarios with PVPs and WPPs in multiple locations without actual measurement data. The methodology can be applied by the transmission and distribution system operators when analysing the effects and feasibility...... of new PVPs and WPPs in system planning. The model is verified against hourly measured wind speed and solar irradiance data from Finland. A case study assessing the impact of the geographical distribution of the PVPs and WPPs on aggregate power generation and its variability is presented....

  6. Self-actualization as a factor of future specialist’ personality becoming


    Stoliarchuk, O.


    The research results of influence of a self-actualization on students’ professional becoming were analyzed. Self-actualization is impact factor of students’ professional becoming, it was proved. Positive trend of growth indicators of students’ self-actualization during their professional studying was found. Differentiation of the dynamics of students’ self-actualization was done. The highest level of self-actualization was found in future psychologists. The lowest level of self-actualization ...

  7. 77 FR 12355 - Hours of Service of Drivers: Underwater Construction Corporation Application for Exemption (United States)


    ... such driving operations fall under the ``Utility Service Vehicle'' (USV) exemption in 49 CFR 395.1(n). UCC would like to use its payroll system, which it claims tracks an employee's time spent driving and... continue to track employee hours, which include time spent driving and working, through its payroll system...

  8. Mothers' and Fathers' Work Hours, Child Gender, and Behavior in Middle Childhood (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah; Li, Jianghong; Kendall, Garth; Strazdins, Lyndall; Jacoby, Peter


    This study examined the association between typical parental work hours (including nonemployed parents) and children's behavior in two-parent heterosexual families. Child behavior was measured by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) at ages 5, 8, and 10 in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study ("N" = 4,201 child-year…

  9. Quality‐control of an hourly rainfall dataset and climatology of extremes for the UK (United States)

    Lewis, Elizabeth; Chan, Steven C.; Fowler, Hayley J.


    ABSTRACT Sub‐daily rainfall extremes may be associated with flash flooding, particularly in urban areas but, compared with extremes on daily timescales, have been relatively little studied in many regions. This paper describes a new, hourly rainfall dataset for the UK based on ∼1600 rain gauges from three different data sources. This includes tipping bucket rain gauge data from the UK Environment Agency (EA), which has been collected for operational purposes, principally flood forecasting. Significant problems in the use of such data for the analysis of extreme events include the recording of accumulated totals, high frequency bucket tips, rain gauge recording errors and the non‐operation of gauges. Given the prospect of an intensification of short‐duration rainfall in a warming climate, the identification of such errors is essential if sub‐daily datasets are to be used to better understand extreme events. We therefore first describe a series of procedures developed to quality control this new dataset. We then analyse ∼380 gauges with near‐complete hourly records for 1992–2011 and map the seasonal climatology of intense rainfall based on UK hourly extremes using annual maxima, n‐largest events and fixed threshold approaches. We find that the highest frequencies and intensities of hourly extreme rainfall occur during summer when the usual orographically defined pattern of extreme rainfall is replaced by a weaker, north–south pattern. A strong diurnal cycle in hourly extremes, peaking in late afternoon to early evening, is also identified in summer and, for some areas, in spring. This likely reflects the different mechanisms that generate sub‐daily rainfall, with convection dominating during summer. The resulting quality‐controlled hourly rainfall dataset will provide considerable value in several contexts, including the development of standard, globally applicable quality‐control procedures for sub‐daily data, the validation of the new

  10. Modeling Hourly Resident Productivity in the Emergency Department. (United States)

    Joseph, Joshua W; Henning, Daniel J; Strouse, Connie S; Chiu, David T; Nathanson, Larry A; Sanchez, Leon D


    Resident productivity, defined as new patients per hour, carries important implications for emergency department operations. In high-volume academic centers, essential staffing decisions can be made on the assumption that residents see patients at a static rate. However, it is unclear whether this model mirrors reality; previous studies have not rigorously examined whether productivity changes over time. We examine residents' productivity across shifts to determine whether it remained consistent. This was a retrospective cohort study conducted in an urban academic hospital with a 3-year emergency medicine training program in which residents acquire patients ad libitum throughout their shift. Time stamps of all patient encounters were automatically logged. A linear mixed model was constructed to predict productivity per shift hour. A total of 14,364 8- and 9-hour shifts were worked by 75 residents between July 1, 2010, and June 20, 2015. This comprised 6,127 (42.7%) postgraduate year (PGY) 1 shifts, 7,236 (50.4%) PGY-2 shifts, and 998 (6.9%) PGY-3 nonsupervisory shifts (Table 1). Overall, residents treated a mean of 10.1 patients per shift (SD 3.2), with most patients at Emergency Severity Index level 3 or more acute (93.8%). In the initial hour, residents treated a mean of 2.14 patients (SD 1.2), and every subsequent hour was associated with a significant decrease, with the largest in the second, third, and final hours. Emergency medicine resident productivity during a single shift follows a reliable pattern that decreases significantly hourly, a pattern preserved across PGY years and types of shifts. This suggests that resident productivity is a dynamic process, which should be considered in staffing decisions and studied further. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A Historical Perspective on Significance Relative to Safety Analysis and Actual Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Since the early days of safety analysis there has been an overall goal to protect against accidents with significant risk. However, there has been considerable discussion and fluctuation in how to define ''significant''. This paper presents past and current attempts to define ''significant''. These include various siting evaluation guidelines, ''small fraction'' and ''well within'' for further division of the guidelines. These definitions were expanded to include identification of USQ, proper control functional classification and when a preliminary safety basis is required to authorize construction. Such schemes started with quantitative guidelines which have changed over time to today's climate of qualitative definitions. The differences, advantages and disadvantages are discussed and safety analysis expectations on what is significant are compared to a selection of actual events from the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the chemical industry. The paper concludes with an assessment of causal factors common to those actual events that are not generally considered in typical accident sequence identification and, thus, are not usually considered ''significant'' in the pre-event time frame. These common causal factors are still valid today and are important and recurring contributors to actual events

  12. Hour-by-hour physical activity patterns of adults aged 45-65 years: a cross-sectional study. (United States)

    Jansen, F M; van Kollenburg, G H; Kamphuis, C B M; Pierik, F H; Ettema, D F


    Limited information exists on hour-by-hour physical activity (PA) patterns among adults aged 45-65 years. Therefore, this study aimed to distinguish typical hour-by-hour PA patterns, and examined which individuals typically adopt certain PA patterns. Accelerometers measured light and moderate-vigorous PA. GIS-data provided proportions of land use within an 800 and 1600 m buffer around participant's homes. Latent class analyses were performed to distinguish PA patterns and groups of individuals with similar PA patterns. Four PA patterns were identified: a morning light PA pattern, a mid-day moderate-vigorous PA pattern, an overall inactive pattern and an overall active pattern. Groups of individuals with similar PA patterns differed in ethnicity, dog ownership, and the proportion of roads, sports terrain, larger green and blue space within their residential areas. Four typical hour-by-hour PA patterns, and three groups of individuals with similar patterns were distinguished. It is this combination that can substantially contribute to the development of more tailored policies and interventions. PA patterns were only to a limited extent associated with personal and residential characteristics, suggesting that other factors such as work time regimes, family life and leisure may also have considerable impact on the distribution of PA throughout the day. © The Author [year of publication]. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  13. Resident work hour restrictions do not improve patient safety in surgery: a critical appraisal based on 7 years of experience in Switzerland


    Businger, Adrian P; Laffer, Urban; Kaderli, Reto


    Abstract In 2005 the Swiss government implemented new work-hour limitations for all residency programs in Switzerland, including a 50-hour weekly limit. The reduction in the working hours of doctors in training implicate an increase in their rest time and suggest an amelioration of doctors' clinical performance and consequently in patients' outcomes and safety - which was not detectable in a preliminary study at a large referral center in Switzerland. It remains elusive why work-hour restrict...

  14. Association between maternal perceptions and actual nutritional status for children in a study group in Mexico. (United States)

    Guevara-Cruz, M; Serralde-Zúñiga, A E; Frigolet Vázquez-Vela, Ma E; Blancas Galicia, L; Islas-Ortega, L


    Mexico has the highest rates of childhood obesity of any country in the world. As an environmental risk factor, family perception and behavior concerning child obesity is thought to have an important influence on the prevention and treatment of obesity. the aim of this study was to evaluate maternal perceptions of children's weight and to determine whether these perceptions are associated with the actual weight of the children. A descriptive study was conducted that assessed 273 children and included interviews with their mothers. Maternal perceptions of the children's weight status were compared with the measured weights, statures and body mass indices (BMI). The mean BMIs of the children and mothers were 18.1 ± 3.6 and 27.7 ± 4.7 kg/m², respectively. The perceptions of mothers of children's weight are not associated with actual BMI category of children (p nutritional status.

  15. The Artificial Neural Network Estimation for Daily and Hourly Rice Evapotranspiration in the Region of Red Soil, South China (United States)

    Jing, Yuanshu; Ruthaikarn, Buaphean; Jin, Xinyi; Pang, Bo

    The evapotranspiration estimation is a key item for irrigation program. It has the important practical significance for high stable yield and water-saving in the region of red soil, South China. Penman-Monteith equation, recommended by FAO, is verified to be the most effective calculation to actual evaporation in many regions of the world. The only default is it has to use complete meteorological factors. To solve this problem, we are trying to find out a artificial neural network model (ANN) which can easily get its information and easy to calculate as well as guaranteed accuracy. A Bowen ratio energy balance (BREB) system and automatic weather station were employed for simultaneous measurement of actual evapotranspiration above the rice field. The frequency of 20-min recording provided the possibility for the estimation of daily and hourly evapotranspiration. The determined coefficient from the artificial neural network model on daily scale R2 is 0.9642, while hourly scale R2 is 0.9880. The reason was that the hourly scale training samples was greater than the daily scale measures. In general, the model gives an effective and feasible way for the evaluation of paddy rice evapotranspiration by the conventional parameters.

  16. Actual drawing of histological images improves knowledge retention. (United States)

    Balemans, Monique C M; Kooloos, Jan G M; Donders, A Rogier T; Van der Zee, Catharina E E M


    Medical students have to process a large amount of information during the first years of their study, which has to be retained over long periods of nonuse. Therefore, it would be beneficial when knowledge is gained in a way that promotes long-term retention. Paper-and-pencil drawings for the uptake of form-function relationships of basic tissues has been a teaching tool for a long time, but now seems to be redundant with virtual microscopy on computer-screens and printers everywhere. Several studies claimed that, apart from learning from pictures, actual drawing of images significantly improved knowledge retention. However, these studies applied only immediate post-tests. We investigated the effects of actual drawing of histological images, using randomized cross-over design and different retention periods. The first part of the study concerned esophageal and tracheal epithelium, with 384 medical and biomedical sciences students randomly assigned to either the drawing or the nondrawing group. For the second part of the study, concerning heart muscle cells, students from the previous drawing group were now assigned to the nondrawing group and vice versa. One, four, and six weeks after the experimental intervention, the students were given a free recall test and a questionnaire or drawing exercise, to determine the amount of knowledge retention. The data from this study showed that knowledge retention was significantly improved in the drawing groups compared with the nondrawing groups, even after four or six weeks. This suggests that actual drawing of histological images can be used as a tool to improve long-term knowledge retention. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  17. Flexible work in call centres: Working hours, work-life conflict & health. (United States)

    Bohle, Philip; Willaby, Harold; Quinlan, Michael; McNamara, Maria


    Call-centre workers encounter major psychosocial pressures, including high work intensity and undesirable working hours. Little is known, however, about whether these pressures vary with employment status and how they affect work-life conflict and health. Questionnaire data were collected from 179 telephone operators in Sydney, Australia, of whom 124 (69.3%) were female and 54 (30.2%) were male. Ninety-three (52%) were permanent full-time workers, 37 (20.7%) were permanent part-time, and 49 (27.4%) were casual employees. Hypothesised structural relationships between employment status, working hours and work organisation, work-life conflict and health were tested using partial least squares modelling in PLS (Chin, 1998). The final model demonstrated satisfactory fit. It supported important elements of the hypothesised structure, although four of the proposed paths failed to reach significance and the fit was enhanced by adding a path. The final model indicated that casual workers reported more variable working hours which were relatively weakly associated with greater dissatisfaction with hours. The interaction of schedule control and variability of hours also predicted dissatisfaction with hours. Conversely, permanent workers reported greater work intensity, which was associated with both lower work schedule control and greater work-life conflict. Greater work-life conflict was associated with more fatigue and psychological symptoms. Labour market factors and the undesirability of longer hours in a stressful, high-intensity work environment appear to have contributed to the results. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Actual new cancer-causing hydrazines, hydrazides, and hydrazones. (United States)

    Toth, B


    Twenty actual new cancer-causing hydrazines, hydrazides, and hydrazones of synthetic or natural origin are described. These compounds induce tumors in various target tissues in mice, hamsters and rats. To nine of these compounds the human population is exposed in the form of drugs, agricultural herbicides, and naturally occurring ingredients of edible mushrooms. Yet, with one exception, none of the hydrazines described here were investigated for cancer-inducing abilities in man. The human population should be warned against the use of this hazardous class of chemicals, the total number of which is now 40.

  19. Mobile phones. Up-to-date knowledge and actual questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmuss, Monika; Dehos, Anne; Geschwentner, Dirk; Kreuzer, Michaela; Matthes, Ruediger; Poelzl, Christiane; Pophof, Blanka


    Starting point of the German Mobile Phone Research Project (DMF) were reported health effects from low level exposure. In mostly interdisciplinary projects, these effects were followed up. In addition the actual everyday exposure was evaluated and the risk perception within the society and possibilities for risk communication were investigated. Although there are still scientific questions unsolved, the DMF contributed significantly to an improvement of the risk assessment and the public communication. Overall, the results from DMF and other research projects do not give reason to doubt the effectiveness of the radiation protection limits. (orig.)

  20. The actual practice of air cleaning in Belgian nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goossens, W.R. [PEGO, Mol (Belgium)


    With 60% of its power generation from nuclear stations Belgium has 7 nuclear power stations in operation with a total capacity of 5.4 MWe. Enriched uranium is imported and converted to fuel assemblies. The actinides of reprocessed fuel are recycled as MOX fuel. A main waste conditioning operation has been performed in the PAMELA vitrifier. The actual practice of nuclear air cleaning in the Belgian PWR station DOEL-4 and in the PAMELA -vitrification plant for high level liquid waste is reviewed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Villalba Cuéllar


    Full Text Available El arbitraje es el medio de solución mas antigua en al historia de la humanidad. Hoy en día se constituye en una alternativa afectiva frente a la morosidad de los jueces estatales y presenta grandes beneficios en el ámbito del derecho comercial y del derecho internacional. Este artículo pretende hacer un recorrido por la historia del arbitraje internacional con el fin de precisar los orígenes de la figura y su desarrollo actual.

  2. El problema del paisaje en los actuales desarrollos Suburbanos


    Arias Sierra, Pablo


    Investigar sobre lo que hoy significa el Paisaje de lo periférico se constituye en el tema central de la Tesis. Problema íntimamente vinculado a las transformaciones de la ciudad actual, que está desbordando las formas y fórmulas metropolitanas convencionales y que e ... Investigación sobre Paisaje, que como ya hemos afirmado no puede olvidar que la Nueva Ciudad tiene entre sí problemas de Sostenibilidad y retos medioambientales que se acrecientan cada día, en función del desinterés y la desc...

  3. Estado Actual y Retos Futuros en el Estudio del Burnout


    Salanova Soria, Marisa; Llorens Gumbau, Susana


    El objetivo principal de este artículo es ofrecer una revisión de la actual investigación aplicada del síndrome de quemarse por el trabajo o burnout. Comenzamos con el concepto de burnout, su evolución desde los primeros estudios en ocupaciones de servicios, hasta la actualidad en donde la investigación ha demostrado la importancia de considerar otras ocupaciones, y ampliar las dimensiones clave del burnout. En segundo lugar, examinaremos cómo evaluar el burnout, en función de la pos...

  4. Energy saving strategies in an actual confectionery plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimaldi, C.N.; Lunghi, P.; Mariani, F. [Universita di Perugia, Dip. di Ingegneria Industriale, Perugia (Italy)


    The achievements of a more rational use of energy can be difficult when large and complex industrial plants are considered. In the present work, an example is given of how a well-focused energy analysis, based on experimental data, can help to point out possible relevant energy savings. In particular, two different refrigeration systems have been examined for a confectionery plant in different seasons, atmospheric and production conditions, allowing us to understand the actual operation. Based on the analysis of the results, energy saving strategies have been proposed and discussed. (Author)

  5. Bombas centrífugas como asistencia ventricular: estado actual


    Morales Pérez, Carlos


    Las bombas centrífugas se han mostrado sobradamente eficaces en nuestra rutina quirúrgica con un bajo nivel de complicaciones cuando las usamos en la cirugía cardíaca convencional. En este trabajo se expone su utilidad como dispositivos de asistencia mecánica ventricular. se analizan sus características, técnicas de implantación, manejo, indicaciones actuales y sus complicaciones desde un doble enfoque: físico-técnico y clínico-quirúrgico. se revisan los avances que estas bombas han experimen...

  6. Actual questions in Slovak and European nuclear sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slugen, V.


    The close cohesion of research and education underlines the development of all research areas and contributes to their sustainability. In the paper, new approaches of European Commission (DG RTD Energy) to nuclear power engineering development (focused on area fission and reactor systems) and applications also for Slovak conditions are discussed in details. Research, education and training increase not only economical factor and technical development, but imply the higher level of safety culture by design or operation of nuclear installations. The paper will be focused on the actual questions in frame of Slovak as well as European nuclear sector.

  7. Modeling Aggregate Hourly Energy Consumption in a Regional Building Stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kipping


    Full Text Available Sound estimates of future heat and electricity demand with high temporal and spatial resolution are needed for energy system planning, grid design, and evaluating demand-side management options and polices on regional and national levels. In this study, smart meter data on electricity consumption in buildings are combined with cross-sectional building information to model hourly electricity consumption within the household and service sectors on a regional basis in Norway. The same modeling approach is applied to model aggregate hourly district heat consumption in three different consumer groups located in Oslo. A comparison of modeled and metered hourly energy consumption shows that hourly variations and aggregate consumption per county and year are reproduced well by the models. However, for some smaller regions, modeled annual electricity consumption is over- or underestimated by more than 20%. Our results indicate that the presented method is useful for modeling the current and future hourly energy consumption of a regional building stock, but that larger and more detailed training datasets are required to improve the models, and more detailed building stock statistics on regional level are needed to generate useful estimates on aggregate regional energy consumption.

  8. Duty hours and incidents in flight among commercial airline pilots. (United States)

    O'Hagan, Anna Donnla; Issartel, Johann; Fletcher, Richard; Warrington, Giles


    Working long duty hours has often been associated with increased risk of incidents and accidents in transport industries. Despite this, information regarding the intermediate relationship between duty hours and incident risk is limited. This study aimed to test a work hours/incident model to identify the interplay of factors contributing to incidents within the aviation industry. Nine hundred and fifty-four European-registered commercial airline pilots completed a 30-item survey investigating self-report attitudes and experiences of fatigue. Path analysis was used to test the proposed model. The fit indices indicated this to be a good fit model (χ(2) = 11.066, df = 5, p = 0.05; Comparative Fit Index = 0.991; Normed Fit Index = 0.984; Tucker-Lewis Index = 0.962; Root Mean Square of Approximation = 0.036). Highly significant relationships were identified between duty hours and sleep disturbance (r = 0.18, p < 0.001), sleep disturbance and fatigue in the cockpit (r = 0.40, p < 0.001), and fatigue in the cockpit and microsleeps in the cockpit (r = 0.43, p < 0.001). A critical pathway from duty hours through to self-reported incidents in flight was identified. Further investigation employing both objective and subjective measures of sleep and fatigue is needed.

  9. Are «off hours» intubations a risk factor for complications during intubation? A prospective, observational study. (United States)

    Taboada, M; Calvo, A; Doldán, P; Ramas, M; Torres, D; González, M; Rodríguez, A; Lombardía, M; Fernandez, Cr; Baluja, A; Otero, P; Álvarez, J


    To compare the complications and the difficulty of orotracheal intubation procedures performed in the Intensive Care Unit during the off-hours period and the on-hours period. A prospective, observational and non-interventional cohort study covering a period of 27 months was carried out. Working days between 8:00 a. m. and 7:59 p. m. were considered «on-hours», while the remaining shifts were regarded as «off-hours». An 18-bed surgical in a Intensive Care Unit of a third-level hospital. All orotracheal intubation patients admitted to the ICU from January 2015 to March 2017 were included. Patients were stratified into 2groups according to whether intubation was performed on-hours or off-hours. Non-interventional study. The reason for intubation, time and day on which intubation was performed, degree of intubation difficulty (number of attempts, Cormack-Lehane laryngoscopic vision, need for accessory material) and complications during intubation. A total of 252 patients were intubated; of these, 132 were included in the on-hours group and 120 patients in the off-hours group. In the off-hours group we observed a greater percentage of urgent and emergent intubations compared to the on-hours group. However, no differences were found between the 2groups in relation to the other variables studied. During the off-hours period, orotracheal intubation was not associated to a greater number of complications or to greater difficulty of the technique in our Unit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Besta


    Full Text Available Lean manufacturing belongs to the basic philosophies originating in automotive industry. It was originally based on a number of elementary principles and methods. Companies from other industrial areas have also been gradually trying to apply these principles. This leads to the incorporation of other tools from various areas into this concept. The fundamental techniques of lean manufacturing include the hourly stability (output analysis. This method can be applied in a wide variety of manufacturing fields. The aim is a stable working worker, not a worker working rapidly and with large fluctuations. Speed and sudden changes mean inaccuracy, poor quality and problems to the manufacturing companies. The research has also carried out the hourly stability analysis in a company manufacturing components for a variety of global car manufacturers. The objective of this article is to evaluate the research of hourly stability for the selected workplaces.

  11. Diagnostic Performance of 48-Hour Fasting Test and Insulin Surrogates in Patients With Suspected Insulinoma. (United States)

    Ueda, Keijiro; Kawabe, Ken; Lee, Lingaku; Tachibana, Yuichi; Fujimori, Nao; Igarashi, Hisato; Oda, Yoshinao; Jensen, Robert T; Takayanagi, Ryoichi; Ito, Tetsuhide


    This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of the 48-hour fasting test and insulin surrogates followed by a glucagon stimulatory test (GST) for the diagnosis of insulinoma. Thirty-five patients with suspected insulinoma who underwent 48-hour fasting test and GST were retrospectively included in our study: 15 patients with surgically proven insulinomas and 20 patients in whom insulinoma was clinically ruled out. We determined the duration of the fasting test, plasma glucose levels, serum levels of immunoreactive insulin and C-peptide, and insulin surrogates (serum levels of β-hydroxybutyrate, free fatty acid, and response of plasma glucose to intravenous glucagon [ΔPG]) at the end of the fast. The sensitivity and specificity of the 48-hour fasting test were 100.0% and 80.0%, respectively, for the diagnosis of insulinoma. When the 48-hour fasting test and immunoreactive insulin, C-peptide, or insulin surrogates were combined, the combination with GST showed the best results. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy rate were 93.3%, 95.0%, and 94.3%, respectively, with 1 false-negative case and 1 false-positive case occurring. A more accurate and less invasive diagnosis of insulinoma was possible by combining the 48-hour fasting test with the GST, compared with the existing method.

  12. Probabilistic safety analysis on an SBWR 72 hours after the initiating event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Bautista, M.T.; Peinador Veira, M.


    Passive plants, including SBWRs, are designed to carry out safety functions with passive systems during the first 72 hours after the initiation event with no need for manual actions or external support. After this period, some recovery actions are required to enable the passive systems to continue performing their safety functions. The study was carried out by the INITEC-Empresarios Agrupados Joint Venture within the framework of the international group collaborating with GE on this project. Its purpose has been to assess, by means of probabilistic criteria, the importance to safety of each of these support actions, in order to define possible requirements to be considered in the design in respect of said recovery actions. In brief, the methodology developed for this objective consists of (1) quantifying success event trees from the PSA up to 72 hours, (2) determining the actions required in each sequence to maintain Steady State after 72 hours, (3) identifying available alternative core cooling methods in each sequence, (4) establishing the approximate (order of magnitude) realizability of each alternative method, (5) calculating the frequency of core damage as a function of the failure probability of post-72-hour actions and (6) analysing the importance of post-72-hour actions. The results of this analysis permit the establishment, right from the conceptual design phase, of the requirements that will arise to ensure these actions in the long term, enhancing their reliability and preventing the accident from continuing beyond this period. (Author)

  13. Blood volume extracted from the critical patient in the first 24 hours after admission. (United States)

    Maqueda-Palau, M; Pérez-Juan, E

    To calculate the number of analytical tests and blood volume drawn during the first 24hours of admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). To analyse values of basal haemoglobin and at 24hours, relate them to blood loss, weight variation, and scoring system. An observational descriptive pilot study. Variables studied: age, sex, diagnosis on admission, analytical tests extracted, waste quantity before the extraction of samples, total volume blood extracted in 24hours, weight variation, APACHE, SAPS, basal haemoglobin and at 24hours. Statistical analysis with SPSS vs 20.0. Variables correlation sex, weight variation, the number of analytical tests and haemoglobin change. The study included 100 patients. The average number of extractions per patient/day was 7.2 (±2.6). The average waste quantity was 32.61ml (±15.8). The blood volume used for determinations was 48.18ml / 24h (±16.74). The haemoglobin value decreased in the first 24hours of admission, being higher in men (PUnidades Coronarias (SEEIUC). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Making sense: duty hours, work flow, and waste in graduate medical education. (United States)

    Bush, Roger W; Philibert, Ingrid


    Parsimony, and not industry, is the immediate cause of the increase of capital. Industry, indeed, provides the subject which parsimony accumulates. But whatever industry might acquire, if parsimony did not save and store up, the capital would never be the greater.Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations, book 2, chapter 31In 2003, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education implemented resident duty hour limits that included a weekly limit and limits on continuous hours. Recent recommendations for added reductions in resident duty hours have produced concern about concomitant reductions in future graduates' preparedness for independent practice. The current debate about resident hours largely does not consider whether all hours residents spend in the educational and clinical-care environment contribute meaningfully either to residents' learning or to effective patient care. This may distract the community from waste in the current clinical-education model. We propose that use of "lean production" and quality improvement methods may assist teaching institutions in attaining a deeper understanding of work flow and waste. These methods can be used to assign value to patient- and learner-centered activities and outputs and to optimize the competing and synergistic aspects of all desired outcomes to produce the care the Institute of Medicine recommends: safe, effective, efficient, patient-centered, timely, and equitable. Finally, engagement of senior clinical faculty in determining the culture of the care and education system will contribute to an advanced social-learning and care network.

  15. Pregnancy Outcomes in Women With 1-Hour Glucose Challenge Test≥200 mg/dL (United States)

    Ankumah, Nana-Ama; Tita, Alan T. N.; Biggio, Joseph R.; Harper, Lorie M.


    Objective Many protocols diagnose gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) solely on a 1-hour glucose challenge test (GCT) ≥ 200 mg/dL. However, pregnancy outcomes in these women compared with women diagnosed with a 3-hour glucose tolerance test (GTT) has not been adequately evaluated. We hypothesize that a 1-hour GCT ≥200 mg/dL is associated with worse pregnancy outcomes compared to a GCT 135–199 with positive GTT. Study Design Retrospective cohort of singleton pregnancies complicated by GDM. Maternal outcomes included A2DM, preeclampsia, primary cesarean, and failed trial of labor after cesarean. Perinatal outcomes were large/small for gestational age, shoulder dystocia, and birth injury. Groups were compared with t-test and chi-squared test, and logistic regression to adjust for confounders. Results 602 women diagnosed with GDM by 1-hour GCT 135–199 and confirmatory 3-hour GTT (shoulder dystocia (3.1% versus 1.0%). Adjusted ORs and 95% CIs were 1.80 (1.10–2.94) and 5.10 (1.25–20.76) respectively. Conclusion Preeclampsia and shoulder dystocia are more frequent in women with GCT ≥ 200 mg/dL than those with a positive GTT following a GCT of 135–199 mg/dL. PMID:26529473

  16. [Volunteering in psychiatry: determining factors of attitude and actual commitment]. (United States)

    Lauber, C; Nordt, C; Falcato, L; Rössler, W


    To assess public attitude, actual working commitment and the respective influence of demographic, psychological and sociological variables on voluntary help in psychiatry. Multiple logistic regression analysis of the results of a representative population survey in Switzerland. Public attitude is mostly positive, but the respective working commitment is small. Attitude depends on gender, psychological factors (social distance, stereotypes), and on attitude to community psychiatry. For the working commitment, clearly distinct predictors are found: age, emotions, participation, and perceived discrimination to the mentally ill. For both attitude and commitment, having a social profession and interest in mass media are predictors. Internationally compared, Switzerland has a positive attitude and a big commitment in lay helping in psychiatry. But attitude is different from actual commitment. Lay helpers' work must be limited to realizable tasks and they need professional recruitment, instruction, and supervision otherwise they tend to be over-burden. The unused potential of voluntary helpers has to be opened specifically, e.g. by involving mass media and opinion-makers.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela, SAVU


    Full Text Available This paper aims at to present the essence and the role of economic education related to the natural movement of a functioning market economy in the Romanian actuality. We understand education as an important form of social consciousness in the sense of bipolarity, namely as the premise and the effect at a dynamic microeconomic and macroeconomic level. In this dynamic movement, economic education appears more and more visibly as a new factor of production or as a new dimension of human capital. In our approach we consider several theoretical and methodological axes that allow us to reveal the interdependence of education to the economic and social development, from an emulative or frantic perspective. In this way we treat the evolution of complex phenomena of economic education in terms of public policy, highlighting the need to intensify the decision-making efforts of management and execution, consistent pursuing to link the causes with the effects of economic education in the Romanian actuality.

  18. The Singularity: A Crucial Phase in Divine Self-Actualization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Zimmerman


    Full Text Available Ray Kurzweil and others have posited that the confluence of nanotechnology, artificial intelligence, robotics, and genetic engineering will soon produce posthuman beings that will far surpass us in power and intelligence. Just as black holes constitute a ldquo;singularityrdquo; from which no information can escape, posthumans will constitute a ldquo;singularity:rdquo; whose aims and capacities lie beyond our ken. I argue that technological posthumanists, whether wittingly or unwittingly, draw upon the long-standing Christian discourse of ldquo;theosis,rdquo; according to which humans are capable of being God or god-like. From St. Paul and Luther to Hegel and Kurzweil, the idea of human self-deification plays a prominent role. Hegel in particular emphasizes that God becomes wholly actualized only in the process by which humanity achieves absolute consciousness. Kurzweil agrees that God becomes fully actual only through historical processes that illuminate and thus transform the entire universe. The difference is that for Kurzweil and many other posthumanists, our offspringmdash;the posthumansmdash;will carry out this extraordinary process. What will happen to Home sapiens in the meantime is a daunting /br /

  19. Angina crónica estable. Consideraciones actuales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanier Coll Muñoz


    Full Text Available La angina de pecho crónica estable es un síndrome clínico caracterizado por dolor o malestar precordial secundario a isquemia miocárdica y sin características clínicas de inestabilidad. El debate actual sobre esta entidad clínica incluye tres aspectos fundamentales: diagnóstico, prevalencia e impacto socioeconómico, y tratamiento médico frente a revascularización miocárdica. En los últimos cuatro años se han dado a conocer los resultados de varios estudios multicéntricos de gran importancia que compararon tratamiento médico con revascularización miocárdica y cirugía de revascularización frente a intervención coronaria percutánea; además, han mejorado las técnicas de revascularización y existe abundante información sobre la eficacia de nuevos fármacos antiisquémicos. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo hacer una revisión de los aspectos actuales más importantes relacionados con la angina de pecho estable y su tratamiento, publicados en la literatura especializada.

  20. Determination of the actual evapotranspiration by using remote sensing methods (United States)

    Bora, Eser


    Evapotranspiration is so crucial for determining amount of the irrigation and the effective water management planning. Moreover, it is vital for determining agricultural drought management and determination the actual evapotranspiration ın a region is critical for early drought warning systems. The main object of this study was to assess accuracy of the remote sensing method (METRIC) by calibrating with the bowen ratio observations at the same time. The research was carried out in the west of Marmara Region, Turkey. Landsat 5 images was used to determine the metric algorithm. By using this algorithms are found. Landsat 5 images file were used to determine actual evapotranspiration and the image's date was June 11 in 2010. This date was used for calibration with available terrestrial observation by using bowen ratio in that time. Landsat images obtained from the web site,, and results of bowen ratio taken from micrometeorology station. As a result, energy balance parameters that are net radiation, soil heat flux and latent heat flux were compared both metric algorithm and the bowen ration in the images time. The results are found so close to each other.

  1. Actual conditions of radiation control in radioisotope utilization field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakihara, Koji


    It may be said that the actual conditions on radiation safety are being improved in utilizing radioisotopes or radiation in Japan. It depends greatly on the results of the voluntary effort of users and the regulations by the ''radiation injury prevention law'' and its relevant ordinances. However, the actual conditions of the strict observation of the law are much insufficient. According to the results of official inspection in 1978, 60% of whole enterprises concerned and 73% of educational and medical organizations were judged as incomplete. Such tendency should not be left as it is, but it should also be noticed that there are realities that critical accidents or injuries have not occurred even in such conditions as many violations mentioned above. Since the existing law has not been subjected to essential revision in the past two decades, it might be said that the law does not properly fit to the present conditions because the progress of related techniques was made during this period. Meanwhile, difficulties exist in measuring the low level concentration in the use of low energy radioisotopes or tracer experiments such as in the process analysis in factories or in the analysis of the movement of trace constituent in soil. Further, there is a problem on the necessity of securing the chief technicians handling radiation, and there is the contradiction that the chief technicians are useless in normal condition but are powerless in case of accidents. This situation should be improved as soon as possible. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  2. Tendencias actuales y futuras de la terapia de familias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Almagro Domínguez


    Full Text Available Se exponen brevemente la situación actual y las perspectivas de la terapia familiar a partir de la información obtenida en el Séptimo Congreso de IFTA (International Family Therapy Association, celebrado en Guadalajara, México, en Octubre de 1995. Los criterios actuales abarcan desde el ciclo vital y las técnicas nuevas, hasta el tratamiento familiar del SIDA y el cáncer. El futuro se considera, en general, promisorio para estas terapias. Se habla de relacionar diagnósticos, enseñanza integrada a planes de estudio y entrenamiento de personal comunitario; todo ello como perspectiva de la terapia de familiasThe present situation and the outlooks of family therapy based on the information obtained at the 7th Congress of the International Family Therapy Association, held in Guadalajara, Mexico, in October, 1995, are briefly explained. New criteria embrace from the vital cycle and the new techniques to the family treatment of AIDS and cancer. In general, the future is considered as promising for these therapies. It is talked about relating diagnoses, integrating teaching to curricula, and training community personal; all of it as a prospect of family therapy.

  3. Investigations of actual conditions of medical radiation technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    At 50 year after enactment of the law of medical radiation technologists, their actual conditions were investigated. The investigation was done in December 2001 by questionnaire to directors of 10,514 facilities and answers were obtained from 4,241 facilities (40.37%). Following 11 questions (major answers and their analysis in parenthesis) were made: Nature of the facility (Private hospitals 45.8%, public ones 20.8%); State of radiation department (Independent department of the technologists from medical one about 30%); Actual job of the technologists (X-ray about 81% of the facilities, angiography 34%, CT 78%, MRI 38% where 94% of technologists conduct, nuclear medicine 17%, ultrasound 51% where, 10%); Personnel of the radiation department (21,897 persons in total/male 85%); Fulfillment of the personnel number; Treatment of the personnel; Acknowledgement system of the Technologist Society; Management of radiation instruments like daily examination; Radiation control (Leak dose measurement by technologists by themselves about 50% facilities for X-ray and radio-therapy); Medical exposure (Measurement experience about 50%); and Possession of dose rate-meter/survey-meter (Possession in about 40% facilities). (N.I.)

  4. Investigations of actual conditions of medical radiation technologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    At 50 year after enactment of the law of medical radiation technologists, their actual conditions were investigated. The investigation was done in December 2001 by questionnaire to directors of 10,514 facilities and answers were obtained from 4,241 facilities (40.37%). Following 11 questions (major answers and their analysis in parenthesis) were made: Nature of the facility (Private hospitals 45.8%, public ones 20.8%); State of radiation department (Independent department of the technologists from medical one about 30%); Actual job of the technologists (X-ray about 81% of the facilities, angiography 34%, CT 78%, MRI 38% where 94% of technologists conduct, nuclear medicine 17%, ultrasound 51% where, 10%); Personnel of the radiation department (21,897 persons in total/male 85%); Fulfillment of the personnel number; Treatment of the personnel; Acknowledgement system of the Technologist Society; Management of radiation instruments like daily examination; Radiation control (Leak dose measurement by technologists by themselves about 50% facilities for X-ray and radio-therapy); Medical exposure (Measurement experience about 50%); and Possession of dose rate-meter/survey-meter (Possession in about 40% facilities). (N.I.)

  5. Downscaling Coarse Actual ET Data Using Land Surface Resistance (United States)

    Shen, T.


    This study proposed a new approach of downscaling ETWATCH 1km actual evapotranspiration (ET) product to a spatial resolution of 30m using land surface resistance that simulated mainly from monthly Landsat8 data and Jarvis method, which combined the benefits of both high temporal resolution of ETWATCH product and fine spatial resolution of Landsat8. The driving factor, surface resistance (Rs), was chosen for the reason that could reflect the transfer ability of vapor flow over canopy. Combined resistance Rs both upon canopy conditions, atmospheric factors and available water content of soil, which remains stable inside one ETWATCH pixel (1km). In this research, we used ETWATCH 1km ten-day actual ET product from April to October in a total of twenty-one images and monthly 30 meters cloud-free NDVI of 2013 (two images from HJ as a substitute due to cloud contamination) combined meteorological indicators for downscaling. A good agreement and correlation were obtained between the downscaled data and three flux sites observation in the middle reach of Heihe basin. The downscaling results show good consistency with the original ETWATCH 1km data both temporal and spatial scale over different land cover types with R2 ranged from 0.8 to 0.98. Besides, downscaled result captured the progression of vegetation transpiration well. This study proved the practicability of new downscaling method in the water resource management.

  6. Ion and water balance in Gryllus crickets during the first twelve hours of cold exposure. (United States)

    Des Marteaux, Lauren E; Sinclair, Brent J


    Insects lose ion and water balance during chilling, but the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are based on patterns of ion and water balance observed in the later stages of cold exposure (12 or more hours). Here we quantified the distribution of ions and water in the hemolymph, muscle, and gut in adult Gryllus field crickets during the first 12h of cold exposure to test mechanistic hypotheses about why homeostasis is lost in the cold, and how chill-tolerant insects might maintain homeostasis to lower temperatures. Unlike in later chill coma, hemolymph [Na(+)] and Na(+) content in the first few hours of chilling actually increased. Patterns of Na(+) balance suggest that Na(+) migrates from the tissues to the gut lumen via the hemolymph. Imbalance of [K(+)] progressed gradually over 12h and could not explain chill coma onset (a finding consistent with recent studies), nor did it predict survival or injury following 48h of chilling. Gryllus veletis avoided shifts in muscle and hemolymph ion content better than Gryllus pennsylvanicus (which is less chill-tolerant), however neither species defended water, [Na(+)], or [K(+)] balance during the first 12h of chilling. Gryllus veletis better maintained balance of Na(+) content and may therefore have greater tissue resistance to ion leak during cold exposure, which could partially explain faster chill coma recovery for that species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Identifying Factors Reinforcing Robotization: Interactive Forces of Employment, Working Hour and Wage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joonmo Cho


    Full Text Available Unlike previous studies on robotization approaching the future based on the cutting-edge technologies and adopting a framework where robotization is considered as an exogenous variable, this study considers that robotization occurs endogenously and uses it as a dependent variable for an objective examination of the effect of robotization on the labor market. To this end, a robotization indicator is created based on the actual number of industrial robots currently deployed in workplaces, and a multiple regression analysis is performed using the robotization indicator and labor variables such as employment, working hours, and wage. The results using the multiple regression considering the triangular relationship of employment–working-hours–wages show that job destruction due to robotization is not too remarkable yet that use. Our results show the complementary relation between employment and robotization, but the substituting relation between working hour and robotization. The results also demonstrate the effects of union, the size of the company and the proportion of production workers and simple labor workers etc. These findings indicate that the degree of robotization may vary with many factors of the labor market. Limitations of this study and implications for future research are also discussed.

  8. Falls From Agricultural Machinery: Risk Factors Related to Work Experience, Worked Hours, and Operators' Behavior. (United States)

    Caffaro, Federica; Roccato, Michele; Micheletti Cremasco, Margherita; Cavallo, Eugenio


    Objective We investigated the risk factors for falls when egressing from agricultural tractors, analyzing the role played by worked hours, work experience, operators' behavior, and near misses. Background Many accidents occur within the agricultural sector each year. Among them, falls while dismounting the tractor represent a major source of injuries. Previous studies pointed out frequent hazardous movements and incorrect behaviors adopted by operators to exit the tractor cab. However, less is known about the determinants of such behaviors. In addition, near misses are known to be important predictors of accidents, but they have been under-investigated in the agricultural sector in general and as concerns falls in particular. Method A questionnaire assessing dismounting behaviors, previous accidents and near misses, and participants' relation with work was administered to a sample of Italian tractor operators ( n = 286). Results A mediated model showed that worked hours increase unsafe behaviors, whereas work experience decreases them. Unsafe behaviors in turn show a positive association with accidents, via the mediation of near misses. Conclusions We gave a novel contribution to the knowledge of the chain of events leading to fall accidents in the agricultural sector, which is one of the most hazardous industries. Applications Besides tractor design improvements, preventive training interventions may focus on the redesign of the actual working strategies and the adoption of engaging training methods in the use of machinery to optimize the learning of safety practices and safe behaviors.

  9. Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 4) - Special working hours

    CERN Multimedia

    Department Head Office - HR Department


    Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 4) entitled "Special working hours", approved by the Director-General following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting on 22 March 2016, will be available on 1st September 2016 via the following link:   This revised circular cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 3) also entitled "Special working hours" of January 2013. This document contains modifications to reflect the new career structure and ensuring the provision consistent with practice that compensation or remuneration of special working hours performed remotely is possible only in case of emergency.   This circular will enter into force on 1st September 2016.

  10. Pregnancy Outcomes in Women with 1-Hour Glucose Challenge Test ≥ 200 mg/dL. (United States)

    Ankumah, Nana-Ama; Tita, Alan T N; Biggio, Joseph R; Harper, Lorie M


    Many protocols diagnose gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) solely on a 1-hour glucose challenge test (GCT) ≥ 200 mg/dL. However, pregnancy outcomes in these women compared with women diagnosed with a 3-hour glucose tolerance test (GTT) has not been adequately evaluated. We hypothesize that a 1-hour GCT ≥ 200 mg/dL is associated with worse pregnancy outcomes as compared with a GCT 135 to 199 mg/dL with positive GTT. A retrospective cohort of singleton pregnancies complicated by GDM. Maternal outcomes included A2DM, preeclampsia, primary cesarean, and failed trial of labor after cesarean. Perinatal outcomes were large/small for gestational age, shoulder dystocia, and birth injury. Groups were compared with t-test and chi-square test, and logistic regression to adjust for confounders. A total of 602 women diagnosed with GDM by 1-hour GCT 135 to 199 mg/dL and confirmatory 3-hour GTT (< 200 group) and 225 women diagnosed with 1-hour GCT ≥ 200 alone (≥ 200) were included. The ≥ 200 group had a higher incidence of preeclampsia (16.4 vs. 10.6%) and shoulder dystocia (3.1 vs. 1.0%). Adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were 1.80 (1.10-2.94) and 5.10 (1.25-20.76), respectively. Preeclampsia and shoulder dystocia are more frequent in women with GCT ≥ 200 mg/dL than those with a positive GTT following a GCT of 135 to 199 mg/dL. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. Analyzing the Impact of Solar Power on Multi-Hourly Thermal Generator Ramping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenkranz, Joshua-Benedict; Brancucci Martinez-Anido, Carlo; Hodge, Bri-Mathias


    Solar power generation, unlike conventional forms of electricity generation, has higher variability and uncertainty in its output because solar plant output is strongly impacted by weather. As the penetration rate of solar capacity increases, grid operators are increasingly concerned about accommodating the increased variability and uncertainty that solar power provides. This paper illustrates the impacts of increasing solar power penetration on the ramping of conventional electricity generators by simulating the operation of the Independent System Operator -- New England power system. A production cost model was used to simulate the power system under five different scenarios, one without solar power and four with increasing solar power penetrations up to 18%, in terms of annual energy. The impact of solar power is analyzed on six different temporal intervals, including hourly and multi-hourly (2- to 6-hour) ramping. The results show how the integration of solar power increases the 1- to 6-hour ramping events of the net load (electric load minus solar power). The study also analyzes the impact of solar power on the distribution of multi-hourly ramping events of fossil-fueled generators and shows increasing 1- to 6-hour ramping events for all different generators. Generators with higher ramp rates such as gas and oil turbine and internal combustion engine generators increased their ramping events by 200% to 280%. For other generator types--including gas combined-cycle generators, coal steam turbine generators, and gas and oil steam turbine generators--more and higher ramping events occurred as well for higher solar power penetration levels.

  12. Averaging and sampling for magnetic-observatory hourly data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Love


    Full Text Available A time and frequency-domain analysis is made of the effects of averaging and sampling methods used for constructing magnetic-observatory hourly data values. Using 1-min data as a proxy for continuous, geomagnetic variation, we construct synthetic hourly values of two standard types: instantaneous "spot" measurements and simple 1-h "boxcar" averages. We compare these average-sample types with others: 2-h average, Gaussian, and "brick-wall" low-frequency-pass. Hourly spot measurements provide a statistically unbiased representation of the amplitude range of geomagnetic-field variation, but as a representation of continuous field variation over time, they are significantly affected by aliasing, especially at high latitudes. The 1-h, 2-h, and Gaussian average-samples are affected by a combination of amplitude distortion and aliasing. Brick-wall values are not affected by either amplitude distortion or aliasing, but constructing them is, in an operational setting, relatively more difficult than it is for other average-sample types. It is noteworthy that 1-h average-samples, the present standard for observatory hourly data, have properties similar to Gaussian average-samples that have been optimized for a minimum residual sum of amplitude distortion and aliasing. For 1-h average-samples from medium and low-latitude observatories, the average of the combination of amplitude distortion and aliasing is less than the 5.0 nT accuracy standard established by Intermagnet for modern 1-min data. For medium and low-latitude observatories, average differences between monthly means constructed from 1-min data and monthly means constructed from any of the hourly average-sample types considered here are less than the 1.0 nT resolution of standard databases. We recommend that observatories and World Data Centers continue the standard practice of reporting simple 1-h-average hourly values.

  13. Comparative study of alertness and performance on 8-hour and 12-hour evening and night shifts for nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, T.L.


    Twenty males aged 25-40 years, many with extensive shiftwork and/or power plant operations experience, volunteered for a laboratory study to compare 8-hour and 12-hour shift schedules. Experiments were conducted in workplace simulation laboratories of the Human Alertness Research Center (HARC) at the Institute for Circadian Physiology in Boston, MA. This unique facility includes a simulated control room with process control simulator, control panels, and self-contained residential apartments where subjects sleep and spend off-duty hours. The design of the study is described. Subjects learn the operation of the process control simulator in multiple practice sessions prior to the experiment. They also practice computer-based performance tests, learn work shift protocols and assignments, and procedures for keeping subjective rating scales for alertness, mood and performance. By the time the first experimental shift begins, all subjects are prepared to perform their simulated work shift duties. These duties include monitoring of four video display terminals for silent (visual cues only) and auditory (visual and auditory) alarms, acknowledging the alarms with computer controls, and keeping log records of alarm activity. The process control simulator simultaneously keeps records of subject performance of these tasks by recording storing all times of alarm activity and alarm acknowledgement by the subject

  14. An improved control method of battery energy storage system for hourly dispatch of photovoltaic power sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daud, Muhamad Zalani; Mohamed, Azah; Hannan, M.A.


    Highlights: • Control of BES for smoothing and hourly dispatch of a PV farm output is developed. • Optimal control strategy for SOC and size of BES are evaluated using GA. • Effectiveness of the control system has been investigated for the case of Malaysia. • The proposed optimal SOC feedback controller has been found effective. • Payback calculations of BES investment is given to highlight the economic benefits. - Abstract: The effects of intermittent cloud and changes in temperature cause a randomly fluctuated output of a photovoltaic (PV) system. To mitigate the PV system impacts particularly on a weak electricity network, battery energy storage (BES) system is an effective means to smooth out the power fluctuations. Consequently, the net power injected to the electricity grid by PV and BES (PV/BES) systems can be dispatched smoothly such as on an hourly basis. This paper presents an improved control strategy for a grid-connected hybrid PV/BES systems for mitigating PV farm output power fluctuations. A feedback controller for BES state of charge is proposed, where the control parameters are optimized using genetic algorithm (GA). GA-based multi objective optimization utilizes the daily average PV farm output power profile which was obtained from simulation using the historical PV system input data of Malaysia. In this way, the optimal size for the BES is also determined to hourly dispatch a 1.2 MW PV farm. A case study for Malaysia is carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme using PSCAD/EMTDC software package. Furthermore, the validation of results of the proposed controller and BES size on the actual PV system output data are also given. Finally, a simple payback calculation is presented to study the economical aspects of the BES investment on the proposed mitigation strategy under Malaysian Feed-in Tariff program

  15. Treatability studies of actual listed waste sludges from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C.M.; Peeler, D.K.; Gilliam, T.M.; Bleier, A.; Spence, R.D.


    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) are investigating vitrification for various low-level and mixed wastes on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Treatability studies have included surrogate waste formulations at the laboratory-, pilot-, and field-scales and actual waste testing at the laboratory- and pilot-scales. The initial waste to be processing through SRTC's Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) is the K-1407-B and K-1407-C (B/C) Pond sludge waste which is a RCRA F-listed waste. The B/C ponds at the ORR K-25 site were used as holding and settling ponds for various waste water treatment streams. Laboratory-, pilot-, and field- scale ''proof-of-principle'' demonstrations are providing needed operating parameters for the planned field-scale demonstration with actual B/C Pond sludge waste at ORR. This report discusses the applied systems approach to optimize glass compositions for this particular waste stream through laboratory-, pilot-, and field-scale studies with surrogate and actual B/C waste. These glass compositions will maximize glass durability and waste loading while optimizing melt properties which affect melter operation, such as melt viscosity and melter refractory corrosion. Maximum waste loadings minimize storage volume of the final waste form translating into considerable cost savings

  16. Perceived and actual arm performance in multiple sclerosis: relationship with clinical tests according to hand dominance. (United States)

    Lamers, Ilse; Kerkhofs, Lore; Raats, Joke; Kos, Daphne; Van Wijmeersch, Bart; Feys, Peter


    The real-life relevance of frequently applied clinical arm tests is not well known in multiple sclerosis (MS). This study aimed to determine the relation between real-life arm performance and clinical tests in MS. Thirty wheelchair-bound MS patients and 30 healthy controls were included. Actual and perceived real-life arm performance was measured by using accelerometry and a self-reported measure (Motor Activity Log). Clinical tests on 'body functions & structures' (JAMAR handgrip strength, Motricity Index (MI), Fugl Meyer (FM)) and 'activity' level (Nine Hole Peg Test (NHPT), Action Research Arm test) of the International Classification of Functioning were conducted. Statistical analyses were performed separately for current dominant and non-dominant arm. For all outcome measures, MS patients scored with both arms significantly lower than the control group. Higher correlations between actual arm performance and clinical tests were found for the non-dominant arm (0.63-0.80). The FM (55%) was a good predictor of actual arm performance, while the MI (46%) and NHPT (55%) were good predictors of perceived arm performance. Real-life arm performance is decreased in wheelchair-bound MS patients and can be best predicted by measures on 'body functions & structures' level and fine motor control. Hand dominance influenced the magnitude of relationships.

  17. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Tributyl Phosphate (TBP, Group 7) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Matthew K.; Billing, Justin M.; Blanchard, David L.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Casella, Andrew M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.


    .A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. The tributyl phosphate sludge (TBP, Group 7) is the subject of this report. The Group 7 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus as well as aluminum in the form of gibbsite. Both are believed to exist in sufficient quantities in the Group 7 waste to address leaching behavior. Thus, the focus of the Group 7 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  18. Investigation of thermolytic hydrogen generation rate of tank farm simulated and actual waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Newell, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Woodham, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pareizs, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Howe, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    To support resolution of Potential Inadequacies in the Safety Analysis for the Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank Farm, Savannah River National Laboratory conducted research to determine the thermolytic hydrogen generation rate (HGR) with simulated and actual waste. Gas chromatography methods were developed and used with air-purged flow systems to quantify hydrogen generation from heated simulated and actual waste at rates applicable to the Tank Farm Documented Safety Analysis (DSA). Initial simulant tests with a simple salt solution plus sodium glycolate demonstrated the behavior of the test apparatus by replicating known HGR kinetics. Additional simulant tests with the simple salt solution excluding organics apart from contaminants provided measurement of the detection and quantification limits for the apparatus with respect to hydrogen generation. Testing included a measurement of HGR on actual SRS tank waste from Tank 38. A final series of measurements examined HGR for a simulant with the most common SRS Tank Farm organics at temperatures up to 140 °C. The following conclusions result from this testing.

  19. Discordance between 'actual' and 'scheduled' check-in times at a heart failure clinic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiran Z Gorodeski

    Full Text Available A 2015 Institute Of Medicine statement "Transforming Health Care Scheduling and Access: Getting to Now", has increased concerns regarding patient wait times. Although waiting times have been widely studied, little attention has been paid to the role of patient arrival times as a component of this phenomenon. To this end, we investigated patterns of patient arrival at scheduled ambulatory heart failure (HF clinic appointments and studied its predictors. We hypothesized that patients are more likely to arrive later than scheduled, with progressively later arrivals later in the day.Using a business intelligence database we identified 6,194 unique patients that visited the Cleveland Clinic Main Campus HF clinic between January, 2015 and January, 2017. This clinic served both as a tertiary referral center and a community HF clinic. Transplant and left ventricular assist device (LVAD visits were excluded. Punctuality was defined as the difference between 'actual' and 'scheduled' check-in times, whereby negative values (i.e., early punctuality were patients who checked-in early. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found that patients checked-in late only a minority of the time (38% of visits. Additionally, examining punctuality by appointment hour slot we found that patients scheduled after 8AM had progressively earlier check-in times as the day progressed (P < .001 for trend. In both a Random Forest-Regression framework and linear regression models the most important risk-adjusted predictors of early punctuality were: later in the day appointment hour slot, patient having previously been to the hospital, age in the early 70s, and white race.Patients attending a mixed population ambulatory HF clinic check-in earlier than scheduled times, with progressive discrepant intervals throughout the day. This finding may have significant implications for provider utilization and resource planning in order to maximize clinic efficiency. The impact of elective early

  20. 24-Hour Holter Monitoring at the Lagos State University Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, only a minority of such patients have documented and confirmed clinically significant tachyarrhythmias in this study. A subsequent larger prospective study would shed more light on this subject. Key Words: Electrocardiogram (ECG), 24-hour Holter, Heart Rate variability. Paroxysmal tachyarrhythmias.

  1. Working Hour and its Impact on Backache from Gender Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Pradhan


    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the association between work burden and backache among women and men. The study design is descriptive cross sectional. Thirty two households are selected. From each of the households sample size of 64 in terms of a pair of either married couple or the unmarried sister and brother are selected. Respondent's age is between 15 to 49 years. Semi structured questionnaire is used to collect data. This study shows significant differences in working hour between male and female. The working hour is significantly higher among the persons with backache. Gender inequality is a stark reality. The gender division of labour may add more work to women resulting into longer working hour for women. This may reflect in some health hazards among women. Hence, more focused attention is needed to understand the non reproductive health problems of women. Keywords: working hour; backache; women empowerment; health problem; health seeking behaviour DOI: 10.3126/dsaj.v4i0.4523 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.4 2010 pp.235-246

  2. The accuracy of after-hour registrar computed tomography (CT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    May 16, 2014 ... tomography (CT) reporting in a South African tertiary teaching hospital. Authors: ... The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of after-hour registrar CT reporting, to identify possible factors that may .... The authors declare that they have no financial or personal relationship(s) that may have ...

  3. Storage beyond Three Hours at Ambient Temperature Alters the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of storage on stability of human breast milk was investigated in 30 lactating mothers. Samples stored for 3, 6 and 24 hours at ambient temperature of 302K (29°) were analysed for protein, lactose, pH, and microbial content. There were significant (p < 0.01) decreases in protein, lactose and pH upon storage for 6 ...

  4. distribution of hourly variability index of sky clearness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. Clouds affect the values of insolation for solar technology and other applications. To detect the presence of variability in the sky clearness, an hourly variability index ( 3) is calculated. The present study examined the frequency distribution of this variable as a tool for assessing the utilizability of solar radiation at ...

  5. Japanese Non Resident Language Refresher Course; 210 Hour Course. (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This military intelligence unit refresher course in Japanese is designed for 210 hours of audiolingual instruction. The materials, prepared by the Defense Language Institute, are intended for students with considerable intensive training in spoken and written Japanese who are preparing for a military language assignment. [Not available in hard…

  6. correlation between sunshine hours and climatic parameters at four

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    problems in the field of energy management and operation have emerged on the energy market. One of the most important factors in solar energy production is related to the predictability of sunshine hours (Firoz and. Intikhab 2004, John and Tony 2000). This has resulted in non-optimal use of solar radiation. Therefore, the ...

  7. Globalization and working time: working hours and flexibility in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgoon, B.; Raess, D.


    This article challenges popular wisdom that economic globalization uniformly increases working time in industrialized countries. International investment and trade, they argue, have uneven effects for workplace bargaining over standard hours and over work-time flexibility, such as use of temporary

  8. 48 CFR 536.570-5 - Working hours. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Working hours. 536.570-5 Section 536.570-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 536.570-5 Working...

  9. 8 Hour Ozone Design Value for 1998-2000 (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Ozone design value is based on the average of the annual 4th highest daily 8-hour maximum over a 3-year period (1998-2000) in this case. This is a human health...

  10. The star-bright hour : [poems] / Betti Alver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alver, Betti, 1906-1989


    Autori lühitutvustus lk. 231. Sisu: The star-bright hour ; The debt ; Not a dream ; Fog-bound ; Corals in an Ancient river ; Frou-frou 1-3. Orig.: Tähetund ; Vilepuhuja ; Võlg ; "Mitte viirastus, meelepett..." ; Udus ; Korallid Emajões ; Froufrou 1-3

  11. The star-bright hour : [luuletused] / Betti Alver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alver, Betti, 1906-1989


    Sisu: The star-bright hour ; Not a dream ; The Piper ; Corals in an ancent river. Luuletused pärinevad kogumikust "Tuulelaeval valgusest on aerud = Windship with Oars of Light. (Tallinn : Huma, 2001). Orig.: Tähetund ; Mitte viirastus, meelepett ; Vilepuhuja ; Korallid Emajões

  12. Work Hours, Social Value of Leisure and Globalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Molana, Hassan; Montagna, Catia


    We examine how openness interacts with the coordination of consumption-leisure decisions in determining the equilibrium working hours and wage rate when there are leisure externalities (e.g., due to social interactions). The latter are modelled by allowing a worker's marginal utility of leisure t...

  13. Transferring PSM craft skills in a 2 hour session

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijderveld, E.J.A. van; Morill, N.; Shaw, D.; Belton, V.; Harvey, P.; Rouwette, E.


    Many of those involved in the Problem Structuring Methods (PSM) community have commented on the struggle that novices face in building the craft skills associated with conducting a PSM intervention. As part of this year's Operational Research Society Conference, we have three 2-hour practical

  14. Distribution of hourly variability index of sky clearness | Madhlopa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clouds affect the values of insolation for solar technology and other applications. To detect the presence of variability in the sky clearness, an hourly variability index ( 3) is calculated. The present study examined the frequency distribution of this variable as a tool for assessing the utilizability of solar radiation at a site.

  15. DASH-Style Diet and 24-Hour Urine Composition


    Taylor, Eric N.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Mount, David B.; Curhan, Gary C.


    Background and objectives: We previously observed associations between a Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-style diet and large reductions in kidney stone risk. This study examined associations between a DASH-style diet and 24-hour excretions of urinary lithogenic factors.

  16. Utilization of Leisure Hours among Students of Ambrose Alli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to find out the utilization of leisure hours among students of Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria. The researchers attempted to find out whether the students of Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma creates time for their leisure activities, the factors that affect the participation in leisure activities, the ...

  17. 29 CFR 778.101 - Maximum nonovertime hours. (United States)


    ... which the pay requirements of section 6 (minimum wage and equal pay) but not those of section 7(a) are... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS OVERTIME COMPENSATION The Overtime Pay... provides 40 hours as the maximum number that an employee subject to its provisions may work for an employer...

  18. Ocular torsion before and after 1 hour centrifugation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, E.; Graaf, B. de; Bles, W.; Bos, J.E.


    To assess a possible otolith contribution to effects observed following prolonged expo-sure to hyper gravity, we used video-oculography to measure ocular torsion during static and dynamic conditions of lateral body tilt (roll) before and after one hour of centrifugation with a Gx-load of 3G. Static

  19. Ampere hour method of sizing a stand alone photovoltaic system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stand-alone photovoltaic power systems are natural options for application in electrification of remote areas which are not served by the grid electricity supply system. An ampere-hour method of sizing a stand-alone PV system for application in any remote location has been presented. The design which is for both ac and dc ...

  20. Forecasting Day-Ahead Electricity Prices : Utilizing Hourly Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Raviv (Eran); K.E. Bouwman (Kees); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick)


    textabstractThe daily average price of electricity represents the price of electricity to be delivered over the full next day and serves as a key reference price in the electricity market. It is an aggregate that equals the average of hourly prices for delivery during each of the 24 individual

  1. The 150-Hour Requirement for CPA Licensure: One Institution's Response (United States)

    Larkin, Joseph M.


    Virtually all states now require candidates for the Certified Public Accountant (CPA) examination and subsequent licensure to have completed 150 semester hours of college education. The rationale behind this requirement is to improve the preparation of students entering the profession and to increase their chances of successful completion of the…

  2. Results of the 1000 Hour Rotary Microfilter Endurance Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, D.


    During operation, a primary concern is lifetime of the mechanical seal. Leakage from main shaft mechanical seal is expected to be first indication of wear on rotary filter but will not be the ultimate failure of the filter. Initial clearance inadequate to support thermal expansion resulted in initial scarring of journal. Tolerances adjusted and no journal issues were found during 1000 hour test. Disassembly and inspection of the rotary joint seals showed no unusual wear. No leakage observed during test. Total operation time over 1500 hours. Test summary successfully demonstrated: (1) Filtration of a 'challenging' SRS simulant up to 15 wt % insoluble solids in a 5.6 M salt simulant; (2) Sludge washing; (3) In-situ acid cleaning with dilute acid; (4) Over 1000 hours of operation on new journal material; and (5) Over 1500 hours of operation on all seals. The filter out lasted: 2 air compressors, 2 power outages (one planned), 2 chillers, 1 fire, 1 electrical breaker and 1 feed pump seal.

  3. Training for fitness: reconsidering the 80-hour work week. (United States)

    Caldicott, Catherine V; Holsapple, James W


    The medical literature is replete with articles about the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's 2003 resident duty hour restrictions. Most of these papers describe creative and thoughtful responses to the new system. However, others express concern that the "80-hour work week" could hamper continuity of care and educational activities. Nevertheless, if fatigue impairs resident learning and medical care quality, then work hour restrictions seem worthwhile. We add our voices to the critics' for additional reasons. Data support that fatigue occurs even with reasonable work schedules, and residents do not reliably use time off from work to rest. Regulated work schedules can interfere with adequate rehearsal of the physical and mental stamina required in certain specialties, yet patients have a right to expect their physicians to be trained in the particular demands of those specialties. Similarly, residents have a right to a realistic understanding of authentic clinical practice. Further, while self-sacrifice need not be routine, trainees should feel that occasional self-sacrifice is appropriate and acceptable for a physician. We reject uniform, arbitrary duty hour limits for all specialties. Rather, we propose that a subspecialty-based system can foster the development of the endurance, skills, and reasoning that patients and colleagues expect.

  4. Work hours, social value of leisure and globalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Molana, Hassan; Montagna, Catia


    to be increasing in the leisure time taken by other workers. Coordination takes the form of internalising the leisure externality and other relevant constraints (e.g., labour demand). The extent of openness is measured by the degree of capital mobility. We find that: coordination lowers equilibrium work hours...

  5. Work Hours, Social Value of Leisure and Globalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Montagna, Catia

    to be increasing in the leisure time taken by other workers. Coordination takes the form of internalising the leisure externality and other relevant constraints (e.g., labour demand). The extent of openness is measured by the degree of capital mobility. We find that: coordination lowers equilibrium work hours...

  6. 76 FR 5324 - Hours of Service of Drivers (United States)


    ... material to the FMCSA staff at the session for inclusion in the public docket, FMCSA- 2004-19608. The... driver goes beyond the 10th hour. 1a. For example, on days in which the driver both picks up and delivers...

  7. Demand power with EV charging schemes considering actual data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Hyeok Kim


    Full Text Available Eco-friendly energies have recently become a popular topic. Given this trend, we predict that a large number of electric vehicles (EVs will be widely used. However, EVs need to be connected to a power system for charging, thereby causing severe risks, such as rapid increase of demand power. Therefore, in this study, we analyze the effects of EV charging on demand power, which depend on different charging schemes, namely, dumb charging, off-peak charging, time-of-use (ToU price-based charging. For practical analysis, we conduct simulations by considering the actual power system and driving patterns in South Korea. Simulation results show that the ToU price-based charging scheme exhibits better performance in terms of demand power over the other charging schemes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Carolina Ovalles Pabon


    Full Text Available Este proyecto es producto de una reflexión crítica y estructurada por la inminente presencia en la cotidianidad de mecanismos tecnológicos que directa o indirectamente están presentes en los actos pedagógicos, surge la necesidad de entender la forma como está estructurando el pensamiento de los estudiantes y desde el accionar docente, cómo se puede beneficiar el accionar docente y pedagógico de ésta nueva tendencia que gira entorno a la tecnología que permite la conectividad; la educación no puede ser agena a las tendencias y actualizaciones del mundo, por esta razón se crea el paradigma de la educación actual en base al conectivismo.

  9. Actualizing Gadow's moral framework for nursing through research. (United States)

    Minicucci, Daryl Sharp; Schmitt, Madeline H; Dombeck, Mary T; Williams, Geoffrey C


    The purpose of this paper is to describe how Sally Gadow's perspectives on existential advocacy as the moral framework for the nurse-patient relationship were synthesized with a general theory of motivation, self-determination theory (SDT), to inform the design of a study in which the influence of interpersonal care on the process of tobacco dependence treatment was explored. Consistent with the tenets of existential advocacy, participants who perceived their care providers as interpersonally sensitive and bringing more of their whole selves to the care encounter reported more autonomous motivation and felt competence for stopping smoking. The integration of existential advocacy with SDT, which led to the empirical work in which Gadow's ideas were actualized and her model supported, is described. Study findings are discussed in light of Gadow's philosophical views, and implications for nursing highlighted.

  10. Bombas centrífugas como asistencia ventricular: estado actual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Morales Pérez


    Full Text Available Las bombas centrífugas se han mostrado sobradamente eficaces en nuestra rutina quirúrgica con un bajo nivel de complicaciones cuando las usamos en la cirugía cardíaca convencional. En este trabajo se expone su utilidad como dispositivos de asistencia mecánica ventricular. se analizan sus características, técnicas de implantación, manejo, indicaciones actuales y sus complicaciones desde un doble enfoque: físico-técnico y clínico-quirúrgico. se revisan los avances que estas bombas han experimentado desde su uso más temprano a finales de la década de 1980 hasta nuestros días, en los que las bombas centrífugas de levitación magnética se están incorporando a nuestro arsenal quirúrgico.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Prieto Sánchez


    Full Text Available El artículo tiene como objetivo analizar la importancia de la postventa en la mezcla de mercadeo actual. Para lograr este propósito, se utilizó el método de la interpretación de los significados de la información, se llama información a los “datos” recolectados a través de la investigación documental. Se consultaron autores como: Cancer (2005, Kotler (2005, Reyes (2005,Villar (1997, Walther (1997. Con el resultado de la aplicación de este método se procedió a presentar los aspectos relevantes de la investigación: necesidad de la postventa, atención al cliente, postventa como estrategia competitiva, para finalmente plantear un nuevo modelo de organización de postventa.

  12. Actual application of hot repairing technology to operating coke oven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtani, Susumu; Ito, Hidekuni; Numazawa, Makoto; Yamazaki, Takao; Narita, Yuji; Kondo, Toshio


    In Wakayama Steel Works, the coke ovens have been operating for 23 [approximately] 25 years, and many over-aged parts can be seen. However the investment for the construction of a new coke oven is so huge that the maximum prolongation of the existing coke ovens life becomes very important. In the Wakayama Steel Works, it is thought that the coking chamber repairing technology can be the key to that prolongation. While, repairing the coking chamber, the area near the wall head can be observed by the naked eye and repaired using conventional methods, such a welding repairment by metal oxidation heat, partial chamber wall brick re-laying in the hot stage. However, these repairing methods are limited to the area near the wall head, and successful repair methods for the central portion of chamber wall have not, heretofore, been found. In the Wakayama Steel Works, the development of a new welding repairing machine for the central portion of the chamber wall was started and the actual repairing machine has been completed with practical use tests on operating coke ovens. This repairing machine has the following characteristic; (1) Repair of the central portion of ovens under high temperature (over 1,000 C); (2) Capability to seal narrow cracks or open brick joints and to smooth out brick roughness into a flat surface; (3) High working efficiency (max. welding capacity [equals] 30K g/h); (4) Compact and fully automatic operation with a high level of man/machine control interface; and (5) No disturbance of coke oven operation and no cooling of the chamber wall. In this paper, the outline of the actual hot repairing machine and its application results in the Wakayama operating coke ovens are reported.

  13. Drone based estimation of actual evapotranspiration over different forest types (United States)

    Marzahn, Philip; Gampe, David; Castro, Saulo; Vega-Araya, Mauricio; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Ludwig, Ralf


    Actual evapotranspiration (Eta) plays an important role in surface-atmosphere interactions. Traditionally, Eta is measured by means of lysimeters, eddy-covariance systems or fiber optics, providing estimates which are spatially restricted to a footprint from a few square meters up to several hectares . In the past, several methods have been developed to derive Eta by means of multi-spectral remote sensing data using thermal and VIS/NIR satellite imagery of the land surface. As such approaches do have their justification on coarser scales, they do not provide Eta information on the fine resolution plant level over large areas which is mandatory for the detection of water stress or tree mortality. In this study, we present a comparison of a drone based assessment of Eta with eddy-covariance measurements over two different forest types - a deciduous forest in Alberta, Canada and a tropical dry forest in Costa Rica. Drone based estimates of Eta were calculated applying the Triangle-Method proposed by Jiang and Islam (1999). The Triangle-Method estimates actual evapotranspiration (Eta) by means of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and land surface temperature (LST) provided by two camera systems (MicaSense RedEdge, FLIR TAU2 640) flown simultaneously on an octocopter. . Results indicate a high transferability of the original approach from Jiang and Islam (1999) developed for coarse to medium resolution satellite imagery tothe high resolution drone data, leading to a deviation in Eta estimates of 10% compared to the eddy-covariance measurements. In addition, the spatial footprint of the eddy-covariance measurement can be detected with this approach, by showing the spatial heterogeneities of Eta due to the spatial distribution of different trees and understory vegetation.

  14. Actualization of Categories Linguonationalism and Linguopatriotism in Modern Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosmeda Tetiana


    Full Text Available Background: In modern linguistics E. Sepir’s-B. Warf’s theory of a language relativity attracts attention of many scientists, the essence of which some linguists negate as well as they don’t agree to a traditional system of the methodological bases of linguoculturology because this theory «approves» linguonationalism. Purpose: The purpose of the analysis is to illustrate the fact of implementation of the linguonationalism ideology concerning the Ukrainian language by the Russian Empire; the very fact is observed nowadays and the linguopatriotism of the Ukrainians is negated and disrespected by the Russian linguists. Results: Linguonationalism is the ideologization of the very language and a language as a means of a collective self-identification, as a realization of a certain language policy of totalitarian states and modelling of myths in different language forms (discourses. The status of the Ukrainian language, its functions, ontology in Ukraine is considered by modern Russian linguists untruthfully, certain facts are falsified. The system of O. Potebnya’s views represents the objective points of view on the actualized in this research notions of «linguonationalism» and «linguopatriotism». O. Potebnya singled out the task to keep to a reasonable linguopatriotism, which is mentioned in his quotation: «a gradual nationalism – is internationalism». O. Potebnya emphasizes that a nation can be understood only through its language. It is the language that gives the opportunity to see and to feel a nation’s seeing of the world. The scientist actualizes the problem of a modern culturology and the language must be considered as «a certain means of creation and thought refining». Discussion: Modern Ukrainian linguists must elaborate a certain perspective programme aimed at the explanation of the problem of linguonationalism and linguopatriotism.

  15. Self-actualization of junior high school students (2) : An analysis of the relationships among self-actualization of child, self-actualization of parents, and mutual cognition of parental rearing behavior


    Kosaka, Keiko; Yamazaki, Akira


    The purpose of the present study was to identify the relationships among self-actualization of junior high school students, self-actualization of their parents, and mutual cognition about parental rearing behavior. Self-actualization Scale and Parental Behavior Inventory (EICA) were administered to 83 junior high school students (44 males and 39 females) and their parents. EICA consists of four factors : Emotional support, Identification, Control, Autonomy. Results of factor analysis showed t...

  16. Controls on hourly variations in urban background air pollutant concentrations (United States)

    Moreno, Teresa; Lavín, Javier; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Viana, Mar; Gibbons, Wes

    Average 21st century concentrations of urban air pollutants linked to cardiorespiratory disease are not declining, and commonly exceed legal limits. Even below such limits, health effects are being observed and may be related to transient daytime peaks in pollutant concentrations. With this in mind, we analyse >52,000 hourly urban background readings of PM 10 and pollutant gases throughout 2007 at a European town with legal annual average concentrations of common pollutants, but with a documented air pollution-related cardiorespiratory health problem, and demonstrate the hourly variations in PM 10, SO 2, NO x, CO and O 3. Back-trajectory analysis was applied to track the arrival of exotic PM 10 intrusions, the main controls on air pollutants were identified, and the typical hourly pattern on ambient concentrations during 2007 was profiled. Emphasis was placed on "worst case" data (>90th percentile), when health effects are likely to be greatest. The data show marked daytime variations in pollutants result from rush-hour traffic-related pollution spikes, midday industrial SO 2 maxima, and afternoon O 3 peaks. African dust intrusions enhance PM 10 levels at whatever hour, whereas European PM incursions produce pronounced evening peaks due to their transport direction (across an industrial traffic corridor). Transient peak profiling moves us closer to the reality of personal outdoor exposure to inhalable pollutants in a given urban area. We argue that such an approach to monitoring data potentially offers more to air pollution health effect studies than using only 24 h or annual averages.

  17. Quality of after-hours primary care in the Netherlands: a narrative review. (United States)

    Giesen, Paul; Smits, Marleen; Huibers, Linda; Grol, Richard; Wensing, Michel


    Many Western countries are seeking an organizational model for after-hours primary care that is safe, efficient, and satisfactory for patients and health care professionals. Around the year 2000, Dutch primary care physicians (PCPs) reorganized their after-hours primary care and shifted from small rotation groups to large-scale PCP cooperatives. This article provides a narrative review of studies on a range of issues about after-hours primary care in the Netherlands, including experiences of health care professionals and patients, patient-safety incidents, adherence to practice guidelines, waiting times, and quality of telephone triage. Physicians expressed high satisfaction with PCP cooperatives; their workload decreased, and job satisfaction increased compared with the situation before the reorganization. In general, patients were also satisfied, but areas for improvement included telephone consultations, patient education, and distance to a pharmacy. A study identified patient-safety incidents in 2.4% of all contacts, of which most did not result in harm to patients. The average adherence to clinical guidelines by physicians was 77%, with lowest adherence scores for prescribing antibiotics and treatment in emergency cases. The average waiting time for home visits was 30 minutes. Seventy percent of patients with life-threatening problems were visited within the time target of 15 minutes. Telephone triage by nurses had positive effects on care efficiency by increasing the proportion of telephone consultations and decreasing the proportion of clinic consultations and home visits. The after-hours primary care system in the Netherlands might set an example for other countries struggling to find a good solution for the problems they encounter with after-hours primary care. Future developments in the Netherlands include integration and extensive collaboration with the accident and emergency departments of hospitals, in which PCPs take care of self-referring patients.

  18. Hours of television viewing and sleep duration in children: a multicenter birth cohort study. (United States)

    Marinelli, Marcella; Sunyer, Jordi; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Iñiguez, Carmen; Torrent, Maties; Vioque, Jesús; Turner, Michelle C; Julvez, Jordi


    This study used longitudinal data to examine potential associations between hours of television viewing and sleep duration in children. To examine the association between hours of television viewing and sleep duration in preschool and school-aged children. Longitudinal, multicenter study among birth cohorts in Menorca, Sabadell, and Valencia from the Spanish Infancia y Medio Ambiente (environment and childhood) project. The study sample included 1713 children (468 from Menorca, 560 from Sabadell, and 685 from Valencia). Parent-reported child television viewing duration measured in hours per day at 2 and 4 years of age in Sabadell and Valencia and at 6 and 9 years of age in Menorca. Parent-reported child sleep duration measured in hours per day at 2 and 4 years of age in Sabadell and Valencia and at 6 and 9 years of age in Menorca. In cross-sectional analysis, children with longer periods of television viewing reported at baseline (≥ 1.5 hours per day) had shorter sleep duration. Longitudinally, children with reported increases in television viewing duration over time (from television viewing duration as a continuous variable, with each 1 hour per day of increased viewing decreasing sleep duration at follow-up visits (β = -0.11; 95% CI, -0.18 to -0.05). Associations were similar when television viewing duration was assessed during weekends and after adjusting for potential intermediate factors (child executive function and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms) and confounders (child physical activity level, parental mental health status, maternal IQ, and maternal marital status). Children spending longer periods watching television had shorter sleep duration. Changes in television viewing duration were inversely associated with changes in sleep duration in longitudinal analysis. Parents should consider avoiding long periods of daily television exposure among preschool and school-aged children.

  19. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  20. Linguosemiotic Actualization of Agroengineering Signs in English and Russian Agricultural Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Aleksandrovna Sukhova


    Full Text Available Agro-discourse, or agricultural discourse, represents both a person-oriented and an institutional type of communication between the agricultural producers as participants in the agricultural sphere – one of the areas of production, processing and consumption of agricultural products (agronomy, crop production, horticulture, veterinary medicine, animal husbandry, mechanization and electrification of agriculture, land reclamation and irrigation of agricultural lands, environmental soil and water pollution, aqua and ichthiological culture. The cognitive model of this type of discourse organizes the entire aspect of agriculture as a semiotic formation comprising a significant part of human culture, and includes the appropriate chronotope, members (agents and customers – producers and consumers of agricultural products, tools, objects and conditions of cultivation, production, processing and consumption . Within the framework of this model we describe the linguosemiotic actualization of signs-pragmatonyms forming the system of concepts and nominations on agroindustrial themes in this discourse. The article describes the linguosemiotic actualization of one of the main types of signspragmatonyms – signs of agroengineering – in English and Russian agricultural discourse. These signs are qualified as signs-instrumentatives nominating the means of production and product operations (manipulations with real material objects for the purpose of their treatment or processing as the procedures of transformation to some agricultural products. The agroengineering signs-pragmatonyms, as one of the agricultural sectors, providing mechanized cultivation and processing of soil for sowing grain, harvesting, growing and harvesting of fruits and vegetables, as well as carrying out many other manipulations and operations with the help of technology, include the signs which gain linguosemiotic actualization in English and Russian agricultural discourse. First of

  1. The problem of self-actualization of student in order to obtain a guality education in the context of globalization and the information society: philosophical and educational perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Bezena


    Full Text Available The problems of self­actualization of a student in the secondary education. The maximum possible completeness and implementation process of positive aspects of personal fulfillment based on its physical and spiritual potential. The process of self­actualization is a system included into the socio­cultural and educational determination and this system is defined with benchmarks, goals and attitudes of the individual at school. The feature of the process of the student self­actualization that determine the effectiveness of schooling is the strength of personality traits such as the ability to communicate, orientation, types of the character accentuations, the temperament of a person; the ability of students to self­actualization on academic performance training for school discipline and a relationship between them. The concept of self­actualization simulates conditions for the correction of teaching methods and updating of general education at school. The theory of self­actualization is a key element of the system­humanistic direction of the individual in the process of getting a quality education. Motivational principles of learning and self­actualization begins laid in early child through family attitudes and actualization of the child to education, laying the foundations for further socialization in public life. The act of self­actualization ­ is a finite number of operations performed on the basis of the subject consciously set themselves goals and strategies to achieve them produced.

  2. Resident work hour restrictions do not improve patient safety in surgery: a critical appraisal based on 7 years of experience in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Businger Adrian P


    Full Text Available Abstract In 2005 the Swiss government implemented new work-hour limitations for all residency programs in Switzerland, including a 50-hour weekly limit. The reduction in the working hours of doctors in training implicate an increase in their rest time and suggest an amelioration of doctors' clinical performance and consequently in patients' outcomes and safety - which was not detectable in a preliminary study at a large referral center in Switzerland. It remains elusive why work-hour restrictions did not improve patient safety. We are well advised to thoroughly examine and eliminate the known adverse effects of reduced work-hours to improve our patients' safety.

  3. Life cycle management for equipments in nuclear plants based on reliability and actual conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalin, Wang; Jingquan, Liu; Peng, Liu


    Life cycle management model based on reliability includes two parts: obtaining failure rate function and founding cost-oriented model to solve. It is actually a single objective programming whose optimal solution is the most economical replacement period. Parameters of failure rate function are estimated by Weibull process fitting with the method of maximum likelihood. The objective function of the model is life-cost function where the dependent variable is replacement period T, with the constraints of failure rate or availability. After foundation of LCM model, we solve it to find the optimal replacement period for the equipments. (authors)

  4. Potential dividends and actual cash flows in equity valuation. A critical analysis1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Vélez-Pareja


    Full Text Available Practitioners and most academics in valuation include changes in liquid assets (potential dividends in the cash flows. This widespread and wrong practice is inconsistent with basic finance theory. We present economic, theoretical, and empirical arguments to support the thesis. Economic arguments underline that only flows of cash should be considered for valuation; theoretical arguments show how potential dividends lead to contradiction and to arbitrage losses. Empirical arguments, from recent studies, suggest that investors discount potential dividends with high discount rates, which means that changes in liquid assets are not value drivers. Hence, when valuing cash flows, we should consider only actual payments.

  5. Happiness and self-actualization under conditions of strain: a sample of homeless men. (United States)

    Sumerlin, J R; Bundrick, C M


    Maslow's contention that happiness includes striving and is more than a hedonistic construct was tested in a sample of 146 homeless men. Since all participants were homeless, environmental experiences can be considered as largely held constant, allowing an examination of personality and happiness under conditions of strain. Principal axis factor analysis with promax and oblique rotations placed scores from the measures Unhappy-Happy and the Brief Index of Self-actualization on the same factor which supported Maslow's idea. Humanistic-existential psychology has interest in the happiness construct particularly regarding the development of human potential.

  6. Malignant lymphomas (including myeloproliferative disorders)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, I.D.H.


    This chapter deals with the radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy of the malignant lymphomas. Included within this group are Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, mycosis fungoides, and chronic lymphatic leukaemia. A further section deals with the myeloproliferative disorders, including granulocytic leukaemia, polycythaemia vera, and primary thrombocythaemia. Excluded are myeloma and reticulum cell sarcoma of bone and acute leukaemia. With regard to Hodgkin's disease, the past 25 years have seen general recognition of the curative potential of radiotherapy, at least in the local stages, and, more recently, awareness of the ability to achieve long-term survival after combination chemotherapy in generalised or in recurrent disease. At the same time the importance of staging has become appreciated and the introduction of procedures such as lymphography, staging laparotomy, and computer tomography (CT) has enormously increased its reliability. Advances have not been so dramatic in the complex group of non-Hodgkins's lymphomas, but are still very real

  7. Actual car fleet emissions estimated from urban air quality measurements and street pollution models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmgren, F.; Berkowicz, R.; Hertel, O.; Ziv, A.


    A method to determine emissions from the actual car fleet under realistic driving conditions has been developed. The method is based on air quality measurements, traffic counts and inverse application of street air quality models. Many pollutants are of importance for assessing the adverse impact of the air pollution, e.g. NO 2 , CO, lead, VOCs and particulate matter. Aromatic VOCs are of special great concern due to their adverse health effects. Measurements of benzene, toluene and xylenes were carried out in central Copenhagen since 1994. Significant correlation was observed between VOCs and CO concentrations, indicating that the petrol engine vehicles are the major sources of VOC air pollution in central Copenhagen. Hourly mean concentrations of benzene were observed to reach values of up to 20 ppb, what is critically high according to the WHOs recommendations. Based on inverse model calculation of dispersion of pollutants in street canyons, an average emission factor of benzene for the fleet of petrol fuelled vehicles was estimated to be 0.38 g/km in 1994 and 0.11 in 1997. This decrease was caused by the reduction of benzene content in Danish petrol since summer 1995 and increasing percentage of cars equipped with three-way catalysts. The emission factors for benzene for diesel-fuelled vehicles were low

  8. Is after-hours orthopaedic surgery associated with adverse outcomes? A prospective comparative study. (United States)

    Ricci, William M; Gallagher, Bethany; Brandt, Angel; Schwappach, John; Tucker, Michael; Leighton, Ross


    Treatment of fractures is sometimes performed after normal daytime operating hours and in such instances may be performed under less than ideal conditions. The consequence of performing operations under such conditions is largely unknown and was therefore studied in the context of intramedullary nail fixation of tibial and femoral shaft fractures. Two hundred and three consecutive patients with either a femoral or tibial shaft fracture (Orthopaedic Trauma Association classification 32 or 42) treated with intramedullary nail fixation were included in a prospective, multicenter, nonrandomized study. Patients were divided into an after-hours group defined as an operation beginning from 4:00 P.M. to 6:00 A.M. or a daytime group defined as an operation beginning from 6:00 A.M. to 4:00 P.M. These groups were further divided on the basis of the injured bone into the following subgroups: after-hours femoral fracture (fifty-five patients), daytime femoral fracture (forty-four patients), after-hours tibial fracture (forty-eight patients), and daytime tibial fracture (fifty-six patients). The demographic and fracture characteristics were similar among the subgroups. All patients were treated with the same type of femoral antegrade, femoral retrograde, or tibial nail fixation with reaming. Data for fracture-healing, complications, operative time, and fluoroscopy time were collected prospectively. The healing rates were similar between daytime and after-hours surgery groups for both the tibial and femoral nailing. On the basis of univariate analysis, operative times were shorter in the after-hours group compared with the daytime group for both the tibial and femoral nail fixation groups (p tibial and femoral nail fixation (p > 0.05). The after-hours group had more unplanned reoperations than the daytime group (p fracture group (27%) than in the daytime femoral fracture group (3%) (p fracture hardware (p intramedullary nail fixation of both femoral and tibial fractures. After-hours

  9. Customer Strategies for Responding to Day-Ahead Market HourlyElectricity Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Chuck; Hopper, Nicole; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Neenan,Bernie; Boisvert, Dick; Cappers, Peter; Pratt, Donna; Butkins, Kim


    Real-time pricing (RTP) has been advocated as an economically efficient means to send price signals to customers to promote demand response (DR) (Borenstein 2002, Borenstein 2005, Ruff 2002). However, limited information exists that can be used to judge how effectively RTP actually induces DR, particularly in the context of restructured electricity markets. This report describes the second phase of a study of how large, non-residential customers' adapted to default-service day-ahead hourly pricing. The customers are located in upstate New York and served under Niagara Mohawk, A National Grid Company (NMPC)'s SC-3A rate class. The SC-3A tariff is a type of RTP that provides firm, day-ahead notice of hourly varying prices indexed to New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) day-ahead market prices. The study was funded by the California Energy Commission (CEC)'s PIER program through the Demand Response Research Center (DRRC). NMPC's is the first and longest-running default-service RTP tariff implemented in the context of retail competition. The mix of NMPC's large customers exposed to day-ahead hourly prices is roughly 30% industrial, 25% commercial and 45% institutional. They have faced periods of high prices during the study period (2000-2004), thereby providing an opportunity to assess their response to volatile hourly prices. The nature of the SC-3A default service attracted competitive retailers offering a wide array of pricing and hedging options, and customers could also participate in demand response programs implemented by NYISO. The first phase of this study examined SC-3A customers' satisfaction, hedging choices and price response through in-depth customer market research and a Constant Elasticity of Substitution (CES) demand model (Goldman et al. 2004). This second phase was undertaken to answer questions that remained unresolved and to quantify price response to a higher level of granularity. We accomplished these

  10. SEBAL-based Daily Actual Evapotranspiration Forecasting using Wavelets Decomposition Analysis and Multivariate Relevance Vector Machines (United States)

    Torres, A. F.


    Agricultural lands are sources of food and energy for population around the globe. These lands are vulnerable to the impacts of climate change including variations in rainfall regimes, weather patterns, and decreased availability of water for irrigation. In addition, it is not unusual that irrigated agriculture is forced to divert less water in order to make it available for other uses, e.g. human consumption and others. As part of implementation of better policies for water control and management, irrigation companies and water user associations have been implemented water conveyance and distribution monitoring systems along with soil moisture sensors networks in the last decades. These systems allow them to manage and distribute water among the users based on their requirements and water availability while collecting information about actual soil moisture conditions in representative crop fields. In spite of this, requested water deliveries by farmers/water users is based typically on total water share, traditions and past experience on irrigation, which in most cases do not correspond to the actual crop evapotranspiration, already affected by climate change. Therefore it is necessary to provide actual information about the crop water requirements to water users/managers, so they can better quantify the required vs. available water for the irrigation events along the irrigation season. To estimate the actual evapotranspiration in a spatial extent the Sensitivity Analysis of the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) algorithm has demonstrated its effectiveness using satellite or airborne data. Nonetheless the estimation is restricted to the day when the geospatial information was obtained. Without information of precise future daily water crop demand there is a continuous challenge for the implementation of better water distribution and management policies in the irrigation system. The purpose of this study is to investigate the plausibility of using

  11. Tutorial on Actual Space Environmental Hazards For Space Systems (Invited) (United States)

    Mazur, J. E.; Fennell, J. F.; Guild, T. B.; O'Brien, T. P.


    It has become common in the space science community to conduct research on diverse physical phenomena because they are thought to contribute to space weather. However, satellites contend with only three primary environmental hazards: single event effects, vehicle charging, and total dose, and not every physical phenomenon that occurs in space contributes in substantial ways to create these hazards. One consequence of the mismatch between actual threats and all-encompassing research is the often-described gap between research and operations; another is the creation of forecasts that provide no actionable information for design engineers or spacecraft operators. An example of the latter is the physics of magnetic field emergence on the Sun; the phenomenon is relevant to the formation and launch of coronal mass ejections and is also causally related to the solar energetic particles that may get accelerated in the interplanetary shock. Unfortunately for the research community, the engineering community mitigates the space weather threat (single-event effects from heavy ions above ~50 MeV/nucleon) with a worst-case specification of the environment and not with a prediction. Worst-case definition requires data mining of past events, while predictions involve large-scale systems science from the Sun to the Earth that is compelling for scientists and their funding agencies but not actionable for design or for most operations. Differing priorities among different space-faring organizations only compounds the confusion over what science research is relevant. Solar particle impacts to human crew arise mainly from the total ionizing dose from the solar protons, so the priority for prediction in the human spaceflight community is therefore much different than in the unmanned satellite community, while both communities refer to the fundamental phenomenon as space weather. Our goal in this paper is the presentation of a brief tutorial on the primary space environmental phenomena

  12. The Cinematic Bergson: From Virtual Image to Actual Gesture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ó Maoilearca


    Full Text Available Deleuze’s film-philosophy makes much of the notion of virtual images in Bergson’s Matter and Memory, but in doing so he transforms a psycho-meta-physical thesis into a (very unBergsonian ontological one. In this essay, we will offer a corrective by exploring Bergson’s own explanation of the image as an “attitude of the body”—something that projects an actual, corporeal, and postural approach, not only to cinema, but also to philosophy. Indeed, just as Renoir famously said that “a director makes only one movie in his life. Then he breaks it into pieces and makes it again,” so Bergson wrote that each philosopher only makes one “single point” throughout his or her whole career. And this one point, he then declares, is like a “vanishing image,” only one best understood as an attitude of the body. It is embodied image that underlies an alternative Bergsonian cinema of the actual and the body—one that we will examine through what Bergson’s has to say about “attitude” as well as “gesture” and “mime.” We will also look at it through a gestural concept enacted by a film, to be precise, the five remakes that comprise Lars von Trier’s and Jørgen Leth’s The Five Obstructions (2003. This will bring us back to the idea of what it is that is being remade, both by directors and philosophers, in Renoir’s “one film” and Bergson’s singular “vanishing image” respectively.  Is the “one” being remade an image understood as a representation, or is it a gesture, understood as a bodily movement? It is the latter stance that provides a wholly new and alternative view of Bergson’s philosophy of cinema.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Núñez Encabo


    Full Text Available La convergencia entre prensa, audiovisual, telecomunicaciones e Internet a través de la tecnología digital es el marco histórico en el que tiene que desarrollarse el periodismo hoy. En este complejo y nuevo panorama informativo actual, desde diversos soportes interconectados, sigue siendo, sin embargo, inmutable la exigencia del derecho constitucional y fundamental de los ciudadanos a recibir informaciones plurales, veraces y opiniones libres y éticas en todos los temas de interés general, respetando los derechos fundamentales de la persona -en el marco del art. 20 y Título I de nuestra Constitución- y la garantía, para ello, es que existan profesionales de la información con dos requisitos imprescindibles: (a Formación adecuada para la elaboración, interpretación y transmisión de los contenidos informativos a los ciudadanos a través de los medios de comunicación y (b compromiso público de asumir su responsabilidad deontológica. Sólo estos profesionales tienen el derecho de denominarse periodistas con las consecuencias de que sin periodistas no existe el periodismo y sin periodismo no tiene sentido la existencia de medios de comunicación -empresas informativas, tal como se entienden actualmente jurídica y socialmente, por lo que seguir denominando medios de comunicación- empresas informativas sin la existencia del ejercicio profesional del periodismo, sería un fraude a las garantías exigibles por los ciudadanos desde su derecho constitucional y fundamental a la información, desnaturalizando además la singularidad de las empresas informativas que de acuerdo con el Código de Deontológica del Periodismo del Consejo de Europa se deben considerar “como empresas especiales socioeconómicas cuyos objetivos empresariales deben quedar limitados por las condiciones que deben hacer posible la prestación de derechos fundamentales”. Con estas características, es imprescindible en el campo de la información la convivencia

  14. Drug prescriptions in Danish out-of-hours primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Bondo; Nørøxe, Karen Busk; Moth, Grete


    OBJECTIVE: General practitioners are the first point of contact in Danish out-of-hours (OOH) primary care. The large number of contacts implies that prescribing behaviour may have considerable impact on health-care expenditures and quality of care. The aim of this study was to examine the prevail......OBJECTIVE: General practitioners are the first point of contact in Danish out-of-hours (OOH) primary care. The large number of contacts implies that prescribing behaviour may have considerable impact on health-care expenditures and quality of care. The aim of this study was to examine...... data. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prescriptions were categorised according to Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification (ATC) codes and stratified for patient age, gender and contact type (telephone consultation, clinic consultation or home visit). Prescription rates were calculated as number...

  15. Estimation of clear sky hourly global solar radiation in Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jumaily, Kais J.; Al-Zuhairi, Munya F.; Mahdi, Zahraa S. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, College of Science, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad (Iraq)


    The availability of hourly solar radiation data is very important for applications utilizing solar energy and for climate and environmental aspects. The aim of this work is to use a simple model for estimating hourly global solar radiation under clear sky condition in Iraq. Calculations were compared with measurements obtained from local station in Baghdad city and from Meteosat satellite data for different locations in Iraq. The statistical test methods of the mean bias error (MBE), root mean square error (RMSE) and t-test were used to evaluate the performance of the model. Results indicated that a fairly good agreement exists between calculated and measured values for all locations in Iraq. Since the model is independent of any meteorological variable, it would be of a practical use for rural areas where no meteorological data are available.


    Galán González-Serna, J M; Morillo Martín, Ma Socorro; Lancharro Tavero, Immaculada; Calvo Cabrera, Isabel Ma; Sánchez Castilla, Ma José


    This article identifies the most significant elements of the process of nurse attention to the last days and hours of life in the context of a disease previously diagnosed like a terminal situation. For this object, we have reviewed the main clinical guidelines on comprehensive care and, especially, the guideline that was designed by the Saint John of God Hospital in Seville. We conclude that it is necessary to know how to identify the phase of agony to apply, therefore a default care plan that, allows to respond customized to the specific needs that occur in the last hours of the life of a terminal patient. A continued and coordinated interprofessional assistance to patient and family following standardized standards allows achieving a peaceful death and free from avoidable suffering.

  17. Sleepless vigilance: "Stonewall" Jackson and the duty hours controversy. (United States)

    Mackowiak, Philip A; Billings, Frederic T; Wasserman, Steven S


    Confederate general "Stonewall" Jackson has been called "one of the greatest military geniuses the world ever saw." However, on critical review of his command decisions during the course of 12 of the 20 battles he fought during the American Civil War, historians have rated his performance as poor. In this investigation, the authors examined the effect of sleep deprivation on Jackson's battle decisions in light of experimental data driving current calls for limiting the duty hours of physicians.

  18. Giorgio Vasari and the Image of the Hour (United States)

    Gahtan, M. W.


    Giorgio Vasari created the first allegories of the twenty-four hours in the mid-16th century. This essay explores Vasari's novel images in the context of his visual and literary sources, the rising importance of household timepieces, and the artist's other works and writings. Although a focused study of a single motif within Vasari's oeuvre, it has implications for the broader transformation time perception and its psychological dimensions then taking place in Early Modern Europe.

  19. Targeted Temperature Management for 48 vs 24 Hours and Neurologic Outcome After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Hans; Søreide, Eldar; de Haas, Inge


    Importance: International resuscitation guidelines recommend targeted temperature management (TTM) at 33°C to 36°C in unconscious patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest for at least 24 hours, but the optimal duration of TTM is uncertain. Objective: To determine whether TTM at 33°C for 48....... Secondary outcomes included 6-month mortality, including time to death, the occurrence of adverse events, and intensive care unit resource use. Results: In 355 patients who were randomized (mean age, 60 years; 295 [83%] men), 351 (99%) completed the trial. Of these patients, 69% (120/175) in the 48-hour......: In unconscious survivors from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest admitted to the ICU, targeted temperature management at 33°C for 48 hours did not significantly improve 6-month neurologic outcome compared with targeted temperature management at 33°C for 24 hours. However, the study may have had limited power...

  20. Bias caused by water adsorption in hourly PM measurements (United States)

    Kiss, Gyula; Imre, Kornélia; Molnár, Ágnes; Gelencsér, András


    Beta-attenuation monitors are used worldwide to monitor PM mass concentration with high temporal resolution. Hourly PM10 and PM2. 5 dry mass concentrations are publicly available with the tacit assumption that water is effectively removed prior to the measurement. However, as both the filter material of the monitor and the aerosol particles are capable of retaining a significant amount of water even at low relative humidities, the basic assumption may not be valid, resulting in significant bias in reported PM10 and PM2. 5 concentrations. Here we show that in PM10 measurement, particle-free air can produce apparent hourly average PM concentrations in the range of -13-+21 µg m-3 under conditions of fluctuating relative humidity. Positive and negative apparent readings are observed with increasing and decreasing relative humidities, respectively. Similar phenomena have been observed when the instrument filter was previously loaded with atmospheric aerosol. As a result the potential measurement biases in hourly readings arising from the interaction with water may be in the range of -53… + 69 %.

  1. Final Report. LAW Glass Formulation to Support AP-101 Actual Waste Testing, VSL-03R3470-2, Rev. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, I. S. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Pegg, I. L. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Rielley, Elizabeth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Carranza, Isidro [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Hight, Kenneth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Lai, Shan-Tao T. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Mooers, Cavin [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Bazemore, Gina [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Cecil, Richard [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Kruger, Albert A. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States)


    The main objective of the work was to develop and select a glass formulation for vitrification testing of the actual waste sample of LAW AP-101 at Battelle - Pacific Northwest Division (PNWD). Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses to demonstrate compliance with contract and processing requirements, evaluation of the ability to achieve waste loading requirements, testing to demonstrate compatibility of the glass melts with melter materials of construction, comparison of the properties of simulant and actual waste glasses, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  2. 24-hour central aortic systolic pressure and 24-hour central pulse pressure are related to diabetic complications in type 1 diabetes - a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilade, Simone; Lajer, Maria Stenkil; Hansen, Tine Willum


    BACKGROUND: Non-invasive measurements of 24 hour ambulatory central aortic systolic pressure (24 h-CASP) and central pulse pressure (24 h-CPP) are now feasible. We evaluate the relationship between 24 h central blood pressure and diabetes-related complications in patients with type 1 diabetes....... METHODS: The study was cross-sectional, including 715 subjects: 86 controls (C), 69 patients with short diabetes duration (treatment (SN), 211 with longstanding diabetes (≥ 10 years) and normoalbuminuria (LN), 163...... ± 13, 121 ± 13, 119 ± 16 and 121 ± 13 mmHg (p diabetes, albuminuria degree, previous...

  3. Water Uptake Performance of Hygroscopic Heat and Moisture Exchangers after 24-Hour Tracheostoma Application. (United States)

    van den Boer, Cindy; Vas Nunes, Jonathan H; Muller, Sara H; van der Noort, Vincent; van den Brekel, Michiel W M; Hilgers, Frans J M


    After total laryngectomy, patients suffer from pulmonary complaints due to the shortcut of the upper airways that results in decreased warming and humidification of inspired air. Laryngectomized patients are advised to use a heat and moisture exchanger (HME) to optimize the inspired air. According to manufacturers' guidelines, these medical devices should be replaced every 24 hours. The aim of this study is to determine whether HMEs still function after 24-hour tracheostoma application. Assessment of residual water uptake capacity of used HMEs by measuring the difference between wet and dry core weight. Tertiary comprehensive cancer center. Three hygroscopic HME types were tested after use by laryngectomized patients in long-term follow-up. Water uptake of 41 used devices (including 10 prematurely replaced devices) was compared with that of control (unused) devices of the same type and with a control device with a relatively low performance. After 24 hours, the mean water uptake of the 3 device types had decreased compared with that of the control devices. For only one type was this difference significant. None of the used HMEs had a water uptake lower than that of the low-performing control device. The water uptake capacity of hygroscopic HEMs is clinically acceptable although no longer optimal after 24-hour tracheostoma application. From a functional point of view, the guideline for daily device replacement is therefore justified. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  4. [The alternative method for albuminuria determination: second morning urine sample instead of 24-hour urine collection]. (United States)

    Barska, Iga; Mikołajczyk, Melania; Paradowski, Marek


    Urinary albumin excretion is an established risk factor for renal and cardiovascular events. Measurement of albumin in the urine daily collection is the gold standard in assessing albuminuria. The 24-hour urine collection is cumbersome procedure that generates a lot of mistakes, therefore other methods have been proposed. The aim of the study was to compare the assessment of albuminuria in the 24-hour urine collection and in the second morning urine sample as well as to determine UACR. The study included 32 patients, from whom the daily and the second morning urine samples were collected. In both samples, the albumin and creatinine concentrations were determined and the urinary albumin: creatinine ratio (UACR) was calculated. An excellent correlation between the UACR determined from the 24-hour urine collection and the other portion of the second morning sample was obtained within a wide range of albuminuria values (r = 0.9825). Furthermore, a better correlation between the same characteristics was obtained in urine of patients with normoalbuminuria when UACR did not exceed 30 mg/g creatinine (r = 0.9771). Above this value, the correlation was slightly lower for micro- and macroalbuminuria and equalled 0.9249 and 0.9332, respectively. On the basis of the obtained results it can be concluded that the second morning urine sample with the determination of UACR is a good alternative to the 24-hour urine collection and the first morning urine sample which are burdened with a preanalytical error.

  5. Frequent attenders in out-of-hours general practice care: attendance prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Peter; Olesen, Frede


    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe the use of out-of-hours service and analyse attendance prognosis for frequent attenders and other groups of attenders, and to present a concept describing frequent attendance over time. METHODS: All adult attenders in 1990 were included in a 4-year follow-up study....... Frequent attenders (FAs) were defined as those 10% among the attenders who most frequently used the out-of-hours service during a calendar year (12 months). This gave an intersection point of four or more contacts for frequent attenders. Three more groups were defined according to whether they had one, two......,321 individuals aged 18 years and over who contacted the out-of-hours service in 1990. Outcome measures were attendance per year, age and sex. RESULTS: FAs made 42% of the out-of-hours contacts in 1990, and 33% of those who were FAs in 1990 were also FAs in 1991. Among the 1990 FAs, 67% contacted the out...

  6. Morbidity in surgery: impact of the 50-hour work-week limitation in Switzerland. (United States)

    Kaderli, R; Businger, A; Oesch, A; Stefenelli, U; Laffer, U


    Work-hour regulations for residency programmes in Switzerland, including a 50-hour weekly limit, were set in on 1 January 2005. Patient safety was one of the major arguments for the implementation. As the effect of the restriction of residency work hours on patient care in Switzerland has not yet been evaluated on objective data, the aim of the present study was to assess its impact by comparing the patients' morbidity and mortality before (2001-2004) and after (2005-2008) the implementation. Retrospective analysis of records of the Spitalzentrum Biel AG, a large referral center classified according to the Swiss Medical Association, collected in the database of the Association for Quality Assurance in Surgery (AQC), a prospective database of consecutive patients undergoing surgical procedures in Switzerland. A selection of 2,686 patients with common surgeries, operated on by residents, was performed. There were 1,259 (46.9%) patients meeting our inclusion criteria who were admitted during the period before introduction of work-hour limitation and 1,427 (53.1%) patients after introduction. The in-hospital mortality and postoperative surgical complication rate were significantly higher after the reform (p limitation implemented in Switzerland was not associated with surgical patient safety measure improvement for common surgeries (i.e., morbidity and mortality rate). Further research on a nationwide basis is needed to assess the value of the higher surgical complication and mortality rate.

  7. Six- and three-hourly meteorological observations from 223 USSR stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razuvaev, V.N.; Apasova, E.B.; Martuganov, R.A. [All-Russian Research Inst. of Hydrometeorologicl Information, Obninsk (Russia). World Data Centre; Kaiser, D.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    This document describes a database containing 6- and 3-hourly meteorological observations from a 223-station network of the former Soviet Union. These data have been made available through cooperation between the two principal climate data centers of the United States and Russia: the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), in Asheville, North Carolina, and the All-Russian Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information -- World Data Centre (RIHMI-WDC) in Obninsk. Station records consist of 6- and 3-hourly observations of some 24 meteorological variables including temperature, weather type, precipitation amount, cloud amount and type, sea level pressure, relative humidity, and wind direction and speed. The 6-hourly observations extend from 1936 to 1965; the 3-hourly observations extend from 1966 through the mid-1980s (1983, 1984, 1985, or 1986; depending on the station). These data have undergone extensive quality assurance checks by RIHMI-WDC, NCDC, and the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). The database represents a wealth of meteorological information for a large and climatologically important portion of the earth`s land area, and should prove extremely useful for a wide variety of regional climate change studies. These data are available free of charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from CDIAC. The NDP consists of this document and 40 data files that are available via the Internet or on 8mm tape. The total size of the database is {approximately}2.6 gigabytes.

  8. Successful transplantation of porcine liver grafts following 48-hour normothermic preservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Vogel

    Full Text Available Current cold storage organ preservation technique fails to preserve marginal donor grafts sufficiently. Evidence from large animal experiments suggests superiority of normothermic machine preservation of liver allografts. Long-term organ preservation using normothermic perfusion might not only allow organ viability assessment before transplantation, but also provide the means for further organ modifications under physiologic conditions. Previous research has shown that porcine livers can be transplanted successfully after normothermic preservation of 20 hours. In the present study we investigate whether similar methodology is capable of further extending the safe limit to 48 hours. In this study, livers from White Landrace pigs were preserved by normothermic, oxygenated sanguineous perfusion. After a 48-hour period of preservation, livers were transplanted into recipient pigs and followed for 5 days. Outcome parameters measured included markers of synthetic and metabolic liver function as well as hepatocellular injury and blood gas analysis during perfusion and follow-up. Histological assessment of morphological liver integrity was performed. All livers showed sustained bile production and metabolic activity throughout the preservation period. Low levels of hepatocellular damage were found. Following transplantation all liver grafts revealed excellent graft function and death-censored graft survival was 100%. Porcine livers were transplanted successfully following 48 hours normothermic machine preservation.

  9. Is transferring an educational innovation actually a process of transformation? (United States)

    Varpio, Lara; Bell, Robert; Hollingworth, Gary; Jalali, Alireza; Haidet, Paul; Levine, Ruth; Regehr, Glenn


    Recent debates question the extent to which adopting an educational innovation requires compromise between the innovation's original design and the adoption site's context. Through compromises, the innovation's fundamental principles may be transferred, transformed, or abandoned. This paper analyzes such compromises during the piloting of Team-Based Learning (TBL). We ask: When is the process of transferring an innovation actually a process of transformation? This study is an autoethnography of our research team's implementation process. Autoethnographies are personalized accounts where authors draw on their own experiences to extend understanding of a particular topic. To conduct this autoethnography, we used an in-depth, interactive interview with the piloting clinician educator. In the analysis of TBL's fundamental principles, some aspects of the principles transferred easily, while others were transformed. Analysis raised concerns that the transformations threatened the foundational principles of TBL. While an educational innovation's techniques may seem to be surface structures, they are realizations of deeper fundamental principles. The fundamental principles are themselves realizations of the innovation's foundational philosophy. When techniques and/or principles are modified to a context, it is important to analyze if the modifications continue to uphold the innovation's philosophy.

  10. Prevención y tratamiento actual del glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. P. José Manuel Díaz


    Full Text Available El glaucoma es la principal causa de ceguera no reversible en el mundo, afectando al 2% de la población. Actualmente se considera una neuropatía óptica, donde la presión intraocular juega un rol fundamental en la patogenia y las características del daño óptico producido. Con el tratamiento actual, se busca prevenir el daño en la estructura del nervio óptico, para preservar el campo visual, persiguiendo mantener la calidad de vida del paciente. Existen nuevos métodos imaginológicos que junto al examen clínico y campo visual, predicen daño y avance de enfermedad. Se incluyen en la comprensión de la patología la apoptosis y el concepto de neuroprotección. Nuevos fármacos buscan mantener una adecuada reducción en la presión intraocular sin fluctuaciones, evitando efectos adversos y mejorando la adherencia al tratamiento. Nuevas herramientas terapéuticas como la trabeculoplastía selectiva láser y nuevas cirugías como el implante de tubos de drenaje, aumentan las posibilidades de evitar la ceguera por glaucoma.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente E. Caballo


    Full Text Available Los trastornos de personalidad representan hoy día una de las áreas de mayor desafío para la psicología científica. Aunque los principales sistemas de clasificación de la psicopatología (DSM-IV y CIE-10 les dedican un considerable espacio, son, quizás, unos de los grupos de síndromes más desconocidos a todos los niveles: epidemiología, etiología, evaluación, tratamiento, etc. En el breve trabajo que aquí presentamos intentamos describir brevemente diversos aspectos de uno de los trastornos de personalidad más representativos actualmente: el trastorno límite de la personalidad (TLP. A pesar de que este síndrome comparte con el resto de los trastornos de personalidad una escasez de conocimiento, es, probablemente, uno de los más investigados y sobre el que se han desarrollado una variedad de terapias cognitivo-conductuales. A lo largo de este trabajo planteamos también algunas de las controversias actuales más candentes y resaltamos la necesidad de una mayor y más sistematizada investigación sobre el TLP.

  12. Investigaciones actuales del empleo de Allium sativum en medicina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eslhey María Sánchez Dominguez


    Full Text Available Desde tiempos ancestrales el ajo Allium sativum ha sido utilizado por sus propiedades medicinales, ampliamente conocidas. Posee múltiples efectos beneficiosos; tales como: antimicrobiano, hipolipidémico, antitrombótico, actividad antitumoral, antihipertensivo, entre otras. Los compuestos sulfurados presentes en el mismo, principalmente alicina y ajoene, constituyen los principios activos responsables de las actividades biológicas referidas. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica empleando los recursos disponibles en la red Infomed, específicamente Ebsco, PubMed, Hinari y SciELO, a través de los cuales se accedieron a las bases de datos: Medline, Academic Search Premier, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews y MedicLatina, para revisar el estado actual de las investigaciones del ajo en medicina. Existen evidencias científicas que avalan su uso, comprobando los efectos antes referidos. En los últimos años predominan artículos que se centran en el estudio de diferentes formulaciones del ajo: extracto añejo, extracto acuoso, aceite, ajo crudo. En algunas de las referencias consultadas se reconocen limitaciones metodológicas en estas investigaciones. Es consenso que las diferentes formulaciones elaboradas a partir el ajo deben utilizarse como tratamiento complementario.

  13. Virtual reality as telemedicine tool: technology, ergonomics and actual applications. (United States)

    Riva, G; Gamberini, L


    This paper surveys the state of the art in telemedicine applications of virtual environments (VEs) and related technologies for health care. The possible use of VEs as telemedicine tool has attracted much interest in medicine. Actually this technology is commonly used in remote or augmented surgery, and surgical training, which are critically dependent upon eye-hand coordination. Recently, however, different researchers have tried to use VEs in anatomic learning and for the assessment and rehabilitation in neuro-psychology. To date, such applications have improved the quality of health care, and later they will lead to substantial cost savings. Tools that respond to the needs of present VE systems are being refined or developed. However, the possible use of VEs in telemedicine is not linked to the solution of technical problems only. In fact telemedicine is not simply a technology but a complex process whose successful exploitation needs significant attention to ergonomics, human factors and organizational changes in the structure of the relevant health service.

  14. Abnormal patterning analysis using actual lens and illumination source data (United States)

    Hong, Jongkyun; Lee, Jeonkyu; Kang, Eunsuk; Yang, Hyunjo; Yim, Donggyu; Guerrero, James; Chung, Rob


    As the minimum feature size shrinks down, i.e. low K1 lithography regime, the tool"s lens aberration sensitivity and user defined illumination imperfection might play a major role in patterning error. Thus, the study of impact from lens aberration and illumination on patterning is required for good tool maintenance and yield improvement. For this purpose, we collected many cases of abnormal patterning result from production line and then simulated in terms of actual lens aberration and illumination source data. LITEL products of ISI(In-situ Interferometer) and SMI(Source Metrology Interferometer) were used for characterizing lens and illumination source. Moreover, the ACE(Analysis and Characteristic Engine) of LITEL development product was used as the simulator. In this work, deformation of pattern fidelity, for example, CD asymmetry in word line and metal contact layer, pattern bending in isolation layer and also decreasing process window in bit line layer will be discussed with experimental and simulation data. Finally, we are able to make a guideline for preventing abnormal phenomenon. From this study, we can understand which lens aberration terms and illumination imperfection take an effect of abnormal pattering result.

  15. Actual Pathogen Detection: Sensors and Algorithms - a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Hahn


    Full Text Available Pathogens feed on fruits and vegetables causing great food losses or at least reduction of their shelf life. These pathogens can cause losses of the final product or in the farms were the products are grown, attacking leaves, stems and trees. This review analyses disease detection sensors and algorithms for both the farm and postharvest management of fruit and vegetable quality. Mango, avocado, apple, tomato, potato, citrus and grapes were selected as the fruits and vegetables for study due to their world-wide consumption. Disease warning systems for predicting pathogens and insects on farms during fruit and vegetable production are commonly used for all the crops and are available where meteorological stations are present. It can be seen that these disease risk systems are being slowly replaced by remote sensing monitoring in developed countries. Satellite images have reduced their temporal resolution, but are expensive and must become cheaper for their use world-wide. In the last 30 years, a lot of research has been carried out in non-destructive sensors for food quality. Actually, non-destructive technology has been applied for sorting high quality fruit which is desired by the consumer. The sensors require algorithms to work properly; the most used being discriminant analysis and training neural networks. New algorithms will be required due to the high quantity of data acquired and its processing, and for disease warning strategies for disease detection.

  16. Telecommunications in South Africa: Governance of who is actually regulating?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L-F Pau


    Full Text Available Although the Republic of South Africa telecommunications market is a maturing one with a large customer base to serve, it has been repeatedly been observed over the past few years that many good intentions were formulated in the regulatory sphere with sometimes poor outcomes and unclear governance. A number of surprising observations have been made on the outcomes, the delays or other process related events linked to regulatory measures. The paper thus researches first, from a governance point of view, who is actually regulating the telecommunications industry; it identifies next opportunities and bottlenecks whereby a change might happen to reach the expected outcomes. A political economy methodology is taken, backed up by extensive field work over 2010 and 2011, leading to a web of conjectures providing answers to the first question, based on an extensive analysis of key stakeholders goals, positions and interactions. Finally, a number of measures are proposed to improve the governance, regulatory impact and efficiency, and evolve the South African telecommunications eco-system.

  17. How to actualize potential: a bioecological approach to talent development. (United States)

    Ceci, Stephen J; Williams-Ceci, Sterling; Williams, Wendy M


    Bioecological theory posits three interacting principles to explain developmental outcomes such as fluctuating achievement levels and changing heritability coefficients. Here, we apply the theory to the domain of talent development, by reviewing short-term and long-term cognitive interventions. We argue that macro-level analyses of cultural practices (e.g., matrilineal inheritance and property ownership) and national systems of education are consistent with the bioecological theory; when the findings from these analyses are unpacked, the engines that drive them are so-called proximal processes. This finding has implications for the design and delivery of instruction and the development of talent. We argue that talent is fostered by the same three bioecological mechanisms that explain the actualization of genetic potential. We conclude by discussing several self-descriptions and personal narratives by gifted students in which they spontaneously refer to these bioecological mechanisms in their own talent-development processes. Similar testimonials have been documented by historic talent researchers such as Benjamin Bloom, noting the importance of continual adjustments in feedback. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Wancier


    Full Text Available En este trabajo se expone el debate actual sobre la teoría pura del dinero evaluando la validez de los resultados de dos clases de modelos neoclásicos -de generaciones traslapadas y de búsqueda- que intentan explicar el dinero a partir de la teoria del equilibrio general walrasiano. De otro lado se presenta una propuesta alternativa no neoclásica fundamentada en la concepción de la unidad de la circulación y la producción de Marx y en una visión institucional del dinero.This article presents the current debate on pure theory of the money, evaluating the validity of the results of two types of neoclassical models -overlapping generations and search-, which attempt to explain money departing from Walrasian general equilibrium theory. It also presents an alternative non-neoclassical proposal, based on Marx's conception of the unity between circulation and production and on an institutional vision of money

  19. Designed for wartime needs, but never actually issued

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Svetlana


    Full Text Available Seeking funds to finance the war against the Turks which it entered in July 1876, Serbia, ruled by Prince Milan Obrenović, passed the decision on issuing paper banknotes with no backing in precious metals. They were printed at the national printing house in Belgrade. About 1500 pieces of banknotes of the Main National Treasury of the Principality of Serbia were printed in different denominations: 1, 5, 10, 50, and 100 dinars. These banknotes were never actually in circulation, being the test prints only, used to check whether the machines and technology for their future printing were working properly. They are extremely rare and popular with collectors. The most interesting ones are the 1-dinar banknotes because they have no reverse side, the 5-dinar banknotes because they were painted by the poet and painter Đura Jakšić, and the 10-dinar ones because they feature the drawings of the painter Đorđe Krstić.

  20. Eyewitness identification in actual criminal cases: an archival analysis. (United States)

    Behrman, B W; Davey, S L


    This study analyzed 271 actual police cases in order to address several prevalent issues in the eyewitness literature. Suspect identification (SI) rates were obtained for 289 photographic lineups, 258 field showups, 58 live lineups, and 66 lineup identifications preceded by earlier identifications. SI rates were assessed for 3 levels of extrinsic evidence: no extrinsic evidence, evidence of minimal probative value, and evidence of substantial probative value. The SI rates for the photographic lineups were assessed as a function of delay, same vs. cross-race conditions, witness type, and weapon presence. SI rates declined significantly over time; SI rates were significantly greater for the same-race condition. SI rates were much greater for field showups than photographic lineups, 76% vs. 48%. The SI rates for the field showups did not vary as a function of eyewitness conditions. The relation between confidence and suspect/foil identifications for the live lineups was significant and moderately high. The utility of archival identification studies for eyewitness testimony research is discussed.

  1. Sustainability: Actuality and necessity in the construction sector in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevedo Agudelo, Harlem; Vasquez Hernandez, Alejandro; Ramirez Cardona, Diego Alejandro


    The construction industry, a part of being essential to achieve the society development, is also one of the main generators of solid waste and pollution, and it is also responsible for a great part of the landscape transformation and the energy usage. These are enough reasons for the industry not to be indifferent to the actual environmental problematic. This paper, which is intended for academic and professional community generally, presents a diagnosis about the current state of construction in Colombia regarding the environmental impact that it generates. To this end, it exposes the Colombian construction industry framed-related to its environmental impact, and documents, chronologically, the practices and strategies that have been used to reduce the negative impact on the environment throughout the time until nowadays. Finally, this document presents a survey result applied to a representative sample of constructive firms of the Valle de Aburra, Antioquia, where several aspects, regarding the concept of sustainable building and the environmental actions that the firm carries out, were inquired.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kaljun


    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: To develop high quality products, a designer has to consider various influential factors, one of which is ergonomics. And to fashion a specific product for the user, a designer needs expert knowledge of the user’s requirements. However, expert knowledge can also be accessed through an intelligent advisory system for ergonomic design support. The effectiveness of such an expert system depends mainly on the quality of the knowledge base and on the appropriateness of the system's inference engine. Data for the system’s knowledge base can be collected in different ways. One approach is to study relevant projects to collect appropriate ergonomic solutions; another is to recognise bottlenecks in ergonomic design. This paper presents a case study of the design of an actual chainsaw – with emphasis on ergonomic design solutions – that can be transformed into ergonomic design recommendations. At the end of the paper, an application of one of the derived recommendations within the knowledge base of the intelligent advisory system is presented.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: By die ontwerp van gehaltegoedere moet aandag gegee word aan verskeie faktore soos die Ergonomie. Die produkontwerper moet deeglike kennis dra van die verbruikersbehoeftes. Daarbenewens moet hy liefs ook gebruik maak van ’n intelligente sisteem vir ontwerphulp. Die navorsing is toegespits op datasteun vir ’n kettingsaagontwerp en toon hoe die intelligente sisteem betekenisvolle ondersteuning verleen.

  3. Relationship between self-actualization and self-reported health practices. (United States)

    Petosa, R A; Baum, R A; Cangemi, J P; Harryman, M E


    To compare the reported health practices of high self-actualizing individuals with those of low self-actualizing individuals, 453 students enrolled in personal hygiene classes at a large southern university completed the Personal Orientation Inventory, a measure of self-actualization. The fifty highest scorers were identified as the high self-actualizing group and the 50 lowest scorers were identified as the low self-actualizing group. The two groups were administered the Health Practices Inventory. The high self-actualizing group reported using better health practices.

  4. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of cantilever arms (12) contacting the surface of the test sample when performing the movement....... arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area...

  5. Assessment of the potential and actual risk of lyme disease agent transmission in the territory of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Milutin


    Full Text Available In the territory of Belgrade, at 16 sites (15 of test and one control, which belong to different enviromental categories such as: parks (Topcider, Hajd park, park Banovo brdo, Sumice, Usce, park-forests (Kosutnjak, Zvezdara, SP Jajinci, Banjica, Ada Ciganlija and forests (Avala, Lipovica, Bojcinska forest, Manastirska forest, Makis, there were investigated potential and actual risk of transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Suplja Stena was taken as a control site, where no chemical treatment was performed. Once of month, from March to October 2012, ticks were collected by flag-hours (drag-and-drop method. Ticks were determined by the species and all Ixodes ricinus were observed by a dark-field microscope. A total of 3,158 individual ticks were collected, out of which 2,797 (88,6% were Ixodes ricinus, 175 (5,5% Dermacentor reticulatus and 186 (5,9% Rhipicephalus sanguineus. At forest sites there were collected 1,102 Ixodes ricinus, in park-forest regions 730 and in the parks 569. Infection rate of ticks by B. burgdorferi sensu lato at the forest sites ranged between 23,8 and 36,3%, in the park-forests region 23,2-32,6% and 23,8 to 40% in the parks. Twelve of the sites met the criteria for high potential risk and three of them for moderate risk. Except for Makis, at all the forest sites, the actual risk from March to April was certain, and in other months the risk varied. In the park-forest regions, the actual risk was registered 16 times, the possible risk 23 times, and the limited riosk once. At the sites belonging to the park areas, cetrain actual risk was established 3 times, possible risk 30 times and the limited 7 times At the control site Suplja Stena, the actual risk of transmission of B. burgdorferi sensu lato was registered during all the months of the reaserch. At the teritory of Belgrade there are favorable conditions for maintaining vector Lyme disease and the potential and actual risk of transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi

  6. Duty hours as viewed through a professionalism lens. (United States)

    Ginsburg, Shiphra


    Understanding medical professionalism and its evaluation is essential to ensuring that physicians graduate with the requisite knowledge and skills in this domain. It is important to consider the context in which behaviours occur, along with tensions between competing values and the individual’s approach to resolving such conflicts. However, too much emphasis on behaviours can be misleading, as they may not reflect underlying attitudes or professionalism in general. The same behaviour can be viewed and evaluated quite differently, depending on the situation. These concepts are explored and illustrated in this paper in the context of duty hour regulations. The regulation of duty hours creates many conflicts that must be resolved, and yet their resolution is often hidden, especially when compliance with or violation of regulations carries significant consequences. This article challenges attending physicians and the medical education community to reflect on what we value in our trainees and the attributions we make regarding their behaviours. To fully support our trainees’ development as professionals, we must create opportunities to teach them the valuable skills they will need to achieve balance in their lives. [P]rofessionalism has no meaningful existence independent of the interactions that give it form and meaning. There is great folly in thinking otherwise. Hafferty and Levinson (2008)[1] Understanding and evaluating professionalism is essential to excellence in medical education and is mandated by organizations that oversee medical training [2]. Historically, attention has been focused largely on the professionalism of individual students or residents, at least for the purposes of evaluation. Yet there is now a growing appreciation that professionalism can be defined, understood, and evaluated from multiple perspectives [3]. Importantly, context has been recognized as critical to shaping trainees’ behaviours, and hence as important to our understanding of

  7. Disaggregation of Rainy Hours: Compared Performance of Various Models. (United States)

    Ben Haha, M.; Hingray, B.; Musy, A.

    In the urban environment, the response times of catchments are usually short. To de- sign or to diagnose waterworks in that context, it is necessary to describe rainfall events with a good time resolution: a 10mn time step is often necessary. Such in- formation is not always available. Rainfall disaggregation models have thus to be applied to produce from rough rainfall data that short time resolution information. The communication will present the performance obtained with several rainfall dis- aggregation models that allow for the disaggregation of rainy hours into six 10mn rainfall amounts. The ability of the models to reproduce some statistical character- istics of rainfall (mean, variance, overall distribution of 10mn-rainfall amounts; ex- treme values of maximal rainfall amounts over different durations) is evaluated thanks to different graphical and numerical criteria. The performance of simple models pre- sented in some scientific papers or developed in the Hydram laboratory as well as the performance of more sophisticated ones is compared with the performance of the basic constant disaggregation model. The compared models are either deterministic or stochastic; for some of them the disaggregation is based on scaling properties of rainfall. The compared models are in increasing complexity order: constant model, linear model (Ben Haha, 2001), Ormsbee Deterministic model (Ormsbee, 1989), Ar- tificial Neuronal Network based model (Burian et al. 2000), Hydram Stochastic 1 and Hydram Stochastic 2 (Ben Haha, 2001), Multiplicative Cascade based model (Olsson and Berndtsson, 1998), Ormsbee Stochastic model (Ormsbee, 1989). The 625 rainy hours used for that evaluation (with a hourly rainfall amount greater than 5mm) were extracted from the 21 years chronological rainfall series (10mn time step) observed at the Pully meteorological station, Switzerland. The models were also evaluated when applied to different rainfall classes depending on the season first and on the

  8. Time Actualization in Modern Female Fictional Discourse of Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzyubenko Anna Igorevna


    Full Text Available The article deals with the specifics that is found within the time paradigm construction in the framework of the present British fictional discourse created by the outstanding women-writers of today - S. Kinsella, C. Ahern and S. Townsend. The paper studies the ways the time reference is done taking into consideration both the general linguistic ways of time objectivization through such lexemes as «minute», «hour», «second», «day», «week», «year», «month» and through«morning», «night», «afternoon», «evening», «yesterday» «today»/«tonight», «tomorrow». The author comes to the conclusion that the components of the first presented row constitute the time sequence while the ones from the second row make up the phenomenon of time hierarchy. The analysis of the given discourse results in establishing the two-member time paradigm formed by present and future, whereas past component in such a paradigm performs the function of being the background retrospective one disclosing the cause- and-effect relations that become obvious singularly with the member of the time paradigm - present and past.

  9. El Fondo Monetario Internacional ante la crisis financiera actual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romualdo Bermejo y Rosana Garciandía


    Full Text Available La convulsión financiera iniciada en octubre de 2008 ha reavivado el debate político, social y doctrinal sobre las debilidades del sistema monetario y financiero internacional. Desde su consolidación institucional en la segunda post-guerra mundial, su legitimidad,eficiencia y justicia se han cuestionado constantemente. En estos últimos meses, su incapacidad para prever y evitar crisis como la actual se ha criticado especialmente. La crisis de la deuda de los años ochenta, el “tequilazo” mexicano de 1994 o la crisisasiática de finales de los años noventa ponen de manifiesto la existencia de elementos que dichas instituciones no han sido capaces de controlar. La cadena de infortunios financieros de los últimos meses lo corrobora y hace necesaria una profunda reflexión en términos económicos, jurídicos y también institucionales.El Fondo Monetario Internacional constituye, junto con el Banco Internacional de Reconstrucción y Fomento, el núcleo del sistema monetario y financiero internacional. Creado por los acuerdos de Bretton Woods en diciembre de 1945, el Fondo debía encargarse en su origen de favorecer la estabilidad financiera y el crecimiento económico de los Estados, poniendo a disposición de éstos sus recursos. Con el paso de los años, su cometido se ha ampliado abarcando cada vez más aspectos como la supervisión de las políticas económicas de los países miembros o la influencia en las políticas macroeconómicas nacionales. Esa extensión de sus facultades va unida, sin lugar a duda, a una creciente responsabilidad por el cumplimiento satisfactorio de su misión.Teniendo esto en cuenta, el actual debate sobre la necesidad de una nueva arquitectura financiera internacional debe ahondar en las fortalezas y debilidades del Fondo, por su papel fundamental en la misma. En este sentido, la reforma iniciada en 2005 bajo ladirección del español Rodrigo Rato se ha enfrentado a la evaluación más exigente: una crisis

  10. Beaked Whales Respond to Simulated and Actual Navy Sonar (United States)

    Tyack, Peter L.; Zimmer, Walter M. X.; Moretti, David; Southall, Brandon L.; Claridge, Diane E.; Durban, John W.; Clark, Christopher W.; D'Amico, Angela; DiMarzio, Nancy; Jarvis, Susan; McCarthy, Elena; Morrissey, Ronald; Ward, Jessica; Boyd, Ian L.


    Beaked whales have mass stranded during some naval sonar exercises, but the cause is unknown. They are difficult to sight but can reliably be detected by listening for echolocation clicks produced during deep foraging dives. Listening for these clicks, we documented Blainville's beaked whales, Mesoplodon densirostris, in a naval underwater range where sonars are in regular use near Andros Island, Bahamas. An array of bottom-mounted hydrophones can detect beaked whales when they click anywhere within the range. We used two complementary methods to investigate behavioral responses of beaked whales to sonar: an opportunistic approach that monitored whale responses to multi-day naval exercises involving tactical mid-frequency sonars, and an experimental approach using playbacks of simulated sonar and control sounds to whales tagged with a device that records sound, movement, and orientation. Here we show that in both exposure conditions beaked whales stopped echolocating during deep foraging dives and moved away. During actual sonar exercises, beaked whales were primarily detected near the periphery of the range, on average 16 km away from the sonar transmissions. Once the exercise stopped, beaked whales gradually filled in the center of the range over 2–3 days. A satellite tagged whale moved outside the range during an exercise, returning over 2–3 days post-exercise. The experimental approach used tags to measure acoustic exposure and behavioral reactions of beaked whales to one controlled exposure each of simulated military sonar, killer whale calls, and band-limited noise. The beaked whales reacted to these three sound playbacks at sound pressure levels below 142 dB re 1 µPa by stopping echolocation followed by unusually long and slow ascents from their foraging dives. The combined results indicate similar disruption of foraging behavior and avoidance by beaked whales in the two different contexts, at exposures well below those used by regulators to define

  11. [The actual questions of the care of rare diseases]. (United States)

    Pogány, Gábor


    The aim was to present the actual situation of rare diseases, especially to characterize the circumstances in Hungary. The most important developments were summarized which could help the care of rare disease patients in the everyday practice. There are around 800 000 patients with rare diseases in Hungary. The lack of information leads to "invisibility" for the health and social care system (most of them without ICD code). Therefore, these patients still have a huge disadvantage even when compared to the patients of common diseases. Important national and international measures took place in the last years to decrease these disadvantages. The Hungarian Centres of Expertise were officially approved, thus several health care providers were able to get membership in the forming European Reference Networks. The rare disease specific "Lifebelt" Information Centre and Help Line was established by HUFERDIS. These steps assist the implementation of the National Rare Disease Plan, although its formal approval process has temporarily stopped because of the reorganization of the health care system. The summarized developments can contribute to define better patient directions, and thus decrease the family knocks about the maze of health, social and educational systems. The realization of Rare Disease National Strategy is needed to improve the current fragmentation of services and enable patients and health, social and educational professionals to provide and use best practice care. This will ensure that all patients with rare disease cannot only be diagnosed quickly, but also have timely access to the care and support that they need, resulting in a decreasing burden of families and society. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(47): 1851-1856.

  12. Beaked whales respond to simulated and actual navy sonar. (United States)

    Tyack, Peter L; Zimmer, Walter M X; Moretti, David; Southall, Brandon L; Claridge, Diane E; Durban, John W; Clark, Christopher W; D'Amico, Angela; DiMarzio, Nancy; Jarvis, Susan; McCarthy, Elena; Morrissey, Ronald; Ward, Jessica; Boyd, Ian L


    Beaked whales have mass stranded during some naval sonar exercises, but the cause is unknown. They are difficult to sight but can reliably be detected by listening for echolocation clicks produced during deep foraging dives. Listening for these clicks, we documented Blainville's beaked whales, Mesoplodon densirostris, in a naval underwater range where sonars are in regular use near Andros Island, Bahamas. An array of bottom-mounted hydrophones can detect beaked whales when they click anywhere within the range. We used two complementary methods to investigate behavioral responses of beaked whales to sonar: an opportunistic approach that monitored whale responses to multi-day naval exercises involving tactical mid-frequency sonars, and an experimental approach using playbacks of simulated sonar and control sounds to whales tagged with a device that records sound, movement, and orientation. Here we show that in both exposure conditions beaked whales stopped echolocating during deep foraging dives and moved away. During actual sonar exercises, beaked whales were primarily detected near the periphery of the range, on average 16 km away from the sonar transmissions. Once the exercise stopped, beaked whales gradually filled in the center of the range over 2-3 days. A satellite tagged whale moved outside the range during an exercise, returning over 2-3 days post-exercise. The experimental approach used tags to measure acoustic exposure and behavioral reactions of beaked whales to one controlled exposure each of simulated military sonar, killer whale calls, and band-limited noise. The beaked whales reacted to these three sound playbacks at sound pressure levels below 142 dB re 1 µPa by stopping echolocation followed by unusually long and slow ascents from their foraging dives. The combined results indicate similar disruption of foraging behavior and avoidance by beaked whales in the two different contexts, at exposures well below those used by regulators to define

  13. Beaked whales respond to simulated and actual navy sonar.

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    Peter L Tyack

    Full Text Available Beaked whales have mass stranded during some naval sonar exercises, but the cause is unknown. They are difficult to sight but can reliably be detected by listening for echolocation clicks produced during deep foraging dives. Listening for these clicks, we documented Blainville's beaked whales, Mesoplodon densirostris, in a naval underwater range where sonars are in regular use near Andros Island, Bahamas. An array of bottom-mounted hydrophones can detect beaked whales when they click anywhere within the range. We used two complementary methods to investigate behavioral responses of beaked whales to sonar: an opportunistic approach that monitored whale responses to multi-day naval exercises involving tactical mid-frequency sonars, and an experimental approach using playbacks of simulated sonar and control sounds to whales tagged with a device that records sound, movement, and orientation. Here we show that in both exposure conditions beaked whales stopped echolocating during deep foraging dives and moved away. During actual sonar exercises, beaked whales were primarily detected near the periphery of the range, on average 16 km away from the sonar transmissions. Once the exercise stopped, beaked whales gradually filled in the center of the range over 2-3 days. A satellite tagged whale moved outside the range during an exercise, returning over 2-3 days post-exercise. The experimental approach used tags to measure acoustic exposure and behavioral reactions of beaked whales to one controlled exposure each of simulated military sonar, killer whale calls, and band-limited noise. The beaked whales reacted to these three sound playbacks at sound pressure levels below 142 dB re 1 µPa by stopping echolocation followed by unusually long and slow ascents from their foraging dives. The combined results indicate similar disruption of foraging behavior and avoidance by beaked whales in the two different contexts, at exposures well below those used by

  14. Hipótesis actuales relacionadas con la sensibilidad dentinal

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    Andrés Pérez Ruiz


    Full Text Available Se hace una revisión sobre las hipótesis actuales concernientes a la sensibilidad dentinal, centrando el análisis en las teorías acerca de la presencia de nervios en la dentina, la transmisión del impulso nervioso mediante el odontoblasto y el movimiento de fluidos dentro de la dentina. Por ser la explicación de la sensibilidad de la dentina uno de los más complejos problemas de la fisiología y la histología del diente, se exponen los hechos morfológicos y funcionales que apoyan la validez de los mecanismos mencionados. Se concluye que aunque la teoría hidrodinámica tiene una sólida base experimental y es la de mayor aceptación en la actualidad, pudieran estar involucrados en la génesis del dolor dentinal más de una de estas explicaciones probables.A review of the present hypotheses of dentinal sensitivity was carried out. The analysis was centered on the theories of the existance of nerves in dentin, the transfer of nervous impulse through odontoblast and the fluid flow in the dentin. Since the explanation of dentin sensitivity is one of the most complex problems of dental physiology and histology; the morphological and functional aspects that support the validity of the mentioned mechanisms are stated. It is concluded that although the hydrodynamic theory has a sound experimental basis and is widely accepted at present, more than one of these likely theories could be involved in the genesis of dentinal pain.

  15. Accessing out-of-hours care following implementation of the GMS contract: an observational study. (United States)

    Richards, Suzanne H; Winder, Rachel; Seamark, David; Seamark, Clare; Ewings, Paul; Barwick, Angela; Gilbert, James; Avery, Sarah; Human, Sarah; Campbell, John L


    There is widespread concern that the quality of out-of-hours primary care for patients with complex needs may be at risk now that the new general medical services contract (GMS) has been implemented. To explore changes in the use of out-of-hours services around the time of implementation of the new contract for patients with complex needs, using patients with cancer as an example. Longitudinal observational study. Out-of-hours primary care provider covering Devon (adult population 900,000), UK. Two, 1-year periods corresponding to pre- (April 2003 to March 2004) and post-contract implementation (October 2004 to September 2005) were sampled. Call rates per 1000 of the adult population (age>or=16 years) were calculated for all calls (any cause) and cancer-related calls. Anonymised outcome and process measures data were extracted. Although overall call rates per 1000 population had increased by 26% (185 pre-contract to 233 post-contract), the proportion of cancer-related calls remained relatively constant (2.08% versus 1.96%). Around half (56%) of these callers had advanced cancer needs (including palliative care). By post-contract, the time taken to triage had significantly increased (Pcontract. While potential quality indicators (for example, hospital admissions, home visiting rates) remained constant, potentially adverse changes to triage time and communication between out-of-hours and in-hours clinicians were observed. Quality standards and provider databases require further refinement to capture elements of care relevant to patients with complex needs.

  16. Predicting success of methotrexate treatment by pretreatment HCG level and 24-hour HCG increment. (United States)

    Levin, Gabriel; Saleh, Narjes A; Haj-Yahya, Rani; Matan, Liat S; Avi, Benshushan


    To evaluate β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG) level and its 24-hour increment as predictors of successful methotrexate treatment for ectopic pregnancy. Data were retrospectively reviewed from women with ectopic pregnancy who were treated by single-dose methotrexate (50 mg/m 2 ) at a university hospital in Jerusalem, Israel, between January 1, 2000, and June 30, 2015. Serum β-HCG before treatment and its percentage increment in the 24 hours before treatment were compared between treatment success and failure groups. Sixty-nine women were included in the study. Single-dose methotrexate treatment was successful for 44 (63.8%) women. Both mean β-HCG level and its 24-hour increment were lower for women with successful treatment than for those with failed treatment (respectively, 1224 IU\\L vs 2362 IU\\L, P=0.018; and 13.5% vs 29.6%, P=0.009). Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis yielded cutoff values of 1600 IU\\L and 14% increment with a positive predictive value of 75% and 82%, respectively, for treatment success. β-HCG level and its 24-hour increment were independent predictors of treatment outcome by logistic regression (both PHCG increment of less than 14% in the 24 hours before single-dose methotrexate and serum β-HCG of less than 1600 IU\\L were found to be good predictors of treatment success. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  17. Fatigue in Residency Education: Understanding the Influence of Work Hours Regulations in Europe. (United States)

    Taylor, Taryn S; Teunissen, Pim W; Dornan, Tim; Lingard, Lorelei


    Although one proposed solution to the problem of fatigued medical trainees is the implementation of work hours regulations, concerns about the effectiveness of these regulations are growing. Canada remains one of the few Western jurisdictions without legislated regulation. Recent research suggests that fatigue is a complex social construct, rather than simply a lack of sleep; thus, the authors explored how regulations and fatigue are understood in countries with established work hours frameworks to better inform other jurisdictions looking to address trainee fatigue. Using constructivist grounded theory methodology, the authors conducted individual, semistructured interviews in 2015-2016 with 13 postgraduate medical trainees from four European countries with established work hours regulations. Data collection and analysis proceeded iteratively, and the authors used a constant comparative approach to analysis. Trainees reported that they were commonly fatigued and that they violated the work hours restrictions for various reasons, including educational pursuits. Although they understood the regulations were legislated specifically to ensure safe patient care and optimize trainee well-being, they also described implicit meanings (e.g., monitoring for trainee efficiency) and unintended consequences (e.g., losing a sense of vocation). Work hours regulations carry multiple, conflicting meanings for trainees that are captured by three predominant rhetorics: the rhetoric of patient safety, of well-being, and of efficiency. Tensions within each of those rhetorics reveal that managing fatigue within clinical training environments is complex. These findings suggest that straightforward solutions are unlikely to solve the problem of fatigue, assure patient safety, and improve trainee well-being.

  18. Impact of Different Normality Thresholds for 24-hour ABPM at the Primary Health Care Level

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    Guilherme Brasil Grezzana

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular outcomes. Primary health care (PHC physicians should be prepared to act appropriately in the prevention of cardiovascular risk factors. However, the rates of patients with control of blood pressure (BP remain low. The impact of the reclassification of high BP by 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM can lead to different medical decisions in PHC. Objective: To evaluate the agreement between the BP measured by a conventional method by PHC physicians and by 24-hour ABPM, considering different BP normal thresholds for the 24-hour ABPM according to the V Brazilian ABPM Guidelines and the European Society of Hypertension Guidelines. Methods: A cross-sectional study including 569 hypertensive patients. The BP was initially measured by the PHC physicians and, later, by 24-hour ABPM. The BP measurements were obtained independently between the two methods. The therapeutic targets for the conventional BP followed the guidelines by the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8, the V ABPM Brazilian Guidelines, and the 2013 European Hypertension Guidelines. Results: There was an accuracy of 54.8% (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.51 - 0.58% for the BP measured with the conventional method when compared with the 24-hour ABPM, with a sensitivity of 85% (95%CI 80.8 - 88.6%, specificity of 31.9% (95%CI 28.7 - 34.7%, and kappa value of 0.155, when considering the European Hypertension Guidelines. When using more stringent thresholds to characterize the BP as "normal" by ABPM, the accuracy was 45% (95%CI 0.41 - 0.47% for conventional measurement when compared with 24-hour ABPM, with a sensitivity of 86.7% (95%CI 0.81 - 0.91%, specificity of 29% (95%CI 0.26 - 0.30%, and kappa value of 0.103. Conclusion: The BP measurements obtained by PHC physicians showed low accuracy when compared with those obtained by 24-hour ABPM, regardless of the threshold set by the different guidelines.

  19. The association of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to salt with 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. (United States)

    Land, Mary-Anne; Webster, Jacqui; Christoforou, Anthea; Johnson, Claire; Trevena, Helen; Hodgins, Frances; Chalmers, John; Woodward, Mark; Barzi, Federica; Smith, Wayne; Flood, Victoria; Jeffery, Paul; Nowson, Caryl; Neal, Bruce


    Salt reduction efforts usually have a strong focus on consumer education. Understanding the association between salt consumption levels and knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards salt should provide insight into the likely effectiveness of education-based programs. A single 24-hour urine sample and a questionnaire describing knowledge, attitudes and behaviours was obtained from 306 randomly selected participants and 113 volunteers from a regional town in Australia. Mean age of all participants was 55 years (range 20-88), 55% were women and mean 24-hour urinary salt excretion was 8.8(3.6) g/d. There was no difference in salt excretion between the randomly selected and volunteer sample. Virtually all participants (95%) identified that a diet high in salt can cause serious health problems with the majority of participants (81%) linking a high salt diet to raised blood pressure. There was no difference in salt excretion between those who did 8.7(2.1) g/d and did not 7.5(3.3) g/d identify that a diet high in salt causes high blood pressure (p=0.1). Nor was there a difference between individuals who believed they consumed "too much" 8.9(3.3) g/d "just the right amount" 8.4(2.6) g/d or "too little salt" 9.1(3.7) g/d (p=0.2). Likewise, individuals who indicated that lowering their salt intake was important 8.5(2.9) g/d vs. not important 8.8(2.4) g/d did not have different consumption levels (p=0.4). The absence of a clear association between knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards salt and actual salt consumption suggests that interventions focused on knowledge, attitudes and behaviours alone may be of limited efficacy.

  20. Impact of 6-Hour Sepsis Resuscitation Bundle Compliance on Hospital Mortality in a Saudi Hospital

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    Javed I. Memon


    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the effect of improved compliance with 6-hour sepsis resuscitation bundle on mortality in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Materials and Methods. A quasi-experimental prospective study was conducted at a 10-bedded combined medical and surgical intensive care unit. The historical group included all consecutive patients with severe sepsis and septic shock admitted from January 2008 to March 2009. Intervention included evidence-based written sepsis pathway, antibiotic recommendations, and an educational program.The post-intervention group included all consecutive patients admitted from July 2009 to June 2011. The primary outcome measures were the overall compliance to seven 6-hour sepsis resuscitation bundle elements and 30-day hospital mortality. There were 99 patients in the historical group and 199 in the post-intervention group. Results. The baseline patients' characteristics were similar. Overall compliance to all seven sepsis resuscitation bundle elements in historical group was 5.1% [95% confidence interval (CI, 2.1–11.3] which improved after intervention to 23.6% (95% CI, 17.9–30.1; . The overall compliance to 6-hour sepsis resuscitation bundle elements was associated with improved survival [odds ratio (OR, 5.8 (95% CI, 2.2–15.1; ]. 30-day hospital mortality reduced from 31.3% in the historical group to 21.1% in the intervention group; . Conclusion. Improvement in compliance to 6-hour sepsis resuscitation bundle was associated with a reduction in 30-day hospital mortality.