WorldWideScience

Sample records for include active imaging

  1. Optimage central organised image quality control including statistics and reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnen, A.; Schilz, C.; Shannoun, F.; Schreiner, A.; Hermen, J.; Moll, C.

    2008-01-01

    Quality control of medical imaging systems is performed using dedicated phantoms. As the imaging systems are more and more digital, adequate image processing methods might help to save evaluation time and to receive objective results. The developed software package OPTIMAGE is focusing on this with a central approach: On one hand, OPTIMAGE provides a framework, which includes functions like database integration, DICOM data sources, multilingual user interface and image processing functionality. On the other hand, the test methods are implemented using modules which are able to process the images automatically for the common imaging systems. The integration of statistics and reporting into this environment is paramount: This is the only way to provide these functions in an interactive, user-friendly way. These features enable the users to discover degradation in performance quickly and document performed measurements easily. (authors)

  2. Developing standard transmission system for radiology reporting including key images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seon Chil

    2007-01-01

    Development of hospital information system and Picture Archiving Communication System is not new in the medical field, and the development of internet and information technology are also universal. In the course of such development, however, it is hard to share medical information without a refined standard format. Especially in the department of radiology, the role of PACS has become very important in interchanging information with other disparate hospital information systems. A specific system needs to be developed that radiological reports are archived into a database efficiently. This includes sharing of medical images. A model is suggested in this study in which an internal system is developed where radiologists store necessary images and transmit them is the standard international clinical format, Clinical Document Architecture, and share the information with hospitals. CDA document generator was made to generate a new file format and separate the existing storage system from the new system. This was to ensure the access to required data in XML documents. The model presented in this study added a process where crucial images in reading are inserted in the CDA radiological report generator. Therefore, this study suggests a storage and transmission model for CDA documents, which is different from the existing DICOM SR. Radiological reports could be better shared, when the application function for inserting images and the analysis of standard clinical terms are completed

  3. Techniques for depth-resolved imaging through turbid media including coherence-gated imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunsby, C; French, P M W

    2003-01-01

    This article aims to review the panoply of techniques for realising optical imaging through turbid media such as biological tissue. It begins by briefly discussing optical scattering and outlines the various approaches that have been developed to image through scattering media including spatial filtering, time-gated imaging and coherence-based techniques. The discussion includes scanning and wide-field techniques and concentrates on techniques to discriminate in favour of unscattered ballistic light although imaging with scattered light is briefly reviewed. Wide-field coherence-gated imaging techniques are discussed in some detail with particular emphasis placed on techniques to achieve real-time high-resolution three-dimensional imaging including through turbid media, providing rapid whole-field acquisition and high depth and transverse spatial resolution images. (topical review)

  4. Can We Include The Third Dimension During Image Mining?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Retrieved images using only photometric features · Use of X-ratio · Results for a different query · Retrieval results with geometric and photometric features · Rail track retrieval · Recall and Precision · Retrieval Performance · Application II: Search Arts and Sports Photography · Examples of low DOF images · Typical Retrieval.

  5. Multiple imaging procedures including MRI for the bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikata, Noriharu; Suzuki, Makoto; Takeuchi, Takumi; Kunisawa, Yositaka; Fukutani, Keiko; Kawabe, Kazuki

    1986-01-01

    Endoscopic photography, double contrast cystography, transurethral echography, X-ray CT scan, and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) were utilized for the staging diagnosis of the four patients with carcinoma of the bladder. In the first case, a 70-year-old man, since all of the five imaging procedures suggested a superficial and pedunculated tumor, his bladder cancer was considered T1. The classification of stage T3 carcinoma was made for the second 86-year-old male. Because all of his imaging examinations showed a tumor infiltrating deep muscle and penetrating the bladder wall. The third case was a 36-year-old male. His clinical stage was diagnosed as T2 or T3a by cystophotography, double contrast cystogram, ultrasonography, and X-ray CT scan. However, MRI showed only thickened bladder wall and the infiltrating tumor could not be distinguished from the hypertrophic wall. The last patient, a 85-year-old female, had a smaller Ta cancer. Her double contrast cystography revealed the small tumor at the lateral bladder wall. But, the tumor could not be detected by transaxial, sagittal and coronal scans. Multiple imaging procedures combining MRI and staging diagnosis of the bladder carcinoma were discussed. (author)

  6. Imaging of Stellar Surfacess Using Radio Facilities Including ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Eamon

    2018-04-01

    Until very recently, studies focusing on imaging stars at continuum radio wavelengths (here defined as submillimeter, millimeter, and centimeter wavelengths) has been scarce. These studies have mainly been carried out with the Very Large Array on a handful of evolved stars (i.e., Asymptotic Giant Branch and Red Supergiant stars) whereby their stellar disks have just about been spatially resolved. Some of these results however, have challenged our historical views on the nature of evolved star atmospheres. Now, the very long baselines of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array and the newly upgraded Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array provide a new opportunity to image these atmospheres at unprecedented spatial resolution and sensitivity across a much wider portion of the radio spectrum. In this talk I will first provide a history of stellar radio imaging and then discuss some recent exciting ALMA results. Finally I will present some brand new multi-wavelength ALMA and VLA results for the famous red supergiant Antares.

  7. Pediatric littoral cell angioma of the spleen: multimodality imaging including diffusion-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertan, Gulhan; Tekes, Aylin; Huisman, Thierry A.G.M. [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Mitchell, Sally [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore (United States); Keefer, Jeffrey [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Pediatric Hematology, Department of Pediatrics, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Littoral cell angioma (LCA) is a rare primary splenic vascular tumor originating from littoral cells lining the splenic red pulp sinuses. LCAs are rarely seen in children. We present the US, CT, and MRI findings including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in a 2-year-old boy with histologically proven LCA. Previous studies on liver lesions have shown that DWI allows differentiation of vascular tumors from primary neoplasms and metastatic disease. The current case indicates that increased ADC values within the splenic lesions suggest a vascular etiology, which might help narrow the differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  8. Pediatric littoral cell angioma of the spleen: multimodality imaging including diffusion-weighted imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertan, Gulhan; Tekes, Aylin; Huisman, Thierry A.G.M.; Mitchell, Sally; Keefer, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Littoral cell angioma (LCA) is a rare primary splenic vascular tumor originating from littoral cells lining the splenic red pulp sinuses. LCAs are rarely seen in children. We present the US, CT, and MRI findings including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in a 2-year-old boy with histologically proven LCA. Previous studies on liver lesions have shown that DWI allows differentiation of vascular tumors from primary neoplasms and metastatic disease. The current case indicates that increased ADC values within the splenic lesions suggest a vascular etiology, which might help narrow the differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  9. Etiopathophysiological assessment of cases with chronic daily headache: A functional magnetic resonance imaging included investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Akram; Nami, Mohammad Torabi; Oghabian, Mohammad Ali; Ganjgahi, Habib; Vahabi, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic daily headache (CDH) has gained little attention in functional neuro-imaging. When no structural abnormality is found in CDH, defining functional correlates between activated brain regions during headache bouts may provide unique insights towards understanding the pathophysiology of this type of headache. Methods We recruited four CDH cases for comprehensive assessments, including history taking, physical examinations and neuropsychological evaluations (The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Evaluation, Beck's Anxiety and Depression Inventories, Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index and Epworth Sleepiness Scale). Visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to self-rate the intensity of headache. Patients then underwent electroencephalography (EEG), transcranial Doppler (TCD) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) evaluations during maximal (VAS = 8-10/10) and off-headache (VAS = 0-3/10) conditions. Data were used to compare in both conditions. We also used BOLD (blood oxygen level dependent) -group level activation map fMRI to possibly locate headache-related activated brain regions. Results General and neurological examinations as well as conventional MRIs were unremarkable. Neuropsychological assessments showed moderate anxiety and depression in one patient and minimal in others. Unlike three patients, maximal and off-headache TCD evaluation in one revealed increased middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity, at the maximal pain area. Although with no seizure history, the same patient's EEG showed paroxysmal epileptic discharges during maximal headache intensity, respectively. Group level activation map fMRI showed activated classical pain matrix regions upon headache bouts (periaqueductal grey, substantia nigra and raphe nucleus), and markedly bilateral occipital lobes activation. Conclusion The EEG changes were of note. Furthermore, the increased BOLD signals in areas outside the classical pain matrix (i.e. occipital lobes) during maximal headaches may

  10. Generation of complete electronic nuclear medicine reports including static, dynamic and gated images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beretta, M.; Pilon, R.; Mut, F.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To develop a procedure for the creation of nuclear medicine reports containing static and dynamic images. The reason for implementing this technique is the lack of adequate solutions for an electronic format of nuclear medicine results allowing for rapid transmission via e-mail, specially in the case of dynamic and gated SPECT studies, since functional data is best presented in dynamic mode. Material and Methods: Clinical images were acquired in static, whole body, dynamic and gated mode, corresponding to bone studies, diuretic renogram, radionuclide cystography and gated perfusion SPECT, as well as respective time-activity curves. Image files were imported from a dedicated nuclear medicine computer system (Elscint XPert) to a Windows-based PC through a standard ethernet network with TCP-IP communications protocol, using a software developed by us which permits the conversion from the manufacturer's original format into a bitmap format (.bmp) compatible with commercially available PC software. For cardiac perfusion studies, background was subtracted prior to transferring to reduce the amount of information in the file; this was not done for other type of studies because useful data could be eliminated. Dynamic images were then processed using commercial software to create animated files and stored in .gif format. Static images were re-sized and stored in .jpg format. Original color or gray scale was always preserved. All the graphic material was then merged with a previously prepared report text using HTML format. The report also contained reference diagrams to facilitate interpretation. The whole report was then compressed into a self-extractable file, ready to be sent by electronic mail. Reception of the material was visually checked for data integrity including image quality by two experienced nuclear medicine physicians. Results: The report presented allows for simultaneous visualization of the text, diagrams and images either static, dynamic, gated or

  11. [Effectiveness of mental health training including active listening for managers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Kazunori; Tagawa, Yoshimasa; Mafune, Kosuke; Hiro, Hisanori; Nagata, Shoji

    2008-07-01

    significant increases post-training in "Job demands", "Worksite support by supervisor" and "Worksite support by co-worker", subscales of the BJSQ 12 items version. Particularly, the "Worksite support by supervisor" subscale increased significantly in 8 of the 47 sections in a comparison among sections. In this present study, we investigated the effectiveness of mental health training including Active Listening for managers, and suggest that to train Active Listening and use it at the worksite possibly strengthens "Worksite support by supervisor".

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of epidermoid, including diffusion weighted images and an atypical case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Shoki; Higano, Shuichi; Kurihara, Noriko

    1994-01-01

    In order to study the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diagnosing intracranial epidermoid, we evaluated the MRI findings on five cases with such tumor, all of which were surgically verified. In addition to standard spin-echo (SE) images obtained in all cases, diffusion-weighted images were acquired in two patients. In four patients, the tumor revealed to be almost isointense relative to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on both T 1 -and T 2 -weighted images, while it tended to show slightly hyperintense to CSF on proton-density-weighted images; thus, based on the signal intensity on standard SE images the distinction between epidermoid and arachnoid cyst may be difficult. Furthermore, the presence of the tumor which has a tendency to grow in and along the subarachnoid space causing relatively minimal mass effect may be overlooked. Diffusion-weighted images were shown to have advantages in such cases by demonstrating the tumor unequivocally as a mass of high signal, and differentiating it from arachnoid cysts. In the remaining patient, its appearance was atypical, showing bright signal on both T 1 -and T 2 -weighted images. In conclusion free of bone artifacts, multiplanar MRI with additional diffusion-weighted images provides a clear demonstration of epidermoid, and its differentiation from arachnoid cyst, thus obviating the need for CT cisternography. (author)

  13. Integration of Medical Imaging Including Ultrasound into a New Clinical Anatomy Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscova, Michelle; Bryce, Deborah A.; Sindhusake, Doungkamol; Young, Noel

    2015-01-01

    In 2008 a new clinical anatomy curriculum with integrated medical imaging component was introduced into the University of Sydney Medical Program. Medical imaging used for teaching the new curriculum included normal radiography, MRI, CT scans, and ultrasound imaging. These techniques were incorporated into teaching over the first two years of the…

  14. Submillimeter Confocal Imaging Active Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, John; Mehdi, Imran; Siegel, Peter; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Cwik, Thomas; Rowell, Mark; Hacker, John

    2009-01-01

    The term submillimeter confocal imaging active module (SCIAM) denotes a proposed airborne coherent imaging radar system that would be suitable for use in reconnaissance, surveillance, and navigation. The development of the SCIAM would include utilization and extension of recent achievements in monolithic microwave integrated circuits capable of operating at frequencies up to and beyond a nominal radio frequency of 340 GHz. Because the SCIAM would be primarily down-looking (in contradistinction to primarily side-looking), it could be useful for imaging shorter objects located between taller ones (for example, objects on streets between buildings). The SCIAM would utilize a confocal geometry to obtain high cross-track resolution, and would be amenable to synthetic-aperture processing of its output to obtain high along-track resolution. The SCIAM (see figure) would include multiple (two in the initial version) antenna apertures, separated from each other by a cross-track baseline of suitable length (e.g., 1.6 m). These apertures would both transmit the illuminating radar pulses and receive the returns. A common reference oscillator would generate a signal at a controllable frequency of (340 GHz + (Delta)f)/N, where (Delta)f is an instantaneous swept frequency difference and N is an integer. The output of this oscillator would be fed to a frequency- multiplier-and-power-amplifier module to obtain a signal, at 340 GHz + (Delta)f, that would serve as both the carrier signal for generating the transmitted pulses and a local-oscillator (LO) signal for a receiver associated with each antenna aperture. Because duplexers in the form of circulators or transmit/receive (T/R) switches would be lossy and extremely difficult to implement, the antenna apertures would be designed according to a spatial-diplexing scheme, in which signals would be coupled in and out via separate, adjacent transmitting and receiving feed horns. This scheme would cause the transmitted and received beams

  15. Wideband CMOS low noise amplifier including an active balun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaakmeer, S.C.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Leenaerts, D.M.W.; Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    An inductorless LNA with active balun is proposed for multi-standard radio applications between 100MHz and 6GHz [1]. It exploits a combination of a common-gate (CG) stage and an common-source (CS) stage with replica biasing to maximize balanced operation, while simultaneously canceling the noise and

  16. Body Image and quality of life of senior citizens included in a cardiac rehabilitation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Vargas Amaral

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Most people who have to live with some kind of disease tend to adopt healthy habits and create new ways of seeing themselves. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between the index of quality of life and self perception of patients included in a cardiovascular rehabilitation program in Florianopolis/Brazil. The sample consists of 24 subjects of 62 ± 1.3 years of age, who have coronary artery disease. The Minnesota Living With Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ was used to assess the quality of life, and to identify the degree of body image discontentment the Stunkard and Sorensen questionnaire (1993 was applied. Statistical analysis was made through statistics programs and the software SPSS 11.0. The degree of association between variables was studied with Kendall test. It was verified that the higher the BMI and the current body shape, the greatest the degree of body image dissatisfaction. The emotional symptoms also appear to be significantly correlated with a desire for a smaller body shape and with indicators of lower quality of life (r = 0474 = 0735, p major 0.05. The physical symptoms were also considerably associated with the emotional symptoms. These results suggest that the variables concerning the quality of life are meaningful to significant body image and satisfaction, which seems to correlate with fewer emotional problems and better facing of the disease. Cardiovascular Rehabilitation Programs that implement physical activity in daily habits proves to be a suitable tool for improving these ailments in this post-acute phase

  17. Fueling and Imaging Brain Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald A Dienel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic signals are used for imaging and spectroscopic studies of brain function and disease and to elucidate the cellular basis of neuroenergetics. The major fuel for activated neurons and the models for neuron–astrocyte interactions have been controversial because discordant results are obtained in different experimental systems, some of which do not correspond to adult brain. In rats, the infrastructure to support the high energetic demands of adult brain is acquired during postnatal development and matures after weaning. The brain's capacity to supply and metabolize glucose and oxygen exceeds demand over a wide range of rates, and the hyperaemic response to functional activation is rapid. Oxidative metabolism provides most ATP, but glycolysis is frequently preferentially up-regulated during activation. Underestimation of glucose utilization rates with labelled glucose arises from increased lactate production, lactate diffusion via transporters and astrocytic gap junctions, and lactate release to blood and perivascular drainage. Increased pentose shunt pathway flux also causes label loss from C1 of glucose. Glucose analogues are used to assay cellular activities, but interpretation of results is uncertain due to insufficient characterization of transport and phosphorylation kinetics. Brain activation in subjects with low blood-lactate levels causes a brain-to-blood lactate gradient, with rapid lactate release. In contrast, lactate flooding of brain during physical activity or infusion provides an opportunistic, supplemental fuel. Available evidence indicates that lactate shuttling coupled to its local oxidation during activation is a small fraction of glucose oxidation. Developmental, experimental, and physiological context is critical for interpretation of metabolic studies in terms of theoretical models.

  18. Fueling and imaging brain activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienel, Gerald A

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic signals are used for imaging and spectroscopic studies of brain function and disease and to elucidate the cellular basis of neuroenergetics. The major fuel for activated neurons and the models for neuron–astrocyte interactions have been controversial because discordant results are obtained in different experimental systems, some of which do not correspond to adult brain. In rats, the infrastructure to support the high energetic demands of adult brain is acquired during postnatal development and matures after weaning. The brain's capacity to supply and metabolize glucose and oxygen exceeds demand over a wide range of rates, and the hyperaemic response to functional activation is rapid. Oxidative metabolism provides most ATP, but glycolysis is frequently preferentially up-regulated during activation. Underestimation of glucose utilization rates with labelled glucose arises from increased lactate production, lactate diffusion via transporters and astrocytic gap junctions, and lactate release to blood and perivascular drainage. Increased pentose shunt pathway flux also causes label loss from C1 of glucose. Glucose analogues are used to assay cellular activities, but interpretation of results is uncertain due to insufficient characterization of transport and phosphorylation kinetics. Brain activation in subjects with low blood-lactate levels causes a brain-to-blood lactate gradient, with rapid lactate release. In contrast, lactate flooding of brain during physical activity or infusion provides an opportunistic, supplemental fuel. Available evidence indicates that lactate shuttling coupled to its local oxidation during activation is a small fraction of glucose oxidation. Developmental, experimental, and physiological context is critical for interpretation of metabolic studies in terms of theoretical models. PMID:22612861

  19. Sequential Magnetic Resonance Imaging Finding of Intramedullary Spinal Cord Abscess including Diffusion Weighted Image: a Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Jae Eun; Lee, Seung Young; Cha, Sang Hoon; Cho, Bum Sang; Jeon, Min Hee; Kang, Min Ho [Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    Intramedullary spinal cord abscess (ISCA) is a rare infection of the central nervous system. We describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, including the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) findings, of ISCA in a 78-year-old man. The initial conventional MRI of the thoracic spine demonstrated a subtle enhancing nodule accompanied by significant edema. On the follow-up MRI after seven days, the nodule appeared as a ring-enhancing nodule. The non-enhancing central portion of the nodule appeared hyperintense on DWI with a decreased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value on the ADC map. We performed myelotomy and surgical drainage, and thick, yellowish pus was drained

  20. A generalized model for optimal transport of images including dissipation and density modulation

    KAUST Repository

    Maas, Jan

    2015-11-01

    © EDP Sciences, SMAI 2015. In this paper the optimal transport and the metamorphosis perspectives are combined. For a pair of given input images geodesic paths in the space of images are defined as minimizers of a resulting path energy. To this end, the underlying Riemannian metric measures the rate of transport cost and the rate of viscous dissipation. Furthermore, the model is capable to deal with strongly varying image contrast and explicitly allows for sources and sinks in the transport equations which are incorporated in the metric related to the metamorphosis approach by Trouvé and Younes. In the non-viscous case with source term existence of geodesic paths is proven in the space of measures. The proposed model is explored on the range from merely optimal transport to strongly dissipative dynamics. For this model a robust and effective variational time discretization of geodesic paths is proposed. This requires to minimize a discrete path energy consisting of a sum of consecutive image matching functionals. These functionals are defined on corresponding pairs of intensity functions and on associated pairwise matching deformations. Existence of time discrete geodesics is demonstrated. Furthermore, a finite element implementation is proposed and applied to instructive test cases and to real images. In the non-viscous case this is compared to the algorithm proposed by Benamou and Brenier including a discretization of the source term. Finally, the model is generalized to define discrete weighted barycentres with applications to textures and objects.

  1. Whole body MRI, including diffusion-weighted imaging in follow-up of patients with testicular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosavi, Firas; Laurell, Anna; Ahlström, Håkan

    2015-11-01

    Whole body (WB) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has become increasingly utilized in cancer imaging, yet the clinical utility of these techniques in follow-up of testicular cancer patients has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of WB MRI with continuous table movement (CTM) technique, including multistep DWI in follow-up of patients with testicular cancer. WB MRI including DWI was performed in follow-up of 71 consecutive patients (median age, 37 years; range 19-84) with histologically confirmed testicular cancer. WB MRI protocol included axial T1-Dixon and T2-BLADE sequences using CTM technique. Furthermore, multi-step DWI was performed using b-value 50 and 1000 s/mm(2). One criterion for feasibility was patient tolerance and satisfactory image quality. Another criterion was the accuracy in detection of any pathological mass, compared to standard of reference. Signal intensity in DWI was used for evaluation of residual mass activity. Clinical, laboratory and imaging follow-up were applied as standard of reference for the evaluation of WB MRI. WB MRI was tolerated in nearly all patients (69/71 patients, 97%) and the image quality was satisfactory. Metal artifacts deteriorated the image quality in six patients, but it did not influence the overall results. No case of clinical relapse was observed during the follow-up time. There was a good agreement between conventional WB MRI and standard of reference in all patients. Three patients showed residual masses and DWI signal was not restricted in these patients. Furthermore, DWI showed abnormally high signal intensity in a normal-sized retroperitoneal lymph node indicating metastasis. The subsequent (18)F-FDG PET/CT could verify the finding. WB MRI with CTM technique including multi-step DWI is feasible in follow-up of patients with testicular cancer. DWI may contribute to important added-value data to conventional MRI sequences

  2. Active spectral imaging nondestructive evaluation (SINDE) camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simova, E.; Rochefort, P.A., E-mail: eli.simova@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    A proof-of-concept video camera for active spectral imaging nondestructive evaluation has been demonstrated. An active multispectral imaging technique has been implemented in the visible and near infrared by using light emitting diodes with wavelengths spanning from 400 to 970 nm. This shows how the camera can be used in nondestructive evaluation to inspect surfaces and spectrally identify materials and corrosion. (author)

  3. Histomorphology of canine urethral sphincter systems, including three-dimensional reconstruction and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Neuhaus, Jochen; Liatsikos, Evangelos N; Schwalenberg, Thilo; Ludewig, Eberhard; Ganzer, Roman

    2006-03-01

    To present a detailed anatomic description and comparison of the smooth and striated urethral sphincter in male and female dogs. We performed a thorough histologic evaluation, three-dimensional reconstruction, and magnetic resonance imaging of the lower urinary tract of male and female dogs. The lower urinary tract anatomy was investigated in 16 male and 18 female dogs by serial sectioning, including immunohistochemical staining and three-dimensional reconstruction. Magnetic resonance imaging performed in 5 male and 5 female dogs before histologic investigation helped to demonstrate the anatomy in vivo. A urethral sphincter muscle in both sexes existed without muscular connection to the pelvic floor. It ran circularly and consisted of an inner smooth and outer striated muscular part. In the female dog, the striated muscle encircled the urethra and vagina in the caudal third of the membranous urethra (musculus urethrovaginalis). A urinary diaphragm (diaphragma urogenitale) could not be found histologically or by magnetic resonance imaging. The dog is a suitable animal model for investigations of the urethral sphincter. In the female dog, attention should be given to the special topography of the musculus urethrovaginalis.

  4. Method and apparatus for enhanced sensitivity filmless medical x-ray imaging, including three-dimensional imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Sherwood

    1995-01-01

    A filmless X-ray imaging system includes at least one X-ray source, upper and lower collimators, and a solid-state detector array, and can provide three-dimensional imaging capability. The X-ray source plane is distance z.sub.1 above upper collimator plane, distance z.sub.2 above the lower collimator plane, and distance z.sub.3 above the plane of the detector array. The object to be X-rayed is located between the upper and lower collimator planes. The upper and lower collimators and the detector array are moved horizontally with scanning velocities v.sub.1, v.sub.2, v.sub.3 proportional to z.sub.1, z.sub.2 and z.sub.3, respectively. The pattern and size of openings in the collimators, and between detector positions is proportional such that similar triangles are always defined relative to the location of the X-ray source. X-rays that pass through openings in the upper collimator will always pass through corresponding and similar openings in the lower collimator, and thence to a corresponding detector in the underlying detector array. Substantially 100% of the X-rays irradiating the object (and neither absorbed nor scattered) pass through the lower collimator openings and are detected, which promotes enhanced sensitivity. A computer system coordinates repositioning of the collimators and detector array, and X-ray source locations. The computer system can store detector array output, and can associate a known X-ray source location with detector array output data, to provide three-dimensional imaging. Detector output may be viewed instantly, stored digitally, and/or transmitted electronically for image viewing at a remote site.

  5. Active imaging for monitoring and technical diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Piszczek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of currently running work in the field of active imaging. The term active refers to both the image acquisition methods, so-called methods of the spatio-temporal framing and active visualization method applying augmented reality. Also results of application of the HMD and 6DoF modules as well as the experimental laser photography device are given. The device works by methods of spatio-temporal framing and it has been developed at the IOE WAT. In terms of image acquisition - active imaging involves the use of illumination of the observed scene. In the field of information visualization - active imaging directly concerns the issues of interaction human-machine environment. The results show the possibility of using the described techniques, among others, rescue (fire brigade, security of mass events (police or the protection of critical infrastructure as well as broadly understood diagnostic problems. Examples presented in the article show a wide range of possible uses of the methods both in observational techniques and measurement. They are relatively innovative solutions and require elaboration of series of hardware and algorithmic issues. However, already at this stage it is clear that active acquisition and visualization methods indicate a high potential for this type of information solutions.[b]Keywords[/b]: active imaging, augmented reality, digital image processing

  6. Physical activity - preventive medicine (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical activity contributes to health by reducing the heart rate, decreasing the risk for cardiovascular disease, and reducing ... loss that is associated with age and osteoporosis. Physical activity also helps the body use calories more efficiently, ...

  7. SU-F-J-86: Method to Include Tissue Dose Response Effect in Deformable Image Registration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, J; Liang, J; Chen, S; Qin, A; Yan, D [Beaumont Health Systeml, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Organ changes shape and size during radiation treatment due to both mechanical stress and radiation dose response. However, the dose response induced deformation has not been considered in conventional deformable image registration (DIR). A novel DIR approach is proposed to include both tissue elasticity and radiation dose induced organ deformation. Methods: Assuming that organ sub-volume shrinkage was proportional to the radiation dose induced cell killing/absorption, the dose induced organ volume change was simulated applying virtual temperature on each sub-volume. Hence, both stress and heterogeneity temperature induced organ deformation. Thermal stress finite element method with organ surface boundary condition was used to solve deformation. Initial boundary correspondence on organ surface was created from conventional DIR. Boundary condition was updated by an iterative optimization scheme to minimize elastic deformation energy. The registration was validated on a numerical phantom. Treatment dose was constructed applying both the conventional DIR and the proposed method using daily CBCT image obtained from HN treatment. Results: Phantom study showed 2.7% maximal discrepancy with respect to the actual displacement. Compared with conventional DIR, subvolume displacement difference in a right parotid had the mean±SD (Min, Max) to be 1.1±0.9(−0.4∼4.8), −0.1±0.9(−2.9∼2.4) and −0.1±0.9(−3.4∼1.9)mm in RL/PA/SI directions respectively. Mean parotid dose and V30 constructed including the dose response induced shrinkage were 6.3% and 12.0% higher than those from the conventional DIR. Conclusion: Heterogeneous dose distribution in normal organ causes non-uniform sub-volume shrinkage. Sub-volume in high dose region has a larger shrinkage than the one in low dose region, therefore causing more sub-volumes to move into the high dose area during the treatment course. This leads to an unfavorable dose-volume relationship for the normal organ

  8. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... promotion activities, including paid advertising. (a) In order for a handler to receive credit for his/her... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising. 981.441 Section 981.441 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued...

  9. Non-traumatic thoracic emergencies: imaging and treatment of thoracic fluid collections (including pneumothorax)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.R.C.; Gleeson, F.V.

    2002-01-01

    Cross-sectional imaging has revolutionised the radiological diagnosis of pleural collections. Not only can the precise location and volume of a pleural effusion be established, but also features specific for the aetiology of the effusion can be demonstrated. Increasingly, radiologists are called upon to perform image-guided biopsies, aspirations and small bore chest drain placement, all of which have been shown to be safe and efficacious. Pneumothoraces occurring due to acute trauma and in an intensive care setting can also benefit from radiological input, both in terms of diagnosis and image-guided treatment. (orig.)

  10. Non-traumatic thoracic emergencies: imaging and treatment of thoracic fluid collections (including pneumothorax)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J.R.C.; Gleeson, F.V. [Department of Radiology, The Churchill Hospital, Old Road, Headington, Oxford OX3 7LJ (United Kingdom)

    2002-08-01

    Cross-sectional imaging has revolutionised the radiological diagnosis of pleural collections. Not only can the precise location and volume of a pleural effusion be established, but also features specific for the aetiology of the effusion can be demonstrated. Increasingly, radiologists are called upon to perform image-guided biopsies, aspirations and small bore chest drain placement, all of which have been shown to be safe and efficacious. Pneumothoraces occurring due to acute trauma and in an intensive care setting can also benefit from radiological input, both in terms of diagnosis and image-guided treatment. (orig.)

  11. A generalized model for optimal transport of images including dissipation and density modulation

    KAUST Repository

    Maas, Jan; Rumpf, Martin; Schö nlieb, Carola; Simon, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    transport to strongly dissipative dynamics. For this model a robust and effective variational time discretization of geodesic paths is proposed. This requires to minimize a discrete path energy consisting of a sum of consecutive image matching functionals

  12. Activating Attachments Reduces Memories of Traumatic Images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Bryant

    Full Text Available Emotional memories, and especially intrusive memories, are a common feature of many psychological disorders, and are overconsolidated by stress. Attachment theory posits that activation of mental representations of attachment figures can reduce stress and boost coping. This study tested the proposition that attachment activation would reduce consolidation of emotional and intrusive memories. Sixty-seven undergraduate students viewed subliminal presentations of traumatic and neutral images, which were preceded by subliminal presentations of either attachment-related images or non-attachment-related images; free recall and intrusive memories were assessed two days later. Participants with low avoidant attachment tendencies who received the attachment primes recalled fewer memories and reported fewer intrusions than those who received the non-attachment primes. Unexpectedly, those with high anxious attachment tendencies reported fewer memories. These findings generally accord with attachment theory, and suggest that consolidation of emotional memories can be moderated by activation of attachment representations.

  13. Active learning methods for interactive image retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Philippe Henri; Cord, Matthieu

    2008-07-01

    Active learning methods have been considered with increased interest in the statistical learning community. Initially developed within a classification framework, a lot of extensions are now being proposed to handle multimedia applications. This paper provides algorithms within a statistical framework to extend active learning for online content-based image retrieval (CBIR). The classification framework is presented with experiments to compare several powerful classification techniques in this information retrieval context. Focusing on interactive methods, active learning strategy is then described. The limitations of this approach for CBIR are emphasized before presenting our new active selection process RETIN. First, as any active method is sensitive to the boundary estimation between classes, the RETIN strategy carries out a boundary correction to make the retrieval process more robust. Second, the criterion of generalization error to optimize the active learning selection is modified to better represent the CBIR objective of database ranking. Third, a batch processing of images is proposed. Our strategy leads to a fast and efficient active learning scheme to retrieve sets of online images (query concept). Experiments on large databases show that the RETIN method performs well in comparison to several other active strategies.

  14. Transportable, Low-Dose Active Fast-Neutron Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihalczo, John T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wright, Michael C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McConchie, Seth M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Archer, Daniel E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Palles, Blake A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    This document contains a description of the method of transportable, low-dose active fast-neutron imaging as developed by ORNL. The discussion begins with the technique and instrumentation and continues with the image reconstruction and analysis. The analysis discussion includes an example of how a gap smaller than the neutron production spot size and detector size can be detected and characterized depending upon the measurement time.

  15. A digital library for medical imaging activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Marcelo; Furuie, Sérgio S.

    2007-03-01

    This work presents the development of an electronic infrastructure to make available a free, online, multipurpose and multimodality medical image database. The proposed infrastructure implements a distributed architecture for medical image database, authoring tools, and a repository for multimedia documents. Also it includes a peer-reviewed model that assures quality of dataset. This public repository provides a single point of access for medical images and related information to facilitate retrieval tasks. The proposed approach has been used as an electronic teaching system in Radiology as well.

  16. 3D printed optical phantoms and deep tissue imaging for in vivo applications including oral surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, Brian Z.; Costas, Alfonso; Gaind, Vaibhav; Garcia, Jose M.; Webb, Kevin J.

    2017-03-01

    Progress in developing optical imaging for biomedical applications requires customizable and often complex objects known as "phantoms" for testing, evaluation, and calibration. This work demonstrates that 3D printing is an ideal method for fabricating such objects, allowing intricate inhomogeneities to be placed at exact locations in complex or anatomically realistic geometries, a process that is difficult or impossible using molds. We show printed mouse phantoms we have fabricated for developing deep tissue fluorescence imaging methods, and measurements of both their optical and mechanical properties. Additionally, we present a printed phantom of the human mouth that we use to develop an artery localization method to assist in oral surgery.

  17. Macroenvironmental factors including GDP per capita and physical activity in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Adrian J; Van Stralen, Maartje M; Kunst, Anton E; Te Velde, Saskia J; Van Lenthe, Frank J; Salmon, Jo; Brug, Johannes

    2013-02-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in physical activity at the individual level are well reported. Whether inequalities in economic development and other macroenvironmental variables between countries are also related to physical activity at the country level is comparatively unstudied. We examined the relationship between country-level data on macroenvironmental factors (gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, public sector expenditure on health, percentage living in urban areas, and cars per 1000 population) with country-level physical activity prevalence obtained from previous pan-European studies. Studies that assessed leisuretime physical activity (n = 3 studies including 27 countries in adults, n = 2 studies including 28 countries in children) and total physical activity (n = 3 studies in adults including 16 countries) were analyzed separately as were studies among adults and children. Strong and consistent positive correlations were observed between country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity and country GDP per capita in adults (average r = 0.70; all studies, P G 0.05). In multivariate analysis, country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity among adults remained associated with country GDP per capita (two of three studies) but not urbanization or educational attainment. Among school-age populations, no association was found between country GDP per capita and country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity. In those studies that assessed total physical activity (which also includes occupational and transport physical activity), no association with country GDP per capita was observed. Clear differences in national leisure-time physical activity levels throughout Europe may be a consequence of economic development. Lack of economic development of some countries in Europe may make increasing leisure-time physical activity more difficult. Further examination of the link between country GDP per capita and national physical activity levels (across

  18. Imaging of alkaline phosphatase activity in bone tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence P Gade

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a paradigm for quantitative molecular imaging of bone cell activity. We hypothesized the feasibility of non-invasive imaging of the osteoblast enzyme alkaline phosphatase (ALP using a small imaging molecule in combination with (19Flourine magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ((19FMRSI. 6, 8-difluoro-4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate (DiFMUP, a fluorinated ALP substrate that is activatable to a fluorescent hydrolysis product was utilized as a prototype small imaging molecule. The molecular structure of DiFMUP includes two Fluorine atoms adjacent to a phosphate group allowing it and its hydrolysis product to be distinguished using (19Fluorine magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((19FMRS and (19FMRSI. ALP-mediated hydrolysis of DiFMUP was tested on osteoblastic cells and bone tissue, using serial measurements of fluorescence activity. Extracellular activation of DiFMUP on ALP-positive mouse bone precursor cells was observed. Concurringly, DiFMUP was also activated on bone derived from rat tibia. Marked inhibition of the cell and tissue activation of DiFMUP was detected after the addition of the ALP inhibitor levamisole. (19FMRS and (19FMRSI were applied for the non-invasive measurement of DiFMUP hydrolysis. (19FMRS revealed a two-peak spectrum representing DiFMUP with an associated chemical shift for the hydrolysis product. Activation of DiFMUP by ALP yielded a characteristic pharmacokinetic profile, which was quantifiable using non-localized (19FMRS and enabled the development of a pharmacokinetic model of ALP activity. Application of (19FMRSI facilitated anatomically accurate, non-invasive imaging of ALP concentration and activity in rat bone. Thus, (19FMRSI represents a promising approach for the quantitative imaging of bone cell activity during bone formation with potential for both preclinical and clinical applications.

  19. Validated automatic segmentation of AMD pathology including drusen and geographic atrophy in SD-OCT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Stephanie J; Izatt, Joseph A; O'Connell, Rachelle V; Winter, Katrina P; Toth, Cynthia A; Farsiu, Sina

    2012-01-05

    To automatically segment retinal spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images of eyes with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and various levels of image quality to advance the study of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)+drusen complex (RPEDC) volume changes indicative of AMD progression. A general segmentation framework based on graph theory and dynamic programming was used to segment three retinal boundaries in SD-OCT images of eyes with drusen and geographic atrophy (GA). A validation study for eyes with nonneovascular AMD was conducted, forming subgroups based on scan quality and presence of GA. To test for accuracy, the layer thickness results from two certified graders were compared against automatic segmentation results for 220 B-scans across 20 patients. For reproducibility, automatic layer volumes were compared that were generated from 0° versus 90° scans in five volumes with drusen. The mean differences in the measured thicknesses of the total retina and RPEDC layers were 4.2 ± 2.8 and 3.2 ± 2.6 μm for automatic versus manual segmentation. When the 0° and 90° datasets were compared, the mean differences in the calculated total retina and RPEDC volumes were 0.28% ± 0.28% and 1.60% ± 1.57%, respectively. The average segmentation time per image was 1.7 seconds automatically versus 3.5 minutes manually. The automatic algorithm accurately and reproducibly segmented three retinal boundaries in images containing drusen and GA. This automatic approach can reduce time and labor costs and yield objective measurements that potentially reveal quantitative RPE changes in longitudinal clinical AMD studies. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00734487.).

  20. Active gated imaging in driver assistance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Yoav

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we shall present the active gated imaging system (AGIS) in relation to the automotive field. AGIS is based on a fast-gated camera and pulsed illuminator, synchronized in the time domain to record images of a certain range of interest. A dedicated gated CMOS imager sensor and near infra-red (NIR) pulsed laser illuminator, is presented in this paper to provide active gated technology. In recent years, we have developed these key components and learned the system parameters, which are most beneficial to nighttime (in all weather conditions) driving in terms of field of view, illumination profile, resolution, and processing power. We shall present our approach of a camera-based advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) named BrightEye™, which makes use of the AGIS technology in the automotive field.

  1. Active Mask Segmentation of Fluorescence Microscope Images

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasa, Gowri; Fickus, Matthew C.; Guo, Yusong; Linstedt, Adam D.; Kovačević, Jelena

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new active mask algorithm for the segmentation of fluorescence microscope images of punctate patterns. It combines the (a) flexibility offered by active-contour methods, (b) speed offered by multiresolution methods, (c) smoothing offered by multiscale methods, and (d) statistical modeling offered by region-growing methods into a fast and accurate segmentation tool. The framework moves from the idea of the “contour” to that of “inside and outside”, or, masks, allowing for easy mul...

  2. Optimal Design and Real Time Implementation of Autonomous Microgrid Including Active Load

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed A. Hassan; Muhammed Y. Worku; Mohamed A. Abido

    2018-01-01

    Controller gains and power-sharing parameters are the main parameters affect the dynamic performance of the microgrid. Considering an active load to the autonomous microgrid, the stability problem will be more involved. In this paper, the active load effect on microgrid dynamic stability is explored. An autonomous microgrid including three inverter-based distributed generations (DGs) with an active load is modeled and the associated controllers are designed. Controller gains of the inverters ...

  3. A convolution method for predicting mean treatment dose including organ motion at imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, J.T.; Zavgorodni, S.F.; Royal Adelaide Hospital, SA

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The random treatment delivery errors (organ motion and set-up error) can be incorporated into the treatment planning software using a convolution method. Mean treatment dose is computed as the convolution of a static dose distribution with a variation kernel. Typically this variation kernel is Gaussian with variance equal to the sum of the organ motion and set-up error variances. We propose a novel variation kernel for the convolution technique that additionally considers the position of the mobile organ in the planning CT image. The systematic error of organ position in the planning CT image can be considered random for each patient over a population. Thus the variance of the variation kernel will equal the sum of treatment delivery variance and organ motion variance at planning for the population of treatments. The kernel is extended to deal with multiple pre-treatment CT scans to improve tumour localisation for planning. Mean treatment doses calculated with the convolution technique are compared to benchmark Monte Carlo (MC) computations. Calculations of mean treatment dose using the convolution technique agreed with MC results for all cases to better than ± 1 Gy in the planning treatment volume for a prescribed 60 Gy treatment. Convolution provides a quick method of incorporating random organ motion (captured in the planning CT image and during treatment delivery) and random set-up errors directly into the dose distribution. Copyright (2000) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  4. Active mask segmentation of fluorescence microscope images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa, Gowri; Fickus, Matthew C; Guo, Yusong; Linstedt, Adam D; Kovacević, Jelena

    2009-08-01

    We propose a new active mask algorithm for the segmentation of fluorescence microscope images of punctate patterns. It combines the (a) flexibility offered by active-contour methods, (b) speed offered by multiresolution methods, (c) smoothing offered by multiscale methods, and (d) statistical modeling offered by region-growing methods into a fast and accurate segmentation tool. The framework moves from the idea of the "contour" to that of "inside and outside," or masks, allowing for easy multidimensional segmentation. It adapts to the topology of the image through the use of multiple masks. The algorithm is almost invariant under initialization, allowing for random initialization, and uses a few easily tunable parameters. Experiments show that the active mask algorithm matches the ground truth well and outperforms the algorithm widely used in fluorescence microscopy, seeded watershed, both qualitatively, as well as quantitatively.

  5. Modeling & imaging of bioelectrical activity principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    He, Bin

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several decades, much progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms of electrical activity in biological tissues and systems, and for developing non-invasive functional imaging technologies to aid clinical diagnosis of dysfunction in the human body. The book will provide full basic coverage of the fundamentals of modeling of electrical activity in various human organs, such as heart and brain. It will include details of bioelectromagnetic measurements and source imaging technologies, as well as biomedical applications. The book will review the latest trends in

  6. Benign familial fleck retina: multimodal imaging including optical coherence tomography angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jose Mauricio Botto de Barros; Isaac, David Leonardo Cruvinel; Sardeiro, Tainara; Aquino, Érika; Avila, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    This report presents multimodal imaging of a 27-year-old woman diagnosed with benign familial fleck retina (OMIM 228980), an uncommon disorder. Fundus photographs revealed retinal flecks that affected her post-equatorial retina but spared the macular area. Fundus autofluorescence and infrared imaging demonstrated a symmetrical pattern of yellow-white fleck lesions that affected both eyes. Her full-field electroretinogram and electrooculogram were normal. An optical coherence tomography B-scan was performed for both eyes, revealing increased thickness of the retinal pigmented epithelium leading to multiple small pigmented epithelium detachments. The outer retina remained intact in both eyes. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography angiography with split-spectrum amplitude decorrelation algorithm and 3 × 3 mm structural en face optical coherence tomography did not show macular lesions. Benign familial fleck retina belongs to a heterogenous group of so-called flecked retina syndromes, and should be considered in patients with yellowish-white retinal lesions without involvement of the macula.

  7. Benign familial fleck retina: multimodal imaging including optical coherence tomography angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Mauricio Botto de Barros Garcia

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This report presents multimodal imaging of a 27-year-old woman diagnosed with benign familial fleck retina (OMIM 228980, an uncommon disorder. Fundus photographs revealed retinal flecks that affected her post-equatorial retina but spared the macular area. Fundus autofluorescence and infrared imaging demonstrated a symmetrical pattern of yellow-white fleck lesions that affected both eyes. Her full-field electroretinogram and electrooculogram were normal. An optical coherence tomography B-scan was performed for both eyes, revealing increased thickness of the retinal pigmented epithelium leading to multiple small pigmented epithelium detachments. The outer retina remained intact in both eyes. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography angiography with split-spectrum amplitude decorrelation algorithm and 3 × 3 mm structural en face optical coherence tomography did not show macular lesions. Benign familial fleck retina belongs to a heterogenous group of so-called flecked retina syndromes, and should be considered in patients with yellowish-white retinal lesions without involvement of the macula.

  8. Active gated imaging for automotive safety applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Yoav; Sonn, Ezri

    2015-03-01

    The paper presents the Active Gated Imaging System (AGIS), in relation to the automotive field. AGIS is based on a fast gated-camera equipped with a unique Gated-CMOS sensor, and a pulsed Illuminator, synchronized in the time domain to record images of a certain range of interest which are then processed by computer vision real-time algorithms. In recent years we have learned the system parameters which are most beneficial to night-time driving in terms of; field of view, illumination profile, resolution and processing power. AGIS provides also day-time imaging with additional capabilities, which enhances computer vision safety applications. AGIS provides an excellent candidate for camera-based Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and the path for autonomous driving, in the future, based on its outstanding low/high light-level, harsh weather conditions capabilities and 3D potential growth capabilities.

  9. Predictive value of diffusion-weighted imaging without and with including contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in image analysis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noij, Daniel P., E-mail: d.noij@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, Amsterdam, Noord-Holland (Netherlands); Pouwels, Petra J.W., E-mail: pjw.pouwels@vumc.nl [Department of Physics and Medical Technology, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, Amsterdam, Noord-Holland (Netherlands); Ljumanovic, Redina, E-mail: rljumanovic@adventh.org [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, Amsterdam, Noord-Holland (Netherlands); Knol, Dirk L., E-mail: dirklknol@gmail.com [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, Amsterdam, Noord-Holland (Netherlands); Doornaert, Patricia, E-mail: p.doornaert@vumc.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, Amsterdam, Noord-Holland (Netherlands); Bree, Remco de, E-mail: r.debree@vumc.nl [Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, Amsterdam, Noord-Holland (Netherlands); Castelijns, Jonas A., E-mail: j.castelijns@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, Amsterdam, Noord-Holland (Netherlands); Graaf, Pim de, E-mail: p.degraaf@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, Amsterdam, Noord-Holland (Netherlands)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Primary tumor volume and lymph node ADC1000 are predictors of survival. • CE-T1WI does not improve the prognostic capacity of DWI. • Using CE-T1WI for ROI placement results in lower interobserver agreement. - Abstract: Objectives: To assess disease-free survival (DFS) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treated with (chemo)radiotherapy ([C]RT). Methods: Pretreatment MR-images of 78 patients were retrospectively studied. Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) were calculated with two sets of two b-values: 0–750 s/mm{sup 2} (ADC{sub 750}) and 0–1000 s/mm{sup 2} (ADC{sub 1000}). One observer assessed tumor volume on T1-WI. Two independent observers assessed ADC-values of primary tumor and largest lymph node in two sessions (i.e. without and with including CE-T1WI in image analysis). Interobserver and intersession agreement were assessed with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) separately for ADC{sub 750} and ADC{sub 1000}. Lesion volumes and ADC-values were related to DFS using Cox regression analysis. Results: Median follow-up was 18 months. Interobserver ICC was better without than with CE-T1WI (primary tumor: 0.92 and 0.75–0.83, respectively; lymph node: 0.81–0.83 and 0.61–0.64, respectively). Intersession ICC ranged from 0.84 to 0.89. With CE-T1WI, mean ADC-values of primary tumor and lymph node were higher at both b-values than without CE-T1WI (P < 0.001). Tumor volume (sensitivity: 73%; specificity: 57%) and lymph node ADC{sub 1000} (sensitivity: 71–79%; specificity: 77–79%) were independent significant predictors of DFS without and with including CE-T1WI (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Pretreatment primary tumor volume and lymph node ADC{sub 1000} were significant independent predictors of DFS in HNSCC treated with (C)RT. DFS could be predicted from ADC-values acquired without and with including CE-T1WI in image analysis. The inclusion of CE-T1WI did not result in significant improvements in the predictive value of

  10. Unified theory of dislocation motion including thermal activation and inertial effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaac, R.D.; Granato, A.V.

    1979-01-01

    Transition-state rate theory has generally been used to explain the temperature dependence of the flow stress of a crystal. However, the existence of a change in the flow stress during the superconducting transition indicates the presence of inertial effects in which dislocations overcome obstacles mechanically rather than thermally. It is shown here that the thermally activated and the inertial overcoming of obstacles are not unrelated but can both be derived from principles of stochastic motion. This leads to a theory of dislocation motion that includes both thermal activation and inertial effects. It is also shown that a distribution of activation energies must be considered to account for the experimental data

  11. Slowly progressive fluent aphasia; Clinical features and an imaging study including MRI, SPECT and PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Yasuhisa; Momose, Toshimitsu; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Ishikawa, Takashi; Iwata, Makoto (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Bando, Mitsuaki

    1991-05-01

    Three patients with slowly progressive fluent aphasia are reported. One of the patients presented with memory disturbance. They were characterized clinically by having selective deficits in vocabulary, which resulted in impairment of confrontation naming, and auditory comprehension. MRI showed an atrophy not only in the left temporal lobe (including the superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri), hippocampus, parahippocampual gyrus, and fusiform gyrus, but also in the left parietal lobe. I-123 IMP SPECT and F-18 FDG PET were used to determine regional cerebral blood flow and regional cerebral metabolic rate, respectively. In addition to the decreased tracer uptake in the left temporal and/or parietal lobe, a decreased uptake was seen in the bilateral basal ganglia, the inner side of the temporal lobe (including the bilateral hippocampus), the right anterior temporal lobe, and the left thalamus. These findings may deny the previous thought that lesions are localized in slowly progressive fluent aphasia. Furthermore, noticeable difficulty in naming, i.e., patients unable to recognize the right answer, are considered attributable to widespread lesions from the whole left temporal lobe, including the hippocampus, to the right temporal lobe. (N.K.).

  12. Triple Active Antiretroviral Regimen Including Enfuvirtide Via the Biojector is Effective and Safe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Loutfy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available For full HIV virological suppression, three fully active antiretroviral agents are required. New drug classes should be included to ensure that agents are fully active. The addition of enfuvirtide and efavirenz to the present patient’s new antiretroviral regimen ensured that two fully active agents were in use in the setting of a moderate degree of nucleoside resistance and a high level of protease resistance, and where non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors were still fully active. Both viral load and CD4 count responded favourably to this regimen. The patient received support from physicians and clinic staff in the introduction and use of enfuvirtide. To reduce injection site reactions, a needle-free injection system (Biojector proved effective.

  13. Peptidase inhibitors reduce opiate narcotic withdrawal signs, including seizure activity, in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsky, C; Dua, A K; LaBella, F S

    1982-07-15

    Narcotic withdrawal was precipitated by administration of naloxone in a low dose at 2 h after the final dose of morphine in a 9-day dependency-inducing schedule. Withdrawal was characterized by leaps, increased nocifensor activity and by cerebral cortical epileptiform activity, the latter not generally reported to be prominent in narcotic withdrawal. Single large doses of morphine did not provoke epileptiform activity at 2 h postinjection but did induce an acute opioid dependency wherein a moderately high dose of naloxone, ineffective in non-dependent rats, provoked upward leaping and electrocortical epileptiform activity. Pretreatment of the 9-day dependent rats with peptidase inhibitors, administered intracerebroventricularly, significantly reduced withdrawal severity including the epileptiform activity. We propose that peptidase inhibitors protect certain species of endogenous opioids and/or other neuropeptides that tend to suppress expression of the narcotic withdrawal syndrome. Furthermore, our findings suggest that epileptiform activity is a nascent form of cerebral activity hitherto largely unnoticed in narcotic withdrawal and that neuropeptides may be involved in certain epileptic states.

  14. Optimal Design and Real Time Implementation of Autonomous Microgrid Including Active Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Hassan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Controller gains and power-sharing parameters are the main parameters affect the dynamic performance of the microgrid. Considering an active load to the autonomous microgrid, the stability problem will be more involved. In this paper, the active load effect on microgrid dynamic stability is explored. An autonomous microgrid including three inverter-based distributed generations (DGs with an active load is modeled and the associated controllers are designed. Controller gains of the inverters and active load as well as Phase Locked Loop (PLL parameters are optimally tuned to guarantee overall system stability. A weighted objective function is proposed to minimize the error in both measured active power and DC voltage based on time-domain simulations. Different AC and DC disturbances are applied to verify and assess the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. The results demonstrate the potential of the proposed controller to enhance the microgrid stability and to provide efficient damping characteristics. Additionally, the proposed controller is compared with the literature to demonstrate its superiority. Finally, the microgrid considered has been established and implemented on real time digital simulator (RTDS. The experimental results validate the simulation results and approve the effectiveness of the proposed controllers to enrich the stability of the considered microgrid.

  15. Image patch analysis of sunspots and active regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon Kevin R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context. Separating active regions that are quiet from potentially eruptive ones is a key issue in Space Weather applications. Traditional classification schemes such as Mount Wilson and McIntosh have been effective in relating an active region large scale magnetic configuration to its ability to produce eruptive events. However, their qualitative nature prevents systematic studies of an active region’s evolution for example. Aims. We introduce a new clustering of active regions that is based on the local geometry observed in Line of Sight magnetogram and continuum images. Methods. We use a reduced-dimension representation of an active region that is obtained by factoring the corresponding data matrix comprised of local image patches. Two factorizations can be compared via the definition of appropriate metrics on the resulting factors. The distances obtained from these metrics are then used to cluster the active regions. Results. We find that these metrics result in natural clusterings of active regions. The clusterings are related to large scale descriptors of an active region such as its size, its local magnetic field distribution, and its complexity as measured by the Mount Wilson classification scheme. We also find that including data focused on the neutral line of an active region can result in an increased correspondence between our clustering results and other active region descriptors such as the Mount Wilson classifications and the R-value. Conclusions. Matrix factorization of image patches is a promising new way of characterizing active regions. We provide some recommendations for which metrics, matrix factorization techniques, and regions of interest to use to study active regions.

  16. Focal Pancreatitis Mimicking Pancreatic Mass: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)/Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) Findings Including Diffusion-Weighted MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momtahen, A.J.; Balci, N.C.; Alkaade, S.; Akduman, E.I.; Burton, F.R.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Focal pancreatitis (FP) is a confined inflammation that mimics a pancreatic mass. Its imaging diagnosis is important to avoid unnecessary procedures. Purpose: To describe the spectrum of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) findings of focal pancreatitis mimicking pancreatic masses. Material and Methods: Findings of MRI/MRCP including DWI with a b value of 0 and 600 s/mm2 in 14 patients with pancreatic masses on MRI were retrospectively reviewed and compared to normal pancreas in 14 patients as a control group. Results: FP revealed hypointense signal intensity (SI) (3/14), hypo- to isointense SI (7/14), or isointense SI (4/14) on T1-weighted images, and hypointense SI (1/14), isointense SI (5/14), iso- to hyperintense SI (7/14), or hyperintense SI (1/14) on T2-weighted images compared to remaining pancreas (RP). MRCP images revealed dilatation of the common bile duct (CBD) and main pancreatic duct (MPD) (5/14), dilatation of the MPD only (3/14), dilatation of the CBD only (3/14), and normal MPD and CBD (3/14). Both FP and RP revealed three types of time-signal intensity curves: 1) rapid rise to a peak, with a rapid decline (FP=2, RP=4), 2) slow rise to a peak, followed by a slow decline (FP=5, RP=4), and 3) slower rise to a peak, with a slow decline or plateau (FP=7, RP=6). Mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values for FP and RP were 2.09±0.18 and 2.03±0.2x10 -3 mm 2 /s, respectively. ADC values of FP and RP revealed no significant difference. Conclusion: The spectrum of imaging findings of focal pancreatitis on MRI/MRCP including DWI was described. Findings of FP were not distinctive as compared to the remaining pancreas

  17. Molecular Imaging of the ATM Kinase Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Terence M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Nyati, Shyam [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Center for Molecular Imaging, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Ross, Brian D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Rehemtulla, Alnawaz, E-mail: alnawaz@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Center for Molecular Imaging, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a serine/threonine kinase critical to the cellular DNA-damage response, including from DNA double-strand breaks. ATM activation results in the initiation of a complex cascade of events including DNA damage repair, cell cycle checkpoint control, and survival. We sought to create a bioluminescent reporter that dynamically and noninvasively measures ATM kinase activity in living cells and subjects. Methods and Materials: Using the split luciferase technology, we constructed a hybrid cDNA, ATM-reporter (ATMR), coding for a protein that quantitatively reports on changes in ATM kinase activity through changes in bioluminescence. Results: Treatment of ATMR-expressing cells with ATM inhibitors resulted in a dose-dependent increase in bioluminescence activity. In contrast, induction of ATM kinase activity upon irradiation resulted in a decrease in reporter activity that correlated with ATM and Chk2 activation by immunoblotting in a time-dependent fashion. Nuclear targeting improved ATMR sensitivity to both ATM inhibitors and radiation, whereas a mutant ATMR (lacking the target phosphorylation site) displayed a muted response. Treatment with ATM inhibitors and small interfering (si)RNA-targeted knockdown of ATM confirm the specificity of the reporter. Using reporter expressing xenografted tumors demonstrated the ability of ATMR to report in ATM activity in mouse models that correlated in a time-dependent fashion with changes in Chk2 activity. Conclusions: We describe the development and validation of a novel, specific, noninvasive bioluminescent reporter that enables monitoring of ATM activity in real time, in vitro and in vivo. Potential applications of this reporter include the identification and development of novel ATM inhibitors or ATM-interacting partners through high-throughput screens and in vivo pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic studies of ATM inhibitors in preclinical models.

  18. Managing nuclear knowledge: IAEA activities and international coordination. Including resource material full text CD-ROM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    The present CD-ROM summarizes some activities carried out by the Departments of Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Safety and Security in the area of nuclear knowledge management in the period 2003-2005. It comprises, as open resource, most of the relevant documents in full text, including policy level documents, reports, presentation material by Member States and meeting summaries. The collection starts with a reprint of the report to the IAEA General Conference 2004 on Nuclear Knowledge [GOV/2004/56-GC(48)/12] summarizing the developments in nuclear knowledge management since the 47th session of the General Conference in 2003 and covers Managing Nuclear Knowledge including safety issues and Information and Strengthening Education and Training for Capacity Building. It contains an excerpt on Nuclear Knowledge from the General Conference Resolution [GC(48)/RES/13] on Strengthening the Agency's Activities Related to Nuclear Science, Technology and Applications. On the CD-ROM itself, all documents can easily be accessed by clicking on their titles on the subject pages (also printed at the end of this Working Material). Part 1 of the CD-ROM covers the activities in the period 2003-2005 and part 2 presents a resource material full text CD-ROM on Managing Nuclear Knowledge issued in October 2003

  19. MR arthrography including abduction and external rotation images in the assessment of atraumatic multidirectional instability of the shoulder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeffeler, Christoph [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany); Kantonsspital Graubuenden, Musculoskeletal Imaging, Chur (Switzerland); Waldt, Simone; Bauer, Jan S.; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Woertler, Klaus [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany); Kirchhoff, Chlodwig [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Traumatology, Munich (Germany); Haller, Bernhard [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institute for Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, Munich (Germany); Schroeder, Michael [Center for Sports Orthopedics and Medicine, Orthosportiv, Munich (Germany); Imhoff, Andreas B. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Orthopedic Sports Medicine, Munich (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    To evaluate diagnostic signs and measurements in the assessment of capsular redundancy in atraumatic multidirectional instability (MDI) of the shoulder on MR arthrography (MR-A) including abduction/external rotation (ABER) images. Twenty-one MR-A including ABER position of 20 patients with clinically diagnosed MDI and 17 patients without instability were assessed by three radiologists. On ABER images, presence of a layer of contrast between the humeral head (HH) and the anteroinferior glenohumeral ligament (AIGHL) (crescent sign) and a triangular-shaped space between the HH, AIGHL and glenoid (triangle sign) were evaluated; centring of the HH was measured. Anterosuperior herniation of the rotator interval (RI) capsule and glenoid version were determined on standard imaging planes. The crescent sign had a sensitivity of 57 %/62 %/48 % (observers 1/2/3) and specificity of 100 %/100 %/94 % in the diagnosis of MDI. The triangle sign had a sensitivity of 48 %/57 %/48 % and specificity of 94 %/94 %/100 %. The combination of both signs had a sensitivity of 86 %/90 %/81 % and specificity of 94 %/94 %/94 %. A positive triangle sign was significantly associated with decentring of the HH. Measurements of RI herniation, RI width and glenoid were not significantly different between both groups. Combined assessment of redundancy signs on ABER position MR-A allows for accurate differentiation between patients with atraumatic MDI and patients with clinically stable shoulders; measurements on standard imaging planes appear inappropriate. (orig.)

  20. Enzymatically active 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetases are widely distributed among Metazoa, including protostome lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Päri, Mailis; Kuusksalu, Anne; Lopp, Annika; Kjaer, Karina Hansen; Justesen, Just; Kelve, Merike

    2014-02-01

    2',5'-Oligoadenylate synthetases (OASs) belong to the nucleotidyl transferase family together with poly(A) polymerases, CCA-adding enzymes and the recently discovered cyclic-GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS). Mammalian OASs have been thoroughly characterized as components of the interferon-induced antiviral system. The OAS activity and the respective genes were also discovered in marine sponges where the interferon system is absent. In this study the recombinant OASs from several multicellular animals and their closest unicellular relative, a choanoflagellate, were expressed in a bacterial expression system and their enzymatic activities were examined. We demonstrated 2-5A synthesizing activities of OASs from the marine sponge Tedania ignis, a representative of the phylogenetically oldest metazoan phylum (Porifera), from an invertebrate of the protostome lineage, the mollusk Mytilus californianus (Mollusca), and from a vertebrate species, a cartilaginous fish Leucoraja erinacea (Chordata). However, the expressed proteins from an amphibian, the salamander Ambystoma mexicanum (Chordata), and from a protozoan, the marine choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis (Choanozoa), did not show 2-5A synthesizing activity. Differently from other studied OASs, OAS from the marine sponge T. ignis was able to catalyze the formation of oligomers having both 2',5'- and 3',5'-phosphodiester linkages. Our data suggest that OASs from sponges and evolutionarily higher animals have similar activation mechanisms which still include different affinities and possibly different structural requirements for the activating RNAs. Considering their 2'- and 3'-specificities, sponge OASs could represent a link between evolutionarily earlier nucleotidyl transferases and 2'-specific OASs from higher animals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Including Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography for Tumor Localization and Therapy Planning in Malignant Hilar Obstructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haenninen, E.L.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess image quality and overall accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including two magnetic cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) techniques, for the diagnostics and preoperative work-up of malignant hilar obstructions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-one patients with malignant hilar obstructions (hilar cholangiocarcinoma, n=30; hepatocellular carcinoma, n=1) received MRCP by two techniques (single-shot thick-slab and multisection thin-slice MRCP) and unenhanced and contrast material-enhanced MRI. MR assessment included the evaluation of image quality and visualization of bile ducts (5-point scale), and the classification of tumor status. MR results were subsequently correlated with the results from surgery and pathology. RESULTS: The maximum intensity projections of multisection thin-slice MRCP had significantly more artifacts compared to MRCP in the single-shot thick-slab technique, and overall image quality of single-shot thick-slab MRCP was rated significantly superior compared to multisection thin-slice MRCP (4.4 ± 0.7 and 4.1 ± 0.9, respectively). Moreover, ductal visualization of different parts of the biliary system was rated superior with single-shot thick-slab MRCP. In contrast, the original data from multisection thin slice MRCP facilitated visualization of periductal lesions and adjacent structures. Overall MR accuracy for the assessment of tumor status, periductal infiltration, and lymph node metastases was 90%, 87%, and 66%, respectively. CONCLUSION: For evaluation of malignant hilar obstructions, MRCP by the single-shot thick-slab technique had superior image quality and fewer artifacts; in contrast, besides sole biliary visualization, multisection MRCP depicted complementary adjacent parenchymal and periductal structures. We therefore recommend MRI, with a combination of both MRCP techniques, for the diagnostic work-up and therapy planning of malignant hilar obstructions

  2. Should Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Include the Cost of Consumption Activities? AN Empirical Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adarkwah, Charles Christian; Sadoghi, Amirhossein; Gandjour, Afschin

    2016-02-01

    There has been a debate on whether cost-effectiveness analysis should consider the cost of consumption and leisure time activities when using the quality-adjusted life year as a measure of health outcome under a societal perspective. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the effects of ill health on consumptive activities are spontaneously considered in a health state valuation exercise and how much this matters. The survey enrolled patients with inflammatory bowel disease in Germany (n = 104). Patients were randomized to explicit and no explicit instruction for the consideration of consumption and leisure effects in a time trade-off (TTO) exercise. Explicit instruction to consider non-health-related utility in TTO exercises did not influence TTO scores. However, spontaneous consideration of non-health-related utility in patients without explicit instruction (60% of respondents) led to significantly lower TTO scores. Results suggest an inclusion of consumption costs in the numerator of the cost-effectiveness ratio, at least for those respondents who spontaneously consider non-health-related utility from treatment. Results also suggest that exercises eliciting health valuations from the general public may include a description of the impact of disease on consumptive activities. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Diagnostic value of static MR imaging of soft tissue tumours including lesion size, borders and local extend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tacikowska, M.

    2001-01-01

    The usefulness of MR imaging in the evaluation of the degree of soft tissue malignancy is widely discussed. The aim of this study was to analyse the diagnostic value of MR imaging in the evaluation of local progression of soft tissue tumours and to analyse the usefulness of MR imaging in the differential diagnosis (malignant versus benign lesions). One hundred and ten patients with soft tissue tumours were examined by MR imaging (60 men and 50 women, aged 16 to 84 years). MR imaging was carried out with an Elscint 2T or 0.5T unit. Surface coils (passive) or circular polarized coils (active) depending on the localisation of the lesions were used with field vision from 20x24 cm or 40x40 cm, matrices 200x256, 256x256, or 22x315, layer thickness from 3 to 10 mm, gap 20-30%. SE T1 sequences (TR = 500 - 800 ms, TE = 15 - 20 ms) and FSE T2 (Tr = 2000-4500 ms, TE = 96-104 ms) were routinely used in at least two planes: transverse, frontal or saggital, and SE T1 sequences were used after administration of gadolinium Gd-DTPA in 0.1 m - 0.2 mmol/kg body weigh doses. The tumour dimensions by MR imaging were compared with the results of histological examination of samples obtained during surgery (65 cases) - the statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test, with statistically significant difference accepted at p = 0.05 or less. The borders of the lesions were assessed in the entire material and in the group of 65 patients treated surgically. The latter were compared with the results of histological examination after surgery, thus calculating MR sensitivity and specificity. Static imaging is a valuable diagnostic method for preoperative assesment of the local progression of soft tissue tumours, however it is not suitable for differentiating malignant lesions from benign according to tumour size, borders and local extent. (author)

  4. Characteristics of an β-N-Acetylhexosaminidase from Bacillus sp. CH11, Including its Transglycosylation Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurakake, Masahiro; Amai, Yukari; Konishi, Mizuki; Ikehira, Kaho

    2018-04-06

    β-N-Acetylhexosaminidase was identified from Bacillus sp. CH11 and found to have relatively high transferring activity. In this study, its enzymatic properties and transglycosylation activity including its acceptor specificity were investigated. Its molecular weight was estimated to be 90 kDa by SDS-PAGE and its optimal pH was approximately 7 with good stability from pH 6 to 8. Its optimal temperature was 40 °C, and its activity was stable at temperatures of up to 40 °C. To analyze its acceptor specificity for transglycosylation, N, N'-diacetylchitobiose was used as a donor substrate and alcohols, sugar alcohols, sugars and polyphenols were used as acceptors. Dialcohols, which have 2 hydroxyl groups on the outside of the carbon chains, were good acceptors. The molecular size of the acceptor did not influence the transglycosylation up to at least 1,5-pentanediol (carbon number: C5). Glycerin (C3), erythritol (C4), and xylitol (C5), all small molecular weight sugar alcohols, had high acceptor specificity. Transglycosylation to mono- and disaccharides and polyphenols was not observed except for L-fucose. For the β-N-acetylhexosaminidase-catalyzed transglycosylation of chitin oligosaccharides and xylitol, the transfer product was identified as 1-O-β-D-N-acetylglucosaminyl xylitol. The optimal ratio of xylitol was 24% to 2% N, N'-diacetylchitobiose and 226 mg per 1 g N, N'-diacetylchitobiose was produced. CH11 β-N-acetylhexosaminidase efficiently produced 1-O-β-D-N-acetylglucosaminyl xylitol via transglycosylation. The new transfer products including 1-O-β-D-N-acetylglucosaminyl xylitol are attractive compounds for their potential physiological functions. 1-O-β-D-N-Acetylglucosaminyl xylitol was produced effectively from chitin-oligosaccharides and xylitol by β-N-acetylhexosaminidase from Bacillus sp. CH11. This enzyme may be useful for the development of food materials for health-related applications such as oligosaccharides with intestinal functions and

  5. Imaging active topological defects in carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suenaga, Kazu; Wakabayashi, Hideaki; Koshino, Masanori; Sato, Yuta; Urita, Koki; Iijima, Sumio

    2007-06-01

    A single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) is a wrapped single graphene layer, and its plastic deformation should require active topological defects-non-hexagonal carbon rings that can migrate along the nanotube wall. Although in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been used to examine the deformation of SWNTs, these studies deal only with diameter changes and no atomistic mechanism has been elucidated experimentally. Theory predicts that some topological defects can form through the Stone-Wales transformation in SWNTs under tension at 2,000 K, and could act as a dislocation core. We demonstrate here, by means of high-resolution (HR)-TEM with atomic sensitivity, the first direct imaging of pentagon-heptagon pair defects found in an SWNT that was heated at 2,273 K. Moreover, our in situ HR-TEM observation reveals an accumulation of topological defects near the kink of a deformed nanotube. This result suggests that dislocation motions or active topological defects are indeed responsible for the plastic deformation of SWNTs.

  6. Quantitative and Dynamic Imaging of ATM Kinase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyati, Shyam; Young, Grant; Ross, Brian Dale; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz

    2017-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a serine/threonine kinase critical to the cellular DNA-damage response, including DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). ATM activation results in the initiation of a complex cascade of events facilitating DNA damage repair, cell cycle checkpoint control, and survival. Traditionally, protein kinases have been analyzed in vitro using biochemical methods (kinase assays using purified proteins or immunological assays) requiring a large number of cells and cell lysis. Genetically encoded biosensors based on optical molecular imaging such as fluorescence or bioluminescence have been developed to enable interrogation of kinase activities in live cells with a high signal to background. We have genetically engineered a hybrid protein whose bioluminescent activity is dependent on the ATM-mediated phosphorylation of a substrate. The engineered protein consists of the split luciferase-based protein complementation pair with a CHK2 (a substrate for ATM kinase activity) target sequence and a phospho-serine/threonine-binding domain, FHA2, derived from yeast Rad53. Phosphorylation of the serine residue within the target sequence by ATM would lead to its interaction with the phospho-serine-binding domain, thereby preventing complementation of the split luciferase pair and loss of reporter activity. Bioluminescence imaging of reporter expressing cells in cultured plates or as mouse xenografts provides a quantitative surrogate for ATM kinase activity and therefore the cellular DNA damage response in a noninvasive, dynamic fashion.

  7. Prostate Activated Prodrugs and Imaging Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Graham B

    2004-01-01

    .... The substrate chosen was a 3 component system composed of a peptide sequence with affinity for PSA, an imaging agent and a deactivating bridge-linker, which electronically incapacitates the imaging agent...

  8. Fluorogenic MMP activity assay for plasma including MMPs complexed to α2-macroglobulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, B.; Drijfhout, J.W.; Ronday, H.K.; TeKoppele, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Elevated MMP activities are implicated in tissue degradation in, e.g., arthritis and cancer. The present study was designed to measure MMP enzyme activity in plasma. Free active MMP is unlikely to be present in plasma: upon entering the circulation, active MMP is expected to be captured by the

  9. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A. Millstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass to determine which might be the best indicator(s of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Results. 28 full-text articles met inclusion criteria. Subjects, settings, intervention lengths, and intensities varied. All studies measured body weight (−2.9 to −17.3 kg, 9 studies measured BMI (−1.1 to −5.1 kg/m2, 20 studies measured % body fat (−0.7 to −10.2%, and 22 studies measured fat mass (−0.9 to −14.9 kg. All studies found agreement between weight or BMI and body fat mass or body fat % decreases, though there were discrepancies in degree of significance between measures. Conclusions. Nearly all weight or BMI and body composition measures agreed. Since body fat is the most metabolically harmful tissue type, it may be a more meaningful measure of health change. Future studies should consider primarily measuring % body fat, rather than or in addition to weight or BMI.

  10. Performance of cement solidification with barium for high activity liquid waste including sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waki, Toshikazu; Yamada, Motoyuki; Horikawa, Yoshihiko; Kaneko, Masaaki; Saso, Michitaka; Haruguchi, Yoshiko; Yamashita, Yu; Sakai, Hitoshi

    2009-01-01

    The target liquid waste to be solidified is generated from PWR primary loop spent resin treatment with sulphate acid, so, its main constituent is sodium sulphate and the activity of this liquid is relatively high. Waste form of this liquid waste is considered to be a candidate for the subsurface disposal. The disposed waste including sulphate is anticipated to rise a concentration of sulphate ion in the ground water around the disposal facility and it may cause degradation of materials such as cement and bentonite layer and comprise the disposal facility. There could be two approaches to avoid this problem, the strong design of the disposal facility and the minimization of sulphaste ion migration from the solidified waste. In this study, the latter approach was examined. In order to keep the low concentration of sulphate ion in the ground water, it is effective to make barium sulphate by adding barium compound into the liquid waste in solidification. However, adding equivalent amount of barium compound with sulphate ion causes difficulty of mixing, because production of barium sulphate causes high viscosity. In this study, mixing condition after and before adding cement into the liquid waste was estimated. The mixing condition was set with consideration to keep anion concentration low in the ground water and of mixing easily enough in practical operation. Long term leaching behavior of the simulated solidified waste was also analyzed by PHREEQC. And the concentration of the constitution affected to the disposal facility was estimated be low enough in the ground water. (author)

  11. Evaluation of the Supraglottic and Subglottic Activities Including Acoustic Assessment of the Opera-Chant Singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petekkaya, Emine; Yücel, Ahmet Hilmi; Sürmelioğlu, Özgür

    2017-12-28

    Opera and chant singers learn to effectively use aerodynamic components by breathing exercises during their education. Aerodynamic components, including subglottic air pressure and airflow, deteriorate in voice disorders. This study aimed to evaluate the changes in aerodynamic parameters and supraglottic structures of men and women with different vocal registers who are in an opera and chant education program. Vocal acoustic characteristics, aerodynamic components, and supraglottic structures were evaluated in 40 opera and chant art branch students. The majority of female students were sopranos, and the male students were baritone or tenor vocalists. The acoustic analyses revealed that the mean fundamental frequency was 152.33 Hz in the males and 218.77 Hz in the females. The estimated mean subglottal pressures were similar in females (14.99 cmH 2 O) and in males (14.48 cmH 2 O). Estimated mean airflow rates were also similar in both groups. The supraglottic structure compression analyses revealed partial anterior-posterior compressions in 2 tenors and 2 sopranos, and false vocal fold compression in 2 sopranos. Opera music is sung in high-pitched sounds. Attempts to sing high-pitched notes and frequently using register transitions overstrain the vocal structures. This intense muscular effort eventually traumatizes the vocal structures and causes supraglottic activity. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Macroenvironmental factors including GDP per capita and physical activity in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cameron, Adrian J.; van Stralen, Maartje M.; Kunst, Anton E.; te Velde, Saskia J.; van Lenthe, Frank J.; Salmon, Jo; Brug, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in physical activity at the individual level are well reported. Whether inequalities in economic development and other macroenvironmental variables between countries are also related to physical activity at the country level is comparatively unstudied. We examined the

  13. Macroenvironmental Factors Including GDP per Capita and Physical Activity in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cameron, A.J.; van Stralen, M.M.; Kunst, A.E.; te Velde, S.J.; Lenthe, F.J.; Salmon, J.; Brug, J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Socioeconomic inequalities in physical activity at the individual level are well reported. Whether inequalities in economic development and other macroenvironmental variables between countries are also related to physical activity at the country level is comparatively unstudied. Methods: We

  14. T2 mapping of muscle activity using ultrafast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawara, Noriyuki; Nitta, Osamu; Kuruma, Hironobu; Niitsu, Mamoru; Itoh, Akiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Measuring exercise-induced muscle activity is essential in sports medicine. Previous studies proposed measuring transverse relaxation time (T 2 ) using muscle functional magnetic resonance imaging (mfMRI) to map muscle activity. However, mfMRI uses a spin-echo (SE) sequence that requires several minutes for acquisition. We evaluated the feasibility of T 2 mapping of muscle activity using ultrafast imaging, called fast-acquired mfMRI (fast-mfMRI), to reduce image acquisition time. The current method uses 2 pulse sequences, spin-echo echo-planar imaging (SE-EPI) and true fast imaging with steady precession (TrueFISP). SE-EPI images are used to calculate T 2 , and TrueFISP images are used to obtain morphological information. The functional image is produced by subtracting the image of muscle activity obtained using T 2 at rest from that produced after exercise. Final fast-mfMRI images are produced by fusing the functional images with the morphologic images. Ten subjects repeated ankle plantar flexion 200 times. In the fused images, the areas of activated muscle in the fast-mfMRI and SE-EPI images were identical. The geometric location of the fast-mfMRI did not differ between the morphologic and functional images. Morphological and functional information from fast-mfMRI can be applied to the human trunk, which requires limited scan duration. The difference obtained by subtracting T 2 at rest from T 2 after exercise can be used as a functional image of muscle activity. (author)

  15. Ambient Seismic Imaging of Hydraulically Active Fractures at km Depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, P. E.; Sicking, C.

    2017-12-01

    Streaming Depth Images of ambient seismic signals using numerous, densely-distributed, receivers have revealed their connection to hydraulically active fractures at 0.5 to 5 km depths. Key for this type of imaging is very high-fold stacking over both multiple receives and periods of a few hours. Also important is suppression of waveforms from fixed, repeating sources such as pumps, generators, and traffic. A typical surface-based ambient SDI survey would use a 3D seismic receiver grid. It would have 1,000 to 4,000 uniformly distributed receivers at a density of 50/km2over the target. If acquired by borehole receivers buried 100 m deep, the density can be dropped by an order of magnitude. We show examples of the acquisition and signal processing scenarios used to produce the ambient images. (Sicking et al., SEG Interpretation, Nov 2017.) While the fracture-fluid source connection of SDI has been verified by drilling and various types of hydraulic tests, the precise nature of the signal's origin is not clear. At the current level of observation, the signals do not have identifiable phases, but can be focused using P wave velocities. Suggested sources are resonances of pressures fluctuations in the fractures, or small, continuous, slips on fractures surfaces. In either case, it appears that the driving mechanism is tectonic strain in an inherently unstable crust. Solid earth tides may enhance these strains. We illustrate the value of the ambient SDI method in its industrial application by showing case histories from energy industry and carbon-capture-sequestration projects. These include ambient images taken before, during, and after hydraulic treatments in un-conventional reservoirs. The results show not only locations of active fractures, but also their time responses to stimulation and production. Time-lapse ambient imaging can forecast and track events such as well interferences and production changes that can result from nearby treatments.

  16. Large-scale imaging of retinal output activity

    CERN Document Server

    Litke, A M; Dabrowski, W; Grillo, A A; Grybos, P; Kachiguine, S; Rahman, M; Taylor, G

    2003-01-01

    A system is being developed to study how the retina processes, encodes and communicates information about the visual world to the brain. It will image the activity of retinal output neurons over a region of live retina approaching that used for significant neural computation in the visual cortex. A prototype system consisting of 61 microelectrodes, covering an area of 0.17 mm**2, is described, including some first results with monkey retina. The plans and status for a system with 512 microelectrodes, covering an area of 1.7 mm**2, are also given.

  17. DINEOF reconstruction of clouded images including error maps – application to the Sea-Surface Temperature around Corsican Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-M. Beckers

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an extension to the Data INterpolating Empirical Orthogonal Functions (DINEOF technique which allows not only to fill in clouded images but also to provide an estimation of the error covariance of the reconstruction. This additional information is obtained by an analogy with optimal interpolation. It is shown that the error fields can be obtained with a clever rearrangement of calculations at a cost comparable to that of the interpolation itself. The method is presented on the reconstruction of sea-surface temperature in the Ligurian Sea and around the Corsican Island (Mediterranean Sea, including the calculation of inter-annual variability of average surface values and their expected errors. The application shows that the error fields are not only able to reflect the data-coverage structure but also the covariances of the physical fields.

  18. Imaging of glia activation in people with primary lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganoni, Sabrina; Alshikho, Mohamad J; Zürcher, Nicole R; Cernasov, Paul; Babu, Suma; Loggia, Marco L; Chan, James; Chonde, Daniel B; Garcia, David Izquierdo; Catana, Ciprian; Mainero, Caterina; Rosen, Bruce R; Cudkowicz, Merit E; Hooker, Jacob M; Atassi, Nazem

    2018-01-01

    Glia activation is thought to contribute to neuronal damage in several neurodegenerative diseases based on preclinical and human post - mortem studies, but its role in primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) is unknown. To localize and measure glia activation in people with PLS compared to healthy controls (HC). Ten participants with PLS and ten age-matched HCs underwent simultaneous magnetic resonance (MR) and proton emission tomography (PET). The radiotracer [ 11 C]-PBR28 was used to obtain PET-based measures of 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) expression, a marker of activated glial cells. MR techniques included a structural sequence to measure cortical thickness and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess white matter integrity. PET data showed increased [ 11 C]-PBR28 uptake in anatomically-relevant motor regions which co-localized with areas of regional gray matter atrophy and decreased subcortical fractional anisotropy. This study supports a link between glia activation and neuronal degeneration in PLS, and suggests that these disease mechanisms can be measured in vivo in PLS. Future studies are needed to determine the longitudinal changes of these imaging measures and to clarify if MR-PET with [ 11 C]-PBR28 can be used as a biomarker for drug development in the context of clinical trials for PLS.

  19. Does limited virucidal activity of biocides include duck hepatitis B virucidal action?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauerbrei Andreas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is agreement that the infectivity assay with the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV is a suitable surrogate test to validate disinfectants for hepatitis B virucidal activity. However, since this test is not widely used, information is necessary whether disinfectants with limited virucidal activity also inactivate DHBV. In general, disinfectants with limited virucidal activity are used for skin and sensitive surfaces while agents with full activity are more aggressive. The present study compares the activity of five different biocides against DHBV and the classical test virus for limited virucidal activity, the vaccinia virus strain Lister Elstree (VACV or the modified vaccinia Ankara strain (MVA. Methods Virucidal assay was performed as suspension test according to the German DVV/RKI guideline. Duck hepatitis B virus obtained from congenitally infected Peking ducks was propagated in primary duck embryonic hepatocytes and was detected by indirect immunofluorescent antigen staining. Results The DHBV was inactivated by the use of 40% ethanol within 1-min and 30% isopropanol within 2-min exposure. In comparison, 40% ethanol within 2-min and 40% isopropanol within 1-min exposure were effective against VACV/MVA. These alcohols only have limited virucidal activity, while the following agents have full activity. 0.01% peracetic acid inactivated DHBV within 2 min and a concentration of 0.005% had virucidal efficacy against VACV/MVA within 1 min. After 2-min exposure, 0.05% glutardialdehyde showed a comparable activity against DHBV and VACV/MVA. This is also the case for 0.7% formaldehyde after a contact time of 30 min. Conclusions Duck hepatitis B virus is at least as sensitive to limited virucidal activity as VACV/MVA. Peracetic acid is less effective against DHBV, while the alcohols are less effective against VACV/MVA. It can be expected that in absence of more direct tests the results may be extrapolated to HBV.

  20. Evolution of Choroidal Neovascularization due to Presumed Ocular Histoplasmosis Syndrome on Multimodal Imaging including Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Y. Alvin Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A 37-year-old Caucasian woman presented with acute decrease in central vision in her right eye and was found to have subfoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV due to presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome (POHS. Her visual acuity improved from 20/70 to 20/20 at her 6-month follow-up, after 3 consecutive monthly intravitreal bevacizumab injections were initiated at her first visit. Although no CNV activity was seen on fluorescein angiography (FA or spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT at her 2-month, 4-month, and 6-month follow-up visits, persistent flow in the CNV lesion was detected on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA. OCTA shows persistent vascular flow as well as changes in vascular flow in CNV lesions associated with POHS, indicating the continued presence of patent vessels and changes in these CNV lesions, even when traditional imaging of the lesion with OCT and FA indicates stability of the lesion with no disease activity. Additional cases with longitudinal follow-up are needed to assess how OCTA should be incorporated into clinical practice.

  1. Intracellular activity of clinical concentrations of phenothiazines including thioridiazine against phagocytosed Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordway, Diane; Viveiros, Miguel; Leandro, Clara; Arroz, Maria Jorge; Amaral, Leonard

    2002-07-01

    The effect of thioridazine (TZ) was studied on the killing activity of human peripheral blood monocyte derived macrophages (HPBMDM) and of human macrophage cell line THP-1 at extracellular concentrations below those achievable clinically. These macrophages have nominal killing activity against bacteria and therefore, would not influence any activity that the compounds may have against intracellular localised Staphylococcus aureus. The results indicated that whereas TZ has an in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against the strains of S. aureus of 18, 0.1 mg/l of TZ in the medium completely inhibits the growth of S. aureus that has been phagocytosed by macrophages. The latter concentration was non-toxic to macrophages, did not cause cellular expression of activation marker CD69 nor induction of CD3+ T cell production of IFN-gamma, but blocked cellular proliferation and down-regulated the production of T cell-derived cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-5). These results suggest that TZ induces intracellular bactericidal activities independent of the capacity to generate Type 1 responses against S. aureus.

  2. Precision IORT - Image guided intraoperative radiation therapy (igIORT) using online treatment planning including tissue heterogeneity correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Frank; Bludau, Frederic; Clausen, Sven; Fleckenstein, Jens; Obertacke, Udo; Wenz, Frederik

    2017-05-01

    To the present date, IORT has been eye and hand guided without treatment planning and tissue heterogeneity correction. This limits the precision of the application and the precise documentation of the location and the deposited dose in the tissue. Here we present a set-up where we use image guidance by intraoperative cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for precise online Monte Carlo treatment planning including tissue heterogeneity correction. An IORT was performed during balloon kyphoplasty using a dedicated Needle Applicator. An intraoperative CBCT was registered with a pre-op CT. Treatment planning was performed in Radiance using a hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm simulating dose in homogeneous (MCwater) and heterogeneous medium (MChet). Dose distributions on CBCT and pre-op CT were compared with each other. Spinal cord and the metastasis doses were evaluated. The MCwater calculations showed a spherical dose distribution as expected. The minimum target dose for the MChet simulations on pre-op CT was increased by 40% while the maximum spinal cord dose was decreased by 35%. Due to the artefacts on the CBCT the comparison between MChet simulations on CBCT and pre-op CT showed differences up to 50% in dose. igIORT and online treatment planning improves the accuracy of IORT. However, the current set-up is limited by CT artefacts. Fusing an intraoperative CBCT with a pre-op CT allows the combination of an accurate dose calculation with the knowledge of the correct source/applicator position. This method can be also used for pre-operative treatment planning followed by image guided surgery. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Parameterization of cloud droplet formation for global and regional models: including adsorption activation from insoluble CCN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kumar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Dust and black carbon aerosol have long been known to exert potentially important and diverse impacts on cloud droplet formation. Most studies to date focus on the soluble fraction of these particles, and overlook interactions of the insoluble fraction with water vapor (even if known to be hydrophilic. To address this gap, we developed a new parameterization that considers cloud droplet formation within an ascending air parcel containing insoluble (but wettable particles externally mixed with aerosol containing an appreciable soluble fraction. Activation of particles with a soluble fraction is described through well-established Köhler theory, while the activation of hydrophilic insoluble particles is treated by "adsorption-activation" theory. In the latter, water vapor is adsorbed onto insoluble particles, the activity of which is described by a multilayer Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH adsorption isotherm modified to account for particle curvature. We further develop FHH activation theory to i find combinations of the adsorption parameters AFHH, BFHH which yield atmospherically-relevant behavior, and, ii express activation properties (critical supersaturation that follow a simple power law with respect to dry particle diameter.

    The new parameterization is tested by comparing the parameterized cloud droplet number concentration against predictions with a detailed numerical cloud model, considering a wide range of particle populations, cloud updraft conditions, water vapor condensation coefficient and FHH adsorption isotherm characteristics. The agreement between parameterization and parcel model is excellent, with an average error of 10% and R2~0.98. A preliminary sensitivity study suggests that the sublinear response of droplet number to Köhler particle concentration is not as strong for FHH particles.

  4. Using assistive technology adaptations to include students with learning disabilities in cooperative learning activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, D P; Bryant, B R

    1998-01-01

    Cooperative learning (CL) is a common instructional arrangement that is used by classroom teachers to foster academic achievement and social acceptance of students with and without learning disabilities. Cooperative learning is appealing to classroom teachers because it can provide an opportunity for more instruction and feedback by peers than can be provided by teachers to individual students who require extra assistance. Recent studies suggest that students with LD may need adaptations during cooperative learning activities. The use of assistive technology adaptations may be necessary to help some students with LD compensate for their specific learning difficulties so that they can engage more readily in cooperative learning activities. A process for integrating technology adaptations into cooperative learning activities is discussed in terms of three components: selecting adaptations, monitoring the use of the adaptations during cooperative learning activities, and evaluating the adaptations' effectiveness. The article concludes with comments regarding barriers to and support systems for technology integration, technology and effective instructional practices, and the need to consider technology adaptations for students who have learning disabilities.

  5. Observing a fictitious stressful event: haematological changes, including circulating leukocyte activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Rubina; Shelton-Rayner, Graham; Harkin, Brendan; Williams, Paul

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of watching a psychological stressful event on the activation of leukocytes in healthy human volunteers. Blood samples were obtained from 32 healthy male and female subjects aged between 20 and 26 years before, during and after either watching an 83-minute horror film that none of the subjects had previously seen (The Texas Chainsaw Massacre, 1974) or by sitting quietly in a room (control group). Total differential cell counts, leukocyte activation as measured by the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test, heart rate and blood pressure (BP) measurements were taken at defined time points. There were significant increases in peripheral circulating leukocytes, the number of activated circulating leukocytes, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and haematocrit (Hct) in response to the stressor. These were accompanied by significant increases in heart rate, systolic and diastolic BP (P<0.05 from baseline). This is the first reported study on the effects of observing a psychologically stressful, albeit fictitious event on circulating leukocyte numbers and the state of leukocyte activation as determined by the nitrotetrazolium test.

  6. Distorted images of one's own body activates the prefrontal cortex and limbic/paralimbic system in young women: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosaki, Mitsuhaya; Shirao, Naoko; Yamashita, Hidehisa; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2006-02-15

    Our aim was to study the gender differences in brain activation upon viewing visual stimuli of distorted images of one's own body. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging on 11 healthy young men and 11 healthy young women using the "body image tasks" which consisted of fat, real, and thin shapes of the subject's own body. Comparison of the brain activation upon performing the fat-image task versus real-image task showed significant activation of the bilateral prefrontal cortex and left parahippocampal area including the amygdala in the women, and significant activation of the right occipital lobe including the primary and secondary visual cortices in the men. Comparison of brain activation upon performing the thin-image task versus real-image task showed significant activation of the left prefrontal cortex, left limbic area including the cingulate gyrus and paralimbic area including the insula in women, and significant activation of the occipital lobe including the left primary and secondary visual cortices in men. These results suggest that women tend to perceive distorted images of their own bodies by complex cognitive processing of emotion, whereas men tend to perceive distorted images of their own bodies by object visual processing and spatial visual processing.

  7. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance agreement...

  8. Activity behavior of a HPLC column including α-chymotrypsin immobilized monosized-porous particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilici, Z.; Camli, S.T.; Unsal, E.; Tuncel, A.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, a polymer-based, α-chymotrypsin (CT) immobilized HPLC column was prepared as a potential material for affinity-HPLC and chiral separation applications. Monosized-macroporous particles were synthesized as the support material by a relatively new polymerization protocol, the so-called, 'modified seeded polymerization'. The particles were obtained in the form of styrene-glycidyl methacrylate- divinylbenzene terpolymer approximately 11 μm in size. The particles were treated with aqueous ammonia to have primary amine groups on the porous surface. The amine functionalized particles were reacted by glutaraldehyde and the enzyme, CT, was covalently attached. CT carrying monosized-porous particles were slurry packed into the HPLC column 50 mmx4.6 mm in size. Since the activity behavior of immobilized CT played an important role in the enantiomeric separations performed by similar columns, the enzymatic activity behavior of the column produced by our protocol was determined. For this purpose, HPLC column was used as a packed bed reactor and the enzymatic reaction was continuously followed by measuring the absorbance of the output flow by the UV-detector of HPLC. S-shaped absorbance-time curves were obtained by monitoring the reactor output both in dynamic and steady-state periods. The columns with relatively lower immobilized enzyme content were more sensitive to the changes in the operating conditions and responded with more appreciable substrate conversion changes. The maximum reaction rate of the immobilized enzyme was estimated as approximately 25% of the free one by the mathematical model describing the activity behavior of the column. No significant loss was observed in the activity of the immobilized enzyme during the course of the experiments

  9. Ex Vivo Activity of Endoperoxide Antimalarials, Including Artemisone and Arterolane, against Multidrug-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    OCT 2014 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ex Vivo Activity of Endoperoxide Antimalarials , Including Artemisone...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Ex Vivo Activity of Endoperoxide Antimalarials , Including Artemisone and Arterolane, against Multidrug-Resistant...potent antimalarial activity (2, 3). Despite having a rapid mecha- nism of action, artemisinin resistance eventually emerged and was first detected

  10. Functional imaging of cerebral cortex activation with a 1.5-T MR imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Hyoung; Chang, Sun Ae; Ha, Choong Kun; Kim, Eun Sang; Kim, Hyung Jin; Chung, Sung Hoon

    1995-01-01

    Most of recent MR imagings of cerebral cortex activation have been performed by using high field magnet above 2-T or echo-planar imaging technique. We report our experience on imaging of cerebral cortex activation with a widely available standard 1.5-T MR. Series of gradient-echo images (TR/TE/flip angle: 80/60/40 .deg. 64 x 128 matrix) were acquired alternatively during the periods of rest and task in five normal volunteers. Finger movement (n = 10;5 right, 5 left) and flashing photic stimulation (n 1) were used as a motor task and a visual task to activate the motor cortex and visual cortex, respectively. Activation images were obtained by subtracting sum of rest images from that of task images. Changes of signal intensity were analyzed over the periods of rest and task. Activation images were obtained in all cases. Changes of signal intensity between rest and task periods were 6.5-14.6%(mean, 10.5%) in the motor cortex and 4.2% in the visual cortex. Functional imaging of cerebral cortex activation could be performed with a widely available 1.5-T MR. Widespread applications of this technique to basic and clinical neuroscience are expected

  11. Functional imaging of cerebral cortex activation with a 1.5-T MR imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hyoung; Chang, Sun Ae; Ha, Choong Kun; Kim, Eun Sang; Kim, Hyung Jin; Chung, Sung Hoon [Gyeongsang National University, College of Medicine, Jeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-15

    Most of recent MR imagings of cerebral cortex activation have been performed by using high field magnet above 2-T or echo-planar imaging technique. We report our experience on imaging of cerebral cortex activation with a widely available standard 1.5-T MR. Series of gradient-echo images (TR/TE/flip angle: 80/60/40 .deg. 64 x 128 matrix) were acquired alternatively during the periods of rest and task in five normal volunteers. Finger movement (n = 10;5 right, 5 left) and flashing photic stimulation (n 1) were used as a motor task and a visual task to activate the motor cortex and visual cortex, respectively. Activation images were obtained by subtracting sum of rest images from that of task images. Changes of signal intensity were analyzed over the periods of rest and task. Activation images were obtained in all cases. Changes of signal intensity between rest and task periods were 6.5-14.6%(mean, 10.5%) in the motor cortex and 4.2% in the visual cortex. Functional imaging of cerebral cortex activation could be performed with a widely available 1.5-T MR. Widespread applications of this technique to basic and clinical neuroscience are expected.

  12. Active immunisation of horses against tetanus including the booster dose and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liefman, C E

    1981-02-01

    Successful active immunisation of horses against tetanus is dependent on a number of factors of which the toxoid preparation used, its method of application and the ability of the individual horse to respond are fundamental. Two immunisation schedules using an aluminium-based toxoid preparation were examined and the protection determined by monitoring the level of antitoxin afforded by each schedule. The results obtained demonstrated that 2 doses of this toxoid are necessary to ensure 12 months protection in all horses. These results are discussed in relation to the factors involved in active immunisation against tetanus. Reference is also made to the occurrence of a transient phase of reduced levels of antitoxin following booster doses of toxoid in immunised horses during which it is considered these horses could become more susceptible to tetanus. The effect of a booster dose on immunised horses was examined and while there can be a reduction in the level of antitoxin in some immunised horses following this dose its effect is minimal, short-lived and for all practical purposes can be disregarded. The application of the booster dose in practice is also discussed.

  13. In vitro activity of Inula helenium against clinical Staphylococcus aureus strains including MRSA.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, S

    2009-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the bactericidal activity (specifically antistaphylococcal) of Inula helenium. The antimicrobial activity of the extract is tested against 200 clinically significant Irish Staphylococcus aureus isolates consisting of methicillin-resistant (MRSA) and -sensitive (MSSA) S. aureus using a drop test method and a microbroth dilution method. The antibacterial effect is evaluated by measuring the area of the inhibition zone against the isolates. Results proved I. helenium to be 100% effective against the 200 staphylococci tested, with 93% of isolates falling within the ++ and +++ groups. The minimum bactericidal concentration of I. helenium was examined on a subset of isolates and values ranged from 0.9 mg\\/mL to 9.0 mg\\/mL. The extract was equally effective against antibiotic-resistant and -sensitive strains. This plant therefore possesses compounds with potent antistaphylococcal properties, which in the future could be used to complement infection control policies and prevent staphylococcal infection and carriage. This research supports other studies wherein herbal plants exhibiting medicinal properties are being examined to overcome the problems of antibiotic resistance and to offer alternatives in the treatment and control of infectious diseases.

  14. Nuclear Rocket Test Facility Decommissioning Including Controlled Explosive Demolition of a Neutron-Activated Shield Wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael Kruzic

    2007-01-01

    Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site, the Test Cell A Facility was used in the 1960s for the testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program. The facility was decontaminated and decommissioned (D and D) in 2005 using the Streamlined Approach For Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Utilities and process piping were verified void of contents, hazardous materials were removed, concrete with removable contamination decontaminated, large sections mechanically demolished, and the remaining five-foot, five-inch thick radiologically-activated reinforced concrete shield wall demolished using open-air controlled explosive demolition (CED). CED of the shield wall was closely monitored and resulted in no radiological exposure or atmospheric release

  15. Sixty Minutes of Physical Activity per Day Included Within Preschool Academic Lessons Improves Early Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Stacie M; Kirk, Erik P

    2016-03-01

    The effects of increases in physical activity (PA) on early literacy skills in preschool children are not known. Fifty-four African-American preschool children from a low socioeconomic urban Head Start participated over 8 months. A 2-group, quasi-experimental design was used with one preschool site participating in the PA intervention and a second site participating as the control site. The PA program was designed to promote 300 minutes/week of moderate to vigorous PA academic lessons. Academic achievement related to early literacy and phonological awareness in the areas of rhyming and alliteration were assessed at baseline, 4 and 8 months. Over 8 months, rhyming significantly (p literacy. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  16. porewater chemistry experiment at Mont Terri rock laboratory. Reactive transport modelling including bacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tournassat, Christophe; Gaucher, Eric C.; Leupin, Olivier X.; Wersin, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. An in-situ test in the Opalinus Clay formation, termed pore water Chemistry (PC) experiment, was run for a period of five years. It was based on the concept of diffusive equilibration whereby traced water with a composition close to that expected in the formation was continuously circulated and monitored in a packed off borehole. The main original focus was to obtain reliable data on the pH/pCO 2 of the pore water, but because of unexpected microbially- induced redox reactions, the objective was then changed to elucidate the biogeochemical processes happening in the borehole and to understand their impact on pH/pCO 2 and pH in the low permeability clay formation. The biologically perturbed chemical evolution of the PC experiment was simulated with reactive transport models. The aim of this modelling exercise was to develop a 'minimal-' model able to reproduce the chemical evolution of the PC experiment, i.e. the chemical evolution of solute inorganic and organic compounds (organic carbon, dissolved inorganic carbon etc...) that are coupled with each other through the simultaneous occurrence of biological transformation of solute or solid compounds, in-diffusion and out-diffusion of solute species and precipitation/dissolution of minerals (in the borehole and in the formation). An accurate description of the initial chemical conditions in the surrounding formation together with simplified kinetics rule mimicking the different phases of bacterial activities allowed reproducing the evolution of all main measured parameters (e.g. pH, TOC). Analyses from the overcoring and these simulations evidence the high buffer capacity of Opalinus clay regarding chemical perturbations due to bacterial activity. This pH buffering capacity is mainly attributed to the carbonate system as well as to the clay surfaces reactivity. Glycerol leaching from the pH-electrode might be the primary organic source responsible for

  17. Design of a high-lift experiment in water including active flow control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beutel, T; Schwerter, M; Büttgenbach, S; Leester-Schädel, M; Sattler, S; El Sayed, Y; Radespiel, R; Zander, M; Sinapius, M; Wierach, P

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the structural design of an active flow-control experiment. The aim of the experiment is to investigate the increase in efficiency of an internally blown Coanda flap using unsteady blowing. The system uses tailor-made microelectromechanical (MEMS) pressure sensors to determine the state of the oncoming flow and an actuated lip to regulate the mass flow and velocity of a stream near a wall over the internally blown flap. Sensors and actuators are integrated into a highly loaded system that is extremely compact. The sensors are connected to a bus system that feeds the data into a real-time control system. The piezoelectric actuators using the d 33 effect at a comparable low voltage of 120 V are integrated into a lip that controls the blowout slot height. The system is designed for closed-loop control that efficiently avoids flow separation on the Coanda flap. The setup is designed for water-tunnel experiments in order to reduce the free-stream velocity and the system’s control frequency by a factor of 10 compared with that in air. This paper outlines the function and verification of the system’s main components and their development. (technical note)

  18. Ozone control of biological activity during Earth's history, including the KT catastrophe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, W. R.

    1994-01-01

    There have been brief periods since the beginning of the Cambrian some 600 m.y. ago when mass extinctions destroyed a significant fraction of living species. The most widely studied of these events is the catastrophe at the KT boundary that ended the long dominance of the dinosaurs. In addition to mass extinctions, there is another profound discontinuity in the history of Earth's biota, the explosion of life at the end of the Precambrian era which is an episode that is not explained well at all. For some 3 b.y. before the Cambrian, life had been present on Earth, but maintained a low level of activity which is an aspect of the biota that is puzzling, especially during the last two-thirds of that period. During the last 2 b.y. before the Cambrian, conditions at the Earth's surface were suitable for a burgeoning of the biota, according to most criteria: the oceans neither boiled nor were fozen solid during this time, and the atmosphere contained sufficient O for the development of animals. The purpose of this paper is to suggest that mass extinctions and the lackluster behavior of the Precambrian biota share a common cause: an inadequate amount of ozone in the atmosphere.

  19. Dosimetric verification of radiation therapy including intensity modulated treatments, using an amorphous-silicon electronic portal imaging device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chytyk-Praznik, Krista Joy

    Radiation therapy is continuously increasing in complexity due to technological innovation in delivery techniques, necessitating thorough dosimetric verification. Comparing accurately predicted portal dose images to measured images obtained during patient treatment can determine if a particular treatment was delivered correctly. The goal of this thesis was to create a method to predict portal dose images that was versatile and accurate enough to use in a clinical setting. All measured images in this work were obtained with an amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device (a-Si EPID), but the technique is applicable to any planar imager. A detailed, physics-motivated fluence model was developed to characterize fluence exiting the linear accelerator head. The model was further refined using results from Monte Carlo simulations and schematics of the linear accelerator. The fluence incident on the EPID was converted to a portal dose image through a superposition of Monte Carlo-generated, monoenergetic dose kernels specific to the a-Si EPID. Predictions of clinical IMRT fields with no patient present agreed with measured portal dose images within 3% and 3 mm. The dose kernels were applied ignoring the geometrically divergent nature of incident fluence on the EPID. A computational investigation into this parallel dose kernel assumption determined its validity under clinically relevant situations. Introducing a patient or phantom into the beam required the portal image prediction algorithm to account for patient scatter and attenuation. Primary fluence was calculated by attenuating raylines cast through the patient CT dataset, while scatter fluence was determined through the superposition of pre-calculated scatter fluence kernels. Total dose in the EPID was calculated by convolving the total predicted incident fluence with the EPID-specific dose kernels. The algorithm was tested on water slabs with square fields, agreeing with measurement within 3% and 3 mm. The

  20. Imaging techniques in nuclear medicine. Including DRG, cost and risks; Indikationstabellen Bildgebende Verfahren. Mit Hinweisen zu DRG, Kosten und Risiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestmann, J.W. [Charite Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde

    2005-07-01

    One important instrument of optimizing the establishing of indications for imaging diagnostics and interventional radiology is the introduction of indication-specific standards and guidelines. This book for the first time combines the presentation of meaningful and necessary imaging techniques for a large number of clinical indications with an economical assessment of this diagnostical techniques. The average costs of imaging techniques are shown in a way easy to comprehend and are compared with the average remuneration of the whole in-house treatment of the case.

  1. A 128 x 128 CMOS Active Pixel Image Sensor for Highly Integrated Imaging Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendis, Sunetra K.; Kemeny, Sabrina E.; Fossum, Eric R.

    1993-01-01

    A new CMOS-based image sensor that is intrinsically compatible with on-chip CMOS circuitry is reported. The new CMOS active pixel image sensor achieves low noise, high sensitivity, X-Y addressability, and has simple timing requirements. The image sensor was fabricated using a 2 micrometer p-well CMOS process, and consists of a 128 x 128 array of 40 micrometer x 40 micrometer pixels. The CMOS image sensor technology enables highly integrated smart image sensors, and makes the design, incorporation and fabrication of such sensors widely accessible to the integrated circuit community.

  2. Active Metamaterials for Terahertz Communication and Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Saroj

    In recent years there has been significant interest in terahertz (THz) systems mostly due to their unique applications in communication and imaging. One of the primary reason for this resurgence is the use of metamaterials to design THz devices due to lack of natural materials that can respond to this electromagnetic spectrum, the so-called ''THz gap''. Even after years of intense research, THz systems are complex and expensive, unsuitable for mainstream applications. This work focuses on bridging this gap by building all solid-state THz devices for imaging and communication applications in a commercial integrated circuit (IC) technology. One such canonical device is a THz wave modulator that can be used in THz wireless communication devices and as spatial light modulator (SLM) for THz imaging systems. The key contribution of this thesis is a metamaterial based THz wave modulator fabricated in a commercial gallium arsenide (GaAs) process resonant at 0.46 THz using a novel approach of embedding pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistors (pHEMTs) in metamaterial and demonstrate modulation values over 30%, and THz modulation at frequencies up to 10 MHz. Using the THz wave modulator, we fabricated and experimentally demonstrated an all solid-state metamaterial based THz spatial light modulator (SLM) as a 2x2 pixel array operating around 0.46 THz, by raster scanning an occluded metal object in polystyrene using a single-pixel imaging setup. This was an important step towards building an low-voltage (1V), low power, on-chip integrable THz imaging device. Using the characterization result from the THz SLM, we computationally demonstrated a multi-level amplitude shift keying (ASK) terahertz wireless communication system using spatial light modulation instead of traditional voltage mode modulation, achieving higher spectral efficiency for high speed communication. We show two orders of magnitude improvement in symbol error rate (SER) for a degradation of 20 dB in

  3. Circularly polarized antennas for active holographic imaging through barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMakin, Douglas L [Richland, WA; Severtsen, Ronald H [Richland, WA; Lechelt, Wayne M [West Richland, WA; Prince, James M [Kennewick, WA

    2011-07-26

    Circularly-polarized antennas and their methods of use for active holographic imaging through barriers. The antennas are dielectrically loaded to optimally match the dielectric constant of the barrier through which images are to be produced. The dielectric loading helps to remove barrier-front surface reflections and to couple electromagnetic energy into the barrier.

  4. Framework for a low-cost intra-operative image-guided neuronavigator including brain shift compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Bucki, Marek; Lobos, Claudio; Payan, Yohan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a methodology to address the problem of brain tissue deformation referred to as 'brain-shift'. This deformation occurs throughout a neurosurgery intervention and strongly alters the accuracy of the neuronavigation systems used to date in clinical routine which rely solely on pre-operative patient imaging to locate the surgical target, such as a tumour or a functional area. After a general description of the framework of our intra-operative image-guided system, we desc...

  5. Body image and physical activity among black university students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BMI was associated with overweight preoccupation and self-classified weight. Fitness orientation, health evaluation and body areas satisfaction were associated ... Key words: Body image, physical activity, black women and men, South Africa.

  6. Physical activity and body image among men and boys: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett-Gunter, Rebecca; McEwan, Desmond; Kamarhie, Aria

    2017-09-01

    Three meta-analytic reviews have concluded that physical activity is positively related to body image. Historically, research regarding physical activity and body image has been disproportionately focused on female samples. For example, the most recent meta-analysis (2009) extracted 56 effect sizes for women and only 12 for men. The current paper provides an update to the literature regarding the relationship between physical activity and body image among men and boys across 84 individual effect sizes. The analysis also provides insight regarding moderator variables including participant age, and physical activity type and intensity. Overall, physical activity was positively related to body image among men and boys with various moderator variables warranting further investigation. Pragmatic implications are discussed as well as the limitations within existing research and need for additional research to further understand moderator and mediator variables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Body image, BMI, and physical activity in girls and boys aged 14-16 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantanista, Adam; Osiński, Wiesław; Borowiec, Joanna; Tomczak, Maciej; Król-Zielińska, Magdalena

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body image, body mass index (BMI), and physical activity in adolescents. The study included 1702 girls and 1547 boys aged 14-16 years. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was evaluated by the Physical Activity Screening Measure. Body image was assessed using the Feelings and Attitudes Towards the Body Scale, and participants' BMI was determined based on measured height and weight. Compared to boys, girls reported more negative body image (pboys than in girls. These findings suggest that body image, rather than BMI, is important in undertaking physical activity in adolescents and should be considered when preparing programs aimed at improving physical activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... creation and economic development activities? (a) A Tribe may conduct job market assessments within its NEW Program. These might include the following: (1) Consultation with the Tribe's economic development staff...

  9. Can activity support influence image of a street?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiami Fachrudin, Hilma

    2018-03-01

    Activity support may affect the formation of the image of a corridor and street. Form, place, and character of activity support in an area will have the function attraction and usefulness of its activities. The aim of this research is to analyze how the influence of activity support on the image of a street, in this case, Dr.Mansyur street which located in front of Universitas Sumatera Utara. Along the street, there are various activities that conducted from morning until evening. The method used is a quantitative method with observation and questionnaire techniques. A population of this study is visitors and students of architecture department from Universitas Sumatera Utara (USU) with sample number is 100 respondents for visitors and 100 respondents for students. Independent variables are activity support factors that consist of the type of activity, form, color, dimension, material, position and lighting. The dependent variable is imageability by [1]. Data were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. The results show that activity support influences image Dr. Mansyur street that has an image as a campus and culinary area and easy to identify.

  10. Cardiac imaging in RASopathies/mitogen activated protein kinase syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Gravino

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available RASopathies include a spectrum of disorders due to dysregulation of RAS/mitogen activated protein kinase pathway that plays an essential role in the control of the cell cycle and differentiation. As a consequence, its dysregulation has profound developmental consequences, in particular cardiac malformations. RASopathies with cardiac features are: Noonan syndrome, multiple lentigines syndrome, cardio-faciocutaneous syndrome, Costello syndrome, neurofibromatosis- 1, Legius syndrome, neurofibromatosis- Noonan syndrome. The former syndromes are associated with a high rate of cardiac involvement (60-85% and 12 genes: PTPN11, SOS1, RAF1, KRAS, HRAS, BRAF, MEK1/MAP2K1, MEK2/MAP2K2, NRAS, SHOC2, CBL and SPRED1. Although the majority of these diseases are readily distinguishable in clinical terms, an integrated imaging study of the cardiac condition associated to RASopathies helps to better define risk assessment, surveillance, and management of these patients.

  11. Physiological basis and image processing in functional magnetic resonance imaging: Neuronal and motor activity in brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Rakesh

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is recently developing as imaging modality used for mapping hemodynamics of neuronal and motor event related tissue blood oxygen level dependence (BOLD in terms of brain activation. Image processing is performed by segmentation and registration methods. Segmentation algorithms provide brain surface-based analysis, automated anatomical labeling of cortical fields in magnetic resonance data sets based on oxygen metabolic state. Registration algorithms provide geometric features using two or more imaging modalities to assure clinically useful neuronal and motor information of brain activation. This review article summarizes the physiological basis of fMRI signal, its origin, contrast enhancement, physical factors, anatomical labeling by segmentation, registration approaches with examples of visual and motor activity in brain. Latest developments are reviewed for clinical applications of fMRI along with other different neurophysiological and imaging modalities.

  12. The relationship between functional magnetic resonance imaging activation, diffusion tensor imaging, and training effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Danielle; Budson, Andrew E

    2017-04-01

    While the relationship between diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measurements and training effects is explored by Voelker et al. (this issue), a cursory discussion of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements categorizes increased activation with findings of greater white matter integrity. Evidence of the relationship between fMRI activation and white matter integrity is conflicting, as is the relationship between fMRI activation and training effects. An examination of the changes in fMRI activation in response to training is helpful, but the relationship between DTI and fMRI activation, particularly in the context of white matter changes, must be examined further before general conclusions can be drawn.

  13. Applicability of compton imaging in nuclear decommissioning activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljubenov, V.Lj.; Marinkovic, P.M.

    2002-01-01

    During the decommissioning of nuclear facilities significant part of the activities is related to the radiological characterization, waste classification and management. For these purposes a relatively new imaging technique, based on information from the gamma radiation that undergoes Compton scattering, is applicable. Compton imaging systems have a number of advantages for nuclear waste characterization, such as identifying hot spots in mixed waste in order to reduce the volume of high-level waste requiring extensive treatment or long-term storage, imaging large contaminated areas and objects etc. Compton imaging also has potential applications for monitoring of production, transport and storage of nuclear materials and components. This paper discusses some system design requirements and performance specifications for these applications. The advantages of Compton imaging are compared to competing imaging techniques. (author)

  14. CMOS active pixel sensor type imaging system on a chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Nixon, Robert (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A single chip camera which includes an .[.intergrated.]. .Iadd.integrated .Iaddend.image acquisition portion and control portion and which has double sampling/noise reduction capabilities thereon. Part of the .[.intergrated.]. .Iadd.integrated .Iaddend.structure reduces the noise that is picked up during imaging.

  15. Voice-activated intelligent radiologic image display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, P.

    1989-01-01

    The authors present a computer-based expert computer system called Mammo-Icon, which automatically assists the radiologist's case analysis by reviewing the trigger phrase output of a commercially available voice transcription system in he domain of mammography. A commercially available PC-based voice dictation system is coupled to an expert system implemented on a microcomputer. Software employs the LISP and C computer languages. Mammo-Icon responds to the trigger phrase output of a voice dictation system with a textual discussion of the potential significance of the findings that have been described and a display of reference images that may help the radiologist to confirm a suspected diagnosis or consider additional diagnoses. This results in automatic availability of potentially useful computer-based expert advice, making such systems much more likely to be used in routine clinical practice

  16. Application of a spectral sky in Radiance for daylighting calculations including non-image-forming light effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khademagha, P.; Aries, M.B.C.; Rosemann, A.L.P.; van Loenen, E.J.

    2016-01-01

    Daylight is dynamic and rich in the blue part of the spectrum. To date, the spectral composition of daylight is ignored in sky models used in Radiance. Spectral sky composition is particularly important when non-image-forming (NIF) light effects are concerned, since the action spectrum for these

  17. Differences in the Nature of Body Image Disturbances between Female Obese Individuals with versus without a Comorbid Binge Eating Disorder: An Exploratory Study Including Static and Dynamic Aspects of Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legenbauer, Tanja; Vocks, Silja; Betz, Sabrina; Puigcerver, Maria Jose Baguena; Benecke, Andrea; Troje, Nikolaus F.; Ruddel, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    Various components of body image were measured to assess body image disturbances in patients with obesity. To overcome limitations of previous studies, a photo distortion technique and a biological motion distortion device were included to assess static and dynamic aspects of body image. Questionnaires assessed cognitive-affective aspects, bodily…

  18. CMOS Active-Pixel Image Sensor With Simple Floating Gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Eric R.; Nakamura, Junichi; Kemeny, Sabrina E.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental complementary metal-oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) active-pixel image sensor integrated circuit features simple floating-gate structure, with metal-oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) as active circuit element in each pixel. Provides flexibility of readout modes, no kTC noise, and relatively simple structure suitable for high-density arrays. Features desirable for "smart sensor" applications.

  19. Framework for a low-cost intra-operative image-guided neuronavigator including brain shift compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucki, M; Lobos, C; Payan, Y

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a methodology to address the problem of brain tissue deformation referred to as 'brain-shift'. This deformation occurs throughout a neurosurgery intervention and strongly alters the accuracy of the neuronavigation systems used to date in clinical routine which rely solely on pre-operative patient imaging to locate the surgical target, such as a tumour or a functional area. After a general description of the framework of our intra-operative image-guided system, we describe a procedure to generate patient specific finite element meshes of the brain and propose a biomechanical model which can take into account tissue deformations and surgical procedures that modify the brain structure, like tumour or tissue resection.

  20. Framework and Bio-Mechanical Model for a Per-Operative Image-Guided Neuronavigator Including 'Brain-Shift' Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Bucki, Marek; Payan, Yohan

    2006-01-01

    2nd Workshop on Computer Assisted Diagnosis and Surgery, March 2006, Santiago de Chile; In this paper we present a methodology to adress the problem of brain tissue deformation referred to as "brainshift". This deformation occurs throughout a neurosurgery intervention and strongly alters the accuracy of the neuronavigation systems used to date in clinical routine which rely solely on preoperative patient imaging to locate the surgical target, such as a tumour or a functional area. After a gen...

  1. Multi trace element analysis of dry biological materials by neutron activation analysis including a chemical group separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weers, C.A.

    1980-07-01

    Multi-element analysis of dry biological material by neutron activation analysis has to include radiochemical separation. The evaporation process is described in terms of the half-volume. The pretreatment of the samples and the development of the destruction-evaporation apparatus are described. The successive adsorption steps with active charcoal, Al 2 O 3 and coprecipitation with Fe(OH) 3 are described. Results obtained for standard reference materials are summarized. (G.T.H.)

  2. Ratio Imaging of Enzyme Activity Using Dual Wavelength Optical Reporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz F. Kircher

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The design of near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF probes that are activated by specific proteases has, for the first time, allowed enzyme activity to be imaged in vivo. In the current study, we report on a method of imaging enzyme activity using two fluorescent probes that, together, provide improved quantitation of enzymatic activity. The method employs two chemically similar probes that differ in their degradability by cathepsin B. One probe consists of the NIRF dye Cy5.5 attached to a particulate carrier, a crosslinked iron oxide nanoparticle (CLIO, through cathepsin B cleavable l-arginyl peptides. A second probe consists of Cy3.5 attached to a CLIO through proteolytically resistant d-arginyl peptides. Using mixtures of the two probes, we have shown that the ratio of Cy5.5 to Cy3.5 fluorescence can be used to determine levels of cathepsin B in the environment of nanoparticles with macrophages in suspension. After intravenous injection, tissue fluorescence from the nondegradable Cy3.5–d-arginyl probe reflected nanoparticle accumulation, while fluorescence of the Cy5.5–l-arginyl probe was dependent on both accumulation and activation by cathepsin B. Dual wavelength ratio imaging can be used for the quantitative imaging of a variety of enzymes in clinically important settings, while the magnetic properties of the probes allow their detection by MR imaging.

  3. Fast Graph Partitioning Active Contours for Image Segmentation Using Histograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nath SumitK

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a method to improve the accuracy and speed, as well as significantly reduce the memory requirements, for the recently proposed Graph Partitioning Active Contours (GPACs algorithm for image segmentation in the work of Sumengen and Manjunath (2006. Instead of computing an approximate but still expensive dissimilarity matrix of quadratic size, , for a 2D image of size and regular image tiles of size , we use fixed length histograms and an intensity-based symmetric-centrosymmetric extensor matrix to jointly compute terms associated with the complete dissimilarity matrix. This computationally efficient reformulation of GPAC using a very small memory footprint offers two distinct advantages over the original implementation. It speeds up convergence of the evolving active contour and seamlessly extends performance of GPAC to multidimensional images.

  4. Active polarization imaging system based on optical heterodyne balanced receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qian; Sun, Jianfeng; Lu, Zhiyong; Zhou, Yu; Luan, Zhu; Hou, Peipei; Liu, liren

    2017-08-01

    Active polarization imaging technology has recently become the hot research field all over the world, which has great potential application value in the military and civil area. By introducing active light source, the Mueller matrix of the target can be calculated according to the incident light and the emitted or reflected light. Compared with conventional direct detection technology, optical heterodyne detection technology have higher receiving sensitivities, which can obtain the whole amplitude, frequency and phase information of the signal light. In this paper, an active polarization imaging system will be designed. Based on optical heterodyne balanced receiver, the system can acquire the horizontal and vertical polarization of reflected optical field simultaneously, which contain the polarization characteristic of the target. Besides, signal to noise ratio and imaging distance can be greatly improved.

  5. Effects of Leisure Education Programme Including Sportive Activities on Perceived Freedom in Leisure of Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertuzun, Ezgi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experimental study is to determine the effect of leisure education programme including sportive activities on the perceived freedom in leisure of adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities. The research was designed with an experimental group (n = 37) and a control group (n = 34), and was conducted among a total of 71…

  6. The FARE: A new way to express FAlls Risk among older persons including physical activity as a measure of Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijlhuizen, G.J.; Chorus, A.M.J.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Common expressions of falls risk do not include exposure to hazards. We compared two expressions: the commonly used population incidence (fallers per 1000 person-years) and the FARE (FAlls Risk by Exposure): the number of fallers per 1000 physically active person-days. Methods:

  7. The FARE: a new way to express FAlls Risk among older persons including physical activity as a measure of exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijlhuizen, G.J.; Chorus, A.M.J.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Common expressions of falls risk do not include exposure to hazards. We compared two expressions: the commonly used population incidence (fallers per 1000 person-years) and the FARE (FAlls Risk by Exposure): the number of fallers per 1000 physically active person-days. Methods:

  8. A method for energy window optimization for quantitative tasks that includes the effects of model-mismatch on bias: application to Y-90 bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong Xing; Du Yong; Frey, Eric C

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative Yttrium-90 ( 90 Y) bremsstrahlung single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging has shown great potential to provide reliable estimates of 90 Y activity distribution for targeted radionuclide therapy dosimetry applications. One factor that potentially affects the reliability of the activity estimates is the choice of the acquisition energy window. In contrast to imaging conventional gamma photon emitters where the acquisition energy windows are usually placed around photopeaks, there has been great variation in the choice of the acquisition energy window for 90 Y imaging due to the continuous and broad energy distribution of the bremsstrahlung photons. In quantitative imaging of conventional gamma photon emitters, previous methods for optimizing the acquisition energy window assumed unbiased estimators and used the variance in the estimates as a figure of merit (FOM). However, for situations, such as 90 Y imaging, where there are errors in the modeling of the image formation process used in the reconstruction there will be bias in the activity estimates. In 90 Y bremsstrahlung imaging this will be especially important due to the high levels of scatter, multiple scatter, and collimator septal penetration and scatter. Thus variance will not be a complete measure of reliability of the estimates and thus is not a complete FOM. To address this, we first aimed to develop a new method to optimize the energy window that accounts for both the bias due to model-mismatch and the variance of the activity estimates. We applied this method to optimize the acquisition energy window for quantitative 90 Y bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging in microsphere brachytherapy. Since absorbed dose is defined as the absorbed energy from the radiation per unit mass of tissues in this new method we proposed a mass-weighted root mean squared error of the volume of interest (VOI) activity estimates as the FOM. To calculate this FOM, two analytical expressions were derived for

  9. A method for energy window optimization for quantitative tasks that includes the effects of model-mismatch on bias: application to Y-90 bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Xing; Du, Yong; Frey, Eric C

    2012-06-21

    Quantitative Yttrium-90 ((90)Y) bremsstrahlung single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging has shown great potential to provide reliable estimates of (90)Y activity distribution for targeted radionuclide therapy dosimetry applications. One factor that potentially affects the reliability of the activity estimates is the choice of the acquisition energy window. In contrast to imaging conventional gamma photon emitters where the acquisition energy windows are usually placed around photopeaks, there has been great variation in the choice of the acquisition energy window for (90)Y imaging due to the continuous and broad energy distribution of the bremsstrahlung photons. In quantitative imaging of conventional gamma photon emitters, previous methods for optimizing the acquisition energy window assumed unbiased estimators and used the variance in the estimates as a figure of merit (FOM). However, for situations, such as (90)Y imaging, where there are errors in the modeling of the image formation process used in the reconstruction there will be bias in the activity estimates. In (90)Y bremsstrahlung imaging this will be especially important due to the high levels of scatter, multiple scatter, and collimator septal penetration and scatter. Thus variance will not be a complete measure of reliability of the estimates and thus is not a complete FOM. To address this, we first aimed to develop a new method to optimize the energy window that accounts for both the bias due to model-mismatch and the variance of the activity estimates. We applied this method to optimize the acquisition energy window for quantitative (90)Y bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging in microsphere brachytherapy. Since absorbed dose is defined as the absorbed energy from the radiation per unit mass of tissues in this new method we proposed a mass-weighted root mean squared error of the volume of interest (VOI) activity estimates as the FOM. To calculate this FOM, two analytical expressions were

  10. The association between school-based physical activity, including physical education, and academic performance: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasberry, Catherine N; Lee, Sarah M; Robin, Leah; Laris, B A; Russell, Lisa A; Coyle, Karin K; Nihiser, Allison J

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this review is to synthesize the scientific literature that has examined the association between school-based physical activity (including physical education) and academic performance (including indicators of cognitive skills and attitudes, academic behaviors, and academic achievement). Relevant research was identified through a search of nine electronic databases using both physical activity and academic-related search terms. Forty-three articles (reporting a total of 50 unique studies) met the inclusion criteria and were read, abstracted, and coded for this synthesis. Findings of the 50 studies were then summarized. Across all the studies, there were a total of 251 associations between physical activity and academic performance, representing measures of academic achievement, academic behavior, and cognitive skills and attitudes. Slightly more than half (50.5%) of all associations examined were positive, 48% were not significant, and 1.5% were negative. Examination of the findings by each physical activity context provides insights regarding specific relationships. Results suggest physical activity is either positively related to academic performance or that there is not a demonstrated relationship between physical activity and academic performance. Results have important implications for both policy and schools. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Representation of activity in images using geospatial temporal graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brost, Randolph; McLendon, III, William C.; Parekh, Ojas D.; Rintoul, Mark Daniel; Watson, Jean-Paul; Strip, David R.; Diegert, Carl

    2018-05-01

    Various technologies pertaining to modeling patterns of activity observed in remote sensing images using geospatial-temporal graphs are described herein. Graphs are constructed by representing objects in remote sensing images as nodes, and connecting nodes with undirected edges representing either distance or adjacency relationships between objects and directed edges representing changes in time. Activity patterns may be discerned from the graphs by coding nodes representing persistent objects like buildings differently from nodes representing ephemeral objects like vehicles, and examining the geospatial-temporal relationships of ephemeral nodes within the graph.

  12. Mouse preimplantation embryo responses to culture medium osmolarity include increased expression of CCM2 and p38 MAPK activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Andrew J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanisms that confer an ability to respond positively to environmental osmolarity are fundamental to ensuring embryo survival during the preimplantation period. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK occurs following exposure to hyperosmotic treatment. Recently, a novel scaffolding protein called Osmosensing Scaffold for MEKK3 (OSM was linked to p38 MAPK activation in response to sorbitol-induced hypertonicity. The human ortholog of OSM is cerebral cavernous malformation 2 (CCM2. The present study was conducted to investigate whether CCM2 is expressed during mouse preimplantation development and to determine whether this scaffolding protein is associated with p38 MAPK activation following exposure of preimplantation embryos to hyperosmotic environments. Results Our results indicate that Ccm2 along with upstream p38 MAPK pathway constituents (Map3k3, Map2k3, Map2k6, and Map2k4 are expressed throughout mouse preimplantation development. CCM2, MAP3K3 and the phosphorylated forms of MAP2K3/MAP2K6 and MAP2K4 were also detected throughout preimplantation development. Embryo culture in hyperosmotic media increased p38 MAPK activity in conjunction with elevated CCM2 levels. Conclusion These results define the expression of upstream activators of p38 MAPK during preimplantation development and indicate that embryo responses to hyperosmotic environments include elevation of CCM2 and activation of p38 MAPK.

  13. POTENTIALS OF IMAGE BASED ACTIVE RANGING TO CAPTURE DYNAMIC SCENES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jutzi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Obtaining a 3D description of man-made and natural environments is a basic task in Computer Vision and Remote Sensing. To this end, laser scanning is currently one of the dominating techniques to gather reliable 3D information. The scanning principle inherently needs a certain time interval to acquire the 3D point cloud. On the other hand, new active sensors provide the possibility of capturing range information by images with a single measurement. With this new technique image-based active ranging is possible which allows capturing dynamic scenes, e.g. like walking pedestrians in a yard or moving vehicles. Unfortunately most of these range imaging sensors have strong technical limitations and are not yet sufficient for airborne data acquisition. It can be seen from the recent development of highly specialized (far-range imaging sensors – so called flash-light lasers – that most of the limitations could be alleviated soon, so that future systems will be equipped with improved image size and potentially expanded operating range. The presented work is a first step towards the development of methods capable for application of range images in outdoor environments. To this end, an experimental setup was set up for investigating these proposed possibilities. With the experimental setup a measurement campaign was carried out and first results will be presented within this paper.

  14. Major depressive disorder is characterized by greater reward network activation to monetary than pleasant image rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoski, Moria J; Rittenberg, Alison; Dichter, Gabriel S

    2011-12-30

    Anhedonia, the loss of interest or pleasure in normally rewarding activities, is a hallmark feature of unipolar Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). A growing body of literature has identified frontostriatal dysfunction during reward anticipation and outcomes in MDD. However, no study to date has directly compared responses to different types of rewards such as pleasant images and monetary rewards in MDD. To investigate the neural responses to monetary and pleasant image rewards in MDD, a modified Monetary Incentive Delay task was used during functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess neural responses during anticipation and receipt of monetary and pleasant image rewards. Participants included nine adults with MDD and 13 affectively healthy controls. The MDD group showed lower activation than controls when anticipating monetary rewards in right orbitofrontal cortex and subcallosal cortex, and when anticipating pleasant image rewards in paracingulate and supplementary motor cortex. The MDD group had relatively greater activation in right putamen when anticipating monetary versus pleasant image rewards, relative to the control group. Results suggest reduced reward network activation in MDD when anticipating rewards, as well as relatively greater hypoactivation to pleasant image than monetary rewards. 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Gallbladder shape extraction from ultrasound images using active contour models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciecholewski, Marcin; Chochołowicz, Jakub

    2013-12-01

    Gallbladder function is routinely assessed using ultrasonographic (USG) examinations. In clinical practice, doctors very often analyse the gallbladder shape when diagnosing selected disorders, e.g. if there are turns or folds of the gallbladder, so extracting its shape from USG images using supporting software can simplify a diagnosis that is often difficult to make. The paper describes two active contour models: the edge-based model and the region-based model making use of a morphological approach, both designed for extracting the gallbladder shape from USG images. The active contour models were applied to USG images without lesions and to those showing specific disease units, namely, anatomical changes like folds and turns of the gallbladder as well as polyps and gallstones. This paper also presents modifications of the edge-based model, such as the method for removing self-crossings and loops or the method of dampening the inflation force which moves nodes if they approach the edge being determined. The user is also able to add a fragment of the approximated edge beyond which neither active contour model will move if this edge is incomplete in the USG image. The modifications of the edge-based model presented here allow more precise results to be obtained when extracting the shape of the gallbladder from USG images than if the morphological model is used. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Automatic Image Segmentation Using Active Contours with Univariate Marginal Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Cruz-Aceves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel automatic image segmentation method based on the theory of active contour models and estimation of distribution algorithms. The proposed method uses the univariate marginal distribution model to infer statistical dependencies between the control points on different active contours. These contours have been generated through an alignment process of reference shape priors, in order to increase the exploration and exploitation capabilities regarding different interactive segmentation techniques. This proposed method is applied in the segmentation of the hollow core in microscopic images of photonic crystal fibers and it is also used to segment the human heart and ventricular areas from datasets of computed tomography and magnetic resonance images, respectively. Moreover, to evaluate the performance of the medical image segmentations compared to regions outlined by experts, a set of similarity measures has been adopted. The experimental results suggest that the proposed image segmentation method outperforms the traditional active contour model and the interactive Tseng method in terms of segmentation accuracy and stability.

  17. Significance of magnetic resonance imaging for early rheumatoid arthritis activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Y Pogozeva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess possibility of magnetic resonance image (MRI application for rheu- matoid arthritis (RA activity and severity assessment.Material and methods. 100 pts with RA who fulfilled the 1987 ACR criteria with disease duration less than 12 months were included. Standard clinical examination with evaluation of tender and swollen joint counts, acute phase markers, hand and foot X-ray and hand MRI with 0,2 T Artoscan apparatus (ESAOTE Biomedica, Italy were performed.Results. MRI showed hand joint synovitis in 94,5%, erosions – in 67,3% of cases. X-ray examination revealed erosions in only 20,8% of pts. Localization of erosions revealed by X-ray and MRI coincided in 36,4% of cases and in 61,8% of pts erosions were detected only by MRI. MRI confirmed clinical conclusion about presence or absence of metacarpophalangeal and wrist joint synovitis in 64,5% and 74,5% of cases respectively. In8,2% and 21,8% MRI revealed signs of synovitis in clinically intact joints. MRI synovitis score correlated with clinical and laboratory measures of disease activity – DAS 28 (r=0,37, p=0,001, CRP(r=0,30, p=0,001, ESR (r=0,42, p=0,001, HAQ (r=0,24, p=0,001. Weak correlation was revealed between ESR and presence of erosions (r=0,29, CRP, ESR and MRI signs of bone marrow edema (r=0,27, p=0,005 and r=0,29, p=0,002 respectively. Relationship between laboratory and clinical features was weaker and referred only to CRP level and swollen joint count (p=0,05.Conclusion. MRI signs may be used as additional and independent measures of inflammatory activity (particularly synovitis score and severity of RA

  18. Functional imaging reveals movement preparatory activity in the vegetative state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan A Bekinschtein

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Vegetative State (VS is characterized by the absence of awareness of self or the environment and preserved autonomic functions. The diagnosis relies critically on the lack of consistent signs of purposeful behavior in response to external stimulation. Yet, given that patients with disorders of consciousness often exhibit fragmented movement patterns, voluntary actions may go unnoticed. Here we designed a simple motor paradigm that could potentially detect residual conscious awareness in VS patients with mild to severe brain damage by examining the neural correlates of motor preparation in response to verbal commands. Twenty-four patients who met the diagnostic criteria for VS were recruited for this study. Eleven of these patients showing preserved auditory evoked potentials underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to test for basic speech processing. Five of these patients, who showed word related activity, were included in a second fMRI study aimed at detecting functional changes in premotor cortex elicited by specific verbal instructions to move either their left or their right hand. Despite the lack of overt muscle activity, two patients out of five activated the dorsal premotor cortex contralateral to the instructed hand, consistent with movement preparation. Given that movement preparation in response to a motor command is a sign of purposeful behavior, our results are consistent with residual conscious awareness in these patients. We believe that the identification of positive results with fMRI using this simple task, may complement the clinical assessment by helping attain a more precise diagnosis in patients with disorders of consciousness.

  19. The fMRI analysis of brain activation in response to face image affected by background images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Takamasa; Fukami, Tadanori; Saito, Yoichi

    2011-01-01

    The stimuli of a face images expressing fear induce the activation in the medial temporal lobe was reported in previous studies. In particular, it was reported that face image expressing fear activated the amygdala and hippo-campus area of brain. In these studies, no background images were used with facial stimuli. However, normal day-to-day images always have a background. We investigated the effect of combining face images expressing fear and different background images. As a result, strong activation was detected in the amygdala and hippocampus area when the lightning background image was used. But strong activation was not detected when the fire background image was used. From the results of questionnaire rating the impression of possibility of experiencing the situation of shown images, it is thought that this difference of impression of possibility made the difference of empathy and caused the difference of brain activation. (author)

  20. Research on range-gated laser active imaging seeker

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Mu; Wang, PengHui; Tan, DongJie

    2013-09-01

    Compared with other imaging methods such as millimeter wave imaging, infrared imaging and visible light imaging, laser imaging provides both a 2-D array of reflected intensity data as well as 2-D array of range data, which is the most important data for use in autonomous target acquisition .In terms of application, it can be widely used in military fields such as radar, guidance and fuse. In this paper, we present a laser active imaging seeker system based on range-gated laser transmitter and sensor technology .The seeker system presented here consist of two important part, one is laser image system, which uses a negative lens to diverge the light from a pulse laser to flood illuminate a target, return light is collected by a camera lens, each laser pulse triggers the camera delay and shutter. The other is stabilization gimbals, which is designed to be a rotatable structure both in azimuth and elevation angles. The laser image system consists of transmitter and receiver. The transmitter is based on diode pumped solid-state lasers that are passively Q-switched at 532nm wavelength. A visible wavelength was chosen because the receiver uses a Gen III image intensifier tube with a spectral sensitivity limited to wavelengths less than 900nm.The receiver is image intensifier tube's micro channel plate coupled into high sensitivity charge coupled device camera. The image has been taken at range over one kilometer and can be taken at much longer range in better weather. Image frame frequency can be changed according to requirement of guidance with modifiable range gate, The instantaneous field of views of the system was found to be 2×2 deg. Since completion of system integration, the seeker system has gone through a series of tests both in the lab and in the outdoor field. Two different kinds of buildings have been chosen as target, which is located at range from 200m up to 1000m.To simulate dynamic process of range change between missile and target, the seeker system has

  1. Active instrumental guidance in interventional magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildermuth, S.; Erhart, P.; Leung, D.A.; Goehde, S.; Schoenenberger, A.; Debatin, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: An active MR-based guidance system for visualisation of invasive instruments is described. Methods: The principle of MR tracking is based on the integration of a miniaturised coil into the tip of the instrument itself. A phantom experiment was designed to demonstrate the localising accuracy of this technique. In [dition, bicompatibility and warming effects were evaluated. Preliminary intravascular applications that were performed in animal experiments under MR guidance included embolisation, vascular occlusion as well as transjugular intrahepatic punctures. Percutaneous biopsies, cholecystostomies and laparoscopic applications were also evaluated with MR tracking. Results: Phantom experiments confirmed an excellent localisation accuracy of MR tracking compared to conventional r[iography. At a field strength of 0.5 T, the temperature increase remained below 2 C. Results of phantom experiments revealed a potential of significant heating dependent on the sequence parameters employed. MR tracking allowed a robust, simultaneously biplanar visualisation of the instrument tips in real time. Based on MR 'ro[ map' images, various intravascular and percutaneous interventions were successfully performed in vivo under MR guidance. Conclusions: MR tracking is a flexible concept permitting monitoring in the guidance of instruments in an MR environment. Various preliminary in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrate safety, localisation accuracy and feasibility of this biplanar localisation technique in real time. (orig.) [de

  2. Major features of immunesenescence, including reduced thymic output, are ameliorated by high levels of physical activity in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Niharika Arora; Pollock, Ross D; Lazarus, Norman R; Harridge, Stephen; Lord, Janet M

    2018-04-01

    It is widely accepted that aging is accompanied by remodelling of the immune system including thymic atrophy and increased frequency of senescent T cells, leading to immune compromise. However, physical activity, which influences immunity but declines dramatically with age, is not considered in this literature. We assessed immune profiles in 125 adults (55-79 years) who had maintained a high level of physical activity (cycling) for much of their adult lives, 75 age-matched older adults and 55 young adults not involved in regular exercise. The frequency of naïve T cells and recent thymic emigrants (RTE) were both higher in cyclists compared with inactive elders, and RTE frequency in cyclists was no different to young adults. Compared with their less active counterparts, the cyclists had significantly higher serum levels of the thymoprotective cytokine IL-7 and lower IL-6, which promotes thymic atrophy. Cyclists also showed additional evidence of reduced immunesenescence, namely lower Th17 polarization and higher B regulatory cell frequency than inactive elders. Physical activity did not protect against all aspects of immunesenescence: CD28 -ve CD57 +ve senescent CD8 T-cell frequency did not differ between cyclists and inactive elders. We conclude that many features of immunesenescence may be driven by reduced physical activity with age. © 2018 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. AMISS - Active and passive MIcrowaves for Security and Subsurface imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldovieri, Francesco; Slob, Evert; Turk, Ahmet Serdar; Crocco, Lorenzo; Catapano, Ilaria; Di Matteo, Francesca

    2013-04-01

    The FP7-IRSES project AMISS - Active and passive MIcrowaves for Security and Subsurface imaging is based on a well-combined network among research institutions of EU, Associate and Third Countries (National Research Council of Italy - Italy, Technische Universiteit Delft - The Netherlands, Yildiz Technical University - Turkey, Bauman Moscow State Technical University - Russia, Usikov Institute for Radio-physics and Electronics and State Research Centre of Superconductive Radioelectronics "Iceberg" - Ukraine and University of Sao Paulo - Brazil) with the aims of achieving scientific advances in the framework of microwave and millimeter imaging systems and techniques for security and safety social issues. In particular, the involved partners are leaders in the scientific areas of passive and active imaging and are sharing their complementary knowledge to address two main research lines. The first one regards the design, characterization and performance evaluation of new passive and active microwave devices, sensors and measurement set-ups able to mitigate clutter and increase information content. The second line faces the requirements to make State-of-the-Art processing tools compliant with the instrumentations developed in the first line, suitable to work in electromagnetically complex scenarios and able to exploit the unexplored possibilities offered by new instrumentations. The main goals of the project are: 1) Development/improvement and characterization of new sensors and systems for active and passive microwave imaging; 2) Set up, analysis and validation of state of art/novel data processing approach for GPR in critical infrastructure and subsurface imaging; 3) Integration of state of art and novel imaging hardware and characterization approaches to tackle realistic situations in security, safety and subsurface prospecting applications; 4) Development and feasibility study of bio-radar technology (system and data processing) for vital signs detection and

  4. Segmentation of breast ultrasound images based on active contours using neutrosophic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfollahi, Mahsa; Gity, Masoumeh; Ye, Jing Yong; Mahlooji Far, A

    2018-04-01

    Ultrasound imaging is an effective approach for diagnosing breast cancer, but it is highly operator-dependent. Recent advances in computer-aided diagnosis have suggested that it can assist physicians in diagnosis. Definition of the region of interest before computer analysis is still needed. Since manual outlining of the tumor contour is tedious and time-consuming for a physician, developing an automatic segmentation method is important for clinical application. The present paper represents a novel method to segment breast ultrasound images. It utilizes a combination of region-based active contour and neutrosophic theory to overcome the natural properties of ultrasound images including speckle noise and tissue-related textures. First, due to inherent speckle noise and low contrast of these images, we have utilized a non-local means filter and fuzzy logic method for denoising and image enhancement, respectively. This paper presents an improved weighted region-scalable active contour to segment breast ultrasound images using a new feature derived from neutrosophic theory. This method has been applied to 36 breast ultrasound images. It generates true-positive and false-positive results, and similarity of 95%, 6%, and 90%, respectively. The purposed method indicates clear advantages over other conventional methods of active contour segmentation, i.e., region-scalable fitting energy and weighted region-scalable fitting energy.

  5. Chromospheric activity of periodic variable stars (including eclipsing binaries) observed in DR2 LAMOST stellar spectral survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liyun; Lu, Hongpeng; Han, Xianming L.; Jiang, Linyan; Li, Zhongmu; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yonghui; Wang, Yuefei; Cao, Zihuang

    2018-05-01

    The LAMOST spectral survey provides a rich databases for studying stellar spectroscopic properties and chromospheric activity. We cross-matched a total of 105,287 periodic variable stars from several photometric surveys and databases (CSS, LINEAR, Kepler, a recently updated eclipsing star catalogue, ASAS, NSVS, some part of SuperWASP survey, variable stars from the Tsinghua University-NAOC Transient Survey, and other objects from some new references) with four million stellar spectra published in the LAMOST data release 2 (DR2). We found 15,955 spectra for 11,469 stars (including 5398 eclipsing binaries). We calculated their equivalent widths (EWs) of their Hα, Hβ, Hγ, Hδ and Caii H lines. Using the Hα line EW, we found 447 spectra with emission above continuum for a total of 316 stars (178 eclipsing binaries). We identified 86 active stars (including 44 eclipsing binaries) with repeated LAMOST spectra. A total of 68 stars (including 34 eclipsing binaries) show chromospheric activity variability. We also found LAMOST spectra of 12 cataclysmic variables, five of which show chromospheric activity variability. We also made photometric follow-up studies of three short period targets (DY CVn, HAT-192-0001481, and LAMOST J164933.24+141255.0) using the Xinglong 60-cm telescope and the SARA 90-cm and 1-m telescopes, and obtained new BVRI CCD light curves. We analyzed these light curves and obtained orbital and starspot parameters. We detected the first flare event with a huge brightness increase of more than about 1.5 magnitudes in R filter in LAMOST J164933.24+141255.0.

  6. 99Tcm-labelled leucocyte imaging in active rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Janabi, M.A.; Jones, A.K.P.; Solanki, K.; Sobnack, R.; Bomanji, J.; Al-Nahhas, A.A.; Britton, K.E.; Huskisson, E.C.; Doyle, D.V.

    1988-01-01

    A simplified technique of labelling leucocytes with technetium-99m is described and applied to patients with active rheumatoid arthritis. The clinically active and less active knees in seven patients were imaged and the uptake of labelled leucocytes was measured. The measurements were repeated after local steroid injection into nine painful knees. A 50-80% reduction in leucocyte uptake localized to the region of the synovium was demonstrated in the eight knees which showed clinical responses and a rise of 8% in the non-responder. There was a variable response in the knees that were not injected. 99 Tc m leucocyte imaging in rheumatoid arthritis is able to assess objectively joint inflammation and its response to treatment. (author)

  7. Active optics: off axis aspherics generation for high contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugot, E.; Laslandes, M.; Ferrari, M.; Vives, S.; Moindrot, S.; El Hadi, K.; Dohlen, K.

    2017-11-01

    Active Optics methods, based on elasticity theory, allow the aspherisation of optical surfaces by stress polishing but also active aspherisation in situ. Researches in this field will impact the final performance and the final cost of any telescope or instrument. The stress polishing method is well suited for the superpolishing of aspheric components for astronomy. Its principle relies on spherical polishing with a full-sized tool of a warped substrate, which becomes aspherical once unwarped. The main advantage of this technique is the very high optical quality obtained either on form or on high spatial frequency errors. Furthermore, the roughness can be decreased down to a few angstroms, thanks the classical polishing with a large pitch tool, providing a substantial gain on the final scientific performance, for instance on the contrast on coronagraphic images, but also on the polishing time and cost. Stress polishing is based on elasticity theory, and requires an optimised deformation system able to provide the right aspherical form on the optical surface during polishing. The optical quality of the deformation is validated using extensive Finite Element Analysis, allowing an estimation of residuals and an optimisation of the warping harness. We describe here the work realised on stress polishing of toric mirrors for VLT-SPHERE and then our actual work on off axis aspherics (OAA) for the ASPIICS-Proba3 mission for solar coronagraphy. The ASPIICS optical design made by Vives et al is a three mirrors anastigmat including a concave off axis hyperboloid and a convex off axis parabola (OAP). We are developing a prototype in order to demonstrate the feasibility of this type of surface, using a multi-mode warping harness (Lemaitre et al). Furthermore, we present our work on variable OAP, meaning the possibility to adjust the shape of a simple OAP in situ with a minimal number of actuators, typically one actuator per optical mode (Focus, Coma and Astigmatism

  8. Simulating Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei in the LSST Image Simulation Effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pizagno II, Jim; Ahmad, Z.; Bankert, J.; Bard, D.; Connolly, A.; Chang, C.; Gibson, R. R.; Gilmore, K.; Grace, E.; Hannel, M.; Jernigan, J. G.; Jones, L.; Kahn, S. M.; Krughoff, S. K.; Lorenz, S.; Marshall, S.; Shmakova, S. M.; Sylvestri, N.; Todd, N.; Young, M.

    We present an extragalactic source catalog, which includes galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei, that is used for the Large Survey Synoptic Telescope Imaging Simulation effort. The galaxies are taken from the De Lucia et. al. (2006) semi-analytic modeling (SAM) of the Millennium Simulation. The LSST

  9. Gallbladder Boundary Segmentation from Ultrasound Images Using Active Contour Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciecholewski, Marcin

    Extracting the shape of the gallbladder from an ultrasonography (US) image allows superfluous information which is immaterial in the diagnostic process to be eliminated. In this project an active contour model was used to extract the shape of the gallbladder, both for cases free of lesions, and for those showing specific disease units, namely: lithiasis, polyps and changes in the shape of the organ, such as folds or turns of the gallbladder. The approximate shape of the gallbladder was found by applying the motion equation model. The tests conducted have shown that for the 220 US images of the gallbladder, the area error rate (AER) amounted to 18.15%.

  10. An asynchronous, pipelined, electronic acquisition system for Active Matrix Flat-Panel Imagers (AMFPIs)

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, W; Berry, J; Maolinbay, M; Martelli, C; Mody, P; Nassif, S; Yeakey, M

    1999-01-01

    The development of a full-custom electronic acquisition system designed for readout of large-area active matrix flat-panel imaging arrays is reported. The arrays, which comprise two-dimensional matrices of pixels utilizing amorphous silicon thin-film transistors, are themselves under development for a wide variety of X-ray imaging applications. The acquisition system was specifically designed to facilitate detailed, quantitative investigations of the properties of these novel imaging arrays and contains significant enhancements compared to a previously developed acquisition system. These enhancements include pipelined preamplifier circuits to allow faster readout speed, expanded addressing capabilities allowing a maximum of 4096 array data lines, and on-board summing of image frames. The values of many acquisition system parameters, including timings and voltages, may be specified and downloaded from a host computer. Once acquisition is enabled, the system operates asynchronously of its host computer. The sys...

  11. Review of neutron activation analysis in the standardization and study of reference materials, including its application to radionuclide reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) plays a very important role in the certification of reference materials (RMs) and their characterization, including homogeneity testing. The features of the method are briefly reviewed, particularly aspects relating to its completely independent nuclear basis, its virtual freedom from blank problems, and its capacity for self-verification. This last aspect, arising from the essentially isotopic character of NAA, can be exploited by using different nuclear reactions and induced nuclides, and the possibility of employing two modes, one instrumental (nondestructive), the other radiochemical (destructive). This enables the derivation of essentially independent analytical information and the unique capacity of NAA for selfvalidation. The application of NAA to quantify natural or man-made radionuclides such as uranium, thorium, 237 Np, 129 I and 230 Th is discussed, including its advantages over conventional radiometric methods and its usefulness in providing independent data for nuclides where other confirmatory analyses are impossible, or are only recently becoming available through newer 'atom counting' techniques. Certain additional, prospective uses of NAA in the study of RMs and potential RMs are mentioned, including transmutation reactions, creation of endogenously radiolabelled matrices for production and study of RMs (such as dissolution and leaching tests, use as incorporated radiotracers for chemical recovery correction), and the possibility of molecular activation analysis for specification. (orig.)

  12. A market based active/reactive dispatch including transformer taps and reactor and capacitor banks using Simulated Annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Mario Helder; Saraiva, Joao Tome

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an optimization model to be used by System Operators in order to validate the economic schedules obtained by Market Operators together with the injections from Bilateral Contracts. These studies will be performed off-line in the day before operation and the developed model is based on adjustment bids submitted by generators and loads and it is used by System Operators if that is necessary to enforce technical or security constraints. This model corresponds to an enhancement of an approach described in a previous paper and it now includes discrete components as transformer taps and reactor and capacitor banks. The resulting mixed integer formulation is solved using Simulated Annealing, a well known metaheuristic specially suited for combinatorial problems. Once the Simulated Annealing converges and the values of the discrete variables are fixed, the resulting non-linear continuous problem is solved using Sequential Linear Programming to get the final solution. The developed model corresponds to an AC version, it includes constraints related with the capability diagram of synchronous generators and variables allowing the computation of the active power required to balance active losses. Finally, the paper includes a Case Study based on the IEEE 118 bus system to illustrate the results that it is possible to obtain and their interest. (author)

  13. Review of the IAEA nuclear fuel cycle and material section activities connected with nuclear fuel including WWER fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, F.

    2001-01-01

    Program activities on Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Materials cover the areas of: 1) raw materials (B.1.01); 2) fuel performance and technology (B.1.02); 3) pent fuel (B.1.03); 4) fuel cycle issues and information system (B.1.04); 5) support to technical cooperation activities (B.1.05). The IAEA activities in fuel performance and technology in 2001 include organization of the fuel experts meetings and completion of the Co-ordinate Research Projects (CRP). The special attention is given to the advanced post-irradiation examination techniques for water reactor fuel and fuel behavior under transients and LOCA conditions. An international research program on modeling of activity transfer in primary circuit of NPP is finalized in 2001. A new CRP on fuel modeling at extended burnup (FUMEX II) has planed to be carried out during the period 2002-2006. In the area of spent fuel management the implementation of burnup credit (BUC) in spent fuel management systems has motivated to be used in criticality safety applications, based on economic consideration. An overview of spent fuel storage policy accounting new fuel features as higher enrichment and final burnup, usage of MOX fuel and prolongation of the term of spent fuel storage is also given

  14. A Giant Hepatic Hemangioma Complicated by Kasabach-Merritt Syndrome: Findings of Tc-99m RBC Scintigraphy and SPECT Including a Total Body Blood Pool Imaging Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Myung Hee; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Lim, Seok Tae; Kim, Dong Wook; Yim, Chang Yeol [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-02-15

    Kasabach-Merritt syndrome (KMS) consists of thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, and localized consumption coagulopathy that develops within vascular hemangioma. This syndrome may also be associated with occult hemangiomas located at various sites. Tc-99m RBC scintigraphy and SPECT have proven to be reliable for confirming or excluding hemangioma. Total body blood pool imaging study during the scintigraphy also provides a means of screening for occult lesions. The authors report the case of a 29-year-old man who presented with a giant hepatic hemangioma complicated by KMS, and underwent Tc-99m RBC scintigraphy and SPECT including a total body blood pool imaging study.

  15. Intravenous streptokinase therapy in acute myocardial infarction: Assessment of therapy effects by quantitative 201Tl myocardial imaging (including SPECT) and radionuclide ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehn, H.; Bialonczyk, C.; Mostbeck, A.; Frohner, K.; Unger, G.; Steinbach, K.

    1984-01-01

    To evaluate a potential beneficial effect of systemic streptokinase therapy in acute myocardial infarction, 36 patients treated with streptokinase intravenously were assessed by radionuclide ventriculography and quantitative 201 Tl myocardial imaging (including SPECT) in comparison with 18 conventionally treated patients. Patients after thrombolysis had significantly higher EF, PFR, and PER as well as fewer wall motion abnormalities compared with controls. These differences were also observed in the subset of patients with anterior wall infarction (AMI), but not in patients with inferior wall infarction (IMI). Quantitative 201 Tl imaging demonstrated significantly smaller percent myocardial defects and fewer pathological stress segments in patients with thrombolysis compared with controls. The same differences were also found in both AMI and IMI patients. Our data suggest a favorable effect of intravenous streptokinase on recovery of left ventricular function and myocardial salvage. Radionuclide ventriculography and quantitative 201 Tl myocardial imaging seem to be reliable tools for objective assessment of therapy effects. (orig.)

  16. Baseline and cognition activated brain SPECT imaging in depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jinhua; Lin Xiangtong; Jiang Kaida; Liu Yongchang; Xu Lianqin

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) abnormalities through the semiquantitative analysis of the baseline and cognition activated rCBF imaging in unmedicated depressed patients. Methods: 27 depressed patients unmedicated by anti-depressants were enrolled. The diagnosis (depression of moderate degree with somatization) was confirmed by the ICD-10 criteria. 15 age matched normal controls were studied under identical conditions. Baseline and cognition activated 99m Tc-ECD SPECT were performed on 21 of the 27 patients with depression and 13 of the 15 normal controls. Baseline 99m Tc-ECD SPECT alone were performed on the rest 6 patients with depression and 2 normal controls. The cognitive activation is achieved by Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). 1110 MBq of 99m Tc-ECD was administered by intravenous bolus injection 5 minutes after the onset of the WCST. Semi-quantitative analysis was conducted with the 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th slices of the transaxial imaging. rCBF ratios of every ROI were calculated using the average tissue activity in the region divided by the maximum activity in the cerebellum. Results: 1) The baseline rCBF of left frontal (0.720) and left temporal lobe (0.720) were decreased significantly in depressed patients comparing with those of the control subjects. 2) The activated rCBF of left frontal lobe (0.719) and left temporal lobe (0.690), left parietal lobe (0.701) were decreased evidently than those of the controls. Conclusions: 1) Hypoperfusions of left frontal and left temporal cortexes were identified in patients with depression. 2) The hypoperfusion of left frontal and left temporal cortexes may be the cause of cognition disorder and depressed mood in patients with depression. 3) Cognition activated brain perfusion imaging is helpful for making a more accurate diagnosis of depression

  17. Physical activity interventions in Latin America: what value might be added by including conference abstracts in a literature review?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehner, Christine; Soares, Jesus; Parra, Diana C; Ribeiro, Isabela C; Pratt, Michael; Bracco, Mario; Hallal, Pedro C; Brownson, Ross C

    2010-07-01

    This review assessed whether conference abstracts yield useful information on the types and effectiveness of community-based physical activity (PA) interventions in Latin America, beyond that from interventions included in a recent systematic review of peer-reviewed literature. Abstracts from 9 conferences were searched for community-based interventions to promote PA in Latin America and summarized. Three reviewers classified and screened abstracts. Evaluated interventions that were not included in the previous review were assessed. Search of abstracts from 31 proceedings of 9 conferences identified 87 abstracts of studies on community-based interventions focused on increasing PA. Only 31 abstracts reported on studies with a control group and an outcome related to PA. Ten of these abstracts represented interventions that had not been included in the previous review of peer-reviewed literature, but the abstracts were insufficient in number or detail to make a practice recommendation for any single intervention. This review highlighted the challenges and low added value of including conference abstracts in a systematic review of community PA interventions in Latin America. Stronger evaluation design and execution and more published reports of evaluated interventions are needed to build an evidence base supporting interventions to increase PA in Latin America.

  18. Imaging large cohorts of single ion channels and their activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia eHiersemenzel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As calcium is the most important signaling molecule in neurons and secretory cells, amongst many other cell types, it follows that an understanding of calcium channels and their regulation of exocytosis is of vital importance. Calcium imaging using calcium dyes such as Fluo3, or FRET-based dyes that have been used widely has provided invaluable information, which combined with modeling has estimated the sub-types of channels responsible for triggering the exocytotic machinery as well as inferences about the relative distances away from vesicle fusion sites these molecules adopt. Importantly, new super-resolution microscopy techniques, combined with novel Ca2+ indicators and imaginative imaging approaches can now define directly the nanoscale locations of very large cohorts of single channel molecules in relation to single vesicles. With combinations of these techniques the activity of individual channels can be visualized and quantified using novel Ca2+ indicators. Fluorescently labeled specific channel toxins can also be used to localize endogenous assembled channel tetramers. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy and other single-photon-resolution spectroscopic approaches offer the possibility to quantify protein-protein interactions between populations of channels and the SNARE protein machinery for the first time. Together with simultaneous electrophysiology, this battery of quantitative imaging techniques has the potential to provide unprecedented detail describing the locations, dynamic behaviours, interactions and conductance activities of many thousands of channel molecules and vesicles in living cells.

  19. Imaging of glia activation in people with primary lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Paganoni

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: This study supports a link between glia activation and neuronal degeneration in PLS, and suggests that these disease mechanisms can be measured in vivo in PLS. Future studies are needed to determine the longitudinal changes of these imaging measures and to clarify if MR-PET with [11C]-PBR28 can be used as a biomarker for drug development in the context of clinical trials for PLS.

  20. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of higher brain activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui He; Wang Yunjiu; Chen Runsheng; Tang Xiaowei.

    1996-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance images (fMRIs) exhibit small differences in the magnetic resonance signal intensity in positions corresponding to focal areas of brain activation. These signal are caused by variation in the oxygenation state of the venous vasculature. Using this non-invasive and dynamic method, it is possible to localize functional brain activation, in vivo, in normal individuals, with an accuracy of millimeters and a temporal resolution of seconds. Though a series of technical difficulties remain, fMRI is increasingly becoming a key method for visualizing the working brain, and uncovering the topographical organization of the human brain, and understanding the relationship between brain and the mind

  1. An asynchronous, pipelined, electronic acquisition system for Active Matrix Flat-Panel Imagers (AMFPIs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, W.; Antonuk, L.E. E-mail: antonuk@umich.edu; Berry, J.; Maolinbay, M.; Martelli, C.; Mody, P.; Nassif, S.; Yeakey, M

    1999-07-11

    The development of a full-custom electronic acquisition system designed for readout of large-area active matrix flat-panel imaging arrays is reported. The arrays, which comprise two-dimensional matrices of pixels utilizing amorphous silicon thin-film transistors, are themselves under development for a wide variety of X-ray imaging applications. The acquisition system was specifically designed to facilitate detailed, quantitative investigations of the properties of these novel imaging arrays and contains significant enhancements compared to a previously developed acquisition system. These enhancements include pipelined preamplifier circuits to allow faster readout speed, expanded addressing capabilities allowing a maximum of 4096 array data lines, and on-board summing of image frames. The values of many acquisition system parameters, including timings and voltages, may be specified and downloaded from a host computer. Once acquisition is enabled, the system operates asynchronously of its host computer. The system allows image capture in both radiographic mode (corresponding to the capture of individual X-ray images), and fluoroscopic mode (corresponding to the capture of a continual series of X-ray images). A detailed description of the system architecture and the underlying motivations for the design is reported in this paper. (author)

  2. Implicit Active Contours Driven by Local and Global Image Fitting Energy for Image Segmentation and Target Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaosheng Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel active contour model in a variational level set formulation for image segmentation and target localization. We combine a local image fitting term and a global image fitting term to drive the contour evolution. Our model can efficiently segment the images with intensity inhomogeneity with the contour starting anywhere in the image. In its numerical implementation, an efficient numerical schema is used to ensure sufficient numerical accuracy. We validated its effectiveness in numerous synthetic images and real images, and the promising experimental results show its advantages in terms of accuracy, efficiency, and robustness.

  3. Functional magnetic resonance imaging in the activation of working memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitzer, M.; Kammer, T.; Bellemann, M.E.; Gueckel, F.; Georgi, M.; Gass, A.; Brix, G.

    1996-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used in conjunction with a letter detection task for the study of working memory in 16 normal subjects. Because of movement artifacts, data from only 9 subjects were analysed. In the activation taks, subjects responded by pressing a button whenever any presented letter was the same as the second last in the sequence. In the control condition, the subjects had to respond to a fixed letter. Hence, the activation condition and the control condition differend only subjectively, i.e., regarding the task demand, whereas the stimuli and the type and frequency of response were identical. The activation condition produced significant activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's areas 10, 46, and 9). In contrast to experimental tasks previsouly used rather extensively to study the prefrontal cortex, the present paradigm is characterized by its simplicity, interpretability, and its ties to known neurophysiology of the frontal cortex. (orig.) [de

  4. Thermal neutron imaging in an active interrogation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanier, P.E.; Forman, L.; Norman, D.R.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a thermal-neutron coded-aperture imager that reveals the locations of hydrogenous materials from which thermal neutrons are being emitted. This imaging detector can be combined with an accelerator to form an active interrogation system in which fast neutrons are produced in a heavy metal target by means of excitation by high energy photons. The photo-induced neutrons can be either prompt or delayed, depending on whether neutronemitting fission products are generated. Provided that there are hydrogenous materials close to the target, some of the photo-induced neutrons slow down and emerge from the surface at thermal energies. These neutrons can be used to create images that show the location and shape of the thermalizing materials. Analysis of the temporal response of the neutron flux provides information about delayed neutrons from induced fission if there are fissionable materials in the target. The combination of imaging and time-of-flight discrimination helps to improve the signal-to-background ratio. It is also possible to interrogate the target with neutrons, for example using a D-T generator. In this case, an image can be obtained from hydrogenous material in a target without the presence of heavy metal. In addition, if fissionable material is present in the target, probing with fast neutrons can stimulate delayed neutrons from fission, and the imager can detect and locate the object of interest, using appropriate time gating. Operation of this sensitive detection equipment in the vicinity of an accelerator presents a number of challenges, because the accelerator emits electromagnetic interference as well as stray ionizing radiation, which can mask the signals of interest.

  5. Study protocol: Rehabilitation including Social and Physical activity and Education in Children and Teenagers with Cancer (RESPECT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinsson, Troels; Helms, Anne Sofie; Adamsen, Lis; Andersen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Karen Vitting; Christensen, Karl Bang; Hasle, Henrik; Heilmann, Carsten; Hejgaard, Nete; Johansen, Christoffer; Madsen, Marianne; Madsen, Svend Aage; Simovska, Venka; Strange, Birgit; Thing, Lone Friis; Wehner, Peder Skov; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Larsen, Hanne Baekgaard

    2013-11-14

    During cancer treatment children have reduced contact with their social network of friends, and have limited participation in education, sports, and leisure activities. During and following cancer treatment, children describe school related problems, reduced physical fitness, and problems related to interaction with peers. The RESPECT study is a nationwide population-based prospective, controlled, mixed-methods intervention study looking at children aged 6-18 years newly diagnosed with cancer in eastern Denmark (n=120) and a matched control group in western Denmark (n=120). RESPECT includes Danish-speaking children diagnosed with cancer and treated at pediatric oncology units in Denmark. Primary endpoints are the level of educational achievement one year after the cessation of first-line cancer therapy, and the value of VO2max one year after the cessation of first-line cancer therapy. Secondary endpoints are quality of life measured by validated questionnaires and interviews, and physical performance. RESPECT includes a multimodal intervention program, including ambassador-facilitated educational, physical, and social interventions. The educational intervention includes an educational program aimed at the child with cancer, the child's schoolteachers and classmates, and the child's parents. Children with cancer will each have two ambassadors assigned from their class. The ambassadors visit the child with cancer at the hospital at alternating 2-week intervals and participate in the intervention program. The physical and social intervention examines the effect of early, structured, individualized, and continuous physical activity from diagnosis throughout the treatment period. The patients are tested at diagnosis, at 3 and 6 months after diagnosis, and one year after the cessation of treatment. The study is powered to quantify the impact of the combined educational, physical, and social intervention programs. RESPECT is the first population-based study to examine the

  6. Applications of neutron activation analysis in determination of natural and man-made radionuclides, including PA-231

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, A. R.; Benedik, L.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA), being essentially an isotopic and not an elemental method of analysis, is capable of determining a number of important radionuclides of radioecological interest by transformation into another, more easily quantifiable radionuclide. The nuclear characteristics which favour this technique may be summarized in an advantage factor relative to radiometric analysis of the original radioanalyte. Well known or hardly known examples include235U,238U,232Th,230Th,129I,99Tc,237Np and231Pa; a number of these are discussed and illustrated in analysis of real samples of environmental and biological origin. In particular, determination of231Pa by RNAA was performed using both postirradiation and preseparation methods. Application of INAA to enable the use of238U and232Th as endogenous (internal) radiotracers in alpha spectrometric analyses of uranium and thorium radioisotopes in radioecological studies is described, also allowing independent data sets to be obtained for quality control.

  7. Active contour based segmentation of resected livers in CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelmann, Simon; Oyarzun Laura, Cristina; Drechsler, Klaus; Wesarg, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    The majority of state of the art segmentation algorithms are able to give proper results in healthy organs but not in pathological ones. However, many clinical applications require an accurate segmentation of pathological organs. The determination of the target boundaries for radiotherapy or liver volumetry calculations are examples of this. Volumetry measurements are of special interest after tumor resection for follow up of liver regrow. The segmentation of resected livers presents additional challenges that were not addressed by state of the art algorithms. This paper presents a snakes based algorithm specially developed for the segmentation of resected livers. The algorithm is enhanced with a novel dynamic smoothing technique that allows the active contour to propagate with different speeds depending on the intensities visible in its neighborhood. The algorithm is evaluated in 6 clinical CT images as well as 18 artificial datasets generated from additional clinical CT images.

  8. The fiber-optic imaging and manipulation of neural activity during animal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Daisuke; Murayama, Masanori

    2016-02-01

    Recent progress with optogenetic probes for imaging and manipulating neural activity has further increased the relevance of fiber-optic systems for neural circuitry research. Optical fibers, which bi-directionally transmit light between separate sites (even at a distance of several meters), can be used for either optical imaging or manipulating neural activity relevant to behavioral circuitry mechanisms. The method's flexibility and the specifications of the light structure are well suited for following the behavior of freely moving animals. Furthermore, thin optical fibers allow researchers to monitor neural activity from not only the cortical surface but also deep brain regions, including the hippocampus and amygdala. Such regions are difficult to target with two-photon microscopes. Optogenetic manipulation of neural activity with an optical fiber has the advantage of being selective for both cell-types and projections as compared to conventional electrophysiological brain tissue stimulation. It is difficult to extract any data regarding changes in neural activity solely from a fiber-optic manipulation device; however, the readout of data is made possible by combining manipulation with electrophysiological recording, or the simultaneous application of optical imaging and manipulation using a bundle-fiber. The present review introduces recent progress in fiber-optic imaging and manipulation methods, while also discussing fiber-optic system designs that are suitable for a given experimental protocol. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Endometrial Stromal Sarcoma of the Uterus: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings Including Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Value and Its Correlation With Ki-67 Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai Ming; Liu, Jia; Qiang, Jin Wei; Gu, Wei Yong; Zhang, Guo Fu; Ma, Feng Hua

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) features of endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) including a preliminary investigation of the correlation between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value and Ki-67 expression. The clinical and MRI data of 15 patients with ESS confirmed by surgery and pathology were analyzed retrospectively. The conventional MR morphological features, signal intensity on DWI, ADC value (n = 14), and clinicopathological marker Ki-67 (n = 13) were evaluated. Of 15 patients with ESS, 13 tumors were low-grade ESS (LGESS), and the remaining 2 were high-grade ESS (HGESS); 9 tumors were located in the myometrium, 5 were located in the endometrium and/or cervical canal, and 1 was located in extrauterine. Thirteen (87%) of 15 tumors showed a homo- or heterogeneous isointensity on T1-weighted imaging and a heterogeneous hyperintensity on T2-weighted imaging. The hypointense bands were observed in 11 tumors (73%) on T2-weighted imaging. The degenerations (cystic/necrosis/hemorrhage) were observed in 7 LGESS tumors and 2 HGESS tumors. The DWI hyperintensity was observed in 13 tumors (93%) and isointensity in remaining 1. The mean ADC value of the solid components in 14 ESSs was (1.05 ± 0.20) × 10mm/s. The contrast-enhanced MRI showed an obvious enhancement in 14 tumors (93%) (heterogeneous in 7 LGESSs and 2 HGESSs; homogeneous in 5 LGESSs). The ADC value was inversely correlated with the Ki-67 expression (r = -0.613, P = 0.026). Patients with ESS showed some characteristics on conventional MRI and DWI, and there was an inverse correlation between the ADC value and Ki-67 expression.

  10. Development of an image processing system at the Technology Applications Center, UNM: Landsat image processing in mineral exploration and related activities. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budge, T.K.

    1980-09-01

    This project was a demonstration of the capabilities of Landsat satellite image processing applied to the monitoring of mining activity in New Mexico. Study areas included the Navajo coal surface mine, the Jackpile uranium surface mine, and the potash mining district near Carlsbad, New Mexico. Computer classifications of a number of land use categories in these mines were presented and discussed. A literature review of a number of case studies concerning the use of Landsat image processing in mineral exploration and related activities was prepared. Included in this review is a discussion of the Landsat satellite system and the basics of computer image processing. Topics such as destriping, contrast stretches, atmospheric corrections, ratioing, and classification techniques are addressed. Summaries of the STANSORT II and ELAS software packages and the Technology Application Center's Digital Image Processing System (TDIPS) are presented

  11. Imaging of Prostate Cancer Using Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Dorthe; Persson, Morten; Kjaer, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) overexpression is an important biomarker for aggressiveness in cancer including prostate cancer (PC) and provides independent clinical information in addition to prostate-specific antigen and Gleason score. This article focuses on uPAR PET...... as a new diagnostic and prognostic imaging biomarker in PC. Many preclinical uPAR-targeted PET imaging studies using AE105 in cancer models have been undertaken with promising results. A major breakthrough was obtained with the recent human translation of uPAR PET in using 64Cu- and 68Ga-labelled versions...

  12. Antimicrobial Active Packaging including Chitosan Films with Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oil for Ready-to-Eat Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Quesada

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An active packaging system has been designed for the shelf life extension of ready to eat meat products. The package included an inner surface coated with a chitosan film with thyme essential oil (0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2% not in direct contact with the meat. Our aim was to reduce the impact of thyme essential oil (EO on meat sensory properties by using a chemotype with low odor intensity. The pH, color parameters, microbial populations, and sensory properties were assessed during 4 weeks of refrigerated storage. The presence of EO films reduced yeast populations, whereas aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and enterobacteria were not affected by the presence of the EO in the films. Meat color preservation (a * was enhanced in the presence of EO, giving a better appearance to the packaged meat. The presence of the chitosan-EO layer reduced water condensation inside the package, whereas packages containing only chitosan had evident water droplets. Thyme odor was perceived as desirable in cooked meat, and the typical product odor intensity decreased by increasing the EO concentration. Further studies should point towards developing oil blends or combinations with natural antimicrobial agents to be incorporated into the film to improve its antimicrobial properties.

  13. A single parameter representation of hygroscopic growth and cloud condensation nucleus activity – Part 2: Including solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Petters

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability of a particle to serve as a cloud condensation nucleus in the atmosphere is determined by its size, hygroscopicity and its solubility in water. Usually size and hygroscopicity alone are sufficient to predict CCN activity. Single parameter representations for hygroscopicity have been shown to successfully model complex, multicomponent particles types. Under the assumption of either complete solubility, or complete insolubility of a component, it is not necessary to explicitly include that component's solubility into the single parameter framework. This is not the case if sparingly soluble materials are present. In this work we explicitly account for solubility by modifying the single parameter equations. We demonstrate that sensitivity to the actual value of solubility emerges only in the regime of 2×10−1–5×10−4, where the solubility values are expressed as volume of solute per unit volume of water present in a saturated solution. Compounds that do not fall inside this sparingly soluble envelope can be adequately modeled assuming they are either infinitely soluble in water or completely insoluble.

  14. Gender differences in brain activity generated by unpleasant word stimuli concerning body image: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirao, Naoko; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Mantani, Tomoyuki; Okamoto, Yuri; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2005-01-01

    We have previously reported that the temporomesial area, including the amygdala, is activated in women when processing unpleasant words concerning body image. To detect gender differences in brain activation during processing of these words. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to investigate 13 men and 13 women during an emotional decision task consisting of unpleasant words concerning body image and neutral words. The left medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were activated only among men, and the left amygdala was activated only among women during the task; activation in the apical prefrontal region was significantly greater in men than in women. Our data suggest that the prefrontal region is responsible for the gender differences in the processing of words concerning body image, and may also be responsible for gender differences in susceptibility to eating disorders.

  15. Monitoring Active Volcanos Using Aerial Images and the Orthoview Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Marsella

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In volcanic areas, where it can be difficult to perform direct surveys, digital photogrammetry techniques are rarely adopted for routine volcano monitoring. Nevertheless, they have remarkable potentialities for observing active volcanic features (e.g., fissures, lava flows and the connected deformation processes. The ability to obtain accurate quantitative data of definite accuracy in short time spans makes digital photogrammetry a suitable method for controlling the evolution of rapidly changing large-area volcanic phenomena. The systematic acquisition of airborne photogrammetric datasets can be adopted for implementing a more effective procedure aimed at long-term volcano monitoring and hazard assessment. In addition, during the volcanic crisis, the frequent acquisition of oblique digital images from helicopter allows for quasi-real-time monitoring to support mitigation actions by civil protection. These images are commonly used to update existing maps through a photo-interpretation approach that provide data of unknown accuracy. This work presents a scientific tool (Orthoview that implements a straightforward photogrammetric approach to generate digital orthophotos from single-view oblique images provided that at least four Ground Control Points (GCP and current Digital Elevation Models (DEM are available. The influence of the view geometry, of sparse and not-signalized GCP and DEM inaccuracies is analyzed for evaluating the performance of the developed tool in comparison with other remote sensing techniques. Results obtained with datasets from Etna and Stromboli volcanoes demonstrate that 2D features measured on the produced orthophotos can reach sub-meter-level accuracy.

  16. Analysis of scientific papers in the field of radiology and medical imaging included in Science Citation Index expanded and published by Turkish authors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Erhan; Karçaaltincaba, Muşturay

    2010-09-01

    We aimed to analyze scientific papers published by Turkish authors in "radiology, nuclear medicine and medical imaging" journals included in the Science Citation Index Expanded and compared the number of published scientific papers from Turkey and other countries. We retrospectively searched all papers published by Turkish authors between 1945 and 2008 by using Web of Science software. We performed the analysis by typing "Turkey" in the address section and all radiology and medical imaging journals in the source title section using the general search function of the software. We further analyzed these results by using "analyze" function of the software according to the number of publications per year, journals, institution and type of papers. We also calculated total number of citations to published scientific papers using citation report function. We analyzed the rank of Turkey among other countries in terms of the number of published papers. Overall, 4,532 papers were published between 1945 and 2008. The first paper was published in 1976. Number of publications increased dramatically from 1976 (n = 1) to 2008 (n = 383). The top 5 journals publishing papers from Turkish authors were European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (n = 328), Clinical Nuclear Medicine (n = 296), European Journal of Radiology (n = 289), European Radiology (n = 207) and Journal of Clinical Ultrasound (n = 186). All published papers received 18,419 citations and citation to paper ratio was 4.06. The rank of Turkey among other countries in terms of published papers improved during the last 25 years. Number of papers from Turkey published in radiology and medical imaging journals has increased at the start of the new millennium. Currently, Turkey is among the top 12 countries when the number of scientific papers published in radiology journals is taken into consideration.

  17. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for tourism...

  18. PET imaging of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) in prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Dorthe; Persson, Morten; Kjaer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptors (uPAR) represents an important biomarker for aggressiveness in most common malignant diseases, including prostate cancer (PC). Accordingly, uPAR expression either assessed directly in malignant PC tissue or assessed directly in plasma...... and prognostic imaging method. In this review, we will focus on the recent development of uPAR PET and the relevance within prostate cancer imaging. Novel antibody and small-molecule radiotracers-targeting uPAR, including a series of uPAR-targeting PET ligands, based on the high affinity peptide ligand AE105......, have been synthesized and tested in vitro and in vivo in preclinical murine xenograft models and, recently, in a first-ever clinical uPAR PET study in cancer patients, including patients with PC. In this phase I study, a high and specific uptake of the tracer 64Cu-DOTA-AE105 was found in both primary...

  19. 131I activity quantification of gamma camera planar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquero, Raquel; Garcia, Hugo P.; Incio, Monica G.; Minguez, Pablo; Cardenas, Alexander; Martínez, Daniel; Lassmann, Michael

    2017-02-01

    A procedure to estimate the activity in target tissues in patients during the therapeutic administration of 131I radiopharmaceutical treatment for thyroid conditions (hyperthyroidism and differentiated thyroid cancer) using a gamma camera (GC) with a high energy (HE) collimator, is proposed. Planar images are acquired for lesions of different sizes r, and at different distances d, in two HE GC systems. Defining a region of interest (ROI) on the image of size r, total counts n g are measured. Sensitivity S (cps MBq-1) in each acquisition is estimated as the product of the geometric G and the intrinsic efficiency η 0. The mean fluence of 364 keV photons arriving at the ROI per disintegration G, is calculated with the MCNPX code, simulating the entire GC and the HE collimator. Intrinsic efficiency η 0 is estimated from a calibration measurement of a plane reference source of 131I in air. Values of G and S for two GC systems—Philips Skylight and Siemens e-cam—are calculated. The total range of possible sensitivity values in thyroidal imaging in the e-cam and skylight GC measure from 7 cps MBq-1 to 35 cps MBq-1, and from 6 cps MBq-1 to 29 cps MBq-1, respectively. These sensitivity values have been verified with the SIMIND code, with good agreement between them. The results have been validated with experimental measurements in air, and in a medium with scatter and attenuation. The counts in the ROI can be produced by direct, scatter and penetration photons. The fluence value for direct photons is constant for any r and d values, but scatter and penetration photons show different values related to specific r and d values, resulting in the large sensitivity differences found. The sensitivity in thyroidal GC planar imaging is strongly dependent on uptake size, and distance from the GC. An individual value for the acquisition sensitivity of each lesion can significantly alleviate the level of uncertainty in the measurement of thyroid uptake activity for each patient.

  20. Percutaneous Image-Guided Screw Fixation of Bone Lesions in Cancer Patients: Double-Centre Analysis of Outcomes including Local Evolution of the Treated Focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazzato, Roberto Luigi, E-mail: gigicazzato@hotmail.it; Koch, Guillaume, E-mail: guillaume.koch@chru-strasbourg.fr [Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, HUS, Department of Interventional Radiology, Nouvel Hôpital Civil (France); Buy, Xavier, E-mail: x.buy@bordeaux.unicancer.fr [Institut Bergonié, Department of Radiology (France); Ramamurthy, Nitin, E-mail: nitin-ramamurthy@hotmail.com [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Tsoumakidou, Georgia, E-mail: georgia.tsoumakidou@chru-strasbourg.fr; Caudrelier, Jean, E-mail: jean.caudrelier@chru-strasbourg.fr [Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, HUS, Department of Interventional Radiology, Nouvel Hôpital Civil (France); Catena, Vittorio, E-mail: v.catena@bordeaux.unicancer.fr [Institut Bergonié, Department of Radiology (France); Garnon, Julien, E-mail: juleiengarnon@gmail.com [Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, HUS, Department of Interventional Radiology, Nouvel Hôpital Civil (France); Palussiere, Jean, E-mail: j.palussiere@bordeaux.unicancer.fr [Institut Bergonié, Department of Radiology (France); Gangi, Afshin, E-mail: gangi@unistra.fr [Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, HUS, Department of Interventional Radiology, Nouvel Hôpital Civil (France)

    2016-10-15

    AimTo review outcomes and local evolution of treated lesions following percutaneous image-guided screw fixation (PIGSF) of pathological/insufficiency fractures (PF/InF) and impeding fractures (ImF) in cancer patients at two tertiary centres.Materials and methodsThirty-two consecutive patients (mean age 67.5 years; range 33–86 years) with a range of tumours and prognoses underwent PIGSF for non/minimally displaced PF/InF and ImF. Screws were placed under CT/fluoroscopy or cone-beam CT guidance, with or without cementoplasty. Clinical outcomes were assessed using a simple 4-point scale (1 = worse; 2 = stable; 3 = improved; 4 = significantly improved). Local evolution was reviewed on most recent follow-up imaging. Technical success, complications, and overall survival were evaluated.ResultsThirty-six lesions were treated with 74 screws mainly in the pelvis and femoral neck (58.2 %); including 47.2 % PF, 13.9 % InF, and 38.9 % ImF. Cementoplasty was performed in 63.9 % of the cases. Technical success was 91.6 %. Hospital stay was ≤3 days; 87.1 % of lesions were improved at 1-month follow-up; three major complications (early screw-impingement radiculopathy; accelerated coxarthrosis; late coxofemoral septic arthritis) and one minor complication were observed. Unfavourable local evolution at imaging occurred in 3/24 lesions (12.5 %) at mean 8.7-month follow-up, including poor consolidation (one case) and screw loosening (two cases, at least 1 symptomatic). There were no cases of secondary fractures.ConclusionsPIGSF is feasible for a wide range of oncologic patients, offering good short-term efficacy, acceptable complication rates, and rapid recovery. Unfavourable local evolution at imaging may be relatively frequent, and requires close clinico-radiological surveillance.

  1. Serial magnetic resonance imaging of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, including evaluation of the contrast-enhancing effect on lesions by Gd-DTPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yasunori; Matsuo, Michimasa

    1996-01-01

    Many papers on the MR features of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) have been published, but only a few described contrast-enhanced MRI for this disease. In this study, we analyzed serial changes in MR features and the contrast-enhancing effect on lesions in five patients (5 men, 4-19 years old) discharged with the final diagnosis of ADEM. Hyperintense lesions in brain/spinal cord were demonstrated on T2-weighted MR images in all cases, but not all lesions were enhanced by Gd-DTPA. In the follow-up study many lesions disappeared, but some lesions were enlarged and some new lesions were found. These findings suggest that, although ADEM is clinically monophasic, some cases may progress with the coexistence of reducing, vanishing, and new lesions. Some clinically acute lesions were not enhanced. This might be explained by the following reasons; lesions on various phases coexist, the damage to the blood-brain barrier in the lesions is of different degrees even if it is on the same phase, and the duration of acute phase activity is short. Additionally, some hyperintense lesions remained for a long time on T2-weighted images in spite of the absence of clinical manifestation. That hyperintense area might reflect edema caused by incomplete repair of the blood-brain barrier. From our evaluation of these five cases, MRI is not useful for the diagnosis and follow-up study of ADEM. (author)

  2. State-dependent cellular activity patterns of the cat paraventricular hypothalamus measured by reflectance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Pilgaard; Rector, D M; Poe, G R

    1996-01-01

    Activity within the cat paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH) during sleep and waking states was measured by quantifying intrinsic tissue reflectivity. A fiber optic probe consisting of a 1.0 mm coherent image conduit, surrounded by plastic fibers which conducted 660 nm source light, was attached...... to a charge-coupled device camera, and positioned over the PVH in five cats. Electrodes for assessing state variables, including electroencephalographic activity, eye movement, and somatic muscle tone were also placed. After surgical recovery, reflected light intensity was measured continuously at 2.5 Hz...... changes with behavioral state in a regionally specific manner, and that overall activity increases during quiet sleep, and is even more enhanced in active sleep. PVH activation could be expected to stimulate pituitary release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and affect input to autonomic regulatory...

  3. State-dependent cellular activity patterns of the cat paraventricular hypothalamus measured by reflectance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Pilgaard; Rector, D M; Poe, G R

    1996-01-01

    Activity within the cat paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH) during sleep and waking states was measured by quantifying intrinsic tissue reflectivity. A fiber optic probe consisting of a 1.0 mm coherent image conduit, surrounded by plastic fibers which conducted 660 nm source light, was attached...... to a charge-coupled device camera, and positioned over the PVH in five cats. Electrodes for assessing state variables, including electroencephalographic activity, eye movement, and somatic muscle tone were also placed. After surgical recovery, reflected light intensity was measured continuously at 2.5 Hz...

  4. Technical and economic considerations of using actively shielded superconducting magnets for MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, L.; Hawksworth, D.

    1986-01-01

    Air-cored superconducting magnets provide uniform fields for MR imaging over large volumes at the lowest cost per gauss of available technologies. Traditional solenoidal designs have an air flux return path and contaminate the clinical environment. Actively shielded magnets comprising one magnet inside another provide the maximum possible fringe field reduction per unit cost. The use of iron to reduce fringe field is more costly than active shielding and much less flexible. Solutions to providing fringe field cancellation are possible using industry standard cryostat dimensions. Costs of materials are minimized by designing with coil optimization routines that include stress parameters

  5. Including land cover change in analysis of greenness trends using all available Landsat 5, 7, and 8 images: A case study from Guangzhou, China (2000–2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhe; Fu, Yingchun; Woodcock, Curtis; Olofsson, Pontus; Vogelmann, James; Holden, Christopher; Wang, Min; Dai, Shu; Yu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing has proven a useful way of evaluating long-term trends in vegetation “greenness” through the use of vegetation indices like Normalized Differences Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI). In particular, analyses of greenness trends have been performed for large areas (continents, for example) in an attempt to understand vegetation response to climate. These studies have been most often used coarse resolution sensors like Moderate Resolution Image Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). However, trends in greenness are also important at more local scales, particularly in and around cities as vegetation offers a variety of valuable ecosystem services ranging from minimizing air pollution to mitigating urban heat island effects. To explore the ability to monitor greenness trends in and around cities, this paper presents a new way for analyzing greenness trends based on all available Landsat 5, 7, and 8 images and applies it to Guangzhou, China. This method is capable of including the effects of land cover change in the evaluation of greenness trends by separating the effects of abrupt and gradual changes, and providing information on the timing of greenness trends.

  6. Design of Spreading-Codes-Assisted Active Imaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Volkov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This work discusses an innovative approach to imaging which can improve the robustness of existing active-range measurement methods and potentially enhance their use in a variety of outdoor applications. By merging a proven modulation technique from the domain of spread-spectrum communications with the bleeding-edge CMOS sensor technology, the prototype of the modulated range sensor is designed and evaluated. A suitable set of application-specific spreading codes is proposed, evaluated and tested on the prototype. Experimental results show that the introduced modulation technique significantly reduces the impacts of environmental factors such as sunlight and external light sources, as well as mutual interference of identical devices. The proposed approach can be considered as a promising basis for a new generation of robust and cost-efficient range-sensing solutions for automotive applications, autonomous vehicles or robots.

  7. A Single-Transistor Active Pixel CMOS Image Sensor Architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guo-An; He Jin; Zhang Dong-Wei; Su Yan-Mei; Wang Cheng; Chen Qin; Liang Hai-Lang; Ye Yun

    2012-01-01

    A single-transistor CMOS active pixel image sensor (1 T CMOS APS) architecture is proposed. By switching the photosensing pinned diode, resetting and selecting can be achieved by diode pull-up and capacitive coupling pull-down of the source follower. Thus, the reset and selected transistors can be removed. In addition, the reset and selected signal lines can be shared to reduce the metal signal line, leading to a very high fill factor. The pixel design and operation principles are discussed in detail. The functionality of the proposed 1T CMOS APS architecture has been experimentally verified using a fabricated chip in a standard 0.35 μm CMOS AMIS technology

  8. Multi trace element analysis of dry biological materials by neutron activation analysis including a chemical group separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weers, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    The principles of activation analysis and the practical aspects of neutron activation analysis are outlined. The limits which are set to accuracy and precision are defined. The description of the evaporation process is summarised in terms of the half-volume. This quantity is then used to define the resolving power. The formulation is checked by radiotracer experiments. Dried animal blood is used as the testing material. The pretreatment of the samples and (the development of) the destruction-evaporation apparatus is described. Four successive devices were built and tested. The development of the successive adsorption steps with active charcoal, Al 2 O 3 and coprecipitation with Fe(OH) 3 is presented. Seven groups of about 25 elements in total can be determined this way. The results obtained for standard reference materials are summarized and compared with literature data. (Auth.)

  9. Health-Related Quality of Life in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer Patients After Definitive Chemoradiation Therapy Including Image Guided Adaptive Brachytherapy: An Analysis From the EMBRACE Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchheiner, Kathrin; Pötter, Richard; Tanderup, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study analyzed functioning and symptom scores for longitudinal quality of life (QoL) from patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who underwent definitive chemoradiation therapy with image guided adaptive brachytherapy in the EMBRACE study. Methods and Materials In total, 744...... patients at a median follow-up of 21 months were included. QoL was prospectively assessed using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life core module 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and EORTC cervical cancer module 24 (CX24) questionnaires at baseline, then every 3 months during...... at 6 months and then declined slightly at 3 and 4 years. The overall symptom experience was elevated at baseline and decreased to a level within the range of that of the reference population. Similarly, tumor-related symptoms (eg, pain, appetite loss, and constipation), which were present before...

  10. Quality of referral: What information should be included in a request for diagnostic imaging when a patient is referred to a clinical radiologist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    G Pitman, Alexander

    2017-06-01

    Referral to a clinical radiologist is the prime means of communication between the referrer and the radiologist. Current Australian and New Zealand government regulations do not prescribe what clinical information should be included in a referral. This work presents a qualitative compilation of clinical radiologist opinion, relevant professional recommendations, governmental regulatory positions and prior work on diagnostic error to synthesise recommendations on what clinical information should be included in a referral. Recommended requirements on what clinical information should be included in a referral to a clinical radiologist are as follows: an unambiguous referral; identity of the patient; identity of the referrer; and sufficient clinical detail to justify performance of the diagnostic imaging examination and to confirm appropriate choice of the examination and modality. Recommended guideline on the content of clinical detail clarifies when the information provided in a referral meets these requirements. High-quality information provided in a referral allows the clinical radiologist to ensure that exposure of patients to medical radiation is justified. It also minimises the incidence of perceptual and interpretational diagnostic error. Recommended requirements and guideline on the clinical detail to be provided in a referral to a clinical radiologist have been formulated for professional debate and adoption. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  11. Physical activity and performance at school A systematic review of the literature including a methodological quality assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, A.S.; Uijtdewilligen, L.; Twisk, J.W.; van Mechelen, W.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe the prospective relationship between physical activity and academic performance. Data Sources: Prospective studies were identified from searches in PubMed, PsycINFO, Cochrane Central, and Sportdiscus from 1990 through 2010. Study Selection: We screened the titles and abstracts

  12. Research on Chemical Composition and Biological Properties Including Antiquorum Sensing Activity of Angelica pancicii Vandas Aerial Parts and Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileski, Ksenija S; Trifunović, Snežana S; Ćirić, Ana D; Šakić, Željana M; Ristić, Mihailo S; Todorović, Nina M; Matevski, Vlado S; Marin, Petar D; Tešević, Vele V; Džamić, Ana M

    2017-12-20

    The essential oil, different extracts, and isolated compounds of Angelica pancicii Vandas (Apiaceae) were investigated for the first time. The GC-FID and GC-MS analyses revealed sesquiterpenoids as the main constituents of A. pancicii essential oil of aerial parts with bornyl acetate (8.08%), n-octanol (5.82%), kessane (4.26%), and β-selinene (4.26%) as the main constituents. Analysis of methanol extracts, using an HPLC-DAD/ESI-ToF-MS system, showed a total of 52 compounds in the aerial parts and 53 in the roots, indicating coumarins as the main constituents. In addition, new chromone (1) and six known furanocoumarins (2-7) were isolated from the roots and structurally elucidated by combined spectroscopic methods. The aerial part extracts exhibited higher polyphenolic contents and antioxidant activity evaluated by three radical scavenging assays. Using a microwell dilution method, the strongest antibacterial activity profiles were determined for ethanol and methanol root extracts (minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) = 0.25-3.00 mg/mL), which were comparable to the activity of streptomycin (MBCs = 0.34-1.24 mg/mL), while the strongest antibacterial compound of A. pancicii was oxypeucedanin hydrate (MBCs = 0.50-8.00 mg/mL). Antifungal potential was in moderate extent, and the highest activity was obtained for root methanol extract (minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) = 4.00-14.00 mg/mL). Tested sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (subMICs) of the extracts and isolated compounds inhibited selected Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 virulence determinants. The most reduced growth of P. aeruginosa colony was in the presence of isolated oxypeucedanin. Ethanol (17.36-46.98%) and methanol (34.54-52.43%) root extracts showed higher anti-biofilm activity compared to streptomycin (49.40-88.36%) and ampicillin (56.46-92.16%).

  13. ARC (NSC 188491 has identical activity to Sangivamycin (NSC 65346 including inhibition of both P-TEFb and PKC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollingshead Melinda G

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nucleoside analog, ARC (NSC 188491 is a recently characterized transcriptional inhibitor that selectively kills cancer cells and has the ability to perturb angiogenesis in vitro. In this study, the mechanism of action of ARC was further investigated by comparing in vitro and in vivo activity with other anti-neoplastic purines. Methods Structure-based homology searches were used to identify those compounds with similarity to ARC. Comparator compounds were then evaluated alongside ARC in the context of viability, cell cycle and apoptosis assays to establish any similarities. Following this, biological overlap was explored in detail using gene-expression analysis and kinase inhibition assays. Results Results demonstrated that sangivamycin, an extensively characterized pro-apoptotic nucleoside isolated from Streptomyces, had identical activity to ARC in terms of 1 cytotoxicity assays, 2 ability to induce a G2/M block, 3 inhibitory effects on RNA/DNA/protein synthesis, 4 transcriptomic response to treatment, 5 inhibition of protein kinase C, 6 inhibition of positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb, 7 inhibition of VEGF secretion, and 8 activity within hollow fiber assays. Extending ARC activity to PKC inhibition provides a molecular basis for ARC cancer selectivity and anti-angiogenic effects. Furthermore, functional overlap between ARC and sangivamycin suggests that development of ARC may benefit from a retrospective of previous sangivamycin clinical trials. However, ARC was found to be inactive in several xenograft models, likely a consequence of rapid serum clearance. Conclusion Overall, these data expand on the biological properties of ARC but suggest additional studies are required before it can be considered a clinical trials candidate.

  14. Whole-body-MR imaging including DWIBS in the work-up of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noij, Daniel P., E-mail: d.noij@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boerhout, Els J., E-mail: e.boerhout@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pieters-van den Bos, Indra C., E-mail: i.pieters@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Comans, Emile F., E-mail: efi.comans@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Oprea-Lager, Daniela, E-mail: d.oprea-lager@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Reinhard, Rinze, E-mail: r.reinhard@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hoekstra, Otto S., E-mail: os.hoekstra@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bree, Remco de, E-mail: r.debree@vumc.nl [Department Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Graaf, Pim de, E-mail: p.degraaf@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Castelijns, Jonas A., E-mail: j.castelijns@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-07-15

    Objectives: To assess the feasibility of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) including diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background-body-signal-suppression (DWIBS) for the evaluation of distant malignancies in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC); and to compare WB-MRI findings with {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT) and chest-CT. Methods: Thirty-three patients with high risk for metastatic spread (26 males; range 48–79 years, mean age 63 ± 7.9 years (mean ± standard deviation) years) were prospectively included with a follow-up of six months. WB-MRI protocol included short-TI inversion recovery and T1-weighted sequences in the coronal plane and half-fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo T2 and contrast-enhanced-T1-weighted sequences in the axial plane. Axial DWIBS was reformatted in the coronal plane. Interobserver variability was assessed using weighted kappa and the proportion specific agreement (PA). Results: Two second primary tumors and one metastasis were detected on WB-MRI. WB-MRI yielded seven clinically indeterminate lesions which did not progress at follow-up. The metastasis and one second primary tumor were found when combining {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT and chest-CT findings. Interobserver variability for WB-MRI was κ = 0.91 with PA ranging from 0.82 to 1.00. For {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT κ could not be calculated due to a constant variable in the table and PA ranged from 0.40 to 0.99. Conclusions: Our WB-MRI protocol with DWIBS is feasible in the work-up of HNSCC patients for detection and characterization of distant pathology. WB-MRI can be complementary to {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT, especially in the detection of non {sup 18}F-FDG avid second primary tumors.

  15. Scoring inflammatory activity of the spine by magnetic resonance imaging in ankylosing spondylitis: a multireader experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukas, Cédric; Braun, Jürgen; van der Heijde, Désirée

    2007-01-01

    = 10) and selected to cover a wide range of activity at baseline and change in activity, were presented electronically in a partial latin-square design to 9 experienced readers from different countries (Europe, Canada). Readers scored each set of MRI 3 times, using 3 different methods including...... the Ankylosing Spondylitis spine Magnetic Resonance Imaging-activity [ASspiMRI-a, grading activity (0-6) per vertebral unit in 23 units]; the Berlin modification of the ASspiMRI-a; and the Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC) scoring system, which scores the 6 vertebral units considered......) assessed by Z-scores was good and comparable among methods. CONCLUSION: This experiment demonstrates the feasibility of multiple-reader MRI scoring exercises for method comparison, provides evidence for the feasibility, reliability, sensitivity to change, and discriminatory capacity of all 3 tested scoring...

  16. Body image dissatisfaction, physical activity and screen-time in Spanish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Añez, Elizabeth; Fornieles-Deu, Albert; Fauquet-Ars, Jordi; López-Guimerà, Gemma; Puntí-Vidal, Joaquim; Sánchez-Carracedo, David

    2018-01-01

    This cross-sectional study contributes to the literature on whether body dissatisfaction is a barrier/facilitator to engaging in physical activity and to investigate the impact of mass-media messages via computer-time on body dissatisfaction. High-school students ( N = 1501) reported their physical activity, computer-time (homework/leisure) and body dissatisfaction. Researchers measured students' weight and height. Analyses revealed that body dissatisfaction was negatively associated with physical activity on both genders, whereas computer-time was associated only with girls' body dissatisfaction. Specifically, as computer-homework increased, body dissatisfaction decreased; as computer-leisure increased, body dissatisfaction increased. Weight-related interventions should improve body image and physical activity simultaneously, while critical consumption of mass-media interventions should include a computer component.

  17. Myocardial perfusion imaging in Denmark: activity from 1997 to 2001 and current practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Claus Leth; Kjaer, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    , and the survey thus covers all MPI performed in Denmark during the period in question. The number of MPI studies (examined patients) was 2,531 in 1997 (0.47 MPI/1,000/year) and 4,961 (0.93 MPI/1,000/year) in 2001, which is a doubling in activity in 5 years. Nineteen (95%) of the Danish departments performed MPI...... in 2001, and 14 (74%) of these reported that activity had increased over the past 5 years. MPI activity was unevenly distributed between hospitals and regions. In 2001, the university hospitals in the central Copenhagen region (capital) accounted for the highest MPI activity (2.00/1,000/year), while......A questionnaire was sent to all departments of nuclear medicine in Denmark (n=20) asking for details of myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), including the number of patients examined each year from 1997 to 2001 and the current clinical and technical practice. All (100%) departments replied...

  18. Extended automated separation techniques in destructive neutron activation analysis; application to various biological materials, including human tissues and blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjioe, P.S.; Goeij, J.J.M. de; Houtman, J.P.W.

    1976-09-01

    Neutron activation analysis may be performed as a multi-element and low-level technique for many important trace elements in biological materials, provided that post-irradiation chemical separations are applied. This paper describes a chemical separation consisting of automated procedures for destruction, distillation, and anion-chromatography. The system developed enables the determination of 14 trace elements in biological materials, viz. antimony, arsenic, bromine, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, gold, iron, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc. The aspects of sample preparation, neutron irradiation, gamma-spectrum evaluation, and blank-value contribution are also discussed

  19. Beyond the limits of present active matrix flat-panel imagers (AMFPIs) for diagnostic radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonuk, Larry E.; El-Mohri, Youcef; Jee, Kyung-Wook; Maolinbay, Manat; Nassif, Samer C.; Rong, Xiujiang; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.; Zhao, Qihua; Street, Robert A.

    1999-05-01

    A theoretical cascaded systems analysis of the performance limits of x-ray imagers based on thin-film, active matrix flat-panel technology is presented. This analysis specifically focuses upon an examination of the functional dependence of the detective quantum efficiency on exposure. While the DQE of AMFPI systems is relatively high at the large exposure levels associated with radiographic x-ray imaging, there is a significant decline in DQE with decreasing exposure over the medium and lower end of the exposure range associated with fluoroscopic imaging. This fall-off in DQE originates from the relatively large size of the additive noise of AMFPI systems compared to their overall system gain. Therefore, strategies to diminish additive noise and increase system gain should significantly improve performance. Potential strategies for noise reduction include the use of charge compensation lines while strategies for gain enhancement include continuous photodiodes, pixel amplification structures, or higher gain converters. The effect of the implementation of such strategies is examined for a variety for hypothetical imager configurations. Through the modeling of these configurations, such enhancements are shown to hold the potential of making low frequency DQE response large and essentially independent of exposure while greatly reducing the fall-off in DQE at higher spatial frequencies.

  20. Validity of Estimation of Pelvic Floor Muscle Activity from Transperineal Ultrasound Imaging in Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan E Stafford

    Full Text Available To investigate the relationship between displacement of pelvic floor landmarks observed with transperineal ultrasound imaging and electromyography of the muscles hypothesised to cause the displacements.Three healthy men participated in this study, which included ultrasound imaging of the mid-urethra, urethra-vesical junction, ano-rectal junction and bulb of the penis. Fine-wire electromyography electrodes were inserted into the puborectalis and bulbocavernosus muscles and a transurethral catheter electrode recorded striated urethral sphincter electromyography. A nasogastric sensor recorded intra-abdominal pressure. Tasks included submaximal and maximal voluntary contractions, and Valsalva. The relationship between each of the parameters measured from ultrasound images and electromyography or intra-abdominal pressure amplitudes was described with nonlinear regression.Strong, non-linear relationships were calculated for each predicted landmark/muscle pair for submaximal contractions (R2-0.87-0.95. The relationships between mid-urethral displacement and striated urethral sphincter electromyography, and bulb of the penis displacement and bulbocavernosus electromyography were strong during maximal contractions (R2-0.74-0.88. Increased intra-abdominal pressure prevented shortening of puborectalis, which resulted in weak relationships between electromyography and anorectal and urethravesical junction displacement during all tasks.Displacement of landmarks in transperineal ultrasound imaging provides meaningful measures of activation of individual pelvic floor muscles in men during voluntary contractions. This method may aid assessment of muscle function or feedback for training.

  1. Visual image reconstruction from human brain activity: A modular decoding approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyawaki, Yoichi; Uchida, Hajime; Yamashita, Okito; Sato, Masa-aki; Kamitani, Yukiyasu; Morito, Yusuke; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Sadato, Norihiro

    2009-01-01

    Brain activity represents our perceptual experience. But the potential for reading out perceptual contents from human brain activity has not been fully explored. In this study, we demonstrate constraint-free reconstruction of visual images perceived by a subject, from the brain activity pattern. We reconstructed visual images by combining local image bases with multiple scales, whose contrasts were independently decoded from fMRI activity by automatically selecting relevant voxels and exploiting their correlated patterns. Binary-contrast, 10 x 10-patch images (2 100 possible states), were accurately reconstructed without any image prior by measuring brain activity only for several hundred random images. The results suggest that our approach provides an effective means to read out complex perceptual states from brain activity while discovering information representation in multi-voxel patterns.

  2. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of hippocampal activation during silent mantra meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, Maria; Pihlsgård, Johan; Lundberg, Peter; Söderfeldt, Birgitta

    2010-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate whether moderately experienced meditators activate hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex during silent mantra meditation, as has been observed in earlier studies on subjects with several years of practice. Subjects with less than 2 years of meditation practice according to the Kundalini yoga or Acem tradition were examined by functional magnetic resonance imaging during silent mantra meditation, using an on-off block design. Whole-brain as well as region-of-interest analyses were performed. The most significant activation was found in the bilateral hippocampus/parahippocampal formations. Other areas with significant activation were the bilateral middle cingulate cortex and the bilateral precentral cortex. No activation in the anterior cingulate cortex was found, and only small activation clusters were observed in the prefrontal cortex. In conclusion, the main finding in this study was the significant activation in the hippocampi, which also has been correlated with meditation in several previous studies on very experienced meditators. We propose that the hippocampus is activated already after moderate meditation practice and also during different modes of meditation, including relaxation. The role of hippocampal activity during meditation should be further clarified in future studies, especially by investigating whether the meditation-correlated hippocampal activity is related to memory consolidation.

  3. Short-Range Temporal Interactions in Sleep; Hippocampal Spike Avalanches Support a Large Milieu of Sequential Activity Including Replay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Matthew Mahoney

    Full Text Available Hippocampal neural systems consolidate multiple complex behaviors into memory. However, the temporal structure of neural firing supporting complex memory consolidation is unknown. Replay of hippocampal place cells during sleep supports the view that a simple repetitive behavior modifies sleep firing dynamics, but does not explain how multiple episodes could be integrated into associative networks for recollection during future cognition. Here we decode sequential firing structure within spike avalanches of all pyramidal cells recorded in sleeping rats after running in a circular track. We find that short sequences that combine into multiple long sequences capture the majority of the sequential structure during sleep, including replay of hippocampal place cells. The ensemble, however, is not optimized for maximally producing the behavior-enriched episode. Thus behavioral programming of sequential correlations occurs at the level of short-range interactions, not whole behavioral sequences and these short sequences are assembled into a large and complex milieu that could support complex memory consolidation.

  4. Horizon Expansion of Thermal-Hydraulic Activities into HTGR Safety Analysis Including Gas-Turbine Cycle and Hydrogen Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No, Hee Cheon; Yoon, Ho Joon; Kim, Seung Jun; Lee, Byeng Jin; Kim, Ji Hwan; Kim, Hyeun Min; Lim, Hong Sik

    2009-01-01

    We present three nuclear/hydrogen-related R and D activities being performed at KAIST: air-ingressed LOCA analysis code development, gas turbine analysis tool development, and hydrogen-production system analysis model development. The ICE numerical technique widely used for the safety analysis of water-reactors is successfully implemented into GAMMA, with which we solve the basic equations for continuity, momentum conservation, energy conservation of the gas mixture, and mass conservation of 6 species (He, N2, O2, CO, CO2, and H2O). GAMMA has been extensively validated using data from 14 test facilities. We developed a tool to predict the characteristics of HTGR helium turbines based on the through flow calculation with a Newton- Raphson method that overcomes the weakness of the conventional method based on the successive iteration scheme. It is found that the current method reaches stable and quick convergence even under the off-normal condition with the same degree of accuracy. The dynamic equations for the distillation column of HI process are described with 4 material components involved in the HI process: H2O, HI, I2, H2. For the HI process we improved the Neumann model based on the NRTL (Non-Random Two-Liquid) model. The improved Neumann model predicted a total pressure with 8.6% maximum relative deviation from the data and 2.5% mean relative deviation, and liquid-liquid-separation with 9.52% maximum relative deviation from the data

  5. Hybrid coded aperture and Compton imaging using an active mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, L.J.; Wallace, M.S.; Galassi, M.C.; Hoover, A.S.; Mocko, M.; Palmer, D.M.; Tornga, S.R.; Kippen, R.M.; Hynes, M.V.; Toolin, M.J.; Harris, B.; McElroy, J.E.; Wakeford, D.; Lanza, R.C.; Horn, B.K.P.; Wehe, D.K.

    2009-01-01

    The trimodal imager (TMI) images gamma-ray sources from a mobile platform using both coded aperture (CA) and Compton imaging (CI) modalities. In this paper we will discuss development and performance of image reconstruction algorithms for the TMI. In order to develop algorithms in parallel with detector hardware we are using a GEANT4 [J. Allison, K. Amako, J. Apostolakis, H. Araujo, P.A. Dubois, M. Asai, G. Barrand, R. Capra, S. Chauvie, R. Chytracek, G. Cirrone, G. Cooperman, G. Cosmo, G. Cuttone, G. Daquino, et al., IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-53 (1) (2006) 270] based simulation package to produce realistic data sets for code development. The simulation code incorporates detailed detector modeling, contributions from natural background radiation, and validation of simulation results against measured data. Maximum likelihood algorithms for both imaging methods are discussed, as well as a hybrid imaging algorithm wherein CA and CI information is fused to generate a higher fidelity reconstruction.

  6. A luciferase-based assay for rapid assessment of drug activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis including monitoring of macrophage viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Marie C; Lerm, Maria; Ängeby, Kristian; Nordvall, Michaela; Juréen, Pontus; Schön, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    The intracellular (IC) effect of drugs against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is not well established but increasingly important to consider when combining current and future multidrug regimens into the best possible treatment strategies. For this purpose, we developed an IC model based on a genetically modified Mtb H37Rv strain, expressing the Vibrio harvei luciferase (H37Rv-lux) infecting the human macrophage like cell line THP-1. Cells were infected at a low multiplicity of infection (1:1) and subsequently exposed to isoniazid (INH), ethambutol (EMB), amikacin (AMI) or levofloxacin (LEV) for 5days in a 96-well format. Cell viability was evaluated by Calcein AM and was maintained throughout the experiment. The number of viable H37Rv-lux was determined by luminescence and verified by a colony forming unit analysis. The results were compared to the effects of the same drugs in broth cultures. AMI, EMB and LEV were significantly less effective intracellularly (MIC90: >4mg/L, 8mg/L and 2mg/L, respectively) compared to extracellularly (MIC90: 0.5mg/L for AMI and EMB; 0.25mg/L for LEV). The reverse was the case for INH (IC: 0.064mg/L vs EC: 0.25mg/L). In conclusion, this luciferase based method, in which monitoring of cell viability is included, has the potential to become a useful tool while evaluating the intracellular effects of anti-mycobacterial drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Live-Cell Imaging of Protease Activity: Assays to Screen Therapeutic Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalasani, Anita; Ji, Kyungmin; Sameni, Mansoureh; Mazumder, Samia H; Xu, Yong; Moin, Kamiar; Sloane, Bonnie F

    2017-01-01

    Methodologies to image and quantify the activity of proteolytic enzymes have been developed in an effort to identify protease-related druggable pathways that are involved in malignant progression of cancer. Our laboratory has pioneered techniques for functional live-cell imaging of protease activity in pathomimetic avatars for breast cancer. We analyze proteolysis in the context of proliferation and formation of structures by tumor cells in 3-D cultures over time (4D). In order to recapitulate the cellular composition and architecture of tumors in the pathomimetic avatars, we include other tumor-associated cells (e.g., fibroblasts, myoepithelial cells, microvascular endothelial cells). We also model noncellular aspects of the tumor microenvironment such as acidic pericellular pH. Use of pathomimetic avatars in concert with various types of imaging probes has allowed us to image, quantify, and follow the dynamics of proteolysis in the tumor microenvironment and to test interventions that impact directly or indirectly on proteolytic pathways. To facilitate use of the pathomimetic avatars for screening of therapeutic modalities, we have designed and fabricated custom 3D culture chambers with multiple wells that are either individual or connected by a channel to allow cells to migrate between wells. Optical glass microscope slides underneath an acrylic plate allow the cultures to be imaged with an inverted microscope. Fluid ports in the acrylic plate are at a level above the 3D cultures to allow introduction of culture media and test agents such as drugs into the wells and the harvesting of media conditioned by the cultures for immunochemical and biochemical analyses. We are using the pathomimetic avatars to identify druggable pathways, screen drug and natural product libraries and accelerate entry of validated drugs or natural products into clinical trials.

  8. Transferring Biomarker into Molecular Probe: Melanin Nanoparticle as a Naturally Active Platform for Multimodality Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Quli; Cheng, Kai; Hu, Xiang; Ma, Xiaowei; Zhang, Ruiping; Yang, Min; Lu, Xiaomei; Xing, Lei; Huang, Wei; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Cheng, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Developing multifunctional and easily prepared nanoplatforms with integrated different modalities is highly challenging for molecular imaging. Here, we report the successful transfer of an important molecular target, melanin, into a novel multimodality imaging nanoplatform. Melanin is abundantly expressed in melanotic melanomas and thus has been actively studied as a target for melanoma imaging. In our work, the multifunctional biopolymer nanoplatform based on ultrasmall (

  9. Comparison of CT enterography and MR enterography imaging features of active Crohn disease in children and adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gale, Heather I. [The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Rhode Island Hospital/Hasbro Children' s Children' s Hospital/Women and Infants Hospital, Providence, RI (United States); Sharatz, Steven M.; Nimkin, Katherine; Gee, Michael S. [MassGeneral Hospital for Children, Division of Pediatric Imaging, Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Taphey, Mayureewan [Bumrungrad International Hospital, Bangkok (Thailand); Bradley, William F. [Cambridge Mobile Telematics, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-09-15

    Assessment for active Crohn disease by CT enterography and MR enterography relies on identifying mural and perienteric imaging features. To evaluate the performance of established imaging features of active Crohn disease in children and adolescents on CT and MR enterography compared with histological reference. We included patients ages 18 years and younger who underwent either CT or MR enterography from 2007 to 2014 and had endoscopic biopsy within 28 days of imaging. Two pediatric radiologists blinded to the histological results reviewed imaging studies and scored the bowel for the presence or absence of mural features (wall thickening >3 mm, mural hyperenhancement) and perienteric features (mesenteric hypervascularity, edema, fibrofatty proliferation and lymphadenopathy) of active disease. We performed univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression to compare imaging features with histological reference. We evaluated 452 bowel segments (135 from CT enterography, 317 from MR enterography) from 84 patients. Mural imaging features had the highest association with active inflammation both for MR enterography (wall thickening had 80% accuracy, 69% sensitivity and 91% specificity; mural hyperenhancement had 78%, 53% and 96%, respectively) and CT enterography (wall thickening had 84% accuracy, 72% sensitivity and 91% specificity; mural hyperenhancement had 76%, 51% and 91%, respectively), with perienteric imaging features performing significantly worse on MR enterography relative to CT enterography (P < 0.001). Mural features are predictors of active inflammation for both CT and MR enterography, while perienteric features can be distinguished better on CT enterography compared with MR enterography. This likely reflects the increased conspicuity of the mesentery on CT enterography and suggests that mural features are the most reliable imaging features of active Crohn disease in children and adolescents. (orig.)

  10. High water-stressed population estimated by world water resources assessment including human activities under SRES scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiguchi, M.; Shen, Y.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2009-04-01

    In an argument of the reduction and the adaptation for the climate change, the evaluation of the influence by the climate change is important. When we argue in adaptation plan from a damage scale and balance with the cost, it is particularly important. Parry et al (2001) evaluated the risks in shortage of water, malaria, food, the risk of the coast flood by temperature function and clarified the level of critical climate change. According to their evaluation, the population to be affected by the shortage of water suddenly increases in the range where temperature increases from 1.5 to 2.0 degree in 2080s. They showed how much we need to reduce emissions in order to draw-down significantly the number at risk. This evaluation of critical climate change threats and targets of water shortage did not include the water withdrawal divided by water availability. Shen et al (2008a) estimated the water withdrawal of projection of future world water resources according to socio-economic driving factors predicted for scenarios A1b, A2, B1, and B2 of the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). However, these results were in function of not temperature but time. The assessment of the highly water-stressed population considered the socioeconomic development is necessary for a function of the temperature. Because of it is easy to understand to need to reduce emission. We present a multi-GCM analysis of the global and regional populations lived in highly water-stressed basin for a function of the temperature using the socioeconomic data and the outputs of GCMs. In scenario A2, the population increases gradually with warming. On the other hand, the future projection population in scenario A1b and B1 increase gradually until the temperature anomaly exceeds around from +1 to +1.5 degree. After that the population is almost constant. From Shen et al (2008b), we evaluated the HWSP and its ratio in the world with temperature function for scenarios A1B, A2, and B1 by the index of W

  11. In vivo stepwise multi-photon activation fluorescence imaging of melanin in human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zhenhua; Gu, Zetong; Abbas, Saleh; Lowe, Jared; Sierra, Heidy; Rajadhyaksha, Milind; DiMarzio, Charles

    2014-03-01

    The stepwise multi-photon activated fluorescence (SMPAF) of melanin is a low cost and reliable method of detecting melanin because the activation and excitation can be a continuous-wave (CW) mode near infrared (NIR) laser. Our previous work has demonstrated the melanin SMPAF images in sepia melanin, mouse hair, and mouse skin. In this study, we show the feasibility of using SMPAF to detect melanin in vivo. in vivo melanin SMPAF images of normal skin and benign nevus are demonstrated. SMPAF images add specificity for melanin detection than MPFM images and CRM images. Melanin SMPAF is a promising technology to enable early detection of melanoma for dermatologists.

  12. Beyond image interpretation: Capturing the impact of radiographer advanced practice through activity diaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snaith, B.; Milner, R.C.; Harris, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is limited evidence of the impact of radiographers working in advanced roles beyond task substitution. This study reviews the contribution of advanced (and consultant) practitioner radiographers to service delivery whilst reporting radiographs and demonstrates the impact this has on patients and staff, both internal and external to the imaging department. Method: The study was a prospective exploratory study using activity diaries to allow interval sampling when individuals were rostered to report. Data was coded using a compiled list of activities and recorded in 15-min intervals over the period of one week. Thirteen radiographers who independently report radiographs participated across 6 locations in a busy multisite English National Health Service (NHS) Trust. Results: Radiographers reported the majority of the examinations during the study period (n = 4512/5671; 79.6%). The total number of coded activities recorded over the study period was 1527, equating to 380.5 relative hours. The majority of available time was spent reporting, including dictating and verifying the reports of colleagues or trainees, although 69.5% of reporting time was interrupted. Based upon the hours of reporting there was an average of 19.3 reports (patient episodes) produced per hour. Direct patient care tasks and support for staff in decision making were regularly documented. Supplementary tasks included administrative activity, amendments to rotas, preparing presentations and documenting incidents identified during reporting. Conclusion: This study has demonstrated the breadth and complexity of the activities performed by advanced practice radiographers. The findings confirm their role in supporting service delivery beyond image interpretation. - Highlights: • Radiographers can make a significant contribution to reporting workloads. • The range of activities undertaken when reporting is complex and varied. • Reporting radiographers impact on staff, patients

  13. Integrated imaging sensor systems with CMOS active pixel sensor technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G.; Cunningham, T.; Ortiz, M.; Heynssens, J.; Sun, C.; Hancock, B.; Seshadri, S.; Wrigley, C.; McCarty, K.; Pain, B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses common approaches to CMOS APS technology, as well as specific results on the five-wire programmable digital camera-on-a-chip developed at JPL. The paper also reports recent research in the design, operation, and performance of APS imagers for several imager applications.

  14. An active learning approach to the physics of medical imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Lonsdale, Markus Nowak

    2008-01-01

    , ultrasound and SPECT images show the tissue in very different ways. The students can only estimate the tissue type by studying the physical principles of the imaging modalities. The true answer is later revealed by anatomical photographs obtained from physical slicing. The paper describes the phantoms...

  15. Real-time intravital imaging of pH variation associated with osteoclast activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Hiroki; Kowada, Toshiyuki; Kikuta, Junichi; Furuya, Masayuki; Shirazaki, Mai; Mizukami, Shin; Ishii, Masaru; Kikuchi, Kazuya

    2016-08-01

    Intravital imaging by two-photon excitation microscopy (TPEM) has been widely used to visualize cell functions. However, small molecular probes (SMPs), commonly used for cell imaging, cannot be simply applied to intravital imaging because of the challenge of delivering them into target tissues, as well as their undesirable physicochemical properties for TPEM imaging. Here, we designed and developed a functional SMP with an active-targeting moiety, higher photostability, and a fluorescence switch and then imaged target cell activity by injecting the SMP into living mice. The combination of the rationally designed SMP with a fluorescent protein as a reporter of cell localization enabled quantitation of osteoclast activity and time-lapse imaging of its in vivo function associated with changes in cell deformation and membrane fluctuations. Real-time imaging revealed heterogenic behaviors of osteoclasts in vivo and provided insights into the mechanism of bone resorption.

  16. Imaging proteolytic activity in live cells and animal models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Galbán

    Full Text Available In addition to their degradative role in protein turnover, proteases play a key role as positive or negative regulators of signal transduction pathways and therefore their dysregulation contributes to many disease states. Regulatory roles of proteases include their hormone-like role in triggering G protein-coupled signaling (Protease-Activated-Receptors; their role in shedding of ligands such as EGF, Notch and Fas; and their role in signaling events that lead to apoptotic cell death. Dysregulated activation of apoptosis by the caspase family of proteases has been linked to diseases such as cancer, autoimmunity and inflammation. In an effort to better understand the role of proteases in health and disease, a luciferase biosensor is described which can quantitatively report proteolytic activity in live cells and mouse models. The biosensor, hereafter referred to as GloSensor Caspase 3/7 has a robust signal to noise (50-100 fold and dynamic range such that it can be used to screen for pharmacologically active compounds in high throughput campaigns as well as to study cell signaling in rare cell populations such as isolated cancer stem cells. The biosensor can also be used in the context of genetically engineered mouse models of human disease wherein conditional expression using the Cre/loxP technology can be implemented to investigate the role of a specific protease in living subjects. While the regulation of apoptosis by caspase's was used as an example in these studies, biosensors to study additional proteases involved in the regulation of normal and pathological cellular processes can be designed using the concepts presented herein.

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features as Surrogate Markers of X-Linked Hypophosphatemic Rickets Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempicki, Marta; Rothenbuhler, Anya; Merzoug, Valérie; Franchi-Abella, Stéphanie; Chaussain, Catherine; Adamsbaum, Catherine; Linglart, Agnès

    2017-01-01

    X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH) is the most common form of inheritable rickets. Rickets treatment is monitored by assessing alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels, clinical features, and radiographs. Our objectives were to describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of XLH and to assess correlations with disease activity. Twenty-seven XLH patients (median age 9.2 years) were included in this prospective single-center observational study. XLH activity was assessed using height, leg bowing, dental abscess history, and serum ALP levels. We looked for correlations between MRI features and markers of disease activity. On MRI, the median maximum width of the physis was 5.6 mm (range 4.8-7.8; normal 1.5 mm in all of the patients. The appearance of the zone of provisional calcification was abnormal on 21 MRI images (78%), Harris lines were present on 24 (89%), and bone marrow signal abnormalities were present on 16 (59%). ALP levels correlated with the maximum physeal widening and with the transverse extent of the widening. MRI of the knee provides precise rickets patterns that are correlated with ALP, an established biochemical marker of the disease, avoiding X-ray exposure and providing surrogate quantitative markers of disease activity. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Active terahertz imaging with Ne indicator lamp detector arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeika, N. S.; Abramovich, A.; Yadid-Pecht, O.; Yitzhaky, Y.

    2009-08-01

    The advantages of terahertz (THz) imaging are well known. They penetrate well most non-conducting media and there are no known biological hazards, This makes such imaging systems important for homeland security, as they can be used to image concealed objects and often into rooms or buildings from the outside. There are also biomedical applications that are arising. Unfortunately, THz imaging is quite expensive, especially for real time systems, largely because of the price of the detector. Bolometers and pyroelectric detectors can each easily cost at least hundreds of dollars if not more, thus making focal plane arrays of them quite expensive. We have found that common miniature commercial neon indicator lamps costing typically about 30 cents each exhibit high sensitivity to THz radiation [1-3], with microsecond order rise times, thus making them excellent candidates for such focal plane arrays. NEP is on the order of 10-10 W/Hz1/2. Significant improvement of detection performance is expected when heterodyne detection is used Efforts are being made to develop focal plane array imagers using such devices at 300 GHz. Indeed, preliminary images using 4x4 arrays have already been obtained. An 8x8 VLSI board has been developed and is presently being tested. Since no similar imaging systems have been developed previously, there are many new problems to be solved with such a novel and unconventional imaging system. These devices act as square law detectors, with detected signal proportional to THz power. This allows them to act as mixers in heterodyne detection, thus allowing NEP to be reduced further by almost two orders of magnitude. Plans are to expand the arrays to larger sizes, and to employ super resolution techniques to improve image quality beyond that ordinarily obtainable at THz frequencies.

  19. Curiosity's Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI): Inital Observations and Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgett, K. S.; Yingst, R. A.; Minitti, M. E.; Robinson, M. L.; Kennedy, M. R.; Lipkaman, L. J.; Jensen, E. H.; Anderson, R. C.; Bean, K. M.; Beegle, L. W.; hide

    2013-01-01

    MAHLI (Mars Hand Lens Imager) is a 2-megapixel focusable macro lens color camera on the turret on Curiosity's robotic arm. The investigation centers on stratigraphy, grain-scale texture, structure, mineralogy, and morphology of geologic materials at Curiosity's Gale robotic field site. MAHLI acquires focused images at working distances of 2.1 cm to infinity; for reference, at 2.1 cm the scale is 14 microns/pixel; at 6.9 cm it is 31 microns/pixel, like the Spirit and Opportunity Microscopic Imager (MI) cameras.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging as a tool for extravehicular activity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickenson, R.; Lorenz, C.; Peterson, S.; Strauss, A.; Main, J.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a means of conducting kinematic studies of the hand for the purpose of EVA capability enhancement. After imaging the subject hand using a magnetic resonance scanner, the resulting 2D slices were reconstructed into a 3D model of the proximal phalanx of the left hand. Using the coordinates of several landmark positions, one is then able to decompose the motion of the rigid body. MRI offers highly accurate measurements due to its tomographic nature without the problems associated with other imaging modalities for in vivo studies.

  1. Teaching the physics of medical imaging: an active learning approach involving imaging of biological tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Lonsdale, Markus Nowak

    2008-01-01

    Introduction to medical imaging is an experimentally oriented course in the physics of medical imaging, where the students record, process and analyse 3D data of an unknown piece of formalin fixed animal tissue embedded in agar in order to estimate the tissue types present. Planar X-ray, CT, MRI......, ultrasound and SPECT/PET images are recorded, showing the tissue in very different ways. In order for the students to estimate the tissue type, they need to study the physical principles of the imaging modalities. The “true” answer is subsequently revealed by slicing the tissue....

  2. CMOS Active-Pixel Image Sensor With Intensity-Driven Readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbacher, Harry T.; Fossum, Eric R.; Kemeny, Sabrina

    1996-01-01

    Proposed complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) integrated-circuit image sensor automatically provides readouts from pixels in order of decreasing illumination intensity. Sensor operated in integration mode. Particularly useful in number of image-sensing tasks, including diffractive laser range-finding, three-dimensional imaging, event-driven readout of sparse sensor arrays, and star tracking.

  3. Imaging hydrogen oxidation activity of catalyst-coated perfluoro ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    microelectrode (UME) voltammetry in terms of reduced ohmic drop and ... ing contribution with the advantages of imaging by rastering the UME across an ... this work, we demonstrate these distinctive features of SECM in evaluating reactivity ...

  4. Role of 3.0 T MR vessel wall imaging for identifying the activity of takayasu arteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaosheng; Xu Jianrong; Zhao Huilin; Cheng Fang; Lu Qing; Yao Qiuying

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To analyze and explore the value of 3 T high resolution magnetic resonance vessel wall imaging for identifying the activity of Takayasu arteritis. Methods: Twenty-six consecutive patients with Takayasu arteritis underwent 3.0 T high resolution MR vessel wall imaging on supraortic vessels (according to the classification of Lupi-Herrea, type I and III were included). Sixteen patients were in active phase and 10 in inactive phase based on the Kerr criteria. The MR vessel wall imaging appearances of Takayasu arteritis were compared between the active phase and inactive phase cases. Results: Wall thickening was demonstrated in all involved arteries. There were statistically significant differences between active phase and inactive phase cases in MR appearances including multi-ring thickening of vessel wall (75/80 and 18/50), arterial inner wail enhancement (50/80 and 19/50), obscurity of perivascular fat (55/80 and 18/50, X 2 =50.39, 7.41, 13.40, P<0.01). There was also a statistically significant difference in the thickness of carotid artery wall between the two groups [ (3.8 ± 0.2) mm vs (2.5 ± 0.8) mm]. Conclusion: 3 T high resolution MR vessel wall imaging is valuable for identifying the activity of Takayasu arteritis. (authors)

  5. Health-Related Quality of Life in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer Patients After Definitive Chemoradiation Therapy Including Image Guided Adaptive Brachytherapy: An Analysis From the EMBRACE Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchheiner, Kathrin, E-mail: kathrin.kirchheiner@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna and General Hospital of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Pötter, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna and General Hospital of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Tanderup, Kari; Lindegaard, Jacob C. [Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Haie-Meder, Christine [Department of Radiotherapy, Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France); Petrič, Primož [Department of Radiotherapy, Institute of Oncology Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Department of Radiation Oncology, National Center for Cancer Care and Research, Doha (Qatar); Mahantshetty, Umesh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Jürgenliemk-Schulz, Ina M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Rai, Bhavana [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India); Cooper, Rachel [Leeds Cancer Centre, St James' s University Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom); Dörr, Wolfgang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna and General Hospital of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Nout, Remi A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Lindegaard, Jacob; Tanderup, Kari; Fokdal, Lars; Van Der Steen Banasik, Elzbieta; Haie-Meder, Christine; Dumas, Isabelle; and others

    2016-04-01

    Purpose: This study analyzed functioning and symptom scores for longitudinal quality of life (QoL) from patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who underwent definitive chemoradiation therapy with image guided adaptive brachytherapy in the EMBRACE study. Methods and Materials: In total, 744 patients at a median follow-up of 21 months were included. QoL was prospectively assessed using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life core module 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and EORTC cervical cancer module 24 (CX24) questionnaires at baseline, then every 3 months during the first year, every 6 months in the second and third years, and finally yearly thereafter in patients with no evidence of disease. Outcomes were evaluated over time and compared to those from an age-matched female reference population. Results: General QoL and emotional and social functioning were impaired at baseline but improved during the first 6 months after treatment, to reach a level comparable to that of the reference population, whereas cognitive functioning remained impaired. Both social and role functioning showed the lowest scores at baseline but which increased after treatment to reach a plateau at 6 months and then declined slightly at 3 and 4 years. The overall symptom experience was elevated at baseline and decreased to a level within the range of that of the reference population. Similarly, tumor-related symptoms (eg, pain, appetite loss, and constipation), which were present before treatment, decreased substantially at the first follow-up after treatment. Several treatment-related symptoms developed either immediately after and persisted over time (diarrhea, menopausal symptoms, peripheral neuropathy, and sexual functioning problems) or developed gradually after treatment (lymphedema and dyspnea). Conclusions: This longitudinal prospective QoL analysis showed that patients' general QoL and functioning were impaired before treatment compared to

  6. Health-Related Quality of Life in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer Patients After Definitive Chemoradiation Therapy Including Image Guided Adaptive Brachytherapy: An Analysis From the EMBRACE Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchheiner, Kathrin; Pötter, Richard; Tanderup, Kari; Lindegaard, Jacob C.; Haie-Meder, Christine; Petrič, Primož; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Jürgenliemk-Schulz, Ina M.; Rai, Bhavana; Cooper, Rachel; Dörr, Wolfgang; Nout, Remi A.; Lindegaard, Jacob; Tanderup, Kari; Fokdal, Lars; Van Der Steen Banasik, Elzbieta; Haie-Meder, Christine; Dumas, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study analyzed functioning and symptom scores for longitudinal quality of life (QoL) from patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who underwent definitive chemoradiation therapy with image guided adaptive brachytherapy in the EMBRACE study. Methods and Materials: In total, 744 patients at a median follow-up of 21 months were included. QoL was prospectively assessed using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life core module 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and EORTC cervical cancer module 24 (CX24) questionnaires at baseline, then every 3 months during the first year, every 6 months in the second and third years, and finally yearly thereafter in patients with no evidence of disease. Outcomes were evaluated over time and compared to those from an age-matched female reference population. Results: General QoL and emotional and social functioning were impaired at baseline but improved during the first 6 months after treatment, to reach a level comparable to that of the reference population, whereas cognitive functioning remained impaired. Both social and role functioning showed the lowest scores at baseline but which increased after treatment to reach a plateau at 6 months and then declined slightly at 3 and 4 years. The overall symptom experience was elevated at baseline and decreased to a level within the range of that of the reference population. Similarly, tumor-related symptoms (eg, pain, appetite loss, and constipation), which were present before treatment, decreased substantially at the first follow-up after treatment. Several treatment-related symptoms developed either immediately after and persisted over time (diarrhea, menopausal symptoms, peripheral neuropathy, and sexual functioning problems) or developed gradually after treatment (lymphedema and dyspnea). Conclusions: This longitudinal prospective QoL analysis showed that patients' general QoL and functioning were impaired before treatment compared to those of

  7. Preliminary clinical results: an analyzing tool for 2D optical imaging in detection of active inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adi Aizudin Bin Radin Nasirudin, Radin; Meier, Reinhard; Ahari, Carmen; Sievert, Matti; Fiebich, Martin; Rummeny, Ernst J.; No"l, Peter B.

    2011-03-01

    Optical imaging (OI) is a relatively new method in detecting active inflammation of hand joints of patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis (RA). With the high number of people affected by this disease especially in western countries, the availability of OI as an early diagnostic imaging method is clinically highly relevant. In this paper, we present a newly in-house developed OI analyzing tool and a clinical evaluation study. Our analyzing tool extends the capability of existing OI tools. We include many features in the tool, such as region-based image analysis, hyper perfusion curve analysis, and multi-modality image fusion to aid clinicians in localizing and determining the intensity of inflammation in joints. Additionally, image data management options, such as the full integration of PACS/RIS, are included. In our clinical study we demonstrate how OI facilitates the detection of active inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis. The preliminary clinical results indicate a sensitivity of 43.5%, a specificity of 80.3%, an accuracy of 65.7%, a positive predictive value of 76.6%, and a negative predictive value of 64.9% in relation to clinical results from MRI. The accuracy of inflammation detection serves as evidence to the potential of OI as a useful imaging modality for early detection of active inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. With our in-house developed tool we extend the usefulness of OI imaging in the clinical arena. Overall, we show that OI is a fast, inexpensive, non-invasive and nonionizing yet highly sensitive and accurate imaging modality.-

  8. Molecular Targets for PET Imaging of Activated Microglia: The Current Situation and Future Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronel, Claire; Largeau, Bérenger; Santiago Ribeiro, Maria Joao; Guilloteau, Denis; Dupont, Anne-Claire; Arlicot, Nicolas

    2017-04-11

    Microglia, as cellular mediators of neuroinflammation, are implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of microglia has matured over the last 20 years, through the development of radiopharmaceuticals targeting several molecular biomarkers of microglial activation and, among these, mainly the translocator protein-18 kDa (TSPO). Nevertheless, current limitations of TSPO as a PET microglial biomarker exist, such as low brain density, even in a neurodegenerative setting, expression by other cells than the microglia (astrocytes, peripheral macrophages in the case of blood brain barrier breakdown), genetic polymorphism, inducing a variation for most of TSPO PET radiopharmaceuticals' binding affinity, or similar expression in activated microglia regardless of its polarization (pro- or anti-inflammatory state), and these limitations narrow its potential interest. We overview alternative molecular targets, for which dedicated radiopharmaceuticals have been proposed, including receptors (purinergic receptors P2X7, cannabinoid receptors, α7 and α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, adenosine 2A receptor, folate receptor β) and enzymes (cyclooxygenase, nitric oxide synthase, matrix metalloproteinase, β-glucuronidase, and enzymes of the kynurenine pathway), with a particular focus on their respective contribution for the understanding of microglial involvement in neurodegenerative diseases. We discuss opportunities for these potential molecular targets for PET imaging regarding their selectivity for microglia expression and polarization, in relation to the mechanisms by which microglia actively participate in both toxic and neuroprotective actions in brain diseases, and then take into account current clinicians' expectations.

  9. GPU-based simulation of optical propagation through turbulence for active and passive imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnier, Goulven; Duval, François-Régis; Amram, Solène

    2014-10-01

    IMOTEP is a GPU-based (Graphical Processing Units) software relying on a fast parallel implementation of Fresnel diffraction through successive phase screens. Its applications include active imaging, laser telemetry and passive imaging through turbulence with anisoplanatic spatial and temporal fluctuations. Thanks to parallel implementation on GPU, speedups ranging from 40X to 70X are achieved. The present paper gives a brief overview of IMOTEP models, algorithms, implementation and user interface. It then focuses on major improvements recently brought to the anisoplanatic imaging simulation method. Previously, we took advantage of the computational power offered by the GPU to develop a simulation method based on large series of deterministic realisations of the PSF distorted by turbulence. The phase screen propagation algorithm, by reproducing higher moments of the incident wavefront distortion, provides realistic PSFs. However, we first used a coarse gaussian model to fit the numerical PSFs and characterise there spatial statistics through only 3 parameters (two-dimensional displacements of centroid and width). Meanwhile, this approach was unable to reproduce the effects related to the details of the PSF structure, especially the "speckles" leading to prominent high-frequency content in short-exposure images. To overcome this limitation, we recently implemented a new empirical model of the PSF, based on Principal Components Analysis (PCA), ought to catch most of the PSF complexity. The GPU implementation allows estimating and handling efficiently the numerous (up to several hundreds) principal components typically required under the strong turbulence regime. A first demanding computational step involves PCA, phase screen propagation and covariance estimates. In a second step, realistic instantaneous images, fully accounting for anisoplanatic effects, are quickly generated. Preliminary results are presented.

  10. Use of high resolution satellite images for monitoring of earthquakes and volcano activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Baeza, Alonso A.

    Our studies have shown that the strain energy accumulation deep in the Earth's crust that precedes a strong earthquake can be detected by applying a lineament extraction technique to the high-resolution multispectral satellite images. A lineament is a straight or a somewhat curved feature in a satellite image, which it is possible to detect by a special processing of images based on directional filtering and or Hough transform. We analyzed tens of earthquakes occurred in the Pacific coast of the South America with the Richter scale magnitude ˜4.5, using ASTER/TERRA multispectral satellite images for detection and analysis of changes in the system of lineaments previous to a strong earthquake. All events were located in the regions with small seasonal variations and limited vegetation to facilitate the tracking of features associated with the seismic activity only. It was found that the number and orientation of lineaments changed significantly about one month before an earthquake approximately, and a few months later the system returns to its initial state. This effect increases with the earthquake magnitude. It also was shown that the behavior of lineaments associated to the volcano seismic activity is opposite to that obtained previously for earthquakes. This discrepancy can be explained assuming that in the last case the main reason of earthquakes is compression and accumulation of strength in the Earth's crust due to subduction of tectonic plates, whereas in the first case we deal with the inflation of a volcano edifice due to elevation of pressure and magma intrusion. The results obtained made it possible to include this research as a part of scientific program of Chilean Remote Sensing Satellite mission to be launched in 2010.

  11. Imaging and Modeling Laboratory in Neurobiology and Oncology - IMNC. Activity report 2008-2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charon, Yves; Arlaud, Nathalie; Mastrippolito, Roland

    2014-09-01

    The Imaging and Modeling Laboratory in Neurobiology and Oncology (IMNC) is an interdisciplinary unit shared between the Paris-Sud and Paris-Diderot universities and the National Institute of Nuclear and particle physics (IN2P3). Created in January 2006, the laboratory activities are structured around three main topics: the clinical and pre-clinical multi-modal imaging (optical and isotopic), the modeling of tumoral processes, and radiotherapy. This report presents the activities of the laboratory during the years 2008-2012: 1 - Forewords; 2 - Highlights; 3 - Research teams: Small animal imaging; Metabolism, imaging and olfaction; Surgery imaging in oncology; Quantification in molecular imaging; Modeling of biological systems; 4 - Technical innovations: Instrumentation, Scientific calculation, Biology department, valorisation and open-source softwares; 5 - Publications; 6 - Scientific life, communication and teaching activities; 7 - Laboratory operation; 8 - Perspectives

  12. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase rapidly suppresses multiple pro-inflammatory pathways in adipocytes including IL-1 receptor-associated kinase-4 phosphorylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mancini, Sarah J; White, Anna D; Bijland, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation of adipose tissue in obesity is associated with increased IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α secretion and proposed to contribute to insulin resistance. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates nutrient metabolism and is reported to have anti-inflammatory actions in adipose tissue, yet the m...

  13. Calcium imaging of basal forebrain activity during innate and learned behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Clarke Harrison

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The basal forebrain (BF plays crucial roles in arousal, attention, and memory, and its impairment is associated with a variety of cognitive deficits. The BF consists of cholinergic, GABAergic, and glutamatergic neurons. Electrical or optogenetic stimulation of BF cholinergic neurons enhances cortical processing and behavioral performance, but the natural activity of these cells during behavior is only beginning to be characterized. Even less is known about GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons. Here, we performed microendoscopic calcium imaging of BF neurons as mice engaged in spontaneous behaviors in their home cages (innate or performed a go/no-go auditory discrimination task (learned. Cholinergic neurons were consistently excited during movement, including running and licking, but GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons exhibited diverse responses. All cell types were activated by overt punishment, either inside or outside of the discrimination task. These findings reveal functional similarities and distinctions between BF cell types during both spontaneous and task-related behaviors.

  14. Illumination Effect of Laser Light in Foggy Objects Using an Active Imaging System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Seong-Ouk; Park, Seung-Kyu; Ahn, Yong-Jin; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Choi, Young-Soo; Jeong, Kyung-Min [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Active imaging techniques usually provide improved image information when compared to passive imaging techniques. Active vision is a direct visualization technique using an artificial illuminant. Range-gated imaging (RGI) technique is one of active vision technologies. The RGI technique extracts vision information by summing time sliced vision images. In the RGI system, objects are illuminated for ultra-short time by a high intensity illuminant and then the light reflected from objects is captured by a highly sensitive image sensor with the exposure of ultra-short time. The Range-gated imaging is an emerging technology in the field of surveillance for security application, especially in the visualization of darken night or foggy environment. Although RGI viewing was discovered in the 1960's, this technology is currently more applicable by virtue of the rapid development of optical and sensor technologies, such as highly sensitive imaging sensor and ultra-short pulse laser light. Especially, this system can be adopted in robot-vision system by virtue of the compact system configuration. During the past decades, several applications of this technology have been applied in target recognition and in harsh environments, such as fog, underwater vision. Also, this technology has been demonstrated range imaging based on range-gated imaging. Laser light having a short pulse width is usually used for the range-gated imaging system. In this paper, an illumination effect of laser light in foggy objects is studied using a range-gated imaging system. The used imaging system consists of an ultra-short pulse (0.35 ns) laser light and a gated imaging sensor. The experiment is carried out to monitor objects in a box filled by fog. In this paper, the effects by fog particles in range-gated imaging technique are studied. Edge blurring and range distortion are the generated by fog particles.

  15. Illumination Effect of Laser Light in Foggy Objects Using an Active Imaging System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Seong-Ouk; Park, Seung-Kyu; Ahn, Yong-Jin; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Choi, Young-Soo; Jeong, Kyung-Min

    2015-01-01

    Active imaging techniques usually provide improved image information when compared to passive imaging techniques. Active vision is a direct visualization technique using an artificial illuminant. Range-gated imaging (RGI) technique is one of active vision technologies. The RGI technique extracts vision information by summing time sliced vision images. In the RGI system, objects are illuminated for ultra-short time by a high intensity illuminant and then the light reflected from objects is captured by a highly sensitive image sensor with the exposure of ultra-short time. The Range-gated imaging is an emerging technology in the field of surveillance for security application, especially in the visualization of darken night or foggy environment. Although RGI viewing was discovered in the 1960's, this technology is currently more applicable by virtue of the rapid development of optical and sensor technologies, such as highly sensitive imaging sensor and ultra-short pulse laser light. Especially, this system can be adopted in robot-vision system by virtue of the compact system configuration. During the past decades, several applications of this technology have been applied in target recognition and in harsh environments, such as fog, underwater vision. Also, this technology has been demonstrated range imaging based on range-gated imaging. Laser light having a short pulse width is usually used for the range-gated imaging system. In this paper, an illumination effect of laser light in foggy objects is studied using a range-gated imaging system. The used imaging system consists of an ultra-short pulse (0.35 ns) laser light and a gated imaging sensor. The experiment is carried out to monitor objects in a box filled by fog. In this paper, the effects by fog particles in range-gated imaging technique are studied. Edge blurring and range distortion are the generated by fog particles

  16. Imaging the Obscuring Torus in Nearby Active Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew S.; Storchi Bergmann, Thaisa; Morris, Simon

    2000-02-01

    We propose to study a sample of Seyfert galaxies with the aim of resolving spatially the torus of dense molecular gas and dust which is believed to surround the nuclei of these objects. The galaxies, selected to have strong molecular hydrogen emission and jet-like radio continuum sources, will be imaged in various molecular hydrogen lines and in [Fe II] or Br (gamma). The goals are to a) confirm the existence of such tori, b) determine whether the extended molecular gas is excited thermally or through fluorescence, and c) compare with the distribution of ionized gas, which may show an ionization cone structure from polar escape of ionizing photons. The availability of IR imaging capabilities with tip-tilt and narrow-band filters, which allow imaging in the H_2(lambda) 2.122(micron) line up to a recession velocity of 6,000 km s^-1, makes the Blanco 4m telescope very well suited to this project.

  17. Influence of Atmospheric Propagation on Performance of Laser Active Imaging System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yingchun; Sun Huayan; Guo Huichao; Zhao Yun

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric propagation has serious influence on the performance of a good designed laser active imaging system. Atmospheric attenuation and turbulence are two main effects on laser atmospheric propagation. Imaging SNR (Signal-Noise-Ratio) and resolution are two key indexes to describe the performance of a laser active imaging system. Establishing the relation between system performance index and atmospheric propagation effect is significant. The paper analyzed the relation between imaging performance and atmospheric attenuation and turbulence through simulation. And also the experiments were done under different weather to validate the conclusion of simulation.

  18. Nonspecific bowel activity in imaging inflammation with Tc-99m labelled monoclonal anti-NCA-90 Fab' fragment MN3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivancevic, V.; Wolter, A.; Munz, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Since the Tc-99m labelled monoclonal anti-NCA 90 granulocyte antibody Fab' fragment MN3 (MN3 Fab') might be of interest for imaging abdominal inflammation which could be hampered by nonspecific bowel activity, we prospectively investigated the appearance of bowel activity in MN3 Fab' imaging. Methods: Eighty consecutive patients (age range 12-85 years) referred for suspected nonabdominal, mostly musculoskeletal infection, were included. Abdominal inflammation was excluded clinically and there were no signs of inflammatory bowel disease in the patients' histories. One, 5, and 24 hours after introvenous injection of up to 1.1 GBq of MN3 Fab' planar images of the abdomen were performed. Bowel activity was graded visually using a 5-point scale. Results: The one (N = 80), 5 (N = 79), and 24 (N = 52) hour images revealed 46 (10%), 162 (34%), and 173 (55%) accumulating bowel segments, respectively, in 37 (46%), 69 (87%), and 52 (100%) patients. The mean intensity score per accumulating segment was 1.1, 1.8 and 2.7 (p = 0), respectively. Relative frequencies of appearance of the small intestine were 38%, 57%, and 21%, ileocaecal region 6%, 53%, and 48%, ascending colon 5%, 67%, and 89%, transverse colon 1%, 9%, and 69%, descending colon 8%, 15%, and 67%, and rectosigmoid 0%, 4%, and 38%, respectively. Follow-up investigations in 13 patients revealed diverging uptake patterns. Conclusion: Nonspecific bowel activity is often present in the early and almost always and more intense, in the delayed images. Early imaging at one hour after administration seems feasible, but a loss in sensitivity has to be considered. Thus, nonspecific bowel activity can be anticipated to be a pitfall in imaging abdominal inflammation with MN3 Fab'. (orig.) [de

  19. Multiple imaging mode X-ray computed tomography for distinguishing active and inactive phases in lithium-ion battery cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komini Babu, Siddharth; Mohamed, Alexander I.; Whitacre, Jay F.; Litster, Shawn

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the use of nanometer scale resolution X-ray computed tomography (nano-CT) in the three-dimensional (3D) imaging of a Li-ion battery cathode, including the separate volumes of active material, binder plus conductive additive, and pore. The different high and low atomic number (Z) materials are distinguished by sequentially imaging the lithium cobalt oxide electrode in absorption and then Zernike phase contrast modes. Morphological parameters of the active material and the additives are extracted from the 3D reconstructions, including the distribution of contact areas between the additives and the active material. This method could provide a better understanding of the electric current distribution and structural integrity of battery electrodes, as well as provide detailed geometries for computational models.

  20. Systematic review: Use of ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis, assessment of activity and abdominal complications of Crohn's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Panes , Julian; Bouzas , Rosa; García-Sánchez , Valle; Chaparro , María; Pérez-Gisbert , Javier; Martínez De Guereñu , Blanca; Mendoza , Juan Luis; Paredes , José María; Quiroga , Sergi; Ripollés , Tomás; Rimola , Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Backgroud: Cross-sectional imaging techniques, including ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are increasingly used for evaluation of Crohn?s disease (CD). Aim: To perform an assessment of the diagnostic accuracy of cross-sectional imaging techniques for diagnosis of CD, evaluation of disease extension and activity, and diagnosis of complications, and to provide recommendations for their optimal use. Methods: Relevant ...

  1. Hybrid [{sup 18}F]-FDG PET/MRI including non-Gaussian diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI): Preliminary results in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heusch, Philipp [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Univ Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, D-45147 Essen (Germany); Köhler, Jens [Univ Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Medical Oncology, D-45147 Essen (Germany); Wittsack, Hans-Joerg [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Heusner, Till A., E-mail: Heusner@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Buchbender, Christian [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Poeppel, Thorsten D. [Univ Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Nuclear Medicine, D-45147 Essen (Germany); Nensa, Felix; Wetter, Axel [Univ Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, D-45147 Essen (Germany); Gauler, Thomas [Univ Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Medical Oncology, D-45147 Essen (Germany); Hartung, Verena [Univ Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Nuclear Medicine, D-45147 Essen (Germany); Lanzman, Rotem S. [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility of non-Gaussian DWI as part of a FDG-PET/MRI protocol in patients with histologically proven non-small cell lung cancer. Material and methods: 15 consecutive patients with histologically proven NSCLC (mean age 61 ± 11 years) were included in this study and underwent whole-body FDG-PET/MRI following whole-body FDG-PET/CT. As part of the whole-body FDG-PET/MRI protocol, an EPI-sequence with 5 b-values (0, 100, 500, 1000 and 2000 s/mm{sup 2}) was acquired for DWI of the thorax during free-breathing. Volume of interest (VOI) measurements were performed to determine the maximum and mean standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}; SUV{sub mean}). A region of interest (ROI) was manually drawn around the tumor on b = 0 images and then transferred to the corresponding parameter maps to assess ADC{sub mono}, D{sub app} and K{sub app}. To assess the goodness of the mathematical fit R{sup 2} was calculated for monoexponential and non-Gaussian analysis. Spearman's correlation coefficients were calculated to compare SUV values and diffusion coefficients. A Student's t-test was performed to compare the monoexponential and non-Gaussian diffusion fitting (R{sup 2}). Results: T staging was equal between FDG-PET/CT and FDG-PET/MRI in 12 of 15 patients. For NSCLC, mean ADC{sub mono} was 2.11 ± 1.24 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s, D{sub app} was 2.46 ± 1.29 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s and mean K{sub app} was 0.70 ± 0.21. The non-Gaussian diffusion analysis (R{sup 2} = 0.98) provided a significantly better mathematical fitting to the DWI signal decay than the monoexponetial analysis (R{sup 2} = 0.96) (p < 0.001). SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub mean} of NSCLC was 13.5 ± 7.6 and 7.9 ± 4.3 for FDG-PET/MRI. ADC{sub mono} as well as D{sub app} exhibited a significant inverse correlation with the SUV{sub max} (ADC{sub mono}: R = −0.67; p < 0.01; D{sub app}: R = −0.69; p < 0.01) as well as with SUV{sub mean} assessed by FDG-PET/MRI (ADC{sub mono}: R

  2. The Body Image Of Physically Active And Inactive Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guszkowska Monika

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the study was to compare the image of the body, the level of its acceptance and satisfaction with it, as well as anxiety about one’s physical appearance and overall self-esteem in a group of adult women who did fitness exercise and those who were physically inactive.

  3. Contourlet-based active contour model for PET image segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdoli, M.; Dierckx, R. A. J. O.; Zaidi, H.

    Purpose: PET-guided radiation therapy treatment planning, clinical diagnosis, assessment of tumor growth, and therapy response rely on the accurate delineation of the tumor volume and quantification of tracer uptake. Most PET image segmentation techniques proposed thus far are suboptimal in the

  4. Optimum allocation of imaging time and minimum detectable activity in dual isotope blood pool subtraction indium-111 platelet imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machac, J.; Horowitz, S.F.; Goldsmith, S.J.; Fuster, V.

    1984-01-01

    Indium-111 labeled platelet imaging is a tool for detection of thrombus formation in vascular spaces. Dual isotope blood pool subtraction may help differentiate focal platelet accumulation from blood pool activity. This study used a computer model to calculate the minimum excess-to-blood pool platelet ratio (EX/BP) and the optimum dual isotope imaging times under varied conditions of lesion size. The model simulated usual human imaging doses of 500 μCi of In-111 platelets and 5mCi of Tc-99m labeled RBCs giving a reference cardiac blood pool region (100cc) of 10000 cpm for Tc-99m and 500 cpm for In-111. The total imaging time was fixed at 20 minutes, while the two isotope imaging times (TIn/TTc) were varied, as were the simulated lesion size (cc) and EX/BP. The relative error of the excess counts was calculated using propagation of error theory. At the critical level of detection, where the excess lesion counts equal 3 times the standard deviation, the optimum TIn/TTc and minimum Ex/BP were determined for each lesion size. For the smallest lesion size (0.1cc), the minimum detectable EX/BP ratio was 1.6, with the best TIn/TTC ratio of 18/2 minutes, and for large lesions, an EX/BP of 0.1, with a TIn/TTc of 16/4. This model provides an estimate of the sensitivity and optimizes imaging times in dual isotope subtraction platelet imaging. The model is adaptable to varying isotope doses, total imaging times and lesion size. This information will be helpful in future in- vivo imaging studies of intravascular thrombi in humans

  5. Including Youth with Intellectual Disabilities in Health Promotion Research: Development and Reliability of a Structured Interview to Assess the Correlates of Physical Activity among Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Carol; Bandini, Linda G.; Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah; Maslin, Melissa C. T.; Lo, Charmaine; Gleason, James M.; Fleming, Richard K.; Stanish, Heidi I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The input of youth with intellectual disabilities in health promotion and health disparities research is essential for understanding their needs and preferences. Regular physical activity (PA) is vital for health and well-being, but levels are low in youth generally, including those with intellectual disabilities. Understanding the…

  6. Total-hip arthroplasty: Periprosthetic indium-111-labeled leukocyte activity and complementary technetium-99m-sulfur colloid imaging in suspected infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palestro, C.J.; Kim, C.K.; Swyer, A.J.; Capozzi, J.D.; Solomon, R.W.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    Indium-111-labeled leukocyte images of 92 cemented total-hip arthroplasties were correlated with final diagnoses. Prostheses were divided into four zones: head (including acetabulum), trochanter, shaft, and tip. The presence (or absence) and intensity of activity in each zone was noted, and compared to the corresponding contralateral zone. Though present in all 23 infected arthroplasties, periprosthetic activity was also present in 77% of uninfected arthroplasties, and was greater than the contralateral zone 51% of the time. When analyzed by zone, head zone activity was the best criterion for infection (87% sensitivity, 94% specificity, 92% accuracy). Fifty of the arthroplasties were studied with combined labeled leukocyte/sulfur colloid imaging. Using incongruence of images as the criterion for infection, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the study were 100%, 97%, and 98%, respectively. While variable periprosthetic activity makes labeled leukocyte imaging alone unreliable for diagnosing hip arthroplasty infection, the addition of sulfur colloid imaging results in a highly accurate diagnostic procedure

  7. Pain anticipation: an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of brain imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Sara; Benedetti, Fabrizio; Costa, Tommaso; Amanzio, Martina

    2015-05-01

    The anticipation of pain has been investigated in a variety of brain imaging studies. Importantly, today there is no clear overall picture of the areas that are involved in different studies and the exact role of these regions in pain expectation remains especially unexploited. To address this issue, we used activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis to analyze pain anticipation in several neuroimaging studies. A total of 19 functional magnetic resonance imaging were included in the analysis to search for the cortical areas involved in pain anticipation in human experimental models. During anticipation, activated foci were found in the dorsolateral prefrontal, midcingulate and anterior insula cortices, medial and inferior frontal gyri, inferior parietal lobule, middle and superior temporal gyrus, thalamus, and caudate. Deactivated foci were found in the anterior cingulate, superior frontal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus and in the claustrum. The results of the meta-analytic connectivity analysis provide an overall view of the brain responses triggered by the anticipation of a noxious stimulus. Such a highly distributed perceptual set of self-regulation may prime brain regions to process information where emotion, action and perception as well as their related subcategories play a central role. Not only do these findings provide important information on the neural events when anticipating pain, but also they may give a perspective into nocebo responses, whereby negative expectations may lead to pain worsening. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. SPR imaging combined with cyclic voltammetry for the detection of neural activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface plasmon resonance (SPR detects changes in refractive index at a metal-dielectric interface. In this study, SPR imaging (SPRi combined with cyclic voltammetry (CV was applied to detect neural activity in isolated bullfrog sciatic nerves. The neural activities induced by chemical and electrical stimulation led to an SPR response, and the activities were recorded in real time. The activities of different parts of the sciatic nerve were recorded and compared. The results demonstrated that SPR imaging combined with CV is a powerful tool for the investigation of neural activity.

  9. Active multispectral imaging system for photodiagnosis and personalized phototherapies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ugarte, M. F., E-mail: marta.ugarte@uem.es, E-mail: sbriz@fis.uc3m.es; Chávarri, L.; Padrón, V. M. [Industrial Engineering Department, Universidad Europea de Madrid, C/ Tajo, s/n 28670 Villaviciosa de Odón, Madrid (Spain); Briz, S., E-mail: marta.ugarte@uem.es, E-mail: sbriz@fis.uc3m.es [Physics Department, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad, 30,28911 Leganés, Madrid (Spain); García-Cuesta, E. [Computer Science and Telecommunications Department, Universidad Europea de Madrid, C/ Tajo, s/n 28670 Villaviciosa de Odón, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-10-15

    The proposed system has been designed to identify dermatopathologies or to apply personalized phototherapy treatments. The system emits electromagnetic waves in different spectral bands in the range of visible and near infrared to irradiate the target (skin or any other object) to be spectrally characterized. Then, an imaging sensor measures the target response to the stimulus at each spectral band and, after processing, the system displays in real time two images. In one of them the value of each pixel corresponds to the more reflected wavenumber whereas in the other image the pixel value represents the energy absorbed at each band. The diagnosis capability of this system lies in its multispectral design, and the phototherapy treatments are adapted to the patient and his lesion by measuring his absorption capability. This “in situ” absorption measurement allows us to determine the more appropriate duration of the treatment according to the wavelength and recommended dose. The main advantages of this system are its low cost, it does not have moving parts or complex mechanisms, it works in real time, and it is easy to handle. For these reasons its widespread use in dermatologist consultation would facilitate the work of the dermatologist and would improve the efficiency of diagnosis and treatment. In fact the prototype has already been successfully applied to pathologies such as carcinomas, melanomas, keratosis, and nevi.

  10. Active multispectral imaging system for photodiagnosis and personalized phototherapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugarte, M. F.; Chávarri, L.; Padrón, V. M.; Briz, S.; García-Cuesta, E.

    2014-01-01

    The proposed system has been designed to identify dermatopathologies or to apply personalized phototherapy treatments. The system emits electromagnetic waves in different spectral bands in the range of visible and near infrared to irradiate the target (skin or any other object) to be spectrally characterized. Then, an imaging sensor measures the target response to the stimulus at each spectral band and, after processing, the system displays in real time two images. In one of them the value of each pixel corresponds to the more reflected wavenumber whereas in the other image the pixel value represents the energy absorbed at each band. The diagnosis capability of this system lies in its multispectral design, and the phototherapy treatments are adapted to the patient and his lesion by measuring his absorption capability. This “in situ” absorption measurement allows us to determine the more appropriate duration of the treatment according to the wavelength and recommended dose. The main advantages of this system are its low cost, it does not have moving parts or complex mechanisms, it works in real time, and it is easy to handle. For these reasons its widespread use in dermatologist consultation would facilitate the work of the dermatologist and would improve the efficiency of diagnosis and treatment. In fact the prototype has already been successfully applied to pathologies such as carcinomas, melanomas, keratosis, and nevi

  11. Non-invasive In Vivo Fluorescence Optical Imaging of Inflammatory MMP Activity Using an Activatable Fluorescent Imaging Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenck, Johannes; Maier, Florian C; Kneilling, Manfred; Wiehr, Stefan; Fuchs, Kerstin

    2017-05-08

    This paper describes a non-invasive method for imaging matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-activity by an activatable fluorescent probe, via in vivo fluorescence optical imaging (OI), in two different mouse models of inflammation: a rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and a contact hypersensitivity reaction (CHR) model. Light with a wavelength in the near infrared (NIR) window (650 - 950 nm) allows a deeper tissue penetration and minimal signal absorption compared to wavelengths below 650 nm. The major advantages using fluorescence OI is that it is cheap, fast and easy to implement in different animal models. Activatable fluorescent probes are optically silent in their inactivated states, but become highly fluorescent when activated by a protease. Activated MMPs lead to tissue destruction and play an important role for disease progression in delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions (DTHRs) such as RA and CHR. Furthermore, MMPs are the key proteases for cartilage and bone degradation and are induced by macrophages, fibroblasts and chondrocytes in response to pro-inflammatory cytokines. Here we use a probe that is activated by the key MMPs like MMP-2, -3, -9 and -13 and describe an imaging protocol for near infrared fluorescence OI of MMP activity in RA and control mice 6 days after disease induction as well as in mice with acute (1x challenge) and chronic (5x challenge) CHR on the right ear compared to healthy ears.

  12. Variability-based active galactic nucleus selection using image subtraction in the SDSS and LSST era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yumi; Gibson, Robert R.; Becker, Andrew C.; Ivezić, Željko; Connolly, Andrew J.; Ruan, John J.; Anderson, Scott F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); MacLeod, Chelsea L., E-mail: ymchoi@astro.washington.edu [Physics Department, U.S. Naval Academy, 572 Holloway Road, Annapolis, MD 21402 (United States)

    2014-02-10

    With upcoming all-sky surveys such as LSST poised to generate a deep digital movie of the optical sky, variability-based active galactic nucleus (AGN) selection will enable the construction of highly complete catalogs with minimum contamination. In this study, we generate g-band difference images and construct light curves (LCs) for QSO/AGN candidates listed in Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82 public catalogs compiled from different methods, including spectroscopy, optical colors, variability, and X-ray detection. Image differencing excels at identifying variable sources embedded in complex or blended emission regions such as Type II AGNs and other low-luminosity AGNs that may be omitted from traditional photometric or spectroscopic catalogs. To separate QSOs/AGNs from other sources using our difference image LCs, we explore several LC statistics and parameterize optical variability by the characteristic damping timescale (τ) and variability amplitude. By virtue of distinguishable variability parameters of AGNs, we are able to select them with high completeness of 93.4% and efficiency (i.e., purity) of 71.3%. Based on optical variability, we also select highly variable blazar candidates, whose infrared colors are consistent with known blazars. One-third of them are also radio detected. With the X-ray selected AGN candidates, we probe the optical variability of X-ray detected optically extended sources using their difference image LCs for the first time. A combination of optical variability and X-ray detection enables us to select various types of host-dominated AGNs. Contrary to the AGN unification model prediction, two Type II AGN candidates (out of six) show detectable variability on long-term timescales like typical Type I AGNs. This study will provide a baseline for future optical variability studies of extended sources.

  13. Dual-source dual-energy CT angiography with virtual non-enhanced images and iodine map for active gastrointestinal bleeding: Image quality, radiation dose and diagnostic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Hao; Hou, Xin-Yi; Xue, Hua-Dan; Li, Xiao-Guang; Jin, Zheng-Yu; Qian, Jia-Ming; Yu, Jian-Chun; Zhu, Hua-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • GIB is a common gastrointestinal emergency with a high mortality rate. • Detection and localization of GIB source are important for imaging modality. • DSDECTA using a dual-phase scan protocol is clinically feasible. • DSDECTA with VNE and iodine map images can diagnose the active GIB source accurately. • DSDECTA can reduce radiation dose compared with conventional CT examination in GIB. - Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the clinical feasibility of dual-source dual-energy CT angiography (DSDECTA) with virtual non-enhanced images and iodine map for active gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB). Methods: From June 2010 to December 2012, 112 consecutive patients with clinical signs of active GIB underwent DSDECTA with true non-enhanced (TNE), arterial phase with single-source mode, and portal-venous phase with dual-energy mode (100 kVp/230 mAs and Sn 140 kVp/178 mAs). Virtual non-enhanced CT (VNE) image sets and iodine map were reformatted from ‘Liver VNC’ software. The mean CT number, noise, signal to noise ratio (SNR), image quality and radiation dose were compared between TNE and VNE image sets. Two radiologists, blinded to clinical data, interpreted images from DSDECTA with TNE (protocol 1), and DSDECTA with VNE and iodine map (protocol 2) respectively, with discordant interpretation resolved by consensus. The standards of reference included digital subtraction angiography, endoscopy, surgery, or final pathology reports. Receiver–operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was undertaken and the area under the curve (AUC) calculated for CT protocols 1 and 2, respectively. Results: There was no significant difference in mean CT numbers of all organs (including liver, pancreas, spleen, kidney, abdominal aorta, and psoas muscle) (P > 0.05). Lower noise and higher SNR were found on VNE images than TNE images (P < 0.05). Image quality of VNE was lower than that of TNE without significant difference (P > 0.05). The active GIB source was identified

  14. Dual-source dual-energy CT angiography with virtual non-enhanced images and iodine map for active gastrointestinal bleeding: Image quality, radiation dose and diagnostic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Hao, E-mail: sunhao_robert@126.com [Department of Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Shuaifuyuan No. 1, Wangfujing Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Hou, Xin-Yi, E-mail: hxy_pumc@126.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Xue, Hua-Dan, E-mail: bjdanna95@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Shuaifuyuan No. 1, Wangfujing Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Li, Xiao-Guang, E-mail: xglee88@126.com [Department of Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Shuaifuyuan No. 1, Wangfujing Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Jin, Zheng-Yu, E-mail: zhengyu_jin@126.com [Department of Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Shuaifuyuan No. 1, Wangfujing Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Qian, Jia-Ming, E-mail: qjiaming57@gmail.com [Department of Gastroenterology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing (China); Yu, Jian-Chun, E-mail: yu-jch@163.com [Department of General Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing (China); Zhu, Hua-Dong, E-mail: huadongzhu@hotmail.com [Department of Emergency, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • GIB is a common gastrointestinal emergency with a high mortality rate. • Detection and localization of GIB source are important for imaging modality. • DSDECTA using a dual-phase scan protocol is clinically feasible. • DSDECTA with VNE and iodine map images can diagnose the active GIB source accurately. • DSDECTA can reduce radiation dose compared with conventional CT examination in GIB. - Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the clinical feasibility of dual-source dual-energy CT angiography (DSDECTA) with virtual non-enhanced images and iodine map for active gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB). Methods: From June 2010 to December 2012, 112 consecutive patients with clinical signs of active GIB underwent DSDECTA with true non-enhanced (TNE), arterial phase with single-source mode, and portal-venous phase with dual-energy mode (100 kVp/230 mAs and Sn 140 kVp/178 mAs). Virtual non-enhanced CT (VNE) image sets and iodine map were reformatted from ‘Liver VNC’ software. The mean CT number, noise, signal to noise ratio (SNR), image quality and radiation dose were compared between TNE and VNE image sets. Two radiologists, blinded to clinical data, interpreted images from DSDECTA with TNE (protocol 1), and DSDECTA with VNE and iodine map (protocol 2) respectively, with discordant interpretation resolved by consensus. The standards of reference included digital subtraction angiography, endoscopy, surgery, or final pathology reports. Receiver–operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was undertaken and the area under the curve (AUC) calculated for CT protocols 1 and 2, respectively. Results: There was no significant difference in mean CT numbers of all organs (including liver, pancreas, spleen, kidney, abdominal aorta, and psoas muscle) (P > 0.05). Lower noise and higher SNR were found on VNE images than TNE images (P < 0.05). Image quality of VNE was lower than that of TNE without significant difference (P > 0.05). The active GIB source was identified

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of the small bowel in children with idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease: evaluation of disease activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexopoulou, Efthymia; Loggitsi, Dimitra; Economopoulos, Nikos; Papakonstantinou, Olympia; Kelekis, Nikolaos L. [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, General University Hospital, Second Department of Radiology, Athens (Greece); Roma, Eleftheria; Panagiotou, Ioanna; Pahoula, Ioanna [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Aghia Sofia Children' s Hospital, First Department of Paediatrics, Athens (Greece)

    2009-08-15

    Examinations using ionizing radiation are frequently used in the evaluation of disease activity in children affected by idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To develop an MR imaging protocol without the need for fluoroscopic insertion of an enteral tube and to assess the disease activity in children with IBD. Included in the study were 37 children (22 girls and 15 boys; age range 7-15 years, mean 11.67 years) with IBD who underwent MR imaging of the small bowel. Of these 37 children, 32 had Crohn disease and 5 had indeterminate colitis. A water solution containing herbal fibres was administered orally or through a nasogastric tube. Patients were imaged on a 1.5-T MR scanner with T1-weighted and {tau}2-weighted sequences followed by a dynamic study using 3-D T1-W images after intravenous administration of gadolinium. The percentage enhancement of the bowel wall was significantly increased in patients with abnormal C-reactive protein (CRP) values compared to patients with CRP values in the normal range (P<0.001). A relatively weak but significant correlation between percentage enhancement of the bowel wall and CRP values was noted during all phases of enhancement. This MR imaging protocol is a safe and well-tolerated method for evaluating disease activity and extraintestinal manifestations of IBD in children. (orig.)

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of the small bowel in children with idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease: evaluation of disease activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexopoulou, Efthymia; Loggitsi, Dimitra; Economopoulos, Nikos; Papakonstantinou, Olympia; Kelekis, Nikolaos L.; Roma, Eleftheria; Panagiotou, Ioanna; Pahoula, Ioanna

    2009-01-01

    Examinations using ionizing radiation are frequently used in the evaluation of disease activity in children affected by idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To develop an MR imaging protocol without the need for fluoroscopic insertion of an enteral tube and to assess the disease activity in children with IBD. Included in the study were 37 children (22 girls and 15 boys; age range 7-15 years, mean 11.67 years) with IBD who underwent MR imaging of the small bowel. Of these 37 children, 32 had Crohn disease and 5 had indeterminate colitis. A water solution containing herbal fibres was administered orally or through a nasogastric tube. Patients were imaged on a 1.5-T MR scanner with T1-weighted and Τ2-weighted sequences followed by a dynamic study using 3-D T1-W images after intravenous administration of gadolinium. The percentage enhancement of the bowel wall was significantly increased in patients with abnormal C-reactive protein (CRP) values compared to patients with CRP values in the normal range (P<0.001). A relatively weak but significant correlation between percentage enhancement of the bowel wall and CRP values was noted during all phases of enhancement. This MR imaging protocol is a safe and well-tolerated method for evaluating disease activity and extraintestinal manifestations of IBD in children. (orig.)

  17. Active and Passive Optical Imaging Modality for Unobtrusive Cardiorespiratory Monitoring and Facial Expression Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazek, Vladimir; Blanik, Nikolai; Blazek, Claudia R; Paul, Michael; Pereira, Carina; Koeny, Marcus; Venema, Boudewijn; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Because of their obvious advantages, active and passive optoelectronic sensor concepts are being investigated by biomedical research groups worldwide, particularly their camera-based variants. Such methods work noninvasively and contactless, and they provide spatially resolved parameter detection. We present 2 techniques: the active photoplethysmography imaging (PPGI) method for detecting dermal blood perfusion dynamics and the passive infrared thermography imaging (IRTI) method for detecting skin temperature distribution. PPGI is an enhancement of classical pulse oximetry. Approved algorithms from pulse oximetry for the detection of heart rate, heart rate variability, blood pressure-dependent pulse wave velocity, pulse waveform-related stress/pain indicators, respiration rate, respiratory variability, and vasomotional activity can easily be adapted to PPGI. Although the IRTI method primarily records temperature distribution of the observed object, information on respiration rate and respiratory variability can also be derived by analyzing temperature change over time, for example, in the nasal region, or through respiratory movement. Combined with current research areas and novel biomedical engineering applications (eg, telemedicine, tele-emergency, and telemedical diagnostics), PPGI and IRTI may offer new data for diagnostic purposes, including assessment of peripheral arterial and venous oxygen saturation (as well as their differences). Moreover, facial expressions and stress and/or pain-related variables can be derived, for example, during anesthesia, in the recovery room/intensive care unit and during daily activities. The main advantages of both monitoring methods are unobtrusive data acquisition and the possibility to assess vital variables for different body regions. These methods supplement each other to enable long-term monitoring of physiological effects and of effects with special local characteristics. They also offer diagnostic advantages for

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging perfusion is associated with disease severity and activity in multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowa, Piotr [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo (Norway); University of Oslo, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Oslo (Norway); Owren Nygaard, Gro [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Oslo (Norway); Bjoernerud, Atle [Intervention Center, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); University of Oslo, Department of Physics, Oslo (Norway); Gulowsen Celius, Elisabeth [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Oslo (Norway); University of Oslo, Institute of Health and Society, Faculty of Medicine, Oslo (Norway); Flinstad Harbo, Hanne [University of Oslo, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Oslo (Norway); Oslo University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Oslo (Norway); Kristiansen Beyer, Mona [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo (Norway); Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Department of Life Sciences and Health, Oslo (Norway)

    2017-07-15

    The utility of perfusion-weighted imaging in multiple sclerosis (MS) is not well investigated. The purpose of this study was to compare baseline normalized perfusion measures in subgroups of newly diagnosed MS patients. We wanted to test the hypothesis that this method can differentiate between groups defined according to disease severity and disease activity at 1 year follow-up. Baseline magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including a dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion sequence was performed on a 1.5-T scanner in 66 patients newly diagnosed with relapsing-remitting MS. From the baseline MRI, cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and mean transit time (MTT) maps were generated. Normalized (n) perfusion values were calculated by dividing each perfusion parameter obtained in white matter lesions by the same parameter obtained in normal-appearing white matter. Neurological examination was performed at baseline and at follow-up approximately 1 year later to establish the multiple sclerosis severity score (MSSS) and evidence of disease activity (EDA). Baseline normalized mean transit time (nMTT) was lower in patients with MSSS >3.79 (p = 0.016), in patients with EDA (p = 0.041), and in patients with both MSSS >3.79 and EDA (p = 0.032) at 1-year follow-up. Baseline normalized cerebral blood flow and normalized cerebral blood volume did not differ between these groups. Lower baseline nMTT was associated with higher disease severity and with presence of disease activity 1 year later in newly diagnosed MS patients. Further longitudinal studies are needed to confirm whether baseline-normalized perfusion measures can differentiate between disease severity and disease activity subgroups over time. (orig.)

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging perfusion is associated with disease severity and activity in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowa, Piotr; Owren Nygaard, Gro; Bjoernerud, Atle; Gulowsen Celius, Elisabeth; Flinstad Harbo, Hanne; Kristiansen Beyer, Mona

    2017-01-01

    The utility of perfusion-weighted imaging in multiple sclerosis (MS) is not well investigated. The purpose of this study was to compare baseline normalized perfusion measures in subgroups of newly diagnosed MS patients. We wanted to test the hypothesis that this method can differentiate between groups defined according to disease severity and disease activity at 1 year follow-up. Baseline magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including a dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion sequence was performed on a 1.5-T scanner in 66 patients newly diagnosed with relapsing-remitting MS. From the baseline MRI, cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and mean transit time (MTT) maps were generated. Normalized (n) perfusion values were calculated by dividing each perfusion parameter obtained in white matter lesions by the same parameter obtained in normal-appearing white matter. Neurological examination was performed at baseline and at follow-up approximately 1 year later to establish the multiple sclerosis severity score (MSSS) and evidence of disease activity (EDA). Baseline normalized mean transit time (nMTT) was lower in patients with MSSS >3.79 (p = 0.016), in patients with EDA (p = 0.041), and in patients with both MSSS >3.79 and EDA (p = 0.032) at 1-year follow-up. Baseline normalized cerebral blood flow and normalized cerebral blood volume did not differ between these groups. Lower baseline nMTT was associated with higher disease severity and with presence of disease activity 1 year later in newly diagnosed MS patients. Further longitudinal studies are needed to confirm whether baseline-normalized perfusion measures can differentiate between disease severity and disease activity subgroups over time. (orig.)

  20. Robot Vision to Monitor Structures in Invisible Fog Environments Using Active Imaging Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seungkyu; Park, Nakkyu; Baik, Sunghoon; Choi, Youngsoo; Jeong, Kyungmin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Active vision is a direct visualization technique using a highly sensitive image sensor and a high intensity illuminant. Range-gated imaging (RGI) technique providing 2D and 3D images is one of emerging active vision technologies. The RGI technique extracts vision information by summing time sliced vision images. In the RGI system, objects are illuminated for ultra-short time by a high intensity illuminant and then the light reflected from objects is captured by a highly sensitive image sensor with the exposure of ultra-short time. The RGI system provides 2D and 3D image data from several images and it moreover provides clear images from invisible fog and smoke environment by using summing of time-sliced images. Nowadays, the Range-gated (RG) imaging is an emerging technology in the field of surveillance for security applications, especially in the visualization of invisible night and fog environment. Although RGI viewing was discovered in the 1960's, this technology is, nowadays, more and more applicable by virtue of the rapid development of optical and sensor technologies, such as highly sensitive imaging sensor and ultra-short pulse laser light. In contrast to passive vision systems, this technology enables operation even in harsh environments like fog and smoke. During the past decades, several applications of this technology have been applied in target recognition and in harsh environments, such as fog, underwater vision. Also, this technology has been demonstrated 3D imaging based on range-gated imaging. In this paper, a robot system to monitor structures in invisible fog environment is developed using an active range-gated imaging technique. The system consists of an ultra-short pulse laser device and a highly sensitive imaging sensor. The developed vision system is carried out to monitor objects in invisible fog environment. The experimental result of this newly approach vision system is described in this paper. To see invisible objects in fog

  1. Robot Vision to Monitor Structures in Invisible Fog Environments Using Active Imaging Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seungkyu; Park, Nakkyu; Baik, Sunghoon; Choi, Youngsoo; Jeong, Kyungmin

    2014-01-01

    Active vision is a direct visualization technique using a highly sensitive image sensor and a high intensity illuminant. Range-gated imaging (RGI) technique providing 2D and 3D images is one of emerging active vision technologies. The RGI technique extracts vision information by summing time sliced vision images. In the RGI system, objects are illuminated for ultra-short time by a high intensity illuminant and then the light reflected from objects is captured by a highly sensitive image sensor with the exposure of ultra-short time. The RGI system provides 2D and 3D image data from several images and it moreover provides clear images from invisible fog and smoke environment by using summing of time-sliced images. Nowadays, the Range-gated (RG) imaging is an emerging technology in the field of surveillance for security applications, especially in the visualization of invisible night and fog environment. Although RGI viewing was discovered in the 1960's, this technology is, nowadays, more and more applicable by virtue of the rapid development of optical and sensor technologies, such as highly sensitive imaging sensor and ultra-short pulse laser light. In contrast to passive vision systems, this technology enables operation even in harsh environments like fog and smoke. During the past decades, several applications of this technology have been applied in target recognition and in harsh environments, such as fog, underwater vision. Also, this technology has been demonstrated 3D imaging based on range-gated imaging. In this paper, a robot system to monitor structures in invisible fog environment is developed using an active range-gated imaging technique. The system consists of an ultra-short pulse laser device and a highly sensitive imaging sensor. The developed vision system is carried out to monitor objects in invisible fog environment. The experimental result of this newly approach vision system is described in this paper. To see invisible objects in fog

  2. Real-time monitoring of radiofrequency ablation of liver tumors using thermal-dose calculation by MR temperature imaging: initial results in nine patients, including follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetit-Coiffe, Matthieu; Quesson, Bruno; Moonen, Chrit T.W.; Laumonier, Herve; Trillaud, Herve; Seror, Olivier; Sesay, Musa-Bahazid; Grenier, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    To assess the practical feasibility and effectiveness of real-time magnetic resonance (MR) temperature monitoring for the radiofrequency (RF) ablation of liver tumours in a clinical setting, nine patients (aged 49-87 years, five men and four women) with one malignant tumour (14-50 mm, eight hepatocellular carcinomas and one colorectal metastasis), were treated by 12-min RF ablation using a 1.5-T closed magnet for real-time temperature monitoring. The clinical monopolar RF device was filtered at 64 MHz to avoid electromagnetic interference. Real-time computation of thermal-dose (TD) maps, based on Sapareto and Dewey's equation, was studied to determine its ability to provide a clear end-point of the RF procedure. Absence of local recurrence on follow-up MR images obtained 45 days after the RF ablation was used to assess the apoptotic and necrotic prediction obtained by real-time TD maps. Seven out of nine tumours were completely ablated according to the real-time TD maps. Compared with 45-day follow-up MR images, TD maps accurately predicted two primary treatment failures, but were not relevant in the later progression of one case of secondary local tumour. The real-time TD concept is a feasible and promising monitoring method for the RF ablation of liver tumours. (orig.)

  3. Real-time monitoring of radiofrequency ablation of liver tumors using thermal-dose calculation by MR temperature imaging: initial results in nine patients, including follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepetit-Coiffe, Matthieu; Quesson, Bruno; Moonen, Chrit T.W. [Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, Laboratoire Imagerie Moleculaire et Fonctionnelle: de la physiologie a la therapie CNRS UMR 5231, Bordeaux Cedex (France); Laumonier, Herve; Trillaud, Herve [Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, Laboratoire Imagerie Moleculaire et Fonctionnelle: de la physiologie a la therapie CNRS UMR 5231, Bordeaux Cedex (France); Service de Radiologie, Hopital Saint-Andre, CHU Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France); Seror, Olivier [Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, Laboratoire Imagerie Moleculaire et Fonctionnelle: de la physiologie a la therapie CNRS UMR 5231, Bordeaux Cedex (France); Service de Radiologie, Hopital Jean Verdier, Bondy (France); Sesay, Musa-Bahazid [Service d' Anesthesie Reanimation III, Hopital Pellegrin, CHU Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France); Grenier, Nicolas [Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, Laboratoire Imagerie Moleculaire et Fonctionnelle: de la physiologie a la therapie CNRS UMR 5231, Bordeaux Cedex (France); Service d' Imagerie Diagnostique et Therapeutique de l' Adulte, Hopital Pellegrin, CHU Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France)

    2010-01-15

    To assess the practical feasibility and effectiveness of real-time magnetic resonance (MR) temperature monitoring for the radiofrequency (RF) ablation of liver tumours in a clinical setting, nine patients (aged 49-87 years, five men and four women) with one malignant tumour (14-50 mm, eight hepatocellular carcinomas and one colorectal metastasis), were treated by 12-min RF ablation using a 1.5-T closed magnet for real-time temperature monitoring. The clinical monopolar RF device was filtered at 64 MHz to avoid electromagnetic interference. Real-time computation of thermal-dose (TD) maps, based on Sapareto and Dewey's equation, was studied to determine its ability to provide a clear end-point of the RF procedure. Absence of local recurrence on follow-up MR images obtained 45 days after the RF ablation was used to assess the apoptotic and necrotic prediction obtained by real-time TD maps. Seven out of nine tumours were completely ablated according to the real-time TD maps. Compared with 45-day follow-up MR images, TD maps accurately predicted two primary treatment failures, but were not relevant in the later progression of one case of secondary local tumour. The real-time TD concept is a feasible and promising monitoring method for the RF ablation of liver tumours. (orig.)

  4. Active laser radar (lidar) for measurement of corresponding height and reflectance images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Christoph; Mettenleiter, M.; Haertl, F.

    1997-08-01

    For the survey and inspection of environmental objects, a non-tactile, robust and precise imaging of height and depth is the basis sensor technology. For visual inspection,surface classification, and documentation purposes, however, additional information concerning reflectance of measured objects is necessary. High-speed acquisition of both geometric and visual information is achieved by means of an active laser radar, supporting consistent 3D height and 2D reflectance images. The laser radar is an optical-wavelength system, and is comparable to devices built by ERIM, Odetics, and Perceptron, measuring the range between sensor and target surfaces as well as the reflectance of the target surface, which corresponds to the magnitude of the back scattered laser energy. In contrast to these range sensing devices, the laser radar under consideration is designed for high speed and precise operation in both indoor and outdoor environments, emitting a minimum of near-IR laser energy. It integrates a laser range measurement system and a mechanical deflection system for 3D environmental measurements. This paper reports on design details of the laser radar for surface inspection tasks. It outlines the performance requirements and introduces the measurement principle. The hardware design, including the main modules, such as the laser head, the high frequency unit, the laser beam deflection system, and the digital signal processing unit are discussed.the signal processing unit consists of dedicated signal processors for real-time sensor data preprocessing as well as a sensor computer for high-level image analysis and feature extraction. The paper focuses on performance data of the system, including noise, drift over time, precision, and accuracy with measurements. It discuses the influences of ambient light, surface material of the target, and ambient temperature for range accuracy and range precision. Furthermore, experimental results from inspection of buildings, monuments

  5. THE EFFECT OF SOCIAL MEDIA MARKETING ACTIVITIES ON BRAND AWARENESS, BRAND IMAGE AND BRAND LOYALTY

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf BİLGİN

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine the effect of social media marketing activities on brand awareness, brand image and brand loyalty. In addition, it has been aimed to analyze the effect of brand awareness and brand image on brand loyalty in this research. The population of the research consists of the consumers who actively follow five brands with the highest social score according to the Marketing Turkey social media brand performance data on social media communication channels such as ...

  6. Multimodal Imaging of Human Brain Activity: Rational, Biophysical Aspects and Modes of Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinowska, Katarzyna; Müller-Putz, Gernot; Kaiser, Vera; Astolfi, Laura; Vanderperren, Katrien; Van Huffel, Sabine; Lemieux, Louis

    2009-01-01

    Until relatively recently the vast majority of imaging and electrophysiological studies of human brain activity have relied on single-modality measurements usually correlated with readily observable or experimentally modified behavioural or brain state patterns. Multi-modal imaging is the concept of bringing together observations or measurements from different instruments. We discuss the aims of multi-modal imaging and the ways in which it can be accomplished using representative applications. Given the importance of haemodynamic and electrophysiological signals in current multi-modal imaging applications, we also review some of the basic physiology relevant to understanding their relationship. PMID:19547657

  7. Passive and Active Fast-Neutron Imaging in Support of Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative Safeguards Campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackston, Matthew A.; Hausladen, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Results from safeguards-related passive and active coded-aperture fast-neutron imaging measurements of plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU) material configurations performed at Idaho National Laboratory s Zero Power Physics Reactor facility are presented. The imaging measurements indicate that it is feasible to use fast neutron imaging in a variety of safeguards-related tasks, such as monitoring storage, evaluating holdup deposits in situ, or identifying individual leached hulls still containing fuel. The present work also presents the first demonstration of imaging of differential die away fast neutrons.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of the active second stage of labour: Proof of principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guettler, F.V.; Heinrich, A.; Rump, J.; Bucourt, M. de; Hamm, B.; Teichgraeber, U.K.; Schnackenburg, B.; Bamberg, C.

    2012-01-01

    To prove that magnetic resonance imaging of foetal anatomy during the active second stage of vaginal delivery is feasible. Initially, five pregnant volunteers around the 30th week of gestation were examined in an open MRI. Based on the findings, one vaginal delivery was acquired under real-time imaging. To monitor the birth status during image acquisition, an MR-compatible wireless cardiotocography (CTG) system was built. Single-shot sequence parameters were optimised to compensate motion artefacts during labour. Safety requirements to monitor the birth process under real-time MR imaging were met. High-resolution MR images were acquired immediately before and after delivery. In one patient, TSE single-shot cinematic sequences of the active second stage of labour were obtained. All sequences were adapted to tolerate movement of the mother and infant, as well as residual noise from the CTG. Furthermore, the MR imaging during labour showed only minor image artefacts. CTG-monitored acquisition of MRI series during the active second stage of delivery is feasible. Image quality should allow various further studies to improve models for birth simulation as well as potential investigation of obstructed labour and obstetric complications. (orig.)

  9. Research on active imaging information transmission technology of satellite borne quantum remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Siwen; Zhen, Ming; Yang, Song; Lin, Xuling; Wu, Zhiqiang

    2017-08-01

    According to the development and application needs of Remote Sensing Science and technology, Prof. Siwen Bi proposed quantum remote sensing. Firstly, the paper gives a brief introduction of the background of quantum remote sensing, the research status and related researches at home and abroad on the theory, information mechanism and imaging experiments of quantum remote sensing and the production of principle prototype.Then, the quantization of pure remote sensing radiation field, the state function and squeezing effect of quantum remote sensing radiation field are emphasized. It also describes the squeezing optical operator of quantum light field in active imaging information transmission experiment and imaging experiments, achieving 2-3 times higher resolution than that of coherent light detection imaging and completing the production of quantum remote sensing imaging prototype. The application of quantum remote sensing technology can significantly improve both the signal-to-noise ratio of information transmission imaging and the spatial resolution of quantum remote sensing .On the above basis, Prof.Bi proposed the technical solution of active imaging information transmission technology of satellite borne quantum remote sensing, launched researches on its system composition and operation principle and on quantum noiseless amplifying devices, providing solutions and technical basis for implementing active imaging information technology of satellite borne Quantum Remote Sensing.

  10. Efficient Active Contour and K-Means Algorithms in Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Rommelse

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss a classic clustering algorithm that can be used to segment images and a recently developed active contour image segmentation model. We propose integrating aspects of the classic algorithm to improve the active contour model. For the resulting CVK and B-means segmentation algorithms we examine methods to decrease the size of the image domain. The CVK method has been implemented to run on parallel and distributed computers. By changing the order of updating the pixels, it was possible to replace synchronous communication with asynchronous communication and subsequently the parallel efficiency is improved.

  11. In Vivo Imaging of Retinoic Acid Receptor Activity using a Sodium/Iodide Symporter and Luciferase Dual Imaging Reporter Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Kyung So

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Retinoic acids are natural derivatives of vitamin A, and play important roles in modulating tumor cell growth by regulating differentiation, thus suggesting the potential use of these derivatives in cancer therapy and prevention. To visualize the intranuclear responses of functional retinoic acid receptors, we have developed a dual-imaging reporter gene system based on the use of sodium/iodide symporter (NIS and luciferase in cancer cell lines. NIS and luciferase genes were linked with an internal ribosome entry site, and placed under the control of an artificial cis-acting retinoic acid responsive element (pRARE/NL. After retinoic acid treatment, I-125 uptake by pRARE/NL transfected cells was found to have increased by up to about five times that of nontreated cells. The bioluminescence intensity of pRARE/NL transfected cells showed dose-dependency. In vivo luciferase images showed higher intensity in retinoic acid treated SK-RARE/NL tumors, and scintigraphic images of SK-RARE/NL tumors showed increased Tc-99m uptake after retinoic acid treatment. The NIS/luciferase imaging reporter system was sufficiently sensitive to allow the visualization of intranuclear retinoic acid receptor activity. This cis-enhancer imaging reporter system may be useful in vitro and in vivo for the evaluation of retinoic acid responses in such areas as cellular differentiation and chemoprevention.

  12. Active Contour Driven by Local Region Statistics and Maximum A Posteriori Probability for Medical Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel active contour model in a variational level set formulation for simultaneous segmentation and bias field estimation of medical images. An energy function is formulated based on improved Kullback-Leibler distance (KLD with likelihood ratio. According to the additive model of images with intensity inhomogeneity, we characterize the statistics of image intensities belonging to each different object in local regions as Gaussian distributions with different means and variances. Then, we use the Gaussian distribution with bias field as a local region descriptor in level set formulation for segmentation and bias field correction of the images with inhomogeneous intensities. Therefore, image segmentation and bias field estimation are simultaneously achieved by minimizing the level set formulation. Experimental results demonstrate desirable performance of the proposed method for different medical images with weak boundaries and noise.

  13. Brain MRI Tumor Detection using Active Contour Model and Local Image Fitting Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabizadeh, Nooshin; John, Nigel

    2014-03-01

    Automatic abnormality detection in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is an important issue in many diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Here an automatic brain tumor detection method is introduced that uses T1-weighted images and K. Zhang et. al.'s active contour model driven by local image fitting (LIF) energy. Local image fitting energy obtains the local image information, which enables the algorithm to segment images with intensity inhomogeneities. Advantage of this method is that the LIF energy functional has less computational complexity than the local binary fitting (LBF) energy functional; moreover, it maintains the sub-pixel accuracy and boundary regularization properties. In Zhang's algorithm, a new level set method based on Gaussian filtering is used to implement the variational formulation, which is not only vigorous to prevent the energy functional from being trapped into local minimum, but also effective in keeping the level set function regular. Experiments show that the proposed method achieves high accuracy brain tumor segmentation results.

  14. [A correlation between diffusion kurtosis imaging and the proliferative activity of brain glioma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonoyan, A S; Pronin, I N; Pitshelauri, D I; Shishkina, L V; Fadeeva, L M; Pogosbekyan, E L; Zakharova, N E; Shults, E I; Khachanova, N V; Kornienko, V N; Potapov, A A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the capabilities of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) in diagnosis of the glioma proliferative activity and to evaluate a relationship between the glioma proliferative activity index and diffusion parameters of the contralateral normal appearing white matter (CNAWM). The study included 47 patients with newly diagnosed brain gliomas (23 low grade, 13 grade III, and 11 grade IV gliomas). We determined a relationship between absolute and normalized parameters of the diffusion tensor (mean (MD), axial (AD), and radial (RD) diffusivities; fractional (FA) and relative (RA) anisotropies) and diffusion kurtosis (mean (MK), axial (AK), and radial (RK) kurtosis; kurtosis anisotropy (KA)) and the proliferative activity index in the most malignant glioma parts (pAK, and RK) and anisotropy (KA, FA, RA) values increased, and diffusivity (MD, AD, RD) values decreased as the glioma proliferative activity index increased. A strong correlation between the proliferative activity index and absolute RK (r=0,71; p=0.000001) and normalized values of MK (r=0.8; p=0.000001), AK (r=0.71; p=0.000001), RK (r=0.81; p=0.000001), and RD (r=-0.71; p=0.000001) was found. A weak, but statistically significant correlation between the glioma proliferative activity index and diffusion values RK (r=-0.36; p=0.014), KA (r=-0.39; p=0.007), RD (r=0.35; p=0.017), FA (r=-0.42; p=0.003), and RA (r=-0.41; p=0.004) of CNAWM was found. DKI has good capabilities to detect immunohistochemical changes in gliomas. DKI demonstrated a high sensitivity in detection of microstructural changes in the contralateral normal appearing white matter in patients with brain gliomas.

  15. Learning of serial digits leads to frontal activation in functional MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaş, Hakki Muammer; Karakaş, Sirel

    2006-03-01

    Clinical studies have shown that performance on the serial digit learning test (SDLT) is dependent upon the mesial temporal lobes, which are responsible for learning and its consolidation. However, an effective SDLT performance is also dependent upon sequencing, temporal ordering, and the utilization of mnemonic strategies. All of these processes are among the functions of the frontal lobes; in spite of this, the relationship between SDLT performance and the frontal lobes has not been demonstrated with previously used mapping techniques. The aim of this study was to investigate the areas of the brain that are activated by SDLT performance. Ten healthy, right handed volunteers (mean age, 20.1 years; SD: 3.3) who had 12 years of education were studied with a 1.0 T MR imaging scanner. BOLD (blood oxygen level dependent) contrast and a modified SDLT were used. Activated loci were automatically mapped using a proportional grid. In learning, the most consistent activation was observed in B-a-7 of the right (80%) and the left hemispheres (50%). In recall, the most consistent activation was observed in B-a-7 of the right hemisphere (60%). Activations were observed in 2.5+/-0.97 Talairach volumes in learning, whereas they encompassed 1.7+/-0.95 volumes in recall. The difference between both phases (learning and recall) regarding total activated volume was significant (p SDLT performance was not related to learning or to recall, but to a function that is common to both of these cognitive processes. A candidate for this common factor may be the executive functions, which also include serial position processing and temporal ordering.

  16. Multiple Active Contours Guided by Differential Evolution for Medical Image Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Aceves, I.; Avina-Cervantes, J. G.; Lopez-Hernandez, J. M.; Rostro-Gonzalez, H.; Garcia-Capulin, C. H.; Torres-Cisneros, M.; Guzman-Cabrera, R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new image segmentation method based on multiple active contours guided by differential evolution, called MACDE. The segmentation method uses differential evolution over a polar coordinate system to increase the exploration and exploitation capabilities regarding the classical active contour model. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, a set of synthetic images with complex objects, Gaussian noise, and deep concavities is introduced. Subsequently, MACDE is applied on datasets of sequential computed tomography and magnetic resonance images which contain the human heart and the human left ventricle, respectively. Finally, to obtain a quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the medical image segmentations compared to regions outlined by experts, a set of distance and similarity metrics has been adopted. According to the experimental results, MACDE outperforms the classical active contour model and the interactive Tseng method in terms of efficiency and robustness for obtaining the optimal control points and attains a high accuracy segmentation. PMID:23983809

  17. Multiple Active Contours Guided by Differential Evolution for Medical Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Cruz-Aceves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new image segmentation method based on multiple active contours guided by differential evolution, called MACDE. The segmentation method uses differential evolution over a polar coordinate system to increase the exploration and exploitation capabilities regarding the classical active contour model. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, a set of synthetic images with complex objects, Gaussian noise, and deep concavities is introduced. Subsequently, MACDE is applied on datasets of sequential computed tomography and magnetic resonance images which contain the human heart and the human left ventricle, respectively. Finally, to obtain a quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the medical image segmentations compared to regions outlined by experts, a set of distance and similarity metrics has been adopted. According to the experimental results, MACDE outperforms the classical active contour model and the interactive Tseng method in terms of efficiency and robustness for obtaining the optimal control points and attains a high accuracy segmentation.

  18. Multiple Active Contours Driven by Particle Swarm Optimization for Cardiac Medical Image Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Aceves, I.; Aviña-Cervantes, J. G.; López-Hernández, J. M.; González-Reyna, S. E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel image segmentation method based on multiple active contours driven by particle swarm optimization (MACPSO). The proposed method uses particle swarm optimization over a polar coordinate system to increase the energy-minimizing capability with respect to the traditional active contour model. In the first stage, to evaluate the robustness of the proposed method, a set of synthetic images containing objects with several concavities and Gaussian noise is presented. Subsequently, MACPSO is used to segment the human heart and the human left ventricle from datasets of sequential computed tomography and magnetic resonance images, respectively. Finally, to assess the performance of the medical image segmentations with respect to regions outlined by experts and by the graph cut method objectively and quantifiably, a set of distance and similarity metrics has been adopted. The experimental results demonstrate that MACPSO outperforms the traditional active contour model in terms of segmentation accuracy and stability. PMID:23762177

  19. Characterization of the Embryogenic Tissue of the Norway Spruce Including a Transition Layer between the Tissue and the Culture Medium by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kořínek R.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the visualization of the cells (ESEs and mucilage (ECMSN in an embryogenic tissue via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI relaxometry measurement combined with the subsequent multi-parametric segmentation. The computed relaxometry maps T1 and T2 show a thin layer (transition layer between the culture medium and the embryogenic tissue. The ESEs, mucilage, and transition layer differ in their relaxation times T1 and T2; thus, these times can be used to characterize the individual parts within the embryogenic tissue. The observed mean values of the relaxation times T1 and T2 of the ESEs, mucilage, and transition layer are as follows: 1469 ± 324 and 53 ± 10 ms, 1784 ± 124 and 74 ± 8 ms, 929 ± 164 and 32 ± 4.7 ms, respectively. The multi-parametric segmentation exploiting the T1 and T2 relaxation times as a classifier shows the distribution of the ESEs and mucilage within the embryogenic tissue. The discussed T1 and T2 indicators can be utilized to characterize both the growth-related changes in an embryogenic tissue and the effect of biotic/abiotic stresses, thus potentially becoming a distinctive indicator of the state of any examined embryogenic tissue.

  20. [Body image and participation in physical activities by obese subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellini, Anne; Perera, Éric; Rodhain, Angélique; Férez, Sylvain

    2016-06-08

    From a sociological perspective, physical activity and diet are perceived as social and cultural practices, constructed and transmitted within human societies. The body is then thought of as a social construct, a sign and foundation of individual and collective identities. In this context, this article was designed to highlight some social processes underlying the obesity epidemic. Clarifying issues about a medical definition of obesity in an obesogenic society, and theoretical approaches to the meanings of the obesity epidemic are proposed. Individual stories of a gradual shift towards obesity are presented to illustrate the variety of trajectories that can lead to obesity in adulthood but also the variety of subjective experiences about the situation of obesity. In particular, the relationship to the body and experiences in terms of physical activity are investigated in order to understand how obesity is associated with non-commitment, low commitment or abandonment of physical activity. The issue of configurations in which commitment or re-commitments in regular exercise for sedentary populations can be possible are discussed. The discussion shows that although commitment to regular and sustainable physical activity requires a profound transformation of lifestyle for the persons concerned, the collective dimension of this change is rarely taken into account..

  1. Fast Algorithms for Fitting Active Appearance Models to Unconstrained Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Pantic, Maja

    2016-01-01

    Fitting algorithms for Active Appearance Models (AAMs) are usually considered to be robust but slow or fast but less able to generalize well to unseen variations. In this paper, we look into AAM fitting algorithms and make the following orthogonal contributions: We present a simple “project-out‿

  2. Performance of a novel wafer scale CMOS active pixel sensor for bio-medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, M; Evans, P M; Wells, K; Anaxagoras, T; Konstantinidis, A C; Zheng, Y; Speller, R D; Allinson, N M

    2014-01-01

    Recently CMOS active pixels sensors (APSs) have become a valuable alternative to amorphous silicon and selenium flat panel imagers (FPIs) in bio-medical imaging applications. CMOS APSs can now be scaled up to the standard 20 cm diameter wafer size by means of a reticle stitching block process. However, despite wafer scale CMOS APS being monolithic, sources of non-uniformity of response and regional variations can persist representing a significant challenge for wafer scale sensor response. Non-uniformity of stitched sensors can arise from a number of factors related to the manufacturing process, including variation of amplification, variation between readout components, wafer defects and process variations across the wafer due to manufacturing processes. This paper reports on an investigation into the spatial non-uniformity and regional variations of a wafer scale stitched CMOS APS. For the first time a per-pixel analysis of the electro-optical performance of a wafer CMOS APS is presented, to address inhomogeneity issues arising from the stitching techniques used to manufacture wafer scale sensors. A complete model of the signal generation in the pixel array has been provided and proved capable of accounting for noise and gain variations across the pixel array. This novel analysis leads to readout noise and conversion gain being evaluated at pixel level, stitching block level and in regions of interest, resulting in a coefficient of variation ⩽1.9%. The uniformity of the image quality performance has been further investigated in a typical x-ray application, i.e. mammography, showing a uniformity in terms of CNR among the highest when compared with mammography detectors commonly used in clinical practice. Finally, in order to compare the detection capability of this novel APS with the technology currently used (i.e. FPIs), theoretical evaluation of the detection quantum efficiency (DQE) at zero-frequency has been performed, resulting in a higher DQE for this

  3. Performance of a novel wafer scale CMOS active pixel sensor for bio-medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, M; Anaxagoras, T; Konstantinidis, A C; Zheng, Y; Speller, R D; Evans, P M; Allinson, N M; Wells, K

    2014-07-07

    Recently CMOS active pixels sensors (APSs) have become a valuable alternative to amorphous silicon and selenium flat panel imagers (FPIs) in bio-medical imaging applications. CMOS APSs can now be scaled up to the standard 20 cm diameter wafer size by means of a reticle stitching block process. However, despite wafer scale CMOS APS being monolithic, sources of non-uniformity of response and regional variations can persist representing a significant challenge for wafer scale sensor response. Non-uniformity of stitched sensors can arise from a number of factors related to the manufacturing process, including variation of amplification, variation between readout components, wafer defects and process variations across the wafer due to manufacturing processes. This paper reports on an investigation into the spatial non-uniformity and regional variations of a wafer scale stitched CMOS APS. For the first time a per-pixel analysis of the electro-optical performance of a wafer CMOS APS is presented, to address inhomogeneity issues arising from the stitching techniques used to manufacture wafer scale sensors. A complete model of the signal generation in the pixel array has been provided and proved capable of accounting for noise and gain variations across the pixel array. This novel analysis leads to readout noise and conversion gain being evaluated at pixel level, stitching block level and in regions of interest, resulting in a coefficient of variation ⩽1.9%. The uniformity of the image quality performance has been further investigated in a typical x-ray application, i.e. mammography, showing a uniformity in terms of CNR among the highest when compared with mammography detectors commonly used in clinical practice. Finally, in order to compare the detection capability of this novel APS with the technology currently used (i.e. FPIs), theoretical evaluation of the detection quantum efficiency (DQE) at zero-frequency has been performed, resulting in a higher DQE for this

  4. Italy: Overview of activities on Neutron Imaging (NI) and Cultural Heritage (CH) studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoppi, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Materials characterization, through non-invasive techniques, represents an important strategic tool in the non-destructive quantitative analysis of artefacts of archaeological and historical interest. In fact, thanks to the high penetration power of thermal neutrons in dense matter, bulk analysis of massive findings, characteristic of archaeological activity, can be nowadays carried out in an almost straightforward way, especially on metal samples. By means of neutron diffraction, it is possible to obtain, without any need of sampling, the average bulk phase composition of the specimen and to reveal the hidden presence of mineralisation phases, which, in turn, gives a deep information on its preservation status. Moreover, a detailed analysis of the peak shape, can shed light on smelting and smithing methods, as well as on the amount of mechanical work that was originally carried out on the sample. Neutron imaging techniques, have developed to such an extent that, today, it is possible to reconstruct tomographic images down to ≅30 μm space resolution. In addition, thanks to the developing techniques of energy selective neutron imaging and tomography the scenario opens over a wealth of futuristic applications, thanks to the enhanced contrast inherent in this technique. At present, these energy selective techniques are only limited by the performances of the device needed to select the energy (and wavelength) of the incident neutron beam: i.e. a rotating disk velocity selector and double monochromator. The possibility of enhancing this technique by fully exploiting the Time of Flight technique could improve dramatically the energy resolution and consequently the range of possible “contrast enhancement” possibilities. What we propose is a research activity using energy selective neutron imaging, applied to cultural heritage metal artefacts, to study the historical evolution of iron production on a world basis, i.e. including European, middle-east, Indian, and

  5. The importance of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging in valve surgery for active infective endocarditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Yasushi; Higuchi, Yoshiro; Kondo, Hiroshi; Akita, Kiyotoshi; Ishida, Michiko; Kaneko, Kan; Hoshino, Ryo; Sato, Masato; Ando, Motomi

    2011-01-01

    Valve surgery for active infective endocarditis (IE) can cause fatal brain hemorrhage. Our current study aimed to evaluate the incidence of septic cerebral lesions in active IE patients by performing preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including T 2 *-weighted sequences and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) before urgent valve surgery, and to investigate whether such preoperative evaluation affects postoperative outcomes. Eighteen patients were referred to our department for native valve IE during 2006-2010. Urgent surgery was indicated in cases of hemodynamic failure resulting from valve destruction, refractory sepsis, and mobile vegetations measuring >10 mm. For these patients, we performed preoperative MRI and MRA. Males comprised 67% of the subjects, with average age 53±15 years. No clinical evidence of acute stroke was noted. Of the 18 patients, urgent surgery was indicated in 15; of these, 10 (67%) showed a brain lesion related to IE: 6 patients had acute or subacute brain infarctions, 2 patients had brain infarction with brain abscess, and 2 patients had hemorrhagic brain infarction and so did not undergo urgent surgery. Thus, 13 patients underwent urgent valve surgery. Among the 5 patients who did not undergo urgent surgery, 4 patients later underwent valve surgery for healed IE. No hospital deaths or neurological complications occurred. MRI of patients with active IE revealed a high incidence of cerebral lesions caused by IE. The use of MRI to detect septic embolism and intracerebral hemorrhage may provide important information for better surgical outcomes. (author)

  6. Active thermography and post-processing image enhancement for recovering of abraded and paint-covered alphanumeric identification marks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanini, R.; Quattrocchi, A.; Piccolo, S. A.

    2016-09-01

    Alphanumeric marking is a common technique employed in industrial applications for identification of products. However, the realised mark can undergo deterioration, either by extensive use or voluntary deletion (e.g. removal of identification numbers of weapons or vehicles). For recovery of the lost data many destructive or non-destructive techniques have been endeavoured so far, which however present several restrictions. In this paper, active infrared thermography has been exploited for the first time in order to assess its effectiveness in restoring paint covered and abraded labels made by means of different manufacturing processes (laser, dot peen, impact, cold press and scribe). Optical excitation of the target surface has been achieved using pulse (PT), lock-in (LT) and step heating (SHT) thermography. Raw infrared images were analysed with a dedicated image processing software originally developed in Matlab™, exploiting several methods, which include thermographic signal reconstruction (TSR), guided filtering (GF), block guided filtering (BGF) and logarithmic transformation (LN). Proper image processing of the raw infrared images resulted in superior contrast and enhanced readability. In particular, for deeply abraded marks, good outcomes have been obtained by application of logarithmic transformation to raw PT images and block guided filtering to raw phase LT images. With PT and LT it was relatively easy to recover labels covered by paint, with the latter one providing better thermal contrast for all the examined targets. Step heating thermography never led to adequate label identification instead.

  7. [Antibacterial actin of vinegar against food-borne pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli O157:H7 (Part 2). Effect of sodium chloride and temperature on bactericidal activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entani, E; Asai, M; Tsujihata, S; Tsukamoto, Y; Ohta, M

    1997-05-01

    Bactericidal effects of various kinds of AWASEZU (processed vinegar, 2.5% acidity) on food-borne pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other bacteria were examined. the order of bactericidal activities was NIHAIZU (3.5% NaCl was added) > SANBA-IZU (3.5% NaCl and 10% sucrose were added) > plain vinegar (spirit vinegar) > AMAZU (10% sucrose was added). This indicates that their activities were enhanced by the addition of sodium chloride and suppressed by the addition of sugar. On the other hand, when soy sauce was used instead of sodium chloride, the order of bactericidal activities was plain vinegar > AMAZU > NIHAIZU > SANBAIZU. This is mainly because their activities were suppressed by the increase in the pH value. The effect of sodium chloride (0.01-15%) and temperature (10-50 degrees C) on bactericidal activities against E. coli O157:H7 in spirit vinegar (0.5-2.5% acidity) was further examined. When vinegar was used in combination with sodium chloride, predominant synergism on the bactericidal activity was observed. Their activities were markedly enhanced by the addition of sodium chloride in proportion to the concentration. In addition to this, at higher temperatures spirit vinegar killed bacteria much more rapidly. It should be noted that the bactericidal activity of spirit vinegar was extremely enhanced by the combined use of the addition of sodium chloride and the rise of temperature. For example, in 2.5% acidity vinegar, the time required for 3 log decrease in viable cell numbers at 20 degrees C was shortened to 1/140-fold by the addition of 5% sodium chloride, shortened to 1/51-fold by the rise of the reaction temperature at 40 degrees C, and shortened to 1/830-fold; 0.89 minutes by both the addition of 5% sodium chloride and the rise of temperature at 40 degrees C. In order to propose the methods to prevent food poisoning by bacterial infection, bactericidal activities of vinegar solution containing sodium chloride on cooking tools and

  8. Stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits in persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention: the Norwegian study in RENEWING HEALTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmen, Heidi; Wahl, Astrid; Torbjørnsen, Astrid; Jenum, Anne Karen; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Ribu, Lis

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits using baseline data from persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention. We examined the associations between stages of change for physical activity change and dietary change, and between stages of change for each behavior and individual characteristics, health-related quality of life, self-management, depressive symptoms, and lifestyle. We examined 151 persons with type 2 diabetes with an glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level ≥7.1%, aged ≥18 years at baseline of a randomized controlled trial, before testing a mobile app with or without health counseling. Stages of change were dichotomized into 'pre-action' and 'action'. Self-management was measured using the Health Education Impact Questionnaire (heiQ) where a higher score reflects increased self-management, and health-related quality of life was measured with the Short-Form-36 (SF-36). Logistic regression modeling was performed. The median HbA1c level was 7.9% (7.1-12.4), 90% were overweight or obese, and 20% had ≥3 comorbidities. 58% were in the preaction stage for physical activity change and 79% in the preaction stage for dietary change. Higher scores of self-management were associated with an increased chance of being in the action stage for both dietary change and physical activity change. Higher body mass index was associated with an 8% reduced chance of being in the action stage for physical activity change (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99). Being in the action stage was associated with higher scores of self-management, crucial for type 2 diabetes. Over half of the participants were in the preaction stage for physical activity and dietary change, and many had a high disease burden with comorbidities and overweight. NCT01315756.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging guided transatrial electrophysiological studies in swine using active catheter tracking - experience with 14 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grothoff, Matthias; Gutberlet, Matthias [University of Leipzig - Heart Center, Department of Radiology, Leipzig (Germany); Hindricks, Gerhard; Sommer, Philipp; Hilbert, Sebastian [University of Leipzig - Heart Center, Department of Electrophysiology, Leipzig (Germany); Fleiter, Christian [Helios Klinikum Berlin-Buch, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Berlin (Germany); Schnackenburg, Bernhard [Philips Healthcare, Hamburg (Germany); Weiss, Steffen; Krueger, Sascha [Philips Innovative Technologies, Hamburg (Germany); Piorkowski, Christopher; Gaspar, Thomas [University of Dresden - Heart Center, Department of Electrophysiology, Dresden (Germany); Wedan, Steve; Lloyd, Thomas [Imricor Medical Systems, Burnsville, MN (United States)

    2017-05-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of performing comprehensive Cardiac Magnetic resonance (CMR) guided electrophysiological (EP) interventions in a porcine model encompassing left atrial access. After introduction of two femoral sheaths 14 swine (41 ± 3.6 kg) were transferred to a 1.5 T MR scanner. A three-dimensional whole-heart sequence was acquired followed by segmentation and the visualization of all heart chambers using an image-guidance platform. Two MR conditional catheters were inserted. The interventional protocol consisted of intubation of the coronary sinus, activation mapping, transseptal left atrial access (n = 4), generation of ablation lesions and eventually ablation of the atrioventricular (AV) node. For visualization of the catheter tip active tracking was used. Catheter positions were confirmed by passive real-time imaging. Total procedure time was 169 ± 51 minutes. The protocol could be completed in 12 swine. Two swine died from AV-ablation induced ventricular fibrillation. Catheters could be visualized and navigated under active tracking almost exclusively. The position of the catheter tips as visualized by active tracking could reliably be confirmed with passive catheter imaging. Comprehensive CMR-guided EP interventions including left atrial access are feasible in swine using active catheter tracking. (orig.)

  10. Prostate Cancer Imaging and Biomarkers Guiding Safe Selection of Active Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary A. Glaser

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundActive surveillance (AS is a widely adopted strategy to monitor men with low-risk, localized prostate cancer (PCa. Current AS inclusion criteria may misclassify as many as one in four patients. The advent of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI and novel PCa biomarkers may offer improved risk stratification. We performed a review of recently published literature to characterize emerging evidence in support of these novel modalities.MethodsAn English literature search was conducted on PubMed for available original investigations on localized PCa, AS, imaging, and biomarkers published within the past 3 years. Our Boolean criteria included the following terms: PCa, AS, imaging, biomarker, genetic, genomic, prospective, retrospective, and comparative. The bibliographies and diagnostic modalities of the identified studies were used to expand our search.ResultsOur review identified 222 original studies. Our expanded search yielded 244 studies. Among these, 70 met our inclusion criteria. Evidence suggests mpMRI offers improved detection of clinically significant PCa, and MRI-fusion technology enhances the sensitivity of surveillance biopsies. Multiple studies demonstrate the promise of commercially available screening assays for prediction of AS failure, and several novel biomarkers show promise in this setting.ConclusionIn the era of AS for men with low-risk PCa, improved strategies for proper stratification are needed. mpMRI has dramatically enhanced the detection of clinically significant PCa. The advent of novel biomarkers for prediction of aggressive disease and AS failure has shown some initial promise, but further validation is warranted.

  11. TWO NOVEL ACM (ACTIVE CONTOUR MODEL) METHODS FOR INTRAVASCULAR ULTRASOUND IMAGE SEGMENTATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chi Hau; Potdat, Labhesh; Chittineni, Rakesh

    2010-01-01

    One of the attractive image segmentation methods is the Active Contour Model (ACM) which has been widely used in medical imaging as it always produces sub-regions with continuous boundaries. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is a catheter based medical imaging technique which is used for quantitative assessment of atherosclerotic disease. Two methods of ACM realizations are presented in this paper. The gradient descent flow based on minimizing energy functional can be used for segmentation of IVUS images. However this local operation alone may not be adequate to work with the complex IVUS images. The first method presented consists of basically combining the local geodesic active contours and global region-based active contours. The advantage of combining the local and global operations is to allow curves deforming under the energy to find only significant local minima and delineate object borders despite noise, poor edge information and heterogeneous intensity profiles. Results for this algorithm are compared to standard techniques to demonstrate the method's robustness and accuracy. In the second method, the energy function is appropriately modified and minimized using a Hopfield neural network. Proper modifications in the definition of the bias of the neurons have been introduced to incorporate image characteristics. The method overcomes distortions in the expected image pattern, such as due to the presence of calcium, and employs a specialized structure of the neural network and boundary correction schemes which are based on a priori knowledge about the vessel geometry. The presented method is very fast and has been evaluated using sequences of IVUS frames.

  12. Monitoring Active Volcanos Using Aerial Images and the Orthoview Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Marsella; Carla Nardinocchi; Cristina Proietti; Leonardo Daga; Mauro Coltelli

    2014-01-01

    In volcanic areas, where it can be difficult to perform direct surveys, digital photogrammetry techniques are rarely adopted for routine volcano monitoring. Nevertheless, they have remarkable potentialities for observing active volcanic features (e.g., fissures, lava flows) and the connected deformation processes. The ability to obtain accurate quantitative data of definite accuracy in short time spans makes digital photogrammetry a suitable method for controlling the evolution of rapidly cha...

  13. Generic and robust method for automatic segmentation of PET images using an active contour model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Mingzan [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen (Netherlands)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: Although positron emission tomography (PET) images have shown potential to improve the accuracy of targeting in radiation therapy planning and assessment of response to treatment, the boundaries of tumors are not easily distinguishable from surrounding normal tissue owing to the low spatial resolution and inherent noisy characteristics of PET images. The objective of this study is to develop a generic and robust method for automatic delineation of tumor volumes using an active contour model and to evaluate its performance using phantom and clinical studies. Methods: MASAC, a method for automatic segmentation using an active contour model, incorporates the histogram fuzzy C-means clustering, and localized and textural information to constrain the active contour to detect boundaries in an accurate and robust manner. Moreover, the lattice Boltzmann method is used as an alternative approach for solving the level set equation to make it faster and suitable for parallel programming. Twenty simulated phantom studies and 16 clinical studies, including six cases of pharyngolaryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and ten cases of nonsmall cell lung cancer, were included to evaluate its performance. Besides, the proposed method was also compared with the contourlet-based active contour algorithm (CAC) and Schaefer’s thresholding method (ST). The relative volume error (RE), Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), and classification error (CE) metrics were used to analyze the results quantitatively. Results: For the simulated phantom studies (PSs), MASAC and CAC provide similar segmentations of the different lesions, while ST fails to achieve reliable results. For the clinical datasets (2 cases with connected high-uptake regions excluded) (CSs), CAC provides for the lowest mean RE (−8.38% ± 27.49%), while MASAC achieves the best mean DSC (0.71 ± 0.09) and mean CE (53.92% ± 12.65%), respectively. MASAC could reliably quantify different types of lesions assessed in this work

  14. Normal and abnormal electrical activation of the heart. Imaging patterns obtained by phase analysis of equilibrium cardiac studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavel, D.; Byrom, E.; Swiryn, S.; Meyer-Pavel, C.; Rosen, K.

    1981-01-01

    By using a temporal Fourier analysis of gated equilibrium cardiac studies, phase images were obtained. These functional images were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively to determine if specific patterns can be found for normal versus abnormal electrical activation of the heart. The study included eight subjects with normal cardiac function and 24 patients with abnormal electrical activation: eight with left bundle branch block (LBBB), two with right bundle branch block (RBBB), six with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW), one with junctional rhythm, one with spontaneous sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) (all with normal wall motion), two with chronic transvenous pacemakers, and four with induced sustained VT (all with regional wall motion abnormalities). The results show that the two ventricals have the same mean phase (within +-9 0 ) in normals, but significantly different mean phases in all patients with bundle branch blocks. Of the six WPW patients, three had a distinctive abnormal pattern. The patient with junctional rhythm, those with transvenous pacemakers, and those with VT all had abnormal patterns on the phase image. The phase image is capable of showing differences between patients with electrical activation and a variety of electrical abnormalities. Within the latter category distinct patterns can be associated with each type of abnormality. (author)

  15. Functional Imaging of Human Vestibular Cortex Activity Elicited by Skull Tap and Auditory Tone Burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noohi, F.; Kinnaird, C.; Wood, S.; Bloomberg, J.; Mulavara, A.; Seidler, R.

    2016-01-01

    The current study characterizes brain activation in response to two modes of vestibular stimulation: skull tap and auditory tone burst. The auditory tone burst has been used in previous studies to elicit either the vestibulo-spinal reflex (saccular-mediated colic Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (cVEMP)), or the ocular muscle response (utricle-mediated ocular VEMP (oVEMP)). Some researchers have reported that air-conducted skull tap elicits both saccular and utricle-mediated VEMPs, while being faster and less irritating for the subjects. However, it is not clear whether the skull tap and auditory tone burst elicit the same pattern of cortical activity. Both forms of stimulation target the otolith response, which provides a measurement of vestibular function independent from semicircular canals. This is of high importance for studying otolith-specific deficits, including gait and balance problems that astronauts experience upon returning to earth. Previous imaging studies have documented activity in the anterior and posterior insula, superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, inferior frontal gyrus, and the anterior cingulate cortex in response to different modes of vestibular stimulation. Here we hypothesized that skull taps elicit similar patterns of cortical activity as the auditory tone bursts, and previous vestibular imaging studies. Subjects wore bilateral MR compatible skull tappers and headphones inside the 3T GE scanner, while lying in the supine position, with eyes closed. Subjects received both forms of the stimulation in a counterbalanced fashion. Pneumatically powered skull tappers were placed bilaterally on the cheekbones. The vibration of the cheekbone was transmitted to the vestibular system, resulting in the vestibular cortical response. Auditory tone bursts were also delivered for comparison. To validate our stimulation method, we measured the ocular VEMP outside of the scanner. This measurement showed that both skull tap and auditory

  16. Registering Active and Passive IMAGE RPI Datasets with the Virtual Wave Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galkin, I. A.; Fung, S.; King, T. A.; Reinisch, B. W.

    2008-12-01

    Development of the Virtual Wave Observatory (VWO) for acquired active/passive plasma wave and radiation datasets will be a significant step forward for the Heliophysics community in its efforts to make wave-specific science data searchable, understandable, and usable. The first phase of the VWO project commenced in September 2008 with the goal of converting existing custom database storing wave data acquired by the Radio Plasma Imager (RPI) on the NASA IMAGE satellite into the VxO realm and, specifically, the SPASE Data Model. The RPI dataset comprises 1.2 million active and 0.8 million passive stepped-frequency measurements whose exploration incurs substantial expense of data search and expert interpretation. Our attention is drawn to the ability of the VWO not only to organize numeric and display data records in the SPASE-compatible manner, but most importantly, provide the essential means to capture the wave research community knowledge in accompanying metadata so as to let users understand the VWO data collections and search them by phenomena and context conditions. To that end, we pursue to extend the SPASE model to include wave-relevant terms and to develop a VWO annotation service to provide searchable data interpretations to the scientists who may not be a wave expert. The SPASE Data Model provides several means to describe data sets in a unified manner, forging them together in a three large categories, (1) numeric data, (2) display data, and (3) catalogs. Whereas numeric data resources simply point to the instrument data, the other two categories refer to the presentation of derived and interpreted information. We consider images of the RPI data as derived products that required investment in time and effort to create, especially if their author provided interpretation of visible signatures and optimized the visualization settings to highlight the signatures. When such interpretations are available, they can be used to further group RPI data in categories

  17. MR constrained simultaneous reconstruction of activity and attenuation maps in brain TOF-PET/MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehranian, Abolfazl; Zaidi, Habib [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-07-29

    The maximum likelihood estimation of attenuation and activity (MLAA) algorithm has been proposed to jointly estimate activity and attenuation from emission data only. Salomon et al employed the MLAA to estimate activity and attenuation from time-of-flight PET data with spatial MR prior information on attenuation. Recently, we proposed a novel algorithm to impose both spatial and statistical constraints on attenuation estimation within the MLAA algorithm using Dixon MR images and a constrained Gaussian mixture model (GMM). In this study, we compare the proposed algorithm with MLAA and MLAA-Salomon in brain TOF-PET/MR imaging.

  18. MR constrained simultaneous reconstruction of activity and attenuation maps in brain TOF-PET/MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehranian, Abolfazl; Zaidi, Habib

    2014-01-01

    The maximum likelihood estimation of attenuation and activity (MLAA) algorithm has been proposed to jointly estimate activity and attenuation from emission data only. Salomon et al employed the MLAA to estimate activity and attenuation from time-of-flight PET data with spatial MR prior information on attenuation. Recently, we proposed a novel algorithm to impose both spatial and statistical constraints on attenuation estimation within the MLAA algorithm using Dixon MR images and a constrained Gaussian mixture model (GMM). In this study, we compare the proposed algorithm with MLAA and MLAA_Salomon in brain TOF-PET/MR imaging.

  19. Use of an activated beta-catenin to identify Wnt pathway target genes in caenorhabditis elegans, including a subset of collagen genes expressed in late larval development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Belinda M; Abete-Luzi, Patricia; Krause, Michael W; Eisenmann, David M

    2014-04-16

    The Wnt signaling pathway plays a fundamental role during metazoan development, where it regulates diverse processes, including cell fate specification, cell migration, and stem cell renewal. Activation of the beta-catenin-dependent/canonical Wnt pathway up-regulates expression of Wnt target genes to mediate a cellular response. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a canonical Wnt signaling pathway regulates several processes during larval development; however, few target genes of this pathway have been identified. To address this deficit, we used a novel approach of conditionally activated Wnt signaling during a defined stage of larval life by overexpressing an activated beta-catenin protein, then used microarray analysis to identify genes showing altered expression compared with control animals. We identified 166 differentially expressed genes, of which 104 were up-regulated. A subset of the up-regulated genes was shown to have altered expression in mutants with decreased or increased Wnt signaling; we consider these genes to be bona fide C. elegans Wnt pathway targets. Among these was a group of six genes, including the cuticular collagen genes, bli-1 col-38, col-49, and col-71. These genes show a peak of expression in the mid L4 stage during normal development, suggesting a role in adult cuticle formation. Consistent with this finding, reduction of function for several of the genes causes phenotypes suggestive of defects in cuticle function or integrity. Therefore, this work has identified a large number of putative Wnt pathway target genes during larval life, including a small subset of Wnt-regulated collagen genes that may function in synthesis of the adult cuticle.

  20. NSCT BASED LOCAL ENHANCEMENT FOR ACTIVE CONTOUR BASED IMAGE SEGMENTATION APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiren Mewada

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Because of cross-disciplinary nature, Active Contour modeling techniques have been utilized extensively for the image segmentation. In traditional active contour based segmentation techniques based on level set methods, the energy functions are defined based on the intensity gradient. This makes them highly sensitive to the situation where the underlying image content is characterized by image nonhomogeneities due to illumination and contrast condition. This is the most difficult problem to make them as fully automatic image segmentation techniques. This paper introduces one of the approaches based on image enhancement to this problem. The enhanced image is obtained using NonSubsampled Contourlet Transform, which improves the edges strengths in the direction where the illumination is not proper and then active contour model based on level set technique is utilized to segment the object. Experiment results demonstrate that proposed method can be utilized along with existing active contour model based segmentation method under situation characterized by intensity non-homogeneity to make them fully automatic.

  1. Towards brain-activity-controlled information retrieval: Decoding image relevance from MEG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppi, Jukka-Pekka; Kandemir, Melih; Saarinen, Veli-Matti; Hirvenkari, Lotta; Parkkonen, Lauri; Klami, Arto; Hari, Riitta; Kaski, Samuel

    2015-05-15

    We hypothesize that brain activity can be used to control future information retrieval systems. To this end, we conducted a feasibility study on predicting the relevance of visual objects from brain activity. We analyze both magnetoencephalographic (MEG) and gaze signals from nine subjects who were viewing image collages, a subset of which was relevant to a predetermined task. We report three findings: i) the relevance of an image a subject looks at can be decoded from MEG signals with performance significantly better than chance, ii) fusion of gaze-based and MEG-based classifiers significantly improves the prediction performance compared to using either signal alone, and iii) non-linear classification of the MEG signals using Gaussian process classifiers outperforms linear classification. These findings break new ground for building brain-activity-based interactive image retrieval systems, as well as for systems utilizing feedback both from brain activity and eye movements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. My Body Looks Like That Girl’s: Body Mass Index Modulates Brain Activity during Body Image Self-Reflection among Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xin; She, Ying; Vinke, Petra Corianne; Chen, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Body image distress or body dissatisfaction is one of the most common consequences of obesity and overweight. We investigated the neural bases of body image processing in overweight and average weight young women to understand whether brain regions that were previously found to be involved in processing self-reflective, perspective and affective components of body image would show different activation between two groups. Thirteen overweight (O-W group, age = 20.31±1.70 years) and thirteen average weight (A-W group, age = 20.15±1.62 years) young women underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a body image self-reflection task. Among both groups, whole-brain analysis revealed activations of a brain network related to perceptive and affective components of body image processing. ROI analysis showed a main effect of group in ACC as well as a group by condition interaction within bilateral EBA, bilateral FBA, right IPL, bilateral DLPFC, left amygdala and left MPFC. For the A-W group, simple effect analysis revealed stronger activations in Thin-Control compared to Fat-Control condition within regions related to perceptive (including bilateral EBA, bilateral FBA, right IPL) and affective components of body image processing (including bilateral DLPFC, left amygdala), as well as self-reference (left MPFC). The O-W group only showed stronger activations in Fat-Control than in Thin-Control condition within regions related to the perceptive component of body image processing (including left EBA and left FBA). Path analysis showed that in the Fat-Thin contrast, body dissatisfaction completely mediated the group difference in brain response in left amygdala across the whole sample. Our data are the first to demonstrate differences in brain response to body pictures between average weight and overweight young females involved in a body image self-reflection task. These results provide insights for understanding the vulnerability to body image distress

  3. My Body Looks Like That Girl's: Body Mass Index Modulates Brain Activity during Body Image Self-Reflection among Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiao; Deng, Xiao; Wen, Xin; She, Ying; Vinke, Petra Corianne; Chen, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Body image distress or body dissatisfaction is one of the most common consequences of obesity and overweight. We investigated the neural bases of body image processing in overweight and average weight young women to understand whether brain regions that were previously found to be involved in processing self-reflective, perspective and affective components of body image would show different activation between two groups. Thirteen overweight (O-W group, age = 20.31±1.70 years) and thirteen average weight (A-W group, age = 20.15±1.62 years) young women underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a body image self-reflection task. Among both groups, whole-brain analysis revealed activations of a brain network related to perceptive and affective components of body image processing. ROI analysis showed a main effect of group in ACC as well as a group by condition interaction within bilateral EBA, bilateral FBA, right IPL, bilateral DLPFC, left amygdala and left MPFC. For the A-W group, simple effect analysis revealed stronger activations in Thin-Control compared to Fat-Control condition within regions related to perceptive (including bilateral EBA, bilateral FBA, right IPL) and affective components of body image processing (including bilateral DLPFC, left amygdala), as well as self-reference (left MPFC). The O-W group only showed stronger activations in Fat-Control than in Thin-Control condition within regions related to the perceptive component of body image processing (including left EBA and left FBA). Path analysis showed that in the Fat-Thin contrast, body dissatisfaction completely mediated the group difference in brain response in left amygdala across the whole sample. Our data are the first to demonstrate differences in brain response to body pictures between average weight and overweight young females involved in a body image self-reflection task. These results provide insights for understanding the vulnerability to body image distress

  4. Wakame and Nori in restructured meats included in cholesterol-enriched diets affect the antioxidant enzyme gene expressions and activities in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Adriana Schultz; González-Torres, Laura; Olivero-David, Raul; Bastida, Sara; Benedi, Juana; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2010-09-01

    The effects of diets including restructured meats (RM) containing Wakame or Nori on total liver glutathione status, and several antioxidant enzyme gene expressions and activities were tested. Six groups of ten male growing Wistar rats each were fed a mix of 85% AIN-93 M diet and 15% freeze-dried RM for 35 days. The control group (C) consumed control RM, the Wakame (W) and the Nori (N) groups, RM with 5% Wakame and 5% Nori, respectively. Animals on added cholesterol diets (CC, CW, and CN) consumed their corresponding basal diets added with cholesterol (2%) and cholic acid (0.4%). Alga and dietary cholesterol significantly interact (P Nori-RM is a hypocholesterolemic food while Wakame-RM is an antioxidant food. This should be taken into account when including this kind of RM as potential functional foods in human.

  5. Evaluation of dual γ-ray imager with active collimator using various types of scintillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonho; Lee, Taewoong; Jeong, Manhee; Kim, Ho Kyung

    2011-10-01

    The performance of a specialized dual γ-ray imager using both mechanical and electronic collimation was evaluated by Monte Carlo simulation (MCNP5). The dual imager consisted of an active collimator and a planar detector that were made from scintillators. The active collimator served not only as a coded aperture for mechanical collimation but also as a first detector for electronic collimation. Therefore, a single system contained both mechanical and electronic collimation. Various types of scintillators were tested and compared with each other in terms of their angular resolution, efficiency, and background noise. In general, a BGO active collimator had the best mechanical collimation performance, and an LaCl₃(Ce) active collimator provided the best electronic collimation performance. However, for low radiation energies, the mechanical collimation images made from both scintillators showed the same quality, and, for high radiation energies, electronic collimation images made from both scintillators also show similar quality. Therefore, if mechanical collimation is used to detect low-energy radiation and electronic collimation is applied to reconstruct a high-energy source, either LaCl₃(Ce) or BGO would be appropriate for the active collimator of a dual γ-ray imager. These results broaden the choice of scintillators for the active collimator of the dual γ-ray imager, which makes it possible to consider other factors, such as machinability and cost, in making the imager. As a planar detector, BGO showed better performance than other scintillators since its radiation detection efficiency was highest of all. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A preliminary report on the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging with simultaneous urodynamics to record brain activity during micturition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krhut, Jan; Tintera, Jaroslav; Holý, Petr; Zachoval, Roman; Zvara, Peter

    2012-08-01

    We mapped brain activity during micturition using functional magnetic resonance imaging with simultaneous recording of urodynamic properties during slow bladder filling and micturition. We evaluated 12 healthy female volunteers 20 to 68 years old. Eight subjects could urinate while supine. Meaningful data were obtained on 6 of these subjects. Brain activity was recorded continuously during bladder filling and micturition. Functional magnetic resonance imaging measurements made during the micturition phase were used for the final analysis. Using group statistics we identified clusters of brain activity in the parahippocampal gyrus, anterior cingulate gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus during micturition. At the individual level we also observed activation in the upper pontine region, thalamus and posterior cingulum. In subjects unable to void brain activation was documented in the frontal lobe and posterior cingulate gyrus but not in the pons, thalamus or anterior cingulate gyrus. In 5 subjects we identified a relevant pattern of brain activity during the terminal portion of the filling phase when the patient reported a strong desire to urinate. This new protocol allows for the localization of brain structures that are active during micturition. Data suggest that additional validation studies are needed. Future studies will test modifications that include more detailed monitoring of bladder sensation, stratifying subjects based on age and gender, and increasing the number of data points by adding subjects and the number of micturitions recorded in a single subject. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The impact of verbal framing on brain activity evoked by emotional images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisley, Michael A; Campbell, Alana M; Larson, Jenna M; Naftz, Andrea E; Regnier, Jesse T; Davalos, Deana B

    2011-12-01

    Emotional stimuli generally command more brain processing resources than non-emotional stimuli, but the magnitude of this effect is subject to voluntary control. Cognitive reappraisal represents one type of emotion regulation that can be voluntarily employed to modulate responses to emotional stimuli. Here, the late positive potential (LPP), a specific event-related brain potential (ERP) component, was measured in response to neutral, positive and negative images while participants performed an evaluative categorization task. One experimental group adopted a "negative frame" in which images were categorized as negative or not. The other adopted a "positive frame" in which the exact same images were categorized as positive or not. Behavioral performance confirmed compliance with random group assignment, and peak LPP amplitude to negative images was affected by group membership: brain responses to negative images were significantly reduced in the "positive frame" group. This suggests that adopting a more positive appraisal frame can modulate brain activity elicited by negative stimuli in the environment.

  8. Episodic aphasia associated with tumor active multiple sclerosis: a correlative SPECT study utilising image fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roff, G.; Campbell, A.; Lawn, N.; Henderson, A.; McCarthy, M.; Lenzo, N.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Cerebral perfusion imaging is a common technique to assess cerebral perfusion and metabolism. It can complement anatomical imaging in assessing a number of neurological conditions. At times it can better define the clinical manifestations of a disease process than anatomical imaging alone. We present a clinical case whereby cerebral SPECT imaging helped define the physiological reason for intermittent aphasia in a patient with tumor active multiple sclerotic white matter plaques. Cerebral SPECT studies were performed during a period of aphasia and when the patient had recovered. We utilised subtraction analyses and image fusion techniques to better define the changes seen on SPECT. We discuss the neuroanatomical relationship of aphasia and the automatic fusion technique that allows accurate co-registration of the MRI and SPECT data. Copyright (2003) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  9. MR imaging in adults with Gaucher disease type I: evulation of marrow involvement and disease activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, G. (Dept. of Radiology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, City Univ. of New York, NY (United States)); Shaprio, R.S. (Dept. of Radiology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, City Univ. of New York, NY (United States)); Abdelwahab, I.F. (Dept. of Radiology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, City Univ. of New York, NY (United States)); Grabowski, G. (Dept. of Pediatrics, Mount Sinai Medical Center, City Univ. of New York, NY (United States))

    1993-05-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of bone marrow involvement in patients with Gaucher disease type I. T1- and T2-weighted images were obtained of the lower extremities of 29 adult patients. Patients were classified into one of three groups based on marrow signal patterns on T1- and T2-weighted images as well as change in signal intensity from T1- to T2-weighted images. An increase in signal intensity from T1- to T2-weighted images was the criterion for an 'active process' within the bone marrow. Classification of the 29 patients produced the following results: Group A: Normal, 4 patients; group B: Marrow infiltration, 16 patients; group C: Marrow infiltration plus active marrow process, 9 patients. Correlation with clinical findings revealed that all nine patients with evidence of an active marrow process on MRI (group C) had acute bone pain. Conversely, only one of the remaining 20 patients (groups A and B) had bone pain. There was no correlation between disease activity and findings on conventional radiographs. We conclude the MRI provides an excellent noninvasive assessment of the extent and activity of marrow involvement in type I Gaucher disease. (orig.)

  10. MR imaging in adults with Gaucher disease type I: evulation of marrow involvement and disease activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, G.; Shaprio, R.S.; Abdelwahab, I.F.; Grabowski, G.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of bone marrow involvement in patients with Gaucher disease type I. T1- and T2-weighted images were obtained of the lower extremities of 29 adult patients. Patients were classified into one of three groups based on marrow signal patterns on T1- and T2-weighted images as well as change in signal intensity from T1- to T2-weighted images. An increase in signal intensity from T1- to T2-weighted images was the criterion for an 'active process' within the bone marrow. Classification of the 29 patients produced the following results: Group A: Normal, 4 patients; group B: Marrow infiltration, 16 patients; group C: Marrow infiltration plus active marrow process, 9 patients. Correlation with clinical findings revealed that all nine patients with evidence of an active marrow process on MRI (group C) had acute bone pain. Conversely, only one of the remaining 20 patients (groups A and B) had bone pain. There was no correlation between disease activity and findings on conventional radiographs. We conclude the MRI provides an excellent noninvasive assessment of the extent and activity of marrow involvement in type I Gaucher disease. (orig.)

  11. Activator Gcn4 employs multiple segments of Med15/Gal11, including the KIX domain, to recruit mediator to target genes in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedidi, Iness; Zhang, Fan; Qiu, Hongfang; Stahl, Stephen J; Palmer, Ira; Kaufman, Joshua D; Nadaud, Philippe S; Mukherjee, Sujoy; Wingfield, Paul T; Jaroniec, Christopher P; Hinnebusch, Alan G

    2010-01-22

    Mediator is a multisubunit coactivator required for initiation by RNA polymerase II. The Mediator tail subdomain, containing Med15/Gal11, is a target of the activator Gcn4 in vivo, critical for recruitment of native Mediator or the Mediator tail subdomain present in sin4Delta cells. Although several Gal11 segments were previously shown to bind Gcn4 in vitro, the importance of these interactions for recruitment of Mediator and transcriptional activation by Gcn4 in cells was unknown. We show that interaction of Gcn4 with the Mediator tail in vitro and recruitment of this subcomplex and intact Mediator to the ARG1 promoter in vivo involve additive contributions from three different segments in the N terminus of Gal11. These include the KIX domain, which is a critical target of other activators, and a region that shares a conserved motif (B-box) with mammalian coactivator SRC-1, and we establish that B-box is a critical determinant of Mediator recruitment by Gcn4. We further demonstrate that Gcn4 binds to the Gal11 KIX domain directly and, by NMR chemical shift analysis combined with mutational studies, we identify the likely binding site for Gcn4 on the KIX surface. Gcn4 is distinctive in relying on comparable contributions from multiple segments of Gal11 for efficient recruitment of Mediator in vivo.

  12. Kinetic and Mechanistic Study of the pH-Dependent Activation (Epoxidation) of Prodrug Treosulfan Including the Reaction Inhibition in a Borate Buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romański, Michał; Ratajczak, Whitney; Główka, Franciszek

    2017-07-01

    A prodrug treosulfan (T) undergoes a pH-dependent activation to epoxide derivatives. The process seems to involve an intramolecular Williamson reaction (IWR) but clear kinetic evidence is lacking. Moreover, a cis-diol system present in the T structure is expected to promote complexation with boric acid. As a result, the prodrug epoxidation would be inhibited; however, this phenomenon has not been investigated. In this article, the effect of pH on the kinetics of T conversion to its monoepoxide was studied from a mechanistic point of view. Also, the influence of boric acid on the reaction kinetics was examined. The rate constants observed for the activation of T (k obs ) in acetate, phosphate, and carbonate buffers satisfied the equation logk obs  = -7.48 + 0.96 pH. The reaction was inhibited in the excess of boric acid over T, and the k obs decreased with increasing borate buffer concentration. The experimental results were consistent with the inhibition model that included the formation of a tetrahedral, anionic T-boric acid monoester. To conclude, in nonborate buffers, the T activation to (2S,3S)-1,2-epoxybutane-3,4-diol 4-methanesulfonate follows IWR mechanism. A borate buffer changes the reaction kinetics and complicates kinetic analysis. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Life stories of people with rheumatoid arthritis who retired early: how gender and other contextual factors shaped their everyday activities, including paid work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, T A; Machold, K P; Smolen, J; Prodinger, B

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore how contextual factors affect the everyday activities of women and men with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), as evident in their life stories. Fifteen people with RA, who had retired early due to the disease, were interviewed up to three times, according to a narrative biographic interview style. The life stories of the participants, which were reconstructed from the biographical data and from the transcribed 'told story' were analysed from the perspective of contextual factors, including personal and environmental factors. The rigour and accuracy of the analysis were enhanced by reflexivity and peer-review of the results. The life stories of the participants in this study reflected how contextual factors (such as gender, the healthcare system, the support of families and social and cultural values) shaped their everyday activities. In a society such as in Austria, which is based on traditional patriarchal values, men were presented with difficulties in developing a non-paid-work-related role. For women, if paid work had to be given up, they were more likely to engage in alternative challenging activities which enabled them to develop reflective skills, which in turn contributed to a positive and enriching perspective on their life stories. Health professionals may thus use some of the women's strategies to help men. Interventions by health professionals in people with RA may benefit from an approach sensitive to personal and environmental factors.

  14. Antibacterial and antibiotic resistance modifying activity of the extracts from Allanblackia gabonensis, Combretum molle and Gladiolus quartinianus against Gram-negative bacteria including multi-drug resistant phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fankam, Aimé G; Kuiate, Jules R; Kuete, Victor

    2015-06-30

    Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is becoming a serious problem worldwide. The discovery of new and effective antimicrobials and/or resistance modulators is necessary to tackle the spread of resistance or to reverse the multi-drug resistance. We investigated the antibacterial and antibiotic-resistance modifying activities of the methanol extracts from Allanblackia gabonensis, Gladiolus quartinianus and Combretum molle against 29 Gram-negative bacteria including multi-drug resistant (MDR) phenotypes. The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of the samples meanwhile the standard phytochemical methods were used for the preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant extracts. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols and tannins in all studied extracts. Other chemical classes of secondary metabolites were selectively presents. Extracts from A. gabonensis and C. molle displayed a broad spectrum of activity with MICs varying from 16 to 1024 μg/mL against about 72.41% of the tested bacteria. The extract from the fruits of A. gabonensis had the best activity, with MIC values below 100 μg/mL on 37.9% of tested bacteria. Percentages of antibiotic-modulating effects ranging from 67 to 100% were observed against tested MDR bacteria when combining the leaves extract from C. molle (at MIC/2 and MIC/4) with chloramphenicol, kanamycin, streptomycin and tetracycline. The overall results of the present study provide information for the possible use of the studied plant, especially Allanblackia gabonensis and Combretum molle in the control of Gram-negative bacterial infections including MDR species as antibacterials as well as resistance modulators.

  15. The first X-ray imaging spectroscopy of quiescent solar active regions with NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannah, Iain G.; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Smith, David M.

    2016-01-01

    We present the first observations of quiescent active regions (ARs) using the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), a focusing hard X-ray telescope capable of studying faint solar emission from high-temperature and non-thermal sources. We analyze the first directly imaged and spectrally...... resolved X-rays above 2 keV from non-flaring ARs, observed near the west limb on 2014 November 1. The NuSTAR X-ray images match bright features seen in extreme ultraviolet and soft X-rays. The NuSTAR imaging spectroscopy is consistent with isothermal emission of temperatures 3.1-4.4 MK and emission...

  16. Fluorescent Probes for Analysis and Imaging of Monoamine Oxidase Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dokyoung; Jun, Yong Woong; Ahn, Kyo Han [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Monoamine oxidases catalyze the oxidative deamination of dietary amines and amine neurotransmitters, and assist in maintaining the homeostasis of the amine neurotransmitters in the brain. Dysfunctions of these enzymes can cause neurological and behavioral disorders including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. To understand their physiological roles, efficient assay methods for monoamine oxidases are essential. Reviewed in this Perspective are the recent progress in the development of fluorescent probes for monoamine oxidases and their applications to enzyme assays in cells and tissues. It is evident that still there is strong need for a fluorescent probe with desirable substrate selectivity and photophysical properties to challenge the much unsolved issues associated with the enzymes and the diseases.

  17. PXR (NR1I2): splice variants in human tissues, including brain, and identification of neurosteroids and nicotine as PXR activators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamba, Vishal; Yasuda, Kazuto; Lamba, Jatinder K.; Assem, Mahfoud; Davila, Julio; Strom, Stephen; Schuetz, Erin G.

    2004-01-01

    To gain insight on the expression of pregnane X receptor (PXR), we analyzed PXR.1 and PXR alternatively spliced transcripts in a panel of 36 human tissues. PXR.1 was expressed in many more tissues than previously determined, including human bone marrow and select regions of the human brain. In each of these tissues, we observed alternative splicing of various exons of PXR that generated multiple distinct PXR isoforms. The most abundant PXR alternative mRNA transcripts lacked 111 nucleotides, deleting 37 amino acids from the PXR LBD (PXR.2), or lacked 123 nt, deleting 41 amino acids from the PXR LBD (PXR.3). CYP3A4, a gene transcriptionally regulated by PXR, showed incomplete overlap with PXR in its tissue distribution. Quantitation of PXR mRNAs in human liver demonstrated that PXR.2 and PXR.3 represented 6.7% and 0.32% of total PXR mRNA transcripts. Brain expression of PXR prompted analysis of whether some brain acting chemicals were PXR ligands. The neurosteroids allopregnanolone and pregnanolone activated PXR and induced transcription of a CYP3A4-luciferase reporter. Nicotine, the psychoactive and addictive chemical in cigarettes, and a known inducer of brain CYP2B6, was an efficacious activator of PXR and inducer of CYP3A4 transcription. Because nicotine activation of PXR will enhance metabolism of nicotine to the non-psychoactive cotinine, these results provide one molecular mechanism for the development of tolerance to nicotine. Moreover, the identification of PXR in many human tissues, such as brain, and activation by tissue specific ligands (such as neurosteroids) suggests additional biological roles for this receptor in these tissues

  18. PXR (NR1I2): splice variants in human tissues, including brain, and identification of neurosteroids and nicotine as PXR activators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, Vishal; Yasuda, Kazuto; Lamba, Jatinder K; Assem, Mahfoud; Davila, Julio; Strom, Stephen; Schuetz, Erin G

    2004-09-15

    To gain insight on the expression of pregnane X receptor (PXR), we analyzed PXR.1 and PXR alternatively spliced transcripts in a panel of 36 human tissues. PXR.1 was expressed in many more tissues than previously determined, including human bone marrow and select regions of the human brain. In each of these tissues, we observed alternative splicing of various exons of PXR that generated multiple distinct PXR isoforms. The most abundant PXR alternative mRNA transcripts lacked 111 nucleotides, deleting 37 amino acids from the PXR LBD (PXR.2), or lacked 123 nt, deleting 41 amino acids from the PXR LBD (PXR.3). CYP3A4, a gene transcriptionally regulated by PXR, showed incomplete overlap with PXR in its tissue distribution. Quantitation of PXR mRNAs in human liver demonstrated that PXR.2 and PXR.3 represented 6.7% and 0.32% of total PXR mRNA transcripts. Brain expression of PXR prompted analysis of whether some brain acting chemicals were PXR ligands. The neurosteroids allopregnanolone and pregnanolone activated PXR and induced transcription of a CYP3A4-luciferase reporter. Nicotine, the psychoactive and addictive chemical in cigarettes, and a known inducer of brain CYP2B6, was an efficacious activator of PXR and inducer of CYP3A4 transcription. Because nicotine activation of PXR will enhance metabolism of nicotine to the non-psychoactive cotinine, these results provide one molecular mechanism for the development of tolerance to nicotine. Moreover, the identification of PXR in many human tissues, such as brain, and activation by tissue specific ligands (such as neurosteroids) suggests additional biological roles for this receptor in these tissues.

  19. Active contour segmentation in dynamic medical imaging: application to nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debreuve, Eric

    2000-01-01

    In emission imaging, nuclear medicine provides functional information about the organ of interest. In transmission imaging, it provides anatomical information whose goal may be the correction of physical phenomena that corrupt emission images. With both emission and transmission images, it is useful to know how to extract, either automatically or semi-automatically, the organs of interest and the body outline in the case of a large field of view. This is the aim of segmentation. We developed two active contour segmentation methods. They were implemented using level sets. The key point is the evolution velocity definition. First, we were interested in static transmission imaging of the thorax. The evolution velocity was heuristically defined and depended only on the acquired projections. The segmented transmission map was computed w/o reconstruction and could be advantageously used for attenuation correction. Then, we studied the segmentation of cardiac gated sequences. The developed space-time segmentation method results from the minimization of a variational criterion which takes into account the whole sequence. The computed segmentation could be used for calculating physiological parameters. As an illustration, we computed the ejection fraction. Finally, we exploited some level set properties to develop a non-rigid, non-parametric, and geometric registration method. We applied it for kinetic compensation of cardiac gated sequences. The registered images were then added together providing an image with noise characteristics similar to a cardiac static image but w/o motion-induced blurring. (author)

  20. A Nonparametric Shape Prior Constrained Active Contour Model for Segmentation of Coronaries in CTA Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a nonparametric shape constrained algorithm for segmentation of coronary arteries in computed tomography images within the framework of active contours. An adaptive scale selection scheme, based on the global histogram information of the image data, is employed to determine the appropriate window size for each point on the active contour, which improves the performance of the active contour model in the low contrast local image regions. The possible leakage, which cannot be identified by using intensity features alone, is reduced through the application of the proposed shape constraint, where the shape of circular sampled intensity profile is used to evaluate the likelihood of current segmentation being considered vascular structures. Experiments on both synthetic and clinical datasets have demonstrated the efficiency and robustness of the proposed method. The results on clinical datasets have shown that the proposed approach is capable of extracting more detailed coronary vessels with subvoxel accuracy.

  1. In vitro activity of the siderophore monosulfactam BAL30072 against contemporary Gram-negative pathogens from New York City, including multidrug-resistant isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, David; Singh, Manisha; El-Imad, Badiaa; Miller, Ezra; Win, Thida; Quale, John

    2014-06-01

    The in vitro activity of BAL30072 was assessed against clinical isolates from NYC hospitals, including isolates from a citywide surveillance study and a collection of isolates with well-characterised resistance mechanisms. BAL30072 was the most active β-lactam against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC50/90, 0.25/1 μg/mL), Acinetobacter baumannii (MIC50/90, 4/>64 μg/mL) and KPC-possessing Klebsiella pneumoniae (MIC50/90, 4/>64 μg/mL). Combining BAL30072 with meropenem resulted in a ≥ 4-fold decrease in the BAL30072 MIC90 both for A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae. For isolates with a BAL30072 MIC>4 μg/mL, addition of a sub-MIC concentration of colistin resulted in a four-fold decrease in the BAL30072 MIC in 44% of P. aeruginosa, 82% of A. baumannii and 23% of K. pneumoniae. Using sub-MIC concentrations, BAL30072 plus colistin was bactericidal against 4 of 11 isolates in time-kill studies. BAL30072 MICs were frequently lower for P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae when tested using Mueller-Hinton agar versus Iso-Sensitest agar or Mueller-Hinton broth. Against the well-characterised isolates, reduced susceptibility to BAL30072 correlated with mexA and mexX expression (P. aeruginosa), adeB expression (A. baumannii) and presence of SHV-type ESBLs (A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae). BAL30072 shows promising activity against contemporary Gram-negatives, including MDR P. aeruginosa, A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae. Enhanced activity was often present when BAL30072 was combined with meropenem or colistin. BAL30072 MICs were influenced by the testing method, particularly for P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae. Further in vivo studies are warranted to determine the potential clinical utility of BAL30072 alone and combined with other agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  2. Is Being a Boy and Feeling Fat a Barrier for Physical Activity? The Association between Body Image, Gender and Physical Activity among Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kopcakova, Jaroslava; Veselska, Zuzana Dankulincova; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2014-01-01

    Regular physical activity leads to physical and mental health benefits. Previous studies have shown physical activity to be associated with body image and gender. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the associations of body image with physical activity of adolescents and whether

  3. Scoring inflammatory activity of the spine by magnetic resonance imaging in ankylosing spondylitis: a multireader experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukas, C; Braun, J; van der Heijde, D

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine is increasingly important in the assessment of inflammatory activity in clinical trials with patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). We investigated feasibility, inter-reader reliability, sensitivity to change, and discriminatory ability...... of 3 different scoring methods for MRI activity and change in activity of the spine in patients with AS. METHODS: Thirty sets of spinal MRI at baseline and after 24 weeks of followup, derived from a randomized clinical trial comparing a tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-blocking drug (n = 20) with placebo (n...... the Ankylosing Spondylitis spine Magnetic Resonance Imaging-activity [ASspiMRI-a, grading activity (0-6) per vertebral unit in 23 units]; the Berlin modification of the ASspiMRI-a; and the Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC) scoring system, which scores the 6 vertebral units considered...

  4. Detection of cortical activities on eye movement using functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Masaki; Kawai, Kazushige; Kitahara, Kenji [Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Soulie, D.; Cordoliani, Y.S.; Iba-Zizen, M.T.; Cabanis, E.A.

    1997-11-01

    Cortical activity during eye movement was examined with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Horizontal saccadic eye movements and smooth pursuit eye movements were elicited in normal subjects. Activity in the frontal eye field was found during both saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements at the posterior margin of the middle frontal gyrus and in parts of the precentral sulcus and precentral gyrus bordering the middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann`s areas 8, 6, and 9). In addition, activity in the parietal eye field was found in the deep, upper margin of the angular gyrus and of the supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann`s areas 39 and 40) during saccadic eye movement. Activity of V5 was found at the intersection of the ascending limb of the inferior temporal sulcus and the lateral occipital sulcus during smooth pursuit eye movement. Our results suggest that functional magnetic resonance imaging is useful for detecting cortical activity during eye movement. (author)

  5. Detection of cortical activities on eye movement using functional magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Masaki; Kawai, Kazushige; Kitahara, Kenji; Soulie, D.; Cordoliani, Y.S.; Iba-Zizen, M.T.; Cabanis, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    Cortical activity during eye movement was examined with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Horizontal saccadic eye movements and smooth pursuit eye movements were elicited in normal subjects. Activity in the frontal eye field was found during both saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements at the posterior margin of the middle frontal gyrus and in parts of the precentral sulcus and precentral gyrus bordering the middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann's areas 8, 6, and 9). In addition, activity in the parietal eye field was found in the deep, upper margin of the angular gyrus and of the supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann's areas 39 and 40) during saccadic eye movement. Activity of V5 was found at the intersection of the ascending limb of the inferior temporal sulcus and the lateral occipital sulcus during smooth pursuit eye movement. Our results suggest that functional magnetic resonance imaging is useful for detecting cortical activity during eye movement. (author)

  6. [Study on method of tracking the active cells in image sequences based on EKF-PF].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chunming; Liu, Ying

    2013-02-01

    In cell image sequences, due to the nonlinear and nonGaussian motion characteristics of active cells, the accurate prediction and tracking is still an unsolved problem. We applied extended Kalman particle filter (EKF-PF) here in our study, attempting to solve the problem. Firstly we confirmed the existence and positions of the active cells. Then we established a motion model and improved it via adding motion angle estimation. Next we predicted motion parameters, such as displacement, velocity, accelerated velocity and motion angle, in region centers of the cells being tracked. Finally we obtained the motion traces of active cells. There were fourteen active cells in three image sequences which have been tracked. The errors were less than 2.5 pixels when the prediction values were compared with actual values. It showed that the presented algorithm may basically reach the solution of accurate predition and tracking of the active cells.

  7. Perceived Body Image, Eating Behavior, and Sedentary Activities and Body Mass Index Categories in Kuwaiti Female Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemia H. Shaban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The State of Kuwait has a growing obesity epidemic in both genders and all age groups; however, obesity rates in the young seem to be rising. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 169 Kuwaiti female adolescents attending both private and public schools spanning the six governorates in the State of Kuwait in order to explore female adolescents’ self-image, body dissatisfaction, type of school (private versus public, TV viewing, and computer games and their relationship to body mass index. Results. Approximately half the students classified as obese perceived their body image to lie in the normal range. Females in the obese category were the most dissatisfied with their body image, followed by those in the overweight category. Eating behavior, level of physical activity, school type, television viewing, computer/video usage, and desired BMI were not significantly associated with level of obesity. Conclusion. This study was one of the few studies to assess adolescent females’ body image dissatisfaction in relation to obesity in the State of Kuwait. The results suggest that including body image dissatisfaction awareness into obesity prevention programs would be of value.

  8. Highly active antiretroviral therapy including protease inhibitors does not confer a unique CD4 cell benefit. The AVANTI and INCAS Study Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-07

    To determine if triple combination therapy, particularly including HIV protease inhibitors (PI), confers an unique immunological benefit that is independent of reductions of plasma viral load (pVL). The correlation between changes from baseline in CD4 cell count and pVL was examined at all time points up to 52 weeks in three randomized clinical trials (AVANTI-2, AVANTI-3 and INCAS) that compared dual nucleoside therapy with triple combination therapy. Individual pVL and CD4 cell counts changes from baseline were entered into multivariate linear regression models for patients receiving double therapy and for those receiving triple therapy including a PI and/or a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), and the null hypothesis was tested. After 52 weeks of therapy, the relationship between changes from baseline CD4 cell count and pVL was independent of whether patients were assigned double or triple therapy (P = 0.23 and 0.69 for intercept and slope, respectively), or whether patients were assigned triple therapy including a PI or triple therapy including an NNRTI (P = 0.92 and 0.95, respectively). Less than 5% of patients ever had 'discordant' increases in both CD4 cell count and pVL compared with baseline, and this proportion was unrelated to the class of therapy used. 'Discordant' decreases from baseline in both parameters were observed in up to 35% of individuals. The correlation between pVL and CD4 cell count changes from baseline improved over time on therapy, regardless of the therapeutic regimen involved. The data provide no evidence for a CD4 cell count benefit of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) unique to triple therapy or PI-containing regimens.

  9. Detection of active bile leak with Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MR cholangiography: Comparison of 20–25 min delayed and 60–180 min delayed images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cieszanowski, Andrzej; Stadnik, Anna; Lezak, Aleksandra; Maj, Edyta; Zieniewicz, Krzysztof; Rowinska-Berman, Katarzyna; Grudzinski, Ireneusz P.; Krawczyk, Marek; Rowiński, Olgierd

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the value of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) performed in different time delays after injection of gadoxetic acid disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA) for the diagnosis of active bile leak. Methods: This retrospective analysis included Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MR images of 34 patients suspected of bile leak. Images were acquired 20–25 min after Gd-EOB-DTPA injection. If there was inadequate contrast in the bile ducts then delayed images after 60–90 min and 150–180 min were obtained. Results were correlated with intraoperative findings, ERCP results, clinical data, laboratory tests, and follow-up examinations. Results: Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRC yielded an overall sensitivity of 96.4%, specificity of 100% and accuracy of 97.1% for the diagnosis of an active bile leak. The sensitivity of 20–25 min delayed MR images was 42.9%, of combined 20–25 min and 60–90 min delayed images was 92.9% and of combined 20–25 min, 60–90 min and 150–180 min delayed images was 96.4%. Conclusions: Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRC utilizing delayed phase images was effective for detecting the presence and location of active bile leaks. The images acquired 60–180 min post-injection enabled identification of bile leaks even in patients with a dilated biliary system or moderate liver dysfunction

  10. Fluconazole-Pyridoxine Bis-Triazolium Compounds with Potent Activity against Pathogenic Bacteria and Fungi Including Their Biofilm-Embedded Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsel R. Garipov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Two novel quaternary ammonium salts, bis-triazolium derivatives of fluconazole and pyridoxine, were synthesized by reaction of fluconazole with pyridoxine-based synthetic intermediates. The leading compound demonstrated pronounced antimycotic and antibacterial in vitro activity, comparable to or exceeding that of the reference antifungal (fluconazole, terbinafine and antibacterial/antiseptic (miramistin, benzalkonium chloride agents. In contrast to many antimicrobials, the leading compound was also active against biofilm-embedded staphylococci and Escherichia coli. While no biofilm structure destruction occurred, all compounds were able to diffuse into the matrix and reduce the number of colony-forming units by three orders of magnitude at 16 × MBC. The leading compound was significantly less toxic than miramistin and benzalkonium chloride and more toxic than the reference antifungal drugs. The obtained results make the described chemotype a promising starting point for the development of new broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapies with powerful effect on fungal and bacterial pathogens including their biofilm-embedded forms.

  11. Digital imaging information technology for biospeckle activity assessment relative to bacteria and parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Miquet, Evelio E; Cabrera, Humberto; Grassi, Hilda C; de J Andrades, Efrén; Otero, Isabel; Rodríguez, Dania; Darias, Juan G

    2017-08-01

    This paper reports on the biospeckle processing of biological activity using a visualization scheme based upon the digital imaging information technology. Activity relative to bacterial growth in agar plates and to parasites affected by a drug is monitored via the speckle patterns generated by a coherent source incident on the microorganisms. We present experimental results to demonstrate the potential application of this methodology for following the activity in time. The digital imaging information technology is an alternative visualization enabling the study of speckle dynamics, which is correlated to the activity of bacteria and parasites. In this method, the changes in Red-Green-Blue (RGB) color component density are considered as markers of the growth of bacteria and parasites motility in presence of a drug. The RGB data was used to generate a two-dimensional surface plot allowing an analysis of color distribution on the speckle images. The proposed visualization is compared to the outcomes of the generalized differences and the temporal difference. A quantification of the activity is performed using a parameterization of the temporal difference method. The adopted digital image processing technique has been found suitable to monitor motility and morphological changes in the bacterial population over time and to detect and distinguish a short term drug action on parasites.

  12. Tracking molecular dynamics without tracking: image correlation of photo-activation microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandžić, Elvis; Rossy, Jérémie; Gaus, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Measuring protein dynamics in the plasma membrane can provide insights into the mechanisms of receptor signaling and other cellular functions. To quantify protein dynamics on the single molecule level over the entire cell surface, sophisticated approaches such as single particle tracking (SPT), photo-activation localization microscopy (PALM) and fluctuation-based analysis have been developed. However, analyzing molecular dynamics of fluorescent particles with intermittent excitation and low signal-to-noise ratio present at high densities has remained a challenge. We overcame this problem by applying spatio-temporal image correlation spectroscopy (STICS) analysis to photo-activated (PA) microscopy time series. In order to determine under which imaging conditions this approach is valid, we simulated PA images of diffusing particles in a homogeneous environment and varied photo-activation, reversible blinking and irreversible photo-bleaching rates. Further, we simulated data with high particle densities that populated mobile objects (such as adhesions and vesicles) that often interfere with STICS and fluctuation-based analysis. We demonstrated in experimental measurements that the diffusion coefficient of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) fused to PAGFP in live COS-7 cells can be determined in the plasma membrane and revealed differences in the time-dependent diffusion maps between wild-type and mutant Lck in activated T cells. In summary, we have developed a new analysis approach for live cell photo-activation microscopy data based on image correlation spectroscopy to quantify the spatio-temporal dynamics of single proteins. (paper)

  13. Tracking molecular dynamics without tracking: image correlation of photo-activation microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandžić, Elvis; Rossy, Jérémie; Gaus, Katharina

    2015-03-01

    Measuring protein dynamics in the plasma membrane can provide insights into the mechanisms of receptor signaling and other cellular functions. To quantify protein dynamics on the single molecule level over the entire cell surface, sophisticated approaches such as single particle tracking (SPT), photo-activation localization microscopy (PALM) and fluctuation-based analysis have been developed. However, analyzing molecular dynamics of fluorescent particles with intermittent excitation and low signal-to-noise ratio present at high densities has remained a challenge. We overcame this problem by applying spatio-temporal image correlation spectroscopy (STICS) analysis to photo-activated (PA) microscopy time series. In order to determine under which imaging conditions this approach is valid, we simulated PA images of diffusing particles in a homogeneous environment and varied photo-activation, reversible blinking and irreversible photo-bleaching rates. Further, we simulated data with high particle densities that populated mobile objects (such as adhesions and vesicles) that often interfere with STICS and fluctuation-based analysis. We demonstrated in experimental measurements that the diffusion coefficient of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) fused to PAGFP in live COS-7 cells can be determined in the plasma membrane and revealed differences in the time-dependent diffusion maps between wild-type and mutant Lck in activated T cells. In summary, we have developed a new analysis approach for live cell photo-activation microscopy data based on image correlation spectroscopy to quantify the spatio-temporal dynamics of single proteins.

  14. Cranial nerve clock. Part II: functional MR imaging of brain activation during a declarative memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, K L; Welsh, R C; Eldevik, P; Bieliauskas, L A; Steinberg, B A

    2001-12-01

    The authors performed this study to assess brain activation during encoding and successful recall with a declarative memory paradigm that has previously been demonstrated to be effective for teaching students about the cranial nerves. Twenty-four students underwent functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging during encoding and recall of the name, number, and function of the 12 cranial nerves. The students viewed mnemonic graphic and text slides related to individual nerves, as well as their respective control slides. For the recall paradigm, students were prompted with the numbers 1-12 (test condition) intermixed with the number 14 (control condition). Subjects were tested about their knowledge of cranial nerves outside the MR unit before and after functional MR imaging. Students learned about the cranial nerves while undergoing functional MR imaging (mean post- vs preparadigm score, 8.1 +/- 3.4 [of a possible 12] vs 0.75 +/- 0.94, bilateral prefrontal cortex, left greater than right; P brain activation. Encoding revealed statistically significant activation in the bilateral prefrontal cortex, left greater than right [corrected]; bilateral occipital and parietal associative cortices, parahippocampus region, fusiform gyri, and cerebellum. Successful recall activated the left much more than the right prefrontal, parietal associative, and anterior cingulate cortices; bilateral precuneus and cerebellum; and right more than the left posterior cingulate. A predictable pattern of brain activation at functional MR imaging accompanies the encoding and successful recall of the cranial nerves with this declarative memory paradigm.

  15. PREFACE: 9th International Fröhlich's Symposium: Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells (Including Microtubule Coherent Modes and Cancer Cell Physics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifra, Michal; Pokorný, Jirí; Kucera, Ondrej

    2011-12-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the International Fröhlich's Symposium entitled 'Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells' (1-3 July 2011, Prague, Czech Republic). The Symposium was the 9th meeting devoted to physical processes in living matter organized in Prague since 1987. The hypothesis of oscillation systems in living cells featured by non-linear interaction between elastic and electrical polarization fields, non-linear interactions between the system and the heat bath leading to energy downconversion along the frequency scale, energy condensation in the lowest frequency mode and creation of a coherent state was formulated by H Fröhlich, founder of the theory of dielectric materials. He assumed that biological activity is based not only on biochemical but also on biophysical mechanisms and that their disturbances form basic links along the cancer transformation pathway. Fröhlich outlined general ideas of non-linear physical processes in biological systems. The downconversion and the elastic-polarization interactions should be connected in a unified theory and the solution based on comprehensive non-linear characteristics. Biochemical and genetic research of biological systems are highly developed and have disclosed a variety of cellular and subcellular structures, chemical reactions, molecular information transfer, and genetic code sequences - including their pathological development. Nevertheless, the cancer problem is still a big challenge. Warburg's discovery of suppressed oxidative metabolism in mitochondria in cancer cells suggested the essential role of physical mechanisms (but his discovery has remained without impact on cancer research and on the study of physical properties of biological systems for a long time). Mitochondria, the power plants of the cell, have several areas of activity-oxidative energy production is connected with the formation of a strong static electric field around them, water ordering, and liberation of non

  16. Noninvasive Evaluation of Cellular Proliferative Activity in Brain Neurogenic Regions in Rats under Depression and Treatment by Enhanced [18F]FLT-PET Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Yasuhisa; Takahashi, Kayo; Takata, Kumi; Eguchi, Asami; Yamato, Masanori; Kume, Satoshi; Nakano, Masayuki; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Kataoka, Yosky

    2016-08-03

    Neural stem cells in two neurogenic regions, the subventricular zone and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus, can divide and produce new neurons throughout life. Hippocampal neurogenesis is related to emotions, including depression/anxiety, and the therapeutic effects of antidepressants, as well as learning and memory. The establishment of in vivo imaging for proliferative activity of neural stem cells in the SGZ might be used to diagnose depression and to monitor the therapeutic efficacy of antidepressants. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with 3'-deoxy-3'-[(18)F]fluoro-l-thymidine ([(18)F]FLT) has been studied to allow visualization of proliferative activity in two neurogenic regions of adult mammals; however, the PET imaging has not been widely used because of lower accumulation of [(18)F]FLT, which does not allow quantitative assessment of the decline in cellular proliferative activity in the SGZ under the condition of depression. We report the establishment of an enhanced PET imaging method with [(18)F]FLT combined with probenecid, an inhibitor of drug transporters at the blood-brain barrier, which can allow the quantitative visualization of neurogenic activity in rats. Enhanced PET imaging allowed us to evaluate reduced cell proliferation in the SGZ of rats with corticosterone-induced depression, and further the recovery of proliferative activity in rats under treatment with antidepressants. This enhanced [(18)F]FLT-PET imaging technique with probenecid can be used to assess the dynamic alteration of neurogenic activity in the adult mammalian brain and may also provide a means for objective diagnosis of depression and monitoring of the therapeutic effect of antidepressant treatment. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis may play a role in major depression and antidepressant therapy. Establishment of in vivo imaging for hippocampal neurogenic activity may be useful to diagnose depression and monitor the therapeutic efficacy of

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of active sacroiliitis: Do we really need gadolinium?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Althoff, Christian E. [Department of Radiology, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Mitte, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: christian.althoff@charite.de; Feist, Eugen [Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Mitte (Germany); Burova, Elena [Department of Radiology, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Mitte, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Eshed, Iris [Department of Radiology, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University (Israel); Bollow, Matthias [Department of Radiology, Augusta Hospital, Bochum (Germany); Hamm, Bernd; Hermann, Kay-Geert A. [Department of Radiology, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Mitte, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    Introduction: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of active inflammatory changes of the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) in spondyloarthritis (SpA) is performed with short tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences and fat-saturated T1-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE) sequences after administration of gadolinium-based contrast medium (T1/Gd). The aim of the present study was to compare these two pulse sequences in terms of diagnosis, diagnostic confidence, and quantification of inflammatory changes. Materials and methods: The study included 105 patients with suspected SpA; 72 patients developed clinical SpA over time. All patients were examined with STIR and T1/Gd and each of the two sequences was analyzed separately in conjunction with unenhanced T1 FSE images. For quantitative estimation of inflammatory changes, each sacroiliac joint (SIJ) was divided into 4 quadrants (and severity per quadrant was assigned a score of 0-4, resulting in a maximum sum score of 16 per SIJ). Diagnostic confidence was assessed on a visual analogue scale ranging from 0 to 10. Results: Active sacroiliitis was diagnosed in 46 patients and ruled out in 34 using STIR, whereas findings were inconclusive in 25 patients. The corresponding numbers for T1/Gd were 47, 44, and 14. Diagnostic confidence was significantly lower for STIR (7.3 {+-} 2.6) compared with T1/Gd (8.7 {+-} 1.9) (p < 0.001). The sum scores were 2.5 ({+-}3.3) for STIR and 2.2 ({+-}3.2) for T1/Gd for the right SIJ and 2.2 ({+-}2.9) (STIR) and 1.9 ({+-}3.1) (T1/Gd) for the left SIJ. Agreement was high with intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values of 0.86 for the right SIJ and 0.90 for the left SIJ and positive correlation (r = 0.62 right, 0.60 left). Summary: STIR sequences alone are sufficient for establishing a reliable diagnosis and quantify the amount of inflammation in active sacroiliitis. A contrast-enhanced study is dispensable in patients with established disease or in the setting of clinical follow-up studies. However, a contrast

  18. THE EFFECT OF SOCIAL MEDIA MARKETING ACTIVITIES ON BRAND AWARENESS, BRAND IMAGE AND BRAND LOYALTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf BİLGİN

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to examine the effect of social media marketing activities on brand awareness, brand image and brand loyalty. In addition, it has been aimed to analyze the effect of brand awareness and brand image on brand loyalty in this research. The population of the research consists of the consumers who actively follow five brands with the highest social score according to the Marketing Turkey social media brand performance data on social media communication channels such as Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. In this research, quantitative method has been used and research data has been obtained via online questionnaires shared on social media from 547 brand followers with applying convenience sampling method. The obtained data have been analyzed by structural equation modeling (SEM. As a result of the analysis, social media marketing activities have been found as effective factors on brand image and brand loyalty, besides it has been determined that the most obvious effect seen on brand awareness. In addition, it has been found out that brand awareness and brand image have a significant effect on brand loyalty. Furthermore, in the research, it has been achieved that the brand awareness has a limited effect on the brand image.

  19. Body image dissatisfaction and its relationship with physical activity and nutritional status in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Pinheiro Ferrari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of body image dissatisfaction with physical activity level and nutritional status in freshmen from a public Brazilian university. A total of 832 university students (485 men with a mean age of 20.1 years (standard deviation = 4.6 participated in the study. Self-reported body weight and height were used for the calculation of body mass index. The students responded to the Body Shape Questionnaire and International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Fisher’s exact test, considering p < .05. The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction and physical inactivity was 10.1% and 14.5%, respectively. No significant association was observed between body image dissatisfaction and physical activity level. Body image dissatisfaction was associated with nutritional status in both genders (p < .05. University students with excess body weight should be encouraged to pursue a healthier lifestyle in order to promote an adequate nutritional status and also to improve their body image.

  20. Imaging activity in astrocytes and neurons with genetically encoded calcium indicators following in utero electroporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Michael eGee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Complex interactions between networks of astrocytes and neurons are beginning to be appreciated, but remain poorly understood. Transgenic mice expressing fluorescent protein reporters of cellular activity, such as the GCaMP family of genetically encoded calcium indicators, have been used to explore network behavior. However, in some cases, it may be desirable to use long-established rat models that closely mimic particular aspects of human conditions such as Parkinson’s disease and the development of epilepsy following status epilepticus. Methods for expressing reporter proteins in the rat brain are relatively limited. Transgenic rat technologies exist but are fairly immature. Viral-mediated expression is robust but unstable, requires invasive injections, and only works well for fairly small genes (< 5 kb. In utero electroporation offers a valuable alternative. IUE is a proven method for transfecting populations of astrocytes and neurons in the rat brain without the strict limitations on transgene size. We built a toolset of IUE plasmids carrying GCaMP variants 3, 6s or 6f driven by CAG and targeted to the cytosol or the plasma membrane. Because low baseline fluorescence of GCaMP can hinder identification of transfected cells, we included the option of co-expressing a cytosolic tdTomato protein. A binary system consisting of a plasmid carrying a piggyBac inverted terminal repeat-flanked CAG-GCaMP-IRES-tdTomato cassette and a separate plasmid encoding for expression of piggyBac transposase was employed to stably express GCaMP and tdTomato. The plasmids were co-electroporated on embryonic days 13.5-14.5 and astrocytic and neuronal activity was subsequently imaged in acute or cultured brain slices prepared from the cortex or hippocampus. Large spontaneous transients were detected in slices obtained from rats of varying ages up to 127 days. In this report, we demonstrate the utility of this toolset for interrogating astrocytic and neuronal

  1. EVIDENCE FOR WIDESPREAD COOLING IN AN ACTIVE REGION OBSERVED WITH THE SDO ATMOSPHERIC IMAGING ASSEMBLY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viall, Nicholeen M.; Klimchuk, James A.

    2012-01-01

    A well-known behavior of EUV light curves of discrete coronal loops is that the peak intensities of cooler channels or spectral lines are reached at progressively later times than hotter channels. This time lag is understood to be the result of hot coronal loop plasma cooling through these lower respective temperatures. However, loops typically comprise only a minority of the total emission in active regions (ARs). Is this cooling pattern a common property of AR coronal plasma, or does it only occur in unique circumstances, locations, and times? The new Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA) data provide a wonderful opportunity to answer this question systematically for an entire AR. We measure the time lag between pairs of SDO/AIA EUV channels using 24 hr of images of AR 11082 observed on 2010 June 19. We find that there is a time-lag signal consistent with cooling plasma, just as is usually found for loops, throughout the AR including the diffuse emission between loops for the entire 24 hr duration. The pattern persists consistently for all channel pairs and choice of window length within the 24 hr time period, giving us confidence that the plasma is cooling from temperatures of greater than 3 MK, and sometimes exceeding 7 MK, down to temperatures lower than ∼0.8 MK. This suggests that the bulk of the emitting coronal plasma in this AR is not steady; rather, it is dynamic and constantly evolving. These measurements provide crucial constraints on any model which seeks to describe coronal heating.

  2. Cognitive functions, electroencephalographic and diffusion tensor imaging changes in children with active idiopathic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Yassine, Imane; M Eldeeb, Waleed; A Gad, Khaled; A Ashour, Yossri; A Yassine, Inas; O Hosny, Ahmed

    2018-07-01

    Neurocognitive impairment represents one of the most common comorbidities occurring in children with idiopathic epilepsy. Diagnosis of the idiopathic form of epilepsy requires the absence of any macrostructural abnormality in the conventional MRI. Though changes can be seen at the microstructural level imaged using advanced techniques such as the Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). The aim of this work is to study the correlation between the microstructural white matter DTI findings, the electroencephalographic changes and the cognitive dysfunction in children with active idiopathic epilepsy. A comparative cross-sectional study, included 60 children with epilepsy based on the Stanford-Binet 5th Edition Scores was conducted. Patients were equally assigned to normal cognitive function or cognitive dysfunction groups. The history of the epileptic condition was gathered via personal interviews. All patients underwent brain Electroencephalography (EEG) and DTI, which was analyzed using FSL. The Fractional Anisotropy (FA) was significantly higher whereas the Mean Diffusivity (MD) was significantly lower in the normal cognitive function group than in the cognitive dysfunction group. This altered microstructure was related to the degree of the cognitive performance of the studied children with epilepsy. The microstructural alterations of the neural fibers in children with epilepsy and cognitive dysfunction were significantly related to the younger age of onset of epilepsy, the poor control of the clinical seizures, and the use of multiple antiepileptic medications. Children with epilepsy and normal cognitive functions differ in white matter integrity, measured using DTI, compared with children with cognitive dysfunction. These changes have important cognitive consequences. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Body image and self-esteem among adolescents undergoing an intervention targeting dietary and physical activity behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jeannie S; Norman, Gregory J; Zabinski, Marion F; Calfas, Karen; Patrick, Kevin

    2007-03-01

    observed among adolescents undergoing this behavioral intervention. These results suggest that a behavioral intervention directed at improving physical activity and diet habits may be safely undertaken by adolescents, including those who are overweight and at risk for overweight, without adverse psychological consequences. Inclusion of specific elements in the intervention that directly addressed body image and self-esteem issues may have reduced the risk for negative psychological effects.

  4. Comparative study on the performance of textural image features for active contour segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraru, Luminita; Moldovanu, Simona

    2012-07-01

    We present a computerized method for the semi-automatic detection of contours in ultrasound images. The novelty of our study is the introduction of a fast and efficient image function relating to parametric active contour models. This new function is a combination of the gray-level information and first-order statistical features, called standard deviation parameters. In a comprehensive study, the developed algorithm and the efficiency of segmentation were first tested for synthetic images. Tests were also performed on breast and liver ultrasound images. The proposed method was compared with the watershed approach to show its efficiency. The performance of the segmentation was estimated using the area error rate. Using the standard deviation textural feature and a 5×5 kernel, our curve evolution was able to produce results close to the minimal area error rate (namely 8.88% for breast images and 10.82% for liver images). The image resolution was evaluated using the contrast-to-gradient method. The experiments showed promising segmentation results.

  5. Development of a contrast phantom for active millimeter-wave imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Jeffrey; Weatherall, James C.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Smith, Barry T.

    2011-06-01

    As the development of active millimeter wave imaging systems continues, it is necessary to validate materials that simulate the expected response of explosives. While physics-based models have been used to develop simulants, it is desirable to image both the explosive and simulant together in a controlled fashion in order to demonstrate success. To this end, a millimeter wave contrast phantom has been created to calibrate image grayscale while controlling the configuration of the explosive and simulant such that direct comparison of their respective returns can be performed. The physics of the phantom are described, with millimeter wave images presented to show successful development of the phantom and simulant validation at GHz frequencies.

  6. An automated approach for segmentation of intravascular ultrasound images based on parametric active contour models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vard, Alireza; Jamshidi, Kamal; Movahhedinia, Naser

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a fully automated approach to detect the intima and media-adventitia borders in intravascular ultrasound images based on parametric active contour models. To detect the intima border, we compute a new image feature applying a combination of short-term autocorrelations calculated for the contour pixels. These feature values are employed to define an energy function of the active contour called normalized cumulative short-term autocorrelation. Exploiting this energy function, the intima border is separated accurately from the blood region contaminated by high speckle noise. To extract media-adventitia boundary, we define a new form of energy function based on edge, texture and spring forces for the active contour. Utilizing this active contour, the media-adventitia border is identified correctly even in presence of branch openings and calcifications. Experimental results indicate accuracy of the proposed methods. In addition, statistical analysis demonstrates high conformity between manual tracing and the results obtained by the proposed approaches.

  7. Active filtering applied to radiographic images unfolded by the Richardson-Lucy algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Gevaldo L. de; Silvani, Maria Ines; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2011-01-01

    Degradation of images caused by systematic uncertainties can be reduced when one knows the features of the spoiling agent. Typical uncertainties of this kind arise in radiographic images due to the non - zero resolution of the detector used to acquire them, and from the non-punctual character of the source employed in the acquisition, or from the beam divergence when extended sources are used. Both features blur the image, which, instead of a single point exhibits a spot with a vanishing edge, reproducing hence the point spread function - PSF of the system. Once this spoiling function is known, an inverse problem approach, involving inversion of matrices, can then be used to retrieve the original image. As these matrices are generally ill-conditioned, due to statistical fluctuation and truncation errors, iterative procedures should be applied, such as the Richardson-Lucy algorithm. This algorithm has been applied in this work to unfold radiographic images acquired by transmission of thermal neutrons and gamma-rays. After this procedure, the resulting images undergo an active filtering which fairly improves their final quality at a negligible cost in terms of processing time. The filter ruling the process is based on the matrix of the correction factors for the last iteration of the deconvolution procedure. Synthetic images degraded with a known PSF, and undergone to the same treatment, have been used as benchmark to evaluate the soundness of the developed active filtering procedure. The deconvolution and filtering algorithms have been incorporated to a Fortran program, written to deal with real images, generate the synthetic ones and display both. (author)

  8. Noninvasive imaging of three-dimensional cardiac activation sequence during pacing and ventricular tachycardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chengzong; Pogwizd, Steven M; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; He, Bin

    2011-08-01

    Imaging cardiac excitation within ventricular myocardium is important in the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias and might help improve our understanding of arrhythmia mechanisms. This study sought to rigorously assess the imaging performance of a 3-dimensional (3D) cardiac electrical imaging (3DCEI) technique with the aid of 3D intracardiac mapping from up to 216 intramural sites during paced rhythm and norepinephrine (NE)-induced ventricular tachycardia (VT) in the rabbit heart. Body surface potentials and intramural bipolar electrical recordings were simultaneously measured in a closed-chest condition in 13 healthy rabbits. Single-site pacing and dual-site pacing were performed from ventricular walls and septum. VTs and premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) were induced by intravenous NE. Computed tomography images were obtained to construct geometry models. The noninvasively imaged activation sequence correlated well with invasively measured counterpart, with a correlation coefficient of 0.72 ± 0.04, and a relative error of 0.30 ± 0.02 averaged over 520 paced beats as well as 73 NE-induced PVCs and VT beats. All PVCs and VT beats initiated in the subendocardium by a nonreentrant mechanism. The averaged distance from the imaged site of initial activation to the pacing site or site of arrhythmias determined from intracardiac mapping was ∼5 mm. For dual-site pacing, the double origins were identified when they were located at contralateral sides of ventricles or at the lateral wall and the apex. 3DCEI can noninvasively delineate important features of focal or multifocal ventricular excitation. It offers the potential to aid in localizing the origins and imaging activation sequences of ventricular arrhythmias, and to provide noninvasive assessment of the underlying arrhythmia mechanisms. Copyright © 2011 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Factors associated with body image dissatisfaction in Portuguese adolescents: obesity, sports activity and TV watching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduarda Maria Rocha Teles de Castro Coelho

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study intended to determine the prevalence of body image dissatisfaction and associated factors in Portuguese adolescents (N=529, 10-18 years, 53.7% male and 46.3% female. The prevalence of body dissatisfaction (estimated through Collins's silhouettes was 58%. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that the variables associated were: obesity, watch TV over 2 hours/day and practice sport activities 4 or more days/week. In male, obesity and watch TV over 2 hours/day were related to body dissatisfaction and among female only obesity had statistical significance. It is necessary to considered different public health interventions for men and women in order to reduce this high body image dissatisfaction.   Keywords: Body image, adolescence, gender, obesity, sports activity

  10. Transferring biomarker into molecular probe: melanin nanoparticle as a naturally active platform for multimodality imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Quli; Cheng, Kai; Hu, Xiang; Ma, Xiaowei; Zhang, Ruiping; Yang, Min; Lu, Xiaomei; Xing, Lei; Huang, Wei; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Cheng, Zhen

    2014-10-29

    Developing multifunctional and easily prepared nanoplatforms with integrated different modalities is highly challenging for molecular imaging. Here, we report the successful transfer of an important molecular target, melanin, into a novel multimodality imaging nanoplatform. Melanin is abundantly expressed in melanotic melanomas and thus has been actively studied as a target for melanoma imaging. In our work, the multifunctional biopolymer nanoplatform based on ultrasmall (passive nanoplatforms require complicated and time-consuming processes for prebuilding reporting moieties or chemical modifications using active groups to integrate different contrast properties into one entity. In comparison, utilizing functional biomarker melanin can greatly simplify the building process. We further conjugated αvβ3 integrins, cyclic c(RGDfC) peptide, to MNPs to allow for U87MG tumor accumulation due to its targeting property combined with the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. The multimodal properties of MNPs demonstrate the high potential of endogenous materials with multifunctions as nanoplatforms for molecular theranostics and clinical translation.

  11. The Stellar Imager (SI) Project: Resolving Stellar Surfaces, Interiors, and Magnetic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Schrijver, K.; Karovska, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Stellar Imager (SI) is a UV/Optical. Space-Based Interferometer designed to enable 0.1 milli-arcsec (mas) spectral imaging of stellar surfaces and, via asteroseismology, stellar interiors and of the Universe in general. The ultra-sharp images of SI will revolutionize our view of many dynamic astrophysical processes by transforming point sources into extended sources, and snapshots into evolving views. The science of SI focuses on the role of magnetism in the Universe, particularly on magnetic activity on the surfaces of stars like the Sun. Its prime goal is to enable long-term forecasting of solar activity and the space weather that it drives. SI will also revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planetary systems, of the habitability and climatology of distant planets, and of many magneto-hydrodynamically controlled processes in the Universe. In this paper we discuss the science goals, technology needs, and baseline design of the SI mission.

  12. Engaging luxury consumers in social media : Does active consumer engagement influence brand image?

    OpenAIRE

    Åvall, Martina

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of active consumer engagement within social media based brand communities on the brand image and luxury consumers’ desire to pur-chase luxury goods. The purpose of this study was to prove that by actively engaging con-sumers on social media luxury brands can positively influence the way consumers perceive the brand and through it increase consumers’ intention to purchase their products and services. Secondary research was carried out through col...

  13. Assisting in Radiology/Imaging. Instructor's Guide, Student's Manual, and Student Learning Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Helena J.

    The instructor's guide, the first of three documents in this package, is designed for a course to help students who are investigating the activities within a radiology department or considering any of the imaging technologies as a career. The material is designed to relate training experience to information studied in the classroom. This…

  14. Notes on LCW Activation Calculation for Neutron Imaging Operations in the North Cave of Building 194

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-20

    This note estimates the amount of activation that could be produced in the Facilities-provided Low Conductivity Water (LCW) that is proposed to be used for cooling of electromagnets and beam stops in the Neutron Imaging (NI) accelerator project in the North Cave of Building 194.

  15. Structured Activities in Perceptual Training to Aid Retention of Visual and Auditory Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, James W.; And Others

    The experimental program in structured activities in perceptual training was said to have two main objectives: to train children in retention of visual and auditory images and to increase the children's motivation to learn. Eight boys and girls participated in the program for two hours daily for a 10-week period. The age range was 7.0 to 12.10…

  16. The use of neutron activation to detect a photographic image under a painting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, T.; Bird, R.

    1980-01-01

    Neutron activation followed by autoradiography has been used in a number of studies of oil paintings to reveal brush technique, overpainting, pigment types and other information. The facilities of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission Research Establishment have been used to investigate whether there is a photographic image underlying a painting by the Swedish born artist Carl Magnus Oscar Fristrom (1856-1919)

  17. Simulation with Phast of the pore water chemistry experiment results (Mont Terri Url, Switzerland), including transport, thermodynamics, kinetics, and biological activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tournassat, C.; Gaucher, E.; Pearson, F.J.; Mettler, S.; Wersin, P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The Pore water Chemistry (PC-)experiment was initially designed to determine the processes that control the redox properties of pore water in the Opalinus Clay at the Mont Terri URL. However, changes in isotopic data and chemical parameters such as pH, alkalinity, dissolved methane, acetate and sulphate concentrations indicated unexpected microbial activity. The origin of the bacteria is not clear. In the light of published data, an indigenous origin cannot be ruled out. A combined biological and reactive transport model has been developed with the parallel PHAST software to simulate the processes that determine pore water chemistry. The influence of bacterial activity on the system is successfully modelled by considering different reaction pathways scenarios including aceto-genesis, methano-genesis, and methane/acetate oxidation coupled to sulphate reduction. Several conclusions can be clearly stated in the light of the simulation results: - The measured redox potentials (redox electrode) are in line with the S(-II)/S(+VI) redox system. - In the undisturbed pore water, S(-II) and S(+VI) activities are controlled by a mineral assemblage containing pyrite and a Fe carbonate (siderite or ankerite). pH is buffered by mineral phases and SO 4 2- concentration is inherited from the marine sedimentary rock. - Some local redox potentials in the sedimentary rock do not correspond to the measured redox potential; for instance, organic matter/HCO 3 - and CH 4 /HCO 3 - systems are not at equilibrium with the measured redox potential. - Redox disequilibrium can be exploited by micro-organisms as a source of energy for their metabolism. In this experiment CH 4 , acetate and other organic acids were produced and SO 4 2- was reduced to HS - . The redox properties of the system are then governed by kinetics rather than by thermodynamic equilibrium. The unexpected persistence of acetate in the borehole water is one of the consequences of these

  18. Environmental toxin acrolein alters levels of endogenous lipids, including TRP agonists: A potential mechanism for headache driven by TRPA1 activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Leishman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to airborne toxins can trigger headaches, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Some environmental toxins, such as acrolein, activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1, a receptor involved in pain sensation that is highly expressed in the trigeminovascular system. It has been shown in rat models that repeated exposure to acrolein induces trigeminovascular sensitization to both TRPA1 and TRP vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 agonists, a phenomenon linked to headache. In this study, we test the hypothesis that the sensitization of trigeminovascular responses in rats after acrolein exposure via inhalation is associated with changes in levels of endogenous lipids, including TRPV1 agonists, in the trigeminal ganglia, trigeminal nucleus, and cerebellum. Lipidomics analysis of 80 lipids was performed on each tissue after acute acrolein, chronic acrolein, or room air control. Both acute and chronic acrolein exposure drove widespread alterations in lipid levels. After chronic acrolein exposure, levels of all 6 N-acyl ethanolamines in the screening library, including the endogenous cannabinoid and TRPV1 agonist, N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine, were elevated in trigeminal tissue and in the cerebellum. This increase in TRPV1 ligands by acrolein exposure may indicate further downstream signaling, in that we also show here that a combination of these TRPV1 endogenous agonists increases the potency of the individual ligands in TRPV1-HEK cells. In addition to these TRPV1 agonists, 3 TRPV3 antagonists, 4 TRPV4 agonists, and 25 orphan lipids were up and down regulated after acrolein exposure. These data support the hypothesis that lipid signaling may represent a mechanism by which repeated exposure to the TRPA1 agonist and environmental toxin, acrolein, drives trigeminovascular sensitization. Keywords: Lipidomics, Endogenous cannabinoid, TRPA1, TRPV1, Lipoamine, Acrolein, Migraine

  19. Imaging Surrogates of Disease Activity in Neuromyelitis Optica Allow Distinction from Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Lucy; Kolind, Shannon; Brazier, Alix; Leite, Maria Isabel; Brooks, Jonathan; Traboulsee, Anthony; Jenkinson, Mark; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Palace, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory demyelinating lesions of the central nervous system are a common feature of both neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis. Despite this similarity, it is evident clinically that the accumulation of disability in patients with neuromyelitis optica is relapse related and that a progressive phase is very uncommon. This poses the question whether there is any pathological evidence of disease activity or neurodegeneration in neuromyelitis optica between relapses. To investigate this we conducted a longitudinal advanced MRI study of the brain and spinal cord in neuromyelitis optica patients, comparing to patients with multiple sclerosis and controls. We found both cross-sectional and longitudinal evidence of diffusely distributed neurodegenerative surrogates in the multiple sclerosis group (including thalamic atrophy, cervical cord atrophy and progressive widespread diffusion and myelin water imaging abnormalities in the normal appearing white matter) but not in those with neuromyelitis optica, where localised abnormalities in the optic radiations of those with severe visual impairment were noted. In addition, between relapses, there were no new silent brain lesions in the neuromyelitis optica group. These findings indicate that global central nervous system neurodegeneration is not a feature of neuromyelitis optica. The work also questions the theory that neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis is a chronic sequela to prior inflammatory and demyelinating pathology, as this has not been found to be the case in neuromyelitis optica where the lesions are often more destructive.

  20. Imaging Surrogates of Disease Activity in Neuromyelitis Optica Allow Distinction from Multiple Sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Matthews

    Full Text Available Inflammatory demyelinating lesions of the central nervous system are a common feature of both neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis. Despite this similarity, it is evident clinically that the accumulation of disability in patients with neuromyelitis optica is relapse related and that a progressive phase is very uncommon. This poses the question whether there is any pathological evidence of disease activity or neurodegeneration in neuromyelitis optica between relapses. To investigate this we conducted a longitudinal advanced MRI study of the brain and spinal cord in neuromyelitis optica patients, comparing to patients with multiple sclerosis and controls. We found both cross-sectional and longitudinal evidence of diffusely distributed neurodegenerative surrogates in the multiple sclerosis group (including thalamic atrophy, cervical cord atrophy and progressive widespread diffusion and myelin water imaging abnormalities in the normal appearing white matter but not in those with neuromyelitis optica, where localised abnormalities in the optic radiations of those with severe visual impairment were noted. In addition, between relapses, there were no new silent brain lesions in the neuromyelitis optica group. These findings indicate that global central nervous system neurodegeneration is not a feature of neuromyelitis optica. The work also questions the theory that neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis is a chronic sequela to prior inflammatory and demyelinating pathology, as this has not been found to be the case in neuromyelitis optica where the lesions are often more destructive.

  1. INTERACTIVE CHANGE DETECTION USING HIGH RESOLUTION REMOTE SENSING IMAGES BASED ON ACTIVE LEARNING WITH GAUSSIAN PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ru

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although there have been many studies for change detection, the effective and efficient use of high resolution remote sensing images is still a problem. Conventional supervised methods need lots of annotations to classify the land cover categories and detect their changes. Besides, the training set in supervised methods often has lots of redundant samples without any essential information. In this study, we present a method for interactive change detection using high resolution remote sensing images with active learning to overcome the shortages of existing remote sensing image change detection techniques. In our method, there is no annotation of actual land cover category at the beginning. First, we find a certain number of the most representative objects in unsupervised way. Then, we can detect the change areas from multi-temporal high resolution remote sensing images by active learning with Gaussian processes in an interactive way gradually until the detection results do not change notably. The artificial labelling can be reduced substantially, and a desirable detection result can be obtained in a few iterations. The experiments on Geo-Eye1 and WorldView2 remote sensing images demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed method.

  2. The Black Hole Mass-Bulge Luminosity Relationship for Active Galactic Nuclei From Reverberation Mapping and Hubble Space Telescope Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Pogge, Richard W.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between black hole mass and bulge luminosity for active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with reverberation-based black hole mass measurements and bulge luminosities from two-dimensional decompositions of Hubble Space Telescope host galaxy images. We find that the slope...... of the relationship for AGNs is 0.76-0.85 with an uncertainty of ~0.1, somewhat shallower than the M BH vprop L 1.0±0.1 relationship that has been fit to nearby quiescent galaxies with dynamical black hole mass measurements. This difference is somewhat perplexing, as the AGN black hole masses include an overall...

  3. Health perceptions, self and body image, physical activity and nutrition among undergraduate students in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Liat; Gonen, Ester; Shaked, Yael; Golan, Moria

    2013-01-01

    This study examines health perceptions, self and body image, physical exercise and nutrition among undergraduate students. A structured, self-reported questionnaire was administered to more than 1500 students at a large academic institute in Israel. The study population was heterogenic in both gender and fields of academic study. High correlations between health perceptions, appropriate nutrition, and positive self and body image were found. The relationships between these variables differed between the subpopulation in the sample and the different genders. Engagement in physical exercise contributed to positive body image and positive health perceptions more than engagement in healthy nutrition. Nutrition students reported higher frequencies of positive health perceptions, positive self and body image and higher engagement in physical exercise in comparison to all other students in the sample. This study suggests, as have many before, that successful health promotion policy should reflect a collectivist rather than an individualist ethos by providing health prerequisites through a public policy of health-promotion, where the academic settings support a healthy lifestyle policy, by increasing availability of a healthy, nutritious and varied menu in the cafeterias, and offering students various activities that enhance healthy eating and exercise. IMPLICATIONS AND CONTRIBUTION: This study examined health perceptions, self-image, physical exercise and nutrition among undergraduate students and found high correlations between these topics. Nutrition students reported higher frequencies of positive health perceptions, and positive self and body image and engaged more in physical exercise when compared with all other students in the sample.

  4. Composite multi-lobe descriptor for cross spectral face recognition: matching active IR to visible light images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhicheng; Schmid, Natalia A.

    2015-05-01

    Matching facial images across electromagnetic spectrum presents a challenging problem in the field of biometrics and identity management. An example of this problem includes cross spectral matching of active infrared (IR) face images or thermal IR face images against a dataset of visible light images. This paper describes a new operator named Composite Multi-Lobe Descriptor (CMLD) for facial feature extraction in cross spectral matching of near-infrared (NIR) or short-wave infrared (SWIR) against visible light images. The new operator is inspired by the design of ordinal measures. The operator combines Gaussian-based multi-lobe kernel functions, Local Binary Pattern (LBP), generalized LBP (GLBP) and Weber Local Descriptor (WLD) and modifies them into multi-lobe functions with smoothed neighborhoods. The new operator encodes both the magnitude and phase responses of Gabor filters. The combining of LBP and WLD utilizes both the orientation and intensity information of edges. Introduction of multi-lobe functions with smoothed neighborhoods further makes the proposed operator robust against noise and poor image quality. Output templates are transformed into histograms and then compared by means of a symmetric Kullback-Leibler metric resulting in a matching score. The performance of the multi-lobe descriptor is compared with that of other operators such as LBP, Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG), ordinal measures, and their combinations. The experimental results show that in many cases the proposed method, CMLD, outperforms the other operators and their combinations. In addition to different infrared spectra, various standoff distances from close-up (1.5 m) to intermediate (50 m) and long (106 m) are also investigated in this paper. Performance of CMLD is evaluated for of each of the three cases of distances.

  5. The correlation between biological activity and diffusion-weighted MR imaging and ADC value in cases with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokmen, Bedriye Koyuncu; Sokmen, Dogukan; Ucar, Nese; Ozkurt, Huseyin; Simsek, Abdulmuttalip

    2017-12-31

    Firstly, we aimed to investigate the correlation among dynamic contrasted magnetic resonance (MR) images, diffusion-weighted MR images, and apparent diffusion coefficent (ADC) values in patients with prostate cancer. Secondly, we aimed to investigate the roles of these variables on clinical risk classification and the biological behavior of the prostate cancer. A total of sixty with prostatic adenocarcinoma patients diagnosed between January 2011 and May 2013 were retrospectively included in the study. Risk classification of patients were evaluated as low-risk (Group 1) (n = 20) (Stage T1c-T2a, PSA T3a, PSA > 20 ng/ml, Gleason Score > 7). Diffusion-weighted MR images, dynamic contrasted MR images, and ADC values of the prostates were correlated. ADC values of the cases in Group 3 were lower than those of the other groups (p values of the areas without malignancy did not differ significantly between groups (p > 0.05). Biological activity of the tumor tissue was determined by GS, while a negative correlation was observed between GSs and ADC values of the patients, (p values were obtained. These measured values can play a role in the noninvasive determination of the cellularity of the tumoral mass.

  6. Lesions inflammatory activity quantification in multiple sclerosis using ["1"1C]-(R)-PK11195 PET brain images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuck, Phelipi N.; Narciso, Lucas D.L.; Dartora, Caroline M.; Silva, Ana M. Marques da

    2016-01-01

    The criteria for multiple sclerosis (MS) diagnosis include the presence of lesions in brain regions called black holes (BH), characterized by low signal on magnetic resonance imaging T1-weighted. Studies suggest that lesions in MS, if there is an inflammatory process, can be detected in PET imaging with ["1"1C]- (R)-PK11195. The aim of this study is to investigate the uptake of ["1"1C]-(R)-PK11195 in BH in PET images, searching for inflammation activity in lesions and neighborhoods. Semiquantitative methods of SUV and uptake normalization were applied to PET images, in different time intervals, acquired from 8 MS patients and 5 healthy controls. Higher uptake was identified in BH and its edges, when compared with health controls white matter, when the SUV method is applied (p < 0,01, 40 to 60 min). When uptake normalization method is applied, smaller uptake in black holes and its your edges is observed, when compared with white matter apparently healthy (p < 0,01, 0 to 60 min). (author)

  7. The correlation between biological activity and diffusion-weighted MR imaging and ADC value in cases with prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedriye Koyuncu Sokmen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Firstly, we aimed to investigate the correlation among dynamic contrasted magnetic resonance (MR images, diffusion-weighted MR images, and apparent diffusion coefficent (ADC values in patients with prostate cancer. Secondly, we aimed to investigate the roles of these variables on clinical risk classification and the biological behavior of the prostate cancer. Methods: A total of sixty with prostatic adenocarcinoma patients diagnosed between January 2011 and May 2013 were retrospectively included in the study. Risk classification of patients were evaluated as low-risk (Group 1 (n = 20 (Stage T1c-T2a, PSA T3a, PSA > 20 ng/ml, Gleason Score > 7. Diffusion-weighted MR images, dynamic contrasted MR images, and ADC values of the prostates were correlated. Results: ADC values of the cases in Group 3 were lower than those of the other groups (p 0.05. Biological activity of the tumor tissue was determined by GS, while a negative correlation was observed between GSs and ADC values of the patients, (p < 0.001. Conclusion: In tumors with higher Gleason scores, lower ADC values were obtained. These measured values can play a role in the noninvasive determination of the cellularity of the tumoral mass.

  8. Activation in mesolimbic and visuospatial neural circuits elicited by smoking cues: evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due, Deborah L; Huettel, Scott A; Hall, Warren G; Rubin, David C

    2002-06-01

    The authors sought to increase understanding of the brain mechanisms involved in cigarette addiction by identifying neural substrates modulated by visual smoking cues in nicotine-deprived smokers. Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to detect brain activation after exposure to smoking-related images in a group of nicotine-deprived smokers and a nonsmoking comparison group. Subjects viewed a pseudo-random sequence of smoking images, neutral nonsmoking images, and rare targets (photographs of animals). Subjects pressed a button whenever a rare target appeared. In smokers, the fMRI signal was greater after exposure to smoking-related images than after exposure to neutral images in mesolimbic dopamine reward circuits known to be activated by addictive drugs (right posterior amygdala, posterior hippocampus, ventral tegmental area, and medial thalamus) as well as in areas related to visuospatial attention (bilateral prefrontal and parietal cortex and right fusiform gyrus). In nonsmokers, no significant differences in fMRI signal following exposure to smoking-related and neutral images were detected. In most regions studied, both subject groups showed greater activation following presentation of rare target images than after exposure to neutral images. In nicotine-deprived smokers, both reward and attention circuits were activated by exposure to smoking-related images. Smoking cues are processed like rare targets in that they activate attentional regions. These cues are also processed like addictive drugs in that they activate mesolimbic reward regions.

  9. Activated sludge characterization through microscopy: A review on quantitative image analysis and chemometric techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita, Daniela P. [IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Amaral, A. Luís [IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Instituto Politécnico de Coimbra, ISEC, DEQB, Rua Pedro Nunes, Quinta da Nora, 3030-199 Coimbra (Portugal); Ferreira, Eugénio C., E-mail: ecferreira@deb.uminho.pt [IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)

    2013-11-13

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Quantitative image analysis shows potential to monitor activated sludge systems. •Staining techniques increase the potential for detection of operational problems. •Chemometrics combined with quantitative image analysis is valuable for process monitoring. -- Abstract: In wastewater treatment processes, and particularly in activated sludge systems, efficiency is quite dependent on the operating conditions, and a number of problems may arise due to sludge structure and proliferation of specific microorganisms. In fact, bacterial communities and protozoa identification by microscopy inspection is already routinely employed in a considerable number of cases. Furthermore, quantitative image analysis techniques have been increasingly used throughout the years for the assessment of aggregates and filamentous bacteria properties. These procedures are able to provide an ever growing amount of data for wastewater treatment processes in which chemometric techniques can be a valuable tool. However, the determination of microbial communities’ properties remains a current challenge in spite of the great diversity of microscopy techniques applied. In this review, activated sludge characterization is discussed highlighting the aggregates structure and filamentous bacteria determination by image analysis on bright-field, phase-contrast, and fluorescence microscopy. An in-depth analysis is performed to summarize the many new findings that have been obtained, and future developments for these biological processes are further discussed.

  10. Disease activity in longstanding ankylosing spondylitis: a correlation of clinical and magnetic resonance imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, L; Suresh, P; Gafoor, A; Hughes, P; Hickling, P

    2008-04-01

    We evaluated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients with longstanding disease and investigated whether there is any relationship between MRI findings and validated methods of disease assessment. A total of 34 AS patients with disease duration greater than 10 years were included in this observational cross-sectional study (26 men, 8 women). The main outcome measures were Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Global assessment (BASG), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI), MRI of the thoracic and lumbar spine (AS spi MRI A) and measurement of serum erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), plasma viscosity (PV) and immunoglobulin A (Ig A). The median scores for the acute lesions based on AS spi MRI A scoring system was 2.5 (0-4.12). The respective mean ESR and CRP were 36 (SD, 24.00) mm/h and 14.19 (SD, 24.00) mg/l with the median PV of 1.8 (1.75-1.87). The median BASG, BASFI and BASDAI were 4.55 (2.37-5.55), 4.40(2.31-5.47) and 4.32 (3.07-6.48), respectively. No significant correlations were found between the acute MRI scores and each of the clinical instruments and laboratory markers of inflammation. In this study, majority of AS patients with longstanding disease had very low AS spi MRI A scores or no evidence of spinal inflammatory lesions. Our study would suggest that MRI should be used along with other measures of disease activity in the assessment of symptomatic AS patients with longstanding disease.

  11. Measurement of activity distribution using photostimulable phosphor imaging plates in decommissioned 10 MV medical linear accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Yonai, Shunsuke; Yoshida, Masahiro; Sakae, Takeji; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Abe, Yoshihisa; Itami, Jun

    2014-08-01

    Photonuclear reactions generate neutrons in the head of the linear accelerator. Therefore, some parts of the linear accelerator can become activated. Such activated materials must be handled as radioactive waste. The authors attempted to investigate the distribution of induced radioactivity using photostimulable phosphor imaging plates. Autoradiographs were produced from some parts of the linear accelerator (the target, upper jaw, multileaf collimator and shielding). The levels of induced radioactivity were confirmed to be non-uniform within each part from the autoradiographs. The method was a simple and highly sensitive approach to evaluating the relative degree of activation of the linear accelerators, so that appropriate materials management procedures can be carried out.

  12. Dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging in active and inactive immunoinflammatory gonarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Lorenzen, I; Henriksen, O

    1994-01-01

    examined 16 clinically active (CAG), 7 clinically inactive (CIG) and 4 healthy knees. The synovium of a preselected slice was outlined. Its area and relative signal intensity increase after gadopentetate dimeglumine on T1-SE and FLASH (at each time t) were calculated. The CAG knees showed a mean signal...... intensity increase on early dynamic FLASH images higher by far than the CIG knees, while no significant difference was found on spin-echo images obtained 5 to 15 min after contrast injection. The early signal enhancement probably reflects the perfusion and capillary permeability of the synovium. The area...

  13. Hypoperfusion in baseline and cognitively activated brain SPECT imaging of adult and elderly patients with depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jinhua; Lin Xiangtong; Jiang Kaida; Ang Qiuqing; Shi Shenxun; Xue Fangping

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the rCBF abnormalities of the baseline and cognitively activated rCBF imaging in unmedicated adult and elderly patients with depression. Methods: The subjects were divided into four groups: depressed adults, normal adult controls, depressed elders and normal elderly controls. All depressed patients were unmedicated and the diagnoses (depression of moderate degree with accompanying somatization) were confirmed by the ICD-10 criteria. Age range of the 39 depressed adult patients was 17 - 55 years. 17 age-matched normal adult controls (age range 21 - 50 years) were studied under identical conditions. The age range of 18 depressed elderly patients was 62 - 76 years. 21 age-matched normal elderly controls (age range 60 - 72 years) were studied under identical conditions. Baseline and cognitively activated 99 Tc m -ECD SPECT were performed on 25 of the 39 adult patients with depression and 17 normal adult controls. Baseline 99 Tc m -ECD SPECT only was performed on the remaining 14 patients with depression. Baseline and cognitively activated 99 Tc m -ECD SPECT were performed on 12 of the 18 elderly patients with depression and 18 of the 21 normal elderly controls. Baseline 99 Tc m -ECD SPECT only was performed on the remaining elderly patients and 3 normal elderly controls. Results: 1) The characteristic abnormalities of baseline and cognitively activated brain SPECT imaging of depression in adults: the baseline rCBF values of frontal and temporal lobe decreased significantly and the activated rCBF values of frontal, temporal lobe decreased more evidently than that in the baseline imaging and additionally decreased activated rCBF values in parietal lobe were found. 2) The characteristic abnormalities of baseline and cognitively activated brain SPECT imaging of elderly patients with depression: the baseline rCBF values of frontal, temporal lobe and right basal ganglia decreased significantly and the activated rCBF values of frontal, temporal, right

  14. Imaging of Neuronal Activity in Awake Mice by Measurements of Flavoprotein Autofluorescence Corrected for Cerebral Blood Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Manami; Urushihata, Takuya; Takuwa, Hiroyuki; Sakata, Kazumi; Takado, Yuhei; Shimizu, Eiji; Suhara, Tetsuya; Higuchi, Makoto; Ito, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Green fluorescence imaging (e.g., flavoprotein autofluorescence imaging, FAI) can be used to measure neuronal activity and oxygen metabolism in living brains without expressing fluorescence proteins. It is useful for understanding the mechanism of various brain functions and their abnormalities in age-related brain diseases. However, hemoglobin in cerebral blood vessels absorbs green fluorescence, hampering accurate assessments of brain function in animal models with cerebral blood vessel dysfunctions and subsequent cerebral blood flow (CBF) alterations. In the present study, we developed a new method to correct FAI signals for hemoglobin-dependent green fluorescence reductions by simultaneous measurements of green fluorescence and intrinsic optical signals. Intrinsic optical imaging enabled evaluations of light absorption and scatters by hemoglobin, which could then be applied to corrections of green fluorescence intensities. Using this method, enhanced flavoprotein autofluorescence by sensory stimuli was successfully detected in the brains of awake mice, despite increases of CBF, and hemoglobin interference. Moreover, flavoprotein autofluorescence could be properly quantified in a resting state and during sensory stimulation by a CO 2 inhalation challenge, which modified vascular responses without overtly affecting neuronal activities. The flavoprotein autofluorescence signal data obtained here were in good agreement with the previous findings from a condition with drug-induced blockade of cerebral vasodilation, justifying the current assaying methodology. Application of this technology to studies on animal models of brain diseases with possible changes of CBF, including age-related neurological disorders, would provide better understanding of the mechanisms of neurovascular coupling in pathological circumstances.

  15. Imaging of Neuronal Activity in Awake Mice by Measurements of Flavoprotein Autofluorescence Corrected for Cerebral Blood Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manami Takahashi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Green fluorescence imaging (e.g., flavoprotein autofluorescence imaging, FAI can be used to measure neuronal activity and oxygen metabolism in living brains without expressing fluorescence proteins. It is useful for understanding the mechanism of various brain functions and their abnormalities in age-related brain diseases. However, hemoglobin in cerebral blood vessels absorbs green fluorescence, hampering accurate assessments of brain function in animal models with cerebral blood vessel dysfunctions and subsequent cerebral blood flow (CBF alterations. In the present study, we developed a new method to correct FAI signals for hemoglobin-dependent green fluorescence reductions by simultaneous measurements of green fluorescence and intrinsic optical signals. Intrinsic optical imaging enabled evaluations of light absorption and scatters by hemoglobin, which could then be applied to corrections of green fluorescence intensities. Using this method, enhanced flavoprotein autofluorescence by sensory stimuli was successfully detected in the brains of awake mice, despite increases of CBF, and hemoglobin interference. Moreover, flavoprotein autofluorescence could be properly quantified in a resting state and during sensory stimulation by a CO2 inhalation challenge, which modified vascular responses without overtly affecting neuronal activities. The flavoprotein autofluorescence signal data obtained here were in good agreement with the previous findings from a condition with drug-induced blockade of cerebral vasodilation, justifying the current assaying methodology. Application of this technology to studies on animal models of brain diseases with possible changes of CBF, including age-related neurological disorders, would provide better understanding of the mechanisms of neurovascular coupling in pathological circumstances.

  16. Kinetics of Hydrogen Radical Reactions with Toluene Including Chemical Activation Theory Employing System-Specific Quantum RRK Theory Calibrated by Variational Transition State Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Junwei Lucas; Zheng, Jingjing; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-03-02

    Pressure-dependent reactions are ubiquitous in combustion and atmospheric chemistry. We employ a new calibration procedure for quantum Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel (QRRK) unimolecular rate theory within a chemical activation mechanism to calculate the pressure-falloff effect of a radical association with an aromatic ring. The new theoretical framework is applied to the reaction of H with toluene, which is a prototypical reaction in the combustion chemistry of aromatic hydrocarbons present in most fuels. Both the hydrogen abstraction reactions and the hydrogen addition reactions are calculated. Our system-specific (SS) QRRK approach is adjusted with SS parameters to agree with multistructural canonical variational transition state theory with multidimensional tunneling (MS-CVT/SCT) at the high-pressure limit. The new method avoids the need for the usual empirical estimations of the QRRK parameters, and it eliminates the need for variational transition state theory calculations as a function of energy, although in this first application we do validate the falloff curves by comparing SS-QRRK results without tunneling to multistructural microcanonical variational transition state theory (MS-μVT) rate constants without tunneling. At low temperatures, the two approaches agree well with each other, but at high temperatures, SS-QRRK tends to overestimate falloff slightly. We also show that the variational effect is important in computing the energy-resolved rate constants. Multiple-structure anharmonicity, torsional-potential anharmonicity, and high-frequency-mode vibrational anharmonicity are all included in the rate computations, and torsional anharmonicity effects on the density of states are investigated. Branching fractions, which are both temperature- and pressure-dependent (and for which only limited data is available from experiment), are predicted as a function of pressure.

  17. Dynamic contrast-enhanced 3-T magnetic resonance imaging: a method for quantifying disease activity in early polyarthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navalho, Marcio [Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Lisboa, Rheumatology Research Unit, Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Lisbon (Portugal); Hospital da Luz, Radiology Department, Lisbon (Portugal); Hospital da Luz, Centro de Imagiologia, Lisbon (Portugal); Resende, Catarina [Hospital da Luz, Rheumatology Department, Lisbon (Portugal); Hospital de Santa Maria, Rheumatology Department, Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Norte, EPE, Lisbon (Portugal); Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Fonseca, Joao Eurico; Canhao, Helena [Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Lisboa, Rheumatology Research Unit, Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Lisbon (Portugal); Hospital de Santa Maria, Rheumatology Department, Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Norte, EPE, Lisbon (Portugal); Gaspar, Augusto [Hospital da Luz, Radiology Department, Lisbon (Portugal); Campos, Jorge [Hospital de Santa Maria, Radiology Department, Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Norte, EPE, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2012-01-15

    To determine whether measurement of synovial enhancement and thickness quantification parameters with 3.0-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (3-T MRI) can reliably quantify disease activity in patients with early polyarthritis. Eighteen patients (16 women, 2 men; mean age 46 years) with early polyarthritis with less than 12 months of symptoms were included. MRI examination using 3-T device was performed by a new approach including both wrists and hands simultaneously in the examination field-of-view. MRI scoring of disease activity included quantification of synovial enhancement with simple measurements such as rate of early enhancement (REE; REE{sub 57} = S{sub 57}/S{sub 200}, where S{sub 57} and S{sub 200} are the signal intensities 57 s and 200 s after gadolinium injection) and rate of relative enhancement (RE; RE = S{sub 200} - S{sub 0}). Both wrists and hands were scored according to the Rheumatoid Arthritis MRI Scoring System (RAMRIS) for synovitis. Disease activity was clinically assessed by the 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28). DAS28 score was strongly correlated with RE (r = 0.8331, p < 0.0001), REE (r = 0.8112, p < 0.0001), and RAMRIS score for synovitis (r = 0.7659, p < 0.0002). An REE score above 0.778 accurately identified patients with clinically active disease (sensitivity 92%; specificity 67%; p < 0.05). A statistically significant difference was observed in the RE, REE, and RAMRIS scores for synovitis between patients with active and inactive disease (p < 0.05). Our findings support the use of 3-T dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for precise quantification of disease activity and for discriminating active disease from inactive disease in early polyarthritis. (orig.)

  18. Body image satisfaction and the view of active old women about the influence of physical exercise in their self-image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josinéia Gresele Coradini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze the body image satisfaction with 24 active elderly women, and to understand the view of these people about the connection between physical exercise and their body image. All of them answered to the scale proposed by Stunkard, Sorenson and Schlusinger, 1983 and to a semi-structured interview. 87.50% of the women were unsatisfied about the body image. From the reading and analysis of the speeches, it was formed two major categories and four subcategories. Thus, most of the elderly women are unsatisfied about their body image, but the proportionate benefits by the exercises are recognized.

  19. Histogram analysis parameters of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging can predict histopathological findings including proliferation potential, cellularity, and nucleic areas in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surov, Alexey; Meyer, Hans Jonas; Leifels, Leonard; Höhn, Anne-Kathrin; Richter, Cindy; Winter, Karsten

    2018-04-20

    Our purpose was to analyze possible associations between histogram analysis parameters of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging DCE MRI and histopathological findings like proliferation index, cell count and nucleic areas in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). 30 patients (mean age 57.0 years) with primary HNSCC were included in the study. In every case, histogram analysis parameters of K trans , V e , and K ep were estimated using a mathlab based software. Tumor proliferation index, cell count, and nucleic areas were estimated on Ki 67 antigen stained specimens. Spearman's non-parametric rank sum correlation coefficients were calculated between DCE and different histopathological parameters. KI 67 correlated with K trans min ( p = -0.386, P = 0.043) and s K trans skewness ( p = 0.382, P = 0.045), V e min ( p = -0.473, P = 0.011), Ve entropy ( p = 0.424, P = 0.025), and K ep entropy ( p = 0.464, P = 0.013). Cell count correlated with K trans kurtosis ( p = 0.40, P = 0.034), V e entropy ( p = 0.475, P = 0.011). Total nucleic area correlated with V e max ( p = 0.386, P = 0.042) and V e entropy ( p = 0.411, P = 0.030). In G1/2 tumors, only K trans entropy correlated well with total ( P =0.78, P =0.013) and average nucleic areas ( p = 0.655, P = 0.006). In G3 tumors, KI 67 correlated with Ve min ( p = -0.552, P = 0.022) and V e entropy ( p = 0.524, P = 0.031). Ve max correlated with total nucleic area ( p = 0.483, P = 0.049). Kep max correlated with total area ( p = -0.51, P = 0.037), and K ep entropy with KI 67 ( p = 0.567, P = 0.018). We concluded that histogram-based parameters skewness, kurtosis and entropy of K trans , V e , and K ep can be used as markers for proliferation activity, cellularity and nucleic content in HNSCC. Tumor grading influences significantly associations between perfusion and histopathological parameters.

  20. Segmentation of solid subregion of high grade gliomas in MRI images based on active contour model (ACM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seow, P.; Win, M. T.; Wong, J. H. D.; Abdullah, N. A.; Ramli, N.

    2016-03-01

    Gliomas are tumours arising from the interstitial tissue of the brain which are heterogeneous, infiltrative and possess ill-defined borders. Tumour subregions (e.g. solid enhancing part, edema and necrosis) are often used for tumour characterisation. Tumour demarcation into substructures facilitates glioma staging and provides essential information. Manual segmentation had several drawbacks that include laborious, time consuming, subjected to intra and inter-rater variability and hindered by diversity in the appearance of tumour tissues. In this work, active contour model (ACM) was used to segment the solid enhancing subregion of the tumour. 2D brain image acquisition data using 3T MRI fast spoiled gradient echo sequence in post gadolinium of four histologically proven high-grade glioma patients were obtained. Preprocessing of the images which includes subtraction and skull stripping were performed and then followed by ACM segmentation. The results of the automatic segmentation method were compared against the manual delineation of the tumour by a trainee radiologist. Both results were further validated by an experienced neuroradiologist and a brief quantitative evaluations (pixel area and difference ratio) were performed. Preliminary results of the clinical data showed the potential of ACM model in the application of fast and large scale tumour segmentation in medical imaging.

  1. Segmentation of solid subregion of high grade gliomas in MRI images based on active contour model (ACM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seow, P; Win, M T; Wong, J H D; Ramli, N; Abdullah, N A

    2016-01-01

    Gliomas are tumours arising from the interstitial tissue of the brain which are heterogeneous, infiltrative and possess ill-defined borders. Tumour subregions (e.g. solid enhancing part, edema and necrosis) are often used for tumour characterisation. Tumour demarcation into substructures facilitates glioma staging and provides essential information. Manual segmentation had several drawbacks that include laborious, time consuming, subjected to intra and inter-rater variability and hindered by diversity in the appearance of tumour tissues. In this work, active contour model (ACM) was used to segment the solid enhancing subregion of the tumour. 2D brain image acquisition data using 3T MRI fast spoiled gradient echo sequence in post gadolinium of four histologically proven high-grade glioma patients were obtained. Preprocessing of the images which includes subtraction and skull stripping were performed and then followed by ACM segmentation. The results of the automatic segmentation method were compared against the manual delineation of the tumour by a trainee radiologist. Both results were further validated by an experienced neuroradiologist and a brief quantitative evaluations (pixel area and difference ratio) were performed. Preliminary results of the clinical data showed the potential of ACM model in the application of fast and large scale tumour segmentation in medical imaging. (paper)

  2. Functional photoacoustic imaging to observe regional brain activation induced by cocaine hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Janggun; Yang, Xinmai

    2011-09-01

    Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) was used to detect small animal brain activation in response to drug abuse. Cocaine hydrochloride in saline solution was injected into the blood stream of Sprague Dawley rats through tail veins. The rat brain functional change in response to the injection of drug was then monitored by the PAM technique. Images in the coronal view of the rat brain at the locations of 1.2 and 3.4 mm posterior to bregma were obtained. The resulted photoacoustic (PA) images showed the regional changes in the blood volume. Additionally, the regional changes in blood oxygenation were also presented. The results demonstrated that PA imaging is capable of monitoring regional hemodynamic changes induced by drug abuse.

  3. Use of blood-pool imaging in evaluation of diffuse activity patterns in technetium-99m pyrophosphate myocardial scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, M J; Mantle, J A; Rogers, W J; Russell, R O; Rackley, C E; Logic, J R

    1979-06-01

    It has been suggested that diffuse Tc-99m pyrophosphate precordial activity may be due to persistent blood-pool activity in routine delayed views during myocardial imaging. To answer this question, we reviewed myocardial scintigrams recorded 60--90 min following the injection of 12--15 mCi of Tc-99m pyrophosphate for the presence of diffuse precordial activity, and compared these with early images of the blood pool in 265 patients. Diffuse activity in the delayed images was identified in 48 patients: in 20 with acute myocardial infarction and in 28 with no evidence of it. Comparison of these routine delayed images with early views of the blood pool revealed two types of patterns. In patients with acute infarction, 95% had delayed images that were distinguishable from blood pool either because the activity was smaller than the early blood pool, or by the presence of localized activity superimposed on diffuse activity identical to blood pool. In those without infarction, 93% had activity distribution in routine delayed views matching that in the early blood-pool images. The usefulness of the diffuse TcPPi precordial activity in myocardial infarction is improved when early blood-pool imaging is used to exclude persistence of blood-pool activity as its cause. Moreover, it does not require additional amounts of radioactivity nor complex computer processing, a feature that may be of value in the community hospital using the technique to "rule out" infarction 24--72 hr after onset of suggestive symptoms.

  4. Use of blood-pool imaging in evaluation of diffuse activity patterns in technetium-99m pyrophosphate myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, M.J.; Mantle, J.A.; Rogers, W.J.; Russell, R.O. Jr.; Rackley, C.E.; Logic, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    It has been suggested that diffuse 99m Tc pyrophosphate precordial activity may be due to persistent blood-pool activity in routine delayed views during myocardial imaging. To answer this question, we reviewed myocardial scintigrams recorded 60 to 90 min following the injection of 12 to 15 mCi of 99m Tc pyrophosphate for the presence of diffuse precordial activity, and compared these with early images of the blood pool in 265 patients. Diffuse activity in the delayed images was identified in 48 patients: in 20 with acute myocardial infarction and in 28 with no evidence of it. Comparison of these routine delayed images with early views of the blood pool revealed two types of patterns. In patients with acute infarction, 95% had delayed images that were distinguishable from blood pool either because the activity was smaller than the early blood pool, or by the presence of localized activity superimposed on diffuse activity identical to blood pool. In those without infarction, 93% had activity distribution in routine delayed views matching that in the early blood-pool images. The usefulness of the diffuse TcPPi precordial activity in myocardial infarction is improved when early blood-pool imaging is used to exclude persistence of blood-pool activity as its cause. Moreover, it does not require additional amounts of radioactivity nor complex computer processing, a feature that may be of value in the community hospital using the technique to rule out infarction 24 to 72 hr after onset of suggestive symptoms

  5. Statistical region based active contour using a fractional entropy descriptor: Application to nuclei cell segmentation in confocal \\ud microscopy images

    OpenAIRE

    Histace, A; Meziou, B J; Matuszewski, Bogdan; Precioso, F; Murphy, M F; Carreiras, F

    2013-01-01

    We propose an unsupervised statistical region based active contour approach integrating an original fractional entropy measure for image segmentation with a particular application to single channel actin tagged fluorescence confocal microscopy image segmentation. Following description of statistical based active contour segmentation and the mathematical definition of the proposed fractional entropy descriptor, we demonstrate comparative segmentation results between the proposed approach and s...

  6. Macro optical projection tomography for large scale 3D imaging of plant structures and gene activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Karen J I; Calder, Grant M; Hindle, Christopher R; Newman, Jacob L; Robinson, Simon N; Avondo, Jerome J H Y; Coen, Enrico S

    2017-01-01

    Optical projection tomography (OPT) is a well-established method for visualising gene activity in plants and animals. However, a limitation of conventional OPT is that the specimen upper size limit precludes its application to larger structures. To address this problem we constructed a macro version called Macro OPT (M-OPT). We apply M-OPT to 3D live imaging of gene activity in growing whole plants and to visualise structural morphology in large optically cleared plant and insect specimens up to 60 mm tall and 45 mm deep. We also show how M-OPT can be used to image gene expression domains in 3D within fixed tissue and to visualise gene activity in 3D in clones of growing young whole Arabidopsis plants. A further application of M-OPT is to visualise plant-insect interactions. Thus M-OPT provides an effective 3D imaging platform that allows the study of gene activity, internal plant structures and plant-insect interactions at a macroscopic scale. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  7. Statistical Correlation of Low-Altitude ENA Emissions with Geomagnetic Activity from IMAGE MENA Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackler, D. A.; Jahn, J.- M.; Perez, J. D.; Pollock, C. J.; Valek, P. W.

    2016-01-01

    Plasma sheet particles transported Earthward during times of active magnetospheric convection can interact with exospheric/thermospheric neutrals through charge exchange. The resulting Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENAs) are free to leave the influence of the magnetosphere and can be remotely detected. ENAs associated with low-altitude (300-800 km) ion precipitation in the high-latitude atmosphere/ionosphere are termed low-altitude emissions (LAEs). Remotely observed LAEs are highly nonisotropic in velocity space such that the pitch angle distribution at the time of charge exchange is near 90deg. The Geomagnetic Emission Cone of LAEs can be mapped spatially, showing where proton energy is deposited during times of varying geomagnetic activity. In this study we present a statistical look at the correlation between LAE flux (intensity and location) and geomagnetic activity. The LAE data are from the MENA imager on the IMAGE satellite over the declining phase of solar cycle 23 (2000-2005). The SYM-H, AE, and Kp indices are used to describe geomagnetic activity. The goal of the study is to evaluate properties of LAEs in ENA images and determine if those images can be used to infer properties of ion precipitation. Results indicate a general positive correlation to LAE flux for all three indices, with the SYM-H showing the greatest sensitivity. The magnetic local time distribution of LAEs is centered about midnight and spreads with increasing activity. The invariant latitude for all indices has a slightly negative correlation. The combined results indicate LAE behavior similar to that of ion precipitation.

  8. Statistical correlation of low-altitude ENA emissions with geomagnetic activity from IMAGE/MENA observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackler, D. A.; Jahn, J.-M.; Perez, J. D.; Pollock, C. J.; Valek, P. W.

    2016-03-01

    Plasma sheet particles transported Earthward during times of active magnetospheric convection can interact with exospheric/thermospheric neutrals through charge exchange. The resulting Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENAs) are free to leave the influence of the magnetosphere and can be remotely detected. ENAs associated with low-altitude (300-800 km) ion precipitation in the high-latitude atmosphere/ionosphere are termed low-altitude emissions (LAEs). Remotely observed LAEs are highly nonisotropic in velocity space such that the pitch angle distribution at the time of charge exchange is near 90°. The Geomagnetic Emission Cone of LAEs can be mapped spatially, showing where proton energy is deposited during times of varying geomagnetic activity. In this study we present a statistical look at the correlation between LAE flux (intensity and location) and geomagnetic activity. The LAE data are from the MENA imager on the IMAGE satellite over the declining phase of solar cycle 23 (2000-2005). The SYM-H, AE, and Kp indices are used to describe geomagnetic activity. The goal of the study is to evaluate properties of LAEs in ENA images and determine if those images can be used to infer properties of ion precipitation. Results indicate a general positive correlation to LAE flux for all three indices, with the SYM-H showing the greatest sensitivity. The magnetic local time distribution of LAEs is centered about midnight and spreads with increasing activity. The invariant latitude for all indices has a slightly negative correlation. The combined results indicate LAE behavior similar to that of ion precipitation.

  9. Germany: Overview of activities on Neutron Imaging (NI) and Cultural Heritage (CH) studies - Technische Universitaet Muenchen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schillinger, Burkhard

    2012-01-01

    The ANTARES facility for neutron imaging is currently completely refurbished and will restart operation in summer 2012. ANTARES will again provide the combination of highest flux and highest resolution worldwide in neutron imaging. Additional methods include energy-dependent measurements (Bragg edges) for the identification of different elements and phases as well as (soon) phase gratings for linear phase contrast. With the collaboration partners The University of Queens (Canada), The Archäologisches Landesamt für Denkmalpflege in Esslingen, Germany, and Archäologische Staatssammlung of Bavaria, Germany, research at ANTARES will focus on the examination of organic materials in combination with metal artefacts

  10. The relationship between physical activity and self-image and problem behaviour among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkcaldy, B D; Shephard, R J; Siefen, R G

    2002-11-01

    Although there are a vast array of studies which have demonstrated the psychological and physical health benefits of regular aerobic exercise for adults, few studies have focussed on children and adolescents. The current study examined associations between the extent of participation in endurance sport, and self-report data on self-image, physical and psychological health and overall lifestyle in a large representative sample of German high-school students. Almost 1000 German adolescents (aged 14-18 years) were administered a comprehensive series of questionnaires aimed at assessing anxiety-depression, trait addiction, smoking and drinking behaviour, physical ill-health reports, and self-perception of self-image, parental acceptance and educational attainment. Regular practice of endurance exercise was related to a more favourable self-image. There was a strong association between participation in sports and the type of personality that tends to be resistant to drug and alcohol addiction. Physical exercise was further significantly related to scores for physical and psychological well-being. Adolescents who engaged regularly in physical activity were characterised by lower anxiety-depression scores, and displayed much less social behavioural inhibition than their less active counterparts. It is likely that discussion of recreational or exercise involvement may provide a useful point of entry for facilitating dialogue among adolescents about concerns relating to body image and self-esteem. In terms of psychotherapeutic applications, physical activity has many additional rewards for adolescents. It is probable that by promoting physical fitness, increased physical performance, lessening body mass and promoting a more favourable body shape and structure, exercise will provide more positive social feedback and recognition from peer groups, and this will subsequently lead to improvement in an individual's self-image.

  11. Brazil: Overview of activities on Neutron Imaging (NI) and Cultural Heritage (CH) studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugliesi, Reynaldo

    2012-01-01

    The neutron imaging is a set of non - destructive testing techniques commonly employed to inspect the internal structure of objects. Because of the neutron - matter interaction characteristics, these techniques are largely employed to inspect hydrogenous substances (water, organic fibers, adhesives, etc) even wrapped by thick metal layers. The Brazilian culture is surrounded by a rich cultural heritage, mainly left by Indians and slaves. Many of the old objects and tools they have used, were manufactured by using clay, wood, organic fibers as well as bones. These materials and the ones used for their restoration are manufactured of several types of hydrogenous substances and hence the use of neutron imaging techniques are very adequate to study such objects. The neutron imaging activities at IPEN - CNEN/SP began in 1988 and the primary objective of the working group was to design and to construct an operational facility for neutron imaging, to be installed in the beam-hole - 08 of the 5MW IEA-R1 Nuclear Research Reactor. From 1992 to 1997, the group has developed several 2D imaging techniques

  12. Active learning approach for detection of hard exudates, cotton wool spots, and drusen in retinal images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Clara I.; Niemeijer, Meindert; Kockelkorn, Thessa; Abràmoff, Michael D.; van Ginneken, Bram

    2009-02-01

    Computer-aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems for the automatic identification of abnormalities in retinal images are gaining importance in diabetic retinopathy screening programs. A huge amount of retinal images are collected during these programs and they provide a starting point for the design of machine learning algorithms. However, manual annotations of retinal images are scarce and expensive to obtain. This paper proposes a dynamic CAD system based on active learning for the automatic identification of hard exudates, cotton wool spots and drusen in retinal images. An uncertainty sampling method is applied to select samples that need to be labeled by an expert from an unlabeled set of 4000 retinal images. It reduces the number of training samples needed to obtain an optimum accuracy by dynamically selecting the most informative samples. Results show that the proposed method increases the classification accuracy compared to alternative techniques, achieving an area under the ROC curve of 0.87, 0.82 and 0.78 for the detection of hard exudates, cotton wool spots and drusen, respectively.

  13. Image-guided recording system for spatial and temporal mapping of neuronal activities in brain slice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Geonho; Lee, Jeonghyeon; Kim, Hyeongeun; Jang, Jaemyung; Im, Changkyun; Jeon, Nooli; Jung, Woonggyu

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we introduce the novel image-guided recording system (IGRS) for efficient interpretation of neuronal activities in the brain slice. IGRS is designed to combine microelectrode array (MEA) and optical coherence tomography at the customized upright microscope. It allows to record multi-site neuronal signals and image of the volumetric brain anatomy in a single body configuration. For convenient interconnection between a brain image and neuronal signals, we developed the automatic mapping protocol that enables us to project acquired neuronal signals on a brain image. To evaluate the performance of IGRS, hippocampal signals of the brain slice were monitored, and corresponding with two-dimensional neuronal maps were successfully reconstructed. Our results indicated that IGRS and mapping protocol can provide the intuitive information regarding long-term and multi-sites neuronal signals. In particular, the temporal and spatial mapping capability of neuronal signals would be a very promising tool to observe and analyze the massive neuronal activity and connectivity in MEA-based electrophysiological studies. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Preliminary results of MR imaging of lymphoma: Distinguishing active tumor from benign residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drace, J.; Baker, L.L.; Chang, P.; Castellino, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Distinguishing tumor from benign posttreatment tissue based on both morphologic and tissue characteristics is critically important. Patients are studied before, during, and after treatment; at the time of recurrence; and on long-term follow-up. Multisection spin-echo sequences in orthogonal planes and a special single-section tissue characterization matrix of 16 different repetition time/echo time combinations are used. These basic images are used for cluster analysis (approximate fuzzy C means), T1-T2 synthetic images, linear combinations, and comparison with internal standards. Preliminary results in 35 patients imaged before treatment and 12 patients with follow-up examinations consistently show lymphoma masses to have complex architecture with high T2-weighted signal and moderate T1-weighted signal, distinct from posttreatment fibrosis. Uncommon components of active tumor with low T2-weighted signal appear distinct from fibrosis on T1-weighted images. Preliminary cluster analysis results show distinct clustering of active lymphoma versus fibrosis and biopsy-proved cystic degeneration

  15. Effects of lifestyle interventions that include a physical activity component in class II and III obese individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Baillot

    Full Text Available In class II and III obese individuals, lifestyle intervention is the first step to achieve weight loss and treat obesity-related comorbidities before considering bariatric surgery. A systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression were performed to assess the impact of lifestyle interventions incorporating a physical activity (PA component on health outcomes of class II and III obese individuals.An electronic search was conducted in 4 databases (Medline, Scopus, CINAHL and Sportdiscus. Two independent investigators selected original studies assessing the impact of lifestyle interventions with PA components on anthropometric parameters, cardiometabolic risk factors (fat mass, blood pressure, lipid and glucose metabolism, behaviour modification (PA and nutritional changes, and quality of life in adults with body mass index (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2. Estimates were pooled using a random-effect model (DerSimonian and Laird method. Heterogeneity between studies was assessed by the Cochran's chi-square test and quantified through an estimation of the I².Of the 3,170 identified articles, 56 met our eligibility criteria, with a large majority of uncontrolled studies (80%. The meta-analysis based on uncontrolled studies showed significant heterogeneity among all included studies. The pooled mean difference in weight loss was 8.9 kg (95% CI, 10.2-7.7; p < 0.01 and 2.8 kg/m² in BMI loss (95% CI, 3.4-2.2; p < 0.01. Long-term interventions produced superior weight loss (11.3 kg compared to short-term (7.2 kg and intermediate-term (8.0 kg interventions. A significant global effect of lifestyle intervention on fat mass, waist circumference, blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides and fasting insulin was found (p<0.01, without significant effect on HDL-C and fasting blood glucose.Lifestyle interventions incorporating a PA component can improve weight and various cardiometabolic risk factors in class II and III obese individuals. However, further

  16. Long-term post-stroke changes include myelin loss, specific deficits in sensory and motor behaviors and complex cognitive impairment detected using active place avoidance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhou

    Full Text Available Persistent neurobehavioral deficits and brain changes need validation for brain restoration. Two hours middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO or sham surgery was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits were measured over 10 weeks included: (1 sensory, motor, beam balance, reflex/abnormal responses, hindlimb placement, forepaw foot fault and cylinder placement tests, and (2 complex active place avoidance learning (APA and simple passive avoidance retention (PA. Electroretinogram (ERG, hemispheric loss (infarction, hippocampus CA1 neuronal loss and myelin (Luxol Fast Blue staining in several fiber tracts were also measured. In comparison to Sham surgery, tMCAO surgery produced significant deficits in all behavioral tests except reflex/abnormal responses. Acute, short lived deficits following tMCAO were observed for forelimb foot fault and forelimb cylinder placement. Persistent, sustained deficits for the whole 10 weeks were exhibited for motor (p<0.001, sensory (p<0.001, beam balance performance (p<0.01 and hindlimb placement behavior (p<0.01. tMCAO produced much greater and prolonged cognitive deficits in APA learning (maximum on last trial of 604±83% change, p<0.05 but only a small, comparative effect on PA retention. Hemispheric loss/atrophy was measured 10 weeks after tMCAO and cross-validated by two methods (e.g., almost identical % ischemic hemispheric loss of 33.4±3.5% for H&E and of 34.2±3.5% for TTC staining. No visual dysfunction by ERG and no hippocampus neuronal loss were detected after tMCAO. Fiber tract damage measured by Luxol Fast Blue myelin staining intensity was significant (p<0.01 in the external capsule and striatum but not in corpus callosum and anterior commissure. In summary, persistent neurobehavioral deficits were validated as important endpoints for stroke restorative research in the future. Fiber myelin loss appears to contribute to these long term behavioral dysfunctions and

  17. Use of the one‐legged hyperextension test and magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of active spondylolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masci, L; Pike, J; Malara, F; Phillips, B; Bennell, K; Brukner, P

    2006-01-01

    Background Active spondylolysis is an acquired lesion in the pars interarticularis and is a common cause of low back pain in the young athlete. Objectives To evaluate whether the one‐legged hyperextension test can assist in the clinical detection of active spondylolysis and to determine whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is equivalent to the clinical gold standard of bone scintigraphy and computed tomography in the radiological diagnosis of this condition. Methods A prospective cohort design was used. Young active subjects with low back pain were recruited. Outcome measures included clinical assessment (one‐legged hyperextension test) and radiological investigations including bone scintigraphy (with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)) and MRI. Computed tomography was performed if bone scintigraphy was positive. Results Seventy one subjects were recruited. Fifty pars interarticulares in 39 subjects (55%) had evidence of active spondylolysis as defined by bone scintigraphy (with SPECT). Of these, 19 pars interarticulares in 14 subjects showed a fracture on computed tomography. The one‐legged hyperextension test was neither sensitive nor specific for the detection of active spondylolysis. MRI revealed bone stress in 40 of the 50 pars interarticulares in which it was detected by bone scintigraphy (with SPECT), indicating reduced sensitivity in detecting bone stress compared with bone scintigraphy (p  =  0.001). Conversely, MRI revealed 18 of the 19 pars interarticularis fractures detected by computed tomography, indicating concordance between imaging modalities (p  =  0.345). There was a significant difference between MRI and the combination of bone scintigraphy (with SPECT)/computed tomography in the radiological visualisation of active spondylolysis (p  =  0.002). Conclusions These results suggest that there is a high rate of active spondylolysis in active athletes with low back pain. The one‐legged hyperextension test is not

  18. The in vivo activation of persistent nanophosphors for optical imaging of vascularization, tumours and grafted cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldiney, Thomas; Bessière, Aurélie; Seguin, Johanne; Teston, Eliott; Sharma, Suchinder K.; Viana, Bruno; Bos, Adrie J. J.; Dorenbos, Pieter; Bessodes, Michel; Gourier, Didier; Scherman, Daniel; Richard, Cyrille

    2014-04-01

    Optical imaging for biological applications requires more sensitive tools. Near-infrared persistent luminescence nanoparticles enable highly sensitive in vivo optical detection and complete avoidance of tissue autofluorescence. However, the actual generation of persistent luminescence nanoparticles necessitates ex vivo activation before systemic administration, which prevents long-term imaging in living animals. Here, we introduce a new generation of optical nanoprobes, based on chromium-doped zinc gallate, whose persistent luminescence can be activated in vivo through living tissues using highly penetrating low-energy red photons. Surface functionalization of this photonic probe can be adjusted to favour multiple biomedical applications such as tumour targeting. Notably, we show that cells can endocytose these nanoparticles in vitro and that, after intravenous injection, we can track labelled cells in vivo and follow their biodistribution by a simple whole animal optical detection, opening new perspectives for cell therapy research and for a variety of diagnosis applications.

  19. Photoacoustic imaging to detect rat brain activation after cocaine hydrochloride injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Janggun; Yang, Xinmai

    2011-03-01

    Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) was employed to detect small animal brain activation after the administration of cocaine hydrochloride. Sprague Dawley rats were injected with different concentrations (2.5, 3.0, and 5.0 mg per kg body) of cocaine hydrochloride in saline solution through tail veins. The brain functional response to the injection was monitored by photoacoustic tomography (PAT) system with horizontal scanning of cerebral cortex of rat brain. Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) was also used for coronal view images. The modified PAT system used multiple ultrasonic detectors to reduce the scanning time and maintain a good signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The measured photoacoustic signal changes confirmed that cocaine hydrochloride injection excited high blood volume in brain. This result shows PAI can be used to monitor drug abuse-induced brain activation.

  20. Visual activation in infants and young children studied by functional magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Born, Alfred Peter; Leth, H; Miranda Gimenez-Ricco, Maria Jo

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether visual stimulation in sleeping infants and young children can be examined by functional magnetic resonance imaging. We studied 17 children, aged 3 d to 48 mo, and three healthy adults. Visual stimulation was performed with 8-Hz flickering light...... through the sleeping childs' closed eyelids. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed with a gradient echoplanar sequence in a l.5-T magnetic resonance scanner. Six subjects were excluded because of movement artifacts; the youngest infant showed no response. In 10 children, we could demonstrate...... flow during activation. The different response patterns in young children and adults can reflect developmental or behavioral differences. Localization of the activation seemed to be age-dependent. In the older children and the adults, it encompassed the whole length of the calcarine sulcus, whereas...

  1. Wide dynamic logarithmic InGaAs sensor suitable for eye-safe active imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yang; Bouvier, Christian; Arion, Bogdan; Noguier, Vincent

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present a simple method to analyze the injection efficiency of the photodiode interface circuit under fast shuttering conditions for active Imaging applications. This simple model has been inspired from the companion model for reactive elements largely used in CAD. In this paper, we demonstrate that traditional CTIA photodiode interface is not adequate for active imaging where fast and precise shuttering operation is necessary. Afterwards we present a direct amplification based photodiode interface which can provide an accurate and fast shuttering operation on photodiode. These considerations have been used in NIT's newly developed ROIC and corresponding SWIR sensors both in VGA 15um pitch (NSC1201) and also in QVGA 25um pitch (NSC1401).

  2. Effectiveness of interventions on physical activity in overweight or obese children: a systematic review and meta-analysis including studies with objectively measured outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooijen, C F J; Galanti, M R; Engström, K; Möller, J; Forsell, Y

    2017-02-01

    There is no consensus on interventions to be recommended in order to promote physical activity among overweight or obese children. The objective of this review was to assess the effects on objectively measured physical activity, of interventions promoting physical activity among overweight or obese children or adolescents, compared to no intervention or to interventions without a physical activity component. Publications up to December 2015 were located through electronic searches for randomized controlled trials resulting in inclusion of 33 studies. Standardized mean differences from baseline to post-intervention and to long-term follow-up were determined for intervention and control groups and meta-analysed using random effects models. The meta-analysis showed that interventions had no effect on total physical activity of overweight and obese children, neither directly post-intervention (-0.02 [-0.15, 0.11]) nor at long-term follow-up (0.07 [-0.27, 0.40]). Separate analyses by typology of intervention (with or without physical fitness, behavioural or environmental components) showed similar results (no effect). In conclusion, there is no evidence that currently available interventions are able to increase physical activity among overweight or obese children. This questions the contribution of physical activity to the treatment of overweight and obesity in children in the studied interventions and calls for other treatment strategies. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of digoxin cross-reacting substances in patients with acute yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana) poisoning, including the effect of activated charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Darren M; Southcott, Emma; Potter, Julia M; Roberts, Michael S; Eddleston, Michael; Buckley, Nick A

    2008-01-01

    Intentional self-poisonings with seeds from the yellow oleander tree (Thevetia peruviana) are widely reported. Activated charcoal has been suggested to benefit patients with yellow oleander poisoning by reducing absorption and/or facilitating elimination. Two recent randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of activated charcoal reported conflicting outcomes in terms of mortality. The effect of activated charcoal on the pharmacokinetics of Thevetia cardenolides has not been assessed. This information may be useful for determining whether further studies are necessary. Serial blood samples were obtained from patients enrolled in a RCT assessing the relative efficacy of single dose (SDAC) and multiple doses (MDAC) of activated charcoal compared to no activated charcoal (NoAC). The concentration of Thevetia cardenolides was estimated using a digoxin immunoassay. The effect of activated charcoal on cardenolide pharmacokinetics was compared between treatment groups using the AUC24, the 24h Mean Residence Time (MRT24), and regression lines obtained from serial concentration points adjusted for exposure. Erratic and prolonged absorption patterns were noted in each patient group. The apparent terminal half-life was highly variable, with a median time of 42.9h. There was a reduction in MRT24 and the apparent terminal half-life estimated from linear regression in patients administered activated charcoal compared to the control group (NoAC). This effect was approximately equal in patients administered MDAC or SDAC. Activated charcoal appears to favourably influence the pharmacokinetic profile of Thevetia cardenolides in patients with acute self-poisoning, which may have clinical benefits. Given the conflicting clinical outcomes noted in previous RCTs, this mechanistic data supports the need for further studies to determine whether a subgroup of patients (eg. those presenting soon after poisoning) will benefit from activated charcoal. PMID:17164695

  4. Predicting Pathological Features at Radical Prostatectomy in Patients with Prostate Cancer Eligible for Active Surveillance by Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottavio de Cobelli

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic performance of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI and Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PIRADS score in predicting pathologic features in a cohort of patients eligible for active surveillance who underwent radical prostatectomy.A total of 223 patients who fulfilled the criteria for "Prostate Cancer Research International: Active Surveillance", were included. Mp-1.5 Tesla MRI examination staging with endorectal coil was performed at least 6-8 weeks after TRUS-guided biopsy. In all patients, the likelihood of the presence of cancer was assigned using PIRADS score between 1 and 5. Outcomes of interest were: Gleason score upgrading, extra capsular extension (ECE, unfavorable prognosis (occurrence of both upgrading and ECE, large tumor volume (≥ 0.5 ml, and seminal vesicle invasion (SVI. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves and Decision Curve Analyses (DCA were performed for models with and without inclusion of PIRADS score.Multivariate analysis demonstrated the association of PIRADS score with upgrading (P < 0.0001, ECE (P < 0.0001, unfavorable prognosis (P < 0.0001, and large tumor volume (P = 0.002. ROC curves and DCA showed that models including PIRADS score resulted in greater net benefit for almost all the outcomes of interest, with the only exception of SVI.mpMRI and PIRADS scoring are feasible tools in clinical setting and could be used as decision-support systems for a more accurate selection of patients eligible for AS.

  5. Imaging Features of Patients Undergoing Active Surveillance for Ductal Carcinoma in Situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Lars J; Ghate, Sujata V; Hwang, E Shelley; Soo, Mary Scott

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the imaging appearance of patients undergoing active surveillance for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). We retrospectively identified 29 patients undergoing active surveillance for DCIS from 2009 to 2014. Twenty-two patients (group 1) refused surgery or were not surgical candidates. Seven patients (group 2) enrolled in a trial of letrozole and deferred surgical excision for 6-12 months. Pathology and imaging results at the initial biopsy and follow-up were recorded. In group 1, the median follow-up was 2.7 years (range: 0.6-13.9 years). Fifteen patients (68%) remained stable. Seven patients (32%) underwent additional biopsies with invasive ductal carcinoma diagnosed in two patients after 3.9 and 3.6 years who developed increasing calcifications and new masses. In group 2, one patient (14%) was upstaged to microinvasive ductal carcinoma at surgery. Among the patients in both groups with calcifications (n = 26), there was no progression to invasive disease among those with stable (50%, 13/26) or decreased (19%, 5/26) calcifications. Among a DCIS active surveillance cohort, invasive disease progression presented as increasing calcifications and a new mass following more than 3.5 years of stable imaging. In contrast, there was no progression to invasive disease among cases of DCIS with stable or decreasing calcifications. Close imaging is a key follow-up component in active surveillance. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Imaging cardiac activation sequence during ventricular tachycardia in a canine model of nonischemic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chengzong; Pogwizd, Steven M; Yu, Long; Zhou, Zhaoye; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; He, Bin

    2015-01-15

    Noninvasive cardiac activation imaging of ventricular tachycardia (VT) is important in the clinical diagnosis and treatment of arrhythmias in heart failure (HF) patients. This study investigated the ability of the three-dimensional cardiac electrical imaging (3DCEI) technique for characterizing the activation patterns of spontaneously occurring and norepinephrine (NE)-induced VTs in a newly developed arrhythmogenic canine model of nonischemic HF. HF was induced by aortic insufficiency followed by aortic constriction in three canines. Up to 128 body-surface ECGs were measured simultaneously with bipolar recordings from up to 232 intramural sites in a closed-chest condition. Data analysis was performed on the spontaneously occurring VTs (n=4) and the NE-induced nonsustained VTs (n=8) in HF canines. Both spontaneously occurring and NE-induced nonsustained VTs initiated by a focal mechanism primarily from the subendocardium, but occasionally from the subepicardium of left ventricle. Most focal initiation sites were located at apex, right ventricular outflow tract, and left lateral wall. The NE-induced VTs were longer, more rapid, and had more focal sites than the spontaneously occurring VTs. Good correlation was obtained between imaged activation sequence and direct measurements (averaged correlation coefficient of ∼0.70 over 135 VT beats). The reconstructed initiation sites were ∼10 mm from measured initiation sites, suggesting good localization in such a large animal model with cardiac size similar to a human. Both spontaneously occurring and NE-induced nonsustained VTs had focal initiation in this canine model of nonischemic HF. 3DCEI is feasible to image the activation sequence and help define arrhythmia mechanism of nonischemic HF-associated VTs. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  7. The translocator protein ligand [{sup 18}F]DPA-714 images glioma and activated microglia in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkeler, Alexandra; Boisgard, Raphael; Awde, Ali R.; Dubois, Albertine; Theze, Benoit; Zheng, Jinzi [Universite Paris Sud, Inserm, U1023, Laboratoire d' Imagerie Moleculaire Experimentale, Orsay (France); CEA, I2BM, SHFJ, Orsay (France); Ciobanu, Luisa [CEA, DSV, I2BM, NeuroSpin, LRMN, Gif sur Yvette (France); Dolle, Frederic [CEA, I2BM, SHFJ, Orsay (France); Viel, Thomas; Jacobs, Andreas H. [Westfaelische Wilhelm-Universitaet Muenster (WWU), European Institute for Molecular Imaging (EIMI), Muenster (Germany); Tavitian, Bertrand [Universite Paris Sud, Inserm, U1023, Laboratoire d' Imagerie Moleculaire Experimentale, Orsay (France)

    2012-05-15

    In recent years there has been an increase in the development of radioligands targeting the 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO). TSPO expression is well documented in activated microglia and serves as a biomarker for imaging neuroinflammation. In addition, TSPO has also been reported to be overexpressed in a number of cancer cell lines and human tumours including glioma. Here we investigated the use of [{sup 18}F]DPA-714, a new TSPO positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand to image glioma in vivo. We studied the uptake of [{sup 18}F]DPA-714 in three different rat strains implanted with 9L rat glioma cells: Fischer (F), Wistar (W) and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Dynamic [{sup 18}F]DPA-714 PET imaging, kinetic modelling of PET data and in vivo displacement studies using unlabelled DPA-714 and PK11195 were performed. Validation of TSPO expression in 9L glioma cell lines and intracranial 9L gliomas were investigated using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry of brain tissue sections. All rats showed significant [{sup 18}F]DPA-714 PET accumulation at the site of 9L tumour implantation compared to the contralateral brain hemisphere with a difference in uptake among the three strains (F > W > SD). The radiotracer showed high specificity for TSPO as demonstrated by the significant reduction of [{sup 18}F]DPA-714 binding in the tumour after administration of unlabelled DPA-714 or PK11195. TSPO expression was confirmed by Western blotting in 9L cells in vitro and by immunohistochemistry ex vivo. The TSPO radioligand [{sup 18}F]DPA-714 can be used for PET imaging of intracranial 9L glioma in different rat strains. This preclinical study demonstrates the feasibility of employing [{sup 18}F]DPA-714 as an alternative radiotracer to image human glioma. (orig.)

  8. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging of active bleeding associated with hepatic and splenic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, F; Tang, J; Luo, Y; Li, Z; Meng, X; Zhu, Z; Li, T

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) imaging of active bleeding from hepatic and splenic trauma. Three hundred and ninety-two patients with liver or/and spleen trauma (179 liver and 217 spleen injuries), who underwent CEUS examinations following contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT), were enrolled in this retrospective study over a period of >4 years. CEUS detected contrast medium extravasation or pooling in 16% (63/396) of liver or spleen lesions in 61 patients, which was confirmed by contrast-enhanced CT. Special attention was paid to observing the presence, location, and characteristics of the extravasated or pooled contrast medium. The CEUS detection rate for active bleeding was not different from that of contrast-enhanced CT (p=0.333). Information from surgery, minimally invasive treatment and conservative treatment was used as reference standard, and the sensitivities of the two techniques were not different (p=0.122). Of 63 lesions in 61 patients, CEUS showed that 74.6% (47/63) (21 liver lesions and 26 spleen lesions) presented contrast medium extravasation or pooling, both in the organ and out the capsule, in 14.3% (9/63) and only outside the capsule in 11.1% (7/63). CEUS imaging of active bleeding from hepatic and splenic trauma presented various characteristics, and the sizes and shapes of the active bleeding due to contrast medium extravasation or pooling were variable. CEUS can show the active bleeding associated with hepatic and splenic trauma with various imaging characteristics, thus making it possible to diagnose active bleeding using CEUS.

  9. Assessment of cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in children with chronic heart failure using quantitative iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasawa, Kensuke; Ayusawa, Mamoru; Noto, Nobutaka; Sumitomo, Naokata; Okada, Tomoo; Harada, Kensuke

    2000-01-01

    Cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in children with chronic heart failure was examined by quantitative iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial imaging in 33 patients aged 7.5±6.1 years (range 0-18 years), including 8 with cardiomyopathy, 15 with congenital heart disease, 3 with anthracycrine cardiotoxicity, 3 with myocarditis, 3 with primary pulmonary hypertension and 1 with Pompe's disease. Anterior planar images were obtained 15 min and 3 hr after the injection of iodine-123 MIBG. The cardiac iodine-123 MIBG uptake was assessed as the heart to upper mediastinum uptake activity ratio of the delayed image (H/M) and the cardiac percentage washout rate (%WR). The severity of chronic heart failure was class I (no medication) in 8 patients, class II (no symptom with medication) in 9, class III (symptom even with medication) in 10 and class IV (late cardiac death) in 6. H/M was 2.33±0.22 in chronic heart failure class I, 2.50±0.34 in class II, 1.95±0.61 in class III, and 1.39±0.29 in class IV (p<0.05). %WR was 24.8±12.8% in chronic heart failure class I, 23.3±10.2% in class II, 49.2±24.5% in class III, and 66.3±26.5% in class IV (p<0.05). The low H/M and high %WR were proportionate to the severity of chronic heart failure. Cardiac iodine-123 MIBG showed cardiac adrenergic neuronal dysfunction in children with severe chronic heart failure. Quantitative iodine-123 MIBG myocardial imaging is clinically useful as a predictor of therapeutic outcome and mortality in children with chronic heart failure. (author)

  10. MR Imaging Biomarkers to Monitor Early Response to Hypoxia-Activated Prodrug TH-302 in Pancreatic Cancer Xenografts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomeng Zhang

    Full Text Available TH-302 is a hypoxia-activated prodrug known to activate selectively under the hypoxic conditions commonly found in solid tumors. It is currently being evaluated in clinical trials, including two trials in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinomas (PDAC. The current study was undertaken to evaluate imaging biomarkers for prediction and response monitoring of TH-302 efficacy in xenograft models of PDAC. Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE and diffusion weighted (DW magnetic resonance imaging (MRI were used to monitor acute effects on tumor vasculature and cellularity, respectively. Three human PDAC xenografts with known differential responses to TH-302 were imaged prior to, and at 24 h and 48 hours following a single dose of TH-302 or vehicle to determine if imaging changes presaged changes in tumor volumes. DW-MRI was performed at five b-values to generate apparent diffusion coefficient of water (ADC maps. For DCE-MRI, a standard clinically available contrast reagent, Gd-DTPA, was used to determine blood flow into the tumor region of interest. TH-302 induced a dramatic decrease in the DCE transfer constant (Ktrans within 48 hours after treatment in the sensitive tumors, Hs766t and Mia PaCa-2, whereas TH-302 had no effect on the perfusion behavior of resistant SU.86.86 tumors. Tumor cellularity, estimated from ADC, was significantly increased 24 and 48 hours after treatment in Hs766t, but was not observed in the Mia PaCa-2 and SU.86.86 groups. Notably, growth inhibition of Hs766t was observed immediately (day 3 following initiation of treatment, but was not observed in MiaPaCa-2 tumors until 8 days after initiation of treatment. Based on these preclinical findings, DCE-MRI measures of vascular perfusion dynamics and ADC measures of cell density are suggested as potential TH-302 response biomarkers in clinical trials.

  11. MR Imaging Biomarkers to Monitor Early Response to Hypoxia-Activated Prodrug TH-302 in Pancreatic Cancer Xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaomeng; Wojtkowiak, Jonathan W; Martinez, Gary V; Cornnell, Heather H; Hart, Charles P; Baker, Amanda F; Gillies, Robert

    2016-01-01

    TH-302 is a hypoxia-activated prodrug known to activate selectively under the hypoxic conditions commonly found in solid tumors. It is currently being evaluated in clinical trials, including two trials in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinomas (PDAC). The current study was undertaken to evaluate imaging biomarkers for prediction and response monitoring of TH-302 efficacy in xenograft models of PDAC. Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) and diffusion weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to monitor acute effects on tumor vasculature and cellularity, respectively. Three human PDAC xenografts with known differential responses to TH-302 were imaged prior to, and at 24 h and 48 hours following a single dose of TH-302 or vehicle to determine if imaging changes presaged changes in tumor volumes. DW-MRI was performed at five b-values to generate apparent diffusion coefficient of water (ADC) maps. For DCE-MRI, a standard clinically available contrast reagent, Gd-DTPA, was used to determine blood flow into the tumor region of interest. TH-302 induced a dramatic decrease in the DCE transfer constant (Ktrans) within 48 hours after treatment in the sensitive tumors, Hs766t and Mia PaCa-2, whereas TH-302 had no effect on the perfusion behavior of resistant SU.86.86 tumors. Tumor cellularity, estimated from ADC, was significantly increased 24 and 48 hours after treatment in Hs766t, but was not observed in the Mia PaCa-2 and SU.86.86 groups. Notably, growth inhibition of Hs766t was observed immediately (day 3) following initiation of treatment, but was not observed in MiaPaCa-2 tumors until 8 days after initiation of treatment. Based on these preclinical findings, DCE-MRI measures of vascular perfusion dynamics and ADC measures of cell density are suggested as potential TH-302 response biomarkers in clinical trials.

  12. Assessment of cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in children with chronic heart failure using quantitative iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasawa, Kensuke; Ayusawa, Mamoru; Noto, Nobutaka; Sumitomo, Naokata; Okada, Tomoo; Harada, Kensuke [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-12-01

    Cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in children with chronic heart failure was examined by quantitative iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial imaging in 33 patients aged 7.5{+-}6.1 years (range 0-18 years), including 8 with cardiomyopathy, 15 with congenital heart disease, 3 with anthracycrine cardiotoxicity, 3 with myocarditis, 3 with primary pulmonary hypertension and 1 with Pompe's disease. Anterior planar images were obtained 15 min and 3 hr after the injection of iodine-123 MIBG. The cardiac iodine-123 MIBG uptake was assessed as the heart to upper mediastinum uptake activity ratio of the delayed image (H/M) and the cardiac percentage washout rate (%WR). The severity of chronic heart failure was class I (no medication) in 8 patients, class II (no symptom with medication) in 9, class III (symptom even with medication) in 10 and class IV (late cardiac death) in 6. H/M was 2.33{+-}0.22 in chronic heart failure class I, 2.50{+-}0.34 in class II, 1.95{+-}0.61 in class III, and 1.39{+-}0.29 in class IV (p<0.05). %WR was 24.8{+-}12.8% in chronic heart failure class I, 23.3{+-}10.2% in class II, 49.2{+-}24.5% in class III, and 66.3{+-}26.5% in class IV (p<0.05). The low H/M and high %WR were proportionate to the severity of chronic heart failure. Cardiac iodine-123 MIBG showed cardiac adrenergic neuronal dysfunction in children with severe chronic heart failure. Quantitative iodine-123 MIBG myocardial imaging is clinically useful as a predictor of therapeutic outcome and mortality in children with chronic heart failure. (author)

  13. Self-reported activity in tortured refugees with long-term sequelae including pain and the impact of foot pain from falanga - a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prip, Karen; Persson, Ann L; Sjölund, Bengt H

    2011-01-01

    , among them pain and mobility problems. All had been subjected to various forms of physical and psychological torture and 71 victims had also suffered falanga. Main outcome measures used were: the Disability Rating Index (DRI; 12 items) to assess self-reported capacity to carry out daily activities......; for falanga victims, a specific foot assessment of sensory function in the feet. Results. All patients perceived clear activity limitations according to the DRI. The falanga victims' feet were categorised according to the type of foot pain: stimulus-independent pain; stimulus-evoked pain; no pain. The two...... of victims who had chronic pain for at least 5 years after torture, all perceived activity limitations, but pain from falanga had a greater overall impact on disability assessed in terms of daily activities....

  14. In-vitro and in-vivo imaging of MMP activity in cartilage and joint injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Tomoaki; Tenborg, Elizabeth; Yik, Jasper H.N.; Haudenschild, Dominik R.

    2015-01-01

    Non-destructive detection of cartilage-degrading activities represents an advance in osteoarthritis (OA) research, with implications in studies of OA pathogenesis, progression, and intervention strategies. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are principal cartilage degrading enzymes that contribute to OA pathogenesis. MMPSense750 is an in-vivo fluorimetric imaging probe with the potential to continuously and non-invasively trace real-time MMP activities, but its use in OA-related research has not been reported. Our objective is to detect and characterize the early degradation activities shortly after cartilage or joint injury with MMPSense750. We determined the appropriate concentration, assay time, and linear range using various concentrations of recombinant MMPs as standards. We then quantified MMP activity from cartilage explants subjected to either mechanical injury or inflammatory cytokine treatment in-vitro. Finally, we performed in-vivo MMP imaging of a mouse model of post-traumatic OA. Our in-vitro results showed that the optimal assay time was highly dependent on the MMP enzyme. In cartilage explant culture media, mechanical impact or cytokine treatment increased MMP activity. Injured knees of mice showed significantly higher fluorescent signal than uninjured knees. We conclude that MMPSense750 detects human MMP activities and can be used for in-vitro study with cartilage, as well as in-vivo studies of knee injury, and can offering real-time insight into the degradative processes that occurring within the joint before structural changes become evident radiographically. - Highlights: • MMPSense750 is near-infrared fluorescent probe which can detect MMP activity. • MMPSense750 can detect human MMP-3, -9, and -13. • The reaction kinetics with MMPSense750 were different for the three MMPs. • MMPSense750 can visualized real time MMP activity in mouse injured knees. • MMPSense750 is convenient tool to evaluate real-time MMP activity non-invasively

  15. In-vitro and in-vivo imaging of MMP activity in cartilage and joint injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, Tomoaki; Tenborg, Elizabeth; Yik, Jasper H.N.; Haudenschild, Dominik R., E-mail: DRHaudenschild@ucdavis.edu

    2015-05-08

    Non-destructive detection of cartilage-degrading activities represents an advance in osteoarthritis (OA) research, with implications in studies of OA pathogenesis, progression, and intervention strategies. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are principal cartilage degrading enzymes that contribute to OA pathogenesis. MMPSense750 is an in-vivo fluorimetric imaging probe with the potential to continuously and non-invasively trace real-time MMP activities, but its use in OA-related research has not been reported. Our objective is to detect and characterize the early degradation activities shortly after cartilage or joint injury with MMPSense750. We determined the appropriate concentration, assay time, and linear range using various concentrations of recombinant MMPs as standards. We then quantified MMP activity from cartilage explants subjected to either mechanical injury or inflammatory cytokine treatment in-vitro. Finally, we performed in-vivo MMP imaging of a mouse model of post-traumatic OA. Our in-vitro results showed that the optimal assay time was highly dependent on the MMP enzyme. In cartilage explant culture media, mechanical impact or cytokine treatment increased MMP activity. Injured knees of mice showed significantly higher fluorescent signal than uninjured knees. We conclude that MMPSense750 detects human MMP activities and can be used for in-vitro study with cartilage, as well as in-vivo studies of knee injury, and can offering real-time insight into the degradative processes that occurring within the joint before structural changes become evident radiographically. - Highlights: • MMPSense750 is near-infrared fluorescent probe which can detect MMP activity. • MMPSense750 can detect human MMP-3, -9, and -13. • The reaction kinetics with MMPSense750 were different for the three MMPs. • MMPSense750 can visualized real time MMP activity in mouse injured knees. • MMPSense750 is convenient tool to evaluate real-time MMP activity non-invasively.

  16. Personal Hearing Protection including Active Noise Reduction (Les dispositifs de protection de l'ouie, y compris l'attenuation du bruit actif) (CD-ROM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steeneken, H. J; Dancer, A; McKinley, R; Buck, K; James, S

    2005-01-01

    .... SYSTEMS DETAIL NOTE: Adobe Acrobat Reader is included on disc. ABSTRACT: Personal hearing protection and speech communication facilities are essential for optimal performance in military operations...

  17. XF-70 and XF-73, novel antibacterial agents active against slow-growing and non-dividing cultures of Staphylococcus aureus including biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Nicola; Miller, Keith; Randall, Christopher; Rhys-Williams, William; Love, William; Chopra, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Slow-growing and non-dividing bacteria exhibit tolerance to many antibiotics. However, membrane-active agents may act against bacteria in all growth phases. We sought to examine whether the novel porphyrin antibacterial agents XF-70 and XF-73, which have rapid membrane-perturbing activity against Staphylococcus aureus, retained antistaphylococcal activity against growth-attenuated cells. The killing kinetics of XF-70, XF-73 and various comparator agents against exponential phase cultures of S. aureus SH1000 were compared with effects on cells held at 4 degrees C, non-growing cultures expressing the stringent response induced by mupirocin and bacteria in the stationary phase. Biofilms of S. aureus SH1000 were generated with the Calgary device to examine the activities of XF-70 and XF-73 under a further system exhibiting diminished bacterial growth. Cold culture, stringent response and stationary phase cultures remained susceptible to XF-70 and XF-73, which caused > or =5 log reductions in viability over 2 h. During this period the most active comparator agents (chlorhexidine and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) only promoted a 3 log drop in viability. XF-70 and XF-73 were also highly active against biofilms, with both agents exhibiting low biofilm MICs (1 mg/L) and minimum biofilm eradication concentrations (2 mg/L). XF-70 and XF-73 remained highly active against various forms of slow-growing or non-dividing S. aureus. The results support the hypothesis that membrane-active agents may be particularly effective in eradicating slow- or non-growing bacteria and suggest that XF-70 and XF-73 could be utilized to treat staphylococcal infections where the organisms are only dividing slowly, such as biofilm-associated infections of prosthetic devices.

  18. The effect of music video clips on adolescent boys' body image, mood, and schema activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulgrew, Kate E; Volcevski-Kostas, Diana; Rendell, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    There is limited research that has examined experimentally the effects of muscular images on adolescent boys' body image, with no research specifically examining the effects of music television. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of viewing muscular and attractive singers in music video clips on early, mid, and late adolescent boys' body image, mood, and schema activation. Participants were 180 boys in grade 7 (mean age = 12.73 years), grade 9 (mean age = 14.40 years) or grade 11 (mean age = 16.15 years) who completed pre- and post-test measures of mood and body satisfaction after viewing music videos containing male singers of muscular or average appearance. They also completed measures of schema activation and social comparison after viewing the clips. The results showed that the boys who viewed the muscular clips reported poorer upper body satisfaction, lower appearance satisfaction, lower happiness, and more depressive feelings compared to boys who viewed the clips depicting singers of average appearance. There was no evidence of increased appearance schema activation but the boys who viewed the muscular clips did report higher levels of social comparison to the singers. The results suggest that music video clips are a powerful form of media in conveying information about the male ideal body shape and that negative effects are found in boys as young as 12 years.

  19. Image Cytometric Analysis of Algal Spores for Evaluation of Antifouling Activities of Biocidal Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il Koo, Bon; Lee, Yun-Soo; Seo, Mintae; Seok Choi, Hyung; Leng Seah, Geok; Nam, Taegu; Nam, Yoon Sung

    2017-07-31

    Chemical biocides have been widely used as marine antifouling agents, but their environmental toxicity impose regulatory restriction on their use. Although various surrogate antifouling biocides have been introduced, their comparative effectiveness has not been well investigated partly due to the difficulty of quantitative evaluation of their antifouling activity. Here we report an image cytometric method to quantitatively analyze the antifouling activities of seven commercial biocides using Ulva prolifera as a target organism, which is known to be a dominant marine species causing soft fouling. The number of spores settled on a substrate is determined through image analysis using the intrinsic fluorescence of chlorophylls in the spores. Pre-determined sets of size and shape of spores allow for the precise determination of the number of settled spores. The effects of biocide concentration and combination of different biocides on the spore settlement are examined. No significant morphological changes of Ulva spores are observed, but the amount of adhesive pad materials is appreciably decreased in the presence of biocides. It is revealed that the growth rate of Ulva is not directly correlated with the antifouling activities against the settlement of Ulva spores. This work suggests that image cytometric analysis is a very convenient, fast-processable method to directly analyze the antifouling effects of biocides and coating materials.

  20. Speckle imaging of active galactic nuclei: NGC 1068 and NGC 4151

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebstein, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    High-resolution images of NGC 1068 and NGC 4151 in the [O III) 5007A line the nearby continuum produced from data taken with the PAPA photon-counting imaging detector using the technique of speckle imaging are presented. The images show an unresolved core of [O III] 5007A emission in the middle of an extended emission region. The extended emission tends to lie alongside the subarcsecond radio structure. In NGC 4151, the extended emission comes from a nearly linear structure extending on both sides of the unresolved core. In NGC 1068, the extended emission is also a linear structure centered on the unresolved core but the emission is concentrated in lobes lying to either side of the major axis. The continuum of NGC 4151 is spatially unresolved. The continuum of NGC 1068 is extended ∼1'' to the SW of the center of the [O III] 5007A emission. Certain aspects of the PAPA detector are discussed, including the variable-threshold discriminators that track the image intensifier pulse height and the camera artifacts. The data processing is described in detail

  1. Imaging x-ray spectrometer to study solar activity in conjunction with the SCADM program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    An experiment is proposed to study solar active region dynamics and evolution. It will greatly extend the range of capabilities provided by the Solar Maximum Mission. The larger volume and weight capacity of a shuttle launch make possible an experiment with enough sensitivity to study the fastest known solar phenomena with high spatial and spectral resolution. It will be possible to use high spectral resolving power to image events on a small scale in short time intervals, and it will be possible to use this tremendous diagnostic power from the instant of event onset. Similar sensitivity will be available for the study of active region morphology and evolution

  2. Large area CMOS active pixel sensor x-ray imager for digital breast tomosynthesis: Analysis, modeling, and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chumin; Kanicki, Jerzy; Konstantinidis, Anastasios C; Patel, Tushita

    2015-11-01

    Large area x-ray imagers based on complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS) technology have been proposed for various medical imaging applications including digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). The low electronic noise (50-300 e-) of CMOS APS x-ray imagers provides a possible route to shrink the pixel pitch to smaller than 75 μm for microcalcification detection and possible reduction of the DBT mean glandular dose (MGD). In this study, imaging performance of a large area (29×23 cm2) CMOS APS x-ray imager [Dexela 2923 MAM (PerkinElmer, London)] with a pixel pitch of 75 μm was characterized and modeled. The authors developed a cascaded system model for CMOS APS x-ray imagers using both a broadband x-ray radiation and monochromatic synchrotron radiation. The experimental data including modulation transfer function, noise power spectrum, and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were theoretically described using the proposed cascaded system model with satisfactory consistency to experimental results. Both high full well and low full well (LFW) modes of the Dexela 2923 MAM CMOS APS x-ray imager were characterized and modeled. The cascaded system analysis results were further used to extract the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for microcalcifications with sizes of 165-400 μm at various MGDs. The impact of electronic noise on CNR was also evaluated. The LFW mode shows better DQE at low air kerma (Ka<10 μGy) and should be used for DBT. At current DBT applications, air kerma (Ka∼10 μGy, broadband radiation of 28 kVp), DQE of more than 0.7 and ∼0.3 was achieved using the LFW mode at spatial frequency of 0.5 line pairs per millimeter (lp/mm) and Nyquist frequency ∼6.7 lp/mm, respectively. It is shown that microcalcifications of 165-400 μm in size can be resolved using a MGD range of 0.3-1 mGy, respectively. In comparison to a General Electric GEN2 prototype DBT system (at MGD of 2.5 mGy), an increased CNR (by ∼10) for

  3. Large area CMOS active pixel sensor x-ray imager for digital breast tomosynthesis: Analysis, modeling, and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Chumin; Kanicki, Jerzy; Konstantinidis, Anastasios C.; Patel, Tushita

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Large area x-ray imagers based on complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS) technology have been proposed for various medical imaging applications including digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). The low electronic noise (50–300 e − ) of CMOS APS x-ray imagers provides a possible route to shrink the pixel pitch to smaller than 75 μm for microcalcification detection and possible reduction of the DBT mean glandular dose (MGD). Methods: In this study, imaging performance of a large area (29 × 23 cm 2 ) CMOS APS x-ray imager [Dexela 2923 MAM (PerkinElmer, London)] with a pixel pitch of 75 μm was characterized and modeled. The authors developed a cascaded system model for CMOS APS x-ray imagers using both a broadband x-ray radiation and monochromatic synchrotron radiation. The experimental data including modulation transfer function, noise power spectrum, and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were theoretically described using the proposed cascaded system model with satisfactory consistency to experimental results. Both high full well and low full well (LFW) modes of the Dexela 2923 MAM CMOS APS x-ray imager were characterized and modeled. The cascaded system analysis results were further used to extract the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for microcalcifications with sizes of 165–400 μm at various MGDs. The impact of electronic noise on CNR was also evaluated. Results: The LFW mode shows better DQE at low air kerma (K a < 10 μGy) and should be used for DBT. At current DBT applications, air kerma (K a ∼ 10 μGy, broadband radiation of 28 kVp), DQE of more than 0.7 and ∼0.3 was achieved using the LFW mode at spatial frequency of 0.5 line pairs per millimeter (lp/mm) and Nyquist frequency ∼6.7 lp/mm, respectively. It is shown that microcalcifications of 165–400 μm in size can be resolved using a MGD range of 0.3–1 mGy, respectively. In comparison to a General Electric GEN2 prototype DBT system (at MGD of 2.5 m

  4. Large area CMOS active pixel sensor x-ray imager for digital breast tomosynthesis: Analysis, modeling, and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Chumin; Kanicki, Jerzy, E-mail: kanicki@eecs.umich.edu [Solid-State Electronics Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Konstantinidis, Anastasios C. [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom and Diagnostic Radiology and Radiation Protection, Christie Medical Physics and Engineering, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester M20 4BX (United Kingdom); Patel, Tushita [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Large area x-ray imagers based on complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS) technology have been proposed for various medical imaging applications including digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). The low electronic noise (50–300 e{sup −}) of CMOS APS x-ray imagers provides a possible route to shrink the pixel pitch to smaller than 75 μm for microcalcification detection and possible reduction of the DBT mean glandular dose (MGD). Methods: In this study, imaging performance of a large area (29 × 23 cm{sup 2}) CMOS APS x-ray imager [Dexela 2923 MAM (PerkinElmer, London)] with a pixel pitch of 75 μm was characterized and modeled. The authors developed a cascaded system model for CMOS APS x-ray imagers using both a broadband x-ray radiation and monochromatic synchrotron radiation. The experimental data including modulation transfer function, noise power spectrum, and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were theoretically described using the proposed cascaded system model with satisfactory consistency to experimental results. Both high full well and low full well (LFW) modes of the Dexela 2923 MAM CMOS APS x-ray imager were characterized and modeled. The cascaded system analysis results were further used to extract the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for microcalcifications with sizes of 165–400 μm at various MGDs. The impact of electronic noise on CNR was also evaluated. Results: The LFW mode shows better DQE at low air kerma (K{sub a} < 10 μGy) and should be used for DBT. At current DBT applications, air kerma (K{sub a} ∼ 10 μGy, broadband radiation of 28 kVp), DQE of more than 0.7 and ∼0.3 was achieved using the LFW mode at spatial frequency of 0.5 line pairs per millimeter (lp/mm) and Nyquist frequency ∼6.7 lp/mm, respectively. It is shown that microcalcifications of 165–400 μm in size can be resolved using a MGD range of 0.3–1 mGy, respectively. In comparison to a General Electric GEN2 prototype DBT system (at

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging findings as predictors of clinical outcome in patients with sciatica receiving active conservative treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tue Secher; Albert, Hanne B; Sorensen, Joan S

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to investigate the possible prognostic value of disk-related magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in relation to recovery at 14 months in patients with severe sciatica, and whether improvement of disk herniation and/or nerve root compromise is concurrent...... with recovery. METHODS: All patients included in this prospective observational study of patients with sciatica receiving active conservative treatment were scanned at baseline and at 14 months' follow-up. Definite recovery at follow-up was defined as an absence of sciatic leg pain and a Roland Morris...... in that the prevalence of disk-related MRI findings was different for men and women, and they had different recovery rates. Improvement of disk herniations and nerve root compromise over time did not coincide with definite recovery. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with sciatica receiving active conservative treatment, broad...

  6. Non-invasive imaging of tumors by monitoring autotaxin activity using an enzyme-activated near-infrared fluorogenic substrate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Madan

    Full Text Available Autotaxin (ATX, an autocrine motility factor that is highly upregulated in metastatic cancer, is a lysophospholipase D enzyme that produces the lipid second messenger lysophosphatidic acid (LPA from lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC. Dysregulation of the lysolipid signaling pathway is central to the pathophysiology of numerous cancers, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and other inflammatory diseases. Consequently, the ATX/LPA pathway has emerged as an important source of biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Herein we describe development and validation of a fluorogenic analog of LPC (AR-2 that enables visualization of ATX activity in vivo. AR-2 exhibits minimal fluorescence until it is activated by ATX, which substantially increases fluorescence in the near-infrared (NIR region, the optimal spectral window for in vivo imaging. In mice with orthotopic ATX-expressing breast cancer tumors, ATX activated AR-2 fluorescence. Administration of AR-2 to tumor-bearing mice showed high fluorescence in the tumor and low fluorescence in most healthy tissues with tumor fluorescence correlated with ATX levels. Pretreatment of mice with an ATX inhibitor selectively decreased fluorescence in the tumor. Together these data suggest that fluorescence directly correlates with ATX activity and its tissue expression. The data show that AR-2 is a non-invasive and selective tool that enables visualization and quantitation of ATX-expressing tumors and monitoring ATX activity in vivo.

  7. Novel active contour model based on multi-variate local Gaussian distribution for local segmentation of MR brain images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qiang; Li, Honglun; Fan, Baode; Wu, Shuanhu; Xu, Jindong

    2017-12-01

    Active contour model (ACM) has been one of the most widely utilized methods in magnetic resonance (MR) brain image segmentation because of its ability of capturing topology changes. However, most of the existing ACMs only consider single-slice information in MR brain image data, i.e., the information used in ACMs based segmentation method is extracted only from one slice of MR brain image, which cannot take full advantage of the adjacent slice images' information, and cannot satisfy the local segmentation of MR brain images. In this paper, a novel ACM is proposed to solve the problem discussed above, which is based on multi-variate local Gaussian distribution and combines the adjacent slice images' information in MR brain image data to satisfy segmentation. The segmentation is finally achieved through maximizing the likelihood estimation. Experiments demonstrate the advantages of the proposed ACM over the single-slice ACM in local segmentation of MR brain image series.

  8. Different patterns of auditory cortex activation revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Formisano, E; Pepino, A; Bracale, M [Department of Electronic Engineering, Biomedical Unit, Universita di Napoli, Federic II, Italy, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Di Salle, F [Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Radiologucal Unit, Universita di Napoli, Federic II, Italy, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Lanfermann, H; Zanella, F E [Department of Neuroradiology, J.W. Goethe Universitat, Frankfurt/M. (Germany)

    1999-12-31

    In the last few years, functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has been widely accepted as an effective tool for mapping brain activities in both the sensorimotor and the cognitive field. The present work aims to assess the possibility of using fMRI methods to study the cortical response to different acoustic stimuli. Furthermore, we refer to recent data collected at Frankfurt University on the cortical pattern of auditory hallucinations. Healthy subjects showed broad bilateral activation, mostly located in the transverse gyrus of Heschl. The analysis of the cortical activation induced by different stimuli has pointed out a remarkable difference in the spatial and temporal features of the auditory cortex response to pulsed tones and pure tones. The activated areas during episodes of auditory hallucinations match the location of primary auditory cortex as defined in control measurements with the same patients and in the experiments on healthy subjects. (authors) 17 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Different patterns of auditory cortex activation revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formisano, E.; Pepino, A.; Bracale, M.; Di Salle, F.; Lanfermann, H.; Zanella, F.E.

    1998-01-01

    In the last few years, functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has been widely accepted as an effective tool for mapping brain activities in both the sensorimotor and the cognitive field. The present work aims to assess the possibility of using fMRI methods to study the cortical response to different acoustic stimuli. Furthermore, we refer to recent data collected at Frankfurt University on the cortical pattern of auditory hallucinations. Healthy subjects showed broad bilateral activation, mostly located in the transverse gyrus of Heschl. The analysis of the cortical activation induced by different stimuli has pointed out a remarkable difference in the spatial and temporal features of the auditory cortex response to pulsed tones and pure tones. The activated areas during episodes of auditory hallucinations match the location of primary auditory cortex as defined in control measurements with the same patients and in the experiments on healthy subjects. (authors)

  10. Scoring inflammatory activity of the spine by magnetic resonance imaging in ankylosing spondylitis: a multireader experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukas, Cédric; Braun, Jürgen; van der Heijde, Désirée

    2007-01-01

    ability was assessed using Z-scores (Mann-Whitney test) comparing change in score between patients treated with TNF-blocking drug and placebo. RESULTS: The mean time to score one set of MRI was shortest for the Berlin method. SDC was lowest for the Berlin method and highest for SPARCC. Overall inter...... of 3 different scoring methods for MRI activity and change in activity of the spine in patients with AS. METHODS: Thirty sets of spinal MRI at baseline and after 24 weeks of followup, derived from a randomized clinical trial comparing a tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-blocking drug (n = 20) with placebo (n...... the Ankylosing Spondylitis spine Magnetic Resonance Imaging-activity [ASspiMRI-a, grading activity (0-6) per vertebral unit in 23 units]; the Berlin modification of the ASspiMRI-a; and the Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC) scoring system, which scores the 6 vertebral units considered...

  11. Altered sensorimotor activation patterns in idiopathic dystonia-an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of functional brain imaging studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Annemette; Herz, Damian M; Haagensen, Brian Numelin

    2016-01-01

    Dystonia is characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing abnormal, often repetitive, movements or postures. Functional neuroimaging studies have yielded abnormal task-related sensorimotor activation in dystonia, but the results appear to be rather variable across studies....... Further, study size was usually small including different types of dystonia. Here we performed an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies in patients with primary dystonia to test for convergence of dystonia-related alterations in task-related activity...... postcentral gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus and dorsal midbrain. Apart from the midbrain cluster, all between-group differences in task-related activity were retrieved in a sub-analysis including only the 14 studies on patients with focal dystonia. For focal dystonia, an additional cluster of increased...

  12. Body Image and Nutritional Status Are Associated with Physical Activity in Men and Women: The ELSA-Brasil Study

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Carolina G.; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria D. C. B.; Nunes, Maria A. A.; Barreto, Sandhi M.

    2015-01-01

    The association of body image dissatisfaction and obesity with physical activity is likely to differ according to gender. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among the ELSA-Brasil cohort members aged 34–65 years (n = 13,286). The body image dissatisfaction was present even among normal weight individuals of both sexes and was associated with lesser chances of practicing moderate physical activity in women and intense physical activity in men. Men and women w...

  13. Activator Gcn4 Employs Multiple Segments of Med15/Gal11, Including the KIX Domain, to Recruit Mediator to Target Genes in Vivo*♦

    OpenAIRE

    Jedidi, Iness; Zhang, Fan; Qiu, Hongfang; Stahl, Stephen J.; Palmer, Ira; Kaufman, Joshua D.; Nadaud, Philippe S.; Mukherjee, Sujoy; Wingfield, Paul T.; Jaroniec, Christopher P.; Hinnebusch, Alan G.

    2009-01-01

    Mediator is a multisubunit coactivator required for initiation by RNA polymerase II. The Mediator tail subdomain, containing Med15/Gal11, is a target of the activator Gcn4 in vivo, critical for recruitment of native Mediator or the Mediator tail subdomain present in sin4Δ cells. Although several Gal11 segments were previously shown to bind Gcn4 in vitro, the importance of these interactions for recruitment of Mediator and transcriptional activation by Gcn4 in cells was unknown. We show that i...

  14. Update of the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Rn-222 comparison of activity measurements for the radionuclide {sup 222}Rn to include the LNE-LNHB, France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G. [Bureau International de Poids et Mesures, Pavillon de Breteuil, F-92312 Sevres cedex (France); Cassette, P. [Bureau International de Poids et Mesures, Pavillon de Breteuil, F-92312 Sevres cedex (France); Laboratoire national de metrologie et d' essais -Laboratoire national Henri Becquerel, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)

    2012-02-15

    In 2007, the Laboratoire national de metrologie et d'essais - Laboratoire national Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), France submitted a sample of known activity of {sup 222}Rn to the International Reference System (SIR) for comparison. The value of the activity submitted was about 90 kBq. This key comparison result joins that of Switzerland and Germany in the key comparison database that now contains three results, identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Rn-222. Consequently, the KCRV has been updated and the degrees of equivalence with the KCRV have been evaluated. (authors)

  15. Phosphoproteome and transcription factor activity profiling identify actions of the anti-inflammatory agent UTL-5g in LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 cells including disrupting actin remodeling and STAT-3 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Nicholas J; Stemmer, Paul M; Chen, Ben; Valeriote, Frederick; Gao, Xiaohua; Guatam, Subhash C; Shaw, Jiajiu

    2017-09-15

    UTL-5g is a novel small-molecule TNF-alpha modulator. It reduces cisplatin-induced side effects by protecting kidney, liver, and platelets, thereby increasing tolerance for cisplatin. UTL-5g also reduces radiation-induced acute liver toxicity. The mechanism of action for UTL-5g is not clear at the present time. A phosphoproteomic analysis to a depth of 4943 phosphopeptides and a luminescence-based transcription factor activity assay were used to provide complementary analyses of signaling events that were disrupted by UTL-5g in RAW 264.7 cells. Transcriptional activity downstream of the interferon gamma, IL-6, type 1 Interferon, TGF-β, PKC/Ca 2+ and the glucocorticoid receptor pathways were disrupted by UTL-5g. Phosphoproteomic analysis indicated that hyperphosphorylation of proteins involved in actin remodeling was suppressed by UTL-5g (gene set analysis, FDR 5g. This global characterization of UTL-5g activity in a macrophage cell line discovered that it disrupts selected aspects of LPS signaling including Stat3 activation and actin remodeling providing new insight on how UTL-5g acts to reduce cisplatin-induced side effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Accuracy of daily image guidance for hypofractionated liver radiotherapy with active breathing control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, Laura A.; Eccles, Cynthia; Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre; Brock, Kristy K.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: A six-fraction, high-precision radiotherapy protocol for unresectable liver cancer has been developed in which active breathing control (ABC) is used to immobilize the liver and daily megavoltage (MV) imaging and repositioning is used to decrease geometric uncertainties. We report the accuracy of setup in the first 20 patients consecutively treated using this approach. Methods and materials: After setup using conventional skin marks and lasers, orthogonal MV images were acquired with the liver immobilized using ABC. The images were aligned to reference digitally reconstructed radiographs using the diaphragm for craniocaudal (CC) alignment and the vertebral bodies for anterior-posterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) alignment. Adjustments were made for positioning errors >3 mm. Verification imaging was repeated after repositioning to assess for residual positioning error. Offline image matching was conducted to determine the setup accuracy using this approach compared with the initial setup error before repositioning. Real-time beam's-eye-view MV movies containing an air-diaphragm interface were also evaluated. Results: A total of 405 images were evaluated from 20 patients. Repositioning occurred in 109 of 120 fractions because of offsets >3 mm. Three to eight beam angles, with up to four segments per field, were used for each isocenter. Breath holds of up to 27 s were used for imaging and treatment. The average time from the initial verification image to the last treatment beam was 21 min. Image guidance and repositioning reduced the population random setup errors (σ) from 6.5 mm (CC), 4.2 mm (ML), and 4.7 mm (AP) to 2.5 mm (CC), 2.8 mm (ML), and 2.9 mm (AP). The average individual random setup errors (σ) were reduced from 4.5 mm (CC), 3.2 mm (AP), and 2.5 mm (ML) to 2.2 mm (CC), 2.0 mm (AP), and 2.0 mm (ML). The standard deviation of the distribution of systematic deviations (Σ) was also reduced from 5.1 mm (CC), 3.4 mm (ML), and 3.1 mm (AP) to 1.4 mm (CC

  17. Body Image and Nutritional Status Are Associated with Physical Activity in Men and Women: The ELSA-Brasil Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Carolina G; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria D C B; Nunes, Maria A A; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2015-05-29

    The association of body image dissatisfaction and obesity with physical activity is likely to differ according to gender. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among the ELSA-Brasil cohort members aged 34-65 years (n=13,286). The body image dissatisfaction was present even among normal weight individuals of both sexes and was associated with lesser chances of practicing moderate physical activity in women and intense physical activity in men. Men and women with central obesity were less prone to practice physical activity of high or moderate intensity. Overweight and obese men were more likely to report vigorous physical activity while obese women were less likely to report this level of physical activity. Body images as well as nutritional status are related to physical activity in both sexes, but the association with physical activity differs by gender.

  18. A novel neural network based image reconstruction model with scale and rotation invariance for target identification and classification for Active millimetre wave imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Smriti; Bisht, Amit Singh; Singh, Dharmendra; Pathak, Nagendra Prasad

    2014-12-01

    Millimetre wave imaging (MMW) is gaining tremendous interest among researchers, which has potential applications for security check, standoff personal screening, automotive collision-avoidance, and lot more. Current state-of-art imaging techniques viz. microwave and X-ray imaging suffers from lower resolution and harmful ionizing radiation, respectively. In contrast, MMW imaging operates at lower power and is non-ionizing, hence, medically safe. Despite these favourable attributes, MMW imaging encounters various challenges as; still it is very less explored area and lacks suitable imaging methodology for extracting complete target information. Keeping in view of these challenges, a MMW active imaging radar system at 60 GHz was designed for standoff imaging application. A C-scan (horizontal and vertical scanning) methodology was developed that provides cross-range resolution of 8.59 mm. The paper further details a suitable target identification and classification methodology. For identification of regular shape targets: mean-standard deviation based segmentation technique was formulated and further validated using a different target shape. For classification: probability density function based target material discrimination methodology was proposed and further validated on different dataset. Lastly, a novel artificial neural network based scale and rotation invariant, image reconstruction methodology has been proposed to counter the distortions in the image caused due to noise, rotation or scale variations. The designed neural network once trained with sample images, automatically takes care of these deformations and successfully reconstructs the corrected image for the test targets. Techniques developed in this paper are tested and validated using four different regular shapes viz. rectangle, square, triangle and circle.

  19. Development of operational models of receptor activation including constitutive receptor activity and their use to determine the efficacy of the chemokine CCL17 at the CC chemokine receptor CCR4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, R J; Hall, D A

    2012-07-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The operational model provides a key conceptual framework for the analysis of pharmacological data. However, this model does not include constitutive receptor activity, a frequent phenomenon in modern pharmacology, particularly in recombinant systems. Here, we developed extensions of the operational model which include constitutive activity and applied them to effects of agonists at the chemokine receptor CCR4. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The effects of agonists of CCR4 on [(35) S]GTPγS binding to recombinant cell membranes and on the filamentous (F-) actin content of human CD4(+) CCR4(+) T cells were determined. The basal [(35) S]GTPγS binding was changed by varying the GDP concentration whilst the basal F-actin contents of the higher expressing T cell populations were elevated, suggesting constitutive activity of CCR4. Both sets of data were analysed using the mathematical models. RESULTS The affinity of CCL17 (also known as TARC) derived from analysis of the T cell data (pK(a) = 9.61 ± 0.17) was consistent with radioligand binding experiments (9.50 ± 0.11) while that from the [(35) S]GTPγS binding experiments was lower (8.27 ± 0.09). Its intrinsic efficacy differed between the two systems (110 in T cells vs. 11). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The presence of constitutive receptor activity allows the absolute intrinsic efficacy of agonists to be determined without a contribution from the signal transduction system. Intrinsic efficacy estimated in this way is consistent with Furchgott's definition of this property. CCL17 may have a higher intrinsic efficacy at CCR4 in human T cells than that expressed recombinantly in CHO cells. © 2012 GSK Services Unlimited. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  20. An investigation into the use of CMOS active pixel technology in image-guided radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, J P F; Holland, A D; Harris, E J; Ott, R J; Evans, P M; Clark, A T

    2008-01-01

    The increased intelligence, read-out speed, radiation hardness and potential large size of CMOS active pixel sensors (APS) gives them a potential advantage over systems currently used for verification of complex treatments such as IMRT and the tracking of moving tumours. The aim of this work is to investigate the feasibility of using an APS-based system to image the megavoltage treatment beam produced by a linear accelerator (Linac), and to demonstrate the logic which may ultimately be incorporated into future sensor and FPGA design to evaluate treatment and track motion. A CMOS APS was developed by the MI 3 consortium and incorporated into a megavoltage imaging system using the standard lens and mirror configuration employed in camera-based EPIDs. The ability to resolve anatomical structure was evaluated using an Alderson RANDO head phantom, resolution evaluated using a quality control (QC3) phantom and contrast using an in-house developed phantom. A complex intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment was imaged and two algorithms were used to determine the field-area and delivered dose, and the position of multi-leaf collimator (MLC) leaves off-line. Results were compared with prediction from the prescription and found to agree within a single image frame time for dose delivery and 0.02-0.03 cm for the position of collimator leaves. Such a system therefore shows potential as the basis for an on-line verification system capable of treatment verification and monitoring patient motion

  1. Active contour modes Crisp: new technique for segmentation of the lungs in CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reboucas Filho, Pedro Pedrosa; Cortez, Paulo Cesar; Holanda, Marcelo Alcantara

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a new active contour model (ACM), called ACM Crisp, and evaluates the segmentation of lungs in computed tomography (CT) images. An ACM draws a curve around or within the object of interest. This curve changes its shape, when some energy acts on it and moves towards the edges of the object. This process is performed by successive iterations of minimization of a given energy, associated with the curve. The ACMs described in the literature have limitations when used for segmentations of CT lung images. The ACM Crisp model overcomes these limitations, since it proposes automatic initiation and new external energy based on rules and radiological pulmonary densities. The paper compares other ACMs with the proposed method, which is shown to be superior. In order to validate the algorithm a medical expert in the field of Pulmonology of the Walter Cantidio University Hospital from the Federal University of Ceara carried out a qualitative analysis. In these analyses 100 CT lung images were used. The segmentation efficiency was evaluated into 5 categories with the following results for the ACM Crisp: 73% excellent, without errors, 20% acceptable, with small errors, and 7% reasonable, with large errors, 0% poor, covering only a small part of the lung, and 0% very bad, making a totally incorrect segmentation. In conclusion the ACM Crisp is considered a useful algorithm to segment CT lung images, and with potential to integrate medical diagnosis systems. (author)

  2. Minimising activity and dose with enhanced image quality by radiopharmaceutical administrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeschen, C.; Mattsson, S.; Cantone, M. C.; Mikuz, M.; Lacasta, C.; Ebel, G.; Clinthorne, N.; Giussani, A.

    2010-01-01

    Owing to the introduction of new diagnostic procedures, such as computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), the individual dose caused by medical exposures has grown rapidly in the last years. This is especially a subject to radiation protection for nuclear medical diagnosis, since in this case radiopharmaceuticals are administered to the patient, meaning not only a radiation exposure to the diseased tissue but also to the healthy tissues of large parts of the body. 'Minimizing Activity and Dose with Enhanced Image quality by Radiopharmaceutical Administrations' (MADEIRA) is a project co-funded by the European Commission within the Seventh Euratom Framework Programme that aims to improve three-dimensional (3D) nuclear medical imaging technologies significantly. MADEIRA is aiming to improve the efficacy and safety of 3D PET and SPECT functional imaging by optimising the spatial resolution and the signal-to-noise ratio, improving the knowledge of the temporal variation of the radiopharmaceuticals' uptake in and clearance from tumorous and healthy tissues, and evaluation of the corresponding patient dose. Using an optimised imaging procedure that improves the information gained per unit administered dose, MADEIRA aims especially to reduce the dose to healthy tissues of the patient. In this paper, an overall summary of the current achievements will be presented. (authors)

  3. Concurrent OCT imaging of stimulus evoked retinal neural activation and hemodynamic responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Taeyoon; Wang, Benquan; Lu, Yiming; Chen, Yanjun; Cao, Dingcai; Yao, Xincheng

    2017-02-01

    It is well established that major retinal diseases involve distortions of the retinal neural physiology and blood vascular structures. However, the details of distortions in retinal neurovascular coupling associated with major eye diseases are not well understood. In this study, a multi-modal optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging system was developed to enable concurrent imaging of retinal neural activity and vascular hemodynamics. Flicker light stimulation was applied to mouse retinas to evoke retinal neural responses and hemodynamic changes. The OCT images were acquired continuously during the pre-stimulation, light-stimulation, and post-stimulation phases. Stimulus-evoked intrinsic optical signals (IOSs) and hemodynamic changes were observed over time in blood-free and blood regions, respectively. Rapid IOSs change occurred almost immediately after stimulation. Both positive and negative signals were observed in adjacent retinal areas. The hemodynamic changes showed time delays after stimulation. The signal magnitudes induced by light stimulation were observed in blood regions and did not show significant changes in blood-free regions. These differences may arise from different mechanisms in blood vessels and neural tissues in response to light stimulation. These characteristics agreed well with our previous observations in mouse retinas. Further development of the multimodal OCT may provide a new imaging method for studying how retinal structures and metabolic and neural functions are affected by age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy (DR), and other diseases, which promises novel noninvasive biomarkers for early disease detection and reliable treatment evaluations of eye diseases.

  4. Image-based synchronization of force and bead motion in active electromagnetic microrheometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang-Young; Saleh, Omar A

    2014-01-01

    In the past, electromagnetic tweezers have been used to make active microrheometers. An active microrheometer measures the dynamic mechanical properties of a material from the motion of embedded particles under external force, e.g. a sinusoidal magnetic force generated by a sinusoidal current on a coil. The oscillating amplitude and the phase lag of the motion are then used to estimate the material’s dynamic mechanical properties. The phase lag, in particular, requires precise synchronization of the particle motion with the external force. In previous works, synchronization difficulties have arisen from measuring two parameters with two instruments, one of them being a camera. We solved the synchronization issue by measuring two parameters with a single instrument, the camera alone. From captured images, particles can be tracked in three dimensions through an image-analysis algorithm while the current on the coil can be measured from the brightness of the image; this enables simultaneous synchronization of the phases of the driving current on the electromagnet coil and the motion of the magnetic probe particle. We calibrate the phase delay between the magnetic force and the particle’s motion in glycerol and confirm the calibration with a Hall probe. The technique is further tested by measuring the shear modulus of a polyacrylamide gel, and comparing the results to those obtained using a conventional rheometer. (paper)

  5. Imaging cerebral activity in recovery from chronic traumatic brain injury: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, David H; Bluestone, Judith P; Savina, Maryann; Zoller, William H; Meshberg, Emily B; Minoshima, Satoshi

    2006-07-01

    People in chronic phase of traumatic brain injury (TBI) are often told that there will be no further recovery in brain function, that they are in a "static phase." Holistic Approach to NeuroDevelopment and Learning Efficiency (HANDLE), an alternative therapy, aims to improve function by teaching a series of physical and mental activities that clients perform and encouraging changes in lifestyle. Five subjects (3 males) with chronic TBI (at least 3 years since ictus) completed the HANDLE Institute's program and were prospectively evaluated. Each had six regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans over 7 months (scans n= 30). Paired scans were performed with injection of Tc-99m ECD to image rCBF at rest and during the HANDLE "Crossed Arm Bounce" (CAB) exercise before the program, at 3-4 months into the program, and at 6-7 months, after the program had ended. SPECT images were analyzed statistically using Neurostat in which image sets were coregistered and warped into Talaraich atlas for pairwise subtraction between conditions. Group analysis of SPECT showed that CAB activated (increased rCBF) vermis and cerebellar hemispheres in first two paired scans and anterior cingulate and vermis on the final pair. Increased rCBF at rest occurred in cerebellar hemispheres, vermis, and right dorsomedial frontal cortex. These preliminary observations suggest that there may be a role of the hindbrain (vermis and cerebellum) with HANDLE treatment of chronic TBI.

  6. Anaphylaxis Imaging: Non-Invasive Measurement of Surface Body Temperature and Physical Activity in Small Animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztina Manzano-Szalai

    Full Text Available In highly sensitized patients, the encounter with a specific allergen from food, insect stings or medications may rapidly induce systemic anaphylaxis with potentially lethal symptoms. Countless animal models of anaphylaxis, most often in BALB/c mice, were established to understand the pathophysiology and to prove the safety of different treatments. The most common symptoms during anaphylactic shock are drop of body temperature and reduced physical activity. To refine, improve and objectify the currently applied manual monitoring methods, we developed an imaging method for the automated, non-invasive measurement of the whole-body surface temperature and, at the same time, of the horizontal and vertical movement activity of small animals. We tested the anaphylaxis imaging in three in vivo allergy mouse models for i milk allergy, ii peanut allergy and iii egg allergy. These proof-of-principle experiments suggest that the imaging technology represents a reliable non-invasive method for the objective monitoring of small animals during anaphylaxis over time. We propose that the method will be useful for monitoring diseases associated with both, changes in body temperature and in physical behaviour.

  7. Fast Geodesic Active Fields for Image Registration Based on Splitting and Augmented Lagrangian Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zosso, Dominique; Bresson, Xavier; Thiran, Jean-Philippe

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we present an efficient numerical scheme for the recently introduced geodesic active fields (GAF) framework for geometric image registration. This framework considers the registration task as a weighted minimal surface problem. Hence, the data-term and the regularization-term are combined through multiplication in a single, parametrization invariant and geometric cost functional. The multiplicative coupling provides an intrinsic, spatially varying and data-dependent tuning of the regularization strength, and the parametrization invariance allows working with images of nonflat geometry, generally defined on any smoothly parametrizable manifold. The resulting energy-minimizing flow, however, has poor numerical properties. Here, we provide an efficient numerical scheme that uses a splitting approach; data and regularity terms are optimized over two distinct deformation fields that are constrained to be equal via an augmented Lagrangian approach. Our approach is more flexible than standard Gaussian regularization, since one can interpolate freely between isotropic Gaussian and anisotropic TV-like smoothing. In this paper, we compare the geodesic active fields method with the popular Demons method and three more recent state-of-the-art algorithms: NL-optical flow, MRF image registration, and landmark-enhanced large displacement optical flow. Thus, we can show the advantages of the proposed FastGAF method. It compares favorably against Demons, both in terms of registration speed and quality. Over the range of example applications, it also consistently produces results not far from more dedicated state-of-the-art methods, illustrating the flexibility of the proposed framework.

  8. Comparison of bi-exponential and mono-exponential models of diffusion-weighted imaging for detecting active sacroiliitis in ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haitao; Liu, Kai; Liu, Hao; Ji, Zongfei; Yan, Yan; Jiang, Lindi; Zhou, Jianjun

    2018-04-01

    Background There has been a growing need for a sensitive and effective imaging method for the differentiation of the activity of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Purpose To compare the performances of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM)-derived parameters and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) for distinguishing AS-activity. Material and Methods One hundred patients with AS were divided into active (n = 51) and non-active groups (n = 49) and 21 healthy volunteers were included as control. The ADC, diffusion coefficient ( D), pseudodiffusion coefficient ( D*), and perfusion fraction ( f) were calculated for all groups. Kruskal-Wallis tests and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were performed for all parameters. Results There was good reproducibility of ADC /D and relatively poor reproducibility of D*/f. ADC, D, and f were significantly higher in the active group than in the non-active and control groups (all P  0.050). In the ROC analysis, ADC had the largest AUC for distinguishing between the active group and the non-active group (0.988) and between the active and control groups (0.990). Multivariate logistic regression analysis models showed no diagnostic improvement. Conclusion ADC provided better diagnostic performance than IVIM-derived parameters in differentiating AS activity. Therefore, a straightforward and effective mono-exponential model of diffusion-weighted imaging may be sufficient for differentiating AS activity in the clinic.

  9. Changes in endocrine thymus function in patients with breast cancer under the action of combined treatment including non-specific active immunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendyug, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    The state of endocrine thymus function in patients with breast cancer of the 1st-4th stage and in 31 patients with precancerous diseases is studied. It is established that considerable decrease of thymus serous factor (TSF) content in all patients is observed. Radiation- and polychemotherapy carried out decreases the endocrine thymus function. Inclusions of non-specific active immunotherapy in patients' treatment promote the increase of TSF content, that increases treatment efficiency

  10. EspC, an Autotransporter Protein Secreted by Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Causes Apoptosis and Necrosis through Caspase and Calpain Activation, Including Direct Procaspase-3 Cleavage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Serapio-Palacios

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC has the ability to antagonize host apoptosis during infection through promotion and inhibition of effectors injected by the type III secretion system (T3SS, but the total number of these effectors and the overall functional relationships between these effectors during infection are poorly understood. EspC produced by EPEC cleaves fodrin, paxillin, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK, which are also cleaved by caspases and calpains during apoptosis. Here we show the role of EspC in cell death induced by EPEC. EspC is involved in EPEC-mediated cell death and induces both apoptosis and necrosis in epithelial cells. EspC induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by provoking (i a decrease in the expression levels of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2, (ii translocation of the proapoptotic protein Bax from cytosol to mitochondria, (iii cytochrome c release from mitochondria to the cytoplasm, (iv loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, (v caspase-9 activation, (vi cleavage of procaspase-3 and (vii an increase in caspase-3 activity, (viii PARP proteolysis, and (ix nuclear fragmentation and an increase in the sub-G1 population. Interestingly, EspC-induced apoptosis was triggered through a dual mechanism involving both independent and dependent functions of its EspC serine protease motif, the direct cleavage of procaspase-3 being dependent on this motif. This is the first report showing a shortcut for induction of apoptosis by the catalytic activity of an EPEC protein. Furthermore, this atypical intrinsic apoptosis appeared to induce necrosis through the activation of calpain and through the increase of intracellular calcium induced by EspC. Our data indicate that EspC plays a relevant role in cell death induced by EPEC.

  11. Long-term 4D Geoelectrical Imaging of Moisture Dynamics in an Active Landslide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlemann, S.; Chambers, J. E.; Wilkinson, P. B.; Maurer, H.; Meldrum, P.; Gunn, D.; Smith, A.; Dijkstra, T.

    2016-12-01

    Landslides are a major natural hazard, endangering communities and infrastructure worldwide. Mitigating landslide risk relies on understanding causes and triggering processes, which are often linked to moisture dynamics in slopes causing material softening and elevated pore water pressures. Geoelectrical monitoring is frequently applied to study landslide hydrology. However, its sensitivity to sensor movements has been a challenge for long-term studies on actively failing slopes. Although 2D data acquisition has previously been favoured, it provides limited resolution and relatively poor representation of important 3D landslide structures. We present a novel methodology to incorporate electrode movements into a time-lapse 3D inversion workflow, resulting in a virtually artefact-free time-series of resistivity models. Using temperature correction and laboratory hydro-geophysical relationships, resistivity models are translated into models of moisture content. The data span more than three years, enabling imaging of processes pre- and post landslide reactivation. In the two years before reactivation, the models showed surficial wetting and drying, drainage pathways, and deeper groundwater dynamics. During reactivation, exceptionally high moisture contents were imaged throughout the slope, which was confirmed by independent measurements. Preferential flow was imaged that stabilized parts of the landslide by diverting moisture, and thus dissipating pore pressures, from the slip surface. The results highlight that moisture levels obtained from resistivity monitoring may provide a better activity threshold than rainfall intensity. Based on this work, pro-active remediation measures could be designed and effective early-warning systems implemented. Eventually, resistivity monitoring that can account for moving electrodes may provide a new means for pro-active mitigation of landslide risk, especially for communities and critical infrastructure.

  12. Applying the model of Goal-Directed Behavior, including descriptive norms, to physical activity intentions: A contribution to improving the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contributed to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) ap...

  13. Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellum, C.D.; Fisher, L.M.; Tegtmeyer, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the advantages of the use of excretory urography for diagnosis. According to the authors, excretory urography remains the basic radiologic examination of the urinary tract and is the foundation for the evaluation of suspected urologic disease. Despite development of the newer diagnostic modalities such as isotope scanning, ultrasonography, CT, and magnetic resonsance imaging (MRI), excretory urography has maintained a prominent role in ruorradiology. Some indications have been altered and will continue to change with the newer imaging modalities, but the initial evaluation of suspected urinary tract structural abnormalities; hematuria, pyuria, and calculus disease is best performed with excretory urography. The examination is relatively inexpensive and simple to perform, with few contraindictions. Excretory urography, when properly performed, can provide valuable information about the renal parenchyma, pelvicalyceal system, ureters, and urinary bladder

  14. Technetium-99m-labeled recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for the imaging of emboli in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Akihiro; Itoh, Kazuo; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Furudate, Masayori; Kamiyama, Hiroyasu; Abe, Hiroshi [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1993-07-01

    Tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) effectively lyses activate thrombus by direct action. Recombinant t-PA (rt-PA) was labeled with technetium-99m ([sup 99m]Tc) to investigate the in vivo binding to fibrin clots in a feline cerebral embolism model created by insertion of an artificial fibrin clot within the carotid artery. [sup 99m]Tc-rt-PA administered intravenously provided clearer imaging of clots after priming with cold rt-PA, with uptake peaking 5-10 minutes after the injection. [sup 99m]Tc-labeled human serum albumin was not retained at clot sites. Systemically administered [sup 99m]Tc-rt-PA binds to fibrin clots within carotid arteries in our feline model. Our results suggest that the interaction of intrinsic plasminogen activator inhibitors with extrinsically administered rt-PA may regulate the demonstration of a clot, although the precise mechanism is unclear. (author).

  15. Active Sensor for Microwave Tissue Imaging with Bias-Switched Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroutan, Farzad; Nikolova, Natalia K

    2018-05-06

    A prototype of a bias-switched active sensor was developed and measured to establish the achievable dynamic range in a new generation of active arrays for microwave tissue imaging. The sensor integrates a printed slot antenna, a low-noise amplifier (LNA) and an active mixer in a single unit, which is sufficiently small to enable inter-sensor separation distance as small as 12 mm. The sensor’s input covers the bandwidth from 3 GHz to 7.5 GHz. Its output intermediate frequency (IF) is 30 MHz. The sensor is controlled by a simple bias-switching circuit, which switches ON and OFF the bias of the LNA and the mixer simultaneously. It was demonstrated experimentally that the dynamic range of the sensor, as determined by its ON and OFF states, is 109 dB and 118 dB at resolution bandwidths of 1 kHz and 100 Hz, respectively.

  16. A clustering model proposal for activity optimization vs. image quality. Application in HMPAO-99mTc brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M.; Diaz, O.; Estevez, E.; Roque, R.; Hernandez, C.

    2008-01-01

    A method based on clustering analysis and image quality discriminant functions is tested over HMPAO- 99m Tc -SPECT images to optimize image quality vs. administered activity to patient. Signal-to-Noise ratios and Signal-to-Background ratios in each transaxial slice were measured over the images and used as image quality objective indexes. They were employed to develop image quality classification using a model of three clusters (k-mean Cluster Technique). The mathematical classification was compared with the subjective image quality evaluation, following expert observer criterion. Linear image quality discrimination was developed using the results of the cluster classification and taking as independent variables: the characteristics of the patients (sex, age and weight) and the radiopharmaceutical (labelling yield and administered activity). The dependent variables in the discriminant functions were the cluster centroids. The objective of this procedure was assigning a statistical weight to each image quality determinant variable for the optimization purpose. The method was applied in 30 brain SPECT images, acquired under different activities (400 MBq, 600 MBq, 800 MBq and 1000 MBq as reference), with a Sopha gamma camera, mean-resolution - general purpose - parallel-hole collimator, acquisition matrix 128 x 128 pixels and reconstruction following Filter - Back - Projection Algorithm. We looked for the minimum activity that guaranty most of the cases classified into the cluster with the best image quality (optimization criterion). The value of 800 MBq was the optimum obtained after application of the above methodology for the technology used. The labelling yield and the weight of the patients were the main parameters which determined image quality in clusters, as well as the processing digital filter used. The reduction in the effective dose, as a consequence of this procedure implementation, was also analysed. (author)

  17. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) as a promising new imaging target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Morten; Kjaer, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    modalities such as optical imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) and positron emission topography (PET). In this review, we will discuss recent advances in the development of uPAR-targeted imaging ligands according to imaging modality. In addition, we...... will discuss the potential future clinical application for uPAR imaging as a new imaging biomarker....

  18. Defining active sacroiliitis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for classification of axial spondyloarthritis: a consensual approach by the ASAS/OMERACT MRI group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudwaleit, M; Jurik, A G; Hermann, K-G A

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of sacroiliac joints has evolved as the most relevant imaging modality for diagnosis and classification of early axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) including early ankylosing spondylitis. OBJECTIVES: To identify and describe MRI findings in sacroiliitis and...... relevant for sacroiliitis have been defined by consensus by a group of rheumatologists and radiologists. These definitions should help in applying correctly the imaging feature "active sacroiliitis by MRI" in the new ASAS classification criteria for axial SpA.......BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of sacroiliac joints has evolved as the most relevant imaging modality for diagnosis and classification of early axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) including early ankylosing spondylitis. OBJECTIVES: To identify and describe MRI findings in sacroiliitis...... conditions which may mimic SpA. Descriptions of the pathological findings and technical requirements for the appropriate acquisition were formulated. In a consensual approach MRI findings considered to be essential for sacroiliitis were defined. RESULTS: