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Sample records for inclined web reinforcement

  1. Strength Calculation of Inclined Sections of Reinforced Concrete Elements under Transverse Bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatov, V. B.

    2017-11-01

    The authors propose a design model to determine the strength of inclined sections of bent reinforced concrete elements without shear reinforcement for the action of transverse force taking into account the aggregate interlock forces in the inclined crack. The calculated dependences to find out the components of forces acting in an inclined section are presented. The calculated dependences are obtained from the consideration of equilibrium conditions of the block over the inclined crack. A comparative analysis of the experimental values of the failure loads of the inclined section and the theoretical values obtained for the proposed dependencies and normative calculation methods is performed. It is shown that the proposed design model makes it possible to take into account the effect the longitudinal reinforcement percentage has on the inclined section strength, the element cross section height without the introduction of empirical coefficients which contributes to an increase in the structural safety of design solutions including the safety of high-strength concrete elements.

  2. Behavior of a strip footing on reinforced soil subjected to inclined load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Jawdat

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the behavior of a strip footing under inclined load on reinforced sandy soil by using experimental model. The effect of the load inclination angle (α, number of geogrid layers (N and the relative density (RD on the bearing capacity, settlement and horizontal displacement were studied. The results showed that by increasing the number of reinforcement layers (N, the bearing capacity increased, but there is an optimum value (N=4-5 depending on relative density of supporting soil. Also the settlement and horizontal displacement of footing decreasing with increase number of reinforcement layers.

  3. Enhancement of shear strength and ductility for reinforced concrete wide beams due to web reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Said

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The shear behavior of reinforced concrete wide beams was investigated. The experimental program consisted of nine beams of 29 MPa concrete strength tested with a shear span-depth ratio equal to 3.0. One of the tested beams had no web reinforcement as a control specimen. The flexure mode of failure was secured for all of the specimens to allow for shear mode of failure. The key parameters covered in this investigation are the effect of the existence, spacing, amount and yield stress of the vertical stirrups on the shear capacity and ductility of the tested wide beams. The study shows that the contribution of web reinforcement to the shear capacity is significant and directly proportional to the amount and spacing of the shear reinforcement. The increase in the shear capacity ranged from 32% to 132% for the range of the tested beams compared with the control beam. High grade steel was more effective in the contribution of the shear strength of wide beams. Also, test results demonstrate that the shear reinforcement significantly enhances the ductility of the wide beams. In addition, shear resistances at failure recorded in this study are compared to the analytical strengths calculated according to the current Egyptian Code and the available international codes. The current study highlights the need to include the contribution of shear reinforcement in the Egyptian Code requirements for shear capacity of wide beams.

  4. Reinforcement Learning Based Web Service Compositions for Mobile Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Juan; Chen, Shouming

    In this paper, we propose a new solution to Reactive Web Service Composition, via molding with Reinforcement Learning, and introducing modified (alterable) QoS variables into the model as elements in the Markov Decision Process tuple. Moreover, we give an example of Reactive-WSC-based mobile banking, to demonstrate the intrinsic capability of the solution in question of obtaining the optimized service composition, characterized by (alterable) target QoS variable sets with optimized values. Consequently, we come to the conclusion that the solution has decent potentials in boosting customer experiences and qualities of services in Web Services, and those in applications in the whole electronic commerce and business sector.

  5. Prediction of the behavior of reinforced concrete deep beams with web openings using the finite ele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Ragab Mohamed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The exact analysis of reinforced concrete deep beams is a complex problem and the presence of web openings aggravates the situation. However, no code provision exists for the analysis of deep beams with web opening. The code implemented strut and tie models are debatable and no unique solution using these models is available. In this study, the finite element method is utilized to study the behavior of reinforced concrete deep beams with and without web openings. Furthermore, the effect of the reinforcement distribution on the beam overall capacity has been studied and compared to the Egyptian code guidelines. The damaged plasticity model has been used for the analysis. Models of simply supported deep beams under 3 and 4-point bending and continuous deep beams with and without web openings have been analyzed. Model verification has shown good agreement to literature experimental work. Results of the parametric analysis have shown that web openings crossing the expected compression struts should be avoided, and the depth of the opening should not exceed 20% of the beam overall depth. The reinforcement distribution should be in the range of 0.1–0.2 beam depth for simply supported deep beams.

  6. Reinforced concrete beams with web openings: A state of the art review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A.; Fayyadh, M.M.; Naganathan, S.; Nasharuddin, K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Present paper highlights the gaps in the work related RC beams with web opening. ► There is limited work on comparing of design approaches of RC beams with opening. ► Strengthening with externally bonded steel or FRP sheets needs to be investigated. ► There is no repair work been done on the RC beams with opening. -- Abstract: The construction of modern buildings requires many pipes and ducts in order to accommodate essential services such as air conditioning, electricity, telephone, and computer network. Web openings in concrete beams enable the installation of these services. A number of studies have been conducted with regards to reinforced concrete beams which contain web openings. The present paper aims to compile this state of the art work on the behaviour, analysis and design of Reinforced Concrete (RC) beams with transverse web openings. A variety of aspects will be highlighted and discussed including the classification of openings, guidelines for opening location, and the structural behaviour of RC beams with web openings. Various design approaches will also be detailed, for example the American Concrete Institute (ACI) approach, the Architectural Institute of Japan (AIJ) approach and the strut and tie method. Moreover, the strengthening of RC beams with openings using Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) material and steel plates is presented. Finally, directions for future research based on the gaps which exist in the present work are presented.

  7. Web buckling behavior under in-plane compression and shear loads for web reinforced composite sandwich core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubia, Elias Anis

    Sandwich construction is one of the most functional forms of composite structures developed by the composite industry. Due to the increasing demand of web-reinforced core for composite sandwich construction, a research study is needed to investigate the web plate instability under shear, compression, and combined loading. If the web, which is an integral part of the three dimensional web core sandwich structure, happens to be slender with respect to one or two of its spatial dimensions, then buckling phenomena become an issue in that it must be quantified as part of a comprehensive strength model for a fiber reinforced core. In order to understand the thresholds of thickness, web weight, foam type, and whether buckling will occur before material yielding, a thorough investigation needs to be conducted, and buckling design equations need to be developed. Often in conducting a parametric study, a special purpose analysis is preferred over a general purpose analysis code, such as a finite element code, due to the cost and effort usually involved in generating a large number of results. A suitable methodology based on an energy method is presented to solve the stability of symmetrical and specially orthotropic laminated plates on an elastic foundation. Design buckling equations were developed for the web modeled as a laminated plate resting on elastic foundations. The proposed equations allow for parametric studies without limitation regarding foam stiffness, geometric dimensions, or mechanical properties. General behavioral trends of orthotropic and symmetrical anisotropic plates show pronounced contribution of the elastic foundation and fiber orientations on the buckling resistance of the plate. The effects of flexural anisotropy on the buckling behavior of long rectangular plates when subjected to pure shear loading are well represented in the model. The reliability of the buckling equations as a design tool is confirmed by comparison with experimental results

  8. Evaluation of a metal shear web selectively reinforced with filamentary composites for space shuttle application. Phase 1 summary report: Shear web design development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, J. H.; Zimmerman, D. K.

    1972-01-01

    An advanced composite shear web design concept was developed for the Space Shuttle orbiter main engine thrust beam structure. Various web concepts were synthesized by a computer-aided adaptive random search procedure. A practical concept is identified having a titanium-clad + or - 45 deg boron/epoxy web plate with vertical boron/epoxy reinforced aluminum stiffeners. The boron-epoxy laminate contributes to the strength and stiffness efficiency of the basic web section. The titanium-cladding functions to protect the polymeric laminate parts from damaging environments and is chem-milled to provide reinforcement in selected areas. Detailed design drawings are presented for both boron/epoxy reinforced and all-metal shear webs. The weight saving offered is 24% relative to all-metal construction at an attractive cost per pound of weight saved, based on the detailed designs. Small scale element tests substantiate the boron/epoxy reinforced design details in critical areas. The results show that the titanium-cladding reliably reinforces the web laminate in critical edge load transfer and stiffener fastener hole areas.

  9. Should mobile Internet be an extension to the fixed web? Fixed-mobile reinforcement as mediator between context of use and future use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Reuver, M.; Ongena, G.; Bouwman, H.

    2013-01-01

    As the fixed and mobile Internet are converging, the question emerges whether consumers expect mobile Internet services to replicate services they know from the fixed Internet. Literature on reinforcement and displacement suggests that the use of new media depends on whether users are inclined to

  10. Development of Shear Capacity Prediction Model for FRP-RC Beam without Web Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Arman Chowdhury

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Available codes and models generally use partially modified shear design equation, developed earlier for steel reinforced concrete, for predicting the shear capacity of FRP-RC members. Consequently, calculated shear capacity shows under- or overestimation. Furthermore, in most models some affecting parameters of shear strength are overlooked. In this study, a new and simplified shear capacity prediction model is proposed considering all the parameters. A large database containing 157 experimental results of FRP-RC beams without shear reinforcement is assembled from the published literature. A parametric study is then performed to verify the accuracy of the proposed model. Again, a comprehensive review of 9 codes and 12 available models is done, published back from 1997 to date for comparison with the proposed model. Hence, it is observed that the proposed equation shows overall optimized performance compared to all the codes and models within the range of used experimental dataset.

  11. Finite element modelling of reinforced large-opening on the web of steel beam considering axial forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukrawa, Made

    2017-11-01

    Experimental and analytical researches on the effect of web opening in steel beams have been repeatedly reported in literature because of the advantages gain from the many function of the opening. Most of the research on this area, however, did not consider deformation and stress in the beam due to axial force. In seismic design of steel structure, the axial force in the beam could be significantly high and therefore worth considering. In this study a beam extracted from a braced frame structure was analyzed using finite element models to investigate the effect of combined bending and axial forces on the deformation and stresses in the vicinity of the opening. Large size of square, rectangular, and circular openings of the same depth were reinforced and placed in pair, symmetrical to the concentrated load at mid span of the beam. Four types of reinforcement were used, all around (AA), short horizontal (SH), long horizontal (LH), and doubler plate (DP). The effect of axial load was also investigated using rigid frame model loaded vertically and laterally. Validation of the modelling technique was done prior to the parametric study. It was revealed that the axial force significantly contributes to the stress concentration near the hole. Stiffener of circular shape was effective to improve the stress distribution around the circular opening. For square and rectangular openings, however, the horizontal stiffener, extended beyond the edge of opening, performed better than the other type of stiffeners.

  12. Vehicle with inclinable caterpillars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carra, O.; Delevallee, A.

    1991-01-01

    Vehicle has a body with propulsion assemblies that drive caterpillar tracks. When a propulsion unit inclines about its articulation axis it is aided by an advance movement of the caterpillar track in the opposite direction of rotation [fr

  13. Evaporation of inclined water droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Hwang, In Gyu; Weon, Byung Mook

    2017-01-01

    When a drop is placed on a flat substrate tilted at an inclined angle, it can be deformed by gravity and its initial contact angle divides into front and rear contact angles by inclination. Here we study on evaporation dynamics of a pure water droplet on a flat solid substrate by controlling substrate inclination and measuring mass and volume changes of an evaporating droplet with time. We find that complete evaporation time of an inclined droplet becomes longer as gravitational influence by inclination becomes stronger. The gravity itself does not change the evaporation dynamics directly, whereas the gravity-induced droplet deformation increases the difference between front and rear angles, which quickens the onset of depinning and consequently reduces the contact radius. This result makes the evaporation rate of an inclined droplet to be slow. This finding would be important to improve understanding on evaporation dynamics of inclined droplets. PMID:28205642

  14. Bidispersive-inclined convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulone, Giuseppe; Straughan, Brian

    2016-01-01

    A model is presented for thermal convection in an inclined layer of porous material when the medium has a bidispersive structure. Thus, there are the usual macropores which are full of a fluid, but there are also a system of micropores full of the same fluid. The model we employ is a modification of the one proposed by Nield & Kuznetsov (2006 Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 49, 3068–3074. (doi:10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2006.02.008)), although we consider a single temperature field only. PMID:27616934

  15. Beam Shear Design According to Eurocode 2 - Limitations for the Concrete Strut Inclinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagsten, Lars German; Hestbech, Lars; Fisker, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    and are presented. These beams are all designed to fail in shear and the shear reinforcement is designed for different values of the concrete strut inclinations (cot θ varies from 1.5 to 3.4). These tests indicate a clear connection between the values of the concrete strut inclinations and crack width in the SLS......The beam shear design method adopted in Eurocode 2 is based on a lower bound plastic solution. This method is combined with limitations on the concrete strut inclination, θ. These limitations are introduced to ensure acceptable crack width in the SLS. 7 full scale beams have been tested....... In cases where larger crack widths (w > 0.4 mm) can be accepted, larger values of the concrete strut inclinations can be chosen. This will lead to less shear reinforcements. The results are also compared with analytical analysis based on energy methods. At the SLS the beams are expected to be cracked...

  16. Inclination Mixing in the Classical Kuiper Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Kathryn; Malhotra, Renu

    2011-07-01

    We investigate the long-term evolution of the inclinations of the known classical and resonant Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs). This is partially motivated by the observed bimodal inclination distribution and by the putative physical differences between the low- and high-inclination populations. We find that some classical KBOs undergo large changes in inclination over gigayear timescales, which means that a current member of the low-inclination population may have been in the high-inclination population in the past, and vice versa. The dynamical mechanisms responsible for the time variability of inclinations are predominantly distant encounters with Neptune and chaotic diffusion near the boundaries of mean motion resonances. We reassess the correlations between inclination and physical properties including inclination time variability. We find that the size-inclination and color-inclination correlations are less statistically significant than previously reported (mostly due to the increased size of the data set since previous works with some contribution from inclination variability). The time variability of inclinations does not change the previous finding that binary classical KBOs have lower inclinations than non-binary objects. Our study of resonant objects in the classical Kuiper Belt region includes objects in the 3:2, 7:4, 2:1, and eight higher-order mean motion resonances. We find that these objects (some of which were previously classified as non-resonant) undergo larger changes in inclination compared to the non-resonant population, indicating that their current inclinations are not generally representative of their original inclinations. They are also less stable on gigayear timescales.

  17. Particle transport in inclined annuli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtzhals, Erik

    1993-12-31

    A new model for the formation and behaviour of deposits in inclined wellbores is formulated. The annular space is divided into two layers, separated by a distinct plane boundary. While the lower layer is taken to consist of closely packed cuttings, the upper layer is presumed to behave as a pure fluid. A force balance for the lower layer decides whether it is stationary or slides in the upwards- or downwards direction. The position of the deposit surface is governed by the fluid shear stress at the deposit surface. The proposed model represents a major improvement compared to an earlier model. The predictions from the SCSB-model are in good qualitative agreement with experimental results obtained by the author, and results published by research groups in the U.S.A., United Kingdom and Germany. The quantitative agreement is variable, presumably because the SCSB-model is a somewhat simplified description of particle behaviour in inclined annuli. However, the model provides a clearer understanding of the physical background for previously published experimental results. In order to couple the theoretical work with experimental observations, an annular flow loop has been constructed. A characteristic feature in the flow loop design is the application of load cells, which permits determination of the annular particle content at steady state as well as under transient conditions. Due to delays in the constructional work, it has only been possible to perform a limited number of investigations in the loop. However, the results produced are in agreement with results published by other research groups. (au)

  18. Particle transport in inclined annuli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtzhals, Erik

    1994-12-31

    A new model for the formation and behaviour of deposits in inclined wellbores is formulated. The annular space is divided into two layers, separated by a distinct plane boundary. While the lower layer is taken to consist of closely packed cuttings, the upper layer is presumed to behave as a pure fluid. A force balance for the lower layer decides whether it is stationary or slides in the upwards- or downwards direction. The position of the deposit surface is governed by the fluid shear stress at the deposit surface. The proposed model represents a major improvement compared to an earlier model. The predictions from the SCSB-model are in good qualitative agreement with experimental results obtained by the author, and results published by research groups in the U.S.A., United Kingdom and Germany. The quantitative agreement is variable, presumably because the SCSB-model is a somewhat simplified description of particle behaviour in inclined annuli. However, the model provides a clearer understanding of the physical background for previously published experimental results. In order to couple the theoretical work with experimental observations, an annular flow loop has been constructed. A characteristic feature in the flow loop design is the application of load cells, which permits determination of the annular particle content at steady state as well as under transient conditions. Due to delays in the constructional work, it has only been possible to perform a limited number of investigations in the loop. However, the results produced are in agreement with results published by other research groups. (au)

  19. Slipping and Rolling on an Inclined Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghamohammadi, Cina; Aghamohammadi, Amir

    2011-01-01

    In the first part of the paper, using a direct calculation two-dimensional motion of a particle sliding on an inclined plane is investigated for general values of friction coefficient ([mu]). A parametric equation for the trajectory of the particle is also obtained. In the second part of the paper, the motion of a sphere on the inclined plane is…

  20. Slipping and rolling on an inclined plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghamohammadi, Cina; Aghamohammadi, Amir

    2011-01-01

    In the first part of the paper, using a direct calculation two-dimensional motion of a particle sliding on an inclined plane is investigated for general values of friction coefficient (μ). A parametric equation for the trajectory of the particle is also obtained. In the second part of the paper, the motion of a sphere on the inclined plane is studied. It is shown that the evolution equation for the contact point of a sliding sphere is similar to that of a point particle sliding on an inclined plane whose friction coefficient is 7/2 μ. If μ > 2/7 tan θ, for any arbitrary initial velocity and angular velocity, the sphere will roll on the inclined plane after some finite time. In other cases, it will slip on the inclined plane. In the case of rolling, the centre of the sphere moves on a parabola. Finally the velocity and angular velocity of the sphere are exactly computed.

  1. Excavating wide inclines in weak strata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, N N [Ukrspetsstroiproekt (USSR)

    1990-09-01

    Discusses schemes for excavation of transport inclines in surface mines under conditions of weak, unstable rocks characterized by a high water content. The schemes are aimed at maximum reduction of excavation operations without infringing the safety of personnel. Use of walking draglines (the EhSh-20/90, EhSh-100/100 and EhSh-10/70) is evaluated. Optimum schemes for incline excavation and determining optimum slope inclination are described on the example of the Berezovsk brown coal surface mine in the USSR. Efficiency of optimum schemes is analyzed: range of excavation, safety degree, landslide hazards, water influx rate, accident rate, etc.

  2. Families Among High-Inclination Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, B.; Cellino, A.; Knezevic, Z.

    2012-05-01

    We review briefly the most important results of the classification of high-inclination asteroids into families performed by Novakovic et al.(Icarus, 2011,216) and present some new results about a very interesting (5438) Lorre cluster.

  3. Superior glenoid inclination and rotator cuff tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Peter N; Beck, Lindsay; Granger, Erin; Henninger, Heath; Tashjian, Robert Z

    2018-03-23

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether glenoid inclination (1) could be measured accurately on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using computed tomography (CT) as a gold standard, (2) could be measured reliably on MRI, and (3) whether it differed between patients with rotator cuff tears and age-matched controls without evidence of rotator cuff tears or glenohumeral osteoarthritis. In this comparative retrospective radiographic study, we measured glenoid inclination on T1 coronal MRI corrected into the plane of the scapula. We determined accuracy by comparison with CT and inter-rater reliability. We compared glenoid inclination between patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears and patients aged >50 years without evidence of a rotator cuff tear or glenohumeral arthritis. An a priori power analysis determined adequate power to detect a 2° difference in glenoid inclination. (1) In a validation cohort of 37 patients with MRI and CT, the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.877, with a mean difference of 0° (95% confidence interval, -1° to 1°). (2) For MRI inclination, the inter-rater intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.911. (3) Superior glenoid inclination was 2° higher (range, 1°-4°, P rotator cuff tear group of 192 patients than in the control cohort of 107 patients. Glenoid inclination can be accurately and reliably measured on MRI. Although superior glenoid inclination is statistically greater in those with rotator cuff tears than in patients of similar age without rotator cuff tears or glenohumeral arthritis, the difference is likely below clinical significance. Copyright © 2018 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of size effect on shear strength of reinforced concrete ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of the longitudinal and the web reinforcement, shear span-to-depth ratio and the ... A simple equation for predicting the shear strength of reinforced concrete deep ..... AASHTO 2007 LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, American Association of ...

  5. Aesthetic evaluation of profile incisor inclination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaleb, Nathalie; Bouserhal, Joseph; Bassil-Nassif, Nayla

    2011-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate (1) the impact of maxillary incisor inclination on the aesthetics of the profile view of a smile, (2) to determine the most aesthetic inclination in the profile view of a smile and correlate it with facial features, and (3) to determine if dentists, orthodontists, and laypeople appreciate differently incisor inclination in smile aesthetics. A smiling profile photograph of a female subject (22 years of age) who fulfilled the criteria of soft tissue normative values and a balanced smile was obtained. The photograph was manipulated to simulate six lingual and labial inclinations at 5 degree increments to a maximum of 15 degrees. The seven photographs were randomly distributed in a binder to three groups of raters (30 dentists, 30 orthodontists, and 30 laypeople) who scored the attractiveness of the photographic variations using a visual analogue scale. Comparison of the mean scores was carried out by repeated analysis of variance, univariate tests, and multiple Bonferroni comparisons. The results showed a statistically significant interaction between the rater's profession and the aesthetic preference of incisor inclination (P = 0.013). The profile smile corresponding to an increase of 5 degrees in a labial direction had the highest score among all professions and among male and female raters. Orthodontists preferred labial crown torque; dentists and laypeople did not appreciate excessive incisor inclination in either the lingual or the labial directions. The most preferred smile matched with a maxillary incisor inclined 93 degrees to the horizontal line and +7 degrees to the lower facial third.

  6. Locomotor Behavior of Chickens Anticipating Incline Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal LeBlanc

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Keel bone damage (KBD is prevalent in hens raised for egg production, and ramps between different tiers in aviaries have potential to reduce the frequency of falls resulting in KBD. Effective use of ramps requires modulation of locomotion in anticipation of the incline. Inadequate adaptive locomotion may be one explanation why domestic layer hens (Gallus gallus domesticus exhibit high rates of KBD. To improve understanding of the capacity of hens to modulate their locomotion in anticipation of climbing, we measured the effects of incline angle upon the mechanics of the preparatory step before ascending a ramp. Because the energetic challenge of climbing increases with slope, we predicted that as angle of incline increased, birds during foot contact with the ground before starting to climb would increase their peak force and duration of contact and reduce variation in center of pressure (COP under their foot. We tested 20 female domestic chickens on ramp inclines at slopes of +0°, +40°, and +70° when birds were 17, 21, 26, 31, and 36 weeks of age. There were significantly higher vertical peak ground reaction forces in preparation at the steepest slope, and ground contact time increased significantly with each increase in ramp angle. Effects upon variation in COP were not apparent; likewise, effects of limb length, age, body mass were not significant. Our results reveal that domestic chickens are capable of modulating their locomotion in response to incline angle.

  7. Ring formation on an inclined surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Robert; Du, Xiyu

    2015-11-01

    A drop dried on a solid surface will typically leave a narrow band of solute deposited along the contact line. We examined variations of this deposit due to the inclination of the substrate using numerical simulations of a two-dimensional drop, equivalent to a strip-like drop. An asymptotic analysis of the contact line region predicts that the upslope deposit will grow faster at early times, but the growth of this deposit ends sooner because the upper contact line depins first. From our simulations we find that the deposit can be larger at either the upper or lower contact line depending on the initial drop volume and substrate inclination. For larger drops and steeper inclinations, the early lead in deposited mass at the upper contact line is wiped out by the earlier depinning of the upper contact line and subsequent continued growth at the lower contact line. Conversely, for smaller drops and shallower inclinations, the early lead of the upper contact line is insurmountable despite its earlier termination in growth. Our results show that it is difficult to reconstruct a postiorithe inclination of the substrate based solely on the shape of the deposit. The authors thank the James S. McDonnell Foundation for support through a 21st Century Science Initiative in Studying Complex Systems Research Award, and the National Science Foundation for support under Grant No. 0932600.

  8. Inclined nanoimprinting lithography for 3D nanopatterning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhan; Bucknall, David G; Allen, Mark G

    2011-01-01

    We report a non-conventional shear-force-driven nanofabrication approach, inclined nanoimprint lithography (INIL), for producing 3D nanostructures of varying heights on planar substrates in a single imprinting step. Such 3D nanostructures are fabricated by exploiting polymer anisotropic dewetting where the degree of anisotropy can be controlled by the magnitude of the inclination angle. The feature size is reduced from micron scale of the template to a resultant nanoscale pattern. The underlying INIL mechanism is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The results indicate that the shear force generated at a non-zero inclination angle induced by the INIL apparatus essentially leads to asymmetry in the polymer flow direction ultimately resulting in 3D nanopatterns with different heights. INIL removes the requirements in conventional nanolithography of either utilizing 3D templates or using multiple lithographic steps. This technique enables various 3D nanoscale devices including angle-resolved photonic and plasmonic crystals to be fabricated.

  9. Breakwaters with Vertical and Inclined Concrete Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans Falk

    Following the PIANC PTC II working group on Analyses of Rubble Mound Breakwaters it was, in 1991, decided to form Working Group (WG) n° 28 on "Breakwaters with vertical and inclined concrete walls" The scope of the work was to achieve a better understanding of the overall safety aspects in the de......Following the PIANC PTC II working group on Analyses of Rubble Mound Breakwaters it was, in 1991, decided to form Working Group (WG) n° 28 on "Breakwaters with vertical and inclined concrete walls" The scope of the work was to achieve a better understanding of the overall safety aspects...

  10. Vehicle with inclinable caterpillar propulsion units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clar, G.

    1991-01-01

    This vehicle usable in hostile environment such nuclear industry has four propulsion units with a caterpillar track and two integrated motors: one for advancing the caterpillar track and the other for inclining the propulsion unit when overcoming obstacles. Each propulsion unit is easily replaceable because there are no mechanical parts in the body of the vehicle [fr

  11. Internally cooled V-shape inclined monochromator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oberta, Peter; Áč, V.; Hrdý, Jaromír

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 15, - (2008), 8-11 ISSN 0909-0495 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100716 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 1/4134/07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : inclined monochromator * heat load * internal cooling Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.333, year: 2008

  12. Active Thrust on an Inclined Retaining Wall with Inclined Cohesionless Backfill due to Surcharge Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Dewaikar, D. M.; Pandey, S. R.; Dixit, Jagabandhu

    2012-01-01

    A method based on the application of Kötter’s equation is proposed for the complete analysis of active thrust on an inclined wall with inclined cohesionless backfill under surcharge effect. Coulomb’s failure mechanism is considered in the analysis. The point of application of active thrust is determined from the condition of moment equilibrium. The coefficient of active pressure and the point of application of the active thrust are computed and presented in nondimensional form. One distinguis...

  13. Extruded bar reinforced structure and manufacturing procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truchet, J.M.; Bozetto, P.

    1989-01-01

    A cooling tower has horizontal hoops connected by two inclined sets of bars to form a trellis of equilateral triangle anchored in the ground. The bars and hoops are connected at the corners of the triangle. A skin stretched over the trellis defines the tower. The bars are made with thermosetting resin reinforced by fibres. The fabrication of such tower is cheep and simple it can be used for every type of electrical power station, nuclear or not [fr

  14. Web Caching

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    leveraged through Web caching technology. Specifically, Web caching becomes an ... Web routing can improve the overall performance of the Internet. Web caching is similar to memory system caching - a Web cache stores Web resources in ...

  15. Stress field of a dislocating inclined fault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, F.; Wang, T.

    1980-02-01

    Analytical expressions are derived for the stress field caused by a rectangular dislocating fault of an arbitrary dip in a semi-infinite elastic medium for the case of unequal Lame constants. The results of computations for the stress fields on the ground surface of an inclined strike-slip and an inclined dip-slip fault are represented by contour maps. The effects of Poisson Ratio of the medium, the dip angle, upper and lower boundaries of the faults on the stress field at surface have been discussed. As an application, the contour maps for shear stress and hydrostatic stress of near fields of the Tonghai (1970), Haicheng (1975) and Tangshan (1976) earthquakes have been calculated and compared with the spatial distributions of strong aftershocks of these earthquakes. It is found that most of the strong aftershocks are distributed in the regions of tensional stress, where the hydrostatic stress is positive.

  16. Stress field of a dislocating inclined fault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, F.; Wang, T.

    1980-02-01

    In this paper, analytical expressions of the stress field given rise by a rectangular dislocating fault of an arbitrary dip in a semi-infinite elastic medium for the case of unequal Lame constants are derived. The results of computations for the stress fields on the ground surface of an inclined strike-slip and an inclined dip-slip fault are represented by contour maps. The effects of the Poisson Ratio of the medium, the dip angle, upper and lower boundaries of the faults on the stress field at the surface have been discussed. As an application, the contour maps for shear stress and hydrostatic stress of near fields of the Tonghai (1970), Haicheng, (1975) and Tangshan (1976) earthquakes have been calculated and compared with the spatial distributions of strong aftershocks of these earthquakes. It is found that most of the strong aftershocks are distributed in the regions of tensional stress where the hydrostatic stress is positive.

  17. Granular flow down a flexible inclined plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonar Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Discrete and continuous systems are commonly studied individually, but seldom together. Indeed, granular flows are typically studied through flows over a rigid base. Here, we investigate the behaviour of granular flows over an inclined, flexible base. The flexible base is modeled as a rigid platform mounted on springs and has one degree of freedom. The base vibrations are introduced by the flow. We simulate such flows through a discrete element method and compare with experiments. We find that a flexible base increased the upper limit of the inclination up to which a steady flow is possible by at least 3 degrees. This stabilized zone may have important implications in applications such as conveyor belts and chutes.

  18. Tooth Wear Inclination in Great Ape Molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Sadler, Jordan; Fiorenza, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Primate dietary diversity is reflected in their dental morphology, with differences in size and shape of teeth. In particular, the tooth wear angle can provide insight into a species' ability to break down certain foods. To examine dietary and masticatory information, digitized polygon models of dental casts provide a basis for quantitative analysis of wear associated with tooth attrition. In this study, we analyze and compare the wear patterns of Pongo pygmaeus, Gorilla gorillagorilla and Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii lower molars, focusing on the degree of inclination of specific wear facets. The variation in wear angles appears to be indicative of jaw movements and the specific stresses imposed on food during mastication, reflecting thus the ecology of these species. Orangutans exhibit flatter wear angles, more typical of a diet consisting of hard and brittle foods, while gorillas show a wear pattern with a high degree of inclination, reflecting thus their more leafy diet. Chimpanzees, on the other hand, show intermediate inclinations, a pattern that could be related to their highly variable diet. This method is demonstrated to be a powerful tool for better understanding the relationship between food, mastication and tooth wear processes in living primates, and can be potentially used to reconstruct the diet of fossil species. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Precession of a Spinning Ball Rolling down an Inclined Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2015-01-01

    A routine problem in an introductory physics course considers a rectangular block at rest on a plane inclined at angle a to the horizontal. In order for the block not to slide down the incline, the coefficient of sliding friction, µ, must be at least tan a. The situation is similar for the case of a ball rolling down an inclined plane. In order…

  20. Pool Boiling CHF in Inclined Narrow Annuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Myeong Gie

    2010-01-01

    Pool boiling heat transfer has been studied extensively since it is frequently encountered in various heat transfer equipment. Recently, it has been widely investigated in nuclear power plants for application to the advanced light water reactors designs. Through the review on the published results it can be concluded that knowledge on the combined effects of the surface orientation and a confined space on pool boiling heat transfer is of great practical importance and also of great academic interest. Fujita et al. investigated pool boiling heat transfer, from boiling inception to the critical heat flux (CHF, q' CHF ), in a confined narrow space between heated and unheated parallel rectangular plates. They identified that both the confined space and the surface orientation changed heat transfer much. Kim and Suh changed the surface orientation angles of a downward heating rectangular channel having a narrow gap from the downward-facing position (180 .deg.) to the vertical position (90 .deg.). They observed that the CHF generally decreased as the inclination angle (θ ) increased. Yao and Chang studied pool boiling heat transfer in a confined heat transfer for vertical narrow annuli with closed bottoms. They observed that when the gap size ( s ) of the annulus was decreased the effect of space confinement to boiling heat transfer increased. The CHF was occurred at much lower value for the confined space comparing to the unconfined pool boiling. Pool boiling heat transfer in narrow horizontal annular crevices was studied by Hung and Yao. They concluded that the CHF decreased with decreasing gap size of the annuli and described the importance of the thin film evaporation to explain the lower CHF of narrow crevices. The effect of the inclination angle on the CHF on countercurrent boiling in an inclined uniformly heated tube with closed bottoms was also studied by Liu et al. They concluded that the CHF reduced with the inclination angle decrease. A study was carried out

  1. Possible relation between pulsar rotation and evolution of magnetic inclination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jun

    2018-05-01

    The pulsar timing is observed to be different from predicted by a simple magnetic dipole radiation. We choose eight pulsars whose braking index was reliably determined. Assuming the smaller values of braking index are dominated by the secular evolution of the magnetic inclination, we calculate the increasing rate of the magnetic inclination for each pulsar. We find a possible relation between the rotation frequency of each pulsar and the inferred evolution of the magnetic inclination. Due to the model-dependent fit of the magnetic inclination and other effects, more observational indicators for the change rate of magnetic inclination are needed to test the relation.

  2. Reliability of stellar inclination estimated from asteroseismology: analytical criteria, mock simulations and Kepler data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiaka, Shoya; Benomar, Othman; Suto, Yasushi

    2018-05-01

    Advances in asteroseismology of solar-like stars, now provide a unique method to estimate the stellar inclination i⋆. This enables to evaluate the spin-orbit angle of transiting planetary systems, in a complementary fashion to the Rossiter-McLaughlineffect, a well-established method to estimate the projected spin-orbit angle λ. Although the asteroseismic method has been broadly applied to the Kepler data, its reliability has yet to be assessed intensively. In this work, we evaluate the accuracy of i⋆ from asteroseismology of solar-like stars using 3000 simulated power spectra. We find that the low signal-to-noise ratio of the power spectra induces a systematic under-estimate (over-estimate) bias for stars with high (low) inclinations. We derive analytical criteria for the reliable asteroseismic estimate, which indicates that reliable measurements are possible in the range of 20° ≲ i⋆ ≲ 80° only for stars with high signal-to-noise ratio. We also analyse and measure the stellar inclination of 94 Kepler main-sequence solar-like stars, among which 33 are planetary hosts. According to our reliability criteria, a third of them (9 with planets, 22 without) have accurate stellar inclination. Comparison of our asteroseismic estimate of vsin i⋆ against spectroscopic measurements indicates that the latter suffers from a large uncertainty possibly due to the modeling of macro-turbulence, especially for stars with projected rotation speed vsin i⋆ ≲ 5km/s. This reinforces earlier claims, and the stellar inclination estimated from the combination of measurements from spectroscopy and photometric variation for slowly rotating stars needs to be interpreted with caution.

  3. PRECISE TULLY-FISHER RELATIONS WITHOUT GALAXY INCLINATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obreschkow, D.; Meyer, M. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), M468, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2013-11-10

    Power-law relations between tracers of baryonic mass and rotational velocities of disk galaxies, so-called Tully-Fisher relations (TFRs), offer a wealth of applications in galaxy evolution and cosmology. However, measurements of rotational velocities require galaxy inclinations, which are difficult to measure, thus limiting the range of TFR studies. This work introduces a maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method for recovering the TFR in galaxy samples with limited or no information on inclinations. The robustness and accuracy of this method is demonstrated using virtual and real galaxy samples. Intriguingly, the MLE reliably recovers the TFR of all test samples, even without using any inclination measurements—that is, assuming a random sin i-distribution for galaxy inclinations. Explicitly, this 'inclination-free MLE' recovers the three TFR parameters (zero-point, slope, scatter) with statistical errors only about 1.5 times larger than the best estimates based on perfectly known galaxy inclinations with zero uncertainty. Thus, given realistic uncertainties, the inclination-free MLE is highly competitive. If inclination measurements have mean errors larger than 10°, it is better not to use any inclinations than to consider the inclination measurements to be exact. The inclination-free MLE opens interesting perspectives for future H I surveys by the Square Kilometer Array and its pathfinders.

  4. Inclined solar chimney for power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panse, S.V.; Jadhav, A.S.; Gudekar, A.S.; Joshi, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Solar energy harnessing using inclined face of high mountains as solar chimney. → Solar chimneys with structural stability, ease of construction and lower cost. → Mathematical model developed, using complete (mechanical and thermal) energy balance. → Can harness wind power also, as wind velocities at mountain top add to power output. → Air temperature and velocity increase, as air rises in inclined chimney. - Abstract: The present concept of solar chimney is a tall vertical chimney constructed at the center of a large area, which is the collector. This creates questions about stability and economic viability of the chimney and also demands elaborate engineering techniques for constructing a tall chimney. We suggest geometry of 'Inclined Solar Chimney' (ISC), which is constructed along the face of a high rising mountain, on which maximum solar insolation is incident throughout the year. The chimney and the collector get merged here. This makes the structure stable, cost effective and easy for construction. A mathematical model has been developed considering the total energy balance. It predicts the temperature and velocity and kinetic power of the emerging air draft for some chosen values of other parameters. The model also shows the proportion in which absorbed solar energy is divided into different forms, and hence predicts the dependence of kinetic of emerging air draft upon dimensions of the chimney and properties of materials used. Further, it is shown that external winds enhance the kinetic power of the emerging air. Thus ISC can also harness the wind energy, available at the top of the mountain.

  5. Bond characteristics of steel fiber and deformed reinforcing steel bar embedded in steel fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFRSCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslani, Farhad; Nejadi, Shami

    2012-09-01

    Steel fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFRSCC) is a relatively new composite material which congregates the benefits of the self-compacting concrete (SCC) technology with the profits derived from the fiber addition to a brittle cementitious matrix. Steel fibers improve many of the properties of SCC elements including tensile strength, ductility, toughness, energy absorption capacity, fracture toughness and cracking. Although the available research regarding the influence of steel fibers on the properties of SFRSCC is limited, this paper investigates the bond characteristics between steel fiber and SCC firstly. Based on the available experimental results, the current analytical steel fiber pullout model (Dubey 1999) is modified by considering the different SCC properties and different fiber types (smooth, hooked) and inclination. In order to take into account the effect of fiber inclination in the pullout model, apparent shear strengths ( τ ( app)) and slip coefficient ( β) are incorporated to express the variation of pullout peak load and the augmentation of peak slip as the inclined angle increases. These variables are expressed as functions of the inclined angle ( ϕ). Furthurmore, steel-concrete composite floors, reinforced concrete floors supported by columns or walls and floors on an elastic foundations belong to the category of structural elements in which the conventional steel reinforcement can be partially replaced by the use of steel fibers. When discussing deformation capacity of structural elements or civil engineering structures manufactured using SFRSCC, one must be able to describe thoroughly both the behavior of the concrete matrix reinforced with steel fibers and the interaction between this composite matrix and discrete steel reinforcement of the conventional type. However, even though the knowledge on bond behavior is essential for evaluating the overall behavior of structural components containing reinforcement and steel fibers

  6. Tenebrio beetles use magnetic inclination compass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vácha, Martin; Drštková, Dana; Půžová, Tereza

    2008-08-01

    Animals that guide directions of their locomotion or their migration routes by the lines of the geomagnetic field use either polarity or inclination compasses to determine the field polarity (the north or south direction). Distinguishing the two compass types is a guideline for estimation of the molecular principle of reception and has been achieved for a number of animal groups, with the exception of insects. A standard diagnostic method to distinguish a compass type is based on reversing the vertical component of the geomagnetic field, which leads to the opposite reactions of animals with two different compass types. In the present study, adults of the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor were tested by means of a two-step laboratory test of magnetoreception. Beetles that were initially trained to memorize the magnetic position of the light source preferred, during the subsequent test, this same direction, pursuant geomagnetic cues only. In the following step, the vertical component was reversed between the training and the test. The beetles significantly turned their preferred direction by 180°. Our results brought until then unknown original findings that insects, represented here by the T. molitor species, use—in contrast to another previously researched Arthropod, spiny lobster—the inclination compass.

  7. Lower incisor inclination regarding different reference planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zataráin, Brenda; Avila, Josué; Moyaho, Angeles; Carrasco, Rosendo; Velasco, Carmen

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the degree of lower incisor inclination with respect to different reference planes. It was an observational, analytical, longitudinal, prospective study conducted on 100 lateral cephalograms which were corrected according to the photograph in natural head position in order to draw the true vertical plane (TVP). The incisor mandibular plane angle (IMPA) was compensated to eliminate the variation of the mandibular plane growth type with the formula "FMApx.- 25 (FMA) + IMPApx. = compensated IMPA (IMPACOM)". As the data followed normal distribution determined by the KolmogorovSmirnov test, parametric tests were used for the statistical analysis, Ttest, ANOVA and Pearson coefficient correlation test. Statistical analysis was performed using a statistical significance of p planes. There were statistically significant differences among the means of the planes measured, except for IMPACOM, FMIA and TVP. The IMPA differed significantly from the IMPACOM. The compensated IMPA and the FMIA did not differ significantly from the TVP. The true horizontal plane was mismatched with Frankfort plane in 84% of the sample with a range of 19°. The true vertical plane is adequate for measuring lower incisor inclination. Sociedad Argentina de Investigación Odontológica.

  8. REINFORCED COMPOSITE PANEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A composite panel having front and back faces, the panel comprising facing reinforcement, backing reinforcement and matrix material binding to the facing and backing reinforcements, the facing and backing reinforcements each independently comprising one or more reinforcing sheets, the facing rein...... by matrix material, the facing and backing reinforcements being interconnected to resist out-of-plane relative movement. The reinforced composite panel is useful as a barrier element for shielding structures, equipment and personnel from blast and/or ballistic impact damage....

  9. Identification of families among highly inclined asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Hutton, R.

    2006-07-01

    A dataset of 3652 high-inclination numbered asteroids was analyzed to search for dynamical families. A fully automated multivariate data analysis technique was applied to identify the groupings. Thirteen dynamical families and twenty-two clumps were found. When taxonomic information is available, the families show cosmochemical consistency and support an interpretation based on a common origin from a single parent body. Four families and three clumps found in this work show a size distribution which is compatible with a formation due to a cratering event on the largest member of the family, and also three families have B- or related taxonomic types members, which represents a 14% of the B-types classified by Bus and Binzel [2002. Icarus 158, 146-177].

  10. On liquid films on an inclined plate

    KAUST Repository

    BENILOV, E. S.

    2010-08-18

    This paper examines two related problems from liquid-film theory. Firstly, a steady-state flow of a liquid film down a pre-wetted plate is considered, in which there is a precursor film in front of the main film. Assuming the former to be thin, a full asymptotic description of the problem is developed and simple analytical estimates for the extent and depth of the precursor film\\'s influence on the main film are provided. Secondly, the so-called drag-out problem is considered, where an inclined plate is withdrawn from a pool of liquid. Using a combination of numerical and asymptotic means, the parameter range where the classical Landau-Levich-Wilson solution is not unique is determined. © 2010 Cambridge University Press.

  11. Impinging Water Droplets on Inclined Glass Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armijo, Kenneth Miguel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lance, Blake [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ho, Clifford K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Multiphase computational models and tests of falling water droplets on inclined glass surfaces were developed to investigate the physics of impingement and potential of these droplets to self-clean glass surfaces for photovoltaic modules and heliostats. A multiphase volume-of-fluid model was developed in ANSYS Fluent to simulate the impinging droplets. The simulations considered different droplet sizes (1 mm and 3 mm), tilt angles (0°, 10°, and 45°), droplet velocities (1 m/s and 3 m/s), and wetting characteristics (wetting=47° contact angle and non-wetting = 93° contact angle). Results showed that the spread factor (maximum droplet diameter during impact divided by the initial droplet diameter) decreased with increasing inclination angle due to the reduced normal force on the surface. The hydrophilic surface yielded greater spread factors than the hydrophobic surface in all cases. With regard to impact forces, the greater surface tilt angles yielded lower normal forces, but higher shear forces. Experiments showed that the experimentally observed spread factor (maximum droplet diameter during impact divided by the initial droplet diameter) was significantly larger than the simulated spread factor. Observed spread factors were on the order of 5 - 6 for droplet velocities of ~3 m/s, whereas the simulated spread factors were on the order of 2. Droplets were observed to be mobile following impact only for the cases with 45° tilt angle, which matched the simulations. An interesting phenomenon that was observed was that shortly after being released from the nozzle, the water droplet oscillated (like a trampoline) due to the "snapback" caused by the surface tension of the water droplet being released from the nozzle. This oscillation impacted the velocity immediately after the release. Future work should evaluate the impact of parameters such as tilt angle and surface wettability on the impact of particle/soiling uptake and removal to investigate ways that

  12. The Gothic arch (needle point) tracing and condylar inclination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Gheriani, A S; Winstanley, R B

    1987-11-01

    The records of 11 patients referred for treatment of TMJ disorders were used to compare condylar inclination found by drawing a tangent and by using a mathematic technique. Needle point tracing angles were also measured for the same patients and were compared with the condylar inclination. It can be concluded that (1) the mathematic technique outlined records a more accurate condylar angulation, and (2) there is a great variation in condylar inclination values between patients and between left and right sides of the same patient, and (3) there is no direct relationship between condylar inclination and the needle point tracing angle.

  13. Psychosocial Determinants of Romantic Inclination Among Indian Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Barani Ganth

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted with the aim of understanding the psychosocial determinants of romantic inclination among youth in India. We involved 779 student participants from a large central university in south India in the age range of 18-24 years. The participants filled measures on romantic inclination, personality, attachment style, interpersonal attraction, and social influence on romantic relationship in addition to a questionnaire on demographic information and relationship history. Analysis of the data revealed that males showed higher level of romantic inclination than females. Those who had current/past involvement in a romantic relationship (Lovers showed higher levels of romantic inclination than those who had never involved in a romantic relationship (Non-lovers. Parents’ type of marriage (Love/arranged, close fiends’ involvement in romantic relationship too had a discriminatory role in romantic inclination. Romantic inclination was significantly related to personality factors, attachment style, media and peer influences on romantic relationships and interpersonal attraction. Extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, media influence, peer influence, secure attachment and physical attraction emerged as significant predictors of romantic inclination in a regression model. Structural Equations Modeling (SEM indicated that personality, attachment style and interpersonal attraction had a significant influence on romantic inclination mediated by both media and peer influences. Romantic inclination in turn significantly predicted romantic relationship status.

  14. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of an inclined nanowire array solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yao; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2015-11-30

    An innovative solar cell based on inclined p-i-n nanowire array is designed and analyzed. The results show that the inclined geometry can sufficiently increase the conversion efficiency of solar cells by enhancing the absorption of light in the active region. By tuning the nanowire array density, nanowire diameter, nanowire length, as well as the proportion of intrinsic region of the inclined nanowire solar cell, a remarkable efficiency in excess of 16% can be obtained in GaAs. Similar results have been obtained in InP and Si nanowire solar cells, demonstrating the universality of the performance enhancement of inclined nanowire arrays.

  15. Entrepreneurial inclinations of women from rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković-Savić Olivera S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurial inclinations of women from rural areas are shaped by the lack of business ideas and economic capital, which, in addition to financial resources, includes cultural capital in the form of knowledge and skills. The paper presents a part of a broader study on the social position of women from the rural areas of northern Kosovo and Metohija, conducted in 2013. The research was predominantly focused on entrepreneurial inclinations of rural women, and the findings suggest that private enterprise in the studied population is undeveloped as a result of two dominant reasons. The first reason is the situation which is unfavorable in terms of politics and security, and therefore, not conducive to investment security, together with the specificity in the form of complex administrative business conditions requiring compliance to parallel and mutually incompatible standards (of the Republic of Serbia and of the UNMIK administration. The second important reason for the lack of entrepreneurial initiatives is the lack of ownership of property and the means of production, since banks do not give loans without guarantees in the form of ownership of the mortgage, while other forms of financial incentives are unavailable. The respondents attended programs for acquiring new knowledge and skills only in a small number of cases, while showing the greatest susceptibility to education in traditional skills, such as training in agriculture and handicrafts, which are not the skills in line with the needs of the labor market. As the most important reasons that -prevent them from having their own business, the respondents -mentioned: the lack of ideas and the lack of financial resources. In this regard, they would find incentives in the form of grants most helpful to start their own business. The absence of funds and gender inequality form the basis for the lack of ownership of property and means of production. In addition to the shortage of financial

  16. 47 CFR 25.280 - Inclined orbit operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inclined orbit operations. 25.280 Section 25.280 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.280 Inclined orbit operations. (a) Satellite operators may commence...

  17. Habituation of reinforcer effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    David R Lloyd; David R Lloyd; Douglas J Medina; Larry W Hawk; Whitney D Fosco; Jerry B Richards

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose an integrative model of habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE) that links behavioral and neural based explanations of reinforcement. We argue that habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE) is a fundamental property of reinforcing stimuli. Most reinforcement models implicitly suggest that the effectiveness of a reinforcer is stable across repeated presentations. In contrast, an HRE approach predicts decreased effectiveness due to repeated presentation. We ar...

  18. Flexural reinforced concrete member with FRP reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Putzolu, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    One of the most problematic point in construction is the durability of the concrete especially related to corrosion of the steel reinforcement. Due to this problem the construction sector, introduced the use of Fiber Reinforced Polymer, the main fibers used in construction are Glass, Carbon and Aramid. In this study, the author aim to analyse the flexural behaviour of concrete beams reinforced with FRP. This aim is achieved by the analysis of specimens reinforced with GFRP bars, with theoreti...

  19. UNBIASED INCLINATION DISTRIBUTIONS FOR OBJECTS IN THE KUIPER BELT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulbis, A. A. S.; Elliot, J. L.; Adams, E. R.; Benecchi, S. D.; Buie, M. W.; Trilling, D. E.; Wasserman, L. H.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the Deep Ecliptic Survey (DES), we investigate the inclination distributions of objects in the Kuiper Belt. We present a derivation for observational bias removal and use this procedure to generate unbiased inclination distributions for Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs) of different DES dynamical classes, with respect to the Kuiper Belt plane. Consistent with previous results, we find that the inclination distribution for all DES KBOs is well fit by the sum of two Gaussians, or a Gaussian plus a generalized Lorentzian, multiplied by sin i. Approximately 80% of KBOs are in the high-inclination grouping. We find that Classical object inclinations are well fit by sin i multiplied by the sum of two Gaussians, with roughly even distribution between Gaussians of widths 2.0 +0.6 -0.5 0 and 8.1 +2.6 -2.1 0 . Objects in different resonances exhibit different inclination distributions. The inclinations of Scattered objects are best matched by sin i multiplied by a single Gaussian that is centered at 19.1 +3.9 -3.6 0 with a width of 6.9 +4.1 -2.7 0 . Centaur inclinations peak just below 20 0 , with one exceptionally high-inclination object near 80 0 . The currently observed inclination distribution of the Centaurs is not dissimilar to that of the Scattered Extended KBOs and Jupiter-family comets, but is significantly different from the Classical and Resonant KBOs. While the sample sizes of some dynamical classes are still small, these results should begin to serve as a critical diagnostic for models of solar system evolution.

  20. Shear strength of non-shear reinforced concrete elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao linh

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with the plastic shear strength of non shear reinforced T-beams.The influence of an un-reinforced flange on the shear capacity is investigated by considering a failure mechanism involving crack sliding in the web and a kind of membrane action over an effective width of the flange...

  1. Movements of a Sphere Moving Over Smooth and Rough Inclines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Chyan-Deng

    1992-01-01

    The steady movements of a sphere over a rough incline in air, and over smooth and rough inclines in a liquid were studied theoretically and experimentally. The principle of energy conservation was used to analyze the translation velocities, rolling resistances, and drag coefficients of a sphere moving over the inclines. The rolling resistance to the movement of a sphere from the rough incline was presumed to be caused by collisions and frictional slidings. A varnished wooden board was placed on the bottom of an experimental tilting flume to form a smooth incline and a layer of spheres identical to the sphere moving over them was placed on the smooth wooden board to form a rough incline. Spheres used in the experiments were glass spheres, steel spheres, and golf balls. Experiments show that a sphere moving over a rough incline with negligible fluid drag in air can reach a constant translation velocity. This constant velocity was found to be proportional to the bed inclination (between 11 ^circ and 21^circ) and the square root of the sphere's diameter, but seemingly independent of the sphere's specific gravity. Two empirical coefficients in the theoretical expression of the sphere's translation velocity were determined by experiments. The collision and friction parts of the shear stress exerted on the interface between the moving sphere and rough incline were determined. The ratio of collision to friction parts appears to increase with increase in the bed inclination. These two parts seem to be of the same order of magnitude. The rolling resistances and the relations between the drag coefficient and Reynolds number for a sphere moving over smooth and rough inclines in a liquid, such as water or salad oil, were determined by a regression analysis based on experimental data. It was found that the drag coefficient for a sphere over the rough incline is larger than that for a sphere over the smooth incline, and both of which are much larger than that for a sphere in free

  2. Inclined asymmetric librations in exterior resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyatzis, G.; Tsiganis, K.; Antoniadou, K. I.

    2018-04-01

    Librational motion in Celestial Mechanics is generally associated with the existence of stable resonant configurations and signified by the existence of stable periodic solutions and oscillation of critical (resonant) angles. When such an oscillation takes place around a value different than 0 or π , the libration is called asymmetric. In the context of the planar circular restricted three-body problem, asymmetric librations have been identified for the exterior mean motion resonances (MMRs) 1:2, 1:3, etc., as well as for co-orbital motion (1:1). In exterior MMRs the massless body is the outer one. In this paper, we study asymmetric librations in the three-dimensional space. We employ the computational approach of Markellos (Mon Not R Astron Soc 184:273-281, https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/184.2.273, 1978) and compute families of asymmetric periodic orbits and their stability. Stable asymmetric periodic orbits are surrounded in phase space by domains of initial conditions which correspond to stable evolution and librating resonant angles. Our computations were focused on the spatial circular restricted three-body model of the Sun-Neptune-TNO system (TNO = trans-Neptunian object). We compare our results with numerical integrations of observed TNOs, which reveal that some of them perform 1:2 resonant, inclined asymmetric librations. For the stable 1:2 TNO librators, we find that their libration seems to be related to the vertically stable planar asymmetric orbits of our model, rather than the three-dimensional ones found in the present study.

  3. Natural Circulation Characteristics of a Symmetric Loop under Inclined Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingtuan Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural circulation is an important process for primary loops of some marine integrated reactors. The reactor works under inclined conditions when severe accidents happen to the ship. In this paper, to investigate the characteristics of natural circulation, experiments were conducted in a symmetric loop under the inclined angle of 0~45°. A CFD model was also set up to predict the behaviors of the loop beyond the experimental scope. Total circulation flow rate decreases with the increase of inclined angle. Meanwhile one circulation is depressed while the other is enhanced, and accordingly the disparity between the branch circulations arises and increases with the increase of inclined angle. Circulation only takes place in one branch circuit at large inclined angle. Also based on the CFD model, the influences of flow resistance distribution and loop configuration on natural circulation are predicted. The numerical results show that to design the loop with the configuration of big altitude difference and small width, it is favorable to reduce the influence of inclination; however too small loop width will cause severe reduction of circulation ability at large angle inclination.

  4. Upper canine inclination influences the aesthetics of a smile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothung, C; Fischer, K; Schiffer, H; Springer, I; Wolfart, S

    2015-02-01

    This current study investigated which angle of canine inclination (angle between canine tooth axis (CA-line) and the line between the lateral canthus and the ipsilateral labial angle (EM-line)) is perceived to be most attractive in a smile. The second objective was to determine whether laymen and dental experts share the same opinion. A Q-sort assessment was performed with 48 posed smile photographs to obtain two models of neutral facial attractiveness. Two sets of images (1 male model set, 1 female model set), each containing seven images with incrementally altered canine and posterior teeth inclinations, were generated. The images were ranked for attractiveness by three groups (61 laymen, 59 orthodontists, 60 dentists). The images with 0° inclination, that is CA-line (maxillary canine axis) parallel to EM-line (the line formed by the lateral canthus and the ipsilateral corner of the mouth) (male model set: 54·4%; female model set: 38·9%), or -5° (inward) inclination (male model set: 20%; female model set: 29·4%) were perceived to be most attractive within each set. Images showing inward canine inclinations were regarded to be more attractive than those with outward inclinations. Dental experts and laymen were in accordance with the aesthetics. Smiles were perceived to be most attractive when the upper canine tooth axis was parallel to the EM-line. In reconstructive or orthodontic therapy, it is thus important to incline canines more inwardly than outwardly. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Reinforced sulphur concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2014-01-01

    Reinforced sulphur concrete wherein one or more metal reinforcing members are in contact with sulphur concrete is disclosed. The reinforced sulphur concrete comprises an adhesion promoter that enhances the interaction between the sulphur and the one or more metal reinforcing members.

  6. The orbital inclination of Cygnus XR-1 measured polarimetrically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, J.F.; Tapia, S.

    1989-01-01

    The X-ray binary Cyg XR-1/HDE 226868 was observed polarimetrically over one orbit at three different optical wavelengths. The standard theory of Brown, et al. (1978) is used to derive an orbital inclination i = 62 deg (+5 deg, -37 deg), where the error is the 90-percent-confidence interval derived by the method of Simmons, et al. (1980). The value of the orbital inclination is significantly lower than values based on polarimetric observations. The difference is a result of the observational protocols used. A bias toward larger values of the inclination caused by the tidal distortion of the primary is still found in the present result. The inclination derived corresponds to a mass of the compact component of 6.3 solar masses, above the maximum mass of any degenerate configuration consistent with general relativity except a black hole. 37 refs

  7. Improved efficiency of lifting freight on inclined mine shafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molchanov, A A

    1980-01-01

    Design and operating principles are described for a self-propelled inclined lifter with hinged-lever mechanism of forced compression of the drive wheels to the rails. Limit values are defined for the main parameters of the traction device.

  8. Brilliance and flux reduction in imperfect inclined crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.K.; Blasdell, R.C.; Fernandez, P.B.; Macrander, A.T.; Mills, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    The inclined crystal geometry has been suggested as a method of reducing the surface absorbed power density of high-heat-load monochromators for third-generation synchrotron radiation sources. Computer simulations have shown that if the crystals are perfectly aligned and have no strains then the diffraction properties of a pair of inclined crystals are very similar to a pair of conventional flat crystals with only subtle effects differentiating the two configurations. However, if the crystals are strained, these subtle differences in the behavior of inclined crystals can result in large beam divergences causing brilliance and flux losses. This manuscript elaborates on these issues and estimates potential brilliance and flux losses from strained inclined crystals at the APS

  9. Flame spread over inclined electrical wires with AC electric fields

    KAUST Repository

    Lim, Seung J.; Park, Sun H.; Park, Jeong; Fujita, Osamu; Keel, Sang I.; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Flame spread over polyethylene-insulated electrical wires was studied experimentally with applied alternating current (AC) by varying the inclination angle (θ), applied voltage (VAC), and frequency (fAC). For the baseline case with no electric field

  10. Psychosocial Determinants of Romantic Inclination Among Indian Youth

    OpenAIRE

    D. Barani Ganth; S. Kadhiravan

    2017-01-01

    The present study was conducted with the aim of understanding the psychosocial determinants of romantic inclination among youth in India. We involved 779 student participants from a large central university in south India in the age range of 18-24 years. The participants filled measures on romantic inclination, personality, attachment style, interpersonal attraction, and social influence on romantic relationship in addition to a questionnaire on demographic information and relationship histor...

  11. Rotational synkineses of occiput and atlas on lateral inclination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jirout, J.

    1981-02-01

    An X-ray analysis was performed with regard to the question of synkinetic rotational movements of occiput and atlas on lateral inclination of the head and neck. It was found that the frequent synkinetic rotation of the head from the side of inclination can be taken for a stereotype that is ten times more frequent than the rotation towards the side of inclination. However, it does not represent an essential or indispensable feature of the synkinetic reaction. The associated rotation of the atlas from the side of inclination cannot be looked upon as a normal and constant element of the synkinetic response on lateral inclination, as it does not occur in nearly one-half of cases. Moreover, these studies have shown that the rotational movement between occiput and atlas is possible not only in the final stage of maximum forced rotation of the head, but that it belongs to normal dynamic features of the synkinetic response on lateral inclination of the head and neck.

  12. Rotational synkineses of occiput and atlas on lateral inclination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirout, J.

    1981-01-01

    An X-ray analysis was performed with regard to the question of synkinetic rotational movements of occiput and atlas on lateral inclination of the head and neck. It was found that the frequent synkinetic rotation of the head from the side of inclination can be taken for a stereotype that is ten times more frequent than the rotation towards the side of inclination. However, it does not represent an essential or indispensable feature of the synkinetic reaction. The associated rotation of the atlas from the side of inclination cannot be looked upon as a normal and constant element of the synkinetic response on lateral inclination, as it does not occur in nearly one-half of cases. Moreover, these studies have shown that the rotational movement between occiput and atlas is possible not only in the final stage of maximum forced rotation of the head, but that it belongs to normal dynamic features of the synkinetic response on lateral inclination of the head and neck. (orig.)

  13. TRANSIT TIMING VARIATIONS FOR INCLINED AND RETROGRADE EXOPLANETARY SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, Matthew J.; Ford, Eric B.; Veras, Dimitri

    2010-01-01

    We perform numerical calculations of the expected transit timing variations (TTVs) induced on a hot-Jupiter by an Earth-mass perturber. Motivated by the recent discoveries of retrograde transiting planets, we concentrate on an investigation of the effect of varying relative planetary inclinations, up to and including completely retrograde systems. We find that planets in low-order (e.g., 2:1) mean-motion resonances (MMRs) retain approximately constant TTV amplitudes for 0 deg. 170 deg. Systems in higher order MMRs (e.g., 5:1) increase in TTV amplitude as inclinations increase toward 45 deg., becoming approximately constant for 45 deg. 135 deg. Planets away from resonance slowly decrease in TTV amplitude as inclinations increase from 0 deg. to 180 deg., whereas planets adjacent to resonances can exhibit a huge range of variability in TTV amplitude as a function of both eccentricity and inclination. For highly retrograde systems (135 deg. < i ≤ 180 deg.), TTV signals will be undetectable across almost the entirety of parameter space, with the exceptions occurring when the perturber has high eccentricity or is very close to an MMR. This high inclination decrease in TTV amplitude (on and away from resonance) is important for the analysis of the known retrograde and multi-planet transiting systems, as inclination effects need to be considered if TTVs are to be used to exclude the presence of any putative planetary companions: absence of evidence is not evidence of absence.

  14. Thermo-economic performance of inclined solar water distillation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agboola Phillips O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the thermo-economic performance of different configurations of inclined solar water desalination for parameters such as daily production, efficiency, system cost and distilled water production cost. The four different configurations considered for this study are as follows; 1. Inclined solar water distillation with bare absorber plate (IISWD with daily production of 5.46 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency of 48.3%. 2. Inclined solar water distillation with wick on absorber plate (IISWDW with daily production of 6.41kg/m2 day and daily efficiency 50.3%. 3. Inclined solar water distillation with wire mesh on absorber plate (IISWDWM with daily production n of 3.03 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency 32.6%. 4. Inclined solar water distillation with bare absorber plate (ISWD. (Control System with daily production of 3.25 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency of 40.1%. The systems potable water cost price ranges from 0.03 $/L for IISWDW to 0.06$/L for IISWDWM System. All the systems are economically and technically feasible as a solar distillation system for potable water in Northern Cyprus. The price of potable water from water vendors/hawkers ranges from 0.11-0.16 $/L. It is more economically viable to have the rooftop inclined solar water desalination system than procuring potable water from vendors.`

  15. Web Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürnkranz, Johannes

    The World-Wide Web provides every internet citizen with access to an abundance of information, but it becomes increasingly difficult to identify the relevant pieces of information. Research in web mining tries to address this problem by applying techniques from data mining and machine learning to Web data and documents. This chapter provides a brief overview of web mining techniques and research areas, most notably hypertext classification, wrapper induction, recommender systems and web usage mining.

  16. Evaluation of performance of veterinary in-clinic hematology analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishniw, Mark; Pion, Paul D

    2016-12-01

    A previous study provided information regarding the quality of in-clinic veterinary biochemistry testing. However, no similar studies for in-clinic veterinary hematology testing have been conducted. The objective of this study was to assess the quality of hematology testing in veterinary in-clinic laboratories using results obtained from testing 3 levels of canine EDTA blood samples. Clinicians prepared blood samples to achieve measurand concentrations within, below, and above their RIs and evaluated the samples in triplicate using their in-clinic analyzers. Quality was assessed by comparison of calculated total error with quality requirements, determination of sigma metrics, use of a quality goal index, and agreement between in-clinic and reference laboratory instruments. Suitability for statistical quality control was determined using adaptations from the computerized program, EZRules3. Evaluation of 10 veterinary in-clinic hematology analyzers showed that these instruments often fail to meet quality requirements. At least 60% of analyzers reasonably determined RBC, WBC, HCT, and HGB, when assessed by most quality goal criteria; platelets were less reliably measured, with 80% deemed suitable for low platelet counts, but only 30% for high platelet counts, and automated differential leukocyte counts were generally considered unsuitable for clinical use with fewer than 40% of analyzers meeting the least stringent quality goal requirements. Fewer than 50% of analyzers were able to meet requirements for statistical quality control for any measurand. These findings reflect the current status of in-clinic hematology analyzer performance and provide a basis for future evaluations of the quality of veterinary laboratory testing. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  17. Stratified flow model for convective condensation in an inclined tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lips, Stéphane; Meyer, Josua P.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Convective condensation in an inclined tube is modelled. ► The heat transfer coefficient is the highest for about 20° below the horizontal. ► Capillary forces have a strong effect on the liquid–vapour interface shape. ► A good agreement between the model and the experimental results was observed. - Abstract: Experimental data are reported for condensation of R134a in an 8.38 mm inner diameter smooth tube in inclined orientations with a mass flux of 200 kg/m 2 s. Under these conditions, the flow is stratified and there is an optimum inclination angle, which leads to the highest heat transfer coefficient. There is a need for a model to better understand and predict the flow behaviour. In this paper, the state of the art of existing models of stratified two-phase flows in inclined tubes is presented, whereafter a new mechanistic model is proposed. The liquid–vapour distribution in the tube is determined by taking into account the gravitational and the capillary forces. The comparison between the experimental data and the model prediction showed a good agreement in terms of heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops. The effect of the interface curvature on the heat transfer coefficient has been quantified and has been found to be significant. The optimum inclination angle is due to a balance between an increase of the void fraction and an increase in the falling liquid film thickness when the tube is inclined downwards. The effect of the mass flux and the vapour quality on the optimum inclination angle has also been studied.

  18. Thermal convection of liquid sodium in inclined cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalilov, Ruslan; Kolesnichenko, Ilya; Pavlinov, Alexander; Mamykin, Andrey; Shestakov, Alexander; Frick, Peter

    2018-04-01

    The effect of inclination on the low Prandtl number turbulent convection in a cylinder of unit aspect ratio was studied experimentally. The working fluid was sodium (Prandtl number Pr =0.0094 ), the measurements were performed for a fixed Rayleigh number Ra =(1.47 ±0.03 ) ×107 , and the inclination angle varied from β =0∘ (the Rayleigh-Bénard convection, the temperature gradient is vertical) up to β =90∘ (the applied temperature gradient is horizontal) with a step Δ β =10∘ . The effective axial heat flux characterized by the Nusselt number is minimal at β =0∘ and demonstrates a smooth growth with the increase of the cylinder inclination, reaching a maximum at angle β ≈70∘ and decreasing with a further increase of β . The maximal value of the normalized Nusselt number Nu (β )/Nu (0 ) was 1.21. In general, the dependence of Nu (β ) in a cylinder with unit aspect ratio is similar to what was observed in sodium convection in inclined long cylinders but is much weaker. The structure of the flow undergoes a significant transformation with inclination. Under moderate inclination (β ≲30∘ ), the fluctuations are strong and are provided by regular oscillations of large-scale circulation (LSC) and by turbulence. Under large inclination (β >60∘ ), the LSC is regular and the turbulence is weak, while in transient regimes (30∘border of transient and large inclinations. We find the first evidence of strong LSC fluctuations in low Prandtl number convective flow under moderate inclination. The rms azimuthal fluctuations of LSC, about 27∘ at β =0∘ , decrease almost linearly up to β =30∘ , where they are about 9∘. The angular fluctuations in the vicinity of the end faces are much stronger (about 37∘ at β =0∘ ) and weakly decrease up to β =20∘ . The strong anticorrelation of the fluctuations in two halves of the cylinder indicates the torsional character of LSC fluctuations. At β =30∘ , the intensity of the oscillations at the

  19. Instability timescale for the inclination instability in the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zderic, Alexander; Madigan, Ann-Marie; Fleisig, Jacob

    2018-04-01

    The gravitational influence of small bodies is often neglected in the study of solar system dynamics. However, this is not always an appropriate assumption. For example, mutual secular torques between low mass particles on eccentric orbits can result in a self-gravity instability (`inclination instability'; Madigan & McCourt 2016). During the instability, inclinations increase exponentially, eccentricities decrease (detachment), and orbits cluster in argument of perihelion. In the solar system, the orbits of the most distant objects show all three of these characteristics (high inclination: Volk & Malhotra (2017), detachment: Delsanti & Jewitt (2006), and argument of perihelion clustering: Trujillo & Sheppard (2014)). The inclination instability is a natural explanation for these phenomena.Unfortunately, full N-body simulations of the solar system are unfeasible (N ≈ O(1012)), and the behavior of the instability depends on N, prohibiting the direct application of lower N simulations. Here we present the instability timescale's functional dependence on N, allowing us to extrapolate our simulation results to that appropriate for the solar system. We show that ~5 MEarth of small icy bodies in the Sedna region is sufficient for the inclination instability to occur in the outer solar system.

  20. The orbital inclination of A0620 - 00 measured polarimetrically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, J.F.; Tapia, S.

    1989-01-01

    The mass of the degenerate primary in A0620 - 00 is inferred from its spectroscopic mass function to be not less than 3.2 solar masses, making it an excellent candidate for a black hole. The exact value of the mass depends on the orbital inclination. The inclination of a binary system can be determined from the shape of its Stokes parameter light curves if the linear polarization of the system varies as a function of orbital phase. A0620 - 00 over one 8-hour binary period was observed with the 4.5-m equivalent MMT. Its polarization in the visible is variable with orbital phase. The standard theory of Brown et al. (1978) was used to derive an orbital inclination of i = 57 deg (+20 deg, -50 deg), where the error is the 90-percent confidence interval. An inclination of i = 57 deg corresponds to a mass of the compact primary of 6.6 solar masses, but the large uncertainty in the measured value of the inclination allows the derived mass of A0620 - 00 to be as low as 3.8 solar masses. If this is taken to be the maximum mass of any degenerate configuration consistent with general relativity except a black hole, then the mass of A0620 - 00 is still not well enough determined to conclude that it must be a black hole. 21 refs

  1. Management of Reinforcement Corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küter, André; Geiker, Mette Rica; Møller, Per

    Reinforcement corrosion is the most important cause for deterioration of reinforced concrete structures, both with regard to costs and consequences. Thermodynamically consistent descriptions of corrosion mechanisms are expected to allow the development of innovative concepts for the management...... of reinforcement corrosion....

  2. On the inclination and habitability of the HD 10180 system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, Stephen R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Gelino, Dawn M., E-mail: skane@sfsu.edu [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, Caltech, MS 100-22, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-09-10

    There are numerous multi-planet systems that have now been detected via a variety of techniques. These systems exhibit a range of both planetary properties and orbital configurations. For those systems without detected planetary transits, a significant unknown factor is the orbital inclination. This produces an uncertainty in the mass of the planets and their related properties, such as atmospheric scale height. Here we investigate the HD 10180 system, which was discovered using the radial velocity technique. We provide a new orbital solution for the system which allows for eccentric orbits for all planets. We show how the inclination of the system affects the mass/radius properties of the planets and how the detection of phase signatures may resolve the inclination ambiguity. We finally evaluate the Habitable Zone properties of the system and show that the g planet spends 100% of an eccentric orbit within the Habitable Zone.

  3. Natural Frequencies and Mode Shapes of Statically Deformed Inclined Risers

    KAUST Repository

    Alfosail, Feras

    2016-10-15

    We investigate numerically the linear vibrations of inclined risers using the Galerkin approach. The riser is modeled as an Euler-Bernoulli beam accounting for the nonlinear mid-plane stretching and self-weight. After solving for the initial deflection of the riser due to self-weight, we use a Galerkin expansion employing 15 axially loaded beam mode shapes to solve the eigenvalue problem of the riser around the static equilibrium configuration. This yields the riser natural frequencies and corresponding exact mode shapes for various values of inclination angles and tension. The obtained results are validated against a boundary-layer analytical solution and are found to be in good agreement. This constitutes a basis to study the nonlinear forced vibrations of inclined risers.

  4. Loading factor and inclination parameter of diagonal type MHD generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Motoo

    1979-01-01

    Regarding diagonal type MHD generators is studied the relation between the loading factor and inclination parameter which is required for attaining the maximum power density with a given electrical efficiency on the assumption of infinitely segmented electrodes. The average current density on electrodes is calculated against the Hall parameter, loading factor, and inclination parameter. The diagonal type generator is compared with Faraday type generator regarding the average current density. Decreasing the loading factor from inlet to outlet is appropriate to small size generators but increasing to large size generators. The inclination parameter had better decrease in both generators, being smaller for small generators than for large ones. The average current density on electrodes of diagonal type generators varies less with the loading factor than the Faraday type. In large size generators its value can become smaller compared with that of the Faraday type. (author)

  5. Interplay between geometry and temperature for inclined Casimir plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Alexej; Gies, Holger

    2009-01-01

    We provide further evidence for the nontrivial interplay between geometry and temperature in the Casimir effect. We investigate the temperature dependence of the Casimir force between an inclined semi-infinite plate above an infinite plate in D dimensions using the worldline formalism. Whereas the high-temperature behavior is always found to be linear in T in accordance with dimensional-reduction arguments, different power-law behaviors at small temperatures emerge. Unlike the case of infinite parallel plates, which shows the well-known T D behavior of the force, we find a T D-1 behavior for inclined plates, and a ∼T D-0.3 behavior for the edge effect in the limit where the plates become parallel. The strongest temperature dependence ∼T D-2 occurs for the Casimir torque of inclined plates. Numerical as well as analytical worldline results are presented.

  6. Flow of Dense Granular Suspensions on an Inclined Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnoit, C.; Lanuza, J.; Lindner, A.; Clément, E.

    2008-07-01

    We investigate the flow behavior of dense granular suspensions, by the use of an inclined plane. The suspensions are prepared at high packing fractions and consist of spherical non-Brownian particles density matched with the suspending fluid. On the inclined plane, we perform a systematic study of the surface velocity as a function of the layer thickness for various flow rates and tilt angles. We perform measurements on a classical rheometer (parallel-plate rheometer) that is shown to be in good agreement with existing models, up to a volume fraction of 50%. Comparing these results, we show that the flow on an inclined plane can, up to a volume fraction of 50%, indeed be described by a purely viscous model in agreement with the results from classical rheometry.

  7. Adapting without reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheifets, Aaron; Gallistel, C Randy

    2012-11-01

    Our data rule out a broad class of behavioral models in which behavioral change is guided by differential reinforcement. To demonstrate this, we showed that the number of reinforcers missed before the subject shifted its behavior was not sufficient to drive behavioral change. What's more, many subjects shifted their behavior to a more optimal strategy even when they had not yet missed a single reinforcer. Naturally, differential reinforcement cannot be said to drive a process that shifts to accommodate to new conditions so adeptly that it doesn't miss a single reinforcer: it would have no input on which to base this shift.

  8. Genomic Signatures of Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin G. Garner

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement is the process by which selection against hybridization increases reproductive isolation between taxa. Much research has focused on demonstrating the existence of reinforcement, yet relatively little is known about the genetic basis of reinforcement or the evolutionary conditions under which reinforcement can occur. Inspired by reinforcement’s characteristic phenotypic pattern of reproductive trait divergence in sympatry but not in allopatry, we discuss whether reinforcement also leaves a distinct genomic pattern. First, we describe three patterns of genetic variation we expect as a consequence of reinforcement. Then, we discuss a set of alternative processes and complicating factors that may make the identification of reinforcement at the genomic level difficult. Finally, we consider how genomic analyses can be leveraged to inform if and to what extent reinforcement evolved in the face of gene flow between sympatric lineages and between allopatric and sympatric populations of the same lineage. Our major goals are to understand if genome scans for particular patterns of genetic variation could identify reinforcement, isolate the genetic basis of reinforcement, or infer the conditions under which reinforcement evolved.

  9. Genomic Signatures of Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulet, Benjamin E.

    2018-01-01

    Reinforcement is the process by which selection against hybridization increases reproductive isolation between taxa. Much research has focused on demonstrating the existence of reinforcement, yet relatively little is known about the genetic basis of reinforcement or the evolutionary conditions under which reinforcement can occur. Inspired by reinforcement’s characteristic phenotypic pattern of reproductive trait divergence in sympatry but not in allopatry, we discuss whether reinforcement also leaves a distinct genomic pattern. First, we describe three patterns of genetic variation we expect as a consequence of reinforcement. Then, we discuss a set of alternative processes and complicating factors that may make the identification of reinforcement at the genomic level difficult. Finally, we consider how genomic analyses can be leveraged to inform if and to what extent reinforcement evolved in the face of gene flow between sympatric lineages and between allopatric and sympatric populations of the same lineage. Our major goals are to understand if genome scans for particular patterns of genetic variation could identify reinforcement, isolate the genetic basis of reinforcement, or infer the conditions under which reinforcement evolved. PMID:29614048

  10. Fluorescence intensity dependence on the propagation plane inclination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.E.; Rubio, Marcelo; Sanchez, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation of the primary and secondary X-ray fluorescent emission from an homogeneous and infinite thickness sample, irradiated under different inclination of the propagation plane, is carried out. An agreement with the predictions based on Sherman equations depending on the inclination angle α was found. The invariance of the primary fluorescence with respect to α and the decrease until evanescence of the secondary fluorescence for a α → π/2 are confirmed. A discussion about the physical basis of this dependence is carried out. Similar results are expected for tertiary fluorescence. (Author) [es

  11. Entrepreneurial Inclination Among Business Students: A Malaysian Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yet-Mee Lim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship has been the fundamental topics of discussion among the politicians, economists, and academics. Business creation is especially critical in developing countries to stimulate economic growth. The present study attempts to examine entrepreneurial inclination among students who are a potential source of entrepreneurs. The fi ndings of the present research study indicate that majority of our business students are not entrepreneurial-inclined. They do not seem to possess strong entrepreneurial characteristics and entrepreneurial skills, and they are not keen in starting a new business. The roles of higher institutes of education and the government in promoting entrepreneurship are discussed.

  12. Psychopathic Inclination Among Incarcerated Youth of Hazara Division Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sher Dil

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Present study aimed at evaluating the psychopathic inclination among youth and finding the gender differences in psychopathy. An indigenously developed Psychopathy scale (Urdu has been used in this study. Alpha reliability of the scale was .90. The study was conducted on 100 males (50 criminals and 50 non-criminals and 100 females (26 criminals and 74 non-criminals using a convenient sampling technique from three districts of Hazara division: Haripur, Abbottabad, and Mansehra. Results confirmed that there is significant difference in psychopathic inclination of males and females; criminals differed significantly from the non-criminals. The study also paves way for further investigation in the field in Pakistan.

  13. Habituation of reinforcer effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Lloyd

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose an integrative model of habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE that links behavioral and neural based explanations of reinforcement. We argue that habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE is a fundamental property of reinforcing stimuli. Most reinforcement models implicitly suggest that the effectiveness of a reinforcer is stable across repeated presentations. In contrast, an HRE approach predicts decreased effectiveness due to repeated presentation. We argue that repeated presentation of reinforcing stimuli decreases their effectiveness and that these decreases are described by the behavioral characteristics of habituation (McSweeney and Murphy, 2009;Rankin et al., 2009. We describe a neural model that postulates a positive association between dopamine neurotransmission and HRE. We present evidence that stimulant drugs, which artificially increase dopamine neurotransmission, disrupt (slow normally occurring HRE and also provide evidence that stimulant drugs have differential effects on operant responding maintained by reinforcers with rapid vs. slow HRE rates. We hypothesize that abnormal HRE due to genetic and/or environmental factors may underlie some behavioral disorders. For example, recent research indicates that slow-HRE is predictive of obesity. In contrast ADHD may reflect ‘accelerated-HRE’. Consideration of HRE is important for the development of effective reinforcement based treatments. Finally, we point out that most of the reinforcing stimuli that regulate daily behavior are non-consumable environmental/social reinforcers which have rapid-HRE. The almost exclusive use of consumable reinforcers with slow-HRE in pre-clinical studies with animals may have caused the importance of HRE to be overlooked. Further study of reinforcing stimuli with rapid-HRE is needed in order to understand how habituation and reinforcement interact and regulate behavior.

  14. Improving wellbore position accuracy of horizontal wells by using a continuous inclination measurement from a near bit inclination MWD sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, P. E.; Sele, R. [Baker Hughes INTEQ (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Wellbore position calculations are typically performed by measuring azimuth and inclination at 10 to 30 meter intervals and using interpolation techniques to determine the borehole position between survey stations. The input parameters are measured depth (MD), azimuth and inclination, where the two parameters are measured with an MWD tool. Output parameters are the geometric coordinates; true value depth (TVD), north and east. By improving the accuracy of the inclination measurement reduces the uncertainty of the calculated TVD value, resulting in increased confidence in wellbore position. Significant improvements in quality control can be achieved by using multiple sensors. This paper describes a set of quality control parameters that can be used to verify individual sensor performance and a method for calculating TVD uncertainty in horizontal wells, using a single sensor or a combination of sensors. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Habituation of reinforcer effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, David R; Medina, Douglas J; Hawk, Larry W; Fosco, Whitney D; Richards, Jerry B

    2014-01-09

    In this paper we propose an integrative model of habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE) that links behavioral- and neural-based explanations of reinforcement. We argue that HRE is a fundamental property of reinforcing stimuli. Most reinforcement models implicitly suggest that the effectiveness of a reinforcer is stable across repeated presentations. In contrast, an HRE approach predicts decreased effectiveness due to repeated presentation. We argue that repeated presentation of reinforcing stimuli decreases their effectiveness and that these decreases are described by the behavioral characteristics of habituation (McSweeney and Murphy, 2009; Rankin etal., 2009). We describe a neural model that postulates a positive association between dopamine neurotransmission and HRE. We present evidence that stimulant drugs, which artificially increase dopamine neurotransmission, disrupt (slow) normally occurring HRE and also provide evidence that stimulant drugs have differential effects on operant responding maintained by reinforcers with rapid vs. slow HRE rates. We hypothesize that abnormal HRE due to genetic and/or environmental factors may underlie some behavioral disorders. For example, recent research indicates that slow-HRE is predictive of obesity. In contrast ADHD may reflect "accelerated-HRE." Consideration of HRE is important for the development of effective reinforcement-based treatments. Finally, we point out that most of the reinforcing stimuli that regulate daily behavior are non-consumable environmental/social reinforcers which have rapid-HRE. The almost exclusive use of consumable reinforcers with slow-HRE in pre-clinical studies with animals may have caused the importance of HRE to be overlooked. Further study of reinforcing stimuli with rapid-HRE is needed in order to understand how habituation and reinforcement interact and regulate behavior.

  16. Model tests of geosynthetic reinforced slopes in a geotechnical centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aklik, P.

    2012-01-01

    Geosynthetic-reinforced slopes and walls became very popular in recent years because of their financial, technical, and ecological advantages. Centrifuge modelling is a powerful tool for physical modelling of reinforced slopes and offers the advantage to observe the failure mechanisms of the slopes. In order to replicate the gravity induced stresses of a prototype structure in a geometrically 1/N reduced model, it is necessary to test the model in a gravitational field N times larger than that of the prototype structure. In this dissertation, geotextile-reinforced slope models were tested in a geotechnical centrifuge to identify the possible failure mechanisms. Slope models were tested by varying slope inclination, tensile strengths of the geotextiles, and overlapping lengths. Photographs of the geotextile reinforced slope models in flight were taken with a digital camera and the soil deformations of geotextile reinforced slopes were evaluated with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The experimental results showed that failure of the centrifuge models initiated at midheight of the slope, and occurred due to geotextile breakage instead of pullout. The location of the shear surface is independent of the tensile strength of the geotextile; it is dependent on the shear strength of the soil. It is logical to see that the required acceleration of the centrifuge at slope failure was decreased with increasing slope inclination. An important contribution to the stability of the slope models was provided by the overlapping of the geotextile layers. It has a secondary reinforcement effect when it was prolonged and passed through the shear surface. Moreover, the location of the shear surface observed with PIV analysis exactly matches the tears of the retrieved geotextiles measured carefully after the centrifuge testing. It is concluded that PIV is an efficient tool to instrument the slope failures in a geotechnical centrifuge.(author) [de

  17. MEASUREMENTS OF DUST EXTINCTION IN HIGHLY INCLINED SPIRAL GALAXIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JANSEN, RA; KNAPEN, JH; BECKMAN, JE; PELETIER, RF; HES, R

    1994-01-01

    We study the extinction properties of dust in the well-defined dust lanes of four highly inclined galaxies, using U-, B-, V-, R- and I-band CCD and J- and K'-band near-infrared array images. For three of these galaxies, we could use the symmetry of the underlying light profile to obtain absolute

  18. The effect of circular bridge piers with different inclination angles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    comparing the data obtained from vertical bridge pier and well-known relationships, a relationship ... pier nose, horseshoe vortex, surface vortex wake vortex. ..... After passing several hours and discharging of ..... It is recommended to use this ... Energy. 109–119. [4] Bozkus Z and Yaldiz O 2004 Effects of inclination of bridge.

  19. Reconstruction of Galileo Galilei's Experiment: The Inclined Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straulino, S.

    2008-01-01

    In the "Third Day" of the "Discourses and Mathematical Demonstrations Concerning Two New Sciences" Galileo Galilei describes the famous experiment of the inclined plane and uses it to bring an experimental confirmation to the laws of uniformly accelerated motion. We describe a reconstruction of the experiment and how the results can be used for…

  20. Motion on an Inclined Plane and the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendrill, Ann-Marie; Ekström, Peter; Hansson, Lena; Mars, Patrik; Ouattara, Lassana; Ryan, Ulrika

    2014-01-01

    Friction is an important phenomenon in everyday life. All children are familiar with playground slides, which may thus be a good starting point for investigating friction. Motion on an inclined plane is a standard physics example. This paper presents an investigation of friction by a group of 11-year olds. How did they plan their investigations?…

  1. Non-spherical granular flows down inclined chutes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidalgo, R.C.; Rubio-Largo, S.M.; Alonso-Marroquin, F.; Weinhart, T.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we numerically examine the steady-state granular flow of 3D non-spherical particles down an inclined plane. We use a hybrid CPU/GPU implementation of the discrete element method of nonspherical elongated particles. Thus, a systematic study of the system response is performed varying

  2. A layered model for inclined pipe flow of settling slurry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoušek, Václav; Krupička, Jan; Kesely, Mikoláš

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 333, June (2018), s. 317-326 ISSN 0032-5910 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-14271S Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : inclined pipe * settling slurry * pressure drop * flow stratification * laboratory loop Impact factor: 2.942, year: 2016

  3. Students' Entrepreneurial Inclination at a Malaysian Polytechnic: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Ahmad Yasruddin Md; Mahmood, Nik Abdul Aziz Nik; Jaafar, Nik Azyyati Nik

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports preliminary results of an ongoing project to examine students' inclination towards entrepreneurship at a Malaysian polytechnic. The study used a self-administered questionnaire to explore the influence of entrepreneurial intent, perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, perceived barriers, perceived support factors and…

  4. Web archives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnemann, Niels Ole

    2018-01-01

    This article deals with general web archives and the principles for selection of materials to be preserved. It opens with a brief overview of reasons why general web archives are needed. Section two and three present major, long termed web archive initiatives and discuss the purposes and possible...... values of web archives and asks how to meet unknown future needs, demands and concerns. Section four analyses three main principles in contemporary web archiving strategies, topic centric, domain centric and time-centric archiving strategies and section five discuss how to combine these to provide...... a broad and rich archive. Section six is concerned with inherent limitations and why web archives are always flawed. The last sections deal with the question how web archives may fit into the rapidly expanding, but fragmented landscape of digital repositories taking care of various parts...

  5. Magnetic inclination from Brazilian bricks and application to Archeomagnetic dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begnini, G. S.; Hartmann, G. A.; Trindade, R. I.

    2013-05-01

    The Earth's magnetic field (EMF) is recorded in archeological baked materials carrying a stable remanent magnetization. This magnetic record can be used for indirectly date the archeological material by comparison with "reference curves" of the EMF. In this work we present magnetic inclination data from two different sites in southeastern Brazil, an ancient and a modern one: (a) a sampling at the ancient sugarcane mill Engenho Central de Piracicaba (ECP, 1881-1974 AD), and (b) a controlled survey at the modern brickyard Olaria Schiavolin (OS). Both of them are located in the city of Piracicaba, São Paulo State, Brazil. Magnetic measurements included stepwise thermal and alternating field demagnetization, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and low-field magnetic susceptibility vs. temperature. In OS, we collected 40 oriented bricks from 5 sampling points inside the brickyard oven in order to test the stability and reliability of their remanent magnetizations by comparing them with the local field (measured directly with a fluxgate magnetometer). We observed differences of +/- 3° between the local field and the IGRF. When magnetic inclinations are reported relative to the flat planes of the brick (the situation we face for real ancient bricks), the differences due to inclination of the burning plane and magnetic anomalies inside the oven never exceed 6°. These differences are averaged out by using a minimum of 6 bricks (~24 specimens) per sampling point to compute the inclination. In the ancient site ECP we collected 140 non-oriented bricks from 14 different walls; three of them were previously dated using historical records. Inclinations were defined using at least 6 bricks per wall, showing consistent average values within the same walls. When compared to the IGRF and GUFM1 models, the inclinations obtained for the dated walls agreed within the experimental error. We have then applied the same procedure to estimate the age of the remaining walls. Using

  6. Deontological and utilitarian inclinations in moral decision making: a process dissociation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Paul; Gawronski, Bertram

    2013-02-01

    Dual-process theories of moral judgment suggest that responses to moral dilemmas are guided by two moral principles: the principle of deontology states that the morality of an action depends on the intrinsic nature of the action (e.g., harming others is wrong regardless of its consequences); the principle of utilitarianism implies that the morality of an action is determined by its consequences (e.g., harming others is acceptable if it increases the well-being of a greater number of people). Despite the proposed independence of the moral inclinations reflecting these principles, previous work has relied on operationalizations in which stronger inclinations of one kind imply weaker inclinations of the other kind. The current research applied Jacoby's (1991) process dissociation procedure to independently quantify the strength of deontological and utilitarian inclinations within individuals. Study 1 confirmed the usefulness of process dissociation for capturing individual differences in deontological and utilitarian inclinations, revealing positive correlations of both inclinations to moral identity. Moreover, deontological inclinations were uniquely related to empathic concern, perspective-taking, and religiosity, whereas utilitarian inclinations were uniquely related to need for cognition. Study 2 demonstrated that cognitive load selectively reduced utilitarian inclinations, with deontological inclinations being unaffected. In Study 3, a manipulation designed to enhance empathy increased deontological inclinations, with utilitarian inclinations being unaffected. These findings provide evidence for the independent contributions of deontological and utilitarian inclinations to moral judgments, resolving many theoretical ambiguities implied by previous research. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Web Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Bebo

    2003-06-23

    Web Engineering is the application of systematic, disciplined and quantifiable approaches to development, operation, and maintenance of Web-based applications. It is both a pro-active approach and a growing collection of theoretical and empirical research in Web application development. This paper gives an overview of Web Engineering by addressing the questions: (a) why is it needed? (b) what is its domain of operation? (c) how does it help and what should it do to improve Web application development? and (d) how should it be incorporated in education and training? The paper discusses the significant differences that exist between Web applications and conventional software, the taxonomy of Web applications, the progress made so far and the research issues and experience of creating a specialization at the master's level. The paper reaches a conclusion that Web Engineering at this stage is a moving target since Web technologies are constantly evolving, making new types of applications possible, which in turn may require innovations in how they are built, deployed and maintained.

  8. Continuous Reinforced Concrete Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1996-01-01

    This report deals with stress and stiffness estimates of continuous reinforced concrete beams with different stiffnesses for negative and positive moments e.g. corresponding to different reinforcement areas in top and bottom. Such conditions are often met in practice.The moment distribution...

  9. Entrepreneurial Inclination Among Business Students: A Malaysian Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yet-Mee Lim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Entrepreneurship has been the fundamental topics of discussion among the politicians, economists, and academics. Business creation is especially critical in developing countries to stimulate economic growth. The present study attempts to examine entrepreneurial inclination among students who are a potential source of entrepreneurs. The fi ndings of the present research study indicate that majority of our business students are not entrepreneurial-inclined. They do not seem to possess strong entrepreneurial characteristics and entrepreneurial skills, and they are not keen in starting a new business. The roles of higher institutes of education and the government in promoting entrepreneurship are discussed.

  10. Graphs and matroids weighted in a bounded incline algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ling-Xia; Zhang, Bei

    2014-01-01

    Firstly, for a graph weighted in a bounded incline algebra (or called a dioid), a longest path problem (LPP, for short) is presented, which can be considered the uniform approach to the famous shortest path problem, the widest path problem, and the most reliable path problem. The solutions for LPP and related algorithms are given. Secondly, for a matroid weighted in a linear matroid, the maximum independent set problem is studied.

  11. Composition sensitivity of the Auger observatory through inclined showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ave, M.; Watson, A.A.; Hinton, J.A.; Vazquez, R.A.; Zas, E.

    2003-01-01

    We report a calculation of the expected rate of inclined air showers induced by ultra high-energy cosmic rays to be obtained by the Auger Southern Observatory assuming different mass compositions. We describe some features that can be used to distinguish photons at energies as high as 10 20 eV. The discrimination of photons at such energies will help to test some models of the origin of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays

  12. Sagittal x-ray beam deviation at asymmetric inclined diffractors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korytár, D.; Hrdý, Jaromír; Artemiev, Nikolai; Ferrari, C.; Freund, A.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2001), s. 1136-1139 ISSN 0909-0495 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OK 305; GA MPO PZ-CH/22 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : x-ray optics * Si(111) W/grooved crystals * inclined diffraction * out-of-diffraction-plane beams * sagittal focusing Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.519, year: 2001

  13. Aqua/Aura Updated Inclination Adjust Maneuver Performance Prediction Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Spencer

    2017-01-01

    This presentation will discuss the updated Inclination Adjust Maneuver (IAM) performance prediction model that was developed for Aqua and Aura following the 2017 IAM series. This updated model uses statistical regression methods to identify potential long-term trends in maneuver parameters, yielding improved predictions when re-planning past maneuvers. The presentation has been reviewed and approved by Eric Moyer, ESMO Deputy Project Manager.

  14. Two Mechanisms of Sensorimotor Set Adaptation to Inclined Stance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Hyun Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Orientation of posture relative to the environment depends on the contributions from the somatosensory, vestibular, and visual systems mixed in varying proportions to produce a sensorimotor set. Here, we probed the sensorimotor set composition using a postural adaptation task in which healthy adults stood on an inclined surface for 3 min. Upon returning to a horizontal surface, participants displayed a range of postural orientations – from an aftereffect that consisted of a large forward postural lean to an upright stance with little or no aftereffect. It has been hypothesized that the post-incline postural change depends on each individual’s sensorimotor set: whether the set was dominated by the somatosensory or vestibular system: Somatosensory dominance would cause the lean aftereffect whereas vestibular dominance should steer stance posture toward upright orientation. We investigated the individuals who displayed somatosensory dominance by manipulating their attention to spatial orientation. We introduced a distraction condition in which subjects concurrently performed a difficult arithmetic subtraction task. This manipulation altered the time course of their post-incline aftereffect. When not distracted, participants returned to upright stance within the 3-min period. However, they continued leaning forward when distracted. These results suggest that the mechanism of sensorimotor set adaptation to inclined stance comprises at least two components. The first component reflects the dominant contribution from the somatosensory system. Since the postural lean was observed among these subjects even when they were not distracted, it suggests that the aftereffect is difficult to overcome. The second component includes a covert attentional component which manifests as the dissipation of the aftereffect and the return of posture to upright orientation.

  15. Inclination of undergraduate medical students towards teaching as career

    OpenAIRE

    Apturkar, D. K.; Dandekar, Usha K.; Dandkar, Kundankumar Narayan; Jorwekar, Golul Jayant; Baviskar, Padmakar Kashinath

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: There is acute shortage of teachers in medical field and very few new members are joining this noble profession. The shortage of medical teachers is resulting in decrease of teaching quality, decrease in number of medical seats and the country is losing its education standard worldwide.Aims: To find out the view and inclination of undergraduate medical students towards teaching as career.Objectives: It is an attempt to find possible reasons preventing or stimulating the undergra...

  16. Characterization and improvement of highly inclined optical sheet microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignolini, T.; Curcio, V.; Gardini, L.; Capitanio, M.; Pavone, F. S.

    2018-02-01

    Highly Inclined and Laminated Optical sheet (HILO) microscopy is an optical technique that employs a highly inclined laser beam to illuminate the sample with a thin sheet of light that can be scanned through the sample volume1 . HILO is an efficient illumination technique when applied to fluorescence imaging of thick samples owing to the confined illumination volume that allows high contrast imaging while retaining deep scanning capability in a wide-field configuration. The restricted illumination volume is crucial to limit background fluorescence originating from portions of the sample far from the focal plane, especially in applications such as single molecule localization and super-resolution imaging2-4. Despite its widespread use, current literature lacks comprehensive reports of the actual advantages of HILO in these kinds of microscopies. Here, we thoroughly characterize the propagation of a highly inclined beam through fluorescently labeled samples and implement appropriate beam shaping for optimal application to single molecule and super-resolution imaging. We demonstrate that, by reducing the beam size along the refracted axis only, the excitation volume is consequently reduced while maintaining a field of view suitable for single cell imaging. We quantify the enhancement in signal-tobackground ratio with respect to the standard HILO technique and apply our illumination method to dSTORM superresolution imaging of the actin and vimentin cytoskeleton. We define the conditions to achieve localization precisions comparable to state-of-the-art reports, obtain a significant improvement in the image contrast, and enhanced plane selectivity within the sample volume due to the further confinement of the inclined beam.

  17. Inclined fluidized bed system for drying fine coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Chang Y.; Merriam, Norman W.; Boysen, John E.

    1992-02-11

    Coal is processed in an inclined fluidized bed dryer operated in a plug-flow manner with zonal temperature and composition control, and an inert fluidizing gas, such as carbon dioxide or combustion gas. Recycled carbon dioxide, which is used for drying, pyrolysis, quenching, and cooling, is produced by partial decarboxylation of the coal. The coal is heated sufficiently to mobilize coal tar by further pyrolysis, which seals micropores upon quenching. Further cooling with carbon dioxide enhances stabilization.

  18. The influence of incline walking on joint mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, Mason; Dickin, D Clark; Popp, Jennifer; Wang, Henry

    2014-04-01

    Walking is a popular form of exercise and is associated with many health benefits; however, frontal-plane knee joint loading brought about by a large internal knee-abduction moment and cyclic loading could lead to cartilage degeneration over time. Therefore, knee joint mechanics during an alternative walking exercise needs to be analyzed. The purpose of this study was to examine the lower-extremity joint mechanics in the frontal and sagittal planes during incline walking. Fifteen healthy males walked on a treadmill at five gradients (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) at 1.34m/s, and lower-extremity joint mechanics in the frontal and sagittal planes were quantified. The peak internal knee-abduction moment significantly decreased from the level walking condition at all gradients except 5%. Also, a negative relationship between the internal knee-abduction moment and the treadmill gradient was found to exist in 10% increments (0-10%, 5-15%, and 10-20%). The decrease in the internal knee-abduction moment during incline walking could have positive effects on knee joint health such as potentially reducing cartilage degeneration of the knee joint, reducing pain, and decreasing the rate of development of medial tibiofemoral osteoarthritis. This would be beneficial for a knee surgery patient, obese persons, and older adults who are using incline walking for rehabilitation and exercise protocols. Findings from the current study can provide guidance for the development of rehabilitation and exercise prescriptions incorporating incline walking. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Three-dimensional volumetric display by inclined-plane scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Daisuke; Eto, Takuma; Nishimura, Yasuhiro; Matsushita, Kenji

    2003-05-01

    A volumetric display system based on three-dimensional (3-D) scanning that uses an inclined two-dimensional (2-D) image is described. In the volumetric display system a 2-D display unit is placed obliquely in an imaging system into which a rotating mirror is inserted. When the mirror is rotated, the inclined 2-D image is moved laterally. A locus of the moving image can be observed by persistence of vision as a result of the high-speed rotation of the mirror. Inclined cross-sectional images of an object are displayed on the display unit in accordance with the position of the image plane to observe a 3-D image of the object by persistence of vision. Three-dimensional images formed by this display system satisfy all the criteria for stereoscopic vision. We constructed the volumetric display systems using a galvanometer mirror and a vector-scan display unit. In addition, we constructed a real-time 3-D measurement system based on a light section method. Measured 3-D images can be reconstructed in the 3-D display system in real time.

  20. Web 25

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    the reader on an exciting time travel journey to learn more about the prehistory of the hyperlink, the birth of the Web, the spread of the early Web, and the Web’s introduction to the general public in mainstream media. Fur- thermore, case studies of blogs, literature, and traditional media going online...

  1. Web Page Recommendation Using Web Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Modraj Bhavsar; Mrs. P. M. Chavan

    2014-01-01

    On World Wide Web various kind of content are generated in huge amount, so to give relevant result to user web recommendation become important part of web application. On web different kind of web recommendation are made available to user every day that includes Image, Video, Audio, query suggestion and web page. In this paper we are aiming at providing framework for web page recommendation. 1) First we describe the basics of web mining, types of web mining. 2) Details of each...

  2. Algorithms for Reinforcement Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Szepesvari, Csaba

    2010-01-01

    Reinforcement learning is a learning paradigm concerned with learning to control a system so as to maximize a numerical performance measure that expresses a long-term objective. What distinguishes reinforcement learning from supervised learning is that only partial feedback is given to the learner about the learner's predictions. Further, the predictions may have long term effects through influencing the future state of the controlled system. Thus, time plays a special role. The goal in reinforcement learning is to develop efficient learning algorithms, as well as to understand the algorithms'

  3. Sensor web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delin, Kevin A. (Inventor); Jackson, Shannon P. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A Sensor Web formed of a number of different sensor pods. Each of the sensor pods include a clock which is synchronized with a master clock so that all of the sensor pods in the Web have a synchronized clock. The synchronization is carried out by first using a coarse synchronization which takes less power, and subsequently carrying out a fine synchronization to make a fine sync of all the pods on the Web. After the synchronization, the pods ping their neighbors to determine which pods are listening and responded, and then only listen during time slots corresponding to those pods which respond.

  4. Modeling reinforced concrete durability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This project developed a next-generation modeling approach for projecting the extent of : reinforced concrete corrosion-related damage, customized for new and existing Florida Department of : Transportation bridges and suitable for adapting to broade...

  5. Web Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Web Analytics Program collects, analyzes, and provides reports on traffic, quality assurance, and customer satisfaction metrics for EPA’s website. The program uses a variety of analytics tools, including Google Analytics and CrazyEgg.

  6. Web Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... topic data in XML format. Using the Web service, software developers can build applications that utilize MedlinePlus health topic information. The service accepts keyword searches as requests and returns relevant ...

  7. On the highly inclined vW leptokurtic asteroid families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruba, V.; Domingos, R. C.; Aljbaae, S.; Huaman, M.

    2016-11-01

    vW leptokurtic asteroid families are families for which the distribution of the normal component of the terminal ejection velocity field vW is characterized by a positive value of the γ2 Pearson kurtosis, I.e. they have a distribution with a more concentrated peak and larger tails than the Gaussian one. Currently, eight families are known to have γ2(vW) > 0.25. Among these, three are highly inclined asteroid families, the Hansa, Barcelona, and Gallia families. As observed for the case of the Astrid family, the leptokurtic inclination distribution seems to be caused by the interaction of these families with node secular resonances. In particular, the Hansa and Gallia family are crossed by the s - sV resonance with Vesta, that significantly alters the inclination of some of their members. In this work we use the time evolution of γ2(vW) for simulated families under the gravitational influence of all planets and the three most massive bodies in the main belt to assess the dynamical importance (or lack of) node secular resonances with Ceres, Vesta, and Pallas for the considered families, and to obtain independent constraints on the family ages. While secular resonances with massive bodies in the main belt do not significantly affect the dynamical evolution of the Barcelona family, they significantly increase the γ2(vW) values of the simulated Hansa and Gallia families. Current values of the γ2(vW) for the Gallia family are reached over the estimated family age only if secular resonances with Vesta are accounted for.

  8. Collisionless encounters and the origin of the lunar inclination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlevan, Kaveh; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2015-11-26

    The Moon is generally thought to have formed from the debris ejected by the impact of a planet-sized object with the proto-Earth towards the end of planetary accretion. Models of the impact process predict that the lunar material was disaggregated into a circumplanetary disk and that lunar accretion subsequently placed the Moon in a near-equatorial orbit. Forward integration of the lunar orbit from this initial state predicts a modern inclination at least an order of magnitude smaller than the lunar value--a long-standing discrepancy known as the lunar inclination problem. Here we show that the modern lunar orbit provides a sensitive record of gravitational interactions with Earth-crossing planetesimals that were not yet accreted at the time of the Moon-forming event. The currently observed lunar orbit can naturally be reproduced via interaction with a small quantity of mass (corresponding to 0.0075-0.015 Earth masses eventually accreted to the Earth) carried by a few bodies, consistent with the constraints and models of late accretion. Although the encounter process has a stochastic element, the observed value of the lunar inclination is among the most likely outcomes for a wide range of parameters. The excitation of the lunar orbit is most readily reproduced via collisionless encounters of planetesimals with the Earth-Moon system with strong dissipation of tidal energy on the early Earth. This mechanism obviates the need for previously proposed (but idealized) excitation mechanisms, places the Moon-forming event in the context of the formation of Earth, and constrains the pristineness of the dynamical state of the Earth-Moon system.

  9. Flame spread over inclined electrical wires with AC electric fields

    KAUST Repository

    Lim, Seung J.

    2017-07-21

    Flame spread over polyethylene-insulated electrical wires was studied experimentally with applied alternating current (AC) by varying the inclination angle (θ), applied voltage (VAC), and frequency (fAC). For the baseline case with no electric field applied, the flame spread rate and the flame width of downwardly spreading flames (DSFs) decreased from the horizontal case for −20° ≤ θ < 0° and maintained near constant values for −90° ≤ θ < −20°, while the flame spread rate increased appreciably as the inclination angle of upwardly spreading flames (USFs) increased. When an AC electric field was applied, the behavior of flame spread rate in DSFs (USFs) could be classified into two (three) sub-regimes characterized by various functional dependences on VAC, fAC, and θ. In nearly all cases of DSFs, a globular molten polyethylene formed ahead of the spreading flame edge, occasionally dripping onto the ground. In these cases, an effective flame spread rate was defined to represent the burning rate by measuring the mass loss due to dripping. This effective spread rate was independent of AC frequency, while it decreased linearly with voltage and was independent of the inclination angle. In DSFs, when excessively high voltage and frequency were applied, the dripping led to flame extinction during propagation and the extinction frequency correlated well with applied voltage. In USFs, when high voltage and frequency were applied, multiple globular molten PEs formed at several locations, leading to ejections of multiple small flame segments from the main flame, thereby reducing the flame spread rate, which could be attributed to the electrospray phenomenon.

  10. Sensitivity determination of CR-39 from Normal and inclined incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou, A.A.; El-Kheir, A.A.; Daas, A.F.; Awwad, Z.; Reda, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    An experimental study have been carried out on alpha- particle track opening (Major and minor axes) using alpha-particles of different energies incident with different angels in addition to the normal incidence. The sensitivity of CR-39 in present work is determined for each of normal and inclined incidence. The results indicated a difference in the sensitivity according to angle of incidence. The variation of alpha- particle tracks (major and minor axes) are calculated and compared with our measured values. Also, it is found that the sensitivity of CR-39 detector is change due to the storage time at room temperature

  11. Inclined indentation of smooth wedge in rock mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanyshev, AI; Podyminogin, GM; Lukyashko, OA

    2018-03-01

    The article focuses on the inclined rigid wedge indentation into a rigid-plastic half-plane of rocks with the Mohr–Coulomb-Mohr plasticity. The limiting loads on different sides of the wedge are determined versus the internal friction angle, cohesion and wedge angle. It is shown that when the force is applied along the symmetry axis of the wedge, the zone of plasticity is formed only on one wedge side. In order to form the plasticity zone on both sides of the wedge, it is necessary to apply the force asymmetrically relative to the wedge symmetry axis. An engineering solution for the asymmetrical case implementation is suggested.

  12. Inclinations of Egyptian pyramids and finding of the divine essence

    OpenAIRE

    GRIGORIEV STANISLAV ARKADIEVICH

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is discovery of astronomical reasons in orientation of slopes of Egyptian pyramids used as tombs for pharaohs of Ancient Egypt. The article contains results of statistical analysis of change in inclination of slopes of the pyramids (3rd 2nd millennia BC) depending on time of their building. The first year of the corresponding pharaoh’s reign has been accepted, as usually it is considered that building of pyramids ones started during either the first or second year of ...

  13. Predicting daylight illuminance on inclined surfaces using sky luminance data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, D.H.W.; Lau, C.C.S.; Lam, J.C. [City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon (China). Dept. of Building and Construction

    2005-07-01

    Daylight illuminance, particularly on vertical surfaces, plays a major role in determining and evaluating the daylighting performance of a building. In many parts of the world, however, the basic daylight illuminance data for various vertical planes are not always readily available. The usual method to obtain diffuse illuminance on tilted planes would be based on inclined surface models using data from the horizontal measurements. Alternatively, the diffuse illuminance on a sloping plane can be computed by integrating the luminance distribution of the sky 'seen' by the plane. This paper presents an approach to estimate the vertical outdoor illuminance from sky luminance data and solar geometry. Sky luminance data recorded from January 1999 to December 2001 in Hong Kong and generated by two well-known sky luminance models (Kittler and Perez) were used to compute the outdoor illuminance for the four principal vertical planes (N, E, S and W). The performance of this approach was evaluated against data measured in the same period. Statistical analysis indicated that using sky luminance distributions to predict outdoor illuminance can give reasonably good agreement with measured data for all vertical surfaces. The findings provide an accurate alternative to determine the amount of daylight on vertical as well as other inclined surfaces when sky luminance data are available. (author)

  14. Geosynchronous inclined orbits for high-latitude communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantino, E.; Flores, R. M.; Di Carlo, M.; Di Salvo, A.; Cabot, E.

    2017-11-01

    We present and discuss a solution to the growing demand for satellite telecommunication coverage in the high-latitude geographical regions (beyond 55°N), where the signal from geostationary satellites is limited or unavailable. We focus on the dynamical issues associated to the design, the coverage, the maintenance and the disposal of a set of orbits selected for the purpose. Specifically, we identify a group of highly inclined, moderately eccentric geosynchronous orbits derived from the Tundra orbit (geosynchronous, eccentric and critically inclined). Continuous coverage can be guaranteed by a constellation of three satellites in equally spaced planes and suitably phased. By means of a high-precision model of the terrestrial gravity field and the relevant environmental perturbations, we study the evolution of these orbits. The effects of the different perturbations on the ground track (which is more important for coverage than the orbital elements themselves) are isolated and analyzed. The physical model and the numerical setup are optimized with respect to computing time and accuracy. We show that, in order to maintain the ground track unchanged, the key parameters are the orbital period and the argument of perigee. Furthermore, corrections to the right ascension of the ascending node are needed in order to preserve the relative orientation of the orbital planes. A station-keeping strategy that minimizes propellant consumption is then devised, and comparisons are made between the cost of a solution based on impulsive maneuvers and one with continuous thrust. Finally, the issue of end-of-life disposal is discussed.

  15. Non-dispersive traveling waves in inclined shallow water channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didenkulova, Ira; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2009-01-01

    Existence of traveling waves propagating without internal reflection in inclined water channels of arbitrary slope is demonstrated. It is shown that traveling non-monochromatic waves exist in both linear and nonlinear shallow water theories in the case of a uniformly inclined channel with a parabolic cross-section. The properties of these waves are studied. It is shown that linear traveling waves should have a sign-variable shape. The amplitude of linear traveling waves in a channel satisfies the same Green's law, which is usually derived from the energy flux conservation for smoothly inhomogeneous media. Amplitudes of nonlinear traveling waves deviate from the linear Green's law, and the behavior of positive and negative amplitudes are different. Negative amplitude grows faster than positive amplitude in shallow water. The phase of nonlinear waves (travel time) is described well by the linear WKB approach. It is shown that nonlinear traveling waves of any amplitude always break near the shoreline if the boundary condition of the full absorption is applied.

  16. Finite element analysis of inclined nozzle-plate junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, K.B.; Seth, V.K.; Krishnan, A.; Ramamurthy, T.S.; Dattaguru, B.; Rao, A.K.

    1979-01-01

    Estimation of stress concentration at nozzle to plate or shell junctions is a significant problem in the stress analysis of nuclear reactors. The topic is a subject matter of extensive investigations and earlier considerable success has been reported on analysis for the cases when the nozzle is perpendicular to the plate or is radial to the shell. Analytical methods for the estimation of stress concentrations for the practical situations when the intersecting nozzle is inclined to the plate or is non-radial to the shell is rather scanty. Specific complications arise in dealing with the junction region when the nozzle with circular cross-section meets the non-circular cut-out on the plate or shell. In this paper a finite element analysis is developed for inclined nozzles and results are presented for nozzle-plate junctions. A method of analysis is developed with a view to achieving simultaneously accuracy of results and simplicity in the choice of elements and their connectivity. The circular nozzle is treated by axisymmetric conical shell elements. The nozzle portion in the region around the junction and the flat plate is dealt with by triangular flat shell elements. Special transition elements are developed for joining the flat shell elements with the axisymmetric elements under non-axisymmetric loading. A substructure method of analysis is adopted which achieves considerable economy in handling the structure and also conveniently combines the different types of elements in the structure. (orig.)

  17. Breakdown of air pockets in downwardly inclined sewerage pressure mains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbers, C L; Clemens, F H L R

    2006-01-01

    In the Netherlands, wastewater is collected in municipal areas and transported to centralised WWTPs by an extensive system of pressure mains. Over the last decades these pressure mains did not receive much attention in terms of monitoring of performance or maintenance. A recent inventory showed that half of the pressure mains show an increased pressure loss for no directly obvious reason. One of the many causes that account for the reduction of the flow capacity is the occurrence of free gas in the pipeline. During dry weather periods with low flow velocities, gas may accumulate at high points in the system. Once the velocity increases during storm weather flow, the air pockets may be broken down and transported to the end of the system. A research study is started focussing on the description of the gas-water phenomena in wastewater pressure mains with respect to transportation of gas. An experimental facility is constructed for the study of multi-phase flow. This paper describes the preliminary results of experiments on breakdown rates of gas pockets as a function of inclination angle and water flow rate. The results show an increasing breakdown rate with increasing inclination angle.

  18. Behavior of reinforced concrete beams reinforced with GFRP bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Tavares

    Full Text Available The use of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP bars is one of the alternatives presented in recent studies to prevent the drawbacks related to the steel reinforcement in specific reinforced concrete members. In this work, six reinforced concrete beams were submitted to four point bending tests. One beam was reinforced with CA-50 steel bars and five with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP bars. The tests were carried out in the Department of Structural Engineering in São Carlos Engineering School, São Paulo University. The objective of the test program was to compare strength, reinforcement deformation, displacement, and some anchorage aspects between the GFRP-reinforced concrete beams and the steel-reinforced concrete beam. The results show that, even though four GFRP-reinforced concrete beams were designed with the same internal tension force as that with steel reinforcement, their capacity was lower than that of the steel-reinforced beam. The results also show that similar flexural capacity can be achieved for the steel- and for the GFRP-reinforced concrete beams by controlling the stiffness (reinforcement modulus of elasticity multiplied by the bar cross-sectional area - EA and the tension force of the GFRP bars.

  19. Steel fiber reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, S.U.

    2005-01-01

    Steel-Fiber Reinforced Concrete is constructed by adding short fibers of small cross-sectional size .to the fresh concrete. These fibers reinforce the concrete in all directions, as they are randomly oriented. The improved mechanical properties of concrete include ductility, impact-resistance, compressive, tensile and flexural strength and abrasion-resistance. These uniqlte properties of the fiber- reinforcement can be exploited to great advantage in concrete structural members containing both conventional bar-reinforcement and steel fibers. The improvements in mechanical properties of cementitious materials resulting from steel-fiber reinforcement depend on the type, geometry, volume fraction and material-properties of fibers, the matrix mix proportions and the fiber-matrix interfacial bond characteristics. Effects of steel fibers on the mechanical properties of concrete have been investigated in this paper through a comprehensive testing-programme, by varying the fiber volume fraction and the aspect-ratio (Lid) of fibers. Significant improvements are observed in compressive, tensile, flexural strength and impact-resistance of concrete, accompanied by marked improvement in ductility. optimum fiber-volume fraction and aspect-ratio of steel fibers is identified. Test results are analyzed in details and relevant conclusions drawn. The research is finally concluded with future research needs. (author)

  20. Co-current descending two-phase flows in inclined packed beds : experiments versus simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atta, A.; Nigam, K.D.P.; Roy, S. [Inst. of Technology, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Schubert, M.; Larachi, F. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2010-10-15

    This paper presented a numerical simulation for an inclined packed bed configuration for two-phase co-current downward flow. A two-phase Eulerian computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was used to predict the hydrodynamic behaviour. Two different modelling strategies were compared, notably a straight tube with an artificially inclined gravity, and an inclined geometry with straight gravity. The effect of inclination angle of a packed bed on its gas-liquid flow segregation and liquid saturation spatial distribution was measured for varying inclinations and fluid velocities. The CFD model was adapted from a trickle-bed vertical configuration and based on the porous media concept. The predicted pressure drops for the inclined gravity were found to be insensitive to inclination. Therefore, simulations to study the parameters that influence the reduced liquid saturation were performed only with the inclined geometry case. Experimental data obtained using electrical capacitance tomography was used to validate the model predictions. The study showed that a trickle bed CFD model for vertically straight reactors can be effectively implemented in inclined reactor geometries. However, additional research is needed to formulate appropriate drag force closures which should be incorporated in the CFD model for improved quantitative estimation of inclined bed hydrodynamics. 22 refs., 10 figs.

  1. Reinforced concrete tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariscotti, M.A.J.; Morixe, M.; Tarela, P.A.; Thieberger, P.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we describe the technique of reinforced concrete tomography, its historical background, recent technological developments and main applications. Gamma radiation sensitive plates are imprinted with radiation going through the concrete sample under study, and then processed to reveal the presence of reinforcement and defects in the material density. The three dimensional reconstruction, or tomography, of the reinforcement out of a single gammagraphy is an original development alternative to conventional methods. Re-bar diameters and positions may be determined with an accuracy of ± 1 mm 0.5-1 cm, respectively. The non-destructive character of this technique makes it particularly attractive in cases of inhabited buildings and diagnoses of balconies. (author) [es

  2. Braided reinforced composite rods for the internal reinforcement of concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonilho Pereira, C.; Fangueiro, R.; Jalali, S.; Araujo, M.; Marques, P.

    2008-05-01

    This paper reports on the development of braided reinforced composite rods as a substitute for the steel reinforcement in concrete. The research work aims at understanding the mechanical behaviour of core-reinforced braided fabrics and braided reinforced composite rods, namely concerning the influence of the braiding angle, the type of core reinforcement fibre, and preloading and postloading conditions. The core-reinforced braided fabrics were made from polyester fibres for producing braided structures, and E-glass, carbon, HT polyethylene, and sisal fibres were used for the core reinforcement. The braided reinforced composite rods were obtained by impregnating the core-reinforced braided fabric with a vinyl ester resin. The preloading of the core-reinforced braided fabrics and the postloading of the braided reinforced composite rods were performed in three and two stages, respectively. The results of tensile tests carried out on different samples of core-reinforced braided fabrics are presented and discussed. The tensile and bending properties of the braided reinforced composite rods have been evaluated, and the results obtained are presented, discussed, and compared with those of conventional materials, such as steel.

  3. Soil reinforcement with geosynthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessaim Mohammed Mustapha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The proportionality of existence of land with good bearing to erect any building or building is very small, to remedy this deficiency it is necessary to resort to techniques of reinforcement of the soils which can constitute a very important development. Among these methods of remediation, there is reinforcement by the geosynthetics which constitute an effective solution to these constraints. This process tends to stabilize the soil in question with increased load bearing capacity in civil engineering and geotechnical works such as embankments, slopes, embankments and hydraulic structures, with an inestimable gain in time, economy and durability while preserving the natural and environmental aspect.

  4. Improvement in greenhouse solar drying using inclined north wall reflection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethi, V.P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141004, Punjab (India); Arora, Sadhna [Department of Processing and Food Engineering, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141004, Punjab (India)

    2009-09-15

    A conventional greenhouse solar dryer of 6 m{sup 2} x 4 m{sup 2} floor area (east-west orientation) was improved for faster drying using inclined north wall reflection (INWR) under natural as well as forced convection mode. To increase the solar radiation availability onto the product (to be dried) during extreme summer months, a temporary inclined wall covered with aluminized reflector sheet (of 50 {mu}m thickness and reflectance 0.93) was raised inside the greenhouse just in front of the vertical transparent north wall. By doing so, product fully received the reflected beam radiation (which otherwise leaves through the north wall) in addition to the direct total solar radiation available on the horizontal surface during different hours of drying. The increment in total solar radiation input enhanced the drying rate of the product by increasing the inside air and crop temperature of the dryer. Inclination angle of the reflective north wall with vertical ({beta}) was optimized for various selective widths of the tray W (1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3 m) and for different realistic heights of existing vertical north wall (h) at 25 N, 30 N and 35 N latitudes (hot climatic zones). Experimental performance of the improved dryer was tested during the month of May 2008 at Ludhiana (30.56 N) climatic conditions, India by drying bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Linn) slices. Results showed that by using INWR under natural convection mode of drying, greenhouse air and crop temperature increased by 1-6.7 C and 1-4 C, respectively, during different drying hours as compared to, when INWR was not used and saved 13.13% of the total drying time. By using INWR under forced convection mode of drying, greenhouse air and crop temperature increased by 1-4.5 C and 1-3 C, respectively, during different drying hours as compared to, when INWR was not used and saved 16.67% of the total drying time. (author)

  5. The Effects of Various Running Inclines on Three-Segment Foot Mechanics and Plantar Fascia Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinclair Jonathan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. There has yet to be a combined analysis of three-dimensional multi-segment foot kinematics and plantar fascia strain in running gait at various degrees of inclination. The aim of the current study was therefore to investigate the above during treadmill running at different inclines (0°, 5°, 10° and 15°. Methods. Twelve male participants ran at 4.0 m · s-1 in the four different inclinations. Three-dimensional kinematics of the foot segments and plantar fascia strain were quantified for each incline and contrasted using one-way repeated measures ANOVA. Results and conclusions. The results showed that plantar fascia strain increased significantly as a function of running incline. Given the projected association between plantar fascia strain and the aetiology of injury, inclined running may be associated with a greater incidence of injury to the plantar fascia.

  6. Fiber webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell; James S. Han; Von L. Byrd

    2005-01-01

    Wood fibers can be used to produce a wide variety of low-density three-dimensional webs, mats, and fiber-molded products. Short wood fibers blended with long fibers can be formed into flexible fiber mats, which can be made by physical entanglement, nonwoven needling, or thermoplastic fiber melt matrix technologies. The most common types of flexible mats are carded, air...

  7. Web Sitings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Erika

    2001-01-01

    Presents seven mathematics games, located on the World Wide Web, for elementary students, including: Absurd Math: Pre-Algebra from Another Dimension; The Little Animals Activity Centre; MathDork Game Room (classic video games focusing on algebra); Lemonade Stand (students practice math and business skills); Math Cats (teaches the artistic beauty…

  8. Tracheal web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legasto, A.C.; Haller, J.O.; Giusti, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    Congenital tracheal web is a rare entity often misdiagnosed as refractory asthma. Clinical suspicion based on patient history, examination, and pulmonary function tests should lead to its consideration. Bronchoscopy combined with CT imaging and multiplanar reconstruction is an accepted, highly sensitive means of diagnosis. (orig.)

  9. Convective flows of colloidal suspension in an inclined closed cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smorodin, Boris; Ishutov, Sergey [Department of Physics of Phase Transitions, Perm State University, Perm (Russian Federation); Cherepanov, Ivan, E-mail: bsmorodin@yandex.ru [Department of Radio Electronics and Information Security, Perm State University, Perm (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The nonlinear spatiotemporal evolution of convective flows is numerically investigated in the case of colloidal suspension filling an inclined closed cell heated from below. The bifurcation diagram (the dependency of the Nusselt number on the Rayleigh number) is obtained. The characteristics of the wave and steady patterns are investigated depending on heat intensity. The travelling wave changing travel direction and the non-regular oscillatory flow are found to be stable solutions within a certain interval of the Rayleigh number. Temporal Fourier decomposition is used together with other diagnostic tools to analyse the complex bifurcation and spatiotemporal properties caused by the interplay of the gravity-induced gradient of concentration and convective mixing of the fluid. It is shown that a more complex flow structure exists at a lower heating intensity (Rayleigh number). (paper)

  10. Friction and drag forces on spheres propagating down inclined planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Yi Hui; Longmire, Ellen

    2017-11-01

    When a submerged sphere propagates along an inclined wall at terminal velocity, it experiences gravity, drag, lift, and friction forces. In the related equations of motion, the drag, lift and friction coefficients are unknown. Experiments are conducted to determine the friction and drag coefficients of the sphere over a range of Reynolds numbers. Through high speed imaging, translational and rotational velocities of spheres propagating along a glass plate are determined in liquids with several viscosities. The onset of sliding motion is identified by computing the dimensionless rotation rate of the sphere. Using drag and lift coefficients for Re friction coefficients are calculated for several materials. The friction coefficients are then employed to estimate the drag coefficient for 350 frictional force over this Re range. Supported by NSF (CBET-1510154).

  11. Method and apparatus for logging inclined earth boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youmans, A.H.

    1981-01-01

    An improved technique is provided for comparing the velocity of an elongated well logging instrument traversing an inclined earth borehole with the playout velocity of the well logging cable at the earth's surface to control both the cable hoist drum rotation and the rate of movement of the subsurface instrument and thus insure cable playout is in equilibrium with the logging instrument movement. Method and apparatus are described for detecting any reduction in movement of the logging instrument through the borehole and for reducing the velocity of the logging cable playout in response thereto by reducing drum rotation. Further, when the velocity of cable playout slows to a preselected value, a monitoring circuit generates control signals which actuate a means of power attached to or integral with the logging instrument which, upon initiation, apply a force to move the logging instrument upward or downward within the borehole

  12. Simulation of Solar Radiation Incident on Horizontal and Inclined Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Basunia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A computer model was developed to simulate the hourly, daily and monthly average of daily solar radiation on horizontal and inclined surfaces. The measured hourly and daily solar radiation was compared with simulated radiation, and favourable agreement was observed for the measured and predicted values on clear days. The measured and simulated monthly averages of total (diffuse and beam daily solar radiation were compared and a reasonable agreement was observed for a number of stations in Japan. The simulation showed that during the rice harvesting season, September to October, there is a daily average of 14.7 MJ/m2 of solar irradiation on a horizontal surface in Matsuyama, Japan. There is a similar amount of solar radiation on a horizontal surface during the major rice harvesting season, November to December, in Bangladesh. This radiation can be effectively utilized for drying rough rice and other farm crops.

  13. Reinforcement Magnitude: An Evaluation of Preference and Reinforcer Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Trosclair-Lasserre, Nicole M; Lerman, Dorothea C; Call, Nathan A; Addison, Laura R; Kodak, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Consideration of reinforcer magnitude may be important for maximizing the efficacy of treatment for problem behavior. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about children's preferences for different magnitudes of social reinforcement or the extent to which preference is related to differences in reinforcer efficacy. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the relations among reinforcer magnitude, preference, and efficacy by drawing on the procedures and results of basic experimenta...

  14. Turbomachine blade reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Crespo, Andres Jose

    2016-09-06

    Embodiments of the present disclosure include a system having a turbomachine blade segment including a blade and a mounting segment coupled to the blade, wherein the mounting segment has a plurality of reinforcement pins laterally extending at least partially through a neck of the mounting segment.

  15. Reinforcing Saccadic Amplitude Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paeye, Celine; Madelain, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Saccadic endpoint variability is often viewed as the outcome of neural noise occurring during sensorimotor processing. However, part of this variability might result from operant learning. We tested this hypothesis by reinforcing dispersions of saccadic amplitude distributions, while maintaining constant their medians. In a first experiment we…

  16. Reinforcement Magnitude: An Evaluation of Preference and Reinforcer Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trosclair-Lasserre, Nicole M.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Call, Nathan A.; Addison, Laura R.; Kodak, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Consideration of reinforcer magnitude may be important for maximizing the efficacy of treatment for problem behavior. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about children's preferences for different magnitudes of social reinforcement or the extent to which preference is related to differences in reinforcer efficacy. The purpose of the current…

  17. Coordinating bracket torque and incisor inclination : Part 3: Validity of bracket torque values in achieving norm inclinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Bernd; Sino, Hiba

    2018-03-19

    To analyze common values of bracket torque (Andrews, Roth, MBT, Ricketts) for their validity in achieving incisor inclinations that are considered normal by different cephalometric standards. Using the equations developed in part 1 (eU1 (BOP) = 90° - BT (U1) - TCA (U1) + α 1 - α 2 and eL1 (BOP) = 90° - BT (L1) - TCA (L1) + β 1 - β 2 ) (abbreviations see part 1) and the mean values (± SD) obtained as statistical measures in parts 1 and 2 of the study (α 1 and β 1 [1.7° ± 0.7°], α 2 [3.6° ± 0.3°], β 2 [3.2° ± 0.4°], TCA (U1) [24.6° ± 3.6°] and TCA (L1) [22.9° ± 4.3°]) expected (= theoretically anticipated) values were calculated for upper and lower incisors (U1 and L1) and compared to targeted (= cephalometric norm) values. For U1, there was no overlapping between the ranges of expected and targeted values, as the lowest targeted value of (58.3°; Ricketts) was higher than the highest expected value (56.5°; Andrews) relative to the bisected occlusal plane (BOP). Thus all of these torque systems will aim for flatter inclinations than prescribed by any of the norm values. Depending on target values, the various bracket systems fell short by 1.8-5.5° (Andrews), 6.8-10.5° (Roth), 11.8-15.5° (MBT), or 16.8-20.5° (Ricketts). For L1, there was good agreement of the MBT system with the Ricketts and Björk target values (Δ0.1° and Δ-0.8°, respectively), and both the Roth and Ricketts systems came close to the Bergen target value (both Δ2.3°). Depending on target values, the ranges of deviation for L1 were 6.3-13.2° for Andrews (Class II prescription), 2.3°-9.2° for Roth, -3.7 to -3.2° for MBT, and 2.3-9.2° for Ricketts. Common values of upper incisor bracket torque do not have acceptable validity in achieving normal incisor inclinations. A careful selection of lower bracket torque may provide satisfactory matching with some of the targeted norm values.

  18. Web components and the semantic web

    OpenAIRE

    Casey, Maire; Pahl, Claus

    2003-01-01

    Component-based software engineering on the Web differs from traditional component and software engineering. We investigate Web component engineering activites that are crucial for the development,com position, and deployment of components on the Web. The current Web Services and Semantic Web initiatives strongly influence our work. Focussing on Web component composition we develop description and reasoning techniques that support a component developer in the composition activities,fo cussing...

  19. The Reinforcing Event (RE) Menu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Roger M.; Homme, Lloyd E.

    1973-01-01

    A motivational system, the Contingency Management System, uses contracts in which some amount of defined task behavior is demanded for some interval of reinforcing event. The Reinforcing Event Menu, a list of high probability reinforcing behaviors, is used in the system as a prompting device for the learner and as an aid for the administrator in…

  20. Autoshaping Chicks with Heat Reinforcement: The Role of Stimulus-Reinforcer and Response-Reinforcer Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Edward A.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    The present series of experiments attempted to analyze more fully the contributions of stimulus-reinforcer and response-reinforcer relations to autoshaping within a single conditioning situation. (Author)

  1. Study on reinforced concrete beams with helical transverse reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaarthik Krishna, N.; Sandeep, S.; Mini, K. M.

    2018-02-01

    In a Reinforced Concrete (R.C) structure, major reinforcement is used for taking up tensile stresses acting on the structure due to applied loading. The present paper reports the behavior of reinforced concrete beams with helical reinforcement (transverse reinforcement) subjected to monotonous loading by 3-point flexure test. The results were compared with identically similar reinforced concrete beams with rectangular stirrups. During the test crack evolution, load carrying capacity and deflection of the beams were monitored, analyzed and compared. Test results indicate that the use of helical reinforcement provides enhanced load carrying capacity and a lower deflection proving to be more ductile, clearly indicating the advantage in carrying horizontal loads. An analysis was also carried out using ANSYS software in order to compare the test results of both the beams.

  2. Degradation of Waterfront Reinforced Concrete Structures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Degradation, reinforced concrete, Dar es Salaam port. Abstract—One of the ... especially corrosion of the reinforcement. ... Corrosion of steel reinforcement contributes .... cracks along the line of reinforcement bars and most of the ...

  3. South Oregon Coast Reinforcement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to build a transmission line to reinforce electrical service to the southern coast of Oregon. This FYI outlines the proposal, tells how one can learn more, and how one can share ideas and opinions. The project will reinforce Oregon`s south coast area and provide the necessary transmission for Nucor Corporation to build a new steel mill in the Coos Bay/North Bend area. The proposed plant, which would use mostly recycled scrap metal, would produce rolled steel products. The plant would require a large amount of electrical power to run the furnace used in its steel-making process. In addition to the potential steel mill, electrical loads in the south Oregon coast area are expected to continue to grow.

  4. Nanostructured composite reinforced material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D [Oak Ridge, TN; Ripley, Edward B [Knoxville, TN; Ludtka, Gerard M [Oak Ridge, TN

    2012-07-31

    A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

  5. Wrinkles in reinforced membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Atsushi; Brau, Fabian; Roman, Benoît; Bico, José.

    2012-02-01

    We study, through model experiments, the buckling under tension of an elastic membrane reinforced with a more rigid strip or a fiber. In these systems, the compression of the rigid layer is induced through Poisson contraction as the membrane is stretched perpendicularly to the strip. Although strips always lead to out-of-plane wrinkles, we observe a transition from out-of-plane to in plane wrinkles beyond a critical strain in the case of fibers embedded into the elastic membranes. The same transition is also found when the membrane is reinforced with a wall of the same material depending on the aspect ratio of the wall. We describe through scaling laws the evolution of the morphology of the wrinkles and the different transitions as a function of material properties and stretching strain.

  6. New inclination changing eclipsing binaries in the Magellanic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juryšek, J.; Zasche, P.; Wolf, M.; Vraštil, J.; Vokrouhlický, D.; Skarka, M.; Liška, J.; Janík, J.; Zejda, M.; Kurfürst, P.; Paunzen, E.

    2018-01-01

    Context. Multiple stellar systems are unique laboratories for astrophysics. Analysis of their orbital dynamics, if well characterized from their observations, may reveal invaluable information about the physical properties of the participating stars. Unfortunately, there are only a few known and well described multiple systems, this is even more so for systems located outside the Milky Way galaxy. A particularly interesting situation occurs when the inner binary in a compact triple system is eclipsing. This is because the stellar interaction, typically resulting in precession of orbital planes, may be observable as a variation of depth of the eclipses on a long timescale. Aims: We aim to present a novel method to determine compact triples using publicly available photometric data from large surveys. Here we apply it to eclipsing binaries (EBs) in Magellanic Clouds from OGLE III database. Our tool consists of identifying the cases where the orbital plane of EB evolves in accord with expectations from the interaction with a third star. Methods: We analyzed light curves (LCs) of 26121 LMC and 6138 SMC EBs with the goal to identify those for which the orbital inclination varies in time. Archival LCs of the selected systems, when complemented by our own observations with Danish 1.54-m telescope, were thoroughly analyzed using the PHOEBE program. This provided physical parameters of components of each system. Time dependence of the EB's inclination was described using the theory of orbital-plane precession. By observing the parameter-dependence of the precession rate, we were able to constrain the third companion mass and its orbital period around EB. Results: We identified 58 candidates of new compact triples in Magellanic Clouds. This is the largest published sample of such systems so far. Eight of them were analyzed thoroughly and physical parameters of inner binary were determined together with an estimation of basic characteristics of the third star. Prior to our

  7. Deep Reinforcement Fuzzing

    OpenAIRE

    Böttinger, Konstantin; Godefroid, Patrice; Singh, Rishabh

    2018-01-01

    Fuzzing is the process of finding security vulnerabilities in input-processing code by repeatedly testing the code with modified inputs. In this paper, we formalize fuzzing as a reinforcement learning problem using the concept of Markov decision processes. This in turn allows us to apply state-of-the-art deep Q-learning algorithms that optimize rewards, which we define from runtime properties of the program under test. By observing the rewards caused by mutating with a specific set of actions...

  8. Loners, Groupies, and Long-term Eccentricity (and Inclination) Behavior: Insights from Secular Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laerhoven, Christa L.

    2015-05-01

    Considering the secular dynamics of multi-planet systems provides substantial insight into the interactions between planets in those systems. Secular interactions are those that don't involve knowing where a planet is along its orbit, and they dominate when planets are not involved in mean motion resonances. These interactions exchange angular momentum among the planets, evolving their eccentricities and inclinations. To second order in the planets' eccentricities and inclinations, the eccentricity and inclination perturbations are decoupled. Given the right variable choice, the relevant differential equations are linear and thus the eccentricity and inclination behaviors can be described as a sum of eigenmodes. Since the underlying structure of the secular eigenmodes can be calculated using only the planets' masses and semi-major axes, one can elucidate the eccentricity and inclination behavior of planets in exoplanet systems even without knowing the planets' current eccentricities and inclinations. I have calculated both the eccentricity and inclination secular eigenmodes for the population of known multi-planet systems whose planets have well determined masses and periods. Using this catalog of secular character, I will discuss the prevalence of dynamically grouped planets ('groupies') versus dynamically uncoupled planets ('loners') and how this relates to the exoplanets' long-term eccentricity and inclination behavior. I will also touch on the distribution of the secular eigenfreqiencies.

  9. How do the substrate reaction forces acting on a gecko's limbs respond to inclines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhouyi; Dai, Zhendong; Li, Wei; Ji, Aihong; Wang, Wenbao

    2015-02-01

    Locomotion is an essential character of animals, and excellent moving ability results from the delicate sensing of the substrate reaction forces (SRF) acting on body and modulating the behavior to adapt the motion requirement. The inclined substrates present in habitats pose a number of functional challenges to locomotion. In order to effectively overcome these challenges, climbing geckos execute complex and accurate movements that involve both the front and hind limbs. Few studies have examined gecko's SRF on steeper inclines of greater than 90°. To reveal how the SRFs acting on the front and hind limbs respond to angle incline changes, we obtained detailed measurements of the three-dimensional SRFs acting on the individual limbs of the tokay gecko while it climbed on an inclined angle of 0-180°. The fore-aft forces acting on the front and hind limbs show opposite trends on inverted inclines of greater than 120°, indicating propulsion mechanism changes in response to inclines. When the incline angles change, the forces exerted in the normal and fore-aft directions by gecko's front and hind limbs are reassigned to take full advantage of limbs' different roles in overcoming resistance and in propelling locomotion. This also ensures that weight acts in the angle range between the forces generated by the front and hind limbs. The change in the distribution of SRF with a change in the incline angle is directly linked to the favorable trade-off between locomotive maneuverability and stability.

  10. Variation of the Friction Coefficient for a Cylinder Rolling down an Inclined Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zixiang; Xia, Heming; Lan, Yueheng; Xiao, Jinghua

    2018-01-01

    A cylinder rolling down an inclined board is a commonly seen and interesting object to study and it is also easy to experiment with and model. Following what has become a popular practice, we use smartphones to measure the angular acceleration of a cylinder rolling down a plane of different inclining angles. The friction force deviates from the…

  11. Inclination and anteversion of Collum femoris in hip dysplasia and coxarthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, J. S.; Svalastoga, E. [Kongelige Veterinaer- og Landbohoejskole, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1994-07-01

    Femoral neck angles were measured radiographically in 41 dogs examined for hip dysplasia. Steep femoral neck inclination was found to be a phenomenon of hip dysplasia and coxofemoral joint laxity. The altered biomechanics of a steep femoral neck inclination may be a factor in the pathogenesis of hip dysplasia and secondary osteoarthritis.

  12. An analytic solution of the static problem of inclined risers conveying fluid

    KAUST Repository

    Alfosail, Feras; Nayfeh, Ali H.; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-01-01

    We use the method of matched asymptotic expansion to develop an analytic solution to the static problem of clamped–clamped inclined risers conveying fluid. The inclined riser is modeled as an Euler–Bernoulli beam taking into account its self

  13. Cognitive self-affirmation inclination : An individual difference in dealing with self-threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pietersma, Suzanne; Dijkstra, Arie

    The current research shows that people differ in their inclination to use positive self-images when their self is threatened (i.e., cognitive self-affirmation inclination, CSAI). Just as self-affirmation manipulations do, the use of positive self-images induces open mindedness towards threatening

  14. Space Station Freedom assembly and operation at a 51.6 degree inclination orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troutman, Patrick A.; Brewer, Laura M.; Heck, Michael L.; Kumar, Renjith R.

    1993-01-01

    This study examines the implications of assembling and operating Space Station Freedom at a 51.6 degree inclination orbit utilizing an enhanced lift Space Shuttle. Freedom assembly is currently baselined at a 220 nautical mile high, 28.5 degree inclination orbit. Some of the reasons for increasing the orbital inclination are (1) increased ground coverage for Earth observations, (2) greater accessibility from Russian and other international launch sites, and (3) increased number of Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) landing sites. Previous studies have looked at assembling Freedom at a higher inclination using both medium and heavy lift expendable launch vehicles (such as Shuttle-C and Energia). The study assumes that the shuttle is used exclusively for delivering the station to orbit and that it can gain additional payload capability from design changes such as a lighter external tank that somewhat offsets the performance decrease that occurs when the shuttle is launched to a 51.6 degree inclination orbit.

  15. Experimental study on flow pattern transitions for inclined two-phase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Nam Yee; Lee, Jae Young [Handong Univ., Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Man Woong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    In this paper, experimental data on flow pattern transition of inclination angles from 0-90 are presented. A test section is constructed 2 mm long and I.D 1inch using transparent material. The test section is supported by aluminum frame that can be placed with any arbitrary inclined angles. The air-water two-phase flow is observed at room temperature and atmospheric condition using both high speed camera and void impedance meter. The signal is sampled with sampling rate 1kHz and is analyzed under fully-developed condition. Based on experimental data, flow pattern maps are made for various inclination angles. As increasing the inclination angels from 0 to 90, the flow pattern transitions on the plane jg-jf are changed, such as stratified flow to plug flow or slug flow or plug flow to bubbly flow. The transition lines between pattern regimes are moved or sometimes disappeared due to its inclined angle.

  16. Efficient light trapping in silicon inclined nanohole arrays for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Can; Tan, Xinyu; Jiang, Lihua; Tu, Yiteng; Ye, Mao; Yi, Yasha

    2018-01-01

    Structural design with high light absorption is the key challenge for thin film solar cells because of its poor absorption. In this paper, the light-trapping performance of silicon inclined nanohole arrays is systematically studied. The finite difference time domain method is used to calculate the optical absorption of different inclination angles in different periods and diameters. The results indicate that the inclined nanoholes with inclination angles between 5° and 45° demonstrate greater light-trapping ability than their counterparts of the vertical nanoholes, and they also show that by choosing the optimal parameters for the inclined nanoholes, a 31.2 mA/cm2 short circuit photocurrent density could be achieved, which is 10.25% higher than the best vertical nanohole system and 105.26% higher than bare silicon with a thickness of 2330 nm. The design principle proposed in this work gives a guideline for choosing reasonable parameters in the application of solar cells.

  17. Numerical Analysis of Aerodynamic Characteristics of the Finned Surfaces with Cross-inclined Fins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagutin A. E.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of numerical research and analyses air-side hydraulic performance of tube bundles with cross inclined fins. The numerical simulation of the fin-tube heat exchanger was performed using the Comsol Femlab software. The results of modeling show the influence of fin inclination angle and tube pitch on hydraulic characteristics of finned surfaces. A series of numerical tests were carried out for tube bundles with different inclination angles (γ =900, 850, 650, 60, the fin pitch u=4 mm. The results indicate that tube bundles with cross inclined fins can significantly enhance the average integral value of the air flow rate in channel between fins in comparison with conventional straight fins. Aerodynamic processes on both sides of modificated channel between inclined fins were analyzed. The verification procedures for received results of numerical modeling with experimental data were performed.

  18. Fluorescence intensity dependence on the propagation plane inclination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.E.; Rubio, Marcelo; Sanchez, H. J.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental confirmation of the fluorescence intensity behaviour with the inclination of the propagation plane (α angle) was carried out. A special angular sample-holder was developed and set up on our X-ray spectrometer. This sample-holder allows different positions of irradiation of the sample modifying the α angle until the maximum angle (α Μ ) is reached in the limit situation. In this work, this maximum angle was 86 deg and the incidence and take off angles were both 45 deg. The sample-holder and the collimation system were carefully lined up. The fluorescent spectra of three National Bureau of Standards (NBS) standard samples were taken for sixteen different α angle positions. The theoretical scheme for both enhanced fluorescent lines and nonenhanced fluorescent lines was confirmed, i.e. the invariance of the primary intensity with the α angle and the decline of the enhanced fluorescence intensities under the same conditions. This experimental confirmation agrees with theoretical prediction: the vanishing of the secondary fluorescence in the extreme case α = π/2. (Author) [es

  19. Bursting pressure of autofrettaged cylinders with inclined external cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifi, Rahman; Babalhavaeji, Majid

    2012-01-01

    Autofrettaging a pressure vessel improves its pressure capacity. This is reliable if there isn’t any crack or other type of flaws. In this paper, the effects of external surface cracks on bursting pressure of autofrettaged cylinders are studied. It is observed that bursting pressure decreases considerably (up to 30%) due to external cracks in the cylinders without autofrettage. This reduction increases for high levels of the applied autofrettage. External axial cracks have more effects than inclined cracks. Comparing experimental and numerical results show that the numerical methods can acceptably predict the bursting pressure of the autofrettaged cracked cylinders. These predictions are valid when the fracture parameter (J-Integral) is calculated from the modified equation that takes into account the effects of residual stresses. - Highlights: ► Modified J-Integral can be used for study of autofrettaged cracked cylinders. ► External axial cracks reduce considerably the pressure capacity of cylinders. ► External circumferential cracks have not considerable effects on bursting pressure. ► Autofrettage has contrary effects on external crack in compared with internal crack.

  20. Bursting pressure of autofrettaged cylinders with inclined external cracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifi, Rahman, E-mail: rseifi@basu.ac.ir [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Babalhavaeji, Majid [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Autofrettaging a pressure vessel improves its pressure capacity. This is reliable if there isn't any crack or other type of flaws. In this paper, the effects of external surface cracks on bursting pressure of autofrettaged cylinders are studied. It is observed that bursting pressure decreases considerably (up to 30%) due to external cracks in the cylinders without autofrettage. This reduction increases for high levels of the applied autofrettage. External axial cracks have more effects than inclined cracks. Comparing experimental and numerical results show that the numerical methods can acceptably predict the bursting pressure of the autofrettaged cracked cylinders. These predictions are valid when the fracture parameter (J-Integral) is calculated from the modified equation that takes into account the effects of residual stresses. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modified J-Integral can be used for study of autofrettaged cracked cylinders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer External axial cracks reduce considerably the pressure capacity of cylinders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer External circumferential cracks have not considerable effects on bursting pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Autofrettage has contrary effects on external crack in compared with internal crack.

  1. Stability of film boiling on inclined plates and spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aursand, Eskil; Hammer, Morten; Munkejord, Svend Tollak; Müller, Bernhard; Ytrehus, Tor

    2017-11-01

    In film boiling, a continuous sub-millimeter vapor film forms between a liquid and a heated surface, insulating the two from each other. While quite accurate steady state solutions are readily obtained, the intermediate Reynolds numbers can make transient analysis challenging. The present work is a theoretical study of film boiling instabilities. We study the formation of travelling waves that are a combination of Kelvin-Helmholtz and the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. In particular, we study how the nature of this process depends on the Reynolds number, the Bond number, and the inclination of the submerged heated plate. In addition we extend the analysis to the case of a submerged heated sphere. Modelling of the transient dynamics of such films is important for answering practical questions such as how instabilities affect the overall heat transfer, and whether they can lead to complete film boiling collapse (Leidenfrost point). This work has been financed under the MAROFF program. We acknowledge the Research Council of Norway (244076/O80) and The Gas Technology Centre NTNU-SINTEF (GTS) for support.

  2. Changing predictions, stable recognition: Children's representations of downward incline motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hast, Michael; Howe, Christine

    2017-11-01

    Various studies to-date have demonstrated children hold ill-conceived expressed beliefs about the physical world such as that one ball will fall faster than another because it is heavier. At the same time, they also demonstrate accurate recognition of dynamic events. How these representations relate is still unresolved. This study examined 5- to 11-year-olds' (N = 130) predictions and recognition of motion down inclines. Predictions were typically in error, matching previous work, but children largely recognized correct events as correct and rejected incorrect ones. The results also demonstrate while predictions change with increasing age, recognition shows signs of stability. The findings provide further support for a hybrid model of object representations and argue in favour of stable core cognition existing alongside developmental changes. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Children's predictions of physical events show limitations in accuracy Their recognition of such events suggests children may use different knowledge sources in their reasoning What the present study adds? Predictions fluctuate more strongly than recognition, suggesting stable core cognition But recognition also shows some fluctuation, arguing for a hybrid model of knowledge representation. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Usare WebDewey

    OpenAIRE

    Baldi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    This presentation shows how to use the WebDewey tool. Features of WebDewey. Italian WebDewey compared with American WebDewey. Querying Italian WebDewey. Italian WebDewey and MARC21. Italian WebDewey and UNIMARC. Numbers, captions, "equivalente verbale": Dewey decimal classification in Italian catalogues. Italian WebDewey and Nuovo soggettario. Italian WebDewey and LCSH. Italian WebDewey compared with printed version of Italian Dewey Classification (22. edition): advantages and disadvantages o...

  4. Semantic Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lamandini

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The semantic Web is a technology at the service of knowledge which is aimed at accessibility and the sharing of content; facilitating interoperability between different systems and as such is one of the nine key technological pillars of TIC (technologies for information and communication within the third theme, programme specific cooperation of the seventh programme framework for research and development (7°PQRS, 2007-2013. As a system it seeks to overcome overload or excess of irrelevant information in Internet, in order to facilitate specific or pertinent research. It is an extension of the existing Web in which the aim is for cooperation between and the computer and people (the dream of Sir Tim Berners –Lee where machines can give more support to people when integrating and elaborating data in order to obtain inferences and a global sharing of data. It is a technology that is able to favour the development of a “data web” in other words the creation of a space in both sets of interconnected and shared data (Linked Data which allows users to link different types of data coming from different sources. It is a technology that will have great effect on everyday life since it will permit the planning of “intelligent applications” in various sectors such as education and training, research, the business world, public information, tourism, health, and e-government. It is an innovative technology that activates a social transformation (socio-semantic Web on a world level since it redefines the cognitive universe of users and enables the sharing not only of information but of significance (collective and connected intelligence.

  5. STRESS-STRAIN STATE IN EMBEDMENT OF REINFORCEMENT IN CASE OF REPEATED LOADINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirsayapov Ilshat Talgatovich

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The author offer transforming the diagram of ideal elastic-plastic deformations for the description of the stress-strain state of embedment of reinforcement behind a critical inclined crack at repeatedly repeating loadings. The endurance limit of the adhesion between concrete and reinforcement and its corresponding displacements in case of repeated loadings are accepted as the main indicators. This adhesion law is the most appropriate for the description of physical and mechanical phenomena in the contact zone in case of cyclic loading, because it simply and reliably describes the adhesion mechanism and the nature of the deformation, and greatly simplifies the endurance calculations compared to the standard adhesion law. On the basis of this diagram the author obtained the equations for the description of the distribution of pressures and displacements after cyclic loading with account for the development of deformations of cyclic creep of the concrete under the studs of reinforcement.

  6. Semantic Web Requirements through Web Mining Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Hassanzadeh, Hamed; Keyvanpour, Mohammad Reza

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, Semantic web has become a topic of active research in several fields of computer science and has applied in a wide range of domains such as bioinformatics, life sciences, and knowledge management. The two fast-developing research areas semantic web and web mining can complement each other and their different techniques can be used jointly or separately to solve the issues in both areas. In addition, since shifting from current web to semantic web mainly depends on the enhance...

  7. Responsive web design workflow

    OpenAIRE

    LAAK, TIMO

    2013-01-01

    Responsive Web Design Workflow is a literature review about Responsive Web Design, a web standards based modern web design paradigm. The goals of this research were to define what responsive web design is, determine its importance in building modern websites and describe a workflow for responsive web design projects. Responsive web design is a paradigm to create adaptive websites, which respond to the properties of the media that is used to render them. The three key elements of responsi...

  8. Reinforced seal component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanson, G.M.; Odent, R.P.

    1980-01-01

    The invention concerns a seal component of the kind comprising a soft sheath and a flexible reinforcement housed throughout the entire length of the sheath. The invention enables O ring seals to be made capable of providing a radial seal, that is to say between two sides or flat collars of two cylindrical mechanical parts, or an axial seal, that is to say between two co-axial axisymmetrical areas. The seal so ensured is relative, but it remains adequately sufficient for many uses, for instance, to ensure the separation of two successive fixed blading compartments of axial compressors used in gas diffusion isotope concentration facilities [fr

  9. Manifold Regularized Reinforcement Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongliang; Liu, Derong; Wang, Ding

    2018-04-01

    This paper introduces a novel manifold regularized reinforcement learning scheme for continuous Markov decision processes. Smooth feature representations for value function approximation can be automatically learned using the unsupervised manifold regularization method. The learned features are data-driven, and can be adapted to the geometry of the state space. Furthermore, the scheme provides a direct basis representation extension for novel samples during policy learning and control. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated on two benchmark control tasks, i.e., the inverted pendulum and the energy storage problem. Simulation results illustrate the concepts of the proposed scheme and show that it can obtain excellent performance.

  10. Experimental study of critical heat flux in inclined rectangular gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.J.; Kim, Y.H.; Noh, S.W.; Suh, K.Y.; Rempe, J.L.; Cheung, F.B.; Kim, S.B.

    2003-01-01

    In the TMI-2 accident, the lower part of the reactor pressure vessel was overheated and then rather rapidly cooled down, as was later found out in a vessel investigation project. This accounted for the possibility of gap cooling feasibility. For this reason, a great deal of investigations was performed to determine the critical heat flux (CHF) from the standpoint of in-vessel retention (IVR). As part of a joint Korean-U.S. International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (INERI) project, Tests were conducted to examine the critical heat flux (CHF) on the one-dimensional downward heating rectangular channel having a narrow gap by changing the orientation of the copper test heater assembly in a pool of saturated water under the atmospheric pressure. The test parameters include both the gap sizes of 1, 2, 5 and 10 mm, and the surface orientation angles from the downward-facing position (180deg) to the vertical position (90deg), respectively. It was observed that the CHF generally decreases as the surface inclination angle increases and as the gap size decreases. However, in downward-facing position (180deg), somewhat differing results were detected relative to previous reports. For a certain gap size having a similar dimension with vapor layer thickness, more efficient heat transfer was detected and this may be interpreted by characteristic property such as the vapor layer thickness of water. In consistency with several studies reported in the literature, it was found that there exists a transition angle above that the CHF changes with a rapid slope. (author)

  11. Evaluation of buccolingual inclination of posterior teeth in different facial patterns using computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suomo Mitra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Buccolingual inclination of teeth is an essential factor in establishing good occlusion. The objective of this study was to evaluate the buccolingual inclination of molar teeth in different vertical skeletal patterns by using computed tomography scans. Materials and Methods: Coronal section of the jaws obtained from computed tomograms were used to measure the buccolingual inclination of the long axis of the molars relative to their skeletal base. Forty male adult individuals with class I dental occlusion were selected. They were classified as short (Group 1, average (Group II, and long faced (Group III as per their skeletal patterns measured by GoGn-SN, FH-MP, Y-axis and facial height index in cephalograms. Statistical Analysis: ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests were applied to calculate if there were any significant differences in the mean molar inclination between the groups. Pearson′s coefficients of correlation were calculated between the facial parameters and tooth inclination. Results: The differences in the mean molar inclination between the short, average, and long faced groups is significant for mandibular 1 st and 2 nd molars and maxillary 2 nd molars. Conclusion: Variations in mean molar inclination values are observed between short, average, and long faced groups.

  12. Treating domestic sewage by Integrated Inclined-Plate-Membrane bio-reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Li Ming; Wang, Zi; Chen, Lei; Zhong, Min; Dong, Zhan Feng

    2017-12-01

    Membrane fouling shorten the service life of the membrane and increases aeration rate for membrane surface cleaning. Two membrane bio-reactors, one for working and another for comparing, were set up to evaluate the feasibility of alleviating membrane fouling and improving wastewater treatment efficiency by integrating inclined-plate precipitation and membrane separation. The result show that: (1) Inclined-plate in reactor had a good effect on pollutant removal of membrane bioreactor. The main role of inclined-plate is dividing reactor space and accelerating precipitation. (2) Working reactor have better performance in COD, TN and TP removal, which can attribute to that working reactor (integrated inclined-plate-Membrane bioreactor) takes both advantages of membrane separation and biological treatment. When influent COD, TP and TN concentration is 163-248 mg/L, 2.08-2.81 mg/L and 24.38-30.49 mg/L in working reactor, effluent concentration is 27-35 mg/L, 0.53-0.59 mg/L and 11.28-11.56 mg/L, respectively. (3) Membrane fouling was well alleviated in integrated inclined-plate-Membrane bioreactor, and membrane normal service time is significantly longer than that in comparing reactor, which can attribute to accelerating precipitation of inclined-plate. In summary, integrated inclined-plate-Membrane bioreactor is a promising technology to alleviating membrane fouling and improving wastewater treatment efficiency, having good performance and bright future in application.

  13. Revealing strong bias in common measures of galaxy properties using new inclination-independent structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devour, Brian M.; Bell, Eric F.

    2017-06-01

    Accurate measurement of galaxy structures is a prerequisite for quantitative investigation of galaxy properties or evolution. Yet, the impact of galaxy inclination and dust on commonly used metrics of galaxy structure is poorly quantified. We use infrared data sets to select inclination-independent samples of disc and flattened elliptical galaxies. These samples show strong variation in Sérsic index, concentration and half-light radii with inclination. We develop novel inclination-independent galaxy structures by collapsing the light distribution in the near-infrared on to the major axis, yielding inclination-independent 'linear' measures of size and concentration. With these new metrics we select a sample of Milky Way analogue galaxies with similar stellar masses, star formation rates, sizes and concentrations. Optical luminosities, light distributions and spectral properties are all found to vary strongly with inclination: When inclining to edge-on, r-band luminosities dim by >1 magnitude, sizes decrease by a factor of 2, 'dust-corrected' estimates of star formation rate drop threefold, metallicities decrease by 0.1 dex and edge-on galaxies are half as likely to be classified as star forming. These systematic effects should be accounted for in analyses of galaxy properties.

  14. Pile-Reinforcement Behavior of Cohesive Soil Slopes: Numerical Modeling and Centrifuge Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Centrifuge model tests were conducted on pile-reinforced and unreinforced cohesive soil slopes to investigate the fundamental behavior and reinforcement mechanism. A finite element analysis model was established and confirmed to be effective in capturing the primary behavior of pile-reinforced slopes by comparing its predictions with experimental results. Thus, a comprehensive understanding of the stress-deformation response was obtained by combining the numerical and physical simulations. The response of pile-reinforced slope was indicated to be significantly affected by pile spacing, pile location, restriction style of pile end, and inclination of slope. The piles have a significant effect on the behavior of reinforced slope, and the influencing area was described using a continuous surface, denoted as W-surface. The reinforcement mechanism was described using two basic concepts, compression effect and shear effect, respectively, referring to the piles increasing the compression strain and decreasing the shear strain of the slope in comparison with the unreinforced slope. The pile-soil interaction induces significant compression effect in the inner zone near the piles; this effect is transferred to the upper part of the slope, with the shear effect becoming prominent to prevent possible sliding of unreinforced slope.

  15. Comparison of the buccolingual inclination in alveolar bone and tooth using dental CBCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Jin Soo; Kim, Jae Duk

    2008-01-01

    It is important to determine the bucco-lingual inclination of implants on radiographs before the implant surgery. The purpose of this study was to compare the buccolingual inclination in alveolar bone and the tooth with dental cone beam CT and to prepare the standard for the buccolingual inclination of implant. Axial, panoramic, and buccolingually sectioned images of 80 implant cases with stent including straight marker using CB Mercuray TM (Hitachi, Japan) were evaluated. The comparison of the buccolingual inclination of remained alveolar bone with the tooth and the marker on buccolingually sectioned views was performed statistically. The average buccolingual inclination of remained alveolar bone and tooth was 82.8 ± 4.6 .deg. C and 85.8 ± 4.7 .deg. C (p 0.05, r=0.12) at the 2nd premolar area in upper jaw. The average buccolingual inclination of remained alveolar bone and tooth was 81.3 ± 8.3 .deg. C and 87.5 ± 6.3 .deg. C (p>0.05, r=0.85) at the lower 2nd premolar area and 94.3 ± 6.6 .deg. C and 93.3 ± 7.2 .deg. C respectively (p>0.05, r=0.91) at the 1st molar area in lower jaw. The inclinations of markers were very different from those of remained bone at the most of areas except the upper 2nd premolar area (r=0.79). We recommend dental CBCT analysis for determining the buccolingual inclination of dental implant, because of significant difference, in average, between the buccolingual inclination of remained alveolar bone and tooth.

  16. Modelling reinforcement corrosion in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, Alexander; Geiker, Mette Rica; Stang, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    A physio-chemical model for the simulation of reinforcement corrosion in concrete struc-tures was developed. The model allows for simulation of initiation and subsequent propaga-tion of reinforcement corrosion. Corrosion is assumed to be initiated once a defined critical chloride threshold......, a numerical example is pre-sented, that illustrates the formation of corrosion cells as well as propagation of corrosion in a reinforced concrete structure....

  17. The Reinforcement Learning Competition 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrakakis, Christos; Li, Guangliang; Tziortziotis, Nikoalos

    2014-01-01

    Reinforcement learning is one of the most general problems in artificial intelligence. It has been used to model problems in automated experiment design, control, economics, game playing, scheduling and telecommunications. The aim of the reinforcement learning competition is to encourage the development of very general learning agents for arbitrary reinforcement learning problems and to provide a test-bed for the unbiased evaluation of algorithms.

  18. The metabolic cost of walking on an incline in the Peacock (Pavo cristatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Holly; Thavarajah, Nathan; Codd, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Altering speed and moving on a gradient can affect an animal’s posture and gait, which in turn can change the energetic requirements of terrestrial locomotion. Here, the energetic and kinematic effects of locomoting on an incline were investigated in the Indian peacock, Pavo cristatus. The mass-specific metabolic rate of the Indian peacock was elevated on an incline, but this change was not dependent on the angle ascended and the cost of lifting remained similar between the two inclines (+5 a...

  19. Recycling of Reinforced Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, R. D.; Collins, Andrew; Cooper, Duncan; Wingfield-Digby, Mark; Watts-Farmer, Archibald; Laurence, Anna; Patel, Kayur; Stevens, Mark; Watkins, Rhodri

    2014-02-01

    This work has shown is that it is possible to recycle continuous and short fibre reinforced thermosetting resins while keeping almost the whole of the original material, both fibres and matrix, within the recyclate. By splitting, crushing hot or cold, and hot forming, it is possible to create a recyclable material, which we designate a Remat, which can then be used to remanufacture other shapes, examples of plates and tubes being demonstrated. Not only can remanufacturing be done, but it has been shown that over 50 % of the original mechanical properties, such as the E modulus, tensile strength, and interlaminar shear strength, can be retained. Four different forms of composite were investigated, a random mat Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) bathroom component and boat hull, woven glass and carbon fibre cloth impregnated with an epoxy resin, and unidirectional carbon fibre pre-preg. One of the main factors found to affect composite recyclability was the type of resin matrix used in the composite. Thermoset resins tested were shown to have a temperature range around the Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) where they exhibit ductile behaviour, hence aiding reforming of the material. The high-grade carbon fibre prepreg was found to be less easy to recycle than the woven of random fibre laminates. One method of remanufacturing was by heating the Remat to above its glass transition temperature, bending it to shape, and then cooling it. However, unless precautions are taken, the geometric form may revert. This does not happen with the crushed material.

  20. WEB COHERENCE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Karlsudd

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a learning system constructed to facilitate teaching and learning by creating a functional web-based contact between schools and organisations which in cooperation with the school contribute to pupils’/students’ cognitive development. Examples of such organisations include science centres, museums, art and music workshops and teacher education internships. With the support of the “Web Coherence Learning” IT application (abbreviated in Swedish to Webbhang developed by the University of Kalmar, the aim is to reinforce learning processes in the encounter with organisations outside school. In close cooperation with potential users a system was developed which can be described as consisting of three modules. The first module, “the organisation page” supports the organisation in simply setting up a homepage, where overarching information on organisation operations can be published and where functions like calendar, guestbook, registration and newsletter can be included. In the second module, “the activity page” the activities offered by the organisation are described. Here pictures and information may prepare and inspire pupils/students to their own activities before future visits. The third part, “the participant page” is a communication module linked to the activity page enabling school classes to introduce themselves and their work as well as documenting the work and communicating with the educators responsible for external activities. When the project is finished, the work will be available to further school classes, parents and other interested parties. System development and testing have been performed in a small pilot study where two creativity educators at an art museum have worked together with pupils and teachers from a compulsory school class. The system was used to establish, prior to the visit of the class, a deeper contact and to maintain a more qualitative continuous dialogue during and after

  1. Tensile strength of woven yarn kenaf fiber reinforced polyester composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Ismail

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the tensile strength of woven kenaf fiber reinforced polyester composites. The as-received yarn kenaf fiber is weaved and then aligned into specific fiber orientations before it is hardened with polyester resin. The composite plates are shaped according to the standard geometry and uni-axially loaded in order to investigate the tensile responses. Two important parameters are studied such as fiber orientations and number of layers. According to the results, it is shown that fiber orientations greatly affected the ultimate tensile strength but it is not for modulus of elasticity for both types of layers. It is estimated that the reductions of both ultimate tensile strength and Young’s modulus are in the range of 27.7-30.9% and 2.4-3.7% respectively, if the inclined fibers are used with respect to the principal axis.

  2. Inclination shallowing in the Eocene Linzizong sediments from Tibet: correction, possible causes and implications for reconstructing the India-Asia collision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, W.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; Lippert, P.C.; Hinsbergen, D.J.J. van; Hallot, E.

    2013-01-01

    A systematic bias towards low palaeomagnetic inclination recorded in clastic sediments, that is, inclination shallowing, has been recognized and studied for decades. Identification, understanding and correction of this inclination shallowing are critical for palaeogeographic

  3. Web TA Production (WebTA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — WebTA is a web-based time and attendance system that supports USAID payroll administration functions, and is designed to capture hours worked, leave used and...

  4. Web server attack analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Mižišin, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Web server attack analyzer - Abstract The goal of this work was to create prototype of analyzer of injection flaws attacks on web server. Proposed solution combines capabilities of web application firewall and web server log analyzer. Analysis is based on configurable signatures defined by regular expressions. This paper begins with summary of web attacks, followed by detection techniques analysis on web servers, description and justification of selected implementation. In the end are charact...

  5. Natural circulation of integrated-type marine reactor at inclined attitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyori, Isao; Aya, Izuo; Murata, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Michiyuki; Nariai, Hideki

    1987-01-01

    A steady-state single-phase natural circulation test was performed to clarify the effect of inclination by using a model of an integrated-type marine reactor. It was found that several types of flow pattern occur in the natural circulation loop corresponding to the range of inclination angle. Stable flow rates are sustained up to near 90 0 because of the occurrence of a driving force arising from those sections of the facility which were horizontal before the inclination. It was found that the temperature distribution in the steam generator at inclined attitude depends essentially only on the elevation z. The applicability of a one-dimensional analytical model was examined. It was clarified that employment of detailed U-turn flow paths, their correlation, and temperature-distribution function of core is essential for improvement. (orig.)

  6. Experimental research of inclined-micro-fin flat tube on single phase convection heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Guangming; Sun Zhongning; Wang Meng

    2011-01-01

    The experimental research of heat transfer and flow resistance characteristics of single phase water in four inclined-micro-fin flat tubes with different physical dimensions was conducted. At the same time,suitable criteria were selected to evaluate the efficiency of inclined-micro-fin flat tubes within the experimental scope and the optimal working region was determined. The results indicate that inclined-micro-fin flat tubes can greatly enhance the single-phase heat transfer in turbulent flow and the maximum heat transfer coefficient attains to 5.9 times of that in smooth tube. The quantities of heat transfer for inclined-micro-fin flat tubes are three times higher than that of smooth tube with the same of heat exchange area and pump power. (authors)

  7. The Bearing Capacity of Strip Footings in Cohesionless Soil Subject to Eccentric and Inclined Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Sven; Damkilde, Lars; Krabbenhøft, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Lower bound calculations based on the finite element method is used to determine the bearing capacity of a strip foundation subjected to an inclined, eccentric load on cohesionless soil with varying surcharges and with friction angles 25, 30 and 35°. The soil is assumed perfectly plastic following...... the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. The results are reported as graphs showing the bearing capacity as a function of the friction angle, the eccentricity, inclination and the surcharge. The results have been compared with the Eurocode 7 and for smaller eccentricities, except in the case of no surcharge......, the lower bound values are the greater, the discrepancy increasing with growing surcharge. Positive load inclinations has a negative effect for smaller eccentricities but may have a beneficial effect on the bearing capacity for greater eccentricities. Negative load inclinations have the opposite effect...

  8. Constitutive model for reinforced concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, P.H.; Borst, de R.

    1995-01-01

    A numerical model is proposed for reinforced-concrete behavior that combines the commonly accepted ideas from modeling plain concrete, reinforcement, and interaction behavior in a consistent manner. The behavior of plain concrete is govern by fracture-energy-level-based formulation both in tension

  9. Quenched Reinforcement Exposed to Fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2006-01-01

    .0% is seldom found in “slack” (not prestressed) reinforcement, but 2.0% stresses might be relevant for reinforcement in T shaped cross sections and for prestressed structures, where large strains can be applied. All data are provided in a “HOT” condition during a fire and in a “COLD” condition after a fire...

  10. Tangible Reinforcers: Bonuses or Bribes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, K. Daniel; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Objections to the use of tangible reinforcers, such as prizes, candy, cigarettes, and money, are discussed. Treatment programs using tangible reinforcers are recommended as powerful modifers of behavior to be implemented only after less powerful means of modification have been tried. (Author)

  11. Semantic web for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Pollock, Jeffrey T

    2009-01-01

    Semantic Web technology is already changing how we interact with data on the Web. By connecting random information on the Internet in new ways, Web 3.0, as it is sometimes called, represents an exciting online evolution. Whether you're a consumer doing research online, a business owner who wants to offer your customers the most useful Web site, or an IT manager eager to understand Semantic Web solutions, Semantic Web For Dummies is the place to start! It will help you:Know how the typical Internet user will recognize the effects of the Semantic WebExplore all the benefits the data Web offers t

  12. Phase states of a 2D easy-plane ferromagnet with strong inclined anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridman, Yu. A.; Klevets, F. N.; Gorelikov, G. A.; Meleshko, A. G.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the spin states of a 2D film exhibiting easy-axis anisotropy and a strong single-ion inclined anisotropy whose axis forms a certain angle with the normal to the film surface. Such a system may have an angular ferromagnetic phase, a spatially inhomogeneous state, and a quadrupole phase, whose realization depends substantially on the inclined anisotropy and the orientation of the wavevector in the film plane.

  13. Relativistic and the first sectorial harmonics corrections in the critical inclination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahoma, W. A.; Khattab, E. H.; Abd El-Salam, F. A.

    2014-05-01

    The problem of the critical inclination is treated in the Hamiltonian framework taking into consideration post-Newtonian corrections as well as the main correction term of sectorial harmonics for an earth-like planet. The Hamiltonian is expressed in terms of Delaunay canonical variables. A canonical transformation is applied to eliminate short period terms. A modified critical inclination is obtained due to relativistic and the first sectorial harmonics corrections.

  14. Performance evaluation of a continuous flow inclined solar still desalination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Agouz, S.A.; El-Samadony, Y.A.F.; Kabeel, A.E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A mathematical model was presented to analyze the performance of inclined still. • The effect of air speed, water masses, film thickness and velocity was studied. • Productivity for the Model 3 was higher than conventional still by 57.2%. • The performance was strongly affected by water film thickness and velocity. • Model 3 gave the highest performance while Model 1 gave the lowest performance. - Abstract: In the present work, theoretical study of the performance evaluation of a continuous water flow inclined solar still desalination system is performed. Three models are studied for inclined solar still desalination system with and without water close loop. The effects of the water mass, water film thickness, water film velocity and air wind velocity on the performance of the three models are studied. The results show that the inclined solar still with a makeup water is superior in productivity (57.2% improvement) compared with a conventional basin-type solar still. Also, the application of inclined solar still with open water loop is recommended when combined with other still desalination system due to high water temperature output. The inclined solar still with a makeup (Model 3) gives the highest performance while Model 1 gives the lowest performance. Finally, the water film thickness, and velocity as well as wind velocity plays important roles in improving the still productivity and efficiency

  15. Interfacial friction factors for air-water co-current stratified flow in inclined channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ki Yong; No, Hee Cheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The interfacial shear stress is experimentally investigated for co-current air-water stratified flow in inclined rectangular channels having a length of 1854mm, width of 120 mm and height of 40mm at almost atmospheric pressure. Experiments are carried out in several inclinations from 0 deg up to 10 deg. The local film thickness and the wave height are measured at three locations, i.e., L/H = 8,23, and 40. According to the inclination angle, the experimental data are categorized into two groups; nearly horizontal data group (0 deg {<=} {theta} {<=} 0.7 deg), and inclined channel data group (0.7 deg {<=} {theta} {<=} 10 deg ). Experimental observations for nearly horizontal data group show that the flow is not fully developed due to the water level gradient and the hydraulic jump within the channel. For the inclined channel data group, a dimensionless wave height, {Delta}h/h, is empirically correlated in terms of Re{sub G} and h/H. A modified root-mean-square wave height is proposed to consider the effects of the interfacial and wave propagation velocities. It is found that an equivalent roughness has a linear relationship with the modified root-mean-square wave height and its relationship is independent of the inclination. 10 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  16. The metabolic cost of walking on an incline in the Peacock (Pavo cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Holly; Thavarajah, Nathan; Codd, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Altering speed and moving on a gradient can affect an animal's posture and gait, which in turn can change the energetic requirements of terrestrial locomotion. Here, the energetic and kinematic effects of locomoting on an incline were investigated in the Indian peacock, Pavo cristatus. The mass-specific metabolic rate of the Indian peacock was elevated on an incline, but this change was not dependent on the angle ascended and the cost of lifting remained similar between the two inclines (+5 and +7°). Interestingly, the Indian peacock had the highest efficiency when compared to any other previously studied avian biped, despite the presence of a large train. Duty factors were higher for birds moving on an incline, but there was no difference between +5 and +7°. Our results highlight the importance of investigating kinematic responses during energetic studies, as these may enable explanation of what is driving the underlying metabolic differences when moving on inclines. Further investigations are required to elucidate the underlying mechanical processes occurring during incline movement.

  17. Proposal of a novel compact P-band magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator with inclined vanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Dang, Fangchao; Li, Yangmei; Jin, Zhenxing

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we present a novel compact P-band magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) with specially inclined slow-wave-structure (SWS) vanes to decrease its total dimension and weight. The dispersion characteristics of the inclined SWS are investigated in detail and made comparisons with that of the traditional straight SWS. The results show that the inclined SWS is more advantageous in operating on a steady frequency in a wide voltage range and has a better asymmetric mode segregation and a relatively large band-gap between the TM00 and TM01 modes which are in favor of avoiding the asymmetric and transverse mode competition. Besides, the transverse dimension of the proposed novel inclined SWS with the same operation frequency is decreased by about 50%, and correspondingly the device volume shrinks remarkably to its 0.35 times. In particle-in-cell simulation, the electron bunching spokes are obviously formed in the inclined SWS, and a P-band high-power microwave with a power of 5.8 GW, frequency of 645 MHz, and efficiency of 17.2% is generated by the proposed device, which indicates the feasibility of the compact design with the inclined vanes at the P-band.

  18. Interfacial friction factors for air-water co-current stratified flow in inclined channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ki Yong; No, Hee Cheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The interfacial shear stress is experimentally investigated for co-current air-water stratified flow in inclined rectangular channels having a length of 1854mm, width of 120 mm and height of 40mm at almost atmospheric pressure. Experiments are carried out in several inclinations from 0 deg up to 10 deg. The local film thickness and the wave height are measured at three locations, i.e., L/H = 8,23, and 40. According to the inclination angle, the experimental data are categorized into two groups; nearly horizontal data group (0 deg {<=} {theta} {<=} 0.7 deg), and inclined channel data group (0.7 deg {<=} {theta} {<=} 10 deg ). Experimental observations for nearly horizontal data group show that the flow is not fully developed due to the water level gradient and the hydraulic jump within the channel. For the inclined channel data group, a dimensionless wave height, {Delta}h/h, is empirically correlated in terms of Re{sub G} and h/H. A modified root-mean-square wave height is proposed to consider the effects of the interfacial and wave propagation velocities. It is found that an equivalent roughness has a linear relationship with the modified root-mean-square wave height and its relationship is independent of the inclination. 10 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  19. Experimental study on two-phase flow parameters of subcooled boiling in inclined annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tae Ho; Kim, Moon Oh; Park, Goon Cherl

    1999-01-01

    Local two-phase flow parameters of subcooled flow boiling in inclined annulus were measured to investigate the effect of inclination on the internal flow structure. Two-conductivity probe technique was applied to measured local gas phasic parameters, including void by fraction, vapor bubble frequency, chord length, vapor bubble velocity and interfacial area concentration. Local liquid velocity was measured by Pitot tube. Experiments were conducted for three angles of inclination: 0 o (vertical), 30 o , 60 o . The system pressure was maintained at atmospheric pressure. The range of average void fraction was up to 10 percent and the average liquid superficial velocities were less than 1.3 m/sec. The results of experiments showed that the distributions of two-phase flow parameters were influenced by the angle of channel inclination. Especially, the void fraction and chord length distributions were strongly affected by the increase of inclination angle, and flow pattern transition to slug flow was observed depending on the flow conditions. The profiles of vapor velocity, liquid velocity and interfacial area concentration were found to be affected by the non-symmetric bubble size distribution in inclined channel. Using the measured distributions of local phasic parameters, an analysis for predicting average void fraction was performed based on the drift flux model and flowing volumetric concentration. And it was demonstrated that the average void fraction can be more appropriately presented in terms of flowing volumetric concentration. (Author). 18 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs

  20. Joint torques and joint reaction forces during squatting with a forward or backward inclined Smith machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscarini, Andrea; Botti, Fabio M; Pettorossi, Vito E

    2013-02-01

    We developed a biomechanical model to determine the joint torques and loadings during squatting with a backward/forward-inclined Smith machine. The Smith squat allows a large variety of body positioning (trunk tilt, foot placement, combinations of joint angles) and easy control of weight distribution between forefoot and heel. These distinctive aspects of the exercise can be managed concurrently with the equipment inclination selected to unload specific joint structures while activating specific muscle groups. A backward (forward) equipment inclination decreases (increases) knee torque, and compressive tibiofemoral and patellofemoral forces, while enhances (depresses) hip and lumbosacral torques. For small knee flexion angles, the strain-force on the posterior cruciate ligament increases (decreases) with a backward (forward) equipment inclination, whereas for large knee flexion angles, this behavior is reversed. In the 0 to 60 degree range of knee flexion angles, loads on both cruciate ligaments may be simultaneously suppressed by a 30 degree backward equipment inclination and selecting, for each value of the knee angle, specific pairs of ankle and hip angles. The anterior cruciate ligament is safely maintained unloaded by squatting with backward equipment inclination and uniform/forward foot weight distribution. The conditions for the development of anterior cruciate ligament strain forces are clearly explained.

  1. Constraining the inclination of the Low-Mass X-ray Binary Cen X-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstein, Erica K.; Cackett, Edward M.; Reynolds, Mark T.; Miller, Jon M.

    2018-05-01

    We present the results of ellipsoidal light curve modeling of the low mass X-ray binary Cen X-4 in order to constrain the inclination of the system and mass of the neutron star. Near-IR photometric monitoring was performed in May 2008 over a period of three nights at Magellan using PANIC. We obtain J, H and K lightcurves of Cen X-4 using differential photometry. An ellipsoidal modeling code was used to fit the phase folded light curves. The lightcurve fit which makes the least assumptions about the properties of the binary system yields an inclination of 34.9^{+4.9}_{-3.6} degrees (1σ), which is consistent with previous determinations of the system's inclination but with improved statistical uncertainties. When combined with the mass function and mass ratio, this inclination yields a neutron star mass of 1.51^{+0.40}_{-0.55} M⊙. This model allows accretion disk parameters to be free in the fitting process. Fits that do not allow for an accretion disk component in the near-IR flux gives a systematically lower inclination between approximately 33 and 34 degrees, leading to a higher mass neutron star between approximately 1.7 M⊙ and 1.8 M⊙. We discuss the implications of other assumptions made during the modeling process as well as numerous free parameters and their effects on the resulting inclination.

  2. Development of an Inclined Plate Extractor-Separator for Immiscible Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Zahoor ul Hassan Rizvi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A new inclined plates extractor-separator is developed for operation with immiscible liquids in which extraction and separation is achieved in one unit contrary to mixer settlers. The inclined plates extractor-separator combines turbulent jets for contacting, and an inclined plate for separation of the two phases. The inclined plates extractor-separator does not have any moving part inside the vessel. This feature makes it free from the mechanical problems associated with conventional apparatus. The proposed inclined plates extractor-separator was operated in batch mode under various operating conditions to evaluate its performance on the basis of extraction efficiency. Water (light phase was used as solvent to extract ethyl acetate from a heavy phase pool of tetrachloroethylene and ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate content was analysed using chromatography. A hydrodynamic study was carried out using high speed photography to understand the mechanisms occurring during mass transfer across the two phases. Furthermore, it was found that the proposed inclined plate extractor-separator reduces the overall operating time by 67% and consumes only 13% of the power in comparison to a mixer-settler. A hydraulic power consumption comparison with a mixer settler and a gullwing extractor-separator is also presented.

  3. The metabolic cost of walking on an incline in the Peacock (Pavo cristatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Wilkinson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Altering speed and moving on a gradient can affect an animal’s posture and gait, which in turn can change the energetic requirements of terrestrial locomotion. Here, the energetic and kinematic effects of locomoting on an incline were investigated in the Indian peacock, Pavo cristatus. The mass-specific metabolic rate of the Indian peacock was elevated on an incline, but this change was not dependent on the angle ascended and the cost of lifting remained similar between the two inclines (+5 and +7°. Interestingly, the Indian peacock had the highest efficiency when compared to any other previously studied avian biped, despite the presence of a large train. Duty factors were higher for birds moving on an incline, but there was no difference between +5 and +7°. Our results highlight the importance of investigating kinematic responses during energetic studies, as these may enable explanation of what is driving the underlying metabolic differences when moving on inclines. Further investigations are required to elucidate the underlying mechanical processes occurring during incline movement.

  4. Effect of clear aligner therapy on the buccolingual inclination of mandibular canines and the intercanine distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünheid, Thorsten; Gaalaas, Sara; Hamdan, Hani; Larson, Brent E

    2016-01-01

    To compare the changes in buccolinugal inclination of mandibular canines and intercanine distance in patients treated with clear aligners to those treated with preadjusted edgewise appliances. The buccolingual inclination of mandibular canines and the intercanine distance were measured on pre- and posttreatment cone-beam computed tomograms of 30 patients who had been treated with clear aligners and 30 patients who had been treated with fixed preadjusted edgewise appliances. Differences between the aligner and fixed appliance groups and between pre- and posttreatment measurements were tested for statistical significance. In both groups, most of the mandibular canines had positive buccolingual inclinations (ie, their crowns were positioned lateral to their roots) both before and after treatment. While there was no difference between the groups pretreatment, the posttreatment buccolingual inclination was significantly greater in the aligner group. In the fixed appliance group, the canines became more upright with treatment, while the buccolingual inclination did not change significantly in the clear aligner group. The intercanine distance did not differ between the groups either before or after treatment. However, it increased significantly over the course of treatment in the aligner group, whereas it did not change significantly in the fixed appliance group. Orthodontic treatment with clear aligners tends to increase the mandibular intercanine distance with little change in inclination in contrast to treatment with fixed appliances, which leaves the intercanine distance unchanged but leads to more upright mandibular canines.

  5. Effects of occlusal inclination and loading on mandibular bone remodeling: a finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungsiyakull, Chaiy; Rungsiyakull, Pimdeun; Li, Qing; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael

    2011-01-01

    To provide a preliminary understanding of the biomechanics with respect to the effect of cusp inclination and occlusal loading on the mandibular bone remodeling. Three different cusp inclinations (0, 10, and 30 degrees) of a ceramic crown and different occlusal loading locations (central fossa and 1- and 2-mm offsets horizontally) were taken into account to explore the stresses and strains transferred from the crown to the surrounding dental bone through the implant. A strain energy density obtained from two-dimensional plane-strain finite element analysis was used as the mechanical stimulus to drive cancellous and cortical bone remodeling in a buccolingual mandibular section. Different ceramic cusp inclinations had a significant effect on bone remodeling responses in terms of the change in the average peri-implant bone density and overall stability. The remodeling rate was relatively high in the first few months of loading and gradually decreased until reaching its equilibrium. A larger cusp inclination and horizontal offset (eg, 30 degrees and 2-mm offset) led to a higher bone remodeling rate and greater interfacial stress. The dental implant superstructure design (in terms of cusp inclination and loading location) determines the load transmission pattern and thus largely affects bone remodeling activities. Although the design with a lower cusp inclination recommended in previous studies may reduce damage and fracture failure, it could, to a certain extent, compromise bone engagement and long-term stability.

  6. An inclined plane system with microcontroller to determine limb motor function of laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ming-Wen; Young, Ming-Shing; Lin, Mao-Tsun

    2008-02-15

    This study describes a high-accuracy inclined plane test system for quantitative measurement of the limb motor function of laboratory rats. The system is built around a microcontroller and uses a stepping motor to drive a ball screw, which changes the angle of the inclined plane. Any of the seven inclination speeds can be selected by the user. Two infrared (IR) LED/detector pairs function as interrupt sensors for objective determination of the moment that the rat loses its grip on the textured flooring of the starting area and slips down the plane. Inclination angle at the moment of IR interrupt (i.e. rat slip) is recorded. A liquid crystal display module shows the inclination speed and the inclination angle. The system can function as a stand alone device but a RS232 port allows connection to a personal computer (PC), so data can be sent directly to hard disk for storage and analysis. Experiments can be controlled by a local keypad or by the connected PC. Advantages of the presented system include easy operation, high accuracy, non-dependence on human observation for determination of slip angle, stand-alone capability, low cost and easy modification of the controlling software for different types of experiments. A fully functional prototype of the system is described. The prototype was used experimentally by a hospital group testing traumatic brain injury experiments, and some of their results are presented for system verification. It is found that the system is stable, accurate and easily used by investigators.

  7. Development and Evaluation of Mechatronics Learning System in a Web-Based Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyr, Wen-Jye

    2011-01-01

    The development of remote laboratory suitable for the reinforcement of undergraduate level teaching of mechatronics is important. For the reason, a Web-based mechatronics learning system, called the RECOLAB (REmote COntrol LABoratory), for remote learning in engineering education has been developed in this study. The web-based environment is an…

  8. Analytical design method for a truss-bolt system for reinforcement of fractured coal mine roofs - illustrated with a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, B.; Yue, Z.Q.; Tham, L.G. [University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents an analytical design method for the truss-bolt system in reinforcing underground fractured rock roofs in coal mines. The analytical design method is based on the mechanical analysis of the fractured rock roof with reinforcement by inclined roof bolts and a horizontal tie-rod. The mechanical analysis for the system includes a non-linear bending model for the laterally inclined roof bolts and three upper and lower bounds. The lateral resistance of the inclined roof bolts in a truss-bolt-supported roadway is examined using classical theory of a non-linear beam in bending. The paper analyses the arching action by lateral behavior of the inclined roof bolts in reinforcing the fractured roof. Based on mechanical models, the design formula concerning the lateral bolt forces, tensions in the tie-rod in the truss system, as well as the reinforcement behavior have been derived. In order to ensure that the roof truss-bolt system reinforces the coal roof effectively, a lower bound of pre-tightening forces must be applied on the tie-rod for stabilizing the fractured roof by arching action. The pre-tightening forces exerted via the tie-rod also cannot be greater than its upper bound, since the excessive tightening force will cause localized failure in the rock near the bolt tail at the abutment of the fractured roof beam. The analytical formulas for both lower and upper bounds for truss pre-tightening forces are put forward in this paper. Furthermore, the paper also presents analytical equations for designing the axial forces and dimensions for bolts in this kind of system.

  9. Het WEB leert begrijpen

    CERN Multimedia

    Stroeykens, Steven

    2004-01-01

    The WEB could be much more useful if the computers understood something of information on the Web pages. That explains the goal of the "semantic Web", a project in which takes part, amongst others, Tim Berners Lee, the inventor of the original WEB

  10. Instant responsive web design

    CERN Document Server

    Simmons, Cory

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step tutorial approach which will teach the readers what responsive web design is and how it is used in designing a responsive web page.If you are a web-designer looking to expand your skill set by learning the quickly growing industry standard of responsive web design, this book is ideal for you. Knowledge of CSS is assumed.

  11. Shear strength of reinforced concrete beams strengthened by P.B.O. fiber mesh under loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blikharskyy Zinoviy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents experimental study of sheer strength of reinforced concrete beams without transverse steel reinforcement, which strengthened by composite materials. The feature of tests is that the beams’ strengthening is made under simultaneous action of loading. The research program involves a series of test beams with size 2100 × 200 × 100 mm and which contains control sample and three reinforced samples by reinforcing FRCM system. FRCM system consisting of two components: mineral mortar based on modified cement Ruredil X Mesh M750 and reinforcing P.B.O. fiber mesh Ruredil X Mesh Gold (Italy. The strength research of test samples was carried out with the shear distance to effective depth ratio a/d = 2. The strengthening loading levels were selected at 0.0, 0.3, 0.5 from shear strength of non strengthened control sample. As a result of experimental studies we found that during strengthening design the inclined cross section of beams we should take into account the existing level of loading. Using the strengthening system Ruredil X Mesh Gold the strengthening effect is reduced at 2.8 to 2.9 times while the existing level of loading increase from 0 to 50%.

  12. Geospatial semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Chuanrong; Li, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    This book covers key issues related to Geospatial Semantic Web, including geospatial web services for spatial data interoperability; geospatial ontology for semantic interoperability; ontology creation, sharing, and integration; querying knowledge and information from heterogeneous data source; interfaces for Geospatial Semantic Web, VGI (Volunteered Geographic Information) and Geospatial Semantic Web; challenges of Geospatial Semantic Web; and development of Geospatial Semantic Web applications. This book also describes state-of-the-art technologies that attempt to solve these problems such as WFS, WMS, RDF, OWL, and GeoSPARQL, and demonstrates how to use the Geospatial Semantic Web technologies to solve practical real-world problems such as spatial data interoperability.

  13. The quality of veterinary in-clinic and reference laboratory biochemical testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishniw, Mark; Pion, Paul D; Maher, Tammy

    2012-03-01

    Although evaluation of biochemical analytes in blood is common in veterinary practice, studies assessing the global quality of veterinary in-clinic and reference laboratory testing have not been reported. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of biochemical testing in veterinary laboratories using results obtained from analyses of 3 levels of assayed quality control materials over 5 days. Quality was assessed by comparison of calculated total error with quality requirements, determination of sigma metrics, use of a quality goal index to determine factors contributing to poor performance, and agreement between in-clinic and reference laboratory mean results. The suitability of in-clinic and reference laboratory instruments for statistical quality control was determined using adaptations from the computerized program, EZRules3. Reference laboratories were able to achieve desirable quality requirements more frequently than in-clinic laboratories. Across all 3 materials, > 50% of in-clinic analyzers achieved a sigma metric ≥ 6.0 for measurement of 2 analytes, whereas > 50% of reference laboratory analyzers achieved a sigma metric ≥ 6.0 for measurement of 6 analytes. Expanded uncertainty of measurement and ± total allowable error resulted in the highest mean percentages of analytes demonstrating agreement between in-clinic and reference laboratories. Owing to marked variation in bias and coefficient of variation between analyzers of the same and different types, the percentages of analytes suitable for statistical quality control varied widely. These findings reflect the current state-of-the-art with regard to in-clinic and reference laboratory analyzer performance and provide a baseline for future evaluations of the quality of veterinary laboratory testing. © 2012 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  14. EXTINCTION IN STAR-FORMING DISK GALAXIES FROM INCLINATION-DEPENDENT COMPOSITE SPECTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yip, Ching-Wa; Szalay, Alex S.; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Budavari, Tamas; Dobos, Laszlo; Csabai, Istvan

    2010-01-01

    Extinction in galaxies affects their observed properties. In scenarios describing the distribution of dust and stars in individual disk galaxies, the amplitude of the extinction can be modulated by the inclination of the galaxies. In this work, we investigate the inclination dependency in composite spectra of star-forming disk galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5. In a volume-limited sample within a redshift range 0.065-0.075 and a r-band Petrosian absolute magnitude range -19.5 to -22 mag which exhibits a flat distribution of inclination, the inclined relative to face-on extinction in the stellar continuum is found empirically to increase with inclination in the g, r, and i bands. Within the central 0.5 intrinsic half-light radius of the galaxies, the g-band relative extinction in the stellar continuum for the highly inclined objects (axis ratio b/a = 0.1) is 1.2 mag, agreeing with previous studies. The extinction curve of the disk galaxies is given in the rest-frame wavelengths 3700-8000 A, identified with major optical emission and absorption lines in diagnostics. The Balmer decrement, Hα/Hβ, remains constant with inclination, suggesting a different kind of dust configuration and/or reddening mechanism in the H II region from that in the stellar continuum. One factor is shown to be the presence of spatially non-uniform interstellar extinction, presumably caused by clumped dust in the vicinity of the H II region.

  15. Computational stability appraisal of rectangular natural circulation loop: Effect of loop inclination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnani, Mayur; Basu, Dipankar N.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Computational model developed for single-phase rectangular natural circulation loop. • Role of loop inclination to vertical on thermalhydraulic stability is explored. • Inclination has strong stabilizing effect due to lower effective gravitation force. • Increase in tilt angle reduces settling time and highest amplitude of oscillation. • An angle of 15° is suggested for the selected loop geometry. - Abstract: Controlling stability behavior of single-phase natural circulation loops, without significantly affecting its steady-state characteristics, is a topic of wide research interest. Present study explores the role of loop inclination on a particular loop geometry. Accordingly a 3D computational model of a rectangular loop is developed and transient conservation equations are solved to obtain the temporal variation in flow parameters. Starting from the quiescent state, simulations are performed for selected sets of operating conditions and also with a few selected inclination angles. System experiences instability at higher heater powers and also with higher sink temperatures. Inclination is found to have a strong stabilizing influence owing to the reduction in the effective gravitational acceleration and subsequent decline in local buoyancy effects. The settling time and highest amplitude of oscillations substantially reduces for a stable system with a small inclination. Typically-unstable systems can also suppress the oscillations, when subjected to tilting, within a reasonable period of time. It is possible to stabilize the loop within shorter time span by increasing the tilt angle, but at the expense of reduction in steady-state flow rate. Overall a tilt angle of 15° is suggested for the selected geometry. Results from the 3D model is compared with the predictions from an indigenous 1D code. While similar qualitative influence of inclination is observed, the 1D model predicts early appearance of the stability threshold and hence hints

  16. Ceramic fiber reinforced filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinton, David P.; McLaughlin, Jerry C.; Lowden, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    A filter for removing particulate matter from high temperature flowing fluids, and in particular gases, that is reinforced with ceramic fibers. The filter has a ceramic base fiber material in the form of a fabric, felt, paper of the like, with the refractory fibers thereof coated with a thin layer of a protective and bonding refractory applied by chemical vapor deposition techniques. This coating causes each fiber to be physically joined to adjoining fibers so as to prevent movement of the fibers during use and to increase the strength and toughness of the composite filter. Further, the coating can be selected to minimize any reactions between the constituents of the fluids and the fibers. A description is given of the formation of a composite filter using a felt preform of commercial silicon carbide fibers together with the coating of these fibers with pure silicon carbide. Filter efficiency approaching 100% has been demonstrated with these filters. The fiber base material is alternately made from aluminosilicate fibers, zirconia fibers and alumina fibers. Coating with Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 is also described. Advanced configurations for the composite filter are suggested.

  17. Virtual Web Services

    OpenAIRE

    Rykowski, Jarogniew

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we propose an application of software agents to provide Virtual Web Services. A Virtual Web Service is a linked collection of several real and/or virtual Web Services, and public and private agents, accessed by the user in the same way as a single real Web Service. A Virtual Web Service allows unrestricted comparison, information merging, pipelining, etc., of data coming from different sources and in different forms. Detailed architecture and functionality of a single Virtual We...

  18. The Semantic Web Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Shadbolt, Nigel; Berners-Lee, Tim; Hall, Wendy

    2006-01-01

    The original Scientific American article on the Semantic Web appeared in 2001. It described the evolution of a Web that consisted largely of documents for humans to read to one that included data and information for computers to manipulate. The Semantic Web is a Web of actionable information--information derived from data through a semantic theory for interpreting the symbols.This simple idea, however, remains largely unrealized. Shopbots and auction bots abound on the Web, but these are esse...

  19. Web Project Management

    OpenAIRE

    Suralkar, Sunita; Joshi, Nilambari; Meshram, B B

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes about the need for Web project management, fundamentals of project management for web projects: what it is, why projects go wrong, and what's different about web projects. We also discuss Cost Estimation Techniques based on Size Metrics. Though Web project development is similar to traditional software development applications, the special characteristics of Web Application development requires adaption of many software engineering approaches or even development of comple...

  20. Effects of treadmill inclination on electromyographic activity and hind limb kinematics in healthy hounds at a walk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Susanne K; Hillman, Robert B; Li, Li; Hosgood, Giselle L

    2009-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of treadmill incline on muscle activity and joint range of motion (ROM) in hind limbs of dogs. 8 purpose-bred healthy adult hounds. Activities of the hamstring (semimembranosus, semitendinosus, and biceps femoris muscles), gluteal (superficial, middle, and deep gluteal muscles), and quadriceps (femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, and vastus medialis muscles) muscle groups and hip and stifle joint ROM were measured with surface electrogoniometric and myographic sensors in hounds walking on a treadmill at 0.54 m/s at inclines of 5%, 0%, and -5% in random order. Mean electromyographic activities and mean ROMs at each inclination were compared for swing and stance phases. Treadmill inclination did not affect duration of the stance and swing phases or the whole stride. When treadmill inclination was increased from -5% to 5%, hip joint ROM increased and the degree of stifle joint extension decreased significantly. In the beginning of the stance phase, activity of the hamstring muscle group was significantly increased when walking at a 5% incline versus a 5% decline. In the end of the stance phase, that activity was significantly increased when walking at a 5% incline versus at a 5% decline or on a flat surface. Activity of the gluteal and quadriceps muscle groups was not affected when treadmill inclination changed. Treadmill inclination affected joint kinematics only slightly. Walking on a treadmill at a 5% incline had more potential to strengthen the hamstring muscle group than walking on a treadmill with a flat or declined surface.

  1. WEB STRUCTURE MINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA ELENA DINUCĂ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The World Wide Web became one of the most valuable resources for information retrievals and knowledge discoveries due to the permanent increasing of the amount of data available online. Taking into consideration the web dimension, the users get easily lost in the web’s rich hyper structure. Application of data mining methods is the right solution for knowledge discovery on the Web. The knowledge extracted from the Web can be used to raise the performances for Web information retrievals, question answering and Web based data warehousing. In this paper, I provide an introduction of Web mining categories and I focus on one of these categories: the Web structure mining. Web structure mining, one of three categories of web mining for data, is a tool used to identify the relationship between Web pages linked by information or direct link connection. It offers information about how different pages are linked together to form this huge web. Web Structure Mining finds hidden basic structures and uses hyperlinks for more web applications such as web search.

  2. Semantic Web Technologies for the Adaptive Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter; Nejdl, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Ontologies and reasoning are the key terms brought into focus by the semantic web community. Formal representation of ontologies in a common data model on the web can be taken as a foundation for adaptive web technologies as well. This chapter describes how ontologies shared on the semantic web...... provide conceptualization for the links which are a main vehicle to access information on the web. The subject domain ontologies serve as constraints for generating only those links which are relevant for the domain a user is currently interested in. Furthermore, user model ontologies provide additional...... means for deciding which links to show, annotate, hide, generate, and reorder. The semantic web technologies provide means to formalize the domain ontologies and metadata created from them. The formalization enables reasoning for personalization decisions. This chapter describes which components...

  3. Modeling reinforced concrete durability : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Many Florida bridges are built of steel-reinforced concrete. Floridas humid and marine : environments subject steel in these structures : to corrosion once water and salt penetrate the : concrete and contact the steel. Corroded steel : takes up mo...

  4. Evolutionary computation for reinforcement learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whiteson, S.; Wiering, M.; van Otterlo, M.

    2012-01-01

    Algorithms for evolutionary computation, which simulate the process of natural selection to solve optimization problems, are an effective tool for discovering high-performing reinforcement-learning policies. Because they can automatically find good representations, handle continuous action spaces,

  5. ANALYSIS OF INFLUENCE OF DESIGN CHARACTERISTICS OF INCLINED BUCKET ELEVATOR ON THE POWER OF ITS DRIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bohomaz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.One of the main elements of the inclined belt bucket elevators is their drive. To determine the drive power, it is necessary to carry out calculations according to standard methods, which are described in the modern literature. The basic design parameters are the productivity, lifting height, type and properties of the transported material, the angle of inclination. It is necessary to build a parametric dependence of the driving power of the elevator on its design parameters, which takes into account the standard sizes and types of buckets and belts. Methodology. Using the methodology of traction calculation of inclined belt bucket elevator there were built parametric dependences of efforts in specific points of the route of the elevator, as well as the parametric dependences of the drive power of high-speed elevators with deep and shallow buckets on their design parameters and characteristics. Findings. On the basis of constructed parametric dependencies, it was found that the function of changing the value of the elevator’s power from design capacity (at fixed lifting height, type of cargo, belt speed is piecewise constant and monotonically increasing. It was built a graphical representation of elevator drive power on the angle of its inclination within acceptable limits of change. The resulting relationship is non-linear and monotonically decreasing. In general terms the intervals of project performance values, which provide a constant value of drive power of inclined elevator were defined. As an example of the obtained results it was observed the process of dependence construction of the drive power on design capacity and inclination angle of the elevator for transporting the fine coal. Originality. For the first time there were constructed the parametric dependences of drive power of inclined bucket elevator on its design parameters that take into account the standard sizes and types of buckets and belts. Practical value. Using

  6. Applying semantic web services to enterprise web

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Y; Yang, Q P; Sun, X; Wei, P

    2008-01-01

    Enterprise Web provides a convenient, extendable, integrated platform for information sharing and knowledge management. However, it still has many drawbacks due to complexity and increasing information glut, as well as the heterogeneity of the information processed. Research in the field of Semantic Web Services has shown the possibility of adding higher level of semantic functionality onto the top of current Enterprise Web, enhancing usability and usefulness of resource, enabling decision su...

  7. Deep Reinforcement Learning: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuxi

    2017-01-01

    We give an overview of recent exciting achievements of deep reinforcement learning (RL). We discuss six core elements, six important mechanisms, and twelve applications. We start with background of machine learning, deep learning and reinforcement learning. Next we discuss core RL elements, including value function, in particular, Deep Q-Network (DQN), policy, reward, model, planning, and exploration. After that, we discuss important mechanisms for RL, including attention and memory, unsuperv...

  8. Assessment of crown angulations, crown inclinations, and tooth size discrepancies in a South Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta Maruti Doodamani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objective: The aim of this study was to assess crown angulations, crown inclinations, and tooth size discrepancy in a sample population from Davangere, South India. Materials and Methods: One hundred adults (50 male and 50 female of age 18-30 years, with Angle′s class I ideal occlusion and balanced profiles, were selected for the study. Study models were prepared and crown angulations and crown inclinations were measured using a customized protractor device. Bolton′s analysis was used to measure the tooth size discrepancies. Results: Maxillary and mandibular teeth had less crown angulations. Maxillary and mandibular incisors and maxillary molars showed increased crown inclinations, whereas mandibular molars and premolars had less crown inclinations than the original Andrews sample. The mean maxillary and mandibular tooth size ratios, overall and anterior, were similar to Bolton′s ratios. Conclusions: The finding of this study indicates that there are possible racial and ethnic factors contributing to variations in crown angulations and crown inclinations.

  9. On motions of a carrier with a mobile load along a rough inclined plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilchenko, Grigory; Bilchenko, Grigory; Bilchenko, Nataly

    2018-05-01

    A mechanical system consisting of a carrier and a load is considered. The load can move respectively to the carrier according to a predetermined motion law. The carrier can move translationally along a rectilinear trajectory on a rough inclined plane. The trajectory is the line of the greatest descent. The axis of the rectilinear channel, along which the load moves, is located in a vertical plane passing through the trajectory of the carrier. The Coulomb dry friction model is applied for simulation the forces of resistance to the motion of the carrier from the side of the underlying inclined plane. The extreme value of plane inclination angle at which the carrier is at rest, when the load is stationary, is obtained by taking into account the frictional forces of sliding at rest. Differential equations of motion of a carrier with a load moving with respect to the carrier are obtained taking into account the requirement of motion of the carrier along an inclined plane without detachment. The determining relationships are given which made it possible to classify the types of carrier motion when the channel setting angle and the plane inclination angle are related by a certain inequality. The results of computational experiments are presented.

  10. Effect of solar chimney inclination angle on space flow pattern and ventilation rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassiouny, Ramadan; Korah, Nader S.A. [Department of Mechanical Power Engineering and Energy, Minia University, Minia 61111 (Egypt)

    2009-02-15

    The solar chimney is a simple and practical idea that is applied to enhance space natural ventilation. The chimney could be vertical or inclined. The chimney inclination angle is an important parameter that greatly affects space flow pattern and ventilation rate. In the present study, the effect of chimney inclination angle on air change per hour and indoor flow pattern was numerically and analytically investigated. A numerical simulation using Ansys, a FEM-based code, was used to predict flow pattern. Then the results were compared with published experimental measurements. A FORTRAN program was developed to iteratively solve the mathematical model that was obtained through an overall energy balance on the solar chimney. The analytical results showed that an optimum air flow rate value was achieved when the chimney inclination is between 45 and 70 for latitude of 28.4 . The numerically predicted flow pattern inside the space supports this finding. Moreover, in the present study a correlation to predict the air change per hour was developed. The correlation was tested within a solar intensity greater than or equal to 500 W/m{sup 2}, and chimney width from 0.1 m to 0.35 m for different inclination angles with acceptable values. (author)

  11. Study on natural circulation characteristics of an IPWR under inclined and rolling condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Lihui [College of Computer Science and Information Technology, Harbin Normal University, Harbin (China); Wang, Bing [Fundamental Science on Nuclear Safety and Simulation Technology Laboratory, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China); Xia, Genglei, E-mail: xiagenglei@163.com [Fundamental Science on Nuclear Safety and Simulation Technology Laboratory, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China); Peng, Minjun [Fundamental Science on Nuclear Safety and Simulation Technology Laboratory, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • An ocean-based thermal-hydraulic analysis code was developed based on RELAP5 codes. • The inclination condition can reduce the mass flow rate of reactor core. • The system parameters asymmetry increases with the increasing inclination angle. • Flow oscillation of different loops cancel each other due to the symmetrical arrangement of the reactor. • The off-center roll axis location can break the symmetry and enlarge fluctuation amplitude of the core flow rate. - Abstract: An ocean-based thermal-hydraulic system analysis code was developed based on RELAP5/MOD3 code by adding additional force model of ocean condition and control volume coordinate solver model. The natural circulation operation characteristics of integrated pressurized water reactor (IPWR) under ocean conditions were studied and the effects of inclination and rolling motions were analyzed. The results conclude that, the inclination condition can reduce the mass flow rate of reactor core and lead to inconsistent coolant flow rates of the left and right loops, furthermore, it affects the heat transfer of once-through steam generators (OTSGs). In the case of rolling motion, the additional pressure drop of the loop is dominated by tangential force, and flow oscillation of different loops cancel each other due to the symmetrical arrangement of the reactor. The off-center roll axis location, the combination of the inclination and rolling motion, both can break the thermal-hydraulic symmetry among different loops and enlarge fluctuation amplitude of the core flow rate.

  12. Investigation of Oriented Magnetic Field Effects on Entropy Generation in an Inclined Channel Filled with Ferrofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elgiz Baskaya

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dispersion of super-paramagnetic nanoparticles in nonmagnetic carrier fluids, known as ferrofluids, offers the advantages of tunable thermo-physical properties and eliminate the need for moving parts to induce flow. This study investigates ferrofluid flow characteristics in an inclined channel under inclined magnetic field and constant pressure gradient. The ferrofluid considered in this work is comprised of Cu particles as the nanoparticles and water as the base fluid. The governing differential equations including viscous dissipation are non-dimensionalised and discretized with Generalized Differential Quadrature Method. The resulting algebraic set of equations are solved via Newton-Raphson Method. The work done here contributes to the literature by searching the effects of magnetic field angle and channel inclination separately on the entropy generation of the ferrofluid filled inclined channel system in order to achieve best design parameter values so called entropy generation minimization is implemented. Furthermore, the effect of magnetic field, inclination angle of the channel and volume fraction of nanoparticles on velocity and temperature profiles are examined and represented by figures to give a thorough understanding of the system behavior.

  13. Walking on inclines: how do desert ants monitor slope and step length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidl Tobias

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During long-distance foraging in almost featureless habitats desert ants of the genus Cataglyphis employ path-integrating mechanisms (vector navigation. This navigational strategy requires an egocentric monitoring of the foraging path by incrementally integrating direction, distance, and inclination of the path. Monitoring the latter two parameters involves idiothetic cues and hence is tightly coupled to the ant's locomotor behavior. Results In a kinematic study of desert ant locomotion performed on differently inclined surfaces we aimed at pinpointing the relevant mechanisms of estimating step length and inclination. In a behavioral experiment with ants foraging on slippery surfaces we broke the otherwise tightly coupled relationship between stepping frequency and step length and examined the animals' ability to monitor distances covered even under those adverse conditions. We show that the ants' locomotor system is not influenced by inclined paths. After removing the effect of speed, slope had only marginal influence on kinematic parameters. Conclusion From the obtained data we infer that the previously proposed monitoring of angles of the thorax-coxa joint is not involved in inclinometry. Due to the tiny variations in cycle period, we also argue that an efference copy of the central pattern generator coding the step length in its output frequency will most likely not suffice for estimating step length and complementing the pedometer. Finally we propose that sensing forces acting on the ant's legs could provide the desired neuronal correlate employed in monitoring inclination and step length.

  14. Vibration characteristics of an inclined flip-flow screen panel in banana flip-flow screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaoyan; Niu, Linkai; Gu, Chengxiang; Wang, Yinhua

    2017-12-01

    A banana flip-flow screen is an effective solution for the screening of high-viscosity, high-water and fine materials. As one of the key components, the vibration characteristics of the inclined flip-flow screen panel largely affects the screen performance and the processing capacity. In this paper, a mathematical model for the vibration characteristic of the inclined flip-flow screen panel is proposed based on Catenary theory. The reasonability of Catenary theory in analyzing the vibration characteristic of flip-flow screen panels is verified by a published experiment. Moreover, the effects of the rotation speed of exciters, the incline angle, the slack length and the characteristics of the screen on the vertical deflection, the vertical velocity and the vertical acceleration of the screen panel are investigated parametrically. The results show that the rotation speed of exciters, the incline angle, the slack length and the characteristics of the screen have significant effects on the vibrations of an inclined flip-flow screen panel, and these parameters should be optimized.

  15. Experimental studies on the flow characteristics in an inclined bend-free OWC device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnil Ravinesh Ram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A bend-free rectangular cross-section OWC device was designed and constructed for studying the effect of inclination on the flow characteristics inside the device. The inclination is meant to reduce reflection of waves and induce higher velocities in the turbine section. Experimental measurements were made in a wave channel where the OWC device was tested. An S-type Pitot tube was used to measure dynamic pressure of air in the turbine section at several inclinations. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV was also done to study the flow of both air and water in the OWC device. In order to focus solely on primary energy capture, no turbine was installed in the OWC device. The dynamic pressure readings were analysed for suction and compression stages. Water volume fluctuations inside the capture chamber were also recorded and compared for different inclinations. The result was an increase in the velocity of air flowing in the capture chamber and hence a rise in the kinetic energy available to the turbine. It was found from experimental studies that as the angle of inclination reduced, the velocity of air in the turbine section increased. The lower angles also caused higher run-up and larger volume of water into the capture chamber.

  16. Sounds of Web Advertising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Iben Bredahl; Graakjær, Nicolai Jørgensgaard

    2010-01-01

    Sound seems to be a neglected issue in the study of web ads. Web advertising is predominantly regarded as visual phenomena–commercial messages, as for instance banner ads that we watch, read, and eventually click on–but only rarely as something that we listen to. The present chapter presents...... an overview of the auditory dimensions in web advertising: Which kinds of sounds do we hear in web ads? What are the conditions and functions of sound in web ads? Moreover, the chapter proposes a theoretical framework in order to analyse the communicative functions of sound in web advertising. The main...... argument is that an understanding of the auditory dimensions in web advertising must include a reflection on the hypertextual settings of the web ad as well as a perspective on how users engage with web content....

  17. Full scale model push-off test of reinforced concrete block with 51 mm dia. deformed steel bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyagi, Y.

    1981-01-01

    The conclusions of this study are as follows; (1) The equation previously derived from small scale specimens, to predict the shear strength of push-off specimens including both initially cracked and uncracked, can conservatively estimate the experimental data of full scale specimens to the same extent as small scale ones. (2) The equation previously derived from small scale specimens, to predict the shear strength of initially cracked push-off specimens with reinforcements inclined to the shear plane, agrees reasonably well with the experimental data of full scale speciemens. (3) The concrete strength and yield strength of reinforcement theoretically set the balanced reinforcement ratio of the shear area above which the shear strength of specimens is constant. (4) The theoretical shear strength of push-off specimens overestimates the experimental data by about 25%. (orig./HP)

  18. Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifen [Newton, MA; Wen, Jian Guo [Newton, MA; Lao, Jing Y [Chestnut Hill, MA; Li, Wenzhi [Brookline, MA

    2008-10-28

    Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes having a plurality of microparticulate carbide or oxide materials formed substantially on the surface of such reinforced carbon nanotubes composite materials are disclosed. In particular, the present invention provides reinforced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) having a plurality of boron carbide nanolumps formed substantially on a surface of the reinforced CNTs that provide a reinforcing effect on CNTs, enabling their use as effective reinforcing fillers for matrix materials to give high-strength composites. The present invention also provides methods for producing such carbide reinforced CNTs.

  19. Distribution of local magnetic field of vortex lattice near anisotropic superconductor surface in inclined external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremova, S.A.; Tsarevskij, S.L.

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic field distribution in a unit cell of the Abrikosov vortex lattice near the surface of monoaxial anisotropic type-ii superconductors in inclined external magnetic field has been found in the framework of London model for the cases when the symmetry axis is perpendicular and parallel to the superconductor surface interface. Distribution of local magnetic field as a function of the distance from the superconductor interface surface and external field inclination angle has been obtained. Using high-Tc superconductor Y-Ba-Cu-O by way of examples, it has been shown that the study of local magnetic field distribution function, depending on external magnetic field inclination angle towards the superconductor symmetry axis and towards the superconductor surface, can provide important data on anisotropic properties of the superconductor [ru

  20. Performance of an inclined solar still with rectangular grooves and ridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anburaj, P.; Kalidasa, Murugavel K.; Samuel Hansen, R.

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates the experimental performance of a new type inclined solar still with rectangular grooves and ridges in absorber plate. The still was fabricated and tested for various inclination angles of 25, 30 and 35 facing south with absorber plate. Performances of the still were compared with different wick materials (Black cotton cloth, Jute cloth, and Waste cotton pieces) on the absorber plate. The effect of placing porous material (Clay pot) and energy storing material (Mild steel pieces) in the grooves were studied. The results demonstrate that 30 inclination is optimum which yielded 3.77 L/day production. Compared to different wick materials, black cotton cloth helps to achieve maximum productivity of 4.21 L/day. The addition of permeable materials and energy absorbing materials also enhances the distillate output to 4.27 L/day. (authors)

  1. Motion of a carrier with a mobile load along a rough inclined plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilchenko, G. G.

    2018-03-01

    The mechanical system consisting of a carrier and a load is considered. The load can move respectively the carrier according to the preset given motion law. The carrier motion from rest caused the load motion is investigated. The carrier can move translationally along rectilinear trajectory along rough inclined plane. The trajectory is the line of the greatest descent. The axis of rectilinear channel along which the load moves is situated in vertical plane containing the carrier trajectory. The Coulomb model is taken to describe the friction forces on sloped plane. Differential equations of motion of carrier with load are obtained. The sufficient condition of the carrier motion without detachment from inclined plane is given. For two special cases of the channel installation angle and the plane inclination angle combination the motion types are described. The computation experiments results are presented: the carrier motions in the special cases are illustrated, the phase portraits for some types of motions are constructed.

  2. Effects of the inclined femto laser incidence at the phase mask on FBG carving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Wu, Shengli; Zhang, Jintao; Ren, Wenyi

    2015-12-01

    The inclined incidence of the femto laser on the phase mask in fiber Bragg grating (FBG) carving has a significant effect on the quality of FBG fabrication. Based on that the infrared femto laser has highly spatial coherence and the order walk-off will happen behind the phase mask, the interferogram generated at the fiber core by the inclined femto laser beam has been analyzed using the multi-beam interference principle. The influence of beam inclination on the coherence of the 0th and ± 1st orders diffraction with different exposure distance, the visibility of interferogram and the frequency component of the transverse interferogram intensity has also been analyzed. It is meaningful for the FBG fabricating with the femto laser.

  3. Experimental and numerical investigation of stratified gas-liquid flow in inclined circular pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faccini, J.L.H.; Sampaio, P.A.B. de; Botelho, M.H.D.S.; Cunha, M.V.; Cunha Filho, J.S.; Su, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a stratified gas-liquid flow is experimentally and numerically investigated. Two measurement techniques, namely an ultrasonic technique and a visualization technique, are applied on an inclined circular test section using a fast single transducer pulse-echo technique and a high-speed camera. A numerical model is employed to simulate the stratified gas-liquid flow, formed by a system of non-linear differential equations consisting of the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the κ-ω turbulence model. The test section used in this work is comprised mainly of a transparent circular pipe with inner diameter 1 inch, and inclination angles varying from -2.5 to -10.0 degrees. Numerical solutions are obtained for the liquid height as a function of inclination angles, and compared with our own experimental data. (author)

  4. Measurement of capacity coefficient of inclined liquid phase catalytic exchange column for tritiated water processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamai, Hideki; Konishi, Satoshi; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Okuno, Kenji

    1994-01-01

    Liquid phase catalytic exchange (LPCE) is effective method for enrichment and removal of tritium from tritiated water. Capacity coefficients of operating LPCE column that are essential to evaluate column performance were measured. Experiments were performed with short catalyst packed columns and effect of inclination was studied. Method for evaluation of capacity coefficients was established from measurement of isotope concentration of liquid, vapor, gas phases at the two ends of the column. The capacity coefficients were measured under various superficial gas velocities. Feasibility study of helical columns with roughened inner surface was performed with short inclined columns. The column performance was not strongly affected by the inclination. The result indicates technological feasibility of helical LPCE column, that is expected to have operation stability and reduced height

  5. [Reliability study in the measurement of the cusp inclination angle of a chairside digital model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinggang, Liu; Xiaoxian, Chen

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate the reliability of the software Picpick in the measurement of the cusp inclination angle of a digital model. Twenty-one trimmed models were used as experimental objects. The chairside digital impression was then used for the acquisition of 3D digital models, and the software Picpick was employed for the measurement of the cusp inclination of these models. The measurements were repeated three times, and the results were compared with a gold standard, which was a manually measured experimental model cusp angle. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated. The paired t test value of the two measurement methods was 0.91. The ICCs between the two measurement methods and three repeated measurements were greater than 0.9. The digital model achieved a smaller coefficient of variation (9.9%). The software Picpick is reliable in measuring the cusp inclination of a digital model.

  6. Characteristic of local parameter of bubbly flow in rectangular channel under inclined and rolling conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Changqi; Jin Guangyuan; Sun Licheng; Wang Yang

    2015-01-01

    Characteristics of local parameters of bubbly flow were investigated in rectangular channel (40 mm × 3 mm) under inclined and rolling conditions. Under vertical condition, the distribution type 'wall peak' and 'core peak' are observed, and 'core peak' exists when the liquid superficial velocity is low and the gas superficial velocity is high. Under inclined condition, the peaks of two distribution types get strengthened at the top of the channel, and weakened at the bottom. Under rolling condition, the peaks of two distribution types get strengthened compared with the same angle under inclined condition when the angle is getting larger. The influence from rolling motion gets stronger on the peak of two distribution types when the rolling movement is more violent. (authors)

  7. Influence of Stern Shaft Inclination on the Cooling Performance of Water-Lubricated Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The water film model of the marine water-lubricated stern bearing was established by FLUENT. The influence law of water flow rate on the cooling performance of water-lubricated bearing was studied in consideration of the stern shaft inclination. It will be helpful to improve the performance of marine water-lubricated stern bearing and both security and reliability of propulsion system. The simulation results show that the increase of cooling water flow rate in a certain range can effectively reduce bearing temperature. The bearing temperature rises sharply with thinning of water film thickness which is caused by the increase of inclination angle. Larger inclination angle can deteriorate the operating reliability of bearing.

  8. Novel operation mode for eliminating influence of inclination angle and friction in atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fei; Wang, Yueyu; Zhou, Faquan; Zhao, Xuezeng

    2010-01-01

    The accuracy of topography imaging in contact force mode of atomic force microscopy (AFM) depends on the one-to-one corresponding relationship between the cantilever deflection and the tip-sample distance, whereas such a relationship cannot be always achieved in the presence of friction and incline angle of sample surface. Recently, we have developed a novel operation mode in which we keep the van der Waals force as constant instead of the applied normal force, to eliminate the effect of inclination angle and friction on topography imaging in the contact force mode. We have improved our AFM to enable the new operation mode for validation. Comparative experiments have been performed and the results have shown that the effect of friction and inclination angle on topography imaging in contact mode of AFM can be eliminated or at least decreased effectively by working in the new operation mode we present.

  9. Two-phase gas bubble-liquid boundary layer flow along vertical and inclined surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, F.B.; Epstein, M.

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of a two-phase gas bubble liquid boundary layer along vertical and inclined porous surfaces with uniform gas injection is investigated experimentally and analytically. Using argon gas and water as the working fluids, a photographical study of the two-phase boundary layer flow has been performed for various angles of inclination ranging from 45 0 to 135 0 and gas injection rates ranging from 0.01 to 0.1 m/s. An integral method has been employed to solve the system of equations governing the two-phase motion. The effects of the gas injection rate and the angle of inclination on the growth of the boundary layer have been determined

  10. Numerical study of heat and mass transfer optimization in a 3D inclined solar distiller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghachem Kaouther

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study of the 3-D double-diffusive natural convection in an inclined solar distiller was established. The flow is considered laminar and caused by the interaction of thermal energy and the chemical species diffusions. The governing equations of the problem, are formulated using vector potential-vorticity formalism in its 3-D form, then solved by the finite volumes method. The Rayleigh number is fixed at Ra = 105 and effects of the buoyancy ratio and inclination are studied for opposed temperature and concentration gradients. The main purpose of the study is to find the optimum inclination angle of the distiller which promotes the maximum mass and heat transfer.

  11. Experimental investigation of turbulent flow in a channel with the backward-facing inclined step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uruba Václav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The work deals with the experimental investigation of turbulent flow in a closed channel with the backward-facing inclined step. Experiments were carried by means of the PIV optical measuring method in the channel of the rectangular cross-section in the inlet part and with inclined steps of the constant height H mm and various inclination angles for a wide range of the Reynolds number. The attention was paid especially to the separation region behind the step and to the relaxation of the shear layer after the reattachment in the outlet part of the channel. The dependence of the length of the separation region on the Reynolds number was obtained for various step angles. Optical measurements were completed by the measurement of static pressure distribution in the inlet and outlet part of the channel to estimate energy losses.

  12. Two-phase gas bubble-liquid boundary layer flow along vertical and inclined surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, F.B.; Epstein, M.

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of a two-phase gas bubble-liquid boundary layer along vertical and inclined porous surfaces with uniform gas injection is investigated experimentally and analytically. Using argon gas and water as the working fluids, a photographical study of the two-phase boundary layer flow has been performed for various angles of inclination ranging from 45 0 to 135 0 and gas injection rates ranging from 0.01 to 0.1 m/s. An integral method has been employed to solve the system of equations governing the two-phase motion. The effects of the gas injection rate and the angle of inclination on the growth of the boundary layer have been determined. The predicted boundary layer thickness is found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. The calculated axial liquid velocity and the void fraction in the two-phase region are also presented along with the observed flow behavior

  13. Neural extrapolation of motion for a ball rolling down an inclined plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Scaleia, Barbara; Lacquaniti, Francesco; Zago, Myrka

    2014-01-01

    It is known that humans tend to misjudge the kinematics of a target rolling down an inclined plane. Because visuomotor responses are often more accurate and less prone to perceptual illusions than cognitive judgments, we asked the question of how rolling motion is extrapolated for manual interception or drawing tasks. In three experiments a ball rolled down an incline with kinematics that differed as a function of the starting position (4 different positions) and slope (30°, 45° or 60°). In Experiment 1, participants had to punch the ball as it fell off the incline. In Experiment 2, the ball rolled down the incline but was stopped at the end; participants were asked to imagine that the ball kept moving and to punch it. In Experiment 3, the ball rolled down the incline and was stopped at the end; participants were asked to draw with the hand in air the trajectory that would be described by the ball if it kept moving. We found that performance was most accurate when motion of the ball was visible until interception and haptic feedback of hand-ball contact was available (Experiment 1). However, even when participants punched an imaginary moving ball (Experiment 2) or drew in air the imaginary trajectory (Experiment 3), they were able to extrapolate to some extent global aspects of the target motion, including its path, speed and arrival time. We argue that the path and kinematics of a ball rolling down an incline can be extrapolated surprisingly well by the brain using both visual information and internal models of target motion.

  14. Neural extrapolation of motion for a ball rolling down an inclined plane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara La Scaleia

    Full Text Available It is known that humans tend to misjudge the kinematics of a target rolling down an inclined plane. Because visuomotor responses are often more accurate and less prone to perceptual illusions than cognitive judgments, we asked the question of how rolling motion is extrapolated for manual interception or drawing tasks. In three experiments a ball rolled down an incline with kinematics that differed as a function of the starting position (4 different positions and slope (30°, 45° or 60°. In Experiment 1, participants had to punch the ball as it fell off the incline. In Experiment 2, the ball rolled down the incline but was stopped at the end; participants were asked to imagine that the ball kept moving and to punch it. In Experiment 3, the ball rolled down the incline and was stopped at the end; participants were asked to draw with the hand in air the trajectory that would be described by the ball if it kept moving. We found that performance was most accurate when motion of the ball was visible until interception and haptic feedback of hand-ball contact was available (Experiment 1. However, even when participants punched an imaginary moving ball (Experiment 2 or drew in air the imaginary trajectory (Experiment 3, they were able to extrapolate to some extent global aspects of the target motion, including its path, speed and arrival time. We argue that the path and kinematics of a ball rolling down an incline can be extrapolated surprisingly well by the brain using both visual information and internal models of target motion.

  15. Radio-loudness in black hole transients: evidence for an inclination effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, S. E.; Casella, P.; Fender, R.

    2018-06-01

    Accreting stellar-mass black holes appear to populate two branches in a radio:X-ray luminosity plane. We have investigated the X-ray variability properties of a large number of black hole low-mass X-ray binaries, with the aim of unveiling the physical reasons underlying the radio-loud/radio-quiet nature of these sources, in the context of the known accretion-ejection connection. A reconsideration of the available radio and X-ray data from a sample of black hole X-ray binaries confirms that being radio-quiet is the more normal mode of behaviour for black hole binaries. In the light of this we chose to test, once more, the hypothesis that radio loudness could be a consequence of the inclination of the X-ray binary. We compared the slope of the `hard-line' (an approximately linear correlation between X-ray count rate and rms variability, visible in the hard states of active black holes), the orbital inclination, and the radio-nature of the sources of our sample. We found that high-inclination objects show steeper hard-lines than low-inclination objects, and tend to display a radio-quiet nature (with the only exception of V404 Cyg), as opposed to low-inclination objects, which appear to be radio-loud(er). While in need of further confirmation, our results suggest that - contrary to what has been believed for years - the radio-loud/quiet nature of black-hole low mass X-ray binaries might be an inclination effect, rather than an intrinsic source property. This would solve an important issue in the context of the inflow-outflow connection, thus providing significant constraints to the models for the launch of hard-state compact jets.

  16. LONG-LIVED CHAOTIC ORBITAL EVOLUTION OF EXOPLANETS IN MEAN MOTION RESONANCES WITH MUTUAL INCLINATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Rory; Deitrick, Russell; Quinn, Thomas R. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 951580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Greenberg, Richard [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 E. University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 86716 (United States); Raymond, Sean N., E-mail: rory@astro.washington.edu [NASA Astrobiology Institute-Virtual Planetary Laboratory Lead Team (United States)

    2015-03-10

    We present N-body simulations of resonant planets with inclined orbits that show chaotically evolving eccentricities and inclinations that can persist for at least 10 Gyr. A wide range of behavior is possible, from fast, low amplitude variations to systems in which eccentricities reach 0.9999 and inclinations 179.°9. While the orbital elements evolve chaotically, at least one resonant argument always librates. We show that the HD 73526, HD 45364, and HD 60532 systems may be in chaotically evolving resonances. Chaotic evolution is apparent in the 2:1, 3:1, and 3:2 resonances, and for planetary masses from lunar- to Jupiter-mass. In some cases, orbital disruption occurs after several gigayears, implying the mechanism is not rigorously stable, just long-lived relative to the main sequence lifetimes of solar-type stars. Planet-planet scattering appears to yield planets in inclined resonances that evolve chaotically in about 0.5% of cases. These results suggest that (1) approximate methods for identifying unstable orbital architectures may have limited applicability, (2) the observed close-in exoplanets may be produced during epochs of high eccentricit induced by inclined resonances, (3) those exoplanets' orbital planes may be misaligned with the host star's spin axis, (4) systems with resonances may be systematically younger than those without, (5) the distribution of period ratios of adjacent planets detected via transit may be skewed due to inclined resonances, and (6) potentially habitable planets may have dramatically different climatic evolution than Earth. The Gaia spacecraft is capable of discovering giant planets in these types of orbits.

  17. LONG-LIVED CHAOTIC ORBITAL EVOLUTION OF EXOPLANETS IN MEAN MOTION RESONANCES WITH MUTUAL INCLINATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, Rory; Deitrick, Russell; Quinn, Thomas R.; Greenberg, Richard; Raymond, Sean N.

    2015-01-01

    We present N-body simulations of resonant planets with inclined orbits that show chaotically evolving eccentricities and inclinations that can persist for at least 10 Gyr. A wide range of behavior is possible, from fast, low amplitude variations to systems in which eccentricities reach 0.9999 and inclinations 179.°9. While the orbital elements evolve chaotically, at least one resonant argument always librates. We show that the HD 73526, HD 45364, and HD 60532 systems may be in chaotically evolving resonances. Chaotic evolution is apparent in the 2:1, 3:1, and 3:2 resonances, and for planetary masses from lunar- to Jupiter-mass. In some cases, orbital disruption occurs after several gigayears, implying the mechanism is not rigorously stable, just long-lived relative to the main sequence lifetimes of solar-type stars. Planet-planet scattering appears to yield planets in inclined resonances that evolve chaotically in about 0.5% of cases. These results suggest that (1) approximate methods for identifying unstable orbital architectures may have limited applicability, (2) the observed close-in exoplanets may be produced during epochs of high eccentricit induced by inclined resonances, (3) those exoplanets' orbital planes may be misaligned with the host star's spin axis, (4) systems with resonances may be systematically younger than those without, (5) the distribution of period ratios of adjacent planets detected via transit may be skewed due to inclined resonances, and (6) potentially habitable planets may have dramatically different climatic evolution than Earth. The Gaia spacecraft is capable of discovering giant planets in these types of orbits

  18. A waveless two-dimensional flow in a channel against an inclined wall with surface tension effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merzougui, Abdelkrim; Mekias, Hocine; Guechi, Fairouz

    2007-01-01

    Surface tension effect on a two-dimensional channel flow against an inclined wall is considered. The flow is assumed to be steady, irrotational, inviscid and incompressible. The effect of surface tension is taken into account and the effect of gravity is neglected. Numerical solutions are obtained via series truncation procedure. The problem is solved numerically for various values of the Weber number α and for various values of the inclination angle β between the horizontal bottom and the inclined wall

  19. A waveless two-dimensional flow in a channel against an inclined wall with surface tension effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merzougui, Abdelkrim [Departement de Mathematiques, Faculte des sciences, Universite Mohamed Boudiaf, M' sila, 28000 (Algeria); Mekias, Hocine [Departement de Mathematiques, Faculte des sciences, Universite Farhat Abbas Setif 19000 (Algeria); Guechi, Fairouz [Departement de Mathematiques, Faculte des sciences, Universite Farhat Abbas Setif 19000 (Algeria)

    2007-11-23

    Surface tension effect on a two-dimensional channel flow against an inclined wall is considered. The flow is assumed to be steady, irrotational, inviscid and incompressible. The effect of surface tension is taken into account and the effect of gravity is neglected. Numerical solutions are obtained via series truncation procedure. The problem is solved numerically for various values of the Weber number {alpha} and for various values of the inclination angle {beta} between the horizontal bottom and the inclined wall.

  20. Building web information systems using web services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frasincar, F.; Houben, G.J.P.M.; Barna, P.; Vasilecas, O.; Eder, J.; Caplinskas, A.

    2006-01-01

    Hera is a model-driven methodology for designing Web information systems. In the past a CASE tool for the Hera methodology was implemented. This software had different components that together form one centralized application. In this paper, we present a distributed Web service-oriented architecture

  1. Model and experimental vizualisation of a bubble interacting with an inclined wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podvin, Berengere; Khoja, Suleman; Attinger, Daniel; Moraga, Francisco

    2006-11-01

    We describe the motion of an air bubble rising through water as it interacts with a wall of variable inclination. The bubble diameter varies about O(1) mm. We use lubrication theory to determine the modification of the bubble interface and compute the hydrodynamic force exerted by the wall. The present work is an extension of Moraga et al's model [Computers and Fluids 2006], which was devised for a horizontal wall. The predictions of the model are checked against experimental visualizations. The influence of the Weber number, Reynolds number and wall inclination is examined

  2. Peristaltic transport of a fractional Burgers' fluid with variable viscosity through an inclined tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachid, Hassan

    2015-12-01

    In the present study,we investigate the unsteady peristaltic transport of a viscoelastic fluid with fractional Burgers' model in an inclined tube. We suppose that the viscosity is variable in the radial direction. This analysis has been carried out under low Reynolds number and long-wavelength approximations. An analytical solution to the problem is obtained using a fractional calculus approach. Figures are plotted to show the effects of angle of inclination, Reynolds number, Froude number, material constants, fractional parameters, parameter of viscosity and amplitude ratio on the pressure gradient, pressure rise, friction force, axial velocity and on the mechanical efficiency.

  3. INCLINATION AND VIBRATION MEASUREMENT BY INERTIAL SENSING FOR STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugisaki, Koichi; Abe, Masato; Koshimizu, Satoru

    To develop a practical health monitoring system, inertial sensing which can readily be done for wide variety of situations is useful. However inertial sensors are measuring inclination and acceleration in reference to gravity. Therefore inclination are influence by acceleration and vice versa caused measuring errors. Especially, errors are more affected at low-frequency band which is important to estimate displacement. In this study, to establish correcting theory for inertial sensing and to develop method to estimate parameters for some structural system. And conducted a field test targeted at the real railway bridge to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method using response records of the pier under passing train load.

  4. Inclined Zenith Aurora over Kyoto on 17 September 1770: Graphical Evidence of Extreme Magnetic Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Ryuho; Iwahashi, Kiyomi

    2017-10-01

    Red auroras were observed in Japan during an extreme magnetic storm that occurred on 17 September 1770. We show new evidence that the red aurora extended toward the zenith of Kyoto around midnight. The basic appearance of the historical painting of the red aurora is geometrically reproduced based on the inclination of the local magnetic field and a detailed description in a newly discovered diary. The presence of the inclined zenith aurora over Kyoto suggests that the intensity of the September 1770 magnetic storm is comparable to, or slightly larger than that of the September 1859 Carrington storm.

  5. Fractal behaviour of flow of an inhomogeneous fluid over a smooth inclined surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouhani, S.; Maleki Jirsarani, N.; Ghane Motlagh, B.; Baradaran, S.; Shokrian, E.

    2001-01-01

    We have observed and analyzed fractal patterns made by the flow of an inhomogeneous fluid (a suspension) over an inclined smooth surface. We observed that if the angle of inclination is above a threshold (10 d eg C - 12 d eg C), the length of fractal clusters become infinity. We measured a fractal dimension of df=1.40 ± 0.05. This falls within the same general class of patterns of flow of water over an inhomogeneous surface. This observation is consistent with the results of theoretical modes for nonlinear fluid flow in random media

  6. QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF DEPENDENCE OF DRIVE POWER HORIZONTAL-INCLINED BELT CONVEYOR ON ITS INITIAL PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bohomaz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.One of the main elements of band conveyors is a drive. To analyze the effect of design parameters on the drive power it is necessary to carry out the calculations according to standard procedures outlined in the current technical literature. The main design parameters of the band conveyor are: the type of cargo, project performance, the geometric dimensions of sections and track configuration as a whole. The feature of band conveyor calculation as compared to the elevators is the dependence of the band width on its performance, the inclination angle and the type of cargo. In the article for the account of this fact during calculations it is necessary to construct the dependence of the band width on the generalized parameter, which takes into account change in the design parameters. To determine the general pattern of changing the value of band conveyor drive power when varying its design parameters in the article it is necessary to construct the corresponding graphic dependences taking into account the standard sizes and bands parameters. Methodology. We consider the band conveyor with two sections: the inclined and horizontal one. It is conducted a detailed analysis of dependence of the conveyor band width and its drive power on the type of cargo, project performance, geometric dimensions and configuration of the conveyor track, using the appropriate parameter dependences constructed by the authors in previous papers. Findings. For band conveyors of this type there were constructed the graphics dependences of the band width on the parameter characterizing the project performance and the inclination angle of the track section, and on the performance at a fixed angle of inclination. Taking into account the changes in the band width with an increase in the value of project performance the graph dependences of drive power on the productivity and the inclination angle of the inclined section were built. Originality. For the first time there

  7. Non-destructive automated express method for determining the inclination of chromium-nickel steels IGC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarov, A.A.; Kamenev, Yu.B.; Kuusk, L.V.; Kormin, E.G.; Vasil'ev, A.N.; Sumbaeva, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    Methods of automated control of 18-10-type steel inclination to IGC are developed and a corresponding automated testing complex (ATS) is created. 08Kh18N10T steel samples had two variants of thermal treatment: 1) 1200 deg (5 h), 600 deg (50 h); 2) 1200 deg (5 h). Methods of non-destructive automated control of 18-10-type steel inclination to IGC are developed on the basis of potentiodynamic reactivation (PR) principle. Automated testing complex is developed, which has undergone experimental running and demonstrated a high confidence of results, reliability and easy operation

  8. Ion Feedback Suppression Using Inclined MCP Holes in a Single-MCP+Micromegas+Pads Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'vra, J.; Sumiyoshi, T.

    2005-01-01

    We show that the ion backflow to photocathode can be completely suppressed if one uses inclined MCP holes in a presence of magnetic field. The inclined hole angles are chosen to be aligned with the Lorentz electron angle allowing the electron transmission and amplification, while positive ions, traveling along a different angle, are caught on the MCP hole walls. The detector under investigation is a new gaseous detector structure based on a tandem of two parts, a single MCP (Microchannel) plate, a Micromegas with pad readout. We are aiming to develop a gaseous photon detector with the Bialkali photocathode, however, one could use some ideas in the paper for other types of detectors

  9. Independent mono-pillar cable-stayed bridge with 75[degree] inclination connecting Hachinohe and Port Island. 75[degree] no keisha wo motta dokuritsu ipponchu no shachokyo. ; Hachinohe port island renrakukyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogoshi, K.

    1993-10-01

    The durability enhancement work and the spectacle were described of the independent mono-pillar cable-stayed bridge with 75[degree] inclination connecting Hachinohe and Port Island. For the bridge pier execution, the underwater non-separation concrete was applied, because it had to be done under seawater. The investment frame made of precast concrete was employed for preventing the penetration of salt water into the joint part between the underwater placement concrete and the atmosphere placement concrete as well as for preventing the freezing and thawing action from taking place in the body concrete. The fabrication of investment frame was done in the following ways: The reinforcing steel was coated with epoxy resin in the reinforced concrete; the water-cement ratio was 45 percent; the targeted porosity of concrete was 6 percent; and the water spray with sheet was applied instead of steam aging right after the placement of concrete. The spectacle was made by employing the design of main tower with 75[degree] inclination and the placement of decorative concrete using the foamed polystyrene frame on the bridge pier. Thus the passengers on ships sailing under the bridge can enjoy the beautiful spectacle of the bridge. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Formation of Close-in Super-Earths by Giant Impacts: Effects of Initial Eccentricities and Inclinations of Protoplanets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Yuji [Planetary Exploration Research Center, Chiba Institute of Technology, Narashino, Chiba, 275-0016 (Japan); Kokubo, Eiichiro, E-mail: ymatsumoto@cfca.nao.ac.jp [Center for Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan)

    2017-07-01

    Recent observations have revealed the eccentricity and inclination distributions of close-in super-Earths. These distributions have the potential to constrain their formation processes. In the in situ formation scenario, the eccentricities and inclinations of planets are determined by gravitational scattering and collisions between protoplanets on the giant impact stage. We investigate the effect of the initial eccentricities and inclinations of protoplanets on the formation of close-in super-Earths. We perform N -body simulations of protoplanets in gas-free disks, changing the initial eccentricities and inclinations systematically. We find that while the eccentricities of protoplanets are well relaxed through their evolution, the inclinations are not. When the initial inclinations are small, they are not generally pumped up since scattering is less effective and collisions occur immediately after orbital crossing. On the other hand, when the initial inclinations are large, they tend to be kept large since collisional damping is less effective. Not only the resultant inclinations of planets, but also their number, eccentricities, angular momentum deficit, and orbital separations are affected by the initial inclinations of protoplanets.

  11. Experimental and theoretical analysis on the effect of inclination on metal powder sintered heat pipe radiator with natural convection cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Li; Qifei, Jian; Wu, Shifeng

    2017-02-01

    An experimental study and theoretical analysis of heat transfer performance of a sintered heat pipe radiator that implemented in a 50 L domestic semiconductor refrigerator have been conducted to examine the effect of inclination angle, combined with a minimum entropy generation analysis. The experiment results suggest that inclination angle has influences on both the evaporator and condenser section, and the performance of the heat pipe radiator is more sensitive to the inclination change in negative inclined than in positive inclined position. When the heat pipe radiator is in negative inclination angle position, large amplitude of variation on the thermal resistance of this heat pipe radiator is observed. As the thermal load is below 58.89 W, the influence of inclination angle on the overall thermal resistance is not that apparent as compared to the other three thermal loads. Thermal resistance of heat pipe radiator decreases by 82.86 % in inclination of 60° at the set of 138.46 W, compared to horizontal position. Based on the analysis results in this paper, in order to achieve a better heat transfer performance of the heat pipe radiator, it is recommended that the heat pipe radiator be mounted in positive inclination angle positions (30°-90°), where the condenser is above the evaporator.

  12. Corrosion of reinforcement bars in steel ibre reinforced concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solgaard, Anders Ole Stubbe

    and the influence of steel fibres on initiation and propagation of cracks in concrete. Moreover, the impact of fibres on corrosion-induced cover cracking was covered. The impact of steel fibres on propagation of reinforcement corrosion was investigated through studies of their impact on the electrical resistivity...... of concrete, which is known to affect the corrosion process of embedded reinforcement. The work concerning the impact of steel fibres on initiation and propagation of cracks was linked to corrosion initiation and propagation of embedded reinforcement bars via additional studies. Cracks in the concrete cover...... are known to alter the ingress rate of depassivating substances and thereby influence the corrosion process. The Ph.D. study covered numerical as well as experimental studies. Electrochemically passive steel fibres are electrically isolating thus not changing the electrical resistivity of concrete, whereas...

  13. Wordpress web application development

    CERN Document Server

    Ratnayake, Rakhitha Nimesh

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for WordPress developers and designers who want to develop quality web applications within a limited time frame and for maximum profit. Prior knowledge of basic web development and design is assumed.

  14. Promoting Your Web Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeder, Aggi

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of ways to promote sites on the World Wide Web focuses on how search engines work and how they retrieve and identify sites. Appropriate Web links for submitting new sites and for Internet marketing are included. (LRW)

  15. Practical web development

    CERN Document Server

    Wellens, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This book is perfect for beginners who want to get started and learn the web development basics, but also offers experienced developers a web development roadmap that will help them to extend their capabilities.

  16. EPA Web Taxonomy

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA's Web Taxonomy is a faceted hierarchical vocabulary used to tag web pages with terms from a controlled vocabulary. Tagging enables search and discovery of EPA's...

  17. Private Web Browsing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Syverson, Paul F; Reed, Michael G; Goldschlag, David M

    1997-01-01

    .... These are both kept confidential from network elements as well as external observers. Private Web browsing is achieved by unmodified Web browsers using anonymous connections by means of HTTP proxies...

  18. Chemical Search Web Utility

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical Search Web Utility is an intuitive web application that allows the public to easily find the chemical that they are interested in using, and which...

  19. Web Application Vulnerabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Bhanu

    2014-01-01

    Web application security has been a major issue in information technology since the evolvement of dynamic web application. The main objective of this project was to carry out a detailed study on the top three web application vulnerabilities such as injection, cross site scripting, broken authentication and session management, present the situation where an application can be vulnerable to these web threats and finally provide preventative measures against them. ...

  20. Reactivity on the Web

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, James; Bry, François; Eckert, Michael; Patrânjan, Paula Lavinia

    2005-01-01

    Reactivity, the ability to detect simple and composite events and respond in a timely manner, is an essential requirement in many present-day information systems. With the emergence of new, dynamic Web applications, reactivity on the Web is receiving increasing attention. Reactive Web-based systems need to detect and react not only to simple events but also to complex, real-life situations. This paper introduces XChange, a language for programming reactive behaviour on the Web,...

  1. Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Grids for Shear and End Zone Reinforcement in Bridge Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Corrosion of reinforcing steel reduces life spans of bridges throughout the United States; therefore, using non-corroding carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) reinforcement is seen as a way to increase service life. The use of CFRP as the flexural ...

  2. Health monitoring of precast bridge deck panels reinforced with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The present research project investigates monitoring concrete precast panels for bridge decks that are reinforced with Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) bars. Due to the lack of long term research on concrete members reinforced with GFRP bars, lo...

  3. Architecture and the Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, William H.

    Instructors should be concerned with how to incorporate the World Wide Web into an information systems (IS) curriculum organized across three areas of knowledge: information technology, organizational and management concepts, and theory and development of systems. The Web fits broadly into the information technology component. For the Web to be…

  4. Semantic Web Primer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antoniou, Grigoris; Harmelen, Frank van

    2004-01-01

    The development of the Semantic Web, with machine-readable content, has the potential to revolutionize the World Wide Web and its use. A Semantic Web Primer provides an introduction and guide to this still emerging field, describing its key ideas, languages, and technologies. Suitable for use as a

  5. Evaluating Web Usability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Jean; Martin, Florence

    2012-01-01

    Web usability focuses on design elements and processes that make web pages easy to use. A website for college students was evaluated for underutilization. One-on-one testing, focus groups, web analytics, peer university review and marketing focus group and demographic data were utilized to conduct usability evaluation. The results indicated that…

  6. Web Search Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Rajashekar, TB

    1998-01-01

    The World Wide Web is emerging as an all-in-one information source. Tools for searching Web-based information include search engines, subject directories and meta search tools. We take a look at key features of these tools and suggest practical hints for effective Web searching.

  7. Semantic Web status model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gerber, AJ

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Semantic Web application areas are experiencing intensified interest due to the rapid growth in the use of the Web, together with the innovation and renovation of information content technologies. The Semantic Web is regarded as an integrator across...

  8. Classification of the web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens Erik

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the challenges faced by investigations into the classification of the Web and outlines inquiries that are needed to use principles for bibliographic classification to construct classifications of the Web. This paper suggests that the classification of the Web meets challenges...... that call for inquiries into the theoretical foundation of bibliographic classification theory....

  9. The power reinforcement framework revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jeppe; Andersen, Kim Normann; Danziger, James N.

    2016-01-01

    Whereas digital technologies are often depicted as being capable of disrupting long-standing power structures and facilitating new governance mechanisms, the power reinforcement framework suggests that information and communications technologies tend to strengthen existing power arrangements within...... public organizations. This article revisits the 30-yearold power reinforcement framework by means of an empirical analysis on the use of mobile technology in a large-scale programme in Danish public sector home care. It explores whether and to what extent administrative management has controlled decision......-making and gained most benefits from mobile technology use, relative to the effects of the technology on the street-level workers who deliver services. Current mobile technology-in-use might be less likely to be power reinforcing because it is far more decentralized and individualized than the mainly expert...

  10. Effect of dual task type on gait and dynamic stability during stair negotiation at different inclinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madehkhaksar, F.; Egges, J.

    Stair gait is a common daily activity with great potential risk for falls. Stairs have varying inclinations and people may perform other tasks concurrently with stair gait. This study investigated dual-task interference in the context of complex gait tasks, such as stair gait at different

  11. A Study of Static Performance of Fixed Inclined Slider Bearings – A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    A Study of Static Performance of Fixed Inclined Slider Bearings – A Power Law Model. 1OLADEINDE, M H; 2EDOKPIA, R O; ... Keyword: power law, slider bearing, finite element, load capacity, pressure. Traditionally, most lubricants are .... The volumetric flow rate per unit width is computed by using the expression shown in ...

  12. Deformation of two welded elastic half-spaces due to a long inclined ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Department of Mathematics, University of Delhi South Campus, New Delhi 110 021, India. ∗e-mail: ... Airy stress function for a tensile line source in two welded half-spaces are first obtained. These expressions ... computing the displacement and stress fields around a long inclined tensile fault near an internal boundary. 1.

  13. The effects of porosity and angle of inclination on the deflection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of porosity and angle of inclination on the deflection of fluid flow in porous media. ... a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link above.

  14. A Numerical Study on a Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine with Inclined Arms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostino De Marco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on a particular type of vertical-axis wind turbine, in which a number of inclined arms with airfoil-shaped cross-sections are mounted to connect the principal blades to their hub. While the majority of the known studies on vertical-axis turbines is devoted to the role of principal blades, in most of the cases without taking into account other parts of the wind turbine, the objective of this work is to investigate the effect of uncommon arm geometries, such as the inclined arms. The inclined arms are known to have a potentially beneficial role in the power extraction from the wind current but, due to the complexity of the phenomena, the investigation on aerodynamics of this type of turbine is often impossible through analytical models, such as blade-element momentum theory. It turns out that adequate studies can only be carried out by wind tunnel experiments or CFD simulations. This work presents a methodical CFD study on how inclined arms can be used on a selected wind turbine configuration to harvest additional power from the wind. The turbine configuration, geometry, and some fundamental definitions are introduced first. Then an in-depth CFD analysis is presented and discussed.

  15. The Relationship between Mg ii Broad Emission and Quasar Inclination Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor Wildy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Several observed spectral properties of quasars are believed to be influenced by quasar orientation. In this investigation we examine the effect of orientation on the Mg ii line located at 2,798 Å in a sample of 36 radio-loud quasars, with orientation angles having been obtained in a previous study using radio observations. We find no significant relationship between orientation angle and either Mg ii line full-width at half-maximum or equivalent width. The lack of correlation with inclination angle contradicts previous studies which also use radio data as a proxy for inclination angle and suggests the Mg ii emission region does not occupy a disk-like geometry. The lack of correlation with Mg ii equivalent width, however, is reported in at least one previous study. Although the significance is not very strong (86%, there is a possible negative relationship between inclination angle and Fe ii strength which, if true, could explain the Fe ii anti-correlation with [O iii] strength associated with Eigenvector 1. Interestingly, there are objects having almost edge-on inclinations while still exhibiting broad lines. This could be explained by a torus which is either clumpy (allowing sight lines to the central engine or mis-aligned with the accretion disk.

  16. The Relationship between Mg ii Broad Emission and Quasar Inclination Angle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildy, Conor; Czerny, Bozena, E-mail: wildy@cft.edu.pl [Center for Theoretical Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland)

    2017-11-14

    Several observed spectral properties of quasars are believed to be influenced by quasar orientation. In this investigation we examine the effect of orientation on the Mg ii line located at 2,798 Å in a sample of 36 radio-loud quasars, with orientation angles having been obtained in a previous study using radio observations. We find no significant relationship between orientation angle and either Mg ii line full-width at half-maximum or equivalent width. The lack of correlation with inclination angle contradicts previous studies which also use radio data as a proxy for inclination angle and suggests the Mg ii emission region does not occupy a disk-like geometry. The lack of correlation with Mg ii equivalent width, however, is reported in at least one previous study. Although the significance is not very strong (86%), there is a possible negative relationship between inclination angle and Fe ii strength which, if true, could explain the Fe ii anti-correlation with [O iii] strength associated with Eigenvector 1. Interestingly, there are objects having almost edge-on inclinations while still exhibiting broad lines. This could be explained by a torus which is either clumpy (allowing sight lines to the central engine) or mis-aligned with the accretion disk.

  17. Rolling and slipping down Galileo close-quote s inclined plane: Rhythms of the spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, F.S.

    1996-01-01

    In ''Two New Sciences'' (TNS) Galileo presents a number of theorems and propositions for smooth solid spheres released from rest and rolling a distance d in time t down an incline of height H and length L. We collect and summarize his results in a single grand proportionality P: d 1 /d 2 =(t 2 1 /t 2 2 )(H/L) 1 /(H/L) 2 . (P) From TNS it is clear that what we call P is assumed by Galileo to hold for all inclinations including vertical free fall with H/L=1. But in TNS he describes only experiments with gentle inclinations H/L 1 while rolling down a gentle incline is deflected so as to be launched horizontally with speed v 1 into a free fall orbit discovered by Galileo to be a parabola. The measured horizontal distance X 2 traveled in this parabolic orbit (for a given vertical distance fallen to the floor) was smaller than he expected, by a factor 0.84. But that is exactly what we (moderns) expect, since we know that Galileo did not appreciate the difference between rolling without slipping, and slipping on a frictionless surface

  18. An Inclination-Dependent IRX-beta Relation for Galaxies at z~1.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weichen; Kassin, Susan A.; Pacifici, Camilla; de la Vega, Alexander; Simons, Raymond C.; Barro, Guillermo; Gordon, Karl D.; Snyder, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    Star-forming galaxies near cosmic noon are substantially obscured by dust. Therefore, to measure galaxy star-formation rates (SFRs), it is crucial to accurately account for dust obscuration. This is usually done by measuring the slopes of spectra in the rest-frame ultraviolet (i.e., β). Another independent method is to measure the infrared excess IRX, defined as the ratio between infrared and ultraviolet luminosity. In this work, we present the discovery that the relation between IRX and β varies systematically with galaxy inclination at z~1.5. Edge-on galaxies are on average ~0.5 dex higher in IRX than face-on galaxies at fixed β. Furthermore, we find that the difference between SFR(UV+IR) and β-corrected SFR(UV) is correlated with inclination. Our finding is consistent with the study of local galaxies (Wild et al. 2011), where the dust attenuation curve is found to flatten with increasing inclination. We interpret our results using a picture where dust and young stars are spatially mixed. In this case, β is more sensitive to the optically-thin regions near the surface of galaxy disks. Therefore, compared to the case of face-on galaxies, β measures a smaller fraction of the total dust optical depth for the edge-on galaxies, whereas IRX always probes the total optical depth. We conclude that inclination must be taken into account when evaluating dust attenuation with β at high redshift.

  19. The Racing-Game Effect : Why Do Video Racing Games Increase Risk-Taking Inclinations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Morton, Thomas; Kastenmueller, Andreas; Postmes, Tom; Frey, Dieter; Kubitzki, Joerg; Odenwaelder, Joerg; Kastenmüller, A.; Odenwälder, J.

    2009-01-01

    The present studies investigated why video racing games increase players' risk-taking inclinations. Four studies reveal that playing video racing games increases risk taking in a subsequent simulated road traffic situation, as well as risk-promoting cognitions and emotions, blood pressure, sensation

  20. EFFECT OF BRIDGE PIERS INCLINATION AND ROUGHNESS ON SCOUR PIT DIMENSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moaed S. Khalil

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a laboratory work was performed to study the effect of bridge piers inclination and surface roughness on scour pit dimensions. Fifty four experiments were conducted using three different sizes and inclinations Pier models fixed in a sandy bed channel. First, the axis of the pier was parallel to the flow, then it was inclined by 30° and finally by 45°. Each model was tested under three different flow discharges for a period not less than two hours and at the end of each experiment the dimensions of the scour pit were measured. The same experiments were repeated after roughening the surface of each pier by fine gravel of 2mm in diameter to increase its roughness.The results of the experiment showed a clear reduction in scour pit dimensions after increasing pier roughness, the percentage of decreases in scour depth was between 2 % and 61%, while the scour length decreased between 2.5% and 22%, and finally the width of scour decreases was between 3% and 19.7%. The results also showed that the inclination of pier's axis produced an increase in scour pit dimensions. Finally, the empirical relationships of the results showed that it's possible to explain the relation between the flow discharge and each of scour pit dimensions by a simple linear equation, where the determination coefficient were more than 0.94 for all relations. 

  1. Contact of dual mobility implants: effects of cup wear and inclination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, M S

    2015-01-01

    Cup wear and inclination on the pelvic bone are significant factors, which change the contact of the articulating surfaces, thus, impacting the long-term performance of hip implants. This paper presents a finite element (FE) analysis of the contact of the dual mobility implants under the influence of cup wear and inclination. A 3D FE model of the implant was developed with the application of equivalent physiological loading and boundary conditions. Effects of cup inclination angle ranging from 45° to 60° and the wear depth ranging from 0 to 2.46 mm equivalent to up to 30 years of the implant's life on the contact pressure and von Mises stress were investigated. Simulation results show that the contact pressure and von Mises stress decrease significantly with a modest wear depth and remains quite in-sensitive to the cup inclination angle and wear depth up to 1.64 mm. With wear depth further up to 2.46 mm, the cup thickness (i.e. cup thinning on worn region) may be more predominant than increasing of contact area between the cup and the head. The wear on the inner surface of the cup is found to rule out the overall contact pressure and stress in the implant. Furthermore, individual and combined effects of both important parameters are analysed and discussed with respect to available clinical/laboratory studies.

  2. Reconstruction of inclined air showers detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierre Auger Collaboration, [No Value; Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Samarai, I. Al; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; D\\'\\iaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fuji, T.; Gaior, R.; Garc\\'\\ia, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Islo, K.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agëra, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Mart\\'\\inez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Mas\\'\\ias Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, A. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Newton, D.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodr\\'\\iguez-Fr\\'\\ias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiał kowski, A.; Šm\\'\\ida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Thao, N. T.; Theodoro, V. M.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the method devised to reconstruct inclined cosmic-ray air showers with zenith angles greater than 60° detected with the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The measured signals at the ground level are fitted to muon density distributions predicted with atmospheric cascade

  3. Complex network analysis in inclined oil–water two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong-Ke, Gao; Ning-De, Jin

    2009-01-01

    Complex networks have established themselves in recent years as being particularly suitable and flexible for representing and modelling many complex natural and artificial systems. Oil–water two-phase flow is one of the most complex systems. In this paper, we use complex networks to study the inclined oil–water two-phase flow. Two different complex network construction methods are proposed to build two types of networks, i.e. the flow pattern complex network (FPCN) and fluid dynamic complex network (FDCN). Through detecting the community structure of FPCN by the community-detection algorithm based on K-means clustering, useful and interesting results are found which can be used for identifying three inclined oil–water flow patterns. To investigate the dynamic characteristics of the inclined oil–water two-phase flow, we construct 48 FDCNs under different flow conditions, and find that the power-law exponent and the network information entropy, which are sensitive to the flow pattern transition, can both characterize the nonlinear dynamics of the inclined oil–water two-phase flow. In this paper, from a new perspective, we not only introduce a complex network theory into the study of the oil–water two-phase flow but also indicate that the complex network may be a powerful tool for exploring nonlinear time series in practice. (general)

  4. Experimental investigation of coarse particles-water mixture flow in horizontal and inclined pipes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlasák, Pavel; Chára, Zdeněk; Krupička, Jan; Konfršt, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 3 (2014), s. 241-247 ISSN 0042-790X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP105/10/1574 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : hydraulic pipelining * coarse-grained slurry * pressure drops * pipe inclination * concentration distribution Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.486, year: 2014

  5. The effect of relative humidity on output performance of inclined and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The set-up of 70 Watts solar panel was inclined stationary at 150 for maximum solar reception while the set-up of 80 Watts solar panel had automatic solar tracker for effective capturing of solar radiation. For 70 Watts solar panel, the maximum power output of 59.99 Watt was obtained when the relative humidity was 30%.

  6. MHD flow of a dusty viscoelastic liquid through a porous medium between two inclined parallel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.K.; Singh, N.P.

    1996-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic flow of a dusty viscoelastic liquid (Oldroyd B-liquid) through a porous medium between two parallel plates inclined to the horizon has been studied. The liquid velocity, dust particle velocity and flux of flow have been obtained. Earlier results have been deduced as particular cases of the present investigation. The physical situation of the motion has been discussed graphically. (author)

  7. Experimental study on characteristics of interfacial parameter distribution for upward bubbly flow in inclined tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Dianchuan; Yan Changqi; Sun Licheng; Liu Jingyu

    2013-01-01

    Experimental study on characteristics of interfacial parameter distribution for air-water bubbly flow in an inclined circular tube was performed by using the double sensor probe method. Parameters including radial distributions of local void fraction, bubble passing frequency, interfacial area concentration and bubble equivalent diameter were measured using the probe. The inner diameter of test section is 50 mm, and the liquid superficial velocity is 0.144 m/s, with the gas superficial velocity ranging from 0 to 0.054 m/is. The results show that bubbles obviously move toward the upper wall and congregate. The local interfacial area concentration, bubble passing frequency and void fraction have similar radial distribution profiles. Different from the vertical condition, for a cross-sectional area of the test section, the peak value near the upper side increases, while decreases or even disappears near the underside. The local parameter increases as the radial positions change from lower to upper location, and the increased slope becomes larger as the inclination angles increase. The equivalent bubble diameter doesn't vary with radial position, superficial gas velocity and inclination angle, and bubble aggregation and breaking up nearly doesn't occur. The mechanism of effects of inclination on local parameter distribution for bubbly flow is explained by analyzing the transverse force governing the bubble motion. (authors)

  8. Economic Investigation of Different Configurations of Inclined Solar Water Desalination Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Phillips Agboola

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically investigated the performance of four configurations of inclined solar water desalination (ISWD system for parameters such as daily production, efficiency, system cost, and distilled water production cost. The empirical findings show that in terms of daily productivity improved inclined solar water desalination (IISWD performed best with 6.41 kg/m2/day while improved inclined solar water desalination with wire mesh (IISWDWM produced the least with 3.0 kg/m2/day. In terms of cost price of the systems, the control system inclined solar water desalination (ISWD is the cheapest while IISWDWM is the most expensive system. Distilled water cost price ranges from 0.059 TL/kg, for IISWDW, to 0.134 TL/kg, for IISWDWM system. All the systems are economically and technically feasible as a solar desalination system for potable water in northern Cyprus. Potable water from vendors/hawkers ranges from 0.2 to 0.3 TL/kg.

  9. On the influence of gravity on the static state of an inclined tensioned string

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Horssen, W.T.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the static state of an inclined stretched string due to gravity is considered. The string is stretched between two fixed supports which are situated at two different levels. It is assumed that the tension in the string is suffiently large such that the sag of the string due to gravity

  10. Risk analysis and assessment of vertical and incline small winder systems and peripheral activities.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moss, PS

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available access .......................................................48 3.6.3 "ramped" design of station access ..................................................................49 3.6.4 Handling of material cars... vertical plane using a rope and counterweight mechanism, to allow the passage of cars when required. It is extensively used to prevent the inadvertent entry of material cars from stations into incline shafts, and to derail a runaway car so preventing...

  11. Demographic Factors, Personality and Entrepreneurial Inclination: A Study among Indian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Richa

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of demographic, social and personal dispositional factors on determining the entrepreneurial inclination. Specifically, the author examined the role of gender, age, stream of study, family business background and six psychological traits of locus of control, tolerance for…

  12. Changes of occlusal plane inclination after orthodontic treatment in different dentoskeletal frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-le; Kau, Chung; Wang, Min

    2014-06-25

    The inclination of the occlusal plane (OP) is related to facial types and experiences physiological growth-related changes. The aims of this research were to determine if there were any differences in the inclination of OP in subjects with three types of skeletal malocclusion and to investigate the characteristics and differences of functional occlusal plane (FOP) compared to bisected occlusal plane (BOP). A sample of 90 Caucasians patients was skeletal-classified into three (n = 30), and pre- and post-treatment cephalograms were digitized. Six linear and 8 angular cephalometric measurements were selected. The changes of OP inclination within each group and the differences among the three groups pre- and post-treatment were compared with paired t test and ANOVA test, respectively. The comparison and correlation between BOP and FOP were analyzed with paired t test and coefficient of correlation, respectively. The BOP angle increased in all of the three groups but only had statistically significant differences in skeletal class II patients in a mean of 1.51° (p stability (p > 0.05) in all three groups. The inclination of FOP was closely related to that of BOP (p stability in orthodontically treated patients with all three skeletal patterns.

  13. Hydrodynamics of single- and two-phase flow in inclined rod arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebeling-Koning, D.B.; Todreas, N.E.

    1983-09-01

    Required inputs for thermal-hydraulic codes are constitutive relations for fluid-solid flow resistance, in single-phase flow, and interfacial momentum exchange (relative phase motion), in two-phase flow. An inclined rod array air-water experiment was constructed to study the hydrodynamics of multidimensional porous medium flow in rod arrays. Velocities, pressures, and bubble distributions were measured in square rod arrays of P/d = 1.5, at 0, 30, 45, and 90 degree inclinations to the vertical flow direction. Constitutive models for single-phase flow resistance are reviewed, new comprehensive models developed, and an assessment with previously published and new data made. The principle of superimposing one-dimensional correlations proves successful for turbulent single-phase inclined flow. For bubbly two-phase incline flow a new flow separation phenomena was observed and modeled. A two-region liquid velocity model is developed to explain the experimentally observed phenomena. Fundamental data for bubbles rising in rod arrays were also taken

  14. An analytical model for force prediction in ball nose micro milling of inclined surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2010-01-01

    Ball nose micro milling is a key process for the generation of free form surfaces and inclined surfaces often present in mould inserts for micro replication. This paper presents a new cutting force model for ball nose micro milling that is capable of taking into account the effect of the edge...

  15. The effect of beam inclination on the performance of a passive vibration isolator using buckled beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, H; Waters, T; Saotome, N; Nagamine, T; Sato, Y

    2016-01-01

    Passive vibration isolators are desired to have both high static stiffness to support large static load and low local stiffness to reduce the displacement transmissibility at frequencies greater than resonance. Utilization of a vertical buckled beam as a spring component is one way to realize such a stiffness characteristic since it exhibits a smaller ratio of local stiffness to static stiffness than that of a linear spring. This paper investigates the behaviour of a vibration isolator using inclined beams as well as vertical ones and examines the effect of beam inclination for the purpose of improving the isolation performance. The experimental system investigated has an isolated mass which is supported by a combination of two types of beams: buckled beams and constraining beams. The buckled beams can be inclined from the vertical by attachment devices, and the constraining beams are employed to prevent off-axis motion of the isolated mass. The results demonstrate that the inclination of the buckled beams reduces the resonance frequency and improves the displacement transmissibility at frequencies greater than resonance. (paper)

  16. Coordination patterns of shoulder muscles during level-ground and incline wheelchair propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Liping; Wakeling, James; Grange, Simon; Ferguson-Pell, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how the coordination patterns of shoulder muscles change with level-ground and incline wheelchair propulsion. Wheelchair kinetics and electromyography (EMG) activity of seven muscles were recorded with surface electrodes for 15 nondisabled subjects during wheelchair propulsion on a stationary ergometer and wooden ramp (4 degree slope). Kinetic data were measured by a SmartWheel. The kinetics variables and the onset, cessation, and duration of EMG activity from seven muscles were compared with paired t-tests for two sessions. Muscle coordination patterns across seven muscles were analyzed by principal component analysis. Push forces on the push rim and the percentage of push phase in the cycle increased significantly during incline propulsion. Propulsion condition and posture affected muscle coordination patterns. During incline propulsion, there was more intense and longer EMG activity of push muscles in the push phase and less EMG activity of the recovery muscles, which corresponded with the increased kinetic data total force output and longer push phase in the incline condition. This work establishes a framework for developing a performance feedback system for wheelchair users to better coordinate their muscle patterning activity.

  17. Investigation on novel raceway pond with inclined paddle wheels through simulation and microalgae culture experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fanxue; Huang, Jianke; Meng, Chen; Zhu, Fachao; Chen, Jianpei; Li, Yuanguang

    2016-01-01

    The open raceway ponds are nowadays the most used large-scale reactors for microalgae culture. To avoid the stacking of microalgae, the paddle wheels are the most widely used to circulate and mix the culture medium. In this paper, a numerical simulation using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to investigate the hydrodynamic characteristics of open raceway ponds with different types of paddle wheels (the traditional paddle wheels and the novel paddle wheels with specially inclined angle of the blades). The particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to validate the reliability of the CFD model. The CFD simulation results showed that the novel raceway pond with 15° inclined angle of the blades had the best mixing efficiency under the same power consumption. Lastly, the results of microalgae culture experiments showed that the growth rates of Chlorella pyrenoidosa in the novel raceway pond with 15° inclined angle of the blades were higher than those in the traditional reactor. The results of the culture experiments and CFD simulations were identical with each other. Therefore, a novel paddle wheel with 15° inclined angle of the blades was obtained for better microalgae cultivation.

  18. Flow Boiling on a Downward-Facing Inclined Plane Wall of Core Catcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyoung Tak; Bang, Kwang Hyun; Suh, Jung Soo

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate boiling behavior on downward-facing inclined heated wall prior to the CHF condition, an experiment was carried out with 1.2 m long rectangular channel, inclined by 10 .deg. from the horizontal plane. High speed video images showed that the bubbles were sliding along the heated wall, continuing to grow and combining with the bubbles growing at their nucleation sites in the downstream. These large bubbles continued to slide along the heated wall and formed elongated slug bubbles. Under this slug bubble thin liquid film layer on the heated wall was observed and this liquid film prevents the wall from dryout. The length, velocity and frequency of slug bubbles sliding on the heated wall were measured as a function of wall heat flux and these parameters were used to develop wall boiling model for inclined, downward-facing heated wall. One approach to achieve coolable state of molten core in a PWR-like reactor cavity during a severe accident is to retain the core melt on a so-called core catcher residing on the reactor cavity floor after its relocation from the reactor pressure vessel. The core melt retained in the core catcher is cooled by water coolant flowing in an inclined cooling channel underneath as well as the water pool overlaid on the melt layer. Two-phase flow boiling with downward-facing heated wall such as this core catcher cooling channel has drawn a special attention because this orientation of heated wall may reach boiling crisis at lower heat flux than that of a vertical or upward-facing heated wall. Nishikawa and Fujita, Howard and Mudawar, Qiu and Dhir have conducted experiments to study the effect of heater orientation on boiling heat transfer and CHF. SULTAN experiment was conducted to study inclined large-scale structure coolability by water in boiling natural convection. In this paper, high-speed visualization of boiling behavior on downward-facing heated wall inclined by 10 .deg. is presented and wall boiling model for the

  19. Web services foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Bouguettaya, Athman; Daniel, Florian

    2013-01-01

    Web services and Service-Oriented Computing (SOC) have become thriving areas of academic research, joint university/industry research projects, and novel IT products on the market. SOC is the computing paradigm that uses Web services as building blocks for the engineering of composite, distributed applications out of the reusable application logic encapsulated by Web services. Web services could be considered the best-known and most standardized technology in use today for distributed computing over the Internet.Web Services Foundations is the first installment of a two-book collection coverin

  20. Web Security, Privacy & Commerce

    CERN Document Server

    Garfinkel, Simson

    2011-01-01

    Since the first edition of this classic reference was published, World Wide Web use has exploded and e-commerce has become a daily part of business and personal life. As Web use has grown, so have the threats to our security and privacy--from credit card fraud to routine invasions of privacy by marketers to web site defacements to attacks that shut down popular web sites. Web Security, Privacy & Commerce goes behind the headlines, examines the major security risks facing us today, and explains how we can minimize them. It describes risks for Windows and Unix, Microsoft Internet Exp

  1. Cooperative Mobile Web Browsing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrucci, GP; Fitzek, FHP; Zhang, Qi

    2009-01-01

    This paper advocates a novel approach for mobile web browsing based on cooperation among wireless devices within close proximity operating in a cellular environment. In the actual state of the art, mobile phones can access the web using different cellular technologies. However, the supported data......-range links can then be used for cooperative mobile web browsing. By implementing the cooperative web browsing on commercial mobile phones, it will be shown that better performance is achieved in terms of increased data rate and therefore reduced access times, resulting in a significantly enhanced web...

  2. Evaluation of Bearing Capacity of Strip Foundation Subjected to Eccentric Inclined Loads Using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Majeed Ali

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In real conditions of structures, foundations like retaining walls, industrial machines and platforms in offshore areas are commonly subjected to eccentrically inclined loads. This type of loading significantly affects the overall stability of shallow foundations due to exposing the foundation into two components of loads (horizontal and vertical and consequently reduces the bearing capacity Based on a numerical analysis performed using finite element software (Plaxis 3D Foundation, the behavior of model strip foundation rested on dry sand under the effect of eccentric inclined loads with different embedment ratios (D/B ranging from (0-1 has been explored. The results display that, the bearing capacity of strip foundation is noticeably decreased with the increase of inclination angle (α and eccentricity ratio (e/B. As well as, a reduction factor (RF expression was appointed to measure the degree of decreasing in the bearing capacity when the model footing is subjected to eccentric inclined load. It was observed that, the (RF decreases as the embedment ratio increases. Moreover, the test results also exhibit that, the model footing bearing capacity is reduced by about (69% when the load inclination is varied from (0° to 20° and the model footing is on the surface. While, the rate of decreasing in the bearing capacity was found to be (58%, for both cases of footing when they are at embedment ratios of (0.5 and 1.0. Also, a comparative study was carried out between the present results and previous experimental test results under the same conditions (soil properties and boundary condition. A good agreement was obtained between the predicted bearing capacities for the two related studies.

  3. Affect and craving: positive and negative affect are differentially associated with approach and avoidance inclinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlauch, Robert C; Gwynn-Shapiro, Daniel; Stasiewicz, Paul R; Molnar, Danielle S; Lang, Alan R

    2013-04-01

    Research on reactivity to alcohol and drug cues has either ignored affective state altogether or has focused rather narrowly on the role of negative affect in craving. Moreover, until recently, the relevant analyses of affect and craving have rarely addressed the ambivalence often associated with craving itself. The current study investigated how both negative and positive affect moderate approach and avoidance inclinations associated with cue-elicited craving in a clinical sample diagnosed with substance use disorders. One hundred forty-four patients (age range of 18-65, mean 42.0; n=92 males) were recruited from an inpatient detoxification unit for substance abuse. Participants completed a baseline assessment of both positive and negative affect prior to completing a cue-reactivity paradigm for which they provided self-report ratings of inclinations to approach (use) and avoid (not use) alcohol, cigarettes, and non-psychoactive control substances (food and beverages). Participants with elevated negative affect reported significantly higher approach ratings for cigarette and alcohol cues, whereas those high in positive affect showed significantly higher levels of avoidance inclinations for both alcohol and cigarette cues and also significantly lower approach ratings for alcohol cues, all relative to control cues. Results for negative affect are consistent with previous cue reactivity research, whereas results for positive affect are unique and call attention to its clinical potential for attenuating approach inclinations to substance use cues. Further, positive affect was related to both approach and avoidance inclinations, underscoring the utility of a multidimensional conceptualization of craving in the analysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The angle of inclination of the native ACL in the coronal and sagittal planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jonathan C; Yonke, Bret; Tompkins, Marc

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the angle of inclination of the native anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in both the sagittal and coronal planes and to evaluate these findings based on sex, height, BMI, and skeletal maturity. Inclusion criteria for the study included patients undergoing routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee at a single outpatient orthopedic center who had an intact ACL on MRI. Measurements of the angle of inclination were made on MRIs in both the sagittal and coronal planes. Patients were compared based on sex, height, BMI, and skeletal maturity. One-hundred and eighty-eight patients were included (36 skeletally immature/152 skeletally mature; 98 male/90 female). The overall angle of inclination was 74.3° ± 4.8° in the coronal plane and 46.9° ± 4.9° in the sagittal plane. Skeletally immature patients (coronal: 71.8° ± 6.1°; sagittal: 44.7° ± 5.5°) were significantly different in both coronal and sagittal planes (P = 0.04 and 0.01, respectively) from skeletally mature patients (coronal: 75.3° ± 4.7°; sagittal: 47.4° ± 4.7°). There were no differences based on sex, height, or BMI. There are differences between the angle of inclination findings in this study and other studies, which could be due to MRI and measurement techniques. Clinically, skeletal maturity may be important to account for when using the ACL angle of inclination to evaluate anatomic ACL reconstruction. Prognostic retrospective study, Level of evidence III.

  5. Finding the Acceleration and Speed of a Light-Emitting Object on an Inclined Plane with a Smartphone Light Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapucu, Serkan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates how the acceleration and speed of a light-emitting object on an inclined plane may be determined using a smartphone's light sensor. A light-emitting object was released from the top of an inclined plane and its illuminance values were detected by a smartphone's light sensor during its subsequent motion down the plane. Using…

  6. Nanocellulose reinforcement of Transparent Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua Steele; Hong Dong; James F. Snyder; Josh A. Orlicki; Richard S. Reiner; Alan W. Rudie

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we evaluate the impact of nanocellulose reinforcement on transparent composite properties. Due to the small diameter, high modulus, and high strength of cellulose nanocrystals, transparent composites that utilize these materials should show improvement in bulk mechanical performances without a corresponding reduction in optical properties. In this study...

  7. Silica reinforced triblock copolymer gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theunissen, E.; Overbergh, N.; Reynaers, H.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of silica and polymer coated silica particles as reinforcing agents on the structural and mechanical properties of polystyrene-poly(ethylene/butylene)-polystyrene (PS-PEB-PS) triblock gel has been investigated. Different types of chemically modified silica have been compared in order...

  8. Reinforcement learning in supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valluri, Annapurna; North, Michael J; Macal, Charles M

    2009-10-01

    Effective management of supply chains creates value and can strategically position companies. In practice, human beings have been found to be both surprisingly successful and disappointingly inept at managing supply chains. The related fields of cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence have postulated a variety of potential mechanisms to explain this behavior. One of the leading candidates is reinforcement learning. This paper applies agent-based modeling to investigate the comparative behavioral consequences of three simple reinforcement learning algorithms in a multi-stage supply chain. For the first time, our findings show that the specific algorithm that is employed can have dramatic effects on the results obtained. Reinforcement learning is found to be valuable in multi-stage supply chains with several learning agents, as independent agents can learn to coordinate their behavior. However, learning in multi-stage supply chains using these postulated approaches from cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence take extremely long time periods to achieve stability which raises questions about their ability to explain behavior in real supply chains. The fact that it takes thousands of periods for agents to learn in this simple multi-agent setting provides new evidence that real world decision makers are unlikely to be using strict reinforcement learning in practice.

  9. Stability of reinforced cemented backfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, R.J.; Stone, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    Mining with backfill has been the subject of several international meetings in recent years and a considerable research effort is being applied to improve both mining economics and ore recovery by using backfill for ground support. Classified mill tailings sands are the most commonly used backfill material but these fine sands must be stabilized before full ore pillar recovery can be achieved. Normal portland cement is generally used for stabilization but the high cost of cement prohibits high cement usage. This paper considers the use of reinforcements in cemented fill to reduce the cement usage. It is concluded that strong cemented layers at typical spacings of about 3 meters in a low cement content bulk fill can reinforce the fill and reduce the overall cement usage. Fibre reinforcements introduced into strong layers or into bulk fills are also known to be effective in reducing cement usage. Some development work is needed to produce the ideal type of anchored fibre in order to realize economic gains from fibre-reinforced fills

  10. Adaptive representations for reinforcement learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whiteson, S.

    2010-01-01

    This book presents new algorithms for reinforcement learning, a form of machine learning in which an autonomous agent seeks a control policy for a sequential decision task. Since current methods typically rely on manually designed solution representations, agents that automatically adapt their own

  11. A numerical study on buoyancy-driven flow in an inclined square enclosure heated and cooled on adjacent walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, O.; Uenal, A.; Ayhan, T.

    1999-01-01

    Buoyancy-driven flows in enclosures play a vital role in many engineering applications such as double glazing, ventilation of rooms, nuclear reactor insulation, solar energy collection, cooling of electronic components, and crystal growth in liquids. Here, numerical study on buoyancy-driven laminar flow in an inclined square enclosure heated from one side and cooled from the adjacent side is conducted using finite difference methods. The effect of inclination angle on fluid flow and heat transfer is investigated by varying the angle of inclination between 0 degree and 360degree, and the results are presented in the form of streamlines and isotherms for different inclination angles and Rayleigh numbers. On the basis of the numerical data, the authors determine the critical values of the inclination angle at which the rate of the transfer within the enclosure is either maximum or minimum

  12. Cable-stayed PC bridge with inclined main tower. Hachinohe port island bridge; Keisha shuto to yusuru 2 keikan renzoku PC shachokyo. Hachinoheko port island renrakykyo (kasho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, A. [Hachinohe Institute of Technology, Aomori (Japan)

    1994-09-15

    The design and construction of the inclined main bridge, which is being constructed at the mouth of the Hachinohe Harbor (in Japan), are outlined in this paper. This connecting bridge has an overall length of 265.56 m, and consists of the main bridge member of asymmetric 2 cable-stayed PC bridge and the 3 cable-stayed PC box member bridge. An asymmetric design was employed for the main bridge frame to ensure the access space for small ships passing between bridge girders, easy maintenance and service, improved economy, and excellent view. The main tower is a single-pillar reinforced concrete structure with an inclination of 15{degree} and 47 m in height. Forty-eight diagonal cables are arranged so that 12 cable trains are connected to the main tower on the right and left sides respectively, and the back-stay cable structure is used for each upper 3 cable trains to improve safety against the earthquake. The main beam is made by a prestressed concrete structure with inverse trapezoidal 3-chamber frame section. This structure is superior in increasing the safety against wind. Steel tube sheet-pile well is selected for the bridge pier base, and debris layer is selected as a support layer for the base. For the construction of the lower bridge section, sand conversion through predrilling of rubble-mound and debris layer was executed. The underwater non-separative concrete and embedded type frame are used around the bridge piers and its surrounding. For the construction of the upper bridge section, steel frames are used inside the main tower to ensure the construction precision. 7 figs.

  13. Depression, Activity, and Evaluation of Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammen, Constance L.; Glass, David R., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    This research attempted to find the causal relation between mood and level of reinforcement. An effort was made to learn what mood change might occur if depressed subjects increased their levels of participation in reinforcing activities. (Author/RK)

  14. Knowledge details in web forums: how high or low above the ground?

    OpenAIRE

    Mikami, Yoshiki; Abd Rozan, Mohd Zaidi

    2006-01-01

    While entertainment web forums provide a dynamic medium for interaction, not many researchers feel the need to go deeply into the contents. One of the reasons behind this attitude lies on a widely perceived assumption that web forums do not deal with knowledge matter and have the inclination to take place only as small talk. In this paper, we will mainly inspect the components of knowledge as are being handled by the six service-men of Kipling’s 5W1H framework. Based on our observation on ...

  15. Basic Boiling Experiments with An Inclined Narrow Gap Associated With In-Vessel Retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terazu, Kuninobu; Watanabe, Fukashi; Iwaki, Chikako; Yokobori, Seiichi; Akinaga, Makoto; Hamazaki, Ryoichi; SATO, Ken-ichi

    2002-01-01

    In the case of a severe accident with relocation of the molten corium into the lower plenum of reactor pressure vessel (RPV), the successful in-vessel corium retention (IVR) can prevent the progress to ex-vessel events with uncertainties and avoid the containment failure. One of the key phenomena governing the possibility of IVR would be the gap formation and cooling between a corium crust and the RPV wall, and for the achievement of IVR, it would be necessary to supply cooling water to RPV as early as possible. The BWR features relative to IVR behavior are a deep and massive water pool in the lower plenum, and many of control rod drive guide tubes (CRDGT) installed in the lower head of RPV, in which water is injected continuously except in the case of station blackout scenario. The present paper describes the basic boiling experiment conducted in order to investigate the boiling characteristics in an inclined narrow gap simulating a part of the lower head curvature. The boiling experiments were composed of visualization tests and heat transfer tests. In the visualization tests, two types of inclined gap were constructed using the parallel plate and the V-shaped parallel plate with heating from the top plate, and the boiling flow pattern was observed with various gap width and heat flux. These observation results showed that water was easily supplied from the gap bottom of parallel plate even in a very narrow gap with smaller width than 1 mm, and water could flow continuously in the narrow gap by the geometric and thermal imbalance from the experiment results using the V-shaped parallel plate. In the heat transfer tests, the critical heat flux (CHF) data in an inclined narrow channel formed by the parallel plates were measured in terms of the parameters of gap width, heated length and inclined angle of a channel, and the effect of inclination was incorporated into the existing CHF correlation for a narrow gap. The CHF correlation modified for an inclined narrow gap

  16. Measurement of the buccolingual inclination of teeth: manual technique vs 3-dimensional software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Mahtab; Abdi, Amir Hossein; Farzan, Arash; Mokhtarpour, Faraneh; Baghban, AliReza Akbarzadeh

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we aimed to measure the inclination of teeth on dental casts by a manual technique with the tooth inclination protractor (TIP; MBI, Newport, United Kingdom) and a newly designed 3-dimensional (3D) software program. The correlation of the 2 techniques was evaluated, and the reliability of each technique was assessed separately. This study was conducted on 36 dental casts of normal, well-aligned Class I occlusions; we assessed 432 teeth. All casts had a normal Class I occlusion. After determining the facial axis of the clinical crown and the facial axis points on the dental casts, we measured the inclinations of the incisors and posterior teeth up to the first molars in each dental arch relative to Andrews' occlusal plane and the posterior occlusal plane using the TIP. Moreover, the casts were scanned by a structured-light 3D scanner. The inclination of teeth relative to the occlusal plane was determined using the new software. To assess the reliability, measurements of all teeth from 15 casts were repeated twice by the 2 methods. Intraclass correlation coefficient and Dahlberg's formula were used for calculation of correlation and reliability. Overall, the 2 techniques were not significantly different in the measurements of the inclinations of the teeth in both jaws. The ranges of Dahlberg's formula were 3.1° to 5.8° for the maxilla and 3.3° to 5.9° for the mandible. The overall correlation of the 2 techniques according to the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.91. For calculation of reliability, the intraclass correlation coefficients for the TIP and the 3D method were 0.73 and 0.82, respectively. The TIP and the 3D software showed a high correlation for measurement of the inclinations of maxillary and mandibular teeth relative to the occlusal plane. Also, the reproducibility of the measurements in each method was high. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Rational and Mechanistic Perspectives on Reinforcement Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chater, Nick

    2009-01-01

    This special issue describes important recent developments in applying reinforcement learning models to capture neural and cognitive function. But reinforcement learning, as a theoretical framework, can apply at two very different levels of description: "mechanistic" and "rational." Reinforcement learning is often viewed in mechanistic terms--as…

  18. Conditioned Reinforcement Value and Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahan, Timothy A.; Podlesnik, Christopher A.

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments examined the effects of conditioned reinforcement value and primary reinforcement rate on resistance to change using a multiple schedule of observing-response procedures with pigeons. In the absence of observing responses in both components, unsignaled periods of variable-interval (VI) schedule food reinforcement alternated with…

  19. Engineering Web Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casteleyn, Sven; Daniel, Florian; Dolog, Peter

    Nowadays, Web applications are almost omnipresent. The Web has become a platform not only for information delivery, but also for eCommerce systems, social networks, mobile services, and distributed learning environments. Engineering Web applications involves many intrinsic challenges due...... to their distributed nature, content orientation, and the requirement to make them available to a wide spectrum of users who are unknown in advance. The authors discuss these challenges in the context of well-established engineering processes, covering the whole product lifecycle from requirements engineering through...... design and implementation to deployment and maintenance. They stress the importance of models in Web application development, and they compare well-known Web-specific development processes like WebML, WSDM and OOHDM to traditional software development approaches like the waterfall model and the spiral...

  20. Desarrollo de aplicaciones web

    OpenAIRE

    Luján Mora, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    Agradecimientos 1. Introducción a las aplicaciones web 2. Instalación del servidor 3. Diseño de páginas web 4. Formato estructurado de texto: XML 5. Contenido dinámico 6. Acceso a bases de datos: JDBC 7. Servicios web 8. Utilización y mantenimiento 9. Monitorización y análisis Bibliografía GNU Free Documentation License

  1. Web Science emerges

    OpenAIRE

    Shadbolt, Nigel; Berners-Lee, Tim

    2008-01-01

    The relentless rise in Web pages and links is creating emergent properties, from social networks to virtual identity theft, that are transforming society. A new discipline, Web Science, aims to discover how Web traits arise and how they can be harnessed or held in check to benefit society. Important advances are beginning to be made; more work can solve major issues such as securing privacy and conveying trust.

  2. A web in the patriarchal clan system: tactics of intimate partners in the Japanese sociocultural context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihama, Mieko

    2005-10-01

    Only recently has Japanese society come to realize the magnitude of domestic violence as a serious social problem. Using focus group methodology, this study investigated the function and the sociocultural reinforcements of male partner violence. The analysis of the participants' accounts of various types of violence their partners perpetrated, which were accompanied by an elaborate collection of tactics to reinforce the effects of the violence, has led to the conceptualization of partners' violence as a spider web. The Japanese patriarchal clan system and underlying ideology of male superiority fosters the maintenance of this web.

  3. Effects of partial reinforcement and time between reinforced trials on terminal response rate in pigeon autoshaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Daniel A

    2006-03-01

    Partial reinforcement often leads to asymptotically higher rates of responding and number of trials with a response than does continuous reinforcement in pigeon autoshaping. However, comparisons typically involve a partial reinforcement schedule that differs from the continuous reinforcement schedule in both time between reinforced trials and probability of reinforcement. Two experiments examined the relative contributions of these two manipulations to asymptotic response rate. Results suggest that the greater responding previously seen with partial reinforcement is primarily due to differential probability of reinforcement and not differential time between reinforced trials. Further, once established, differences in responding are resistant to a change in stimulus and contingency. Secondary response theories of autoshaped responding (theories that posit additional response-augmenting or response-attenuating mechanisms specific to partial or continuous reinforcement) cannot fully accommodate the current body of data. It is suggested that researchers who study pigeon autoshaping train animals on a common task prior to training them under different conditions.

  4. Programming the semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Segaran, Toby; Taylor, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    With this book, the promise of the Semantic Web -- in which machines can find, share, and combine data on the Web -- is not just a technical possibility, but a practical reality Programming the Semantic Web demonstrates several ways to implement semantic web applications, using current and emerging standards and technologies. You'll learn how to incorporate existing data sources into semantically aware applications and publish rich semantic data. Each chapter walks you through a single piece of semantic technology and explains how you can use it to solve real problems. Whether you're writing

  5. RESTful Web Services Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Allamaraju, Subbu

    2010-01-01

    While the REST design philosophy has captured the imagination of web and enterprise developers alike, using this approach to develop real web services is no picnic. This cookbook includes more than 100 recipes to help you take advantage of REST, HTTP, and the infrastructure of the Web. You'll learn ways to design RESTful web services for client and server applications that meet performance, scalability, reliability, and security goals, no matter what programming language and development framework you use. Each recipe includes one or two problem statements, with easy-to-follow, step-by-step i

  6. Programming the Mobile Web

    CERN Document Server

    Firtman, Maximiliano

    2010-01-01

    Today's market for mobile apps goes beyond the iPhone to include BlackBerry, Nokia, Windows Phone, and smartphones powered by Android, webOS, and other platforms. If you're an experienced web developer, this book shows you how to build a standard app core that you can extend to work with specific devices. You'll learn the particulars and pitfalls of building mobile apps with HTML, CSS, and other standard web tools. You'll also explore platform variations, finicky mobile browsers, Ajax design patterns for mobile, and much more. Before you know it, you'll be able to create mashups using Web 2.

  7. Advanced web services

    CERN Document Server

    Bouguettaya, Athman; Daniel, Florian

    2013-01-01

    Web services and Service-Oriented Computing (SOC) have become thriving areas of academic research, joint university/industry research projects, and novel IT products on the market. SOC is the computing paradigm that uses Web services as building blocks for the engineering of composite, distributed applications out of the reusable application logic encapsulated by Web services. Web services could be considered the best-known and most standardized technology in use today for distributed computing over the Internet. This book is the second installment of a two-book collection covering the state-o

  8. Web-sovelluskehityksen tekniikat

    OpenAIRE

    Kettunen, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Web-sovelluskehitykseen käytettäviä tekniikoita, työkaluja ja ohjelmakirjastoja on olemassa useita erilaisia ja niiden lähestymistapa web-sovelluskehitykseen poikkeaa jonkin verran toisistaan. Opinnäytetyössä selvitetään teoriassa ja käytännön esimerkkiprojektin avulla yleisimmin web-sovelluskehityksessä käytettyjä tekniikoita ja kirjastoja. Työssä esimerkkinä luodussa web-sovelluksessa käytettiin Laravel-ohjelmakehystä ja alkuosassa käsiteltyjä työkaluja ja kirjastoja, kuten Bootstrap ja ...

  9. Creating Web Pages Simplified

    CERN Document Server

    Wooldridge, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The easiest way to learn how to create a Web page for your family or organization Do you want to share photos and family lore with relatives far away? Have you been put in charge of communication for your neighborhood group or nonprofit organization? A Web page is the way to get the word out, and Creating Web Pages Simplified offers an easy, visual way to learn how to build one. Full-color illustrations and concise instructions take you through all phases of Web publishing, from laying out and formatting text to enlivening pages with graphics and animation. This easy-to-follow visual guide sho

  10. Web Accessibility and Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Simon; Yesilada, Yeliz

    Access to, and movement around, complex online environments, of which the World Wide Web (Web) is the most popular example, has long been considered an important and major issue in the Web design and usability field. The commonly used slang phrase ‘surfing the Web’ implies rapid and free access, pointing to its importance among designers and users alike. It has also been long established that this potentially complex and difficult access is further complicated, and becomes neither rapid nor free, if the user is disabled. There are millions of people who have disabilities that affect their use of the Web. Web accessibility aims to help these people to perceive, understand, navigate, and interact with, as well as contribute to, the Web, and thereby the society in general. This accessibility is, in part, facilitated by the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) currently moving from version one to two. These guidelines are intended to encourage designers to make sure their sites conform to specifications, and in that conformance enable the assistive technologies of disabled users to better interact with the page content. In this way, it was hoped that accessibility could be supported. While this is in part true, guidelines do not solve all problems and the new WCAG version two guidelines are surrounded by controversy and intrigue. This chapter aims to establish the published literature related to Web accessibility and Web accessibility guidelines, and discuss limitations of the current guidelines and future directions.

  11. Building Social Web Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Gavin

    2009-01-01

    Building a web application that attracts and retains regular visitors is tricky enough, but creating a social application that encourages visitors to interact with one another requires careful planning. This book provides practical solutions to the tough questions you'll face when building an effective community site -- one that makes visitors feel like they've found a new home on the Web. If your company is ready to take part in the social web, this book will help you get started. Whether you're creating a new site from scratch or reworking an existing site, Building Social Web Applications

  12. Using Open Web APIs in Teaching Web Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsinchun; Li, Xin; Chau, M.; Ho, Yi-Jen; Tseng, Chunju

    2009-01-01

    With the advent of the World Wide Web, many business applications that utilize data mining and text mining techniques to extract useful business information on the Web have evolved from Web searching to Web mining. It is important for students to acquire knowledge and hands-on experience in Web mining during their education in information systems…

  13. Using Web Server Logs in Evaluating Instructional Web Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Albert L.

    2000-01-01

    Web server logs contain a great deal of information about who uses a Web site and how they use it. This article discusses the analysis of Web logs for instructional Web sites; reviews the data stored in most Web server logs; demonstrates what further information can be gleaned from the logs; and discusses analyzing that information for the…

  14. Aerodynamic coefficients of stationary dry inclined bridge cables in laminar flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteoni, Giulia; Georgakis, Christos; Ricciardelli, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Stay cables are the most flexible elements of cable-stayed bridges. When exposed to wind loading, they often undergo large amplitude vibrations, thus motivating serious design concerns. In most cases, vibrations are observed in the presence of water rivulets or ice accretions, which lead to an ef......Stay cables are the most flexible elements of cable-stayed bridges. When exposed to wind loading, they often undergo large amplitude vibrations, thus motivating serious design concerns. In most cases, vibrations are observed in the presence of water rivulets or ice accretions, which lead...... experimental and theoretical research in the last two decades, even though a definitive understanding of the flow around inclined cables under various surface conditions has not been achieved. A comparative study on the aerodynamic coefficients of stationary inclined stay cables, under various surface...

  15. Computation of coupled surface radiation and natural convection in an inclined form cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amraqui, Samir; Mezrhab, Ahmed; Abid, Cherifa

    2011-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with computation of the radiation-natural convection interactions in an inclined form cavity. The cavity contains two symmetrically identical isothermal blocks and is vented by two opening located in a vertical median axis at the top and the bottom parts of the cavity. Calculations are made by using a finite volume method and an efficient numerical procedure is introduced for calculating the view factors, with shadow effects included. Effects of Rayleigh number Ra and inclination angle φ are investigated for Pr = 0.71 in presence and in absence of the radiation exchange. Results are reported in terms of isotherms, streamlines, local and average Nusselt numbers and mass flow rate. In light of the obtained results, we can conclude that the heat transfer decreases with increasing φ. In addition, the increase of Ra and the taking into account of the radiation exchange produce a considerable increase in the heat transfer.

  16. Inversion of self-potential anomalies caused by 2D inclined sheets using neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kaliouby, Hesham M; Al-Garni, Mansour A

    2009-01-01

    The modular neural network (MNN) inversion method has been used for inversion of self-potential (SP) data anomalies caused by 2D inclined sheets of infinite horizontal extent. The analysed parameters are the depth (h), the half-width (a), the inclination (α), the zero distance from the origin (x o ) and the polarization amplitude (k). The MNN inversion has been first tested on a synthetic example and then applied to two field examples from the Surda area of Rakha mines, India, and Kalava fault zone, India. The effect of random noise has been studied, and the technique showed satisfactory results. The inversion results show good agreement with the measured field data compared with other inversion techniques in use

  17. An influence function method based subsidence prediction program for longwall mining operations in inclined coal seams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi Luo; Jian-wei Cheng [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States). Department of Mining Engineering

    2009-09-15

    The distribution of the final surface subsidence basin induced by longwall operations in inclined coal seam could be significantly different from that in flat coal seam and demands special prediction methods. Though many empirical prediction methods have been developed, these methods are inflexible for varying geological and mining conditions. An influence function method has been developed to take the advantage of its fundamentally sound nature and flexibility. In developing this method, significant modifications have been made to the original Knothe function to produce an asymmetrical influence function. The empirical equations for final subsidence parameters derived from US subsidence data and Chinese empirical values have been incorporated into the mathematical models to improve the prediction accuracy. A corresponding computer program is developed. A number of subsidence cases for longwall mining operations in coal seams with varying inclination angles have been used to demonstrate the applicability of the developed subsidence prediction model. 9 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Reconstruction of inclined shower coordinates in electromagnetic calorimeters based on lead glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, A.N.; Mochalov, V.V.; Solov'ev, L.F.

    2007-01-01

    A method for reconstructing the coordinates of inclined showers in lead glass electromagnetic calorimeters is described. Such showers are generated by photons with energies of 0.5-4.0 GeV that are incident on the detector at angles of as great as 30 deg. An analytical expression for the description of the actual photon coordinate in the calorimeter versus the coordinates of the shower center of gravity is proposed. Using this expression, it is possible to reconstruct the coordinates of inclined electromagnetic showers over wide ranges of angles and energies. The dependences of the spatial resolution on the photon energy and angle are determined. The longitudinal fluctuations of the shower length and their effect on the spatial resolution of the calorimeter are discussed [ru

  19. The measurement of inclination on gravity concrete dams using the tiltmeter instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Slobodan D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of inclination on gravity concrete dams using the instrument tiltmeter is described and discussed with special reference on obtained results on the dam 'Đerdap 2' acquired in the three years period. Tiltmetar way of operation is presented both through physical principle of vibrating wire sensors and through described design of the instrument. The influence of the temperature on the measurement of the slope is specially emphasized and presented through temperature correction. Processing the results of real inclination measurements on the dam 'Đerdap 2' with and without temperature correction showed the significant difference. Statistical analysis of measurement data consisted of performed regression analysis and forming of corresponding series with the expected measurement values depending on environmental conditions. At the end we give a summary conclusion on the instrument, the influence of temperature on the measurement and statistical model.

  20. Inclined monochromator for high heat-load synchrotron x-ray radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khounsary, Ali M.

    1994-01-01

    A double crystal monochromator including two identical, parallel crystals, each of which is cut such that the normal to the diffraction planes of interest makes an angle less than 90 degrees with the surface normal. Diffraction is symmetric, regardless of whether the crystals are symmetrically or asymmetrically cut, enabling operation of the monochromator with a fixed plane of diffraction. As a result of the inclination of the crystal surface, an incident beam has a footprint area which is elongated both vertically and horizontally when compared to that of the conventional monochromator, reducing the heat flux of the incident beam and enabling more efficient surface cooling. Because after inclination of the crystal only a fraction of thermal distortion lies in the diffraction plane, slope errors and the resultant misorientation of the diffracted beam are reduced.

  1. Determination of the optimal conditions for inclination maneuvers using a Swing-by

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, O.; Celestino, C. C.; Prado, A. F. B. A.

    2018-05-01

    The search for methods to reduce the fuel consumption in orbital transfers is something relevant and always current in astrodynamics. Therefore, the maneuvers assisted by the gravity, also called Swing-by maneuvers, can be an advantageous option to save fuel. The proposal of the present research is to explore the influence of some parameters in a Swing-by of an artificial satellite orbiting a planet with one of the moons of this mother planet, with the goal of changing the inclination of the artificial satellite around the main body of the system. The fuel consumption of this maneuver is compared with the required consumption to perform the same change of inclination using the classical approach of impulsive maneuvers.

  2. Effect of magnetic field on Blasius and Sakiadis flow of nanofluids past an inclined plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Anjali Devi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical study on the effect of magnetic field on the classical Blasius and Sakiadis flow of nanofluids over an inclined plate is presented in this paper. The governing partial differential equations are converted into ordinary differential equations using suitable similarity transformations. The transformed boundary layer equations are solved numerically using MATLAB (bvp4c. Two types of nanoparticles are chosen namely copper and alumina in the base fluid of water with the Prandtl number (Pr = 6.2. The effects of the governing physical parameters over the velocity, temperature, skin friction coefficient and reduced Nusselt number for both the Blasius and Sakiadis flows are displayed graphically. The characteristics of physical and engineering interest are discussed in detail. Keywords: Nanofluid, Blasius flow, Sakiadis flow, MHD, Inclined plate, Mixed convection

  3. Reconstruction of inclined air showers detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre Auger Collaboration; Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Samarai, I. Al; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; D\\'\\iaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fuji, T.; Gaior, R.; Garc\\'\\ia, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Islo, K.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agëra, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Mart\\'\\inez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Mas\\'\\ias Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, A. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Newton, D.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodr\\'\\iguez-Fr\\'\\ias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiał kowski, A.; Šm\\'\\ida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Thao, N. T.; Theodoro, V. M.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2014-08-01

    We describe the method devised to reconstruct inclined cosmic-ray air showers with zenith angles greater than 60° detected with the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The measured signals at the ground level are fitted to muon density distributions predicted with atmospheric cascade models to obtain the relative shower size as an overall normalization parameter. The method is evaluated using simulated showers to test its performance. The energy of the cosmic rays is calibrated using a sub-sample of events reconstructed with both the fluorescence and surface array techniques. The reconstruction method described here provides the basis of complementary analyses including an independent measurement of the energy spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using very inclined events collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  4. Reconstruction of inclined air showers detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    We describe the method devised to reconstruct inclined cosmic-ray air showers with zenith angles greater than 60° detected with the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The measured signals at the ground level are fitted to muon density distributions predicted with atmospheric cascade models to obtain the relative shower size as an overall normalization parameter. The method is evaluated using simulated showers to test its performance. The energy of the cosmic rays is calibrated using a sub-sample of events reconstructed with both the fluorescence and surface array techniques. The reconstruction method described here provides the basis of complementary analyses including an independent measurement of the energy spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using very inclined events collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory

  5. Oblique Wave-Induced Responses of A VLFS Edged with A Pair of Inclined Perforated Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yong; Ji, Chun-yan; Zhai, Gang-jun; Oleg, Gaidai

    2018-03-01

    This paper is concerned with the hydroelastic responses of a mat-like, rectangular very large floating structure (VLFS) edged with a pair of horizontal/inclined perforated anti-motion plates in the context of the direct coupling method. The updated Lagrangian formulae are applied to establish the equilibrium equations of the VLFS and the total potential formula is employed for fluids in the numerical model including the viscous effect of the perforated plates through the Darcy's law. The hybrid finite element-boundary element (FE-BE) method is implemented to determine the response reduction of VLFS with attached perforated plates under various oblique incident waves. Also, the numerical solutions are validated against a series of experimental tests. The effectiveness of the attached perforated plates in reducing the deflections of the VLFS can be significantly improved by selecting the proper design parameters such as the porous parameter, submergence depth, plate width and inclination angle for the given sea conditions.

  6. Simulation on Natural Convection of a Nanofluid along an Isothermal Inclined Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Asish

    2017-08-01

    A numerical algorithm is presented for studying laminar natural convection flow of a nanofluid along an isothermal inclined plate. By means of similarity transformation, the original nonlinear partial differential equations of flow are transformed to a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Subsequently they are reduced to a first order system and integrated using Newton Raphson and adaptive Runge-Kutta methods. The computer codes are developed for this numerical analysis in Matlab environment. Dimensionless velocity, temperature profiles and nanoparticle concentration for various angles of inclination are illustrated graphically. The effects of Prandtl number, Brownian motion parameter and thermophoresis parameter on Nusselt number are also discussed. The results of the present simulation are then compared with previous one available in literature with good agreement.

  7. Gas-liquid flow splitting in T-junction with inclined lateral arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Le-le; Liu, Shuo; Li, Hua; Zhang, Jian; Wu, Ying-xiang; Xu, Jing-yu

    2018-02-01

    This paper studies the gas-liquid flow splitting in T-junction with inclined lateral arm. The separation mechanism of the T-junction is related to the pressure distribution in the T-junction. It is shown that the separation efficiency strongly depends on the inclination angle, when the angle ranges from 0° to 30°, while not so strongly for angles in the range from 30° to 90° Increasing the number of connecting tubes is helpful for the gas-liquid separation, and under the present test conditions, with four connecting tubes, a good separation performance can be achieved. Accordingly, a multi-tube Y-junction separator with four connecting tubes is designed for the experimental investigation. A good agreement between the simulated and measured data shows that there is an optimal split ratio to achieve the best performance for the multi-tube Y-junction separator.

  8. Role of edge inclination in an optical microdisk resonator for label-free sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, Davide; Ramiro-Manzano, Fernando; Rebollo, Francisco Javier Aparicio; Ghulinyan, Mher; Pucker, Georg; Pavesi, Lorenzo

    2015-02-26

    In this paper, we report on the measurement and modeling of enhanced optical refractometric sensors based on whispering gallery modes. The devices under test are optical microresonators made of silicon nitride on silicon oxide, which differ in their sidewall inclination angle. In our approach, these microresonators are vertically coupled to a buried waveguide with the aim of creating integrated and cost-effective devices. Device modeling shows that the optimization of the device is a delicate balance of the resonance quality factor and evanescent field overlap with the surrounding environment to analyze. By numerical simulations, we show that the microdisk thickness is critical to yield a high figure of merit for the sensor and that edge inclination should be kept as high as possible. We also show that bulk-sensing figures of merit as high as 1600 RIU(-1) (refractive index unit) are feasible.

  9. Ion feedback suppression using inclined MCP holes in a 'single-MCP+micromegas+pads' detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'vra, J.; Sumiyoshi, T.

    2005-01-01

    We show that the ion backflow to photocathode can be completely suppressed if one uses inclined MCP holes in the presence of a magnetic field. The inclined hole angles are chosen to be aligned with the Lorentz electron angle allowing the electron transmission and amplification, while positive ions, traveling along a different angle, are caught on the MCP hole walls. The detector under investigation is a new gaseous detector structure based on a tandem of two parts, a single MCP (microchannel plate), a micromegas with pad readout. We are aiming to develop a gaseous photon detector with the Bialkali photocathode, however, one could use some ideas in the paper for other types of detectors

  10. Effects of turbulence and flow inclination on the performance of cup anemometers in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, K.H.; Stefantos, N.C.; Schmidt Paulsen, U.

    2001-01-01

    Four commercial and one research cup anemometers were comparatively tested in a complex terrain site to quantify the effects of turbulence and flow inclination on the wind speed measurements. The difference of the mean wind speed reading between the anemometers was as much as 2% for wind directions...... where the mean flow was horizontal. This difference was large enough to be attributed to the well-known overspeeding effect related to the differing distance constant (ranging from 1.7 to 5 m) of the cup anemometers. The application of a theoretical model of the cup-anemometer behaviour in a three...... to correct the 10-min mean wind speed. The necessary information for the correction is the turbulent intensity (preferably in the vertical direction) and the mean flow inclination. For demanding applications, the angular response parameters of cup anemometers should be taken into account. The incorporation...

  11. Magnetohydrodynamics Carreau nanofluid flow over an inclined convective heated stretching cylinder with Joule heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad Khan

    Full Text Available Current work highlights the computational aspects of MHD Carreau nanofluid flow over an inclined stretching cylinder with convective boundary conditions and Joule heating. The mathematical modeling of physical problem yields nonlinear set of partial differential equations. A suitable scaling group of variables is employed on modeled equations to convert them into non-dimensional form. The integration scheme Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg on the behalf of shooting technique is utilized to solve attained set of equations. The interesting aspects of physical problem (linear momentum, energy and nanoparticles concentration are elaborated under the different parametric conditions through graphical and tabular manners. Additionally, the quantities (local skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt number and local Sherwood number which are responsible to dig out the physical phenomena in the vicinity of stretched surface are computed and delineated by varying controlling flow parameters. Keywords: MHD, Carreau nanofluid, Inclined stretching cylinder, Joule heating, Shooting technique

  12. Experimental study on pool boiling critical heat flux in inclined confined spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Qinglong; Chen Jun; Zhao Hua

    2011-01-01

    CHF experiments in confined spaces are performed for near-saturated demineralized water at atmospheric pressure with gap sizes of 3 mm, 5 mm and 8 mm, and inclination angles of 0°, 5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, and 30°. Analysis of CHF data shows that CHF decreases as the inclination angle changes from 300 to full downward facing position (0°) and increases as the gap size varies from 3 mm to 8 mm. In the present study, certain transition angles are also identified for different gap sizes. For the gap sizes of 3 mm, 5 mm and 8 mm, the transition angles are found to be 10°, 15° and 20°, respectively. (authors)

  13. Robotic complex for the development of thick steeply-inclined coal seams and ore deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitenko, M. S.; Malakhov, Yu V.; Neogi, Biswarup; Chakraborty, Pritam; Banerjee, Dipesu

    2017-09-01

    Proposal for the formulation of robotic complexes for steeply inclined coal seams as a basis of the supportive-enclosing walking module and power support with a controlled outlet for mining industry has been represented in this literature. In mining industry, the available resource base reserves and mineral deposits are concentrated deep down the earth crust leading towards a complicated geological condition i.e. abrupt ore bedding and steeply inclined strata with the high gas content and fire hazard of thick coal stratum, heading against an unfavorable and sometimes human labor life risk during subversive mining. Prevailing towards the development of effective robotic complexes based on the means of “unmanned technologies” for extraction of minerals from hard-to-reach deposits and make sure the safety of underground staff during sublevel mining technology.

  14. Inclinations to Conformity as a Potential Social Limit of Giftedness Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Kočvarová

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of gifted pupils´ conformity, which may form a social barrier to their development during school teaching. The aim of the research is to analyse the inclination to conformity of gifted pupils during the application of differentiated enriching curriculum. The research sample consists of 86 diagnosed gifted pupils from the level of education ISCED2. The research instrument is semantically differentially based on the principle of the tool ATER. The study results suggest non-conformal inclinations of gifted pupils, which are subjectively declared in relation to the five statements describing work on a task during the application of differentiated enriching curriculum in school lessons.

  15. A fracture mechanics analysis of bonded repaired skin/stiffener structures with inclined central crack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Ki Hyun; Yang, Won Ho; Kim, Cheol; Heo, Sung Pil; Ko, Myung Hoon

    2001-01-01

    Composite patch repair of cracked aircraft structures has been accepted as one of improving fatigue life and attaining better structural integrity. Analysis for the stress intensity factor at the skin/stiffener structure with inclined central crack repaired by composite stiffened panels are developed. A numerical investigation was conducted to characterize the fracture behavior and crack growth behavior. In order to investigate the crack growth direction, Maximum Tangential Stress(MTS) criteria is used. The main objective of this research is the validation of the inclined crack patching design. In this paper, the reduction of stresses intensity factors at the crack-tip and prediction of crack growth direction are determined to evaluate the effects of various non-dimensional design parameter including; composite patch thickness and stiffener distance. The research on cracked structure subjected to mixed mode loading is accomplished and it is evident that more work using different approaches is necessary

  16. Hydrodynamic and thermal mechanisms of filtration combustion inclinational instability based on non-uniform distribution of initial preheating temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yongfang; Shi, Junrui; Xu, Youning; Ma, Rui

    2018-03-01

    Filtration combustion (FC) is one style of porous media combustion with inert matrix, in which the combustion wave front propagates, only downstream or reciprocally. In this paper, we investigate the FC flame front inclinational instability of lean methane/air mixtures flowing through a packed bed as a combustion wave front perturbation of the initial preheating temperature non-uniformity is assumed. The predicted results show that the growth rate of the flame front inclinational angle is proportional to the magnitude of the initial preheating temperature difference. Additionally, depending on gas inlet gas velocity and equivalence ratio, it is demonstrated that increase of gas inlet gas velocity accelerates the FC wave front deformation, and the inclinational instability evolves faster at lower equivalence ratio. The development of the flame front inclinational angle may be regarded as a two-staged evolution, which includes rapid increase, and approaching maximum value of inclinational angle due to the quasi-steady condition of the combustion system. The hydrodynamic and thermal mechanisms of the FC inclinational instability are analyzed. Consequently, the local propagation velocity of the FC wave front is non-uniform to result in the development of inclinational angle at the first stage of rapid increase.

  17. The Effects of Moon’s Uneven Mass Distribution on the Critical Inclinations of a Lunar Orbiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid A. Rahoma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The uneven mass distribution of the Moon highly perturbs the lunar spacecrafts. This uneven mass distribution leads to peculiar dynamical features of the lunar orbiters. The critical inclination is the value of inclination which keeps the deviation of the argument of pericentre from the initial values to be zero. Considerable investigations have been performed for critical inclination when the gravity field is assumed to be symmetric around the equator, namely for oblate gravity field to which Earth’s satellites are most likely to be subjected. But in the case of a lunar orbiter, the gravity field of mass distribution is rather asymmetric, that is, sectorial, and tesseral, harmonic coefficients are big enough so they can’t be neglected. In the present work, the effects of the first sectorial and tesseral harmonic coefficients in addition to the first zonal harmonic coefficients on the critical inclination of a lunar artificial satellite are investigated. The study is carried out using the Hamiltonian framework. The Hamiltonian of the problem is cconstructed and the short periodic terms are eliminated using Delaunay canonical variables. Considering the above perturbations, numerical simulations for a hypothetical lunar orbiter are presented. Finally, this study reveals that the critical inclination is quite different from the critical inclination of traditional sense and/or even has multiple solutions. Consequently, different families of critical inclination are obtained and analyzed.

  18. Woodflour as Reinforcement of Polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cláudio Caraschi

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the filler content and size, as well as accelerated aging on the mechanical properties of polypropylene composites reinforced with woodflour (WF/PP were evaluated. The composites were prepared by the extrusion of polypropylene with woodflour (Pinus elliotti based on following ratios: 15, 25 and 40 wt% with two different granulometries. The specimens were injection molded according to ASTM standards. The composite properties did not show significant differences as a function of the filler granulometry. We also observed that by increasing the filler content, both the mechanical properties and the melt flow index (MFI decreased, and the elasticity modulus, hardness and density increased. Concerning the accelerated aging, the composite presented a reduction in tensile properties. The results showed that the composite properties are extremely favorable when compared to other commercial systems reinforced by inorganic fillers.

  19. The new Permian-Triassic paleomagnetic pole for the East European Platform corrected for inclination shallowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetisova, A. M.; Veselovskiy, R. V.; Scholze, F.; Balabanov, Yu. P.

    2018-01-01

    The results of detailed paleomagnetic studies in seven Upper Permian and Lower Triassic reference sections of East Europe (Middle Volga and Orenburg region) and Central Germany are presented. For each section, the coefficient of inclination shallowing f (King, 1955) is estimated by the Elongation-Inclination (E-I) method (Tauxe and Kent, 2004) and is found to vary from 0.4 to 0.9. The paleomagnetic directions, corrected for the inclination shallowing, are used to calculate the new Late Permian-Early Triassic paleomagnetic pole for the East European Platform (N = 7, PLat = 52.1°, PLong = 155.8°, A95 = 6.6°). Based on this pole, the geocentric axial dipole hypothesis close to the Paleozoic/Mesozoic boundary is tested by the single plate method. The absence of the statistically significant distinction between the obtained pole and the average Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) paleomagnetic pole of the Siberian Platform and the coeval pole of the North American Platform corrected for the opening of the Atlantic (Shatsillo et al., 2006) is interpreted by us as evidence that 250 Ma the configuration of the magnetic field of the Earth was predominantly dipolar; i.e., the contribution of nondipole components was at most 10% of the main magnetic field. In our opinion, the hypothesis of the nondipolity of the geomagnetic field at the P-Tr boundary, which has been repeatedly discussed in recent decades (Van der Voo and Torsvik, 2001; Bazhenov and Shatsillo, 2010; Veselovskiy and Pavlov, 2006), resulted from disregarding the effect of inclination shallowing in the paleomagnetic determinations from sedimentary rocks of "stable" Europe (the East European platform and West European plate).

  20. Detailed statistical contact angle analyses; "slow moving" drops on inclining silicon-oxide surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, M; Groß, K; Grub, J; Heib, F

    2015-06-01

    Contact angle determination by sessile drop technique is essential to characterise surface properties in science and in industry. Different specific angles can be observed on every solid which are correlated with the advancing or the receding of the triple line. Different procedures and definitions for the determination of specific angles exist which are often not comprehensible or reproducible. Therefore one of the most important things in this area is to build standard, reproducible and valid methods for determining advancing/receding contact angles. This contribution introduces novel techniques to analyse dynamic contact angle measurements (sessile drop) in detail which are applicable for axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric drops. Not only the recently presented fit solution by sigmoid function and the independent analysis of the different parameters (inclination, contact angle, velocity of the triple point) but also the dependent analysis will be firstly explained in detail. These approaches lead to contact angle data and different access on specific contact angles which are independent from "user-skills" and subjectivity of the operator. As example the motion behaviour of droplets on flat silicon-oxide surfaces after different surface treatments is dynamically measured by sessile drop technique when inclining the sample plate. The triple points, the inclination angles, the downhill (advancing motion) and the uphill angles (receding motion) obtained by high-precision drop shape analysis are independently and dependently statistically analysed. Due to the small covered distance for the dependent analysis (contact angle determination. They are characterised by small deviations of the computed values. Additional to the detailed introduction of this novel analytical approaches plus fit solution special motion relations for the drop on inclined surfaces and detailed relations about the reactivity of the freshly cleaned silicon wafer surface resulting in acceleration

  1. Probing Disk Stratification by Combining X-ray and Disk Inclination Data for Taurus-Auriga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arraki, Kenza S.; Daly, B.; Harding, M.; McCleary, J.; Cox, A. W.; Grady, C. A.; Woodgate, B. E.; Hamaguchi, K.; Wisniewski, J. P.; Brakken-Thal, S.; Hilton, G.; Bonfield, D.; Williger, G. M.

    2010-01-01

    Photoelectric neutral Hydrogen absorption, N(H), is a probe of the gas and dust column towards the star. Kastner et al. (2005) found a correlation between N(H) and proplyd aspect ratio in the Orion nebula cluster. We extend this study to Taurus-Auriga by combining publicly available N(H) data from the XMM-Newton Extended Survey of the Taurus molecular cloud (XEST), with published disk inclination data obtained from HST coronagraphic imagery and mm interferometry. Additional inclinations were derived from jet proper motion and radial velocity data obtained from archival HST imagery and the Apache Point Observatory 3.5m telescope's Goddard Fabry-Perot and DIS long-slit spectrograph. Both N(H) and extinction have linear relations with system inclination, where the extinction has a smaller slope than the N(H) trend. Correlations with system inclination demonstrate that the bulk of both N(H) and extinction arise in the disk rather than in remnant envelopes, nearby molecular cloud material, or foreground material. The deficit in extinction compared with predictions for ISM-like gas to dust ratios is consistent with grain growth and settling toward the disk midplane and stratification in disks occurring by 2 Myr. However, the disks remain gas-rich, indicating that giant planet formation is still feasible. We gratefully acknowledge the support of the NASA Motivating Undergraduates in Science and Technology (MUST) Project and of NASA's APRA program under WBS#399131.02.06.02.32. A grant of Director's Discretionary Time funded observing time at the Apache Point Observatory.

  2. Irreversibility analysis for gravity driven non-Newtonian liquid film along an inclined isothermal plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makinde, O.D.

    2005-10-01

    In this paper, the first and second law of thermodynamics are employed in order to study the inherent irreversibility for a gravity driven non-Newtonian Ostwald-de Waele power law liquid film along an inclined isothermal plate. Based on some simplified assumptions, the governing equations are obtained and solved analytically. Expressions for fluid velocity, temperature, volumetric entropy generation numbers, irreversibility distribution ratio and the Bejan number are also determined. (author)

  3. Lower limb joint work and joint work contribution during downhill and uphill walking at different inclinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Nathalie; Strutzenberger, Gerda; Ameshofer, Lisa Maria; Schwameder, Hermann

    2017-08-16

    Work performance and individual joint contribution to total work are important information for creating training protocols, but were not assessed so far for sloped walking. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze lower limb joint work and joint contribution of the hip, knee and ankle to total lower limb work during sloped walking in a healthy population. Eighteen male participants (27.0±4.7yrs, 1.80±0.05m, 74.5±8.2kg) walked on an instrumented ramp at inclination angles of 0°, ±6°, ±12° and ±18° at 1.1m/s. Kinematic and kinetic data were captured using a motion-capture system (Vicon) and two force plates (AMTI). Joint power curves, joint work (positive, negative, absolute) and each joint's contribution to total lower limb work were analyzed throughout the stance phase using an ANOVA with repeated measures. With increasing inclination positive joint work increased for the ankle and hip joint and in total during uphill walking. Negative joint work increased for each joint and in total work during downhill walking. Absolute work was increased during both uphill (all joints) and downhill (ankle & knee) walking. Knee joint contribution to total negative and absolute work increased during downhill walking while hip and ankle contributions decreased. This study identified, that, when switching from level to a 6° and from 6° to a 12° inclination the gain of individual joint work is more pronounced compared to switching from 12° to an 18° inclination. The results might be used for training recommendations and specific training intervention with respect to sloped walking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mitigation of Traffic-Induced Ground Vibration by Inclined Wave Barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Augustesen, Anders Hust

    2009-01-01

    Double sheet pile walls can be used as wave barriers in order to mitigate ground vibrations from railways. The present analysis concerns the efficiency of such barriers, especially with regard to the influence of the barrier inclination and the backfill between the walls. Thus, the screening capa...... of reference following the load. This allows a computation of the steady state response to a harmonically varying point source moving at different speeds typical for a train....

  5. The measurement of inclination on gravity concrete dams using the tiltmeter instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Radovanović Slobodan D.; Brajović Ljiljana M.; Pavić Maja L.; Đurić Srđan S.; Ranđelović Sanja D.; Milivojević Vladimir J.

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of inclination on gravity concrete dams using the instrument tiltmeter is described and discussed with special reference on obtained results on the dam 'Đerdap 2' acquired in the three years period. Tiltmetar way of operation is presented both through physical principle of vibrating wire sensors and through described design of the instrument. The influence of the temperature on the measurement of the slope is specially emphasized and presented through temperature correction. P...

  6. The Racing-Game Effect: Why Do Video Racing Games Increase Risk-Taking Inclinations?

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Morton, Thomas; Kastenmüller, Andreas; Postmes, Tom; Frey, Dieter; Kubitzki, Jörg; Odenwälder, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    The present studies investigated why video racing games increase players’ risk-taking inclinations. Four studies reveal that playing video racing games increases risk taking in a subsequent simulated road traffic situation, as well as risk-promoting cognitions and emotions, blood pressure,sensation seeking, and attitudes toward reckless driving. Study 1 ruled out the role of experimental demand in creating such effects. Studies 2 and 3 showed that the effect of playing video racing games on r...

  7. Flow behaviour and local concentration of coarse particles-water mixture in inclined pipes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlasák, Pavel; Chára, Zdeněk; Konfršt, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 2 (2017), s. 183-191 ISSN 0042-790X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP105/10/1574 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : coarse particle mixture * concentration distribution * effect of pipe inclination * gamma-ray radiometry * Hydraulic conveying * mixture flow behaviour Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 1.654, year: 2016

  8. Influence of Initial Inclined Surface Crack on Estimated Residual Fatigue Lifetime of Railway Axle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Náhlík, Luboš; Pokorný, Pavel; Ševčík, Martin; Hutař, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2016), č. článku 1640007. ISSN 1756-9737. [FDM 2016 - International Conference on Fracture and Damage Mechanics /15./. Alicante, 14.09.2016-16.09.2016] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015069; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : inclined crack * railway axle * residual fatigue lifetime * fatigue crack propagation Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  9. Role of Edge Inclination in an Optical Microdisk Resonator for Label-Free Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Gandolfi, Davide; Ramiro-Manzano, Fernando; Rebollo, Francisco Javier Aparicio; Ghulinyan, Mher; Pucker, Georg; Pavesi, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the measurement and modeling of enhanced optical refractometric sensors based on whispering gallery modes. The devices under test are optical microresonators made of silicon nitride on silicon oxide, which differ in their sidewall inclination angle. In our approach, these microresonators are vertically coupled to a buried waveguide with the aim of creating integrated and cost-effective devices. Device modeling shows that the optimization of the devic...

  10. Hydrodynamics of single- and two-phase flow in inclined rod arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todreas, N.E.

    1984-01-01

    Required inputs for thermal-hydraulic codes are constitutive relations for fluid-solid flow resistance, in single-phase flow, and interfacial momentum exchange (relative phase motion), in two-phase flow. An inclined rod array air-water experiment was constructed to study the hydrodynamics of multidimensional porous medium flow in rod arrays. Velocities, pressures, bubble distributions, and void fractions were measured in inline and rotational square rod arrays of P/d = 1.5, at 0, 30, 45, and 90 degree inclinations to the vertical flow direction. Constitutive models for single-phase flow resistance are reviewed, new comprehensive models developed, and an assessment with previously published and new data made. The principle of superimposing one-dimensional correlations proves successful for turbulent single-phase inclined flow. For bubbly two-phase yawed flow through incline rod arrays a new flow separation phenomena was observed and modeled. Bubbles of diameters significantly smaller than the rod diameter travel along the rod axis, while larger diameter bubbles move through the rod array gaps. The outcome is a flow separation not predictable with current interfacial momentum exchange models. This phenomenon was not observed in rotated square rod arrays. Current interfacial momentum exchange models were confirmed for this rod arrangement. Models for the two phase flow resistance multiplier for cross flow were reviewed and compared with data from cross and yawed flow rod arrays. Both drag and lift components of the multiplier were well predicted by the homogenous model. Other models reviewed overpredicted the data by a factor of two

  11. PLANETESIMAL ACCRETION IN BINARY SYSTEMS: ROLE OF THE COMPANION'S ORBITAL INCLINATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Jiwei; Zhou Jilin

    2009-01-01

    Recent observations show that planets can reside in close binary systems with stellar separation of only ∼20 AU. However, planet formation in such close binary systems is a challenge to current theory. One of the major theoretical problems occurs in the intermediate stage-planetesimals accretion into planetary embryos-during which the companion's perturbations can stir up the relative velocities (utriV) of planetesimals and thus slow down or even cease their growth. Recent studies have shown that conditions could be even worse for accretion if the gas-disk evolution was included. However, all previous studies assumed a two-dimensional disk and a coplanar binary orbit. Extending previous studies by including a three-dimensional gas disk and an inclined binary orbit with small relative inclination of i B = 0. 0 1-5 0 , we numerically investigate the conditions for planetesimal accretion at 1-2 AU, an extension of the habitable zone (∼1-1.3 AU), around α Centauri A in this paper. Inclusion of the binary inclination leads to the following: (1) differential orbital phasing is realized in the three-dimensional space, and thus different-sized bodies are separated from each other, (2) total impact rate is lower, and impacts mainly occur between similar-sized bodies, (3) accretion is more favored, but the balance between accretion and erosion remains uncertain, and the 'possible accretion region' extends up to 2 AU when assuming an optimistic Q* (critical specific energy that leads to catastrophic fragmentation), and (4) impact velocities (utriV) are significantly reduced but still much larger than their escape velocities, which infers that planetesimals grow by means of type II runaway mode. As a conclusion, the inclusion of a small binary inclination is a promising mechanism that favors accretion, opening a possibility that planet formation in close binary systems can go through the difficult stage of planetesimals accretion into planetary embryos.

  12. On Leak Localization in the Main Branched and Simple Inclined Gas Pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    T. Davitashvili; G. Gubelidze

    2013-01-01

    In this paper two mathematical models for definition of gas accidental escape localization in the gas pipelines are suggested. The first model was created for leak localization in the horizontal branched pipeline and second one for leak detection in inclined section of the main gas pipeline. The algorithm of leak localization in the branched pipeline did not demand on knowledge of corresponding initial hydraulic parameters at entrance and ending points of each sections of pipeline. For detect...

  13. Dynamic interaction of monowheel inclined vehicle-vibration platform coupled system with quadratic and cubic nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shihua; Song, Guiqiu; Sun, Maojun; Ren, Zhaohui; Wen, Bangchun

    2018-01-01

    In order to analyze the nonlinear dynamics and stability of a novel design for the monowheel inclined vehicle-vibration platform coupled system (MIV-VPCS) with intermediate nonlinearity support subjected to a harmonic excitation, a multi-degree of freedom lumped parameter dynamic model taking into account the dynamic interaction of the MIV-VPCS with quadratic and cubic nonlinearities is presented. The dynamical equations of the coupled system are derived by applying the displacement relationship, interaction force relationship at the contact position and Lagrange's equation, which are further discretized into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations with coupled terms by Galerkin's truncation. Based on the mathematical model, the coupled multi-body nonlinear dynamics of the vibration system is investigated by numerical method, and the parameters influences of excitation amplitude, mass ratio and inclined angle on the dynamic characteristics are precisely analyzed and discussed by bifurcation diagram, Largest Lyapunov exponent and 3-D frequency spectrum. Depending on different ranges of system parameters, the results show that the different motions and jump discontinuity appear, and the coupled system enters into chaotic behavior through different routes (period-doubling bifurcation, inverse period-doubling bifurcation, saddle-node bifurcation and Hopf bifurcation), which are strongly attributed to the dynamic interaction of the MIV-VPCS. The decreasing excitation amplitude and inclined angle could reduce the higher order bifurcations, and effectively control the complicated nonlinear dynamic behaviors under the perturbation of low rotational speed. The first bifurcation and chaotic motion occur at lower value of inclined angle, and the chaotic behavior lasts for larger intervals with higher rotational speed. The investigation results could provide a better understanding of the nonlinear dynamic behaviors for the dynamic interaction of the MIV-VPCS.

  14. A MULTIRESOLUTION METHOD FOR THE SIMULATION OF SEDIMENTATION IN INCLINED CHANNELS

    OpenAIRE

    Buerger, Raimund; Ruiz-Baier, Ricardo; Schneider, Kai; Torres, Hector

    2012-01-01

    An adaptive multiresolution scheme is proposed for the numerical solution of a spatially two-dimensional model of sedimentation of suspensions of small solid particles dispersed in a viscous fluid. This model consists in a version of the Stokes equations for incompressible fluid flow coupled with a hyperbolic conservation law for the local solids concentration. We study the process in an inclined, rectangular closed vessel, a configuration that gives rise a well-known increase of settling rat...

  15. Stresses generated by two zygomatic implant placement techniques associated with conventional inclined anterior implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo H.T. Almeida

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To make a comparative evaluation, by means of the finite element method, of the stress generated on supporting tissues and prosthetic system components, using zygomatic implants with the exteriorized and extramaxillary techniques, and different placement positions, associated either with inclined anterior implants, or those without inclination. Materials and methods: Eight (8 tridimensional models were created to represent the clinical situations being researched, using the dataset of scanned images of an edentulous model. The implants and prosthetic components were photographed on millimeter paper and inserted into Rhinoceros 3D modeling computer software. From the measurements made on the image, the virtual models were made. The application force was distributed on the occlusal surface of the working side of the left maxillary first molar, first and second premolars, and incisal regions of the central incisor, simulating the occlusal load during mastication, in a total of 150 N. Results: The extramaxillary technique presented considerable variation in increased tension on the prosthesis screws and bone tissue. In the exteriorized technique, the highest tension values occurred in the region of the ridge, and the lowest, on the zygomatic process; the absence of cantilever reduced the stress on bone tissue in almost all regions. Conclusion: The exteriorized technique was shown to be more favorable to the distribution of stresses on the micro-unit screws and bone tissue, with the model with zygomatic implant placed in the region of the first molar and inclined anterior implant presenting the best results. Keywords: Zygomatic implants, Atrophic maxilla, Finite element analysis, Cantilever, Inclined implant

  16. Influence of implant inclination associated with mandibular class I removable partial denture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas Santos, Ciandrus Moraes; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza; Verri, Fellippo Ramos; de Moraes, Sandra Lúcia Dantas; Falcón-Antenucci, Rosse Mary

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to use two-dimensional finite element method to evaluate the displacement and stress distribution transmitted by a distal extension removable partial denture (DERPD) associated with an implant placed at different inclinations (0, 5, 15, and 30 degrees) in the second molar region of the edentulous mandible ridge. Six hemimandibular models were created: model A, only with the presence of the natural tooth 33; model B, similar to model A, with the presence of a conventional DERPD replacing the missing teeth; model C, similar to the previous model, with a straight implant (0 degrees) in the distal region of the ridge, under the denture base; model D, similar to model C, with the implant angled at 5 degrees in the mesial direction; model E, similar to model C, with the implant angled at 15 degrees in the mesial direction; and model F, similar to ME, with the implant angled at 30 degrees in the mesial direction. The models were created with the use of the AutoCAD 2000 program (Autodesk, Inc, San Rafael, CA) and processed for finite element analysis by the ANSYS 8.0 program (Swanson Analysis Systems, Houston, PA). The force applied was vertical of 50 N on each cusp tip. The results showed that the introduction of the RPD overloaded the supporting structures of the RPD and that the introduction of the implant helped to relieve the stresses of the mucosa alveolar, cortical bone, and trabecular bone. The best stress distribution occurred in model D with the implant angled at 5 degrees. The use of an implant as a support decreased the displacement of alveolar mucosa for all inclinations simulated. The stress distribution transmitted by the DERPD to the supporting structures was improved by the use of straight or slightly inclined implants. According to the displacement analysis and von Mises stress, it could be expected that straight or slightly inclined implants do not represent biomechanical risks to use.

  17. Changing predictions, stable recognition: Children’s representations of downward incline motion

    OpenAIRE

    Hast, Michael; Howe, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Various studies to-date have demonstrated children hold ill-conceived expressed beliefs about the physical world such as that one ball will fall faster than another because it is heavier. At the same time they also demonstrate accurate recognition of dynamic events. How these representations relate is still unresolved. This study examined 5- to 11-year-olds’ (N = 130) predictions and recognition of motion down inclines. Predictions were typically in error, matching previous work, but children...

  18. Carbon fiber reinforced asphalt concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahromi, Saeed G.

    2008-01-01

    Fibers are often used in the manufacture of other materials. For many years, they have been utilized extensively in numerous applications in civil engineering. Fiber-reinforcement refers to incorporating materials with desired properties within some other materials lacking those properties. Use of fibers is not a new phenomenon, as the technique of fiber-reinforced bitumen began early as 1950. In all industrialized countries today, nearly all concretes used in construction are reinforced. A multitude of fibers and fiber materials are being introduced in the market regularly. The present paper presents characteristics and properties of carbon fiber-reinforced asphalt mixtures, which improve the performance of pavements. To evaluate the effect of fiber contents on bituminous mixtures, laboratory investigations were carried out on the samples with and without fibers. During the course of this study, various tests were undertaken, applying Marshall Test indirect tensile test, creep test and resistance to fatigue cracking by using repeated load indirect tensile test. Carbon fiber exhibited consistency in results and as such it was observed that the addition of fiber does affect the properties of bituminous mixtures, i.e. an increase in its stability and decrease in the flow value as well as an increase in voids in the mix. Results indicate that fibers have the potential to resist structural distress in pavement, in the wake of growing traffic loads and thus improve fatigue by increasing resistance to cracks or permanent deformation. On the whole, the results show that the addition of carbon fiber will improve some of the mechanical properties like fatigue and deformation in the flexible pavement. (author)

  19. FRP reinforcement of timber structures

    OpenAIRE

    Schober, Kay-Uwe; Harte, Annette M.; Kliger, Robert; Jockwer, Robert; Xu, Qingfeng; Chen, Jian-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Timber engineering has advanced over recent decades to offer an alternative to traditional materials and methods. The bonding of fibre reinforced plastics (FRP) with adhesives to timber structures for repair and strengthening has many advantages. However, the lack of established design rules has strongly restrained the use of FRP strengthening in many situations, where these could be a preferable option to most traditional techniques. A significant body of research has been carried out in rec...

  20. Inclination towards research and the pursuit of a research career among medical students: an international cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Tam Cam; Ng, Sheryl; Chen, Cynthia; Yong, Sook Kwin; Koh, Gerald C H; Tan, Say Beng; Malhotra, Rahul; Altermatt, Fernando; Seim, Arnfinn; Biderman, Aya; Woolley, Torres; Østbye, Truls

    2018-05-02

    Involvement of clinicians in biomedical research is imperative for the future of healthcare. Several factors influence clinicians' inclination towards research: the medical school experience, exposure to research article reading and writing, and knowledge of research. This cohort study follows up medical students at time of graduation to explore changes in their inclination towards research and pursuing a research career compared to their inclination at time of entry into medical school. Students from medical schools in six different countries were enrolled in their first year of school and followed-up upon graduation in their final year. Students answered the same self-administered questionnaire at both time points. Changes in inclination towards research and pursuing a research career were assessed. Factors correlated with these changes were analysed. Of the 777 medical students who responded to the study questionnaire at entry into medical school, 332 (42.7%) completed the follow-up survey. Among these 332 students, there was no significant increase in inclination towards research or pursuing a research career over the course of their medical schooling. Students from a United States based school, in contrast to those from schools other countries, were more likely to report having research role models to guide them (51.5% vs. 0%-26.4%) and to have published in a peer-reviewed journal (75.7% vs. 8.9%-45%). Absence of a role model was significantly associated with a decrease in inclination towards research, while an increased desire to learn more about statistics was significantly associated with an increase in inclination towards pursuing a research career. Most medical students did not experience changes in their inclination towards research or pursuing a research career over the course of their medical schooling. Factors that increased their inclination to undertaking research or pursuing a research career were availability of a good role model, and a good

  1. Linear and Nonlinear Gait Features in Older Adults Walking on Inclined Surfaces at Different Speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Marcus Fraga; Rodrigues, Fábio Barbosa; de Sá E Souza, Gustavo Souto; Magnani, Rina Márcia; Lehnen, Georgia Cristina; Andrade, Adriano O

    2017-06-01

    This study evaluated linear and nonlinear gait features in healthy older adults walking on inclined surfaces at different speeds. Thirty-seven active older adults (experimental group) and fifty young adults (control group) walked on a treadmill at 100% and ±20% of their preferred walking speed for 4 min under horizontal (0%), upward (UP) (+8%), and downward (DOWN) (-8%) conditions. Linear gait variability was assessed using the average standard deviation of trunk acceleration between strides (VAR). Gait stability was assessed using the margin of stability (MoS). Nonlinear gait features were assessed by using the maximum Lyapunov exponent, as a measure of local dynamic stability (LDS), and sample entropy (SEn), as a measure of regularity. VAR increased for all conditions, but the interaction effects between treadmill inclination and age, and speed and age were higher for young adults. DOWN conditions showed the lowest stability in the medial-lateral MoS, but not in LDS. LDS was smaller in UP conditions. However, there were no effects of age for either MoS or LDS. The values of SEn decreased almost linearly from the DOWN to the UP conditions, with significant interaction effects of age for anterior-posterior SEn. The overall results supported the hypothesis that inclined surfaces modulate nonlinear gait features and alter linear gait variability, particularly in UP conditions, but there were no significant effects of age for active older adults.

  2. Motor unit recruitment patterns 1: responses to changes in locomotor velocity and incline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson-Tole, Emma F; Wakeling, James M

    2008-06-01

    Mammalian skeletal muscles are composed of a mixture of motor unit types, which contribute a range of mechanical and physiological properties to the muscle. For a muscle to effectively contribute to smooth, co-ordinated movement it must activate an appropriate number and combination of motor units to generate the required force over a suitable time period. Much evidence exists indicating that motor units are activated in an orderly fashion, from the slowest through to the fastest. A growing body of evidence, however, indicates that such a recruitment strategy does not always hold true. Here we investigate how motor unit recruitment patterns were influenced by changes in locomotor velocity and incline. Kinematics data and myoelectric signals were collected from three rat ankle extensor muscles during running on a treadmill at nine velocity and incline combinations. Wavelet and principal component analysis were used to simultaneously decompose the signals into time and frequency space. The relative frequency components of the signals were quantified during 20 time windows of a stride from each locomotor condition. Differences in signal frequency components existed between muscles and locomotor conditions. Faster locomotor velocities led to a relative increase in high frequency components, whereas greater inclines led to a relative increase in the low frequency components. These data were interpreted as representing changes in motor unit recruitment patterns in response to changes in the locomotor demand. Motor units were not always recruited in an orderly manner, indicating that recruitment is a multi-factorial phenomenon that is not yet fully understood.

  3. Planet Formation in Disks with Inclined Binary Companions: Can Primordial Spin-Orbit Misalignment be Produced?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanazzi, J. J.; Lai, Dong

    2018-04-01

    Many hot Jupiter (HJ) systems have been observed to have their stellar spin axis misaligned with the planet's orbital angular momentum axis. The origin of this spin-orbit misalignment and the formation mechanism of HJs remain poorly understood. A number of recent works have suggested that gravitational interactions between host stars, protoplanetary disks, and inclined binary companions may tilt the stellar spin axis with respect to the disk's angular angular momentum axis, producing planetary systems with misaligned orbits. These previous works considered idealized disk evolution models and neglected the gravitational influence of newly formed planets. In this paper, we explore how disk photoevaporation and planet formation and migration affect the inclination evolution of planet-star-disk-binary systems. We take into account planet-disk interactions and the gravitational spin-orbit coupling between the host star and the planet. We find that the rapid depletion of the inner disk via photoevaporation reduces the excitation of stellar obliquities. Depending on the formation and migration history of HJs, the spin-orbit coupling between the star and the planet may reduces and even completely suppress the excitation of stellar obliquities. Our work constrains the formation/migration history of HJs. On the other hand, planetary systems with "cold" Jupiters or close-in super-earths may experience excitation of stellar obliquities in the presence of distant inclined companions.

  4. Students’ understanding of forces: Force diagrams on horizontal and inclined plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirait, J.; Hamdani; Mursyid, S.

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to analyse students’ difficulties in understanding force diagrams on horizontal surfaces and inclined planes. Physics education students (pre-service physics teachers) of Tanjungpura University, who had completed a Basic Physics course, took a Force concept test which has six questions covering three concepts: an object at rest, an object moving at constant speed, and an object moving at constant acceleration both on a horizontal surface and on an inclined plane. The test is in a multiple-choice format. It examines the ability of students to select appropriate force diagrams depending on the context. The results show that 44% of students have difficulties in solving the test (these students only could solve one or two items out of six items). About 50% of students faced difficulties finding the correct diagram of an object when it has constant speed and acceleration in both contexts. In general, students could only correctly identify 48% of the force diagrams on the test. The most difficult task for the students in terms was identifying the force diagram representing forces exerted on an object on in an inclined plane.

  5. Performance of Infinitely Wide Parabolic and Inclined Slider Bearings Lubricated with Couple Stress or Magnetic Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladeinde, Mobolaji Humphrey; Akpobi, John Ajokpaoghene

    2011-10-01

    The hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) lubrication problem of infinitely wide inclined and parabolic slider bearings is solved numerically using the finite element method. The bearing configurations are discretized into three-node isoparametric quadratic elements. Stiffness integrals obtained from the weak form of the governing equations are solved using Gauss quadrature to obtain a finite number of stiffness matrices. The global system of equations obtained from enforcing nodal continuity of pressure for the bearings are solved using the Gauss-Seidel iterative scheme with a convergence criterion of 10-10. Numerical computations reveal that, when compared for similar profile and couple stress parameters, greater pressure builds up in a parabolic slider compared to an inclined slider, indicating a greater wedge effect in the parabolic slider. The parabolic slider bearing is also shown to develop a greater load capacity when lubricated with magnetic fluids. The superior performance of parabolic slider bearing is more pronounced at greater Hartmann numbers for identical bearing structural parameters. It is also shown that when load carrying capacity is the yardstick for comparison, the parabolic slider bearings are superior to the inclined bearings when lubricated with couple stress or magnetic lubricants.

  6. PLANET FORMATION IN HIGHLY INCLINED BINARY SYSTEMS. I. PLANETESIMALS JUMP INWARD AND PILE UP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Jiwei; Zhou Jilin; Payne, Matthew J.; Ge Jian; Thebault, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Most detected planet-bearing binaries are in wide orbits, for which a high inclination, i B , between the binary orbital plane and the plane of the planetary disk around the primary is likely to be common. In this paper, we investigate the intermediate stages-from planetesimals to planetary embryos/cores-of planet formation in such highly inclined cases. Our focus is on the effects of gas drag on the planetesimals' orbital evolution, in particular on the evolution of the planetesimals' semimajor axis distribution and their mutual relative velocities. We first demonstrate that a non-evolving axisymmetric disk model is a good approximation for studying the effects of gas drag on a planetesimal in the highly inclined case (30 deg. B B . For both regimes, a robust outcome over a wide range of parameters is that planetesimals migrate/jump inward and pile up, leading to a severely truncated and dense planetesimal disk around the primary. In this compact and dense disk, collision rates are high but relative velocities are low, providing conditions that are favorable for planetesimal growth and potentially allow for the subsequent formation of planets.

  7. The Relationship Between KBO Colors and Kuiper-belt Plane Inclination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, J. F.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Elliot, J. L.

    2005-08-01

    The colors of Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) can indicate different compositions, environmental conditions, or formation characteristics within the Kuiper belt. Photometric color observations of these objects, combined with dynamical information, can provide insight into their composition, the extent to which space-weathering or impact gardening have played a role in surface modification, and the processes at work during the formation of our solar system. Data from the Deep Ecliptic Survey (DES; Millis et al., 2002, AJ, 123, 2083) have been used to determine the plane of the Kuiper belt, identifying "core" and "halo" populations with respect to this plane (Elliot et al. 2005, AJ, 129, 1117). Gulbis et al. (2005, Icarus, submitted) found the colors of the core KBOs, those having inclinations within approximately 4.6 degrees of the Kuiper-belt plane, to be primarily red, unlike the halo objects. We have combined newly obtained Sloan g', r', and i' observations from the 6.5-m Clay telescope at Las Campanas Observatory of 12 KBOs with previously published data to examine the transition between these populations as a function of color. By comparing the colors of objects as a function of inclination, we can establish trends distinguishing the core and halo populations. For inclination bins containing equal numbers of KBOs, we find that the percentage of red objects (B-R > median B-R of the sample) decreases in a smooth, but nonlinear fashion. This research is partially supported by an MIT fellowship, an NSF GSRF and NSF grant AST0406493.

  8. Influence of inclination angles on intra- and inter-limb load-sharing during uphill walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Shih-Wun; Leu, Tsai-Hsueh; Li, Jia-Da; Wang, Ting-Ming; Ho, Wei-Ping; Lu, Tung-Wu

    2014-01-01

    Uphill walking is an inevitable part of daily living, placing more challenges on the locomotor system with greater risk of falls than level walking does. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of inclination angles on the inter-joint and inter-limb load-sharing during uphill walking in terms of total support moment and contributions of individual joint moments to the total support moment. Fifteen young adults walked up walkways with 0°, 5°, 10° and 15° of slope while kinematic and kinetic data were collected and analyzed. With increasing inclination angles, the first peak of the total support moment was increased with unaltered individual joint contributions, suggesting an unaltered inter-joint control pattern in the leading limb to meet the increased demands. The second peak of the total support moment remained unchanged with increasing inclination angles primarily through a compensatory redistribution of the hip and knee moments. During DLS, the leading limb shared the majority of the whole body support moments. The current results reveal basic intra- and inter-limb load-sharing patterns of uphill walking, which will be helpful for a better understanding of the control strategies adopted and for subsequent clinical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Experiment and numerical simulation of bubbly two-phase flow across horizontal and inclined rod bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serizawa, A.; Huda, K.; Yamada, Y.; Kataoka, I.

    1997-01-01

    Experimental and numerical analyses were carried out on vertically upward air-water bubbly two-phase flow behavior in both horizontal and inclined rod bundles with either in-line or staggered array. The inclination angle of the rod bundle varied from 0 to 60 with respect to the horizontal. The measured phase distribution indicated non-uniform characteristics, particularly in the direction of the rod axis when the rods were inclined. The mechanisms for this non-uniform phase distribution is supposed to be due to: (1) Bubble segregation phenomenon which depends on the bubble size and shape: (2) bubble entrainment by the large scale secondary flow induced by the pressure gradient in the horizontal direction which crosses the rod bundle; (3) effects of bubble entrapment by vortices generated in the wake behind the rods which travel upward along the rod axis; and (4) effect of bubble entrainment by local flows sliding up along the front surface of the rods. The liquid velocity and turbulence distributions were also measured and discussed. In these speculations, the mechanisms for bubble bouncing at the curved rod surface and turbulence production induced by a bubble were discussed, based on visual observations. Finally, the bubble behaviors in vertically upward bubbly two-phase flow across horizontal rod bundle were analyzed based on a particle tracking method (one-way coupling). The predicted bubble trajectories clearly indicated the bubble entrapment by vortices in the wake region. (orig.)

  10. Effect of upflow velocity on the performance of an inclined plate membrane bioreactor treating municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanos, P M; Yamamoto, K; Nakajima, F

    2011-01-01

    An inclined plate membrane bioreactor (iPMBR) was introduced to meet the challenge of handling high mixed liquor suspended solids when operating at long sludge retention times. During the first 407 days of operation, the iPMBR was able to rezone more sludge (1.5-10.5 times greater) in its upstream, anoxic tank compared to its downstream, aerobic tank. This could extend membrane filtration by diverting most of the sludge from the aerobic zone. During this period, the upflow velocities through the inclined plates of the anoxic tank ranged from 2.3 x 10(-4) to 7.7 x 10(-4) m/s. After Day 407, the operating conditions were changed to determine whether the iPMBR would fail to create a sludge concentration difference between its two tanks. When the upflow velocity was increased to 1.8 x 10(-3) m/s, the sludge concentration difference between the two zones was removed. This indicated that the upflow velocity had increased sufficiently to overcome the settling velocities of most flocs, resulting in more solids being carried from the anoxic to the aerobic tank. For the configuration of this iPMBR, operating at flow rates where the upflow velocity through the inclined plates was less than 1.0 x 10(-3) m/s would be necessary to keep a significant sludge concentration difference between its two zones.

  11. Thermal Characterisation of Micro Flat Aluminium Heat Pipe Arrays by Varying Working Fluid and Inclination Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghan Huang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A micro heat pipe array is desirable owing to its high heat transfer capacity, compact size, and high surface–volume ratio compared with conventional heat pipes. In this study, micro flat aluminium heat pipe arrays (MF-AHPA were developed and systematically characterised by varying working fluid and inclination angle. Three MF-AHPAs with different working fluids, i.e., acetone, cyclopentane, and n-hexane, were fabricated. The acetone MF-AHPA achieved the best thermal performance. The underlying mechanism is the small flow viscous friction and small shearing force of liquid vapour. Additionally, the experimental results show a strong dependence of MF-AHPAs’ thermal resistance on the orientation due to the gravitational effect on axial liquid distribution. Finally, a criterion is proposed to determine the optimal inclination angle of the MF-AHPA. In the present study, a volumetric fraction (αa,c of 74 ± 7% has been shown to well predict an optimal inclination angle of the MF-AHPAs with various working fluids and heat loads.

  12. Three-dimensional unsteady natural convection and entropy generation in an inclined cubical trapezoidal cavity with

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Kadhim Hussein

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerical computation of unsteady laminar three-dimensional natural convection and entropy generation in an inclined cubical trapezoidal air-filled cavity is performed for the first time in this work. The vertical right and left sidewalls of the cavity are maintained at constant cold temperatures. The lower wall is subjected to a constant hot temperature, while the upper one is considered insulated. Computations are performed for Rayleigh numbers varied as 103 ⩽ Ra ⩽ 105, while the trapezoidal cavity inclination angle is varied as 0° ⩽ Φ ⩽ 180°. Prandtl number is considered constant at Pr = 0.71. Second law of thermodynamics is applied to obtain thermodynamic losses inside the cavity due to both heat transfer and fluid friction irreversibilities. The variation of local and average Nusselt numbers is presented and discussed, while, streamlines, isotherms and entropy contours are presented in both two and three-dimensional pattern. The results show that when the Rayleigh number increases, the flow patterns are changed especially in three-dimensional results and the flow circulation increases. Also, the inclination angle effect on the total entropy generation becomes insignificant when the Rayleigh number is low. Moreover, when the Rayleigh number increases the average Nusselt number increases.

  13. Assessment report on the development of functionally inclined material; Keisha kinosei zairyo no kaihatsu hyoka hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Concerning a project whose aim is to develop heat resistant engine members through the application of the concept of functionally inclined materials, deliberation and assessment are made of the meaning of its implementation, validity of the research program, research achievement, etc. The project deals with a specimen, diameter 150mm or more and thickness 5mm or more, built of a zirconia/stainless steel-based functionally inclined material, and its goal is to develop technologies for optimizing the baking process for the said specimen, baking system and related devices, assessment technique, tribological assessment technique, etc., and it is inferred that these targets are reasonable. As the result of this research, an energy-efficient (power consumption reduced to 1/3 to 1/5) practical rapid sintering system is constructed. Basic data are collected relative to the tribology of the functionally inclined material, and it is proved that it is feasible to use the material for engine members. The process technology, assessment technology, and devices developed under this project are the first in the world, and are highly evaluated. (NEDO)

  14. Heat removal capability of core-catcher with inclined cooling channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Y.; Tahara, M.; Kurita, T.; Hamazaki, R.; Morooka, S.

    2009-01-01

    A core-catcher is one of the mitigation systems that provide functions of molten corium cooling and stabilization during a severe accident. Toshiba has been developing a compact core-catcher to be placed at the lower drywell floor in the containment vessel for the next generation BWR as well as near term ABWR. This paper presents the evaluation of heat removal capability of the core-catcher with inclined cooling channels, our verification status and plan. The heat removal capability of the core-catcher is analyzed by using the newly developed two-phase flow analysis code which incorporates drift flux parameters for inclined channels and the CHF correlation obtained from SULTAN tests. Effects of geometrical parameters such as the inclination and the gap size of the cooling channel on the heat removal capability are also evaluated. These results show that the core-catcher has sufficient capability to cool the molten corium during a severe accident. Based on the analysis, it has been shown that the core-catcher has an efficient capability of heat removal to cool the molten corium. (author)

  15. Modelling and Simulation of Free Floating Pig for Different Pipeline Inclination Angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woldemichael Dereje Engida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a modelling and simulation of free floating pig to determine the flow parameters to avoid pig stalling in pigging operation. A free floating spherical shaped pig was design and equipped with necessary sensors to detect leak along the pipeline. The free floating pig does not have internal or external power supply to navigate through the pipeline. Instead, it is being driven by the flowing medium. In order to avoid stalling of the pig, it is essential to conduct simulation to determine the necessary flow parameters for different inclination angles. Accordingly, a pipeline section with inclination of 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, and 90° were modelled and simulated using ANSYS FLUENT 15.0 with water and oil as working medium. For each case, the minimum velocity required to propel the free floating pig through the inclination were determined. In addition, the trajectory of the free floating pig has been visualized in the simulation.

  16. Heat transfer coefficient in pool boiling for an electrically heated tube at various inclinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmy, A.S.A.; Mariy, A.H.; Mahmoud, S.I.; Ibrahim, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation is carried out study the behaviour of heat transfer in pool boiling from a vertical and inclined heated tube at atmospheric pressure. An imperial correlation joining the different parameters affecting the heat transfer coefficient in pool boiling for an electrically heated tube at various inclinations is developed. Two test sections (zircaloy-4 and stainless steel) of 16 n n outer diameter and 120 nm length are investigated. Four levels of heat flux are used for heating the two lest sections (e.g. 381, 518, 721 and 929 k.watt/n 2). The maximum surface temperature achieved is 146.5 degree c for both materials, and the maximum bulk temperature is 95 degree C. It is found that the average heat transfer coefficient is inversely proportional with heated length l, where it reaches a constant value in the horizontal position. The heat transfer coefficient curves at various inclinations with respect to the heated tube length pass around one point which is defined as limit length

  17. Continuous carbon nanotube reinforced composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ci, L; Suhr, J; Pushparaj, V; Zhang, X; Ajayan, P M

    2008-09-01

    Carbon nanotubes are considered short fibers, and polymer composites with nanotube fillers are always analogues of random, short fiber composites. The real structural carbon fiber composites, on the other hand, always contain carbon fiber reinforcements where fibers run continuously through the composite matrix. With the recent optimization in aligned nanotube growth, samples of nanotubes in macroscopic lengths have become available, and this allows the creation of composites that are similar to the continuous fiber composites with individual nanotubes running continuously through the composite body. This allows the proper utilization of the extreme high modulus and strength predicted for nanotubes in structural composites. Here, we fabricate such continuous nanotube polymer composites with continuous nanotube reinforcements and report that under compressive loadings, the nanotube composites can generate more than an order of magnitude improvement in the longitudinal modulus (up to 3,300%) as well as damping capability (up to 2,100%). It is also observed that composites with a random distribution of nanotubes of same length and similar filler fraction provide three times less effective reinforcement in composites.

  18. Mechanics of fiber reinforced materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huiyu

    This dissertation is dedicated to mechanics of fiber reinforced materials and the woven reinforcement and composed of four parts of research: analytical characterization of the interfaces in laminated composites; micromechanics of braided composites; shear deformation, and Poisson's ratios of woven fabric reinforcements. A new approach to evaluate the mechanical characteristics of interfaces between composite laminae based on a modified laminate theory is proposed. By including an interface as a special lamina termed the "bonding-layer" in the analysis, the mechanical properties of the interfaces are obtained. A numerical illustration is given. For micro-mechanical properties of three-dimensionally braided composite materials, a new method via homogenization theory and incompatible multivariable FEM is developed. Results from the hybrid stress element approach compare more favorably with the experimental data than other existing numerical methods widely used. To evaluate the shearing properties for woven fabrics, a new mechanical model is proposed during the initial slip region. Analytical results show that this model provides better agreement with the experiments for both the initial shear modulus and the slipping angle than the existing models. Finally, another mechanical model for a woven fabric made of extensible yarns is employed to calculate the fabric Poisson's ratios. Theoretical results are compared with the available experimental data. A thorough examination on the influences of various mechanical properties of yarns and structural parameters of fabrics on the Poisson's ratios of a woven fabric is given at the end.

  19. Reinforcement learning in computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, A. V.; Burnaev, E. V.

    2018-04-01

    Nowadays, machine learning has become one of the basic technologies used in solving various computer vision tasks such as feature detection, image segmentation, object recognition and tracking. In many applications, various complex systems such as robots are equipped with visual sensors from which they learn state of surrounding environment by solving corresponding computer vision tasks. Solutions of these tasks are used for making decisions about possible future actions. It is not surprising that when solving computer vision tasks we should take into account special aspects of their subsequent application in model-based predictive control. Reinforcement learning is one of modern machine learning technologies in which learning is carried out through interaction with the environment. In recent years, Reinforcement learning has been used both for solving such applied tasks as processing and analysis of visual information, and for solving specific computer vision problems such as filtering, extracting image features, localizing objects in scenes, and many others. The paper describes shortly the Reinforcement learning technology and its use for solving computer vision problems.

  20. A study of the rates of heat transfer and bubble site density for nucleate boiling on an inclined heating surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonamy, S.E.; Symons, J.G.

    1974-08-01

    Nucleate pool boiling of distilled water from an electrically heated surface at atmospheric pressure is studied for varying heating surface inclinations. The constants of the accepted boiling equation phi = K Tsup(B) and the Rohsenow Correlation Coefficient are found to be dependent on surface orientation. Convection cooling is observed to play a major role in pool boiling phenomena and causes large changes in the heat transfer rates for a given excess of temperature of the heated surface. Active nucleation site density is studied and found to be independent of surface inclination. Empirical relations are presented to provide an understanding of the effects of inclination on other boiling parameters. (author)

  1. Why People with More Emotion Regulation Difficulties Made a More Deontological Judgment: The Role of Deontological Inclinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lisong; Li, Zhongquan; Wu, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Ziyuan

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the key role of emotion in moral judgment, and explored the relationship between emotion regulation and moral judgment. The present study investigated the influence of individual differences in emotion regulation difficulties on moral judgment. Study 1 examined whether individuals with high emotion regulation difficulties made a more deontological judgment. Study 2 explored the underlying mechanism using a process-dissociation approach, examining whether deontological inclinations and utilitarian inclinations separately or jointly accounted for the association. The results indicated that individuals with high emotion regulation difficulties rated the utilitarian actions less morally appropriate, and one's deontological inclinations mediated the association between emotion regulation difficulties and moral judgment.

  2. Performance evaluation and solar radiation capture of optimally inclined box type solar cooker with parallelepiped cooking vessel design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, V.P.; Pal, D.S.; Sumathy, K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimally inclined solar cooker is presented for efficient cooking. • A new parallelepiped shaped cooking vessel for higher solar radiation capture is presented. • Optimum tilt angles of the boosted mirror are computed for maximization of reflected components. • Solar radiation capture ratios show the better cooking performance of inclined cooker. • Standard performance parameters establish the better cooking performance of inclined cooker. - Abstract: An optimally inclined box type solar cooker with single booster mirror is presented along with design and development of a novel parallelepiped shaped cooking vessel design for efficient cooking especially in winter conditions. The main feature of new parallelepiped shaped design is its longer inclined south wall (facing the sun) and a trapezoidal cavity on the vessel lid for greater heat transfer to the food material. The ends of the vessel towards east and west direction are minimized. The cooking performance parameters of proposed inclined cooker coupled with new vessel design were compared with horizontally placed identical cooker of same material and dimensions coupled with conventional cylindrical vessel design during winter month (January) of the year 2010 at Ludhiana climate (30°N 77°E), India. Results showed that the first and the second figures of merit (F 1 and F 2 ) for inclined cooker were 0.16 and 0.54 as compared to 0.14 and 0.43 for horizontally placed cooker. Time taken to boil the water τ boil and standard cooking power P n was 37% less and 40% more respectively in parallelepiped shaped cooking vessel of inclined cooker as compared to conventional cylindrical vessel of horizontally placed cooker. A mathematical model is developed to compute the total solar radiation availability on the absorber plate of inclined as well as horizontal cooker which establishes the better cooking performance of the inclined cooker due to greater width of sun rays intercepting the absorber

  3. Velocity and turbulence measurements of oil-water flow in horizontal and slightly inclined pipes using PIV

    OpenAIRE

    Kumara, W.A.S.; Halvorsen, Britt; Melaaen, Morten Christian

    2009-01-01

    Oil-water flows in horizontal and slightly inclined pipes are investigated using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). PIV offers a powerful non-invasive tool to study such flow fields. The experiments are conducted in a 15 m long, 56 mm diameter, inclinable steel pipe using Exxsol D60 oil (viscosity 1.64 mPa s, density 790 kg/m3) and water (viscosity 1.0 mPa s, density 996 kg/m3) as test fluids. The test pipe inclination is changed in the range from 5° upward to 5° downward. The experiments are ...

  4. Typography of web design

    OpenAIRE

    Uhlířová, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Typography is one of the most important elements of web design and marketing. Good typography makes web design more appealing, which is important for readers in evaluating titles and the quality of text. The aim of this thesis is to provide a characterization of good and bad typography. I will use this characterization to identify modern typographical trends in a digital background....

  5. The Creative Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudess, Jo

    2003-01-01

    This article lists the Web sites of 12 international not-for-profit creativity associations designed to trigger more creative thought and research possibilities. Along with Web addresses, the entries include telephone contact information and a brief description of the organization. (CR)

  6. Mastering Go web services

    CERN Document Server

    Kozyra, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    If you are a web programmer with experience in developing web services and have a rudimentary knowledge of using Go, then this is the book for you. Basic knowledge of Go as well as knowledge of relational databases and non-relational NoSQL datastores is assumed. Some basic concurrency knowledge is also required.

  7. Characterizing web heuristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Menno D.T.; van der Geest, Thea

    2000-01-01

    This article is intended to make Web designers more aware of the qualities of heuristics by presenting a framework for analyzing the characteristics of heuristics. The framework is meant to support Web designers in choosing among alternative heuristics. We hope that better knowledge of the

  8. Web Publishing Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Section 207(f)(2) of the E-Gov Act requires federal agencies to develop an inventory and establish a schedule of information to be published on their Web sites, make those schedules available for public comment. To post the schedules on the web site.

  9. Web Auctions in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Pouloudi; J. Paarlberg; H.W.G.M. van Heck (Eric)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThis paper argues that a better understanding of the business model of web auctions can be reached if we adopt a broader view and provide empirical research from different sites. In this paper the business model of web auctions is refined into four dimensions. These are auction model,

  10. EPA Web Training Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheduled webinars can help you better manage EPA web content. Class topics include Drupal basics, creating different types of pages in the WebCMS such as document pages and forms, using Google Analytics, and best practices for metadata and accessibility.

  11. Sign Language Web Pages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fels, Deborah I.; Richards, Jan; Hardman, Jim; Lee, Daniel G.

    2006-01-01

    The World Wide Web has changed the way people interact. It has also become an important equalizer of information access for many social sectors. However, for many people, including some sign language users, Web accessing can be difficult. For some, it not only presents another barrier to overcome but has left them without cultural equality. The…

  12. A reasonable Semantic Web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hitzler, Pascal; Van Harmelen, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The realization of Semantic Web reasoning is central to substantiating the Semantic Web vision. However, current mainstream research on this topic faces serious challenges, which forces us to question established lines of research and to rethink the underlying approaches. We argue that reasoning for

  13. Web Team Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Jennifer; Felker, Kyle

    2005-01-01

    The dynamic world of the Web has provided libraries with a wealth of opportunities, including new approaches to the provision of information and varied internal staffing structures. The development of self-managed Web teams, endowed with authority and resources, can create an adaptable and responsive culture within libraries. This new working team…

  14. Here be web proxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weaver, Nicholas; Kreibich, Christian; Dam, Martin

    2014-01-01

    ,000 clients that include a novel proxy location technique based on traceroutes of the responses to TCP connection establishment requests, which provides additional clues regarding the purpose of the identified web proxies. Overall, we see 14% of Netalyzr-analyzed clients with results that suggest the presence...... of web proxies....

  15. Web Design Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The web site is a library's most important feature. Patrons use the web site for numerous functions, such as renewing materials, placing holds, requesting information, and accessing databases. The homepage is the place they turn to look up the hours, branch locations, policies, and events. Whether users are at work, at home, in a building, or on…

  16. Kinematic control of aerodynamic forces on an inclined flapping wing with asymmetric strokes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyungmin; Choi, Haecheon

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we conduct an experiment using a one-paired dynamically scaled model of an insect wing, to investigate how asymmetric strokes with different wing kinematic parameters are used to control the aerodynamics of a dragonfly-like inclined flapping wing in still fluid. The kinematic parameters considered are the angles of attack during the mid-downstroke (α md ) and mid-upstroke (α mu ), and the duration (Δτ) and time of initiation (τ p ) of the pitching rotation. The present dragonfly-like inclined flapping wing has the aerodynamic mechanism of unsteady force generation similar to those of other insect wings in a horizontal stroke plane, but the detailed effect of the wing kinematics on the force control is different due to the asymmetric use of the angle of attack during the up- and downstrokes. For example, high α md and low α mu produces larger vertical force with less aerodynamic power, and low α md and high α mu is recommended for horizontal force (thrust) production. The pitching rotation also affects the aerodynamics of a flapping wing, but its dynamic rotational effect is much weaker than the effect from the kinematic change in the angle of attack caused by the pitching rotation. Thus, the influences of the duration and timing of pitching rotation for the present inclined flapping wing are found to be very different from those for a horizontal flapping wing. That is, for the inclined flapping motion, the advanced and delayed rotations produce smaller vertical forces than the symmetric one and the effect of pitching duration is very small. On the other hand, for a specific range of pitching rotation timing, delayed rotation requires less aerodynamic power than the symmetric rotation. As for the horizontal force, delayed rotation with low α md and high α mu is recommended for long-duration flight owing to its high efficiency, and advanced rotation should be employed for hovering flight for nearly zero horizontal force. The present

  17. Web Server Embedded System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adharul Muttaqin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Embedded sistem saat ini menjadi perhatian khusus pada teknologi komputer, beberapa sistem operasi linux dan web server yang beraneka ragam juga sudah dipersiapkan untuk mendukung sistem embedded, salah satu aplikasi yang dapat digunakan dalam operasi pada sistem embedded adalah web server. Pemilihan web server pada lingkungan embedded saat ini masih jarang dilakukan, oleh karena itu penelitian ini dilakukan dengan menitik beratkan pada dua buah aplikasi web server yang tergolong memiliki fitur utama yang menawarkan “keringanan” pada konsumsi CPU maupun memori seperti Light HTTPD dan Tiny HTTPD. Dengan menggunakan parameter thread (users, ramp-up periods, dan loop count pada stress test embedded system, penelitian ini menawarkan solusi web server manakah diantara Light HTTPD dan Tiny HTTPD yang memiliki kecocokan fitur dalam penggunaan embedded sistem menggunakan beagleboard ditinjau dari konsumsi CPU dan memori. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dalam hal konsumsi CPU pada beagleboard embedded system lebih disarankan penggunaan Light HTTPD dibandingkan dengan tiny HTTPD dikarenakan terdapat perbedaan CPU load yang sangat signifikan antar kedua layanan web tersebut Kata kunci: embedded system, web server Abstract Embedded systems are currently of particular concern in computer technology, some of the linux operating system and web server variegated also prepared to support the embedded system, one of the applications that can be used in embedded systems are operating on the web server. Selection of embedded web server on the environment is still rarely done, therefore this study was conducted with a focus on two web application servers belonging to the main features that offer a "lightness" to the CPU and memory consumption as Light HTTPD and Tiny HTTPD. By using the parameters of the thread (users, ramp-up periods, and loop count on a stress test embedded systems, this study offers a solution of web server which between the Light

  18. RS-WebPredictor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaretzki, J.; Bergeron, C.; Huang, T.-W.

    2013-01-01

    Regioselectivity-WebPredictor (RS-WebPredictor) is a server that predicts isozyme-specific cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated sites of metabolism (SOMs) on drug-like molecules. Predictions may be made for the promiscuous 2C9, 2D6 and 3A4 CYP isozymes, as well as CYPs 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C19 and 2E1....... RS-WebPredictor is the first freely accessible server that predicts the regioselectivity of the last six isozymes. Server execution time is fast, taking on average 2s to encode a submitted molecule and 1s to apply a given model, allowing for high-throughput use in lead optimization projects.......Availability: RS-WebPredictor is accessible for free use at http://reccr.chem.rpi.edu/ Software/RS-WebPredictor....

  19. Engineering Adaptive Web Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter

    2007-01-01

    suit the user profile the most. This paper summarizes the domain engineering framework for such adaptive web applications. The framework provides guidelines to develop adaptive web applications as members of a family. It suggests how to utilize the design artifacts as knowledge which can be used......Information and services on the web are accessible for everyone. Users of the web differ in their background, culture, political and social environment, interests and so on. Ambient intelligence was envisioned as a concept for systems which are able to adapt to user actions and needs....... With the growing amount of information and services, the web applications become natural candidates to adopt the concepts of ambient intelligence. Such applications can deal with divers user intentions and actions based on the user profile and can suggest the combination of information content and services which...

  20. IL web tutorials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette; Lund, Haakon

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the results from a study on information literacy in a higher education (HE) context based on a larger research project evaluating 3 Norwegian IL web tutorials at 6 universities and colleges in Norway. The aim was to evaluate how the 3 web tutorials served students’ information...... seeking and writing process in an study context and to identify barriers to the employment and use of the IL web tutorials, hence to the underlying information literacy intentions by the developer. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were employed. A clear mismatch was found between intention...... and use of the web tutorials. In addition, usability only played a minor role compared to relevance. It is concluded that the positive expectations of the IL web tutorials tend to be overrated by the developers. Suggestions for further research are presented....

  1. Strengthening of self-compacting reinforced concrete deep beams containing circular openings with CFRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Bayati Nabeel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the behavior of reinforced self-compacting concrete deep beams with circular openings strengthened in shear with various arrangements of externally bonded Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP. Six simply supported deep beams were constructed and tested under two points load up to the failure for this purpose. All tested beams had same geometry, compressive strength, shear span to depth ratio, main flexural and web reinforcement. The variables considered in this study include the influence of fiber orientation, utilizing longitudinal CFRP strips with vertical strips and area of CFRP. The test results indicated that the presence of the circular openings in center of load path reduce stiffness and ultimate strength by about 50% when compared with solid one, also it was found that the externally bonded CFRP can significantly increase the ultimate load and enhance the stiffness of deep beam with openings.

  2. A study on the fatigue strength behavior of reinforced concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, D.; Chae, W.K.; Kwak, K.H.

    1989-01-01

    Design methods for shear have been developed in these days.However, these are mainly based on the test results under static loading, and there are few information concerning the shear behavior of reinforced concrete beams under repeated dynamic loading. From this point of view, this study was performed to investigate the shear behavior of four reinforced concrete beams with web reinforcement under repeated dynamic loading. From these test results, the changes in strain of stirrups and the crack propagation procedures are found as functions of the number of repeated loading cycles. These results are compared with the existing experimental formula for predicting strain of stirrups under repeated loading and also used to find the coefficients in the empirical formula using the regression technique

  3. minepath.org: a free interactive pathway analysis web server.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumakis, Lefteris; Roussos, Panos; Potamias, George

    2017-07-03

    ( www.minepath.org ) is a web-based platform that elaborates on, and radically extends the identification of differentially expressed sub-paths in molecular pathways. Besides the network topology, the underlying MinePath algorithmic processes exploit exact gene-gene molecular relationships (e.g. activation, inhibition) and are able to identify differentially expressed pathway parts. Each pathway is decomposed into all its constituent sub-paths, which in turn are matched with corresponding gene expression profiles. The highly ranked, and phenotype inclined sub-paths are kept. Apart from the pathway analysis algorithm, the fundamental innovation of the MinePath web-server concerns its advanced visualization and interactive capabilities. To our knowledge, this is the first pathway analysis server that introduces and offers visualization of the underlying and active pathway regulatory mechanisms instead of genes. Other features include live interaction, immediate visualization of functional sub-paths per phenotype and dynamic linked annotations for the engaged genes and molecular relations. The user can download not only the results but also the corresponding web viewer framework of the performed analysis. This feature provides the flexibility to immediately publish results without publishing source/expression data, and get all the functionality of a web based pathway analysis viewer. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  4. Funnel-web spider bite

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002844.htm Funnel-web spider bite To use the sharing features on ... the effects of a bite from the funnel-web spider. Male funnel-web spiders are more poisonous ...

  5. Origins of food reinforcement in infants12345

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Kai Ling; Feda, Denise M; Eiden, Rina D; Epstein, Leonard H

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rapid weight gain in infancy is associated with a higher risk of obesity in children and adults. A high relative reinforcing value of food is cross-sectionally related to obesity; lean children find nonfood alternatives more reinforcing than do overweight/obese children. However, to our knowledge, there is no research on how and when food reinforcement develops. Objective: This study was designed to assess whether the reinforcing value of food and nonfood alternatives could be tested in 9- to 18-mo-old infants and whether the reinforcing value of food and nonfood alternatives is differentially related to infant weight status. Design: Reinforcing values were assessed by using absolute progressive ratio schedules of reinforcement, with presentation of food and nonfood alternatives counterbalanced in 2 separate studies. Two nonfood reinforcers [Baby Einstein–Baby MacDonald shows (study 1, n = 27) or bubbles (study 2, n = 30)] were tested against the baby’s favorite food. Food reinforcing ratio (FRR) was quantified by measuring the reinforcing value of food (Food Pmax) in proportion to the total reinforcing value of food and a nonfood alternative (DVD Pmax or BUB Pmax). Results: Greater weight-for-length z score was associated with a greater FRR of a favorite food in study 1 (FRR-DVD) (r = 0.60, P positively associated with FRR-DVD (r = 0.57, P = 0.009) and FRR-BUB (r = 0.37, P = 0.047). Conclusions: Our newly developed paradigm, which tested 2 different nonfood alternatives, demonstrated that lean infants find nonfood alternatives more reinforcing than do overweight/obese infants. This observation suggests that strengthening the alternative reinforcers may have a protective effect against childhood obesity. This research was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02229552. PMID:25733636

  6. Inclined inheritance of interface roughness in semiconductor superlattices as characterized by x-ray reciprocal space mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidbauer, M.; Opitz, R.; Wiebach, Th.; Koehler, R.

    2001-01-01

    The inclined inheritance of interface roughness is investigated for an AlASGaAs superlattice grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a vicinal (001) GaAs substrate. As a consequence of vertical correlation of the roughness of subsequent interfaces the diffusely scattered x-ray intensity is bunched into resonant diffuse scattering (RDS) sheets in reciprocal space. Inclined inheritance leads to corresponding shearing of the RDS sheets. A simple model for the evaluation of inclined roughness inheritance in three dimensions is presented, where the sheared RDS sheets are modeled by anisotropic sheared ellipsoids. From measurements at different azimuthal sample orientations the two angles characterizing the inclined inheritance of interface roughness can be determined accurately. At the present sample the inheritance of interface roughness approximately follows the direction of step flow during growth. The results show that a three-dimensional analysis of diffuse scattering is necessary for a correct evaluation and interpretation

  7. Simulation of natural convection in an inclined polar cavity using a finite-difference lattice Boltzmann method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Fan; Yang, Haicheng; Guo, Xueyan; Ren Dai [University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Yan, Yonghua [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow and Heat Transfer in Power Engineering, Shanghai (China); Liu, Chaoqun [University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Natural convection heat transfer in an inclined polar cavity was studied using a Finite-difference lattice Boltzmann method (FDLBM) based on a double-population approach for body-fitted coordinates. A D2G9 model coupled with the simplest TD2Q4 lattice model was applied to determine the velocity field and temperature field. For both velocity and temperature fields, the discrete spatial derivatives were obtained by combining the upwind scheme with the central scheme, and the discrete temporal term is obtained using a fourth-order Runge-Kutta scheme. Studies were carried out for different Rayleigh numbers and different inclination angles. The results in terms of streamlines, isotherms, and Nusselt numbers explain the heat transfer mechanism of natural convection in an inclined polar cavity due to the change of Rayleigh number and inclination angle.

  8. Movement of the water-oil contact during operation of a single well in an inclined stratum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazymov, A Sh

    1965-01-01

    In this theoretical study the author develops equations which describe the movement of an oil-water interface toward a single well in an inclined stratum. The equations apply even if viscosities, densities, and permeabilities vary from place to place.

  9. Analysis of two-phase flow and boiling heat transfer in inclined channel of core-catcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahara, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Abe, N.; Kurita, T.; Hamazaki, R.; Kojima, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Passive Corium Cooling System (CCS) provides a function of ex-vessel debris cooling and molten core stabilization during a severe accident. CCS features inclined cooling channels arranged axi-symmetrically below the core-catcher basin. In order to estimate the coolability of the inclined cooling channel, it is indispensable to identify the flow pattern of the two-phase flow in the cooling channel. Several former studies for the two-phase flow pattern in the inclined channel are referred. Taitel and Dukler (1976) developed a prediction method of the flow pattern transition in horizontal and near horizontal tubes. Barnea et al. (1980) showed the flow pattern map of upward flow with 10 degrees inclination. Sakaguti et al. (1996) observed the two-phase flow patterns in the horizontal pipe connected with slightly upward pipe, in which the flow pattern in the pipe with a bending part was expressed by the combination of a basic flow pattern and some auxiliary flow patterns. Then we investigated these studies In order to identify the flow patterns observed in the inclined cooling channel of CCS. Furthermore we experimentally observed the flow patterns in the inclined cooling channel with various inlet conditions. As a result of the investigation and observation, typical flow patterns in the inclined cooling channel were identified. Two typical flow patterns were observed depending on the steam flow rate, one of which is 'elongated bubble 'flow, and the other is 'churn with collapsing backward and upward slug 'flow The flow and heat transfer in the inclined channel of CCS is analyzed by using a two-phase analysis code employing two-fluid model in which the constitutive equations for the two-phase flow in inclined channels are incorporated. That is, drift flux parameter for each of the elongated bubble flow, and the churn with collapsing backward and upward slug flow are incorporated to the two-phase analysis code, which are based on the rising velocity of the long bubble in

  10. The Effects of Boundary Conditions and Friction on the Helical Buckling of Coiled Tubing in an Inclined Wellbore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yinchun; Ai, Zhijiu; Sun, Xu; Fu, Biwei

    2016-01-01

    Analytical buckling models are important for down-hole operations to ensure the structural integrity of the drill string. A literature survey shows that most published analytical buckling models do not address the effects of inclination angle, boundary conditions or friction. The objective of this paper is to study the effects of boundary conditions, friction and angular inclination on the helical buckling of coiled tubing in an inclined wellbore. In this paper, a new theoretical model is established to describe the buckling behavior of coiled tubing. The buckling equations are derived by applying the principles of virtual work and minimum potential energy. The proper solution for the post-buckling configuration is determined based on geometric and natural boundary conditions. The effects of angular inclination and boundary conditions on the helical buckling of coiled tubing are considered. Many significant conclusions are obtained from this study. When the dimensionless length of the coiled tubing is greater than 40, the effects of the boundary conditions can be ignored. The critical load required for helical buckling increases as the angle of inclination and the friction coefficient increase. The post-buckling behavior of coiled tubing in different configurations and for different axial loads is determined using the proposed analytical method. Practical examples are provided that illustrate the influence of the angular inclination on the axial force. The rate of change of the axial force decreases with increasing angular inclination. Moreover, the total axial friction also decreases with an increasing inclination angle. These results will help researchers to better understand helical buckling in coiled tubing. Using this knowledge, measures can be taken to prevent buckling in coiled tubing during down-hole operations.

  11. Repair of reinforced concrete beams using carbon fiber reinforced polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karzad Abdul Saboor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research paper is part of an ongoing research on the behaviour of Reinforced Concrete (RC beams retrofitted with Externally Bonded Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (EB-CFRP. A total of 5 large-scale rectangular beams, previously damaged due to shear loading, were repaired and strengthened with EB-CFRP and tested in this study. The major cracks of the damaged beams were injected with epoxy and the beams were wrapped with 2 layers of EB-CFRP discrete strips with 100mm width and 150mm center to center spacing. The beams were instrumented and tested to failure under three points loading in simply supported configuration. The measured test parameters were the beams deflection, maximum load, and the strain in the FRP strips. The failure mode was also observed. The results showed that applying EB-FRP strips increased the shear strength significantly relative to the original shear capacity of the beam. The results demonstrate that the application of EB-FRP strips used in this study is an effective repair method that can be used to repair and strengthen damaged beams.

  12. Web Mining and Social Networking

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Guandong; Li, Lin

    2011-01-01

    This book examines the techniques and applications involved in the Web Mining, Web Personalization and Recommendation and Web Community Analysis domains, including a detailed presentation of the principles, developed algorithms, and systems of the research in these areas. The applications of web mining, and the issue of how to incorporate web mining into web personalization and recommendation systems are also reviewed. Additionally, the volume explores web community mining and analysis to find the structural, organizational and temporal developments of web communities and reveal the societal s

  13. 07051 Working Group Outcomes -- Programming Paradigms for the Web: Web Programming and Web Services

    OpenAIRE

    Hull, Richard; Thiemann, Peter; Wadler, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Participants in the seminar broke into groups on ``Patterns and Paradigms'' for web programming, ``Web Services,'' ``Data on the Web,'' ``Software Engineering'' and ``Security.'' Here we give the raw notes recorded during these sessions.

  14. A highly accurate dynamic contact angle algorithm for drops on inclined surface based on ellipse-fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z N; Wang, S Y

    2015-02-01

    To improve the accuracy in the calculation of dynamic contact angle for drops on the inclined surface, a significant number of numerical drop profiles on the inclined surface with different inclination angles, drop volumes, and contact angles are generated based on the finite difference method, a least-squares ellipse-fitting algorithm is used to calculate the dynamic contact angle. The influences of the above three factors are systematically investigated. The results reveal that the dynamic contact angle errors, including the errors of the left and right contact angles, evaluated by the ellipse-fitting algorithm tend to increase with inclination angle/drop volume/contact angle. If the drop volume and the solid substrate are fixed, the errors of the left and right contact angles increase with inclination angle. After performing a tremendous amount of computation, the critical dimensionless drop volumes corresponding to the critical contact angle error are obtained. Based on the values of the critical volumes, a highly accurate dynamic contact angle algorithm is proposed and fully validated. Within nearly the whole hydrophobicity range, it can decrease the dynamic contact angle error in the inclined plane method to less than a certain value even for different types of liquids.

  15. Influence of angle of inclination on power of solar module; Taiyo denchi module no keisha kakudo to shutsuryoku tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsumi, K.; Nishitani, M. [Dai Ichi University, College of Technology, Kagoshima (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Experiment/study were conducted on the influence of angle of inclination on output of solar modules. In the experiment, changing the angle of inclination of the photovoltaic module installed on the top of school building to 0, 30, 60 and 90 degC, the global radiation on an inclined surface was measured by pyranometer equipped with the module, and at the same time output characteristics were measured by I-V curve tracer. In the I-V curve tracer, voltage, current, and output capability diagram are illustrated automatically changing bias voltage to get the maximum output. The global radiation on an inclined surface and the maximum output indicated an almost proportional relation and were expressed in a recursion method. Moreover, measurement of the global radiation is usually conducted using the amount of global radiation on a horizontal surface, and the global radiation on an inclined surface is calculated as a sum of the direct solar radiation amount and the sky solar radiation amount after determining a penetration rate by the relational equation. By calculating the global radiation on an inclined surface, it becomes possible to calculate the maximum output of photovoltaic modules by this recursion method. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. The Effect of Terrain Inclination on Performance and the Stability Region of Two-Wheeled Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zareena Kausar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Two-wheeled mobile robots (TWMRs have a capability of avoiding the tip-over problem on inclined terrain by adjusting the centre of mass position of the robot body. The effects of terrain inclination on the robot performance are studied to exploit this capability. Prior to the real-time implementation of position control, an estimation of the stability region of the TWMR is essential for safe operation. A numerical method to estimate the stability region is applied and the effects of inclined surfaces on the performance and stability region of the robot are investigated. The dynamics of a TWMR is modelled on a general uneven terrain and reduced for cases of inclined and horizontal flat terrain. A full state feedback (FSFB controller is designed based on optimal gains with speed tracking on a horizontal flat terrain. The performance and stability regions are simulated for the robot on a horizontal flat and inclined terrain with the same controller. The results endorse a variation in equilibrium points and a reduction in stability region for robot motion on inclined terrain.

  17. Studi Numerik Pengaruh Baffle Inclination Pada Alat Penukar Kalor Tipe U – Tube Terhadap Aliran Fluida Dan Perpindahan Panas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Hidayatullah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Alat penukar kalor sangat berpengaruh dalam industri terhadap keberhasilan keseluruhan rangkaian proses, karena kegagalan operasi alat ini baik akibat kegagalan mekanikal maupun opersional dapat menyebabkan berhentinya operasi unit. Penelitian terhadap desain heat exchanger masih terus dilakukan untuk mencari kinerja dari heat exchanger yang paling optimal, baik pada bagian baffle cut dan baffles inclination maupun susunan dari tube dengan menggunakan heat exchanger ukuran kecil sebagai model. Berdasarkan pada permasalahan di atas, maka dilakukan penelitian terhadap kinerja heat exchanger tipe U-tube dengan memvariasikan baffle inclination. Penelitian ini dilakukan secara numerik dengan variasi baffle inclination sebesar 0o, 10o, 20o dan variasi laju aliran massa sebesar 0,5 kg/s, 1kg/s, dan 2 kg/s. Tube yang digunakan adalah tipe U-tube yang disusun secara persegi. Model viskous yang digunakan adalah turbulensi model yaitu k-ε standar, dimana fluida yang digunakan adalah air pada boundary condition. Hasil analisa numerik menunjukkan adanya pengaruh baffle inclination pada alat penukar kalor tipe U – tube terhadap aliran fluida dan perpindahan panas. Peningkatan laju aliran massa dapat meningkatkan pressure drop secara cepat, alat penukar kalor shell and tube tipe U – tube dengan baffle inclination 20o memiliki unjuk kerja yang terbaik dibandingkan dengan baffle inclination 0o dan 10o.

  18. The role of incline, performance level, and gender on the gross mechanical efficiency of roller ski skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbakk, Oyvind; Hegge, Ann Magdalen; Ettema, Gertjan

    2013-01-01

    The ability to efficiently utilize metabolic energy to produce work is a key factor for endurance performance. The present study investigated the effects of incline, performance level, and gender on the gross mechanical efficiency during roller ski skating. Thirty-one male and nineteen female elite cross-country skiers performed a 5-min submaximal session at approximately 75% of VO2peak on a 5% inclined treadmill using the G3 skating technique. Thereafter, a 5-min session on a 12% incline using the G2 skating technique was performed at a similar work rate. Gross efficiency was calculated as the external work rate against rolling friction and gravity divided by the metabolic rate using gas exchange. Performance level was determined by the amount of skating FIS points [the Federation of International Skiing (FIS) approved scoring system for ski racing] where fewer points indicate a higher performance level. Strong significant correlations between work rate and metabolic rate within both inclines and gender were revealed (r = -0.89 to 0.98 and P gender differences being apparent. Significant correlations between gross efficiency and performance level were found for both inclines and genders (r = -0.65 to 0.81 and P genders used less metabolic energy to perform the same amount of work at steeper inclines, and that the better ranked elite male and female skiers skied more efficiently.

  19. Benchmarking semantic web technology

    CERN Document Server

    García-Castro, R

    2009-01-01

    This book addresses the problem of benchmarking Semantic Web Technologies; first, from a methodological point of view, proposing a general methodology to follow in benchmarking activities over Semantic Web Technologies and, second, from a practical point of view, presenting two international benchmarking activities that involved benchmarking the interoperability of Semantic Web technologies using RDF(S) as the interchange language in one activity and OWL in the other.The book presents in detail how the different resources needed for these interoperability benchmarking activities were defined:

  20. Applied Semantic Web Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Sugumaran, Vijayan

    2011-01-01

    The rapid advancement of semantic web technologies, along with the fact that they are at various levels of maturity, has left many practitioners confused about the current state of these technologies. Focusing on the most mature technologies, Applied Semantic Web Technologies integrates theory with case studies to illustrate the history, current state, and future direction of the semantic web. It maintains an emphasis on real-world applications and examines the technical and practical issues related to the use of semantic technologies in intelligent information management. The book starts with

  1. Head First Web Design

    CERN Document Server

    Watrall, Ethan

    2008-01-01

    Want to know how to make your pages look beautiful, communicate your message effectively, guide visitors through your website with ease, and get everything approved by the accessibility and usability police at the same time? Head First Web Design is your ticket to mastering all of these complex topics, and understanding what's really going on in the world of web design. Whether you're building a personal blog or a corporate website, there's a lot more to web design than div's and CSS selectors, but what do you really need to know? With this book, you'll learn the secrets of designing effecti

  2. Instant Flask web development

    CERN Document Server

    DuPlain, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. The book uses a bottom-up approach to help you build applications, and is full of step-by-step instructions and practical examples to help you improve your knowledge.Instant Flask Web Development is for developers who are new to web programming, or are familiar with web programming but new to Flask. This book gives you a head start if you have some beginner experience with Python and HTML, or are willing to learn.

  3. The RNAsnp web server

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radhakrishnan, Sabarinathan; Tafer, Hakim; Seemann, Ernst Stefan

    2013-01-01

    , are derived from extensive pre-computed tables of distributions of substitution effects as a function of gene length and GC content. Here, we present a web service that not only provides an interface for RNAsnp but also features a graphical output representation. In addition, the web server is connected...... to a local mirror of the UCSC genome browser database that enables the users to select the genomic sequences for analysis and visualize the results directly in the UCSC genome browser. The RNAsnp web server is freely available at: http://rth.dk/resources/rnasnp/....

  4. Programming NET Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Web services are poised to become a key technology for a wide range of Internet-enabled applications, spanning everything from straight B2B systems to mobile devices and proprietary in-house software. While there are several tools and platforms that can be used for building web services, developers are finding a powerful tool in Microsoft's .NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET. Designed from scratch to support the development of web services, the .NET Framework simplifies the process--programmers find that tasks that took an hour using the SOAP Toolkit take just minutes. Programming .NET

  5. Express web application development

    CERN Document Server

    Yaapa, Hage

    2013-01-01

    Express Web Application Development is a practical introduction to learning about Express. Each chapter introduces you to a different area of Express, using screenshots and examples to get you up and running as quickly as possible.If you are looking to use Express to build your next web application, ""Express Web Application Development"" will help you get started and take you right through to Express' advanced features. You will need to have an intermediate knowledge of JavaScript to get the most out of this book.

  6. Silicon web process development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Skutch, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.; Hopkins, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    The silicon web process takes advantage of natural crystallographic stabilizing forces to grow long, thin single crystal ribbons directly from liquid silicon. The ribbon, or web, is formed by the solidification of a liquid film supported by surface tension between two silicon filaments, called dendrites, which border the edges of the growing strip. The ribbon can be propagated indefinitely by replenishing the liquid silicon as it is transformed to crystal. The dendritic web process has several advantages for achieving low cost, high efficiency solar cells. These advantages are discussed.

  7. Building Web Reputation Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Farmer, Randy

    2010-01-01

    What do Amazon's product reviews, eBay's feedback score system, Slashdot's Karma System, and Xbox Live's Achievements have in common? They're all examples of successful reputation systems that enable consumer websites to manage and present user contributions most effectively. This book shows you how to design and develop reputation systems for your own sites or web applications, written by experts who have designed web communities for Yahoo! and other prominent sites. Building Web Reputation Systems helps you ask the hard questions about these underlying mechanisms, and why they're critical

  8. Chemistry WebBook

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 69 NIST Chemistry WebBook (Web, free access)   The NIST Chemistry WebBook contains: Thermochemical data for over 7000 organic and small inorganic compounds; thermochemistry data for over 8000 reactions; IR spectra for over 16,000 compounds; mass spectra for over 33,000 compounds; UV/Vis spectra for over 1600 compounds; electronic and vibrational spectra for over 5000 compounds; constants of diatomic molecules(spectroscopic data) for over 600 compounds; ion energetics data for over 16,000 compounds; thermophysical property data for 74 fluids.

  9. Interface study of fiber reinforced concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacios, A.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available In a composite material that uses fibers as reinforcement, the breakage of the matrix is produced jointly with the separation of the fiber from the matrix. The mechanical behavior of the interface describes how fibers can work stabilizing the cracking process. The interface is the medium that puts the fiber on load, being the mechanical behavior of the interface and the strength of the fiber two important parameters to consider to characterize the general behavior of the composite. The present work studies the effect of several parameters on the behavior of the interface. Those parameters are the type of fiber, its geometry and dimension and the modified matrix and loading rate. An experimental technique was designed to allow testing the same set-up for pull-out tests in a quasistatic machine and Charpy pendulum. Modifications of the matrix by adding a mineral admixture improve the behavior of the interface as much as a 100%. It has been observed that combining the two actions, an improved matrix with crimped fibers, the type of failure can be modified. In this new type of failure, the fiber breaks consequently toughness decreases. Other parameters, as the loading rate and inclination of the fiber also affect the behavior of the interface.

    En un material compuesto que utiliza fibras como refuerzo, la rotura de la matriz se produce conjuntamente con la separación de la fibra de la matriz, por lo que el comportamiento mecánico de la interfase describe hasta que punto las fibras pueden trabajar como estabilizadores en el proceso defisuración. La interfase es el medio que pone en carga a la fibra y, por ello, la resistencia mecánica de la interfase y de la fibra son dos parámetros importantes a considerar para caracterizar el comportamiento general del composite. Este trabajo investiga el efecto de la variación del tipo de fibra, geometría y dimensión de las mismas y las modificaciones de la matriz y la velocidad de desplazamiento

  10. Limit analysis of solid reinforced concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Paaske

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that Semidefinite Programming (SDP) can be used effectively for limit analysis of isotropic cohesive-frictional continuums using the classical Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion. In this paper we expand on this previous research by adding reinforcement to the model and a solid...... reinforcement and it is therefore possible to analyze structures with complex reinforcement layouts. Tests are conducted to validate the method against well-known analytical solutions....

  11. Strength Characteristics of Reinforced Sandy Soil

    OpenAIRE

    S. N. Bannikov; Mahamed Al Fayez

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory tests on determination of reinforced sandy soil strength characteristics (angle of internal friction, specific cohesive force) have been carried out with the help of a specially designed instrument and proposed methodology. Analysis of the obtained results has revealed that cohesive forces are brought about in reinforced sandy soil and an angle of internal soil friction becomes larger in comparison with non-reinforced soil.

  12. Behavior of reinforced concrete at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freskakis, G.N.

    1984-09-01

    A study is presented concerning the behavior of reinforced concrete sections at elevated temperatures. Material properties of concrete and reinforcing steel are discussed. Behavior studies are made by means of moment-curvature-axial force relationships. Particular attention is given to the load carrying capacity, thermal forces and moments, and deformation capacity. The effects on these properties of variations in the strength properties, the temperature level and distribution, the amount of reinforcing steel, and limiting values of strains are considered

  13. Reinforcement Learning in Repeated Portfolio Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Diao, Linan; Rieskamp, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    How do people make investment decisions when they receive outcome feedback? We examined how well the standard mean-variance model and two reinforcement models predict people's portfolio decisions. The basic reinforcement model predicts a learning process that relies solely on the portfolio's overall return, whereas the proposed extended reinforcement model also takes the risk and covariance of the investments into account. The experimental results illustrate that people reacted sensitively to...

  14. Quasi-Rayleigh waves in transversely isotropic half-space with inclined axis of symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanovskaya, T.B.; Savina, L.S.

    2003-09-01

    A method for determination of characteristics of quasi-Rayleigh (qR) wave in a transversely isotropic homogeneous half-space with inclined axis of symmetry is outlined. The solution is obtained as a superposition of qP, qSV and qSH waves, and surface wave velocity is determined from the boundary conditions at the free surface and at infinity, as in the case of Rayleigh wave in isotropic half-space. Though the theory is simple enough, a numerical procedure for the calculation of surface wave velocity presents some difficulties. The difficulty is conditioned by necessity to calculate complex roots of a non-linear equation, which in turn contains functions determined as roots of nonlinear equations with complex coefficients. Numerical analysis shows that roots of the equation corresponding to the boundary conditions do not exist in the whole domain of azimuths and inclinations of the symmetry axis. The domain of existence of qR wave depends on the ratio of the elastic parameters: for some strongly anisotropic models the wave cannot exist at all. For some angles of inclination qR wave velocities deviate from those calculated on the basis of the perturbation method valid for weak anisotropy, though they have the same tendency of variation with azimuth. The phase of qR wave varies with depth unlike Rayleigh wave in isotropic half-space. Unlike Rayleigh wave in isotropic half-space, qR wave has three components - vertical, radial and transverse. Particle motion in horizontal plane is elliptic. Direction of the major axis of the ellipsis coincide with the direction of propagation only in azimuths 0 deg. (180 deg.) and 90 deg. (270 deg.). (author)

  15. Ice-water convection in an inclined rectangular cavity filled with a porous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X. (Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal (Canada)); Kahawita, R. (Dept. of Civil Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal (Canada))

    1994-10-01

    This paper reports on the results of a numerical study on the equilibrium state of the convection of water in the presence of ice in an inclined rectangular cavity filled with a porous medium. One side of the cavity is maintained at a temperature higher than the fusion temperature while the opposite side is cooled to a temperature lower than the fusion temperature. The two remaining sides are insulated. Results are analysed in terms of the density inversion parameter, the tilt angle, and the cooling temperature. It appears that the phenomenon of density inversion plays an important role in the equilibrium of an ice-water system when the heating temperature is below 20 . In a vertical cavity, the density inversion causes the formation of two counter-rotating vortices leading to a water volume which is wider at the bottom than at the top. When the cavity is inclined, there exist two branches of solutions which exhibit the bottom heating and the side heating characteristics, respectively (the Benard and side heating branches). Due to the inversion of density, the solution on the Benard branch may fail to converge to a steady state at small tilt angles and exhibits an oscillating behavior. On the side heating branch, a maximum heat transfer rate is obtained at a tilt angle of about 70 but the water volume was found to depend very weakly on the inclination of the cavity. Under the effect of subcooling, the interplay between conduction in the solid phase and convection in the liquid leads to an equilibrium ice-water interface which is most distorted at some intermediate cooling temperature. (orig.)

  16. Test of the Angle Detecting Inclined Sensor (ADIS) Technique for Measuring Space Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, J. J.; Lopate, C.; McLaughlin, K. R.

    2009-12-01

    In February 2008 we exposed an Angle Detecting Inclined Sensor (ADIS) prototype to beams of 150 MeV/u 78Kr and fragments at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory's (NSCL) Coupled Cyclotron Facility (CCF). ADIS is a highly innovative and uniquely simple detector configuration used to determine the angles of incidence of heavy ions in energetic charged particle instruments. Corrections for angle of incidence are required for good charge and mass separation. An ADIS instrument is under development to fly on the GOES-R series of weather satellites. The prototype tested consisted of three ADIS detectors, two of which were inclined at an angle to the telescope axis, forming the initial detectors in a five-detector telescope stack. By comparing the signals from the ADIS detectors, the angle of incidence may be determined and a pathlength correction applied to charge and mass determinations. Thus, ADIS replaces complex position sensing detectors with a system of simple, reliable and robust Si detectors. Accelerator data were taken at multiple angles to both primary and secondary beams with a spread of energies. This test instrument represents an improvement over the previous ADIS prototype in that it used oval inclined detectors and a much lower-mass support structure, thus reducing the number of events passing through dead material. These data show a charge peak resolution of 0.18 ± 0.01 e at Br (Z = 35), excellent for such a simple instrument. We will present the results of this test. The ADIS instrument development project was partially funded by NASA under the Living With a Star (LWS) Targeted Research and Technology program (grant NAG5-12493).

  17. Ultraviolet irradiance of inclined planes at the top of plant canopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    The potential increase in ultraviolet-B (UV-B) irradiance and potential decrease in productivity of agricultural crops due to stratospheric ozone loss requires knowledge of the characteristics of UV irradiance above and within crops. Measurements of UV irradiance at the top of two crops were made during the growing seasons of 1990 and 1991. Maximum levels of irradiance relative to the horizontal (I s ) did not occur at slopes equal to the solar elevation angle, but typically occurred at slopes closer to the horizontal due to the high diffuse fraction in the UV. In general, I s for the UV tends to be smaller than that for the total short wave solar radiation (SW) as a result of the greater diffuse fraction in the UV over that for the SW. Results also showed that the UV I s over the maize and winter wheat canopies are similar. The measured I s was compared against inclined plane I s models incorporating either an isotropic or anisotropic sky radiance model. The anisotropic sky model was more accurate than the isotropic model for predicting the measured I s for planes inclined at any angle. The isotropic model was, however, found adequate to describe I s for azimuthally-invariate distributions of inclined planes typical of many canopy radiation models. Corrections for the anisotropy of the sky radiation were developed to be applied to the diffuse sky radiation term in the isotropic model to estimate the relative irradiance for specific azimuths. Using the anisotropy correction factors in a simple analytic model of irradiance improved the isotropic I s estimates by 7% (accounting for 97% of the measured I s variance). A set of functions were developed to provide analytic solutions for the anisotropy factor. The irradiance model can be used to predict the influence of orientation of plant, animal, or human surfaces on the received global UV-B irradiance above most plant canopies under clear skies. (author)

  18. MHD natural convection in open inclined square cavity with a heated circular cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosain, Sheikh Anwar; Alim, M. A.; Saha, Satrajit Kumar

    2017-06-01

    MHD natural convection in open cavity becomes very important in many scientific and engineering problems, because of it's application in the design of electronic devices, solar thermal receivers, uncovered flat plate solar collectors having rows of vertical strips, geothermal reservoirs, etc. Several experiments and numerical investigations have been presented for describing the phenomenon of natural convection in open cavity for two decades. MHD natural convection and fluid flow in a two-dimensional open inclined square cavity with a heated circular cylinder was considered. The opposite wall to the opening side of the cavity was first kept to constant heat flux q, at the same time the surrounding fluid interacting with the aperture was maintained to an ambient temperature T∞. The top and bottom wall was kept to low and high temperature respectively. The fluid with different Prandtl numbers. The properties of the fluid are assumed to be constant. As a result a buoyancy force is created inside the cavity due to temperature difference and natural convection is formed inside the cavity. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code are used to discretize the solution domain and represent the numerical result to graphical form.. Triangular meshes are used to obtain the solution of the problem. The streamlines and isotherms are produced, heat transfer parameter Nu are obtained. The results are presented in graphical as well as tabular form. The results show that heat flux decreases for increasing inclination of the cavity and the heat flux is a increasing function of Prandtl number Pr and decreasing function of Hartmann number Ha. It is observed that fluid moves counterclockwise around the cylinder in the cavity. Various recirculations are formed around the cylinder. The almost all isotherm lines are concentrated at the right lower corner of the cavity. The object of this work is to develop a Mathematical model regarding the effect of MHD natural convection flow around

  19. Computational parametric study of a Richtmyer-Meshkov instability for an inclined interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Jacob A; Greenough, Jeffrey A; Ranjan, Devesh

    2011-08-01

    A computational study of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability for an inclined interface is presented. The study covers experiments to be performed in the Texas A&M University inclined shock tube facility. Incident shock wave Mach numbers from 1.2 to 2.5, inclination angles from 30° to 60°, and gas pair Atwood numbers of ∼0.67 and ∼0.95 are used in this parametric study containing 15 unique combinations of these parameters. Qualitative results are examined through a time series of density plots for multiple combinations of these parameters, and the qualitative effects of each of the parameters are discussed. Pressure, density, and vorticity fields are presented in animations available online to supplement the discussion of the qualitative results. These density plots show the evolution of two main regions in the flow field: a mixing region containing driver and test gas that is dominated by large vortical structures, and a more homogeneous region of unmixed fluid which can separate away from the mixing region in some cases. The interface mixing width is determined for various combinations of the parameters listed at the beginning of the Abstract. A scaling method for the mixing width is proposed using the interface geometry and wave velocities calculated using one-dimensional gas dynamic equations. This model uses the transmitted wave velocity for the characteristic velocity and an initial offset time based on the travel time of strong reflected waves. It is compared to an adapted Richtmyer impulsive model scaling and shown to scale the initial mixing width growth rate more effectively for fixed Atwood number.

  20. Web Mining and Social Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Guandong; Zhang, Yanchun; Li, Lin

    This book examines the techniques and applications involved in the Web Mining, Web Personalization and Recommendation and Web Community Analysis domains, including a detailed presentation of the principles, developed algorithms, and systems of the research in these areas. The applications of web ...... sense of individuals or communities. The volume will benefit both academic and industry communities interested in the techniques and applications of web search, web data management, web mining and web knowledge discovery, as well as web community and social network analysis.......This book examines the techniques and applications involved in the Web Mining, Web Personalization and Recommendation and Web Community Analysis domains, including a detailed presentation of the principles, developed algorithms, and systems of the research in these areas. The applications of web...... mining, and the issue of how to incorporate web mining into web personalization and recommendation systems are also reviewed. Additionally, the volume explores web community mining and analysis to find the structural, organizational and temporal developments of web communities and reveal the societal...