Slipping and rolling on an inclined plane
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aghamohammadi, Cina; Aghamohammadi, Amir
2011-01-01
In the first part of the paper, using a direct calculation two-dimensional motion of a particle sliding on an inclined plane is investigated for general values of friction coefficient (μ). A parametric equation for the trajectory of the particle is also obtained. In the second part of the paper, the motion of a sphere on the inclined plane is studied. It is shown that the evolution equation for the contact point of a sliding sphere is similar to that of a point particle sliding on an inclined plane whose friction coefficient is 7/2 μ. If μ > 2/7 tan θ, for any arbitrary initial velocity and angular velocity, the sphere will roll on the inclined plane after some finite time. In other cases, it will slip on the inclined plane. In the case of rolling, the centre of the sphere moves on a parabola. Finally the velocity and angular velocity of the sphere are exactly computed.
Flow of Dense Granular Suspensions on an Inclined Plane
Bonnoit, C.; Lanuza, J.; Lindner, A.; Clément, E.
2008-07-01
We investigate the flow behavior of dense granular suspensions, by the use of an inclined plane. The suspensions are prepared at high packing fractions and consist of spherical non-Brownian particles density matched with the suspending fluid. On the inclined plane, we perform a systematic study of the surface velocity as a function of the layer thickness for various flow rates and tilt angles. We perform measurements on a classical rheometer (parallel-plate rheometer) that is shown to be in good agreement with existing models, up to a volume fraction of 50%. Comparing these results, we show that the flow on an inclined plane can, up to a volume fraction of 50%, indeed be described by a purely viscous model in agreement with the results from classical rheometry.
Slipping and Rolling on an Inclined Plane
Aghamohammadi, Cina; Aghamohammadi, Amir
2011-01-01
In the first part of the paper, using a direct calculation two-dimensional motion of a particle sliding on an inclined plane is investigated for general values of friction coefficient ([mu]). A parametric equation for the trajectory of the particle is also obtained. In the second part of the paper, the motion of a sphere on the inclined plane is…
Lower incisor inclination regarding different reference planes.
Zataráin, Brenda; Avila, Josué; Moyaho, Angeles; Carrasco, Rosendo; Velasco, Carmen
2016-09-01
The purpose of this study was to assess the degree of lower incisor inclination with respect to different reference planes. It was an observational, analytical, longitudinal, prospective study conducted on 100 lateral cephalograms which were corrected according to the photograph in natural head position in order to draw the true vertical plane (TVP). The incisor mandibular plane angle (IMPA) was compensated to eliminate the variation of the mandibular plane growth type with the formula "FMApx.- 25 (FMA) + IMPApx. = compensated IMPA (IMPACOM)". As the data followed normal distribution determined by the KolmogorovSmirnov test, parametric tests were used for the statistical analysis, Ttest, ANOVA and Pearson coefficient correlation test. Statistical analysis was performed using a statistical significance of p planes. There were statistically significant differences among the means of the planes measured, except for IMPACOM, FMIA and TVP. The IMPA differed significantly from the IMPACOM. The compensated IMPA and the FMIA did not differ significantly from the TVP. The true horizontal plane was mismatched with Frankfort plane in 84% of the sample with a range of 19°. The true vertical plane is adequate for measuring lower incisor inclination. Sociedad Argentina de Investigación Odontológica.
Precession of a Spinning Ball Rolling down an Inclined Plane
Cross, Rod
2015-01-01
A routine problem in an introductory physics course considers a rectangular block at rest on a plane inclined at angle a to the horizontal. In order for the block not to slide down the incline, the coefficient of sliding friction, µ, must be at least tan a. The situation is similar for the case of a ball rolling down an inclined plane. In order…
On motions of a carrier with a mobile load along a rough inclined plane
Bilchenko, Grigory; Bilchenko, Grigory; Bilchenko, Nataly
2018-05-01
A mechanical system consisting of a carrier and a load is considered. The load can move respectively to the carrier according to a predetermined motion law. The carrier can move translationally along a rectilinear trajectory on a rough inclined plane. The trajectory is the line of the greatest descent. The axis of the rectilinear channel, along which the load moves, is located in a vertical plane passing through the trajectory of the carrier. The Coulomb dry friction model is applied for simulation the forces of resistance to the motion of the carrier from the side of the underlying inclined plane. The extreme value of plane inclination angle at which the carrier is at rest, when the load is stationary, is obtained by taking into account the frictional forces of sliding at rest. Differential equations of motion of a carrier with a load moving with respect to the carrier are obtained taking into account the requirement of motion of the carrier along an inclined plane without detachment. The determining relationships are given which made it possible to classify the types of carrier motion when the channel setting angle and the plane inclination angle are related by a certain inequality. The results of computational experiments are presented.
Motion of a carrier with a mobile load along a rough inclined plane
Bilchenko, G. G.
2018-03-01
The mechanical system consisting of a carrier and a load is considered. The load can move respectively the carrier according to the preset given motion law. The carrier motion from rest caused the load motion is investigated. The carrier can move translationally along rectilinear trajectory along rough inclined plane. The trajectory is the line of the greatest descent. The axis of rectilinear channel along which the load moves is situated in vertical plane containing the carrier trajectory. The Coulomb model is taken to describe the friction forces on sloped plane. Differential equations of motion of carrier with load are obtained. The sufficient condition of the carrier motion without detachment from inclined plane is given. For two special cases of the channel installation angle and the plane inclination angle combination the motion types are described. The computation experiments results are presented: the carrier motions in the special cases are illustrated, the phase portraits for some types of motions are constructed.
Ultraviolet irradiance of inclined planes at the top of plant canopies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grant, R.H.
1998-01-01
The potential increase in ultraviolet-B (UV-B) irradiance and potential decrease in productivity of agricultural crops due to stratospheric ozone loss requires knowledge of the characteristics of UV irradiance above and within crops. Measurements of UV irradiance at the top of two crops were made during the growing seasons of 1990 and 1991. Maximum levels of irradiance relative to the horizontal (I s ) did not occur at slopes equal to the solar elevation angle, but typically occurred at slopes closer to the horizontal due to the high diffuse fraction in the UV. In general, I s for the UV tends to be smaller than that for the total short wave solar radiation (SW) as a result of the greater diffuse fraction in the UV over that for the SW. Results also showed that the UV I s over the maize and winter wheat canopies are similar. The measured I s was compared against inclined plane I s models incorporating either an isotropic or anisotropic sky radiance model. The anisotropic sky model was more accurate than the isotropic model for predicting the measured I s for planes inclined at any angle. The isotropic model was, however, found adequate to describe I s for azimuthally-invariate distributions of inclined planes typical of many canopy radiation models. Corrections for the anisotropy of the sky radiation were developed to be applied to the diffuse sky radiation term in the isotropic model to estimate the relative irradiance for specific azimuths. Using the anisotropy correction factors in a simple analytic model of irradiance improved the isotropic I s estimates by 7% (accounting for 97% of the measured I s variance). A set of functions were developed to provide analytic solutions for the anisotropy factor. The irradiance model can be used to predict the influence of orientation of plant, animal, or human surfaces on the received global UV-B irradiance above most plant canopies under clear skies. (author)
Fluorescence intensity dependence on the propagation plane inclination
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fernandez, J.E.; Rubio, Marcelo; Sanchez, H.J.
1987-01-01
A Monte Carlo simulation of the primary and secondary X-ray fluorescent emission from an homogeneous and infinite thickness sample, irradiated under different inclination of the propagation plane, is carried out. An agreement with the predictions based on Sherman equations depending on the inclination angle α was found. The invariance of the primary fluorescence with respect to α and the decrease until evanescence of the secondary fluorescence for a α → π/2 are confirmed. A discussion about the physical basis of this dependence is carried out. Similar results are expected for tertiary fluorescence. (Author) [es
Changes of occlusal plane inclination after orthodontic treatment in different dentoskeletal frames.
Li, Jin-le; Kau, Chung; Wang, Min
2014-06-25
The inclination of the occlusal plane (OP) is related to facial types and experiences physiological growth-related changes. The aims of this research were to determine if there were any differences in the inclination of OP in subjects with three types of skeletal malocclusion and to investigate the characteristics and differences of functional occlusal plane (FOP) compared to bisected occlusal plane (BOP). A sample of 90 Caucasians patients was skeletal-classified into three (n = 30), and pre- and post-treatment cephalograms were digitized. Six linear and 8 angular cephalometric measurements were selected. The changes of OP inclination within each group and the differences among the three groups pre- and post-treatment were compared with paired t test and ANOVA test, respectively. The comparison and correlation between BOP and FOP were analyzed with paired t test and coefficient of correlation, respectively. The BOP angle increased in all of the three groups but only had statistically significant differences in skeletal class II patients in a mean of 1.51° (p stability (p > 0.05) in all three groups. The inclination of FOP was closely related to that of BOP (p stability in orthodontically treated patients with all three skeletal patterns.
Lateral dynamic flight stability of a model hoverfly in normal and inclined stroke-plane hovering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, Na; Sun, Mao
2014-01-01
Many insects hover with their wings beating in a horizontal plane (‘normal hovering’), while some insects, e.g., hoverflies and dragonflies, hover with inclined stroke-planes. Here, we investigate the lateral dynamic flight stability of a hovering model hoverfly. The aerodynamic derivatives are computed using the method of computational fluid dynamics, and the equations of motion are solved by the techniques of eigenvalue and eigenvector analysis. The following is shown: The flight of the insect is unstable at normal hovering (stroke-plane angle equals 0) and the instability becomes weaker as the stroke-plane angle increases; the flight becomes stable at a relatively large stroke-plane angle (larger than about 24°). As previously shown, the instability at normal hovering is due to a positive roll-moment/side-velocity derivative produced by the ‘changing-LEV-axial-velocity’ effect. When the stroke-plane angle increases, the wings bend toward the back of the body, and the ‘changing-LEV-axial-velocity’ effect decreases; in addition, another effect, called the ‘changing-relative-velocity’ effect (the ‘lateral wind’, which is due to the side motion of the insect, changes the relative velocity of its wings), becomes increasingly stronger. This causes the roll-moment/side-velocity derivative to first decrease and then become negative, resulting in the above change in stability as a function of the stroke-plane angle. (paper)
Reconstruction of Galileo Galilei's Experiment: The Inclined Plane
Straulino, S.
2008-01-01
In the "Third Day" of the "Discourses and Mathematical Demonstrations Concerning Two New Sciences" Galileo Galilei describes the famous experiment of the inclined plane and uses it to bring an experimental confirmation to the laws of uniformly accelerated motion. We describe a reconstruction of the experiment and how the results can be used for…
Students’ understanding of forces: Force diagrams on horizontal and inclined plane
Sirait, J.; Hamdani; Mursyid, S.
2018-03-01
This study aims to analyse students’ difficulties in understanding force diagrams on horizontal surfaces and inclined planes. Physics education students (pre-service physics teachers) of Tanjungpura University, who had completed a Basic Physics course, took a Force concept test which has six questions covering three concepts: an object at rest, an object moving at constant speed, and an object moving at constant acceleration both on a horizontal surface and on an inclined plane. The test is in a multiple-choice format. It examines the ability of students to select appropriate force diagrams depending on the context. The results show that 44% of students have difficulties in solving the test (these students only could solve one or two items out of six items). About 50% of students faced difficulties finding the correct diagram of an object when it has constant speed and acceleration in both contexts. In general, students could only correctly identify 48% of the force diagrams on the test. The most difficult task for the students in terms was identifying the force diagram representing forces exerted on an object on in an inclined plane.
The angle of inclination of the native ACL in the coronal and sagittal planes.
Reid, Jonathan C; Yonke, Bret; Tompkins, Marc
2017-04-01
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the angle of inclination of the native anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in both the sagittal and coronal planes and to evaluate these findings based on sex, height, BMI, and skeletal maturity. Inclusion criteria for the study included patients undergoing routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee at a single outpatient orthopedic center who had an intact ACL on MRI. Measurements of the angle of inclination were made on MRIs in both the sagittal and coronal planes. Patients were compared based on sex, height, BMI, and skeletal maturity. One-hundred and eighty-eight patients were included (36 skeletally immature/152 skeletally mature; 98 male/90 female). The overall angle of inclination was 74.3° ± 4.8° in the coronal plane and 46.9° ± 4.9° in the sagittal plane. Skeletally immature patients (coronal: 71.8° ± 6.1°; sagittal: 44.7° ± 5.5°) were significantly different in both coronal and sagittal planes (P = 0.04 and 0.01, respectively) from skeletally mature patients (coronal: 75.3° ± 4.7°; sagittal: 47.4° ± 4.7°). There were no differences based on sex, height, or BMI. There are differences between the angle of inclination findings in this study and other studies, which could be due to MRI and measurement techniques. Clinically, skeletal maturity may be important to account for when using the ACL angle of inclination to evaluate anatomic ACL reconstruction. Prognostic retrospective study, Level of evidence III.
Three-dimensional volumetric display by inclined-plane scanning
Miyazaki, Daisuke; Eto, Takuma; Nishimura, Yasuhiro; Matsushita, Kenji
2003-05-01
A volumetric display system based on three-dimensional (3-D) scanning that uses an inclined two-dimensional (2-D) image is described. In the volumetric display system a 2-D display unit is placed obliquely in an imaging system into which a rotating mirror is inserted. When the mirror is rotated, the inclined 2-D image is moved laterally. A locus of the moving image can be observed by persistence of vision as a result of the high-speed rotation of the mirror. Inclined cross-sectional images of an object are displayed on the display unit in accordance with the position of the image plane to observe a 3-D image of the object by persistence of vision. Three-dimensional images formed by this display system satisfy all the criteria for stereoscopic vision. We constructed the volumetric display systems using a galvanometer mirror and a vector-scan display unit. In addition, we constructed a real-time 3-D measurement system based on a light section method. Measured 3-D images can be reconstructed in the 3-D display system in real time.
The Relationship Between KBO Colors and Kuiper-belt Plane Inclination
Kane, J. F.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Elliot, J. L.
2005-08-01
The colors of Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) can indicate different compositions, environmental conditions, or formation characteristics within the Kuiper belt. Photometric color observations of these objects, combined with dynamical information, can provide insight into their composition, the extent to which space-weathering or impact gardening have played a role in surface modification, and the processes at work during the formation of our solar system. Data from the Deep Ecliptic Survey (DES; Millis et al., 2002, AJ, 123, 2083) have been used to determine the plane of the Kuiper belt, identifying "core" and "halo" populations with respect to this plane (Elliot et al. 2005, AJ, 129, 1117). Gulbis et al. (2005, Icarus, submitted) found the colors of the core KBOs, those having inclinations within approximately 4.6 degrees of the Kuiper-belt plane, to be primarily red, unlike the halo objects. We have combined newly obtained Sloan g', r', and i' observations from the 6.5-m Clay telescope at Las Campanas Observatory of 12 KBOs with previously published data to examine the transition between these populations as a function of color. By comparing the colors of objects as a function of inclination, we can establish trends distinguishing the core and halo populations. For inclination bins containing equal numbers of KBOs, we find that the percentage of red objects (B-R > median B-R of the sample) decreases in a smooth, but nonlinear fashion. This research is partially supported by an MIT fellowship, an NSF GSRF and NSF grant AST0406493.
Pemakaian Inclined Bite Plane untuk Koreksi Gigitan Terbalik Interior pada Anak
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Debrania Santoso
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Latar Belakang. Anak dengan gigitan terbalik pada anterior pada umumnya mempunyai keluhan dalam hal estetik dan fungsi pengunyahan. Kondisi gigitan terbalik biasanya disebabkan oleh adanya kebiasaan buruk dan faktor keturunan yang semakin memperparah keadaan tersebut. Pada kasus ini ditampilkan dua anak dengan gigitan terbalik anterior yang disebabkan oleh adanya kebiasaan buruk bertopang dagu dan mendorong lidah ke gigi anterior bawah. Perawatan menggunakan inclined bite plane dapat mengkoreksi gigitan terbalik anterior. Tujuan. Laporan kasus ini adalah untuk melaporkan bahwa pemakaian alat inlined bite plane dapat mengkoreksi gigitan terbalik anterior pada anak. Kasus. Dua orang anak perempuan dengan kasus gigitan terbalik anterior dilakukan pemeriksaan di poli gigi anak RSGM. Dari anamnesa diketahui bahwa anak pertama memiliki kebiasaan buruk bertopang dagu dan anak kedua mendorong lidah ke gigi anterior bawah. Perawatan yang dipilih adalah menggunakan alat inlined bite plane yang harus digunakan setiap hari saat tidur kecuali waktu makan dan menggosok gigi. Perawatan lanjutan pasien pertama tetap menggunakan alat removable dan pasien kedua dengan fixed orthodonti. Kesimpulan. Pasien pertama setelah 7 minggu gigitan terbalik anterior terkoreksi dan kebiasaan buruk dapat dihentikan. Pada pasien kedua gigitan terbalik anterior terkoreksi setelah 5 minggu. Hubungan oklusi pada pasien kedua lebih baik dibandingkan pasien pertama. Background. Children with anterior crossbite generally complaint about aesthetic and masticatory function. Anterior crossbite is usually caused by bad habits and hereditary factors that exacerbated this situation. In this case was displayed two children with anterior crossbite caused by a bad habit pushing the chin with one hand and pushing the tongue to the lower anterior teeth. Treatment approach using inclined bite plane correct the anterior crossbite. Purpose. The purpose of this case report is to report the use
Chang, Ming-Wen; Young, Ming-Shing; Lin, Mao-Tsun
2008-02-15
This study describes a high-accuracy inclined plane test system for quantitative measurement of the limb motor function of laboratory rats. The system is built around a microcontroller and uses a stepping motor to drive a ball screw, which changes the angle of the inclined plane. Any of the seven inclination speeds can be selected by the user. Two infrared (IR) LED/detector pairs function as interrupt sensors for objective determination of the moment that the rat loses its grip on the textured flooring of the starting area and slips down the plane. Inclination angle at the moment of IR interrupt (i.e. rat slip) is recorded. A liquid crystal display module shows the inclination speed and the inclination angle. The system can function as a stand alone device but a RS232 port allows connection to a personal computer (PC), so data can be sent directly to hard disk for storage and analysis. Experiments can be controlled by a local keypad or by the connected PC. Advantages of the presented system include easy operation, high accuracy, non-dependence on human observation for determination of slip angle, stand-alone capability, low cost and easy modification of the controlling software for different types of experiments. A fully functional prototype of the system is described. The prototype was used experimentally by a hospital group testing traumatic brain injury experiments, and some of their results are presented for system verification. It is found that the system is stable, accurate and easily used by investigators.
Flow Boiling on a Downward-Facing Inclined Plane Wall of Core Catcher
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Hyoung Tak; Bang, Kwang Hyun; Suh, Jung Soo
2013-01-01
In order to investigate boiling behavior on downward-facing inclined heated wall prior to the CHF condition, an experiment was carried out with 1.2 m long rectangular channel, inclined by 10 .deg. from the horizontal plane. High speed video images showed that the bubbles were sliding along the heated wall, continuing to grow and combining with the bubbles growing at their nucleation sites in the downstream. These large bubbles continued to slide along the heated wall and formed elongated slug bubbles. Under this slug bubble thin liquid film layer on the heated wall was observed and this liquid film prevents the wall from dryout. The length, velocity and frequency of slug bubbles sliding on the heated wall were measured as a function of wall heat flux and these parameters were used to develop wall boiling model for inclined, downward-facing heated wall. One approach to achieve coolable state of molten core in a PWR-like reactor cavity during a severe accident is to retain the core melt on a so-called core catcher residing on the reactor cavity floor after its relocation from the reactor pressure vessel. The core melt retained in the core catcher is cooled by water coolant flowing in an inclined cooling channel underneath as well as the water pool overlaid on the melt layer. Two-phase flow boiling with downward-facing heated wall such as this core catcher cooling channel has drawn a special attention because this orientation of heated wall may reach boiling crisis at lower heat flux than that of a vertical or upward-facing heated wall. Nishikawa and Fujita, Howard and Mudawar, Qiu and Dhir have conducted experiments to study the effect of heater orientation on boiling heat transfer and CHF. SULTAN experiment was conducted to study inclined large-scale structure coolability by water in boiling natural convection. In this paper, high-speed visualization of boiling behavior on downward-facing heated wall inclined by 10 .deg. is presented and wall boiling model for the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bazan, V.; Goni, C.; Castella, L.; Brandaleze, E.; Verdeja, L. F.; Parra, R.
2006-01-01
The viscosity of the lands represents one of the most relevant variables of most of the processes metallurgical and kinetics of the refine operations, since it is one of the decisive factors of the efficiency in the reactions between metal and lag, as much as slag-refractory. In the last decades, the mathematical models of different metallurgical processes have established methods to predict viscosity of mixtures of oxides fused to high temperatures in function of the chemical composition. The model developed by Toguri, based on the data reported by Johasen and Winterhager et al has proposed the Kv model. The used index it is similar to the relationship used in the steel industry like the basicity index. It is presented in this work values determined of viscosity in experimental form by means of the technique of inclined plane. (Author)
Motion on an Inclined Plane and the Nature of Science
Pendrill, Ann-Marie; Ekström, Peter; Hansson, Lena; Mars, Patrik; Ouattara, Lassana; Ryan, Ulrika
2014-01-01
Friction is an important phenomenon in everyday life. All children are familiar with playground slides, which may thus be a good starting point for investigating friction. Motion on an inclined plane is a standard physics example. This paper presents an investigation of friction by a group of 11-year olds. How did they plan their investigations?…
Kapucu, Serkan
2017-01-01
This study investigates how the acceleration and speed of a light-emitting object on an inclined plane may be determined using a smartphone's light sensor. A light-emitting object was released from the top of an inclined plane and its illuminance values were detected by a smartphone's light sensor during its subsequent motion down the plane. Using…
Neural extrapolation of motion for a ball rolling down an inclined plane.
La Scaleia, Barbara; Lacquaniti, Francesco; Zago, Myrka
2014-01-01
It is known that humans tend to misjudge the kinematics of a target rolling down an inclined plane. Because visuomotor responses are often more accurate and less prone to perceptual illusions than cognitive judgments, we asked the question of how rolling motion is extrapolated for manual interception or drawing tasks. In three experiments a ball rolled down an incline with kinematics that differed as a function of the starting position (4 different positions) and slope (30°, 45° or 60°). In Experiment 1, participants had to punch the ball as it fell off the incline. In Experiment 2, the ball rolled down the incline but was stopped at the end; participants were asked to imagine that the ball kept moving and to punch it. In Experiment 3, the ball rolled down the incline and was stopped at the end; participants were asked to draw with the hand in air the trajectory that would be described by the ball if it kept moving. We found that performance was most accurate when motion of the ball was visible until interception and haptic feedback of hand-ball contact was available (Experiment 1). However, even when participants punched an imaginary moving ball (Experiment 2) or drew in air the imaginary trajectory (Experiment 3), they were able to extrapolate to some extent global aspects of the target motion, including its path, speed and arrival time. We argue that the path and kinematics of a ball rolling down an incline can be extrapolated surprisingly well by the brain using both visual information and internal models of target motion.
Neural extrapolation of motion for a ball rolling down an inclined plane.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Barbara La Scaleia
Full Text Available It is known that humans tend to misjudge the kinematics of a target rolling down an inclined plane. Because visuomotor responses are often more accurate and less prone to perceptual illusions than cognitive judgments, we asked the question of how rolling motion is extrapolated for manual interception or drawing tasks. In three experiments a ball rolled down an incline with kinematics that differed as a function of the starting position (4 different positions and slope (30°, 45° or 60°. In Experiment 1, participants had to punch the ball as it fell off the incline. In Experiment 2, the ball rolled down the incline but was stopped at the end; participants were asked to imagine that the ball kept moving and to punch it. In Experiment 3, the ball rolled down the incline and was stopped at the end; participants were asked to draw with the hand in air the trajectory that would be described by the ball if it kept moving. We found that performance was most accurate when motion of the ball was visible until interception and haptic feedback of hand-ball contact was available (Experiment 1. However, even when participants punched an imaginary moving ball (Experiment 2 or drew in air the imaginary trajectory (Experiment 3, they were able to extrapolate to some extent global aspects of the target motion, including its path, speed and arrival time. We argue that the path and kinematics of a ball rolling down an incline can be extrapolated surprisingly well by the brain using both visual information and internal models of target motion.
Phase states of a 2D easy-plane ferromagnet with strong inclined anisotropy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fridman, Yu. A.; Klevets, F. N.; Gorelikov, G. A.; Meleshko, A. G.
2012-01-01
We investigate the spin states of a 2D film exhibiting easy-axis anisotropy and a strong single-ion inclined anisotropy whose axis forms a certain angle with the normal to the film surface. Such a system may have an angular ferromagnetic phase, a spatially inhomogeneous state, and a quadrupole phase, whose realization depends substantially on the inclined anisotropy and the orientation of the wavevector in the film plane.
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NR Yuliawati Zenab
2009-07-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find out whether there were changes in occlusal plane inclination after fixed orthodontic treatment of bimaxillary protrusion cases where extraction of four first premolars was needed using the standard Edgewise appliances. The sample was fourteen orthodontic patients, aged above sixteen years old, no sexual discrimination, treated with fixed appliances at Orthodontic Specialist Clinic Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran. The method was a pre-post design which compared occlusal plane inclination obtained from tracings of lateral cephalograms before and after orthodontic treatment. The results were calculated with the paired t-test analysis. The study revealed that there were no significant changes in occlusal plane inclination after the orthodontic treatment.
Granular flow down a flexible inclined plane
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Sonar Prasad
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Discrete and continuous systems are commonly studied individually, but seldom together. Indeed, granular flows are typically studied through flows over a rigid base. Here, we investigate the behaviour of granular flows over an inclined, flexible base. The flexible base is modeled as a rigid platform mounted on springs and has one degree of freedom. The base vibrations are introduced by the flow. We simulate such flows through a discrete element method and compare with experiments. We find that a flexible base increased the upper limit of the inclination up to which a steady flow is possible by at least 3 degrees. This stabilized zone may have important implications in applications such as conveyor belts and chutes.
Focal plane instrumentation: a very high resolution MWPC system for inclined tracks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertozzi, W.; Hynes, M.V.; Sargent, C.P.; Creswell, C.; Dunn, P.C.; Hirsch, A.; Leitch, M.; Norum, B.; Rad, F.N.; Sasanuma, T.
1977-01-01
A focal plane system has been developed for the MIT energy-loss spectrometer. The arrival time information from adjacent wires of one MWPC (s=2mm), is used to trace particle trajectories with a position resolution of 120μm (2sigma) and an angular resolution of less than 17 mrad (2sigma). The tracks are inclined to the MWPC at about 45 0 . The readout uses 3 delay lines connected to successive sense wires in a cyclical pattern. Coarse wire positions are determined by differences and drift times by sums of signal arrival times at the ends of the delays lines. A Cherenkov counter provides a fiducial signal. Interpolation is independent of drift velocity since the drift is normal to the sense plane. A similar readout with a second chamber provides position information perpendicular to momentum plane. This information is used to correct on-line for focal plane curvatures and other spectrometer aberrations. Final momentum resolution is about 10 -4 . (Auth.)
Fluorescence intensity dependence on the propagation plane inclination
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fernandez, J.E.; Rubio, Marcelo; Sanchez, H. J.
1987-01-01
An experimental confirmation of the fluorescence intensity behaviour with the inclination of the propagation plane (α angle) was carried out. A special angular sample-holder was developed and set up on our X-ray spectrometer. This sample-holder allows different positions of irradiation of the sample modifying the α angle until the maximum angle (α Μ ) is reached in the limit situation. In this work, this maximum angle was 86 deg and the incidence and take off angles were both 45 deg. The sample-holder and the collimation system were carefully lined up. The fluorescent spectra of three National Bureau of Standards (NBS) standard samples were taken for sixteen different α angle positions. The theoretical scheme for both enhanced fluorescent lines and nonenhanced fluorescent lines was confirmed, i.e. the invariance of the primary intensity with the α angle and the decline of the enhanced fluorescence intensities under the same conditions. This experimental confirmation agrees with theoretical prediction: the vanishing of the secondary fluorescence in the extreme case α = π/2. (Author) [es
The Flow of a Variable Viscosity Fluid down an Inclined Plane with a Free Surface
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M. S. Tshehla
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The effect of a temperature dependent variable viscosity fluid flow down an inclined plane with a free surface is investigated. The fluid film is thin, so that lubrication approximation may be applied. Convective heating effects are included, and the fluid viscosity decreases exponentially with temperature. In general, the flow equations resulting from the variable viscosity model must be solved numerically. However, when the viscosity variation is small, then an asymptotic approximation is possible. The full solutions for the temperature and velocity profiles are derived using the Runge-Kutta numerical method. The flow controlling parameters such as the nondimensional viscosity variation parameter, the Biot and the Brinkman numbers, are found to have a profound effect on the resulting flow profiles.
Investigating the Free-Body Diagram of a Stationary Object on an Inclined Plane Using Apple Watch
Dilek, Ufuk; Çaliskan, Serap
2017-01-01
In this study, we present an activity in which the free-body diagram of a real stationary object on an inclined plane can be examined interactively. We use an Apple Watch and a few other materials that can be accessed easily. Instead of an Apple Watch, a mobile phone or a tablet could also be used. This activity may be employed to introduce the…
Farret, Marcel Marchiori; Farret, Milton M. Benitez
2016-01-01
ABSTRACT Introduction: A canted occlusal plane presents an unesthetic element of the smile. The correction of this asymmetry has been typically considered difficult by orthodontists, as it requires complex mechanics and may sometimes even require orthognathic surgery. Objective: This paper outlines the case of a 29-year-old woman with Class II malocclusion, pronounced midline deviation and accentuated occlusal plane inclination caused by mandibular deciduous molar ankylosis. Methods: The patient was treated with a miniplate used to provide anchorage in order to intrude maxillary teeth and extrude mandibular teeth on one side, thus eliminating asymmetry. Class II was corrected on the left side by means of distalization, anchored in the miniplate as well. On the right side, maxillary first premolar was extracted and molar relationship was kept in Class II, while canines were moved to Class I relationship. The patient received implant-prosthetic rehabilitation for maxillary left lateral incisor and mandibular left second premolar. Results: At the end of treatment, Class II was corrected, midlines were matched and the canted occlusal plane was totally corrected, thereby improving smile function and esthetics. PMID:27409658
Multi-layer film flow down an inclined plane: experimental investigation
Henry, Daniel
2014-11-19
We report the results from an experimental study of the flow of a film down an inclined plane where the film itself is comprised of up to three layers of different liquids. By measuring the total film thickness for a broad range of parameters including flow rates and liquid physical properties, we provide a thorough and systematic test of the single-layer approximation for multi-layer films for Reynolds numbers Re = ρQ/μ≈0.03-60. In addition, we also measure the change in film thickness of individual layers as a function of flow rates for a variety of experimental configurations. With the aid of high-speed particle tracking, we derive the velocity fields and free-surface velocities to compare to the single-layer approximation. Furthermore, we provide experimental evidence of small capillary ridge formations close to the point where two layers merge and compare our experimental parameter range for the occurrence of this phenomenon to those previously reported.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marcel Marchiori Farret
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: A canted occlusal plane presents an unesthetic element of the smile. The correction of this asymmetry has been typically considered difficult by orthodontists, as it requires complex mechanics and may sometimes even require orthognathic surgery. Objective: This paper outlines the case of a 29-year-old woman with Class II malocclusion, pronounced midline deviation and accentuated occlusal plane inclination caused by mandibular deciduous molar ankylosis. Methods: The patient was treated with a miniplate used to provide anchorage in order to intrude maxillary teeth and extrude mandibular teeth on one side, thus eliminating asymmetry. Class II was corrected on the left side by means of distalization, anchored in the miniplate as well. On the right side, maxillary first premolar was extracted and molar relationship was kept in Class II, while canines were moved to Class I relationship. The patient received implant-prosthetic rehabilitation for maxillary left lateral incisor and mandibular left second premolar. Results: At the end of treatment, Class II was corrected, midlines were matched and the canted occlusal plane was totally corrected, thereby improving smile function and esthetics.
Investigating the free-body diagram of a stationary object on an inclined plane using Apple Watch
Dilek, Ufuk; Çalışkan, Serap
2017-11-01
In this study, we present an activity in which the free-body diagram of a real stationary object on an inclined plane can be examined interactively. We use an Apple Watch and a few other materials that can be accessed easily. Instead of an Apple Watch, a mobile phone or a tablet could also be used. This activity may be employed to introduce the fundamental concepts associated with free-body diagrams in classroom settings, or adapted to physics labs.
Diagnosing Model Errors in Simulations of Solar Radiation on Inclined Surfaces: Preprint
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xie, Yu; Sengupta, Manajit
2016-06-01
Transposition models have been widely used in the solar energy industry to simulate solar radiation on inclined PV panels. Following numerous studies comparing the performance of transposition models, this paper aims to understand the quantitative uncertainty in the state-of-the-art transposition models and the sources leading to the uncertainty. Our results suggest that an isotropic transposition model developed by Badescu substantially underestimates diffuse plane-of-array (POA) irradiances when diffuse radiation is perfectly isotropic. In the empirical transposition models, the selection of empirical coefficients and land surface albedo can both result in uncertainty in the output. This study can be used as a guide for future development of physics-based transposition models.
Zebeib, Ameen M; Naini, Farhad B
2014-12-01
The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of the Frankfort horizontal (FH), sella-nasion horizontal, and optic planes in terms of their variabilities in relation to a true horizontal line in orthognathic surgery patients. Thirty-six consecutive presurgical orthognathic patients (13 male, 23 female; age range, 16-35 years; 30 white, 6 African Caribbean) had lateral cephalometric radiographs taken in natural head position, with a plumb line orientating the true vertical line, and the true horizontal line perpendicular to the true vertical. The inclinations of the anatomic reference planes were compared with the true horizontal. The FH plane was found to be on average closest to the true horizontal, with a mean of -1.6° (SD, 3.4°), whereas the sella-nasion horizontal and the optic plane had means of 2.1° (SD, 5.1°) and 3.2° (SD, 4.7°), respectively. The FH showed the least variability of the 3 anatomic planes. The ranges of variability were high for all anatomic planes: -8° to 8° for the FH, -8° to 15° for the sella-nasion horizontal, and -6° to 13° for the optic plane. No significant differences were found in relation to patients' sex, skeletal patterns, or ethnic backgrounds. The clinically significant variability in the inclinations of anatomic reference planes in relation to the true horizontal plane makes their use unreliable in orthognathic patients. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Predicting daylight illuminance on inclined surfaces using sky luminance data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, D.H.W.; Lau, C.C.S.; Lam, J.C. [City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon (China). Dept. of Building and Construction
2005-07-01
Daylight illuminance, particularly on vertical surfaces, plays a major role in determining and evaluating the daylighting performance of a building. In many parts of the world, however, the basic daylight illuminance data for various vertical planes are not always readily available. The usual method to obtain diffuse illuminance on tilted planes would be based on inclined surface models using data from the horizontal measurements. Alternatively, the diffuse illuminance on a sloping plane can be computed by integrating the luminance distribution of the sky 'seen' by the plane. This paper presents an approach to estimate the vertical outdoor illuminance from sky luminance data and solar geometry. Sky luminance data recorded from January 1999 to December 2001 in Hong Kong and generated by two well-known sky luminance models (Kittler and Perez) were used to compute the outdoor illuminance for the four principal vertical planes (N, E, S and W). The performance of this approach was evaluated against data measured in the same period. Statistical analysis indicated that using sky luminance distributions to predict outdoor illuminance can give reasonably good agreement with measured data for all vertical surfaces. The findings provide an accurate alternative to determine the amount of daylight on vertical as well as other inclined surfaces when sky luminance data are available. (author)
Variation of the Friction Coefficient for a Cylinder Rolling down an Inclined Board
Yan, Zixiang; Xia, Heming; Lan, Yueheng; Xiao, Jinghua
2018-01-01
A cylinder rolling down an inclined board is a commonly seen and interesting object to study and it is also easy to experiment with and model. Following what has become a popular practice, we use smartphones to measure the angular acceleration of a cylinder rolling down a plane of different inclining angles. The friction force deviates from the…
Natural Frequencies and Mode Shapes of Statically Deformed Inclined Risers
Alfosail, Feras
2016-10-15
We investigate numerically the linear vibrations of inclined risers using the Galerkin approach. The riser is modeled as an Euler-Bernoulli beam accounting for the nonlinear mid-plane stretching and self-weight. After solving for the initial deflection of the riser due to self-weight, we use a Galerkin expansion employing 15 axially loaded beam mode shapes to solve the eigenvalue problem of the riser around the static equilibrium configuration. This yields the riser natural frequencies and corresponding exact mode shapes for various values of inclination angles and tension. The obtained results are validated against a boundary-layer analytical solution and are found to be in good agreement. This constitutes a basis to study the nonlinear forced vibrations of inclined risers.
Stratified flow model for convective condensation in an inclined tube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lips, Stéphane; Meyer, Josua P.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Convective condensation in an inclined tube is modelled. ► The heat transfer coefficient is the highest for about 20° below the horizontal. ► Capillary forces have a strong effect on the liquid–vapour interface shape. ► A good agreement between the model and the experimental results was observed. - Abstract: Experimental data are reported for condensation of R134a in an 8.38 mm inner diameter smooth tube in inclined orientations with a mass flux of 200 kg/m 2 s. Under these conditions, the flow is stratified and there is an optimum inclination angle, which leads to the highest heat transfer coefficient. There is a need for a model to better understand and predict the flow behaviour. In this paper, the state of the art of existing models of stratified two-phase flows in inclined tubes is presented, whereafter a new mechanistic model is proposed. The liquid–vapour distribution in the tube is determined by taking into account the gravitational and the capillary forces. The comparison between the experimental data and the model prediction showed a good agreement in terms of heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops. The effect of the interface curvature on the heat transfer coefficient has been quantified and has been found to be significant. The optimum inclination angle is due to a balance between an increase of the void fraction and an increase in the falling liquid film thickness when the tube is inclined downwards. The effect of the mass flux and the vapour quality on the optimum inclination angle has also been studied.
Dynamic Fracturing Behavior of Layered Rock with Different Inclination Angles in SHPB Tests
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiadong Qiu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The fracturing behavior of layered rocks is usually influenced by bedding planes. In this paper, five groups of bedded sandstones with different bedding inclination angles θ are used to carry out impact compression tests by split Hopkinson pressure bar. A high-speed camera is used to capture the fracturing process of specimens. Based on testing results, three failure patterns are identified and classified, including (A splitting along bedding planes; (B sliding failure along bedding planes; (C fracturing across bedding planes. The failure pattern (C can be further classified into three subcategories: (C1 fracturing oblique to loading direction; (C2 fracturing parallel to loading direction; (C3 mixed fracturing across bedding planes. Meanwhile, a numerical model of layered rock and SHPB system are established by particle flow code (PFC. The numerical results show that the shear stress is the main reason for inducing the damage along bedding plane at θ = 0°~75°. Both tensile stress and shear stress on bedding planes contribute to the splitting failure along bedding planes when the inclination angle is 90°. Besides, tensile stress is the main reason that leads to the damage in rock matrixes at θ = 0°~90°.
UNBIASED INCLINATION DISTRIBUTIONS FOR OBJECTS IN THE KUIPER BELT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gulbis, A. A. S.; Elliot, J. L.; Adams, E. R.; Benecchi, S. D.; Buie, M. W.; Trilling, D. E.; Wasserman, L. H.
2010-01-01
Using data from the Deep Ecliptic Survey (DES), we investigate the inclination distributions of objects in the Kuiper Belt. We present a derivation for observational bias removal and use this procedure to generate unbiased inclination distributions for Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs) of different DES dynamical classes, with respect to the Kuiper Belt plane. Consistent with previous results, we find that the inclination distribution for all DES KBOs is well fit by the sum of two Gaussians, or a Gaussian plus a generalized Lorentzian, multiplied by sin i. Approximately 80% of KBOs are in the high-inclination grouping. We find that Classical object inclinations are well fit by sin i multiplied by the sum of two Gaussians, with roughly even distribution between Gaussians of widths 2.0 +0.6 -0.5 0 and 8.1 +2.6 -2.1 0 . Objects in different resonances exhibit different inclination distributions. The inclinations of Scattered objects are best matched by sin i multiplied by a single Gaussian that is centered at 19.1 +3.9 -3.6 0 with a width of 6.9 +4.1 -2.7 0 . Centaur inclinations peak just below 20 0 , with one exceptionally high-inclination object near 80 0 . The currently observed inclination distribution of the Centaurs is not dissimilar to that of the Scattered Extended KBOs and Jupiter-family comets, but is significantly different from the Classical and Resonant KBOs. While the sample sizes of some dynamical classes are still small, these results should begin to serve as a critical diagnostic for models of solar system evolution.
The influence of incline walking on joint mechanics.
Haggerty, Mason; Dickin, D Clark; Popp, Jennifer; Wang, Henry
2014-04-01
Walking is a popular form of exercise and is associated with many health benefits; however, frontal-plane knee joint loading brought about by a large internal knee-abduction moment and cyclic loading could lead to cartilage degeneration over time. Therefore, knee joint mechanics during an alternative walking exercise needs to be analyzed. The purpose of this study was to examine the lower-extremity joint mechanics in the frontal and sagittal planes during incline walking. Fifteen healthy males walked on a treadmill at five gradients (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) at 1.34m/s, and lower-extremity joint mechanics in the frontal and sagittal planes were quantified. The peak internal knee-abduction moment significantly decreased from the level walking condition at all gradients except 5%. Also, a negative relationship between the internal knee-abduction moment and the treadmill gradient was found to exist in 10% increments (0-10%, 5-15%, and 10-20%). The decrease in the internal knee-abduction moment during incline walking could have positive effects on knee joint health such as potentially reducing cartilage degeneration of the knee joint, reducing pain, and decreasing the rate of development of medial tibiofemoral osteoarthritis. This would be beneficial for a knee surgery patient, obese persons, and older adults who are using incline walking for rehabilitation and exercise protocols. Findings from the current study can provide guidance for the development of rehabilitation and exercise prescriptions incorporating incline walking. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y Torres
2010-12-01
Full Text Available La conocida fórmula de difracción de Fresnel relaciona la distribución de amplitud compleja de una onda en el plano objeto (campo ondulatorio de entrada con la distribución de amplitud compleja de la onda en el plano imagen(campo ondulatorio de salida cuando se trata de propagación en el espaciolibre; esto signiﬁca que si los planos objeto e imagen son paralelos entre sí, el sistema imagen correspondiente se dice que es un sistema lineal invariantea desplazamiento (LSI. Esta propiedad ventajosa es esencial para el desarrollo de técnicas de imagen sensitivas a fase; sin embargo, si el plano imagen está inclinado con respecto al haz incidente, la distancia efectiva de propagación cambiará sobre el plano imagen, consecuentemente el sistema imagen será no invariante a desplazamiento. En este artículo es propuesta una extensión del formalismo de la difracción de Fresnel al caso de un plano imageninclinado utilizando la transformada de Fourier de orden fraccional.The well-known Fresnel integral relates a known complex wave defined in the object plane (the input wave field to the observable complex wave (the output wave field defined in the image plane after free-space propagation; this means that if the object and image plane are parallel to each other, corresponding imaging system is said to be linear-shift-invariant (LSI. This advantageous property was essential for the development of phase sensitive imaging techniques; however, if the image plane is inclined with respect to the incident beam, the effective propagation distance will vary over the image plane, consequently, the imaging system is not shiftinvariant. In this paper an extension of the theoretical formalism of Fresnel diffraction to the case of an inclined image plane is proposed using the fractional Fourier transform.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rajagopal, K.R.
1995-09-01
The mechanics of the flowing granular materials such as coal, agricultural products, fertilizers, dry chemicals, metal ores, etc. have received a great deal of attention as it has relevance to several important technological problems. Despite wide interest and more than five decades of experimental and theoretical investigations, most aspects of the behavior of flowing granular materials are still not well understood. So Experiments have to be devised which quantify and describe the non-linear behavior of the granular materials, and theories developed which can explain the experimentally observed facts. Here we carry out a systematic numerical study of the flow of granular materials down an inclined plane using the models that stem from both the continuum theory approach and the kinetic theory approach. We also look at the existence of solutions, multiplicity and stability of solutions to the governing equations.
Ryu, Brian; Dhong, Charles; Frechette, Joelle
While it is well known that surface asperities and roughness alter the hydrodynamic drag of a non-colloidal sphere down an inclined plane, less is known about how the hydrodynamic drag is modified if the asperities and roughness are connected through a network of drainage channels, which allows the movement of fluid between asperities. We investigate the rotational and translation motion of spheres on several pairs of surfaces that have the same porosity and asperity size, but one surface has interconnected drainage channels whereas the other does not. These can have direct relevance to lubricated surfaces such as ball bearings in industrial settings, or biological relevance of leucocyte movement across rough surfaces. Provost's Undergraduate Research Awards, Office of Naval Research, National Science Foundation.
Inclined monochromator for high heat-load synchrotron x-ray radiation
Khounsary, Ali M.
1994-01-01
A double crystal monochromator including two identical, parallel crystals, each of which is cut such that the normal to the diffraction planes of interest makes an angle less than 90 degrees with the surface normal. Diffraction is symmetric, regardless of whether the crystals are symmetrically or asymmetrically cut, enabling operation of the monochromator with a fixed plane of diffraction. As a result of the inclination of the crystal surface, an incident beam has a footprint area which is elongated both vertically and horizontally when compared to that of the conventional monochromator, reducing the heat flux of the incident beam and enabling more efficient surface cooling. Because after inclination of the crystal only a fraction of thermal distortion lies in the diffraction plane, slope errors and the resultant misorientation of the diffracted beam are reduced.
An analytic solution of the static problem of inclined risers conveying fluid
Alfosail, Feras
2016-05-28
We use the method of matched asymptotic expansion to develop an analytic solution to the static problem of clamped–clamped inclined risers conveying fluid. The inclined riser is modeled as an Euler–Bernoulli beam taking into account its self-weight, mid-plane stretching, an applied axial tension, and the internal fluid velocity. The solution consists of three parts: an outer solution valid away from the two boundaries and two inner solutions valid near the two ends. The three solutions are then matched and combined into a so-called composite expansion. A Newton–Raphson method is used to determine the value of the mid-plane stretching corresponding to each applied tension and internal velocity. The analytic solution is in good agreement with those obtained with other solution methods for large values of applied tensions. Therefore, it can be used to replace other mathematical solution methods that suffer numerical limitations and high computational cost. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mjøsund, Hanne Leirbekk; Boyle, Eleanor; Kjær, Per
2017-01-01
. CONCLUSIONS: We found a clinically acceptable level of agreement between these two methods for measuring standing lumbar inclination motion in these two cardinal movement planes. Further research should investigate the ViMove system's ability to measure lumbar motion in more complex 3D functional movements...
Tomar, Dharmendra S.; Sharma, Gaurav
2018-01-01
We analyzed the linear stability of surfactant-laden liquid film with a free surface flowing down an inclined plane under the action of gravity when the inclined plane is coated with a deformable solid layer. For a flow past a rigid incline and in the presence of inertia, the gas-liquid (GL) interface is prone to the free surface instability and the presence of surfactant is known to stabilize the free surface mode when the Marangoni number increases above a critical value. The rigid surface configuration also admits a surfactant induced Marangoni mode which remains stable for film flows with a free surface. This Marangoni mode was observed to become unstable for a surfactant covered film flow past a flexible inclined plane in a creeping flow limit when the wall is made sufficiently deformable. In view of these observations, we investigate the following two aspects. First, what is the effect of inertia on Marangoni mode instability induced by wall deformability? Second, and more importantly, whether it is possible to use a deformable solid coating to obtain stable flow for the surfactant covered film for cases when the Marangoni number is below the critical value required for stabilization of free surface instability. In order to explore the first question, we continued the growth rates for the Marangoni mode from the creeping flow limit to finite Reynolds numbers (Re) and observed that while the increase in Reynolds number has a small stabilizing effect on growth rates, the Marangoni mode still remains unstable for finite Reynolds numbers as long as the wall is sufficiently deformable. The Marangoni mode remains the dominant mode for zero and small Reynolds numbers until the GL mode also becomes unstable with the increase in Re. Thus, for a given set of parameters and beyond a critical Re, there is an exchange of dominant mode of instability from the Marangoni to free surface GL mode. With respect to the second important aspect, our results clearly demonstrate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bazan, V.; Goni, C.; Castella, L.; Brandaleze, E.; Verdeja, L. F.; Parra, R.
2006-07-01
The viscosity of the lands represents one of the most relevant variables of most of the processes metallurgical and kinetics of the refine operations, since it is one of the decisive factors of the efficiency in the reactions between metal and lag, as much as slag-refractory. In the last decades, the mathematical models of different metallurgical processes have established methods to predict viscosity of mixtures of oxides fused to high temperatures in function of the chemical composition. The model developed by Toguri, based on the data reported by Johasen and Winterhager et al has proposed the Kv model. The used index it is similar to the relationship used in the steel industry like the basicity index. It is presented in this work values determined of viscosity in experimental form by means of the technique of inclined plane. (Author)
Particle transport in inclined annuli
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kurtzhals, Erik
1993-12-31
A new model for the formation and behaviour of deposits in inclined wellbores is formulated. The annular space is divided into two layers, separated by a distinct plane boundary. While the lower layer is taken to consist of closely packed cuttings, the upper layer is presumed to behave as a pure fluid. A force balance for the lower layer decides whether it is stationary or slides in the upwards- or downwards direction. The position of the deposit surface is governed by the fluid shear stress at the deposit surface. The proposed model represents a major improvement compared to an earlier model. The predictions from the SCSB-model are in good qualitative agreement with experimental results obtained by the author, and results published by research groups in the U.S.A., United Kingdom and Germany. The quantitative agreement is variable, presumably because the SCSB-model is a somewhat simplified description of particle behaviour in inclined annuli. However, the model provides a clearer understanding of the physical background for previously published experimental results. In order to couple the theoretical work with experimental observations, an annular flow loop has been constructed. A characteristic feature in the flow loop design is the application of load cells, which permits determination of the annular particle content at steady state as well as under transient conditions. Due to delays in the constructional work, it has only been possible to perform a limited number of investigations in the loop. However, the results produced are in agreement with results published by other research groups. (au)
Particle transport in inclined annuli
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kurtzhals, Erik
1994-12-31
A new model for the formation and behaviour of deposits in inclined wellbores is formulated. The annular space is divided into two layers, separated by a distinct plane boundary. While the lower layer is taken to consist of closely packed cuttings, the upper layer is presumed to behave as a pure fluid. A force balance for the lower layer decides whether it is stationary or slides in the upwards- or downwards direction. The position of the deposit surface is governed by the fluid shear stress at the deposit surface. The proposed model represents a major improvement compared to an earlier model. The predictions from the SCSB-model are in good qualitative agreement with experimental results obtained by the author, and results published by research groups in the U.S.A., United Kingdom and Germany. The quantitative agreement is variable, presumably because the SCSB-model is a somewhat simplified description of particle behaviour in inclined annuli. However, the model provides a clearer understanding of the physical background for previously published experimental results. In order to couple the theoretical work with experimental observations, an annular flow loop has been constructed. A characteristic feature in the flow loop design is the application of load cells, which permits determination of the annular particle content at steady state as well as under transient conditions. Due to delays in the constructional work, it has only been possible to perform a limited number of investigations in the loop. However, the results produced are in agreement with results published by other research groups. (au)
Geosynchronous inclined orbits for high-latitude communications
Fantino, E.; Flores, R. M.; Di Carlo, M.; Di Salvo, A.; Cabot, E.
2017-11-01
We present and discuss a solution to the growing demand for satellite telecommunication coverage in the high-latitude geographical regions (beyond 55°N), where the signal from geostationary satellites is limited or unavailable. We focus on the dynamical issues associated to the design, the coverage, the maintenance and the disposal of a set of orbits selected for the purpose. Specifically, we identify a group of highly inclined, moderately eccentric geosynchronous orbits derived from the Tundra orbit (geosynchronous, eccentric and critically inclined). Continuous coverage can be guaranteed by a constellation of three satellites in equally spaced planes and suitably phased. By means of a high-precision model of the terrestrial gravity field and the relevant environmental perturbations, we study the evolution of these orbits. The effects of the different perturbations on the ground track (which is more important for coverage than the orbital elements themselves) are isolated and analyzed. The physical model and the numerical setup are optimized with respect to computing time and accuracy. We show that, in order to maintain the ground track unchanged, the key parameters are the orbital period and the argument of perigee. Furthermore, corrections to the right ascension of the ascending node are needed in order to preserve the relative orientation of the orbital planes. A station-keeping strategy that minimizes propellant consumption is then devised, and comparisons are made between the cost of a solution based on impulsive maneuvers and one with continuous thrust. Finally, the issue of end-of-life disposal is discussed.
PLANET FORMATION IN HIGHLY INCLINED BINARY SYSTEMS. I. PLANETESIMALS JUMP INWARD AND PILE UP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xie Jiwei; Zhou Jilin; Payne, Matthew J.; Ge Jian; Thebault, Philippe
2011-01-01
Most detected planet-bearing binaries are in wide orbits, for which a high inclination, i B , between the binary orbital plane and the plane of the planetary disk around the primary is likely to be common. In this paper, we investigate the intermediate stages-from planetesimals to planetary embryos/cores-of planet formation in such highly inclined cases. Our focus is on the effects of gas drag on the planetesimals' orbital evolution, in particular on the evolution of the planetesimals' semimajor axis distribution and their mutual relative velocities. We first demonstrate that a non-evolving axisymmetric disk model is a good approximation for studying the effects of gas drag on a planetesimal in the highly inclined case (30 deg. B B . For both regimes, a robust outcome over a wide range of parameters is that planetesimals migrate/jump inward and pile up, leading to a severely truncated and dense planetesimal disk around the primary. In this compact and dense disk, collision rates are high but relative velocities are low, providing conditions that are favorable for planetesimal growth and potentially allow for the subsequent formation of planets.
Magnetic inclination from Brazilian bricks and application to Archeomagnetic dating
Begnini, G. S.; Hartmann, G. A.; Trindade, R. I.
2013-05-01
The Earth's magnetic field (EMF) is recorded in archeological baked materials carrying a stable remanent magnetization. This magnetic record can be used for indirectly date the archeological material by comparison with "reference curves" of the EMF. In this work we present magnetic inclination data from two different sites in southeastern Brazil, an ancient and a modern one: (a) a sampling at the ancient sugarcane mill Engenho Central de Piracicaba (ECP, 1881-1974 AD), and (b) a controlled survey at the modern brickyard Olaria Schiavolin (OS). Both of them are located in the city of Piracicaba, São Paulo State, Brazil. Magnetic measurements included stepwise thermal and alternating field demagnetization, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and low-field magnetic susceptibility vs. temperature. In OS, we collected 40 oriented bricks from 5 sampling points inside the brickyard oven in order to test the stability and reliability of their remanent magnetizations by comparing them with the local field (measured directly with a fluxgate magnetometer). We observed differences of +/- 3° between the local field and the IGRF. When magnetic inclinations are reported relative to the flat planes of the brick (the situation we face for real ancient bricks), the differences due to inclination of the burning plane and magnetic anomalies inside the oven never exceed 6°. These differences are averaged out by using a minimum of 6 bricks (~24 specimens) per sampling point to compute the inclination. In the ancient site ECP we collected 140 non-oriented bricks from 14 different walls; three of them were previously dated using historical records. Inclinations were defined using at least 6 bricks per wall, showing consistent average values within the same walls. When compared to the IGRF and GUFM1 models, the inclinations obtained for the dated walls agreed within the experimental error. We have then applied the same procedure to estimate the age of the remaining walls. Using
Non-spherical granular flows down inclined chutes
Hidalgo, R.C.; Rubio-Largo, S.M.; Alonso-Marroquin, F.; Weinhart, T.
2017-01-01
In this work, we numerically examine the steady-state granular flow of 3D non-spherical particles down an inclined plane. We use a hybrid CPU/GPU implementation of the discrete element method of nonspherical elongated particles. Thus, a systematic study of the system response is performed varying
Measurement of the buccolingual inclination of teeth: manual technique vs 3-dimensional software.
Nouri, Mahtab; Abdi, Amir Hossein; Farzan, Arash; Mokhtarpour, Faraneh; Baghban, AliReza Akbarzadeh
2014-10-01
In this study, we aimed to measure the inclination of teeth on dental casts by a manual technique with the tooth inclination protractor (TIP; MBI, Newport, United Kingdom) and a newly designed 3-dimensional (3D) software program. The correlation of the 2 techniques was evaluated, and the reliability of each technique was assessed separately. This study was conducted on 36 dental casts of normal, well-aligned Class I occlusions; we assessed 432 teeth. All casts had a normal Class I occlusion. After determining the facial axis of the clinical crown and the facial axis points on the dental casts, we measured the inclinations of the incisors and posterior teeth up to the first molars in each dental arch relative to Andrews' occlusal plane and the posterior occlusal plane using the TIP. Moreover, the casts were scanned by a structured-light 3D scanner. The inclination of teeth relative to the occlusal plane was determined using the new software. To assess the reliability, measurements of all teeth from 15 casts were repeated twice by the 2 methods. Intraclass correlation coefficient and Dahlberg's formula were used for calculation of correlation and reliability. Overall, the 2 techniques were not significantly different in the measurements of the inclinations of the teeth in both jaws. The ranges of Dahlberg's formula were 3.1° to 5.8° for the maxilla and 3.3° to 5.9° for the mandible. The overall correlation of the 2 techniques according to the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.91. For calculation of reliability, the intraclass correlation coefficients for the TIP and the 3D method were 0.73 and 0.82, respectively. The TIP and the 3D software showed a high correlation for measurement of the inclinations of maxillary and mandibular teeth relative to the occlusal plane. Also, the reproducibility of the measurements in each method was high. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rolling and slipping down Galileo close-quote s inclined plane: Rhythms of the spheres
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crawford, F.S.
1996-01-01
In ''Two New Sciences'' (TNS) Galileo presents a number of theorems and propositions for smooth solid spheres released from rest and rolling a distance d in time t down an incline of height H and length L. We collect and summarize his results in a single grand proportionality P: d 1 /d 2 =(t 2 1 /t 2 2 )(H/L) 1 /(H/L) 2 . (P) From TNS it is clear that what we call P is assumed by Galileo to hold for all inclinations including vertical free fall with H/L=1. But in TNS he describes only experiments with gentle inclinations H/L 1 while rolling down a gentle incline is deflected so as to be launched horizontally with speed v 1 into a free fall orbit discovered by Galileo to be a parabola. The measured horizontal distance X 2 traveled in this parabolic orbit (for a given vertical distance fallen to the floor) was smaller than he expected, by a factor 0.84. But that is exactly what we (moderns) expect, since we know that Galileo did not appreciate the difference between rolling without slipping, and slipping on a frictionless surface
Superior glenoid inclination and rotator cuff tears.
Chalmers, Peter N; Beck, Lindsay; Granger, Erin; Henninger, Heath; Tashjian, Robert Z
2018-03-23
The objectives of this study were to determine whether glenoid inclination (1) could be measured accurately on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using computed tomography (CT) as a gold standard, (2) could be measured reliably on MRI, and (3) whether it differed between patients with rotator cuff tears and age-matched controls without evidence of rotator cuff tears or glenohumeral osteoarthritis. In this comparative retrospective radiographic study, we measured glenoid inclination on T1 coronal MRI corrected into the plane of the scapula. We determined accuracy by comparison with CT and inter-rater reliability. We compared glenoid inclination between patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears and patients aged >50 years without evidence of a rotator cuff tear or glenohumeral arthritis. An a priori power analysis determined adequate power to detect a 2° difference in glenoid inclination. (1) In a validation cohort of 37 patients with MRI and CT, the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.877, with a mean difference of 0° (95% confidence interval, -1° to 1°). (2) For MRI inclination, the inter-rater intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.911. (3) Superior glenoid inclination was 2° higher (range, 1°-4°, P rotator cuff tear group of 192 patients than in the control cohort of 107 patients. Glenoid inclination can be accurately and reliably measured on MRI. Although superior glenoid inclination is statistically greater in those with rotator cuff tears than in patients of similar age without rotator cuff tears or glenohumeral arthritis, the difference is likely below clinical significance. Copyright © 2018 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Changing Images of the Inclined Plane: A Case Study of a Revolution in American Science Education
Turner, Steven C.
2012-02-01
Between 1880 and 1920 the way science was taught in American High Schools changed dramatically. The old "lecture/demonstration" method, where information was presented to essentially passive students, was replaced by the "laboratory" method, where students performed their own experiments in specially constructed student laboratories. National leadership in education was generally weak during this period, and the new method required significant investments by the schools, but within a few decades American science education was rapidly and completely transformed. Previous studies of this fundamental change have concentrated on the activities of organizations like the NEA, the Bureau of Education and a few major universities, but the way in which these groups were able to effect actual changes in classroom practice is not completely clear. This article attempts to broaden the existing narrative by integrating the rich and largely ignored material culture of science education—such things as textbooks, lab manuals, student notebooks, science teaching instruments and scientific instrument catalogs. Surprisingly, much of this story can be seen in changes to the depiction of a single, venerable and otherwise unremarkable teaching instrument: the inclined plane.
Characterization and improvement of highly inclined optical sheet microscopy
Vignolini, T.; Curcio, V.; Gardini, L.; Capitanio, M.; Pavone, F. S.
2018-02-01
Highly Inclined and Laminated Optical sheet (HILO) microscopy is an optical technique that employs a highly inclined laser beam to illuminate the sample with a thin sheet of light that can be scanned through the sample volume1 . HILO is an efficient illumination technique when applied to fluorescence imaging of thick samples owing to the confined illumination volume that allows high contrast imaging while retaining deep scanning capability in a wide-field configuration. The restricted illumination volume is crucial to limit background fluorescence originating from portions of the sample far from the focal plane, especially in applications such as single molecule localization and super-resolution imaging2-4. Despite its widespread use, current literature lacks comprehensive reports of the actual advantages of HILO in these kinds of microscopies. Here, we thoroughly characterize the propagation of a highly inclined beam through fluorescently labeled samples and implement appropriate beam shaping for optimal application to single molecule and super-resolution imaging. We demonstrate that, by reducing the beam size along the refracted axis only, the excitation volume is consequently reduced while maintaining a field of view suitable for single cell imaging. We quantify the enhancement in signal-tobackground ratio with respect to the standard HILO technique and apply our illumination method to dSTORM superresolution imaging of the actin and vimentin cytoskeleton. We define the conditions to achieve localization precisions comparable to state-of-the-art reports, obtain a significant improvement in the image contrast, and enhanced plane selectivity within the sample volume due to the further confinement of the inclined beam.
Experimental study on flow pattern transitions for inclined two-phase flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kwak, Nam Yee; Lee, Jae Young [Handong Univ., Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Man Woong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2007-07-01
In this paper, experimental data on flow pattern transition of inclination angles from 0-90 are presented. A test section is constructed 2 mm long and I.D 1inch using transparent material. The test section is supported by aluminum frame that can be placed with any arbitrary inclined angles. The air-water two-phase flow is observed at room temperature and atmospheric condition using both high speed camera and void impedance meter. The signal is sampled with sampling rate 1kHz and is analyzed under fully-developed condition. Based on experimental data, flow pattern maps are made for various inclination angles. As increasing the inclination angels from 0 to 90, the flow pattern transitions on the plane jg-jf are changed, such as stratified flow to plug flow or slug flow or plug flow to bubbly flow. The transition lines between pattern regimes are moved or sometimes disappeared due to its inclined angle.
Aqua/Aura Updated Inclination Adjust Maneuver Performance Prediction Model
Boone, Spencer
2017-01-01
This presentation will discuss the updated Inclination Adjust Maneuver (IAM) performance prediction model that was developed for Aqua and Aura following the 2017 IAM series. This updated model uses statistical regression methods to identify potential long-term trends in maneuver parameters, yielding improved predictions when re-planning past maneuvers. The presentation has been reviewed and approved by Eric Moyer, ESMO Deputy Project Manager.
Model and experimental vizualisation of a bubble interacting with an inclined wall
Podvin, Berengere; Khoja, Suleman; Attinger, Daniel; Moraga, Francisco
2006-11-01
We describe the motion of an air bubble rising through water as it interacts with a wall of variable inclination. The bubble diameter varies about O(1) mm. We use lubrication theory to determine the modification of the bubble interface and compute the hydrodynamic force exerted by the wall. The present work is an extension of Moraga et al's model [Computers and Fluids 2006], which was devised for a horizontal wall. The predictions of the model are checked against experimental visualizations. The influence of the Weber number, Reynolds number and wall inclination is examined
Alvarado, Patricio R.; Montalvo, Luis
This is the fifth book in a five-book physical science series on simple machines. The books are designed for Spanish-speaking junior high school students. This volume explains the principles and some of the uses of inclined planes, as they appear in simple machines, by suggesting experiments and posing questions concerning drawings in the book…
Radio-loudness in black hole transients: evidence for an inclination effect
Motta, S. E.; Casella, P.; Fender, R.
2018-06-01
Accreting stellar-mass black holes appear to populate two branches in a radio:X-ray luminosity plane. We have investigated the X-ray variability properties of a large number of black hole low-mass X-ray binaries, with the aim of unveiling the physical reasons underlying the radio-loud/radio-quiet nature of these sources, in the context of the known accretion-ejection connection. A reconsideration of the available radio and X-ray data from a sample of black hole X-ray binaries confirms that being radio-quiet is the more normal mode of behaviour for black hole binaries. In the light of this we chose to test, once more, the hypothesis that radio loudness could be a consequence of the inclination of the X-ray binary. We compared the slope of the `hard-line' (an approximately linear correlation between X-ray count rate and rms variability, visible in the hard states of active black holes), the orbital inclination, and the radio-nature of the sources of our sample. We found that high-inclination objects show steeper hard-lines than low-inclination objects, and tend to display a radio-quiet nature (with the only exception of V404 Cyg), as opposed to low-inclination objects, which appear to be radio-loud(er). While in need of further confirmation, our results suggest that - contrary to what has been believed for years - the radio-loud/quiet nature of black-hole low mass X-ray binaries might be an inclination effect, rather than an intrinsic source property. This would solve an important issue in the context of the inflow-outflow connection, thus providing significant constraints to the models for the launch of hard-state compact jets.
Modelling and Simulation of Free Floating Pig for Different Pipeline Inclination Angles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Woldemichael Dereje Engida
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a modelling and simulation of free floating pig to determine the flow parameters to avoid pig stalling in pigging operation. A free floating spherical shaped pig was design and equipped with necessary sensors to detect leak along the pipeline. The free floating pig does not have internal or external power supply to navigate through the pipeline. Instead, it is being driven by the flowing medium. In order to avoid stalling of the pig, it is essential to conduct simulation to determine the necessary flow parameters for different inclination angles. Accordingly, a pipeline section with inclination of 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, and 90° were modelled and simulated using ANSYS FLUENT 15.0 with water and oil as working medium. For each case, the minimum velocity required to propel the free floating pig through the inclination were determined. In addition, the trajectory of the free floating pig has been visualized in the simulation.
[Reliability study in the measurement of the cusp inclination angle of a chairside digital model].
Xinggang, Liu; Xiaoxian, Chen
2018-02-01
This study aims to evaluate the reliability of the software Picpick in the measurement of the cusp inclination angle of a digital model. Twenty-one trimmed models were used as experimental objects. The chairside digital impression was then used for the acquisition of 3D digital models, and the software Picpick was employed for the measurement of the cusp inclination of these models. The measurements were repeated three times, and the results were compared with a gold standard, which was a manually measured experimental model cusp angle. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated. The paired t test value of the two measurement methods was 0.91. The ICCs between the two measurement methods and three repeated measurements were greater than 0.9. The digital model achieved a smaller coefficient of variation (9.9%). The software Picpick is reliable in measuring the cusp inclination of a digital model.
An experimental investigation of stratified two-phase pipe flow at small inclinations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Espedal, Mikal
1998-12-31
The prediction of stratified flow is important for several industrial applications. Stratified flow experiments were carefully performed in order to investigate the performance of a typical model which uses wall friction factors based on single phase pipe flow as described above. The test facility has a 18.5 m long and 60 mm i.d. (L/D=300) acrylic test section which can be inclined between -10 {sup o} and +10 {sup o}. The liquid holdup was measured by using fast closing valves and the pressure gradients by using three differential pressure transducers. Interfacial waves were measured by thin wire conductance probes mounted in a plane perpendicular to the main flow. The experiments were performed using water and air at atmospheric pressure. The selected test section inclinations were between -3 {sup o} and +0.5 {sup o} to the horizontal plane. A large number of experiments were performed for different combinations of air and water flow rates and the rates were limited to avoid slug flow and stratified flow with liquid droplets. The pressure gradient and the liquid holdup were measured. In addition the wave probes were used to find the wave heights and the wave power spectra. The results show that the predicted pressure gradient using the standard models is approximately 30% lower than the measured value when large amplitude waves are present. When the flow is driven by the interfacial force the test section inclination has minor influence on the deviation between predicted and measured pressure gradients. Similar trends are apparent in data from the literature, although they seem to have gone unnoticed. For several data sets large spread in the predictions are observed when the model described above was used. Gas wall shear stress experiments indicate that the main cause of the deviation between measured and predicted pressure gradient and holdup resides in the modelling of the liquid wall friction term. Measurements of the liquid wall shear stress distribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anaïs Khuong
Full Text Available The goal of this study is to describe accurately how the directional information given by support inclinations affects the ant Lasius niger motion in terms of a behavioral decision. To this end, we have tracked the spontaneous motion of 345 ants walking on a 0.5×0.5 m plane canvas, which was tilted with 5 various inclinations by [Formula: see text] rad ([Formula: see text] data points. At the population scale, support inclination favors dispersal along uphill and downhill directions. An ant's decision making process is modeled using a version of the Boltzmann Walker model, which describes an ant's random walk as a series of straight segments separated by reorientation events, and was extended to take directional influence into account. From the data segmented accordingly ([Formula: see text] segments, this extension allows us to test separately how average speed, segments lengths and reorientation decisions are affected by support inclination and current walking direction of the ant. We found that support inclination had a major effect on average speed, which appeared approximately three times slower on the [Formula: see text] incline. However, we found no effect of the walking direction on speed. Contrastingly, we found that ants tend to walk longer in the same direction when they move uphill or downhill, and also that they preferentially adopt new uphill or downhill headings at turning points. We conclude that ants continuously adapt their decision making about where to go, and how long to persist in the same direction, depending on how they are aligned with the line of maximum declivity gradient. Hence, their behavioral decision process appears to combine klinokinesis with geomenotaxis. The extended Boltzmann Walker model parameterized by these effects gives a fair account of the directional dispersal of ants on inclines.
Sagittal x-ray beam deviation at asymmetric inclined diffractors
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Korytár, D.; Hrdý, Jaromír; Artemiev, Nikolai; Ferrari, C.; Freund, A.
2001-01-01
Roč. 8, - (2001), s. 1136-1139 ISSN 0909-0495 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OK 305; GA MPO PZ-CH/22 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : x-ray optics * Si(111) W/grooved crystals * inclined diffraction * out-of-diffraction-plane beams * sagittal focusing Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.519, year: 2001
Thermal convection of liquid sodium in inclined cylinders
Khalilov, Ruslan; Kolesnichenko, Ilya; Pavlinov, Alexander; Mamykin, Andrey; Shestakov, Alexander; Frick, Peter
2018-04-01
The effect of inclination on the low Prandtl number turbulent convection in a cylinder of unit aspect ratio was studied experimentally. The working fluid was sodium (Prandtl number Pr =0.0094 ), the measurements were performed for a fixed Rayleigh number Ra =(1.47 ±0.03 ) ×107 , and the inclination angle varied from β =0∘ (the Rayleigh-Bénard convection, the temperature gradient is vertical) up to β =90∘ (the applied temperature gradient is horizontal) with a step Δ β =10∘ . The effective axial heat flux characterized by the Nusselt number is minimal at β =0∘ and demonstrates a smooth growth with the increase of the cylinder inclination, reaching a maximum at angle β ≈70∘ and decreasing with a further increase of β . The maximal value of the normalized Nusselt number Nu (β )/Nu (0 ) was 1.21. In general, the dependence of Nu (β ) in a cylinder with unit aspect ratio is similar to what was observed in sodium convection in inclined long cylinders but is much weaker. The structure of the flow undergoes a significant transformation with inclination. Under moderate inclination (β ≲30∘ ), the fluctuations are strong and are provided by regular oscillations of large-scale circulation (LSC) and by turbulence. Under large inclination (β >60∘ ), the LSC is regular and the turbulence is weak, while in transient regimes (30∘border of transient and large inclinations. We find the first evidence of strong LSC fluctuations in low Prandtl number convective flow under moderate inclination. The rms azimuthal fluctuations of LSC, about 27∘ at β =0∘ , decrease almost linearly up to β =30∘ , where they are about 9∘. The angular fluctuations in the vicinity of the end faces are much stronger (about 37∘ at β =0∘ ) and weakly decrease up to β =20∘ . The strong anticorrelation of the fluctuations in two halves of the cylinder indicates the torsional character of LSC fluctuations. At β =30∘ , the intensity of the oscillations at the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Macrander, A.T.; Lee, W.K.; Smither, R.K.; Mills, D.M.
1992-01-01
Recent results for the performance of a novel double crystal monochromator subjected to high heat loads on an APS prototype undulator at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS) are presented. The monochromator was designed to achieve symmetric diffraction from asymmetric planes to spread out the beam footprint thereby lowering the incident power density. Both crystals had (111) oriented surfaces and were arranged such that the beam was diffracted from the (11 bar 1) planes at 5 KeV. Rocking curves with minimal distortion were obtained at a ring electron current of 100 mA. This corresponded to 380 Watts total power and an average power density of 40 Watts/mm 2 normal to the incident beam. These results are compared to data obtained from the same crystals in the standard geometry (diffracting planes parallel to surface). The footprint area in the inclined case was three times that of the standard case. We also obtained rocking curve data for the (333) reflection at 15 KeV for both standard and inclined cases, and these data also showed a minimal distortion only for the inclined case. In addition, thermal data were obtained via infrared pyrometry. Liquid gallium flow rates of up to 2 gallons per minute were investigated. The diffraction data revealed a dramatically improved performance for the inclined crystal case
Changing inclination of earth satellites using the gravity of the moon
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karla de Souza Torres
2006-01-01
Full Text Available We analyze the problem of the orbital control of an Earth's satellite using the gravity of the Moon. The main objective is to study a technique to decrease the fuel consumption of a plane change maneuver to be performed in a satellite that is in orbit around the Earth. The main idea of this approach is to send the satellite to the Moon using a single-impulsive maneuver, use the gravity field of the Moon to make the desired plane change of the trajectory, and then return the satellite to its nominal semimajor axis and eccentricity using a bi-impulsive Hohmann-type maneuver. The satellite is assumed to start in a Keplerian orbit in the plane of the lunar orbit around the Earth and the goal is to put it in a similar orbit that differs from the initial orbit only by the inclination. A description of the close-approach maneuver is made in the three-dimensional space. Analytical equations based on the patched conics approach are used to calculate the variation in velocity, angular momentum, energy, and inclination of the satellite. Then, several simulations are made to evaluate the savings involved. The time required by those transfers is also calculated and shown.
Friction and drag forces on spheres propagating down inclined planes
Tee, Yi Hui; Longmire, Ellen
2017-11-01
When a submerged sphere propagates along an inclined wall at terminal velocity, it experiences gravity, drag, lift, and friction forces. In the related equations of motion, the drag, lift and friction coefficients are unknown. Experiments are conducted to determine the friction and drag coefficients of the sphere over a range of Reynolds numbers. Through high speed imaging, translational and rotational velocities of spheres propagating along a glass plate are determined in liquids with several viscosities. The onset of sliding motion is identified by computing the dimensionless rotation rate of the sphere. Using drag and lift coefficients for Re friction coefficients are calculated for several materials. The friction coefficients are then employed to estimate the drag coefficient for 350 frictional force over this Re range. Supported by NSF (CBET-1510154).
Goit, Chandra Shekhar; Saitoh, Masato
2013-03-01
Horizontal impedance functions of inclined single piles are measured experimentally for model soil-pile systems with both the effects of local soil nonlinearity and resonant characteristics. Two practical pile inclinations of 5° and 10° in addition to a vertical pile embedded in cohesionless soil and subjected to lateral harmonic pile head loadings for a wide range of frequencies are considered. Results obtained with low-to-high amplitude of lateral loadings on model soil-pile systems encased in a laminar shear box show that the local nonlinearities have a profound impact on the horizontal impedance functions of piles. Horizontal impedance functions of inclined piles are found to be smaller than the vertical pile and the values decrease as the angle of pile inclination increases. Distinct values of horizontal impedance functions are obtained for the `positive' and `negative' cycles of harmonic loadings, leading to asymmetric force-displacement relationships for the inclined piles. Validation of these experimental results is carried out through three-dimensional nonlinear finite element analyses, and the results from the numerical models are in good agreement with the experimental data. Sensitivity analyses conducted on the numerical models suggest that the consideration of local nonlinearity at the vicinity of the soil-pile interface influence the response of the soil-pile systems.
[Occlusal plane control in hyperdivergents: regarding one case].
Rerhrhaye, Wiam; Zaoui, Fatima; Aalloula, El Housseine
2009-06-01
Management of occlusal plane inclination in the sagittal dimension is one of the main concerns of practitioners. Inclination maintenance or correction can condition the success and stability of treatment. By means of a clinical case, we will attempt to discuss the different aspects of management from diagnosis to treatment, bearing in mind the local and regional context. The adopted treatment plan takes into consideration the functional and esthetic issues specific to Moroccan patients without neglecting soft tissue harmony.
Stereo chromatic contrast sensitivity model to blue-yellow gratings.
Yang, Jiachen; Lin, Yancong; Liu, Yun
2016-03-07
As a fundamental metric of human visual system (HVS), contrast sensitivity function (CSF) is typically measured by sinusoidal gratings at the detection of thresholds for psychophysically defined cardinal channels: luminance, red-green, and blue-yellow. Chromatic CSF, which is a quick and valid index to measure human visual performance and various retinal diseases in two-dimensional (2D) space, can not be directly applied into the measurement of human stereo visual performance. And no existing perception model considers the influence of chromatic CSF of inclined planes on depth perception in three-dimensional (3D) space. The main aim of this research is to extend traditional chromatic contrast sensitivity characteristics to 3D space and build a model applicable in 3D space, for example, strengthening stereo quality of 3D images. This research also attempts to build a vision model or method to check human visual characteristics of stereo blindness. In this paper, CRT screen was clockwise and anti-clockwise rotated respectively to form the inclined planes. Four inclined planes were selected to investigate human chromatic vision in 3D space and contrast threshold of each inclined plane was measured with 18 observers. Stimuli were isoluminant blue-yellow sinusoidal gratings. Horizontal spatial frequencies ranged from 0.05 to 5 c/d. Contrast sensitivity was calculated as the inverse function of the pooled cone contrast threshold. According to the relationship between spatial frequency of inclined plane and horizontal spatial frequency, the chromatic contrast sensitivity characteristics in 3D space have been modeled based on the experimental data. The results show that the proposed model can well predicted human chromatic contrast sensitivity characteristics in 3D space.
Psychosocial Determinants of Romantic Inclination Among Indian Youth
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Barani Ganth
2017-10-01
Full Text Available The present study was conducted with the aim of understanding the psychosocial determinants of romantic inclination among youth in India. We involved 779 student participants from a large central university in south India in the age range of 18-24 years. The participants filled measures on romantic inclination, personality, attachment style, interpersonal attraction, and social influence on romantic relationship in addition to a questionnaire on demographic information and relationship history. Analysis of the data revealed that males showed higher level of romantic inclination than females. Those who had current/past involvement in a romantic relationship (Lovers showed higher levels of romantic inclination than those who had never involved in a romantic relationship (Non-lovers. Parents’ type of marriage (Love/arranged, close fiends’ involvement in romantic relationship too had a discriminatory role in romantic inclination. Romantic inclination was significantly related to personality factors, attachment style, media and peer influences on romantic relationships and interpersonal attraction. Extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, media influence, peer influence, secure attachment and physical attraction emerged as significant predictors of romantic inclination in a regression model. Structural Equations Modeling (SEM indicated that personality, attachment style and interpersonal attraction had a significant influence on romantic inclination mediated by both media and peer influences. Romantic inclination in turn significantly predicted romantic relationship status.
Upper canine inclination influences the aesthetics of a smile.
Bothung, C; Fischer, K; Schiffer, H; Springer, I; Wolfart, S
2015-02-01
This current study investigated which angle of canine inclination (angle between canine tooth axis (CA-line) and the line between the lateral canthus and the ipsilateral labial angle (EM-line)) is perceived to be most attractive in a smile. The second objective was to determine whether laymen and dental experts share the same opinion. A Q-sort assessment was performed with 48 posed smile photographs to obtain two models of neutral facial attractiveness. Two sets of images (1 male model set, 1 female model set), each containing seven images with incrementally altered canine and posterior teeth inclinations, were generated. The images were ranked for attractiveness by three groups (61 laymen, 59 orthodontists, 60 dentists). The images with 0° inclination, that is CA-line (maxillary canine axis) parallel to EM-line (the line formed by the lateral canthus and the ipsilateral corner of the mouth) (male model set: 54·4%; female model set: 38·9%), or -5° (inward) inclination (male model set: 20%; female model set: 29·4%) were perceived to be most attractive within each set. Images showing inward canine inclinations were regarded to be more attractive than those with outward inclinations. Dental experts and laymen were in accordance with the aesthetics. Smiles were perceived to be most attractive when the upper canine tooth axis was parallel to the EM-line. In reconstructive or orthodontic therapy, it is thus important to incline canines more inwardly than outwardly. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boergesson, Lennart; Hernelind, Jan
2006-10-01
The effect on the canister of an earthquake induced 20 cm rock shear with the shear rate 1 m/s along a fracture intersecting a deposition hole in a KBS-V repository has been investigated for a number of different shear cases and for different properties of the buffer material. The scenarios have been modelled with the finite element method and calculations have been done using the code ABAQUS. D-element models of the rock, the buffer and the canister have been used. Contact elements that can model separation have been used for the interfaces between the buffer and the rock and the interfaces between the buffer and the canister. The influence of mainly the following factors has been investigated: 1. Inclination of the intersecting fracture. 2. Shear direction when the fracture is not horizontal (inclination deviates from 90 deg). 3. Location of the shear plane when the inclination is 90 deg. 4. Magnitude of the shear displacement. 5. Bentonite type. 6. Bentonite density. 7. Transformation of the buffer to illite or cemented bentonite. The results from the calculations show that all these factors have important influence on the damage of the canister but the influence is for most factors not easily described since there are mutual interferences between the different factors. Plastic strain larger than 1% was reached in the copper already at 10 cm shear in all cases with Na- and Ca- bentonite. However, for several cases of Na-bentonite and one case of Ca-bentonite such plastic strain was only reached in the lid. The plastic strain in the steel was generally smaller than in the copper mainly due to the higher yield stress in the steel. For all cases of Na-bentonite except one and for about half of the Ca-bentonite cases the plastic strain in the steel was smaller than 1% after 10 cm shear. The shear inclination 45 deg was more harmful for the copper tube than the shear inclination 90 deg when tension shear was considered. At the shear inclinations 45 deg and 22.5 deg
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boergesson, Lennart [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Hernelind, Jan [5T Engineering AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden)
2006-10-15
The effect on the canister of an earthquake induced 20 cm rock shear with the shear rate 1 m/s along a fracture intersecting a deposition hole in a KBS-V repository has been investigated for a number of different shear cases and for different properties of the buffer material. The scenarios have been modelled with the finite element method and calculations have been done using the code ABAQUS. D-element models of the rock, the buffer and the canister have been used. Contact elements that can model separation have been used for the interfaces between the buffer and the rock and the interfaces between the buffer and the canister. The influence of mainly the following factors has been investigated: 1. Inclination of the intersecting fracture. 2. Shear direction when the fracture is not horizontal (inclination deviates from 90 deg). 3. Location of the shear plane when the inclination is 90 deg. 4. Magnitude of the shear displacement. 5. Bentonite type. 6. Bentonite density. 7. Transformation of the buffer to illite or cemented bentonite. The results from the calculations show that all these factors have important influence on the damage of the canister but the influence is for most factors not easily described since there are mutual interferences between the different factors. Plastic strain larger than 1% was reached in the copper already at 10 cm shear in all cases with Na- and Ca- bentonite. However, for several cases of Na-bentonite and one case of Ca-bentonite such plastic strain was only reached in the lid. The plastic strain in the steel was generally smaller than in the copper mainly due to the higher yield stress in the steel. For all cases of Na-bentonite except one and for about half of the Ca-bentonite cases the plastic strain in the steel was smaller than 1% after 10 cm shear. The shear inclination 45 deg was more harmful for the copper tube than the shear inclination 90 deg when tension shear was considered. At the shear inclinations 45 deg and 22.5 deg
Co-current descending two-phase flows in inclined packed beds : experiments versus simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Atta, A.; Nigam, K.D.P.; Roy, S. [Inst. of Technology, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Schubert, M.; Larachi, F. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering
2010-10-15
This paper presented a numerical simulation for an inclined packed bed configuration for two-phase co-current downward flow. A two-phase Eulerian computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was used to predict the hydrodynamic behaviour. Two different modelling strategies were compared, notably a straight tube with an artificially inclined gravity, and an inclined geometry with straight gravity. The effect of inclination angle of a packed bed on its gas-liquid flow segregation and liquid saturation spatial distribution was measured for varying inclinations and fluid velocities. The CFD model was adapted from a trickle-bed vertical configuration and based on the porous media concept. The predicted pressure drops for the inclined gravity were found to be insensitive to inclination. Therefore, simulations to study the parameters that influence the reduced liquid saturation were performed only with the inclined geometry case. Experimental data obtained using electrical capacitance tomography was used to validate the model predictions. The study showed that a trickle bed CFD model for vertically straight reactors can be effectively implemented in inclined reactor geometries. However, additional research is needed to formulate appropriate drag force closures which should be incorporated in the CFD model for improved quantitative estimation of inclined bed hydrodynamics. 22 refs., 10 figs.
LATCHAROTE; Panon KAI, Yoshiro
2015-01-01
A macroscopic model, macro plate model, was proposed to represent a wall member of RC walls. Both in-plane and out-of-plane behavior were considered for numerical derivations of macro plate model. For out-of-plane behavior, bending deformation was incorporated with shear deformation to consider out-of-plane deformation as same as in-plane behavior. The hysteretic behavior of macro plate model can be directly expressed by stress-strain relationships in any conventional hysteretic rules, which ...
Estimating the Value of the Inclination Angle of the Lunar Plane to the Ecliptic Plane
Isildak, R. Suat; Isik, Hakan; Küçüközer, H. Asuman
2018-01-01
Sky appears to our students as a vast volume surrounding the Earth. The most striking astronomical events that they can witness in the sky are lunar phases and eclipses. However, eclipses do not occur as often as full and new phases of the Moon. This difference is due to the fact that the orbital planes of the Moon and the Earth do not overlap.…
Xu, Z N; Wang, S Y
2015-02-01
To improve the accuracy in the calculation of dynamic contact angle for drops on the inclined surface, a significant number of numerical drop profiles on the inclined surface with different inclination angles, drop volumes, and contact angles are generated based on the finite difference method, a least-squares ellipse-fitting algorithm is used to calculate the dynamic contact angle. The influences of the above three factors are systematically investigated. The results reveal that the dynamic contact angle errors, including the errors of the left and right contact angles, evaluated by the ellipse-fitting algorithm tend to increase with inclination angle/drop volume/contact angle. If the drop volume and the solid substrate are fixed, the errors of the left and right contact angles increase with inclination angle. After performing a tremendous amount of computation, the critical dimensionless drop volumes corresponding to the critical contact angle error are obtained. Based on the values of the critical volumes, a highly accurate dynamic contact angle algorithm is proposed and fully validated. Within nearly the whole hydrophobicity range, it can decrease the dynamic contact angle error in the inclined plane method to less than a certain value even for different types of liquids.
yan, LIU Jun; hua, SONG Xiang; Yan, LIU
2017-11-01
The article uses the Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua in 3 Dimensions (FLAC3D) to make an analysis of the deformation characteristics of the structural plane, which is based on a real rock foundation pit in Jinan city. It makes an inverse analysis of the strength of the surface structure and the occurrence of the parameters by Mohr-Coulomb strength criterion value criterion in the way of numerical simulation, which explores the change of stress field of x-z oblique section of pit wall and the relation between the exposed height of structural plane and the critical cohesion, the exposed height and critical inclination angle of the structure surface. We can find that when the foundation pit is in the critical stable state and the inclination angle of the structural plane is constant, the critical cohesive force of the structural plane increases with the increase of the exposed surface height. And when the foundation pit in the critical stability of the situation and the structural surface of the cohesive force is constant, the structural surface exposed height increases and the structural angle of inclination is declining. The conclusion can provide theoretical basis for the design and construction of the rock foundation pit with structural plane.
Performance evaluation of a continuous flow inclined solar still desalination system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El-Agouz, S.A.; El-Samadony, Y.A.F.; Kabeel, A.E.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • A mathematical model was presented to analyze the performance of inclined still. • The effect of air speed, water masses, film thickness and velocity was studied. • Productivity for the Model 3 was higher than conventional still by 57.2%. • The performance was strongly affected by water film thickness and velocity. • Model 3 gave the highest performance while Model 1 gave the lowest performance. - Abstract: In the present work, theoretical study of the performance evaluation of a continuous water flow inclined solar still desalination system is performed. Three models are studied for inclined solar still desalination system with and without water close loop. The effects of the water mass, water film thickness, water film velocity and air wind velocity on the performance of the three models are studied. The results show that the inclined solar still with a makeup water is superior in productivity (57.2% improvement) compared with a conventional basin-type solar still. Also, the application of inclined solar still with open water loop is recommended when combined with other still desalination system due to high water temperature output. The inclined solar still with a makeup (Model 3) gives the highest performance while Model 1 gives the lowest performance. Finally, the water film thickness, and velocity as well as wind velocity plays important roles in improving the still productivity and efficiency
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Asep Mohamad Ishaq Shiddiq
2017-07-01
Full Text Available In deviated and horizontal drilling, hole-cleaning issues are a common and complex problem. This study explored the effect of various parameters in drilling operations and how they affect the flow rate required for effective cutting transport. Three models, developed following an empirical approach, were employed: Rudi-Shindu’s model, Hopkins’, and Tobenna’s model. Rudi-Shindu’s model needs iteration in the calculation. Firstly, the three models were compared using a sensitivity analysis of drilling parameters affecting cutting transport. The result shows that the models have similar trends but different values for minimum flow velocity. Analysis was conducted to examine the feasibility of using Rudi-Shindu’s, Hopkins’, and Tobenna’s models. The result showed that Hopkins’ model is limited by cutting size and revolution per minute (RPM. The minimum flow rate from Tobenna’s model is affected only by well inclination, drilling fluid weight and drilling fluid rheological property. Meanwhile, Rudi-Shindu’s model is limited by inclinations above 45°. The study showed that the investigated models are not suitable for horizontal wells because they do not include the effect of lateral section.
Modelling of subcritical free-surface flow over an inclined backward-facing step in a water channel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Šulc Jan
2012-04-01
Full Text Available The contribution deals with the experimental and numerical modelling of subcritical turbulent flow in an open channel with an inclined backward-facing step. The step with the inclination angle α = 20° was placed in the water channel of the cross-section 200×200 mm. Experiments were carried out by means of the PIV and LDA measuring techniques. Numerical simulations were executed by means of the commercial software ANSYS CFX 12.0. Numerical results obtained for twoequation models and EARSM turbulence model completed by transport equations for turbulent energy and specific dissipation rate were compared with experimental data. The modelling was concentrated particularly on the development of the flow separation and on the corresponding changes of free surface.
Natural Circulation Characteristics of a Symmetric Loop under Inclined Conditions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xingtuan Yang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Natural circulation is an important process for primary loops of some marine integrated reactors. The reactor works under inclined conditions when severe accidents happen to the ship. In this paper, to investigate the characteristics of natural circulation, experiments were conducted in a symmetric loop under the inclined angle of 0~45°. A CFD model was also set up to predict the behaviors of the loop beyond the experimental scope. Total circulation flow rate decreases with the increase of inclined angle. Meanwhile one circulation is depressed while the other is enhanced, and accordingly the disparity between the branch circulations arises and increases with the increase of inclined angle. Circulation only takes place in one branch circuit at large inclined angle. Also based on the CFD model, the influences of flow resistance distribution and loop configuration on natural circulation are predicted. The numerical results show that to design the loop with the configuration of big altitude difference and small width, it is favorable to reduce the influence of inclination; however too small loop width will cause severe reduction of circulation ability at large angle inclination.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tkachenko Egor M.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Intensively evaporating liquid films moving under the action of the cocurrent gas flow in a microchannel are promising for the use in modern cooling systems of semiconductor devices with high local heat release. This work has studied the dependence of the critical heat flux on the inclination angle of the channel. It has been found that the inclination angle in the plane parallel to the flow has no significant effect on the critical heat flux. Whereas the inclination angle in the plane perpendicular to the flow, on the contrary, significantly changes the value of the critical heat flux. However, for a given flow rate of fluid there is a threshold gas velocity at which the critical heat flux does not differ from the case of zero inclination of the channel. Thus, it can be concluded that the cooling system based on shear-driven liquid films can be potentially used when direction of the gravity changes.
On spin and matrix models in the complex plane
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Damgaard, P.H.; Heller, U.M.
1993-01-01
We describe various aspects of statistical mechanics defined in the complex temperature or coupling-constant plane. Using exactly solvable models, we analyse such aspects as renormalization group flows in the complex plane, the distribution of partition function zeros, and the question of new coupling-constant symmetries of complex-plane spin models. The double-scaling form of matrix models is shown to be exactly equivalent to finite-size scaling of two-dimensional spin systems. This is used to show that the string susceptibility exponents derived from matrix models can be obtained numerically with very high accuracy from the scaling of finite-N partition function zeros in the complex plane. (orig.)
Effects of occlusal inclination and loading on mandibular bone remodeling: a finite element study.
Rungsiyakull, Chaiy; Rungsiyakull, Pimdeun; Li, Qing; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael
2011-01-01
To provide a preliminary understanding of the biomechanics with respect to the effect of cusp inclination and occlusal loading on the mandibular bone remodeling. Three different cusp inclinations (0, 10, and 30 degrees) of a ceramic crown and different occlusal loading locations (central fossa and 1- and 2-mm offsets horizontally) were taken into account to explore the stresses and strains transferred from the crown to the surrounding dental bone through the implant. A strain energy density obtained from two-dimensional plane-strain finite element analysis was used as the mechanical stimulus to drive cancellous and cortical bone remodeling in a buccolingual mandibular section. Different ceramic cusp inclinations had a significant effect on bone remodeling responses in terms of the change in the average peri-implant bone density and overall stability. The remodeling rate was relatively high in the first few months of loading and gradually decreased until reaching its equilibrium. A larger cusp inclination and horizontal offset (eg, 30 degrees and 2-mm offset) led to a higher bone remodeling rate and greater interfacial stress. The dental implant superstructure design (in terms of cusp inclination and loading location) determines the load transmission pattern and thus largely affects bone remodeling activities. Although the design with a lower cusp inclination recommended in previous studies may reduce damage and fracture failure, it could, to a certain extent, compromise bone engagement and long-term stability.
Improvement of image quality of holographic projection on tilted plane using iterative algorithm
Pang, Hui; Cao, Axiu; Wang, Jiazhou; Zhang, Man; Deng, Qiling
2017-12-01
Holographic image projection on tilted plane has an important application prospect. In this paper, we propose a method to compute the phase-only hologram that can reconstruct a clear image on tilted plane. By adding a constant phase to the target image of the inclined plane, the corresponding light field distribution on the plane that is parallel to the hologram plane is derived through the titled diffraction calculation. Then the phase distribution of the hologram is obtained by the iterative algorithm with amplitude and phase constrain. Simulation and optical experiment are performed to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Possible relation between pulsar rotation and evolution of magnetic inclination
Tian, Jun
2018-05-01
The pulsar timing is observed to be different from predicted by a simple magnetic dipole radiation. We choose eight pulsars whose braking index was reliably determined. Assuming the smaller values of braking index are dominated by the secular evolution of the magnetic inclination, we calculate the increasing rate of the magnetic inclination for each pulsar. We find a possible relation between the rotation frequency of each pulsar and the inferred evolution of the magnetic inclination. Due to the model-dependent fit of the magnetic inclination and other effects, more observational indicators for the change rate of magnetic inclination are needed to test the relation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhou, Qiang; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Qu, Weilian
2010-01-01
Considering the coupling between the in-plane and out-of-plane vibration, the stochastic response of an inclined shallow cable with linear viscous dampers subjected to Gaussian white noise excitation is investigated in this paper. Selecting the static deflection shape due to a concentrated force...... together with the C-type Gram-Charlier expansion with a fourth-order closure are applied to obtain statistical moments, power spectral density and probabilistic density function of the cable response, whose availability is verified by Monte Carlo method. Taking a typical cable as an example, the influence...... of several factors, which include excitation level and direction as well as damper size, on the dynamic response of the cable is extensively investigated. It is found that the sum of mean square in-plane and out-of-plane displacement is primarily independent of the load direction when the excitation level...
Srinil, Narakorn; Ma, Bowen; Zhang, Licong
2018-05-01
This study is motivated by an industrial need to better understand the vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of a curved structure subject to current flows with varying directions whose data for model calibration and validation are lacking. In this paper, new experimental investigations on the two-degree-of-freedom in-plane/out-of-plane VIV of a rigid curved circular cylinder immersed in steady and uniform free-stream flows are presented. The principal objective is to examine how the approaching flow direction versus the cylinder curvature plane affects cross-flow and in-line VIV and the associated hydrodynamic properties. This is achieved by testing the curved cylinder in 3 different flow orientations comprising the parallel flows aligned with the curvature vertical plane in convex and concave configurations, and the flows perpendicular to the curvature plane. The case of varying flow velocities in a subcritical flow range with a maximum Reynolds number of about 50,000 is considered for the curved cylinder with a low mass ratio and damping ratio. Experimental results are presented and discussed in terms of the cylinder response amplitudes, inclination angles, mean displacements, motion trajectories, oscillation frequencies, hydrodynamic forces, relative phases, fluid excitation and added inertia coefficients. Comparisons with other experimental results of curved and straight cylinder VIV are also presented. The experiments highlight the important effects of cylinder curvature versus flow orientation on the combined cross-flow/in-line VIV. The maximum (minimum) responses occur in the perpendicular (convex) flow case whereas the extended lower-branch responses occur in the concave flow case. For perpendicular flows, some meaningful features are observed, including the appearances of cross-flow mean displacements and asymmetric eight-shaped motion trajectories due to multiple 2:1:1 resonances where two out-of-plane and one in-plane dominant frequencies are simultaneously
Evaporation of inclined water droplets
Kim, Jin Young; Hwang, In Gyu; Weon, Byung Mook
2017-01-01
When a drop is placed on a flat substrate tilted at an inclined angle, it can be deformed by gravity and its initial contact angle divides into front and rear contact angles by inclination. Here we study on evaporation dynamics of a pure water droplet on a flat solid substrate by controlling substrate inclination and measuring mass and volume changes of an evaporating droplet with time. We find that complete evaporation time of an inclined droplet becomes longer as gravitational influence by inclination becomes stronger. The gravity itself does not change the evaporation dynamics directly, whereas the gravity-induced droplet deformation increases the difference between front and rear angles, which quickens the onset of depinning and consequently reduces the contact radius. This result makes the evaporation rate of an inclined droplet to be slow. This finding would be important to improve understanding on evaporation dynamics of inclined droplets. PMID:28205642
Ibrahim, Hazem
2016-09-19
The unrelenting increase in the population of mobile users and their traffic demands drive cellular network operators to densify their network infrastructure. Network densification shrinks the footprint of base stations (BSs) and reduces the number of users associated with each BS, leading to an improved spatial frequency reuse and spectral efficiency, and thus, higher network capacity. However, the densification gain comes at the expense of higher handover rates and network control overhead. Hence, user’s mobility can diminish or even nullifies the foreseen densification gain. In this context, splitting the control plane ( C -plane) and user plane ( U -plane) is proposed as a potential solution to harvest densification gain with reduced cost in terms of handover rate and network control overhead. In this paper, we use stochastic geometry to develop a tractable mobility-aware model for a two-tier downlink cellular network with ultra-dense small cells and C -plane/ U -plane split architecture. The developed model is then used to quantify the effect of mobility on the foreseen densification gain with and without C -plane/ U -plane split. To this end, we shed light on the handover problem in dense cellular environments, show scenarios where the network fails to support certain mobility profiles, and obtain network design insights.
Natural circulation of integrated-type marine reactor at inclined attitude
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iyori, Isao; Aya, Izuo; Murata, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Michiyuki; Nariai, Hideki
1987-01-01
A steady-state single-phase natural circulation test was performed to clarify the effect of inclination by using a model of an integrated-type marine reactor. It was found that several types of flow pattern occur in the natural circulation loop corresponding to the range of inclination angle. Stable flow rates are sustained up to near 90 0 because of the occurrence of a driving force arising from those sections of the facility which were horizontal before the inclination. It was found that the temperature distribution in the steam generator at inclined attitude depends essentially only on the elevation z. The applicability of a one-dimensional analytical model was examined. It was clarified that employment of detailed U-turn flow paths, their correlation, and temperature-distribution function of core is essential for improvement. (orig.)
Inclined indentation of smooth wedge in rock mass
Chanyshev, AI; Podyminogin, GM; Lukyashko, OA
2018-03-01
The article focuses on the inclined rigid wedge indentation into a rigid-plastic half-plane of rocks with the Mohr–Coulomb-Mohr plasticity. The limiting loads on different sides of the wedge are determined versus the internal friction angle, cohesion and wedge angle. It is shown that when the force is applied along the symmetry axis of the wedge, the zone of plasticity is formed only on one wedge side. In order to form the plasticity zone on both sides of the wedge, it is necessary to apply the force asymmetrically relative to the wedge symmetry axis. An engineering solution for the asymmetrical case implementation is suggested.
Risk analysis and assessment of vertical and incline small winder systems and peripheral activities.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Moss, PS
2000-01-01
Full Text Available access .......................................................48 3.6.3 "ramped" design of station access ..................................................................49 3.6.4 Handling of material cars... vertical plane using a rope and counterweight mechanism, to allow the passage of cars when required. It is extensively used to prevent the inadvertent entry of material cars from stations into incline shafts, and to derail a runaway car so preventing...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barnes, Rory; Deitrick, Russell; Quinn, Thomas R. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 951580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Greenberg, Richard [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 E. University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 86716 (United States); Raymond, Sean N., E-mail: rory@astro.washington.edu [NASA Astrobiology Institute-Virtual Planetary Laboratory Lead Team (United States)
2015-03-10
We present N-body simulations of resonant planets with inclined orbits that show chaotically evolving eccentricities and inclinations that can persist for at least 10 Gyr. A wide range of behavior is possible, from fast, low amplitude variations to systems in which eccentricities reach 0.9999 and inclinations 179.°9. While the orbital elements evolve chaotically, at least one resonant argument always librates. We show that the HD 73526, HD 45364, and HD 60532 systems may be in chaotically evolving resonances. Chaotic evolution is apparent in the 2:1, 3:1, and 3:2 resonances, and for planetary masses from lunar- to Jupiter-mass. In some cases, orbital disruption occurs after several gigayears, implying the mechanism is not rigorously stable, just long-lived relative to the main sequence lifetimes of solar-type stars. Planet-planet scattering appears to yield planets in inclined resonances that evolve chaotically in about 0.5% of cases. These results suggest that (1) approximate methods for identifying unstable orbital architectures may have limited applicability, (2) the observed close-in exoplanets may be produced during epochs of high eccentricit induced by inclined resonances, (3) those exoplanets' orbital planes may be misaligned with the host star's spin axis, (4) systems with resonances may be systematically younger than those without, (5) the distribution of period ratios of adjacent planets detected via transit may be skewed due to inclined resonances, and (6) potentially habitable planets may have dramatically different climatic evolution than Earth. The Gaia spacecraft is capable of discovering giant planets in these types of orbits.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barnes, Rory; Deitrick, Russell; Quinn, Thomas R.; Greenberg, Richard; Raymond, Sean N.
2015-01-01
We present N-body simulations of resonant planets with inclined orbits that show chaotically evolving eccentricities and inclinations that can persist for at least 10 Gyr. A wide range of behavior is possible, from fast, low amplitude variations to systems in which eccentricities reach 0.9999 and inclinations 179.°9. While the orbital elements evolve chaotically, at least one resonant argument always librates. We show that the HD 73526, HD 45364, and HD 60532 systems may be in chaotically evolving resonances. Chaotic evolution is apparent in the 2:1, 3:1, and 3:2 resonances, and for planetary masses from lunar- to Jupiter-mass. In some cases, orbital disruption occurs after several gigayears, implying the mechanism is not rigorously stable, just long-lived relative to the main sequence lifetimes of solar-type stars. Planet-planet scattering appears to yield planets in inclined resonances that evolve chaotically in about 0.5% of cases. These results suggest that (1) approximate methods for identifying unstable orbital architectures may have limited applicability, (2) the observed close-in exoplanets may be produced during epochs of high eccentricit induced by inclined resonances, (3) those exoplanets' orbital planes may be misaligned with the host star's spin axis, (4) systems with resonances may be systematically younger than those without, (5) the distribution of period ratios of adjacent planets detected via transit may be skewed due to inclined resonances, and (6) potentially habitable planets may have dramatically different climatic evolution than Earth. The Gaia spacecraft is capable of discovering giant planets in these types of orbits
Bidispersive-inclined convection
Mulone, Giuseppe; Straughan, Brian
2016-01-01
A model is presented for thermal convection in an inclined layer of porous material when the medium has a bidispersive structure. Thus, there are the usual macropores which are full of a fluid, but there are also a system of micropores full of the same fluid. The model we employ is a modification of the one proposed by Nield & Kuznetsov (2006 Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 49, 3068–3074. (doi:10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2006.02.008)), although we consider a single temperature field only. PMID:27616934
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McLeMay, C.A.G.
1978-01-01
An x-ray apparatus is described for examining a body including a source of a fan of radiation and detectors of the radiation along beams in the fan are transversed in a plane to provide data for a number of sets of parallel beams in the plane. An orbital motion is provided to give data for further sets at different inclinations in the plane. The data can be processed by arrangements using such parallel sets. The orbital motion is continuous but the extent of angular change in one lateral scan is kept small so that lack of parallelism in the parallel sets does not give excessive errors
DLCQ and plane wave matrix Big Bang models
Blau, Matthias; O'Loughlin, Martin
2008-09-01
We study the generalisations of the Craps-Sethi-Verlinde matrix big bang model to curved, in particular plane wave, space-times, beginning with a careful discussion of the DLCQ procedure. Singular homogeneous plane waves are ideal toy-models of realistic space-time singularities since they have been shown to arise universally as their Penrose limits, and we emphasise the role played by the symmetries of these plane waves in implementing the flat space Seiberg-Sen DLCQ prescription for these curved backgrounds. We then analyse various aspects of the resulting matrix string Yang-Mills theories, such as the relation between strong coupling space-time singularities and world-sheet tachyonic mass terms. In order to have concrete examples at hand, in an appendix we determine and analyse the IIA singular homogeneous plane wave - null dilaton backgrounds.
DLCQ and plane wave matrix Big Bang models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blau, Matthias; O'Loughlin, Martin
2008-01-01
We study the generalisations of the Craps-Sethi-Verlinde matrix big bang model to curved, in particular plane wave, space-times, beginning with a careful discussion of the DLCQ procedure. Singular homogeneous plane waves are ideal toy-models of realistic space-time singularities since they have been shown to arise universally as their Penrose limits, and we emphasise the role played by the symmetries of these plane waves in implementing the flat space Seiberg-Sen DLCQ prescription for these curved backgrounds. We then analyse various aspects of the resulting matrix string Yang-Mills theories, such as the relation between strong coupling space-time singularities and world-sheet tachyonic mass terms. In order to have concrete examples at hand, in an appendix we determine and analyse the IIA singular homogeneous plane wave - null dilaton backgrounds.
Hydrodynamics of single- and two-phase flow in inclined rod arrays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ebeling-Koning, D.B.; Todreas, N.E.
1983-09-01
Required inputs for thermal-hydraulic codes are constitutive relations for fluid-solid flow resistance, in single-phase flow, and interfacial momentum exchange (relative phase motion), in two-phase flow. An inclined rod array air-water experiment was constructed to study the hydrodynamics of multidimensional porous medium flow in rod arrays. Velocities, pressures, and bubble distributions were measured in square rod arrays of P/d = 1.5, at 0, 30, 45, and 90 degree inclinations to the vertical flow direction. Constitutive models for single-phase flow resistance are reviewed, new comprehensive models developed, and an assessment with previously published and new data made. The principle of superimposing one-dimensional correlations proves successful for turbulent single-phase inclined flow. For bubbly two-phase incline flow a new flow separation phenomena was observed and modeled. A two-region liquid velocity model is developed to explain the experimentally observed phenomena. Fundamental data for bubbles rising in rod arrays were also taken
Strength Calculation of Inclined Sections of Reinforced Concrete Elements under Transverse Bending
Filatov, V. B.
2017-11-01
The authors propose a design model to determine the strength of inclined sections of bent reinforced concrete elements without shear reinforcement for the action of transverse force taking into account the aggregate interlock forces in the inclined crack. The calculated dependences to find out the components of forces acting in an inclined section are presented. The calculated dependences are obtained from the consideration of equilibrium conditions of the block over the inclined crack. A comparative analysis of the experimental values of the failure loads of the inclined section and the theoretical values obtained for the proposed dependencies and normative calculation methods is performed. It is shown that the proposed design model makes it possible to take into account the effect the longitudinal reinforcement percentage has on the inclined section strength, the element cross section height without the introduction of empirical coefficients which contributes to an increase in the structural safety of design solutions including the safety of high-strength concrete elements.
Inclination Mixing in the Classical Kuiper Belt
Volk, Kathryn; Malhotra, Renu
2011-07-01
We investigate the long-term evolution of the inclinations of the known classical and resonant Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs). This is partially motivated by the observed bimodal inclination distribution and by the putative physical differences between the low- and high-inclination populations. We find that some classical KBOs undergo large changes in inclination over gigayear timescales, which means that a current member of the low-inclination population may have been in the high-inclination population in the past, and vice versa. The dynamical mechanisms responsible for the time variability of inclinations are predominantly distant encounters with Neptune and chaotic diffusion near the boundaries of mean motion resonances. We reassess the correlations between inclination and physical properties including inclination time variability. We find that the size-inclination and color-inclination correlations are less statistically significant than previously reported (mostly due to the increased size of the data set since previous works with some contribution from inclination variability). The time variability of inclinations does not change the previous finding that binary classical KBOs have lower inclinations than non-binary objects. Our study of resonant objects in the classical Kuiper Belt region includes objects in the 3:2, 7:4, 2:1, and eight higher-order mean motion resonances. We find that these objects (some of which were previously classified as non-resonant) undergo larger changes in inclination compared to the non-resonant population, indicating that their current inclinations are not generally representative of their original inclinations. They are also less stable on gigayear timescales.
Kinematic control of aerodynamic forces on an inclined flapping wing with asymmetric strokes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Hyungmin; Choi, Haecheon
2012-01-01
In the present study, we conduct an experiment using a one-paired dynamically scaled model of an insect wing, to investigate how asymmetric strokes with different wing kinematic parameters are used to control the aerodynamics of a dragonfly-like inclined flapping wing in still fluid. The kinematic parameters considered are the angles of attack during the mid-downstroke (α md ) and mid-upstroke (α mu ), and the duration (Δτ) and time of initiation (τ p ) of the pitching rotation. The present dragonfly-like inclined flapping wing has the aerodynamic mechanism of unsteady force generation similar to those of other insect wings in a horizontal stroke plane, but the detailed effect of the wing kinematics on the force control is different due to the asymmetric use of the angle of attack during the up- and downstrokes. For example, high α md and low α mu produces larger vertical force with less aerodynamic power, and low α md and high α mu is recommended for horizontal force (thrust) production. The pitching rotation also affects the aerodynamics of a flapping wing, but its dynamic rotational effect is much weaker than the effect from the kinematic change in the angle of attack caused by the pitching rotation. Thus, the influences of the duration and timing of pitching rotation for the present inclined flapping wing are found to be very different from those for a horizontal flapping wing. That is, for the inclined flapping motion, the advanced and delayed rotations produce smaller vertical forces than the symmetric one and the effect of pitching duration is very small. On the other hand, for a specific range of pitching rotation timing, delayed rotation requires less aerodynamic power than the symmetric rotation. As for the horizontal force, delayed rotation with low α md and high α mu is recommended for long-duration flight owing to its high efficiency, and advanced rotation should be employed for hovering flight for nearly zero horizontal force. The present
An analytical model for force prediction in ball nose micro milling of inclined surfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo
2010-01-01
Ball nose micro milling is a key process for the generation of free form surfaces and inclined surfaces often present in mould inserts for micro replication. This paper presents a new cutting force model for ball nose micro milling that is capable of taking into account the effect of the edge...
Quasi-Rayleigh waves in transversely isotropic half-space with inclined axis of symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yanovskaya, T.B.; Savina, L.S.
2003-09-01
A method for determination of characteristics of quasi-Rayleigh (qR) wave in a transversely isotropic homogeneous half-space with inclined axis of symmetry is outlined. The solution is obtained as a superposition of qP, qSV and qSH waves, and surface wave velocity is determined from the boundary conditions at the free surface and at infinity, as in the case of Rayleigh wave in isotropic half-space. Though the theory is simple enough, a numerical procedure for the calculation of surface wave velocity presents some difficulties. The difficulty is conditioned by necessity to calculate complex roots of a non-linear equation, which in turn contains functions determined as roots of nonlinear equations with complex coefficients. Numerical analysis shows that roots of the equation corresponding to the boundary conditions do not exist in the whole domain of azimuths and inclinations of the symmetry axis. The domain of existence of qR wave depends on the ratio of the elastic parameters: for some strongly anisotropic models the wave cannot exist at all. For some angles of inclination qR wave velocities deviate from those calculated on the basis of the perturbation method valid for weak anisotropy, though they have the same tendency of variation with azimuth. The phase of qR wave varies with depth unlike Rayleigh wave in isotropic half-space. Unlike Rayleigh wave in isotropic half-space, qR wave has three components - vertical, radial and transverse. Particle motion in horizontal plane is elliptic. Direction of the major axis of the ellipsis coincide with the direction of propagation only in azimuths 0 deg. (180 deg.) and 90 deg. (270 deg.). (author)
Multi-modal vibration amplitudes of taut inclined cables due to direct and/or parametric excitation
Macdonald, J. H. G.
2016-02-01
Cables are often prone to potentially damaging large amplitude vibrations. The dynamic excitation may be from external loading or motion of the cable ends, the latter including direct excitation, normally from components of end motion transverse to the cable, and parametric excitation induced by axial components of end motion causing dynamic tension variations. Geometric nonlinearity can be important, causing stiffening behaviour and nonlinear modal coupling. Previous analyses of the vibrations, often neglecting sag, have generally dealt with direct and parametric excitation separately or have reverted to numerical solutions of the responses. Here a nonlinear cable model is adopted, applicable to taut cables such as on cable-stayed bridges, that allows for cable inclination, small sag (such that the vibration modes are similar to those of a taut string), multiple modes in both planes and end motion and/or external forcing close to any natural frequency. Based on the method of scaling and averaging it is found that, for sinusoidal inputs and positive damping, non-zero steady state responses can only occur in the modes in each plane with natural frequencies close to the excitation frequency and those with natural frequencies close to half this frequency. Analytical solutions, in the form of non-dimensional polynomial equations, are derived for the steady state vibration amplitudes in up to three modes simultaneously: the directly excited mode, the corresponding nonlinearly coupled mode in the orthogonal plane and a parametrically excited mode with half the natural frequency. The stability of the solutions is also identified. The outputs of the equations are consistent with previous results, where available. Example results from the analytical solutions are presented for a typical inclined bridge cable subject to vertical excitation of the lower end, and they are validated by numerical integration of the equations of motion and against some previous experimental
PRECISE TULLY-FISHER RELATIONS WITHOUT GALAXY INCLINATIONS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Obreschkow, D.; Meyer, M. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), M468, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)
2013-11-10
Power-law relations between tracers of baryonic mass and rotational velocities of disk galaxies, so-called Tully-Fisher relations (TFRs), offer a wealth of applications in galaxy evolution and cosmology. However, measurements of rotational velocities require galaxy inclinations, which are difficult to measure, thus limiting the range of TFR studies. This work introduces a maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method for recovering the TFR in galaxy samples with limited or no information on inclinations. The robustness and accuracy of this method is demonstrated using virtual and real galaxy samples. Intriguingly, the MLE reliably recovers the TFR of all test samples, even without using any inclination measurements—that is, assuming a random sin i-distribution for galaxy inclinations. Explicitly, this 'inclination-free MLE' recovers the three TFR parameters (zero-point, slope, scatter) with statistical errors only about 1.5 times larger than the best estimates based on perfectly known galaxy inclinations with zero uncertainty. Thus, given realistic uncertainties, the inclination-free MLE is highly competitive. If inclination measurements have mean errors larger than 10°, it is better not to use any inclinations than to consider the inclination measurements to be exact. The inclination-free MLE opens interesting perspectives for future H I surveys by the Square Kilometer Array and its pathfinders.
Multi-lane Changing Model with Coupling Driving Intention and Inclination
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiangfeng Wang
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Considering the impact of drivers’ psychology and behaviour, a multi-lane changing model coupling driving intention and inclination is proposed by introducing two quantitative indices of intention: strength of lane changing and risk factor. According to the psychological and behavioural characteristics of aggressive drivers and conservative drivers, the safety conditions for lane changing are designed respectively. The numerical simulations show that the proposed model is suitable for describing the traffic flow with frequent lane changing, which is more consistent with the driving behaviour of drivers in China. Compared with symmetric two-lane cellular automata (STCA model, the proposed model can improve the average speed of vehicles by 1.04% under different traffic demands when aggressive drivers are in a higher proportion (the threshold of risk factor is 0.4. When the risk factor increases, the average speed shows the polarization phenomenon with the average speed slowing down in big traffic demand. The proposed model can reflect the relationship among density, flow, and speed, and the risk factor has a significant impact on density and flow.
Evaluation of different models to estimate the global solar radiation on inclined surface
Demain, C.; Journée, M.; Bertrand, C.
2012-04-01
Global and diffuse solar radiation intensities are, in general, measured on horizontal surfaces, whereas stationary solar conversion systems (both flat plate solar collector and solar photovoltaic) are mounted on inclined surface to maximize the amount of solar radiation incident on the collector surface. Consequently, the solar radiation incident measured on a tilted surface has to be determined by converting solar radiation from horizontal surface to tilted surface of interest. This study evaluates the performance of 14 models transposing 10 minutes, hourly and daily diffuse solar irradiation from horizontal to inclined surface. Solar radiation data from 8 months (April to November 2011) which include diverse atmospheric conditions and solar altitudes, measured on the roof of the radiation tower of the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium in Uccle (Longitude 4.35°, Latitude 50.79°) were used for validation purposes. The individual model performance is assessed by an inter-comparison between the calculated and measured solar global radiation on the south-oriented surface tilted at 50.79° using statistical methods. The relative performance of the different models under different sky conditions has been studied. Comparison of the statistical errors between the different radiation models in function of the clearness index shows that some models perform better under one type of sky condition. Putting together different models acting under different sky conditions can lead to a diminution of the statistical error between global measured solar radiation and global estimated solar radiation. As models described in this paper have been developed for hourly data inputs, statistical error indexes are minimum for hourly data and increase for 10 minutes and one day frequency data.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Kyuseung; Chae, Sooryong; Jang, Jongjin; Min, Daehong; Kim, Jaehwan; Nam, Okhyun, E-mail: ohnam@kpu.ac.kr [Convergence Center for Advanced Nano Semiconductor (CANS), Department of Nano-Optical Engineering, Korea Polytechnic University, Siheung, 15073 (Korea, Republic of)
2016-04-15
In this study, self-assembled inclined (1-10-3)-oriented GaN nanorods (NRs) were grown on nanoimprinted (10-10) m-sapphire substrates using catalyst-free metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. According to X-ray phi-scans, the inclined GaN NRs were tilted at an angle of ∼57.5° to the [10-10]{sub sapp} direction. Specifically, the GaN NRs grew in a single inclined direction to the [11-20]{sub sapp}. Uni-directionally inclined NRs were formed through the one-sided (10-11)-faceted growth of the interfacial a-GaN plane layer. It was confirmed that a thin layer of a-GaN was formed on r-facet nanogrooves of the m-sapphire substrate by nitridation. The interfacial a-GaN nucleation affected both the inclined angle and the growth direction of the inclined GaN NRs. Using X-ray diffraction and selective area electron diffraction, the epitaxial relationship between the inclined (1-10-3) GaN NRs and interfacial a-GaN layer on m-sapphire substrates was systematically investigated. Moreover, the inclined GaN NRs were observed to be mostly free of stacking fault-related defects using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy.
Numerical and experimental study of two turbulent opposed plane jets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Besbes, Sonia; Mhiri, Hatem [Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides et Thermique, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir, Route de Ouardanine, Monastir (Tunisia); Le Palec, Georges; Bournot, Philippe [Institut de Mecanique de Marseille, UNIMECA, Technopole de Chateau-Gombert, 60 rue Joliot-Curie, 13453 Marseille (France)
2003-09-01
The turbulent interaction between two opposed plane jets separated by a distance H is experimentally studied by using a PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) method and numerically investigated by means of a finite volume code. Two turbulence models have been tested: the standard k-{epsilon} model and a second-order model. The validation of the numerical study was performed by comparing the results with experimental data obtained for the case of two interacting opposed jets at ambient temperature (isothermal case). The effect of the angle of inclination of the jets is studied. Conclusions of the validation are then used to study the interaction between two jets, one being maintained at ambient temperature whereas the other is heated. Results show that the stagnation point moves towards the heated jet. It is shown that the heating induces a stabilizing effect on the flow. (orig.)
Constraining the inclination of the Low-Mass X-ray Binary Cen X-4
Hammerstein, Erica K.; Cackett, Edward M.; Reynolds, Mark T.; Miller, Jon M.
2018-05-01
We present the results of ellipsoidal light curve modeling of the low mass X-ray binary Cen X-4 in order to constrain the inclination of the system and mass of the neutron star. Near-IR photometric monitoring was performed in May 2008 over a period of three nights at Magellan using PANIC. We obtain J, H and K lightcurves of Cen X-4 using differential photometry. An ellipsoidal modeling code was used to fit the phase folded light curves. The lightcurve fit which makes the least assumptions about the properties of the binary system yields an inclination of 34.9^{+4.9}_{-3.6} degrees (1σ), which is consistent with previous determinations of the system's inclination but with improved statistical uncertainties. When combined with the mass function and mass ratio, this inclination yields a neutron star mass of 1.51^{+0.40}_{-0.55} M⊙. This model allows accretion disk parameters to be free in the fitting process. Fits that do not allow for an accretion disk component in the near-IR flux gives a systematically lower inclination between approximately 33 and 34 degrees, leading to a higher mass neutron star between approximately 1.7 M⊙ and 1.8 M⊙. We discuss the implications of other assumptions made during the modeling process as well as numerous free parameters and their effects on the resulting inclination.
The Canada–France Ecliptic Plane Survey (CFEPS)—High-latitude Component
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Petit, J-M. [Institut UTINAM, CNRS-UMR 6213, Observatoire de Besançon, BP 1615, F-25010 Besançon Cedex (France); Kavelaars, J. J. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Gladman, B. J.; Van Laerhoven, C.; Lawler, S. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 6224 Agricultural Road, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Jones, R. L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Parker, J. Wm.; Bieryla, A. [Planetary Science Directorate, Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Pike, R. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada); Nicholson, P. [Cornell University, Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Ashby, M. L. N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
2017-05-01
The High Ecliptic Latitude (HiLat) extension of the Canada–France Ecliptic Plane Survey (CFEPS), conducted from 2006 June to 2009 July, discovered a set of Trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) that we report here. The HiLat component was designed to address one of the shortcomings of ecliptic surveys (like CFEPS), their low sensitivity to high-inclination objects. We searched 701 deg{sup 2} of sky ranging from 12° to 85° ecliptic latitude and discovered 24 TNOs, with inclinations between 15° and 104°. This survey places a very strong constraint on the inclination distribution of the hot component of the classical Kuiper Belt, ruling out any possibility of a large intrinsic fraction of highly inclined orbits. Using the parameterization of Brown, the HiLat sample combined with CFEPS imposes a width 14° ≤ σ ≤ 15.°5, with a best match for σ = 14.°5. HiLat discovered the first retrograde TNO, 2008 KV{sub 42}, with an almost polar orbit with inclination 104°, and (418993) = 2009 MS{sub 9}, a scattering object with perihelion in the region of Saturn’s influence, with a ∼ 400 au and i = 68°.
A comprehensive model for in-plane and out-of-plane vibration of CANDU fuel endplate rings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yu, S.D., E-mail: syu@ryerson.ca; Fadaee, M.
2016-08-01
Highlights: • Proposed an effective method for modelling bending and torsional vibration of CANDU fuel endplate rings. • Applied successfully the thick plate theory to curved structural members by accounting for the transverse shear effect. • The proposed method is computationally more efficient compared to the 3D finite element. - Abstract: In this paper, a comprehensive vibration model is developed for analysing in-plane and out-of-plane vibration of CANDU fuel endplate rings by taking into consideration the effects of in-plane extension in the circumferential and radial directions, shear, and rotatory inertia. The model is based on Reddy’s thick plate theory and the nine-node isoparametric Lagrangian plate finite elements. Natural frequencies of various modes of vibration of circular rings obtained using the proposed method are compared with 3D finite element results, experimental data and results available in the literature. Excellent agreement was achieved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zrelov, V.P.; Pavlovic, P.; Ruzicka, J.
1975-01-01
The basic properties of transition radiation in the visible fraction of the spectrum have been calculated for 660 MeV protons (γ=1.7) obliquely incident on a thick nickel plate in vacuum. The angular distributions of the summary radiation (i.e. the sums of radiations of various polarizations) both 'forward' and 'backward' for different azimuthal planes are presented in tables and diagrams for different particle inclination angles to the separation boundary. The examples of angular distributions of radiation having various polarizations (at the inclination angle of 45 0 ) show that they differ considerably. The spectra of summary radiation are of a monotonous character. The calculations have shown that in a relativistic case the forward radiation is concentrated near the direction of particle motion and backward radiation moves in an opposite direction with respect to that of the particle inclination. The dependence of the total yield of forward and backward transition radiations upon the particle inclination angle is approximately cos 2 psi. (Auth.)
Inclined solar chimney for power production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Panse, S.V.; Jadhav, A.S.; Gudekar, A.S.; Joshi, J.B.
2011-01-01
Highlights: → Solar energy harnessing using inclined face of high mountains as solar chimney. → Solar chimneys with structural stability, ease of construction and lower cost. → Mathematical model developed, using complete (mechanical and thermal) energy balance. → Can harness wind power also, as wind velocities at mountain top add to power output. → Air temperature and velocity increase, as air rises in inclined chimney. - Abstract: The present concept of solar chimney is a tall vertical chimney constructed at the center of a large area, which is the collector. This creates questions about stability and economic viability of the chimney and also demands elaborate engineering techniques for constructing a tall chimney. We suggest geometry of 'Inclined Solar Chimney' (ISC), which is constructed along the face of a high rising mountain, on which maximum solar insolation is incident throughout the year. The chimney and the collector get merged here. This makes the structure stable, cost effective and easy for construction. A mathematical model has been developed considering the total energy balance. It predicts the temperature and velocity and kinetic power of the emerging air draft for some chosen values of other parameters. The model also shows the proportion in which absorbed solar energy is divided into different forms, and hence predicts the dependence of kinetic of emerging air draft upon dimensions of the chimney and properties of materials used. Further, it is shown that external winds enhance the kinetic power of the emerging air. Thus ISC can also harness the wind energy, available at the top of the mountain.
Numerical Analysis of Aerodynamic Characteristics of the Finned Surfaces with Cross-inclined Fins
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lagutin A. E.
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents results of numerical research and analyses air-side hydraulic performance of tube bundles with cross inclined fins. The numerical simulation of the fin-tube heat exchanger was performed using the Comsol Femlab software. The results of modeling show the influence of fin inclination angle and tube pitch on hydraulic characteristics of finned surfaces. A series of numerical tests were carried out for tube bundles with different inclination angles (γ =900, 850, 650, 60, the fin pitch u=4 mm. The results indicate that tube bundles with cross inclined fins can significantly enhance the average integral value of the air flow rate in channel between fins in comparison with conventional straight fins. Aerodynamic processes on both sides of modificated channel between inclined fins were analyzed. The verification procedures for received results of numerical modeling with experimental data were performed.
An analytic solution of the static problem of inclined risers conveying fluid
Alfosail, Feras; Nayfeh, Ali H.; Younis, Mohammad I.
2016-01-01
We use the method of matched asymptotic expansion to develop an analytic solution to the static problem of clamped–clamped inclined risers conveying fluid. The inclined riser is modeled as an Euler–Bernoulli beam taking into account its self
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pokotilovskij, Yu.N.
1999-01-01
The motion of a particle in the linear potential bounded by an inclined plane or parabolic surfaces is considered. The quantization of energy and wave functions is obtained numerically by the separation of the variables method
Roof planes detection via a second-order variational model
Benciolini, Battista; Ruggiero, Valeria; Vitti, Alfonso; Zanetti, Massimo
2018-04-01
The paper describes a unified automatic procedure for the detection of roof planes in gridded height data. The procedure exploits the Blake-Zisserman (BZ) model for segmentation in both 2D and 1D, and aims to detect, to model and to label roof planes. The BZ model relies on the minimization of a functional that depends on first- and second-order derivatives, free discontinuities and free gradient discontinuities. During the minimization, the relative strength of each competitor is controlled by a set of weight parameters. By finding the minimum of the approximated BZ functional, one obtains: (1) an approximation of the data that is smoothed solely within regions of homogeneous gradient, and (2) an explicit detection of the discontinuities and gradient discontinuities of the approximation. Firstly, input data is segmented using the 2D BZ. The maps of data and gradient discontinuities are used to isolate building candidates and planar patches (i.e. regions with homogeneous gradient) that correspond to roof planes. Connected regions that can not be considered as buildings are filtered according to both patch dimension and distribution of the directions of the normals to the boundary. The 1D BZ model is applied to the curvilinear coordinates of boundary points of building candidates in order to reduce the effect of data granularity when the normals are evaluated. In particular, corners are preserved and can be detected by means of gradient discontinuity. Lastly, a total least squares model is applied to estimate the parameters of the plane that best fits the points of each planar patch (orthogonal regression with planar model). Refinement of planar patches is performed by assigning those points that are close to the boundaries to the planar patch for which a given proximity measure assumes the smallest value. The proximity measure is defined to account for the variance of a fitting plane and a weighted distance of a point from the plane. The effectiveness of the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nejad, M.A.; Reddish, D.J. [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering
1998-12-31
The paper presents results from and the methodology of a numerical modelling investigation into the surface ground movements above longwall mining of inclined and steep seams with varying panel configurations. A modelling approach was developed using a finite difference numercial model Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua (FLAC). On the basis of this methodology, representative surface subsidence profiles were simulated and the results of simulations were validated against the UK data using the Subsidence Engineer`s Handbook (SEH) and influence function methods. Furthermore, the proposed methodology was applied to two UK case histories for validation purposes. 15 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krishnani, Mayur; Basu, Dipankar N.
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Computational model developed for single-phase rectangular natural circulation loop. • Role of loop inclination to vertical on thermalhydraulic stability is explored. • Inclination has strong stabilizing effect due to lower effective gravitation force. • Increase in tilt angle reduces settling time and highest amplitude of oscillation. • An angle of 15° is suggested for the selected loop geometry. - Abstract: Controlling stability behavior of single-phase natural circulation loops, without significantly affecting its steady-state characteristics, is a topic of wide research interest. Present study explores the role of loop inclination on a particular loop geometry. Accordingly a 3D computational model of a rectangular loop is developed and transient conservation equations are solved to obtain the temporal variation in flow parameters. Starting from the quiescent state, simulations are performed for selected sets of operating conditions and also with a few selected inclination angles. System experiences instability at higher heater powers and also with higher sink temperatures. Inclination is found to have a strong stabilizing influence owing to the reduction in the effective gravitational acceleration and subsequent decline in local buoyancy effects. The settling time and highest amplitude of oscillations substantially reduces for a stable system with a small inclination. Typically-unstable systems can also suppress the oscillations, when subjected to tilting, within a reasonable period of time. It is possible to stabilize the loop within shorter time span by increasing the tilt angle, but at the expense of reduction in steady-state flow rate. Overall a tilt angle of 15° is suggested for the selected geometry. Results from the 3D model is compared with the predictions from an indigenous 1D code. While similar qualitative influence of inclination is observed, the 1D model predicts early appearance of the stability threshold and hence hints
Hydrodynamics of single- and two-phase flow in inclined rod arrays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Todreas, N.E.
1984-01-01
Required inputs for thermal-hydraulic codes are constitutive relations for fluid-solid flow resistance, in single-phase flow, and interfacial momentum exchange (relative phase motion), in two-phase flow. An inclined rod array air-water experiment was constructed to study the hydrodynamics of multidimensional porous medium flow in rod arrays. Velocities, pressures, bubble distributions, and void fractions were measured in inline and rotational square rod arrays of P/d = 1.5, at 0, 30, 45, and 90 degree inclinations to the vertical flow direction. Constitutive models for single-phase flow resistance are reviewed, new comprehensive models developed, and an assessment with previously published and new data made. The principle of superimposing one-dimensional correlations proves successful for turbulent single-phase inclined flow. For bubbly two-phase yawed flow through incline rod arrays a new flow separation phenomena was observed and modeled. Bubbles of diameters significantly smaller than the rod diameter travel along the rod axis, while larger diameter bubbles move through the rod array gaps. The outcome is a flow separation not predictable with current interfacial momentum exchange models. This phenomenon was not observed in rotated square rod arrays. Current interfacial momentum exchange models were confirmed for this rod arrangement. Models for the two phase flow resistance multiplier for cross flow were reviewed and compared with data from cross and yawed flow rod arrays. Both drag and lift components of the multiplier were well predicted by the homogenous model. Other models reviewed overpredicted the data by a factor of two
Modelling out-of-plane and in-plane resonant modes of microplates in liquid media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruiz-Díez, V; Hernando-García, J; Manzaneque, T; Sánchez-Rojas, J L; Kucera, M; Schmid, U
2015-01-01
In this article, the quality factor and the resonant frequency of different vibrating modes of microplates immersed in liquid are simulated by means of a finite element method (FEM) and compared with experimental data. For the in-plane modes, we studied the first extensional mode of mid-point supported microplates, which may be efficiently actuated by a thin piezoelectric film on top of the structure. A comparison of different approaches to account for the viscous loading in computationally efficient 2D finite element models is presented. As an alternative to the harmonic response, a novel multitone excitation in the fluid–structure interaction model allows for the calculation of the frequency response of the structure. For the out-of-plane modes, different modes were simulated and compared to analytical models to validate our approach. Our 2D FEM model yields more accurate estimations of the experimental resonance frequency and quality factors than the available analytical models. With the help of these tools, the applicability of the micro-resonators as viscosity and density sensors is discussed. (paper)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tobias Hacker
2012-04-01
Full Text Available The integral boundary layer system (IBL with spatially periodic coefficients arises as a long wave approximation for the flow of a viscous incompressible fluid down a wavy inclined plane. The Nusselt-like stationary solution of the IBL is linearly at best marginally stable; i.e., it has essential spectrum at least up to the imaginary axis. Nevertheless, in this stable case we show that localized perturbations of the ground state decay in a self-similar way. The proof uses the renormalization group method in Bloch variables and the fact that in the stable case the Burgers equation is the amplitude equation for long waves of small amplitude in the IBL. It is the first time that such a proof is given for a quasilinear PDE with spatially periodic coefficients.
Funamoto, Kenichi; Hayase, Toshiyuki; Shirai, Atsushi
Simplified two-dimensional flow analysis is performed in order to simulate frictional characteristics measurement of red blood cells moving on a glass plate in a medium with an inclined centrifuge microscope. Computation under various conditions reveals the influences of parameters on lift, drag, and moment acting on a red blood cell. Among these forces, lift appears only when the cell is longitudinally asymmetric. By considering the balance of forces, the frictional characteristics of the red blood cell are modeled as the sum of Coulomb friction and viscous drag. The model describes the possibility that the red blood cell deforms to expand in the front side in response to the inclined centrifugal force. When velocity exceeds some critical value, the lift overcomes the normal centrifugal force component, and the thickness of the plasma layer between the cell and the glass plate increases from the initial value of the plasma protein thickness.
Modeling and experimentation with asymmetric rigid bodies: a variation on disks and inclines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raviola, Lisandro A; Zárate, Oscar; Rodríguez, Eduardo E
2014-01-01
We study the ascending motion of a disk rolling on an incline when its centre of mass lies outside the disk axis. The problem is suitable as laboratory project for a first course in mechanics at the undergraduate level and goes beyond typical textbook problems about bi-dimensional rigid body motions. We develop a theoretical model for the disk motion based on mechanical energy conservation and compare its predictions with experimental data obtained by digital video recording. Using readily available resources, a very satisfactory agreement is obtained between the model and the experimental observations. These results complement previous ones that have been reported in the literature for similar systems. (paper)
A layered model for inclined pipe flow of settling slurry
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Matoušek, Václav; Krupička, Jan; Kesely, Mikoláš
2018-01-01
Roč. 333, June (2018), s. 317-326 ISSN 0032-5910 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-14271S Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : inclined pipe * settling slurry * pressure drop * flow stratification * laboratory loop Impact factor: 2.942, year: 2016
New inclination changing eclipsing binaries in the Magellanic Clouds
Juryšek, J.; Zasche, P.; Wolf, M.; Vraštil, J.; Vokrouhlický, D.; Skarka, M.; Liška, J.; Janík, J.; Zejda, M.; Kurfürst, P.; Paunzen, E.
2018-01-01
Context. Multiple stellar systems are unique laboratories for astrophysics. Analysis of their orbital dynamics, if well characterized from their observations, may reveal invaluable information about the physical properties of the participating stars. Unfortunately, there are only a few known and well described multiple systems, this is even more so for systems located outside the Milky Way galaxy. A particularly interesting situation occurs when the inner binary in a compact triple system is eclipsing. This is because the stellar interaction, typically resulting in precession of orbital planes, may be observable as a variation of depth of the eclipses on a long timescale. Aims: We aim to present a novel method to determine compact triples using publicly available photometric data from large surveys. Here we apply it to eclipsing binaries (EBs) in Magellanic Clouds from OGLE III database. Our tool consists of identifying the cases where the orbital plane of EB evolves in accord with expectations from the interaction with a third star. Methods: We analyzed light curves (LCs) of 26121 LMC and 6138 SMC EBs with the goal to identify those for which the orbital inclination varies in time. Archival LCs of the selected systems, when complemented by our own observations with Danish 1.54-m telescope, were thoroughly analyzed using the PHOEBE program. This provided physical parameters of components of each system. Time dependence of the EB's inclination was described using the theory of orbital-plane precession. By observing the parameter-dependence of the precession rate, we were able to constrain the third companion mass and its orbital period around EB. Results: We identified 58 candidates of new compact triples in Magellanic Clouds. This is the largest published sample of such systems so far. Eight of them were analyzed thoroughly and physical parameters of inner binary were determined together with an estimation of basic characteristics of the third star. Prior to our
Aesthetic evaluation of profile incisor inclination.
Ghaleb, Nathalie; Bouserhal, Joseph; Bassil-Nassif, Nayla
2011-06-01
The objectives of this study were to evaluate (1) the impact of maxillary incisor inclination on the aesthetics of the profile view of a smile, (2) to determine the most aesthetic inclination in the profile view of a smile and correlate it with facial features, and (3) to determine if dentists, orthodontists, and laypeople appreciate differently incisor inclination in smile aesthetics. A smiling profile photograph of a female subject (22 years of age) who fulfilled the criteria of soft tissue normative values and a balanced smile was obtained. The photograph was manipulated to simulate six lingual and labial inclinations at 5 degree increments to a maximum of 15 degrees. The seven photographs were randomly distributed in a binder to three groups of raters (30 dentists, 30 orthodontists, and 30 laypeople) who scored the attractiveness of the photographic variations using a visual analogue scale. Comparison of the mean scores was carried out by repeated analysis of variance, univariate tests, and multiple Bonferroni comparisons. The results showed a statistically significant interaction between the rater's profession and the aesthetic preference of incisor inclination (P = 0.013). The profile smile corresponding to an increase of 5 degrees in a labial direction had the highest score among all professions and among male and female raters. Orthodontists preferred labial crown torque; dentists and laypeople did not appreciate excessive incisor inclination in either the lingual or the labial directions. The most preferred smile matched with a maxillary incisor inclined 93 degrees to the horizontal line and +7 degrees to the lower facial third.
Schroeder, J; Reer, R; Braumann, K M
2015-02-01
As reliability of raster stereography was proved only for sagittal plane parameters with repeated measures on the same day, the present study was aiming at investigating variability and reliability of back shape reconstruction for all dimensions (sagittal, frontal, transversal) and for different intervals. For a sample of 20 healthy volunteers, intra-individual variability (SEM and CV%) and reliability (ICC ± 95% CI) were proved for sagittal (thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, pelvis tilt angle, and trunk inclination), frontal (pelvis torsion, pelvis and trunk imbalance, vertebral side deviation, and scoliosis angle), transversal (vertebral rotation), and functional (hyperextension) spine shape reconstruction parameters for different test-retest intervals (on the same day, between-day, between-week) by means of video raster stereography. Reliability was high for the sagittal plane (pelvis tilt, kyphosis and lordosis angle, and trunk inclination: ICC > 0.90), and good to high for lumbar mobility (0.86 < ICC < 0.97). Apart from sagittal plane spinal alignment, there was a lack of certainty for a high reproducibility indicated by wider ICC confidence intervals. So, reliability was fair to high for vertebral side deviation and the scoliosis angle (0.71 < ICC < 0.95), and poor to good for vertebral rotation values as well as for frontal plane upper body and pelvis position parameters (0.65 < ICC < 0.92). Coefficients for the between-day and between-week interval were a little lower than for repeated measures on the same day. Variability (SEM) was less than 1.5° or 1.5 mm, except for trunk inclination. Relative variability (CV) was greater in global trunk position and pelvis parameters (35-98%) than in scoliosis (14-20%) or sagittal sway parameters (4-8 %). Although we found a lower reproducibility for the frontal plane, raster stereography is considered to be a reliable method for the non-invasive, three-dimensional assessment of spinal alignment in normal non
Lower bound plane stress element for modelling 3D structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Herfelt, Morten Andersen; Poulsen, Peter Noe; Hoang, Linh Cao
2017-01-01
In-plane action is often the primary load-carrying mechanism of reinforced concrete structures. The plate bending action will be secondary, and the behaviour of the structure can be modelled with a reasonable accuracy using a generalised three-dimensional plane stress element. In this paper...
Model of Dirac field interacting with material plane within Symanzik’s approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pismak Yu. M.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The model for the interaction of a spinor field with a material plane is constructed in the framework of the Symanzik’s approach. The characteristics of scattering process of Dirac particles on the plane are calculated. The bounced states localized near the plane are investigated.The model can find application to a wide class of phenomena arising by the interaction of quantum electrodynamics fields with two-dimensional materials.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jouve, Dominique
2012-01-01
This report is a continuation of the thesis [23], devoted to the onset of necking plastic instabilities during tension tests on metallic plates bi-axially loaded in their plane. We are also interested here in compression tests, and in the development of antisymmetric defects with respect to the median plane of the plate. As in the thesis, we search for the dominant mode, i.e. the most unstable pair of wavelengths (λ1, λ2) in the loading plane. An approximate analytical formulation for the growth rate is proposed, especially for plane-strain tests in the absence of viscous effects, and for static tests in tension in the x1 and x2 loading directions. In that latter case, we retrieve published results [14][15]. For plane-strain tests, we show that infinitely dense networks of shear bands inclined at 45 deg. with respect to the loading direction instantaneously occur when heat softening prevails over work-hardening. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Armitage, R.; Horita, M.; Suda, J.; Kimoto, T.
2007-01-01
A series of m-plane GaN layers with the Ga beam-equivalent pressure (BEP) as the only varied parameter was grown by rf-plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy on m-plane 4H-SiC substrates using AlN buffer layers. The smoothest growth surfaces and most complete film coalescence were found for the highest Ga BEP corresponding to the Ga droplet accumulation regime. However, better structural quality as assessed by x-ray rocking curves was observed for growth at a lower Ga BEP value below the droplet limit. The variation of rocking curve widths for planes inclined with respect to the epilayer c axis followed a different trend with Ga BEP than those of reflections parallel to the c axis. The GaN layers were found to exhibit a large residual compressive strain along the a axis
A superellipsoid-plane model for simulating foot-ground contact during human gait.
Lopes, D S; Neptune, R R; Ambrósio, J A; Silva, M T
2016-01-01
Musculoskeletal models and forward dynamics simulations of human movement often include foot-ground interactions, with the foot-ground contact forces often determined using a constitutive model that depends on material properties and contact kinematics. When using soft constraints to model the foot-ground interactions, the kinematics of the minimum distance between the foot and planar ground needs to be computed. Due to their geometric simplicity, a considerable number of studies have used point-plane elements to represent these interacting bodies, but few studies have provided comparisons between point contact elements and other geometrically based analytical solutions. The objective of this work was to develop a more general-purpose superellipsoid-plane contact model that can be used to determine the three-dimensional foot-ground contact forces. As an example application, the model was used in a forward dynamics simulation of human walking. Simulation results and execution times were compared with a point-like viscoelastic contact model. Both models produced realistic ground reaction forces and kinematics with similar computational efficiency. However, solving the equations of motion with the surface contact model was found to be more efficient (~18% faster), and on average numerically ~37% less stiff. The superellipsoid-plane elements are also more versatile than point-like elements in that they allow for volumetric contact during three-dimensional motions (e.g. rotating, rolling, and sliding). In addition, the superellipsoid-plane element is geometrically accurate and easily integrated within multibody simulation code. These advantages make the use of superellipsoid-plane contact models in musculoskeletal simulations an appealing alternative to point-like elements.
On the lunar node resonance of the orbital plane evolution of the Earth's satellite orbits
Zhu, Ting-Lei
2018-06-01
This paper aims to investigate the effects of lunar node resonance on the circular medium Earth orbits (MEO). The dynamical model is established in classical Hamiltonian systems with the application of Lie transform to remove the non-resonant terms. Resonant condition, stability and phase structures are studied. The lunar node resonance occurs when the secular changing rates of the orbital node (with respect to the equator) and the lunar node (with respect to the ecliptic) form a simple integer ratio. The resonant conditions are satisfied for both inclined and equatorial orbits. The orbital plane would have long period (with typical timescales of several centuries) fluctuation due to the resonance.
Excavating wide inclines in weak strata
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kuznetsov, N N [Ukrspetsstroiproekt (USSR)
1990-09-01
Discusses schemes for excavation of transport inclines in surface mines under conditions of weak, unstable rocks characterized by a high water content. The schemes are aimed at maximum reduction of excavation operations without infringing the safety of personnel. Use of walking draglines (the EhSh-20/90, EhSh-100/100 and EhSh-10/70) is evaluated. Optimum schemes for incline excavation and determining optimum slope inclination are described on the example of the Berezovsk brown coal surface mine in the USSR. Efficiency of optimum schemes is analyzed: range of excavation, safety degree, landslide hazards, water influx rate, accident rate, etc.
Tooth Wear Inclination in Great Ape Molars.
Knight-Sadler, Jordan; Fiorenza, Luca
2017-01-01
Primate dietary diversity is reflected in their dental morphology, with differences in size and shape of teeth. In particular, the tooth wear angle can provide insight into a species' ability to break down certain foods. To examine dietary and masticatory information, digitized polygon models of dental casts provide a basis for quantitative analysis of wear associated with tooth attrition. In this study, we analyze and compare the wear patterns of Pongo pygmaeus, Gorilla gorillagorilla and Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii lower molars, focusing on the degree of inclination of specific wear facets. The variation in wear angles appears to be indicative of jaw movements and the specific stresses imposed on food during mastication, reflecting thus the ecology of these species. Orangutans exhibit flatter wear angles, more typical of a diet consisting of hard and brittle foods, while gorillas show a wear pattern with a high degree of inclination, reflecting thus their more leafy diet. Chimpanzees, on the other hand, show intermediate inclinations, a pattern that could be related to their highly variable diet. This method is demonstrated to be a powerful tool for better understanding the relationship between food, mastication and tooth wear processes in living primates, and can be potentially used to reconstruct the diet of fossil species. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Osunmakind, IO
2009-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper, collective intelligence of the Emergent Situation Awareness (ESA) technology is proposed as a supportive strategy for autonomous robotic navigation. The ability to reveal uncertainties over time on flexed far-field is a ground plane...
Zimmer, Bernd; Sino, Hiba
2018-03-19
To analyze common values of bracket torque (Andrews, Roth, MBT, Ricketts) for their validity in achieving incisor inclinations that are considered normal by different cephalometric standards. Using the equations developed in part 1 (eU1 (BOP) = 90° - BT (U1) - TCA (U1) + α 1 - α 2 and eL1 (BOP) = 90° - BT (L1) - TCA (L1) + β 1 - β 2 ) (abbreviations see part 1) and the mean values (± SD) obtained as statistical measures in parts 1 and 2 of the study (α 1 and β 1 [1.7° ± 0.7°], α 2 [3.6° ± 0.3°], β 2 [3.2° ± 0.4°], TCA (U1) [24.6° ± 3.6°] and TCA (L1) [22.9° ± 4.3°]) expected (= theoretically anticipated) values were calculated for upper and lower incisors (U1 and L1) and compared to targeted (= cephalometric norm) values. For U1, there was no overlapping between the ranges of expected and targeted values, as the lowest targeted value of (58.3°; Ricketts) was higher than the highest expected value (56.5°; Andrews) relative to the bisected occlusal plane (BOP). Thus all of these torque systems will aim for flatter inclinations than prescribed by any of the norm values. Depending on target values, the various bracket systems fell short by 1.8-5.5° (Andrews), 6.8-10.5° (Roth), 11.8-15.5° (MBT), or 16.8-20.5° (Ricketts). For L1, there was good agreement of the MBT system with the Ricketts and Björk target values (Δ0.1° and Δ-0.8°, respectively), and both the Roth and Ricketts systems came close to the Bergen target value (both Δ2.3°). Depending on target values, the ranges of deviation for L1 were 6.3-13.2° for Andrews (Class II prescription), 2.3°-9.2° for Roth, -3.7 to -3.2° for MBT, and 2.3-9.2° for Ricketts. Common values of upper incisor bracket torque do not have acceptable validity in achieving normal incisor inclinations. A careful selection of lower bracket torque may provide satisfactory matching with some of the targeted norm values.
Experimental and numerical investigation of stratified gas-liquid flow in inclined circular pipes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faccini, J.L.H.; Sampaio, P.A.B. de; Botelho, M.H.D.S.; Cunha, M.V.; Cunha Filho, J.S.; Su, J.
2012-01-01
In this paper, a stratified gas-liquid flow is experimentally and numerically investigated. Two measurement techniques, namely an ultrasonic technique and a visualization technique, are applied on an inclined circular test section using a fast single transducer pulse-echo technique and a high-speed camera. A numerical model is employed to simulate the stratified gas-liquid flow, formed by a system of non-linear differential equations consisting of the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the κ-ω turbulence model. The test section used in this work is comprised mainly of a transparent circular pipe with inner diameter 1 inch, and inclination angles varying from -2.5 to -10.0 degrees. Numerical solutions are obtained for the liquid height as a function of inclination angles, and compared with our own experimental data. (author)
A collapse pressure prediction model for horizontal shale gas wells with multiple weak planes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ping Chen
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Since collapse of horizontal wellbore through long brittle shale interval is a major problem, the occurrence characteristics of weak planes were analyzed according to outcrop, core, and SEM and FMI data of shale rocks. A strength analysis method was developed for shale rocks with multiple weak planes based on weak-plane strength theory. An analysis was also conducted of the strength characteristics of shale rocks with uniform distribution of multiple weak planes. A collapse pressure prediction model for horizontal wells in shale formation with multiple weak planes was established, which takes into consideration the occurrence of each weak plane, wellbore stress condition, borehole azimuth, and in-situ stress azimuth. Finally, a case study of a horizontal shale gas well in southern Sichuan Basin was conducted. The results show that the intersection angle between the shale bedding plane and the structural fracture is generally large (nearly orthogonal; with the increase of weak plane number, the strength of rock mass declines sharply and is more heavily influenced by weak planes; when there are more than four weak planes, the rock strength tends to be isotropic and the whole strength of rock mass is greatly weakened, significantly increasing the risk of wellbore collapse. With the increase of weak plane number, the drilling fluid density (collapse pressure to keep borehole stability goes up gradually. For instance, the collapse pressure is 1.04 g/cm3 when there are no weak planes, and 1.55 g/cm3 when there is one weak plane, and 1.84 g/cm3 when there are two weak planes. The collapse pressure prediction model for horizontal wells proposed in this paper presented results in better agreement with those in actual situation. This model, more accurate and practical than traditional models, can effectively improve the accuracy of wellbore collapse pressure prediction of horizontal shale gas wells.
Influence of implant inclination associated with mandibular class I removable partial denture.
de Freitas Santos, Ciandrus Moraes; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza; Verri, Fellippo Ramos; de Moraes, Sandra Lúcia Dantas; Falcón-Antenucci, Rosse Mary
2011-03-01
The aim of this study was to use two-dimensional finite element method to evaluate the displacement and stress distribution transmitted by a distal extension removable partial denture (DERPD) associated with an implant placed at different inclinations (0, 5, 15, and 30 degrees) in the second molar region of the edentulous mandible ridge. Six hemimandibular models were created: model A, only with the presence of the natural tooth 33; model B, similar to model A, with the presence of a conventional DERPD replacing the missing teeth; model C, similar to the previous model, with a straight implant (0 degrees) in the distal region of the ridge, under the denture base; model D, similar to model C, with the implant angled at 5 degrees in the mesial direction; model E, similar to model C, with the implant angled at 15 degrees in the mesial direction; and model F, similar to ME, with the implant angled at 30 degrees in the mesial direction. The models were created with the use of the AutoCAD 2000 program (Autodesk, Inc, San Rafael, CA) and processed for finite element analysis by the ANSYS 8.0 program (Swanson Analysis Systems, Houston, PA). The force applied was vertical of 50 N on each cusp tip. The results showed that the introduction of the RPD overloaded the supporting structures of the RPD and that the introduction of the implant helped to relieve the stresses of the mucosa alveolar, cortical bone, and trabecular bone. The best stress distribution occurred in model D with the implant angled at 5 degrees. The use of an implant as a support decreased the displacement of alveolar mucosa for all inclinations simulated. The stress distribution transmitted by the DERPD to the supporting structures was improved by the use of straight or slightly inclined implants. According to the displacement analysis and von Mises stress, it could be expected that straight or slightly inclined implants do not represent biomechanical risks to use.
Ring formation on an inclined surface
Deegan, Robert; Du, Xiyu
2015-11-01
A drop dried on a solid surface will typically leave a narrow band of solute deposited along the contact line. We examined variations of this deposit due to the inclination of the substrate using numerical simulations of a two-dimensional drop, equivalent to a strip-like drop. An asymptotic analysis of the contact line region predicts that the upslope deposit will grow faster at early times, but the growth of this deposit ends sooner because the upper contact line depins first. From our simulations we find that the deposit can be larger at either the upper or lower contact line depending on the initial drop volume and substrate inclination. For larger drops and steeper inclinations, the early lead in deposited mass at the upper contact line is wiped out by the earlier depinning of the upper contact line and subsequent continued growth at the lower contact line. Conversely, for smaller drops and shallower inclinations, the early lead of the upper contact line is insurmountable despite its earlier termination in growth. Our results show that it is difficult to reconstruct a postiorithe inclination of the substrate based solely on the shape of the deposit. The authors thank the James S. McDonnell Foundation for support through a 21st Century Science Initiative in Studying Complex Systems Research Award, and the National Science Foundation for support under Grant No. 0932600.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Fan; Yang, Haicheng; Guo, Xueyan; Ren Dai [University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Yan, Yonghua [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow and Heat Transfer in Power Engineering, Shanghai (China); Liu, Chaoqun [University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington (United States)
2017-06-15
Natural convection heat transfer in an inclined polar cavity was studied using a Finite-difference lattice Boltzmann method (FDLBM) based on a double-population approach for body-fitted coordinates. A D2G9 model coupled with the simplest TD2Q4 lattice model was applied to determine the velocity field and temperature field. For both velocity and temperature fields, the discrete spatial derivatives were obtained by combining the upwind scheme with the central scheme, and the discrete temporal term is obtained using a fourth-order Runge-Kutta scheme. Studies were carried out for different Rayleigh numbers and different inclination angles. The results in terms of streamlines, isotherms, and Nusselt numbers explain the heat transfer mechanism of natural convection in an inclined polar cavity due to the change of Rayleigh number and inclination angle.
A novel method of microneedle array fabrication using inclined deep x-ray exposure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moon, Sang Jun; Jin, Chun Yan; Lee, Seung S
2006-01-01
We report a novel fabrication method for the microneedle array with a 3-dimensional feature and its replication method; 'Hot-pressing' process with bio-compatible material, PLLA (Poly L-LActide). Using inclined deep X-ray exposure technique, we fabricate a band type microneedle array with a single body on the same material basement. Since the single body feature does not make adhesion problem with the microneedle shank and basement during peel-off step of a mold, the PMMA (Poly-Methyl-MethAcrylate) microneedle array mold insert can be used for mold process which is used with the soft material mold, PDMS (Poly-Di- Methyl-Siloxane). The side inclined deep X-ray exposure also makes complex 3-dimensional features by the regions which are not exposed during twice successive exposure steps. In addition, the successive exposure does not need an additional mask alignment after the first side exposure. The fabricated band type microneedle array mold inserts are assembled for large area patch type out-of-plane microneedle array. The bio-compatible microneedle array can be fabricated to the laboratory scale mass production by the single body PMMA mold insert and 'Hot-pressing' process
A novel method of microneedle array fabrication using inclined deep x-ray exposure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moon, Sang Jun; Jin, Chun Yan; Lee, Seung S [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-dong, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2006-04-01
We report a novel fabrication method for the microneedle array with a 3-dimensional feature and its replication method; 'Hot-pressing' process with bio-compatible material, PLLA (Poly L-LActide). Using inclined deep X-ray exposure technique, we fabricate a band type microneedle array with a single body on the same material basement. Since the single body feature does not make adhesion problem with the microneedle shank and basement during peel-off step of a mold, the PMMA (Poly-Methyl-MethAcrylate) microneedle array mold insert can be used for mold process which is used with the soft material mold, PDMS (Poly-Di- Methyl-Siloxane). The side inclined deep X-ray exposure also makes complex 3-dimensional features by the regions which are not exposed during twice successive exposure steps. In addition, the successive exposure does not need an additional mask alignment after the first side exposure. The fabricated band type microneedle array mold inserts are assembled for large area patch type out-of-plane microneedle array. The bio-compatible microneedle array can be fabricated to the laboratory scale mass production by the single body PMMA mold insert and 'Hot-pressing' process.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Perović Bojan D.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to show how the inclination angle affects natural convection from a flat-plate photovoltaic module which is mounted on the ground surface. In order to model this effect, novel correlations for natural convection from isothermal flat plates are developed by using the fundamental dimensionless number. On the basis of the available experimental and numerical results, it is shown that the natural convection correlations correspond well with the existing empirical correlations for vertical, inclined, and horizontal plates. Five additional correlations for the critical Grashof number are derived from the available data, three indicating the onset of transitional flow regime and two indicating the onset of flow separation. The proposed correlations cover the entire range of inclination angles and the entire range of Prandtl numbers. This paper also provides two worked examples, one for natural convection combined with radiation and one for natural convection combined with forced convection and radiation. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR33046
Dewaikar, D. M.; Pandey, S. R.; Dixit, Jagabandhu
2012-01-01
A method based on the application of Kötter’s equation is proposed for the complete analysis of active thrust on an inclined wall with inclined cohesionless backfill under surcharge effect. Coulomb’s failure mechanism is considered in the analysis. The point of application of active thrust is determined from the condition of moment equilibrium. The coefficient of active pressure and the point of application of the active thrust are computed and presented in nondimensional form. One distinguis...
Complex network analysis in inclined oil–water two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhong-Ke, Gao; Ning-De, Jin
2009-01-01
Complex networks have established themselves in recent years as being particularly suitable and flexible for representing and modelling many complex natural and artificial systems. Oil–water two-phase flow is one of the most complex systems. In this paper, we use complex networks to study the inclined oil–water two-phase flow. Two different complex network construction methods are proposed to build two types of networks, i.e. the flow pattern complex network (FPCN) and fluid dynamic complex network (FDCN). Through detecting the community structure of FPCN by the community-detection algorithm based on K-means clustering, useful and interesting results are found which can be used for identifying three inclined oil–water flow patterns. To investigate the dynamic characteristics of the inclined oil–water two-phase flow, we construct 48 FDCNs under different flow conditions, and find that the power-law exponent and the network information entropy, which are sensitive to the flow pattern transition, can both characterize the nonlinear dynamics of the inclined oil–water two-phase flow. In this paper, from a new perspective, we not only introduce a complex network theory into the study of the oil–water two-phase flow but also indicate that the complex network may be a powerful tool for exploring nonlinear time series in practice. (general)
Numerical modelling of orthogonal cutting: application to woodworking with a bench plane
Nairn, John A.
2016-01-01
A numerical model for orthogonal cutting using the material point method was applied to woodcutting using a bench plane. The cutting process was modelled by accounting for surface energy associated with wood fracture toughness for crack growth parallel to the grain. By using damping to deal with dynamic crack propagation and modelling all contact between wood and the plane, simulations could initiate chip formation and proceed into steady-state chip propagation including chip curling. Once st...
47 CFR 25.280 - Inclined orbit operations.
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inclined orbit operations. 25.280 Section 25.280 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.280 Inclined orbit operations. (a) Satellite operators may commence...
A novel fabrication process for out-of-plane microneedle sheets of biocompatible polymer
Han, Manhee; Hyun, Dong-Hun; Park, Hyoun-Hyang; Lee, Seung S.; Kim, Chang-Hyeon; Kim, Changgyou
2007-06-01
This paper presents a novel process for fabricating out-of-plane microneedle sheets of biocompatible polymer using in-plane microneedles. This process comprises four steps: (1) fabrication of in-plane microneedles using inclined UV lithography and electroforming, (2) conversion of the in-plane microneedles to an out-of-plane microneedle array, (3) fabrication of a negative PDMS mold and (4) fabrication of out-of-plane microneedle sheets of biocompatible polymer by hot embossing. The in-plane microneedles are fabricated with a sharp tip for low insertion forces and are made long to ensure sufficient penetration depth. The in-plane microneedles are converted into an out-of-plane microneedle array to increase the needle density. The negative mold is fabricated for mass-production using a polymer molding technique. The final out-of-plane microneedle sheets are produced using polycarbonate for biocompatibility by employing the hot embossing process. The height of the fabricated needles ranges from 500 to 1500 µm, and the distance between the needles is 500 to 2000 µm. The radii of curvature are approximately 2 µm, while the tip angles are in the range of 39-56°. Most of the geometrical characteristics of the out-of-plane microneedles can be freely controlled for real life applications such as drug delivery, cosmetic delivery and mesotherapy. Since it is also possible to mass-produce the microneedles, this novel process holds sufficient potential for applications in industrial fields.
Study on natural circulation characteristics of an IPWR under inclined and rolling condition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
He, Lihui [College of Computer Science and Information Technology, Harbin Normal University, Harbin (China); Wang, Bing [Fundamental Science on Nuclear Safety and Simulation Technology Laboratory, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China); Xia, Genglei, E-mail: xiagenglei@163.com [Fundamental Science on Nuclear Safety and Simulation Technology Laboratory, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China); Peng, Minjun [Fundamental Science on Nuclear Safety and Simulation Technology Laboratory, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China)
2017-06-15
Highlights: • An ocean-based thermal-hydraulic analysis code was developed based on RELAP5 codes. • The inclination condition can reduce the mass flow rate of reactor core. • The system parameters asymmetry increases with the increasing inclination angle. • Flow oscillation of different loops cancel each other due to the symmetrical arrangement of the reactor. • The off-center roll axis location can break the symmetry and enlarge fluctuation amplitude of the core flow rate. - Abstract: An ocean-based thermal-hydraulic system analysis code was developed based on RELAP5/MOD3 code by adding additional force model of ocean condition and control volume coordinate solver model. The natural circulation operation characteristics of integrated pressurized water reactor (IPWR) under ocean conditions were studied and the effects of inclination and rolling motions were analyzed. The results conclude that, the inclination condition can reduce the mass flow rate of reactor core and lead to inconsistent coolant flow rates of the left and right loops, furthermore, it affects the heat transfer of once-through steam generators (OTSGs). In the case of rolling motion, the additional pressure drop of the loop is dominated by tangential force, and flow oscillation of different loops cancel each other due to the symmetrical arrangement of the reactor. The off-center roll axis location, the combination of the inclination and rolling motion, both can break the thermal-hydraulic symmetry among different loops and enlarge fluctuation amplitude of the core flow rate.
EFFECT OF BRIDGE PIERS INCLINATION AND ROUGHNESS ON SCOUR PIT DIMENSIONS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Moaed S. Khalil
2013-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper a laboratory work was performed to study the effect of bridge piers inclination and surface roughness on scour pit dimensions. Fifty four experiments were conducted using three different sizes and inclinations Pier models fixed in a sandy bed channel. First, the axis of the pier was parallel to the flow, then it was inclined by 30° and finally by 45°. Each model was tested under three different flow discharges for a period not less than two hours and at the end of each experiment the dimensions of the scour pit were measured. The same experiments were repeated after roughening the surface of each pier by fine gravel of 2mm in diameter to increase its roughness.The results of the experiment showed a clear reduction in scour pit dimensions after increasing pier roughness, the percentage of decreases in scour depth was between 2 % and 61%, while the scour length decreased between 2.5% and 22%, and finally the width of scour decreases was between 3% and 19.7%. The results also showed that the inclination of pier's axis produced an increase in scour pit dimensions. Finally, the empirical relationships of the results showed that it's possible to explain the relation between the flow discharge and each of scour pit dimensions by a simple linear equation, where the determination coefficient were more than 0.94 for all relations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan, A.L.S.; Chow, T.T.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • A generic fully air-conditioned office building with inclined walls was modeled. • Simulations were run under climatic conditions in three modern cities in China. • Reduction in cooling load can outweigh the increase in heating load for Hong Kong. • Inclined angle of 30° is appropriate for inverted pyramidal building in Hong Kong. • Building constructed with inclined walls is not encouraged in Shanghai and Beijing. - Abstract: An inverted pyramidal building is built with inclined walls instead of the traditional vertical façades. In terms of thermal performance, an inverted pyramidal building can provide a self-shading effect against the beam solar radiation, leading to a reduction in solar heat gain as well as building cooling load. On the other hand, the heating requirement of an inverted pyramidal building will be increased in winter. There is a strong dependency of building performance on the climatic condition. In this study, a generic air-conditioned office building with inclined walls set at different inclination angles was modeled using a building energy simulation program. Computer simulations were run to assess the thermal performance of the building constructed with inclined walls under different climatic conditions in three modern cities in China–Hong Kong, Shanghai and Beijing. The results reveal that for the building cases with inclined walls set at different inclination angles in subtropical Hong Kong, the saving in annual cooling load ranges from 0.6% to 10.9% and can outweigh the increase in heating load. Moreover, an inclination angle of 30° was found as a better design option for an inverted pyramidal building with symmetrical layout design under the climatic condition in Hong Kong. For the other two cities: Shanghai and Beijing, the saving in cooling load due to self-shading effect cannot offset the increased heating requirement. Design and construction of an inverted pyramidal building is not encouraged in these two
Ha, Tam Cam; Ng, Sheryl; Chen, Cynthia; Yong, Sook Kwin; Koh, Gerald C H; Tan, Say Beng; Malhotra, Rahul; Altermatt, Fernando; Seim, Arnfinn; Biderman, Aya; Woolley, Torres; Østbye, Truls
2018-05-02
Involvement of clinicians in biomedical research is imperative for the future of healthcare. Several factors influence clinicians' inclination towards research: the medical school experience, exposure to research article reading and writing, and knowledge of research. This cohort study follows up medical students at time of graduation to explore changes in their inclination towards research and pursuing a research career compared to their inclination at time of entry into medical school. Students from medical schools in six different countries were enrolled in their first year of school and followed-up upon graduation in their final year. Students answered the same self-administered questionnaire at both time points. Changes in inclination towards research and pursuing a research career were assessed. Factors correlated with these changes were analysed. Of the 777 medical students who responded to the study questionnaire at entry into medical school, 332 (42.7%) completed the follow-up survey. Among these 332 students, there was no significant increase in inclination towards research or pursuing a research career over the course of their medical schooling. Students from a United States based school, in contrast to those from schools other countries, were more likely to report having research role models to guide them (51.5% vs. 0%-26.4%) and to have published in a peer-reviewed journal (75.7% vs. 8.9%-45%). Absence of a role model was significantly associated with a decrease in inclination towards research, while an increased desire to learn more about statistics was significantly associated with an increase in inclination towards pursuing a research career. Most medical students did not experience changes in their inclination towards research or pursuing a research career over the course of their medical schooling. Factors that increased their inclination to undertaking research or pursuing a research career were availability of a good role model, and a good
Rotational synkineses of occiput and atlas on lateral inclination
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jirout, J.
1981-02-01
An X-ray analysis was performed with regard to the question of synkinetic rotational movements of occiput and atlas on lateral inclination of the head and neck. It was found that the frequent synkinetic rotation of the head from the side of inclination can be taken for a stereotype that is ten times more frequent than the rotation towards the side of inclination. However, it does not represent an essential or indispensable feature of the synkinetic reaction. The associated rotation of the atlas from the side of inclination cannot be looked upon as a normal and constant element of the synkinetic response on lateral inclination, as it does not occur in nearly one-half of cases. Moreover, these studies have shown that the rotational movement between occiput and atlas is possible not only in the final stage of maximum forced rotation of the head, but that it belongs to normal dynamic features of the synkinetic response on lateral inclination of the head and neck.
Rotational synkineses of occiput and atlas on lateral inclination
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jirout, J.
1981-01-01
An X-ray analysis was performed with regard to the question of synkinetic rotational movements of occiput and atlas on lateral inclination of the head and neck. It was found that the frequent synkinetic rotation of the head from the side of inclination can be taken for a stereotype that is ten times more frequent than the rotation towards the side of inclination. However, it does not represent an essential or indispensable feature of the synkinetic reaction. The associated rotation of the atlas from the side of inclination cannot be looked upon as a normal and constant element of the synkinetic response on lateral inclination, as it does not occur in nearly one-half of cases. Moreover, these studies have shown that the rotational movement between occiput and atlas is possible not only in the final stage of maximum forced rotation of the head, but that it belongs to normal dynamic features of the synkinetic response on lateral inclination of the head and neck. (orig.)
Brilliance and flux reduction in imperfect inclined crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, W.K.; Blasdell, R.C.; Fernandez, P.B.; Macrander, A.T.; Mills, D.M.
1996-01-01
The inclined crystal geometry has been suggested as a method of reducing the surface absorbed power density of high-heat-load monochromators for third-generation synchrotron radiation sources. Computer simulations have shown that if the crystals are perfectly aligned and have no strains then the diffraction properties of a pair of inclined crystals are very similar to a pair of conventional flat crystals with only subtle effects differentiating the two configurations. However, if the crystals are strained, these subtle differences in the behavior of inclined crystals can result in large beam divergences causing brilliance and flux losses. This manuscript elaborates on these issues and estimates potential brilliance and flux losses from strained inclined crystals at the APS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmidbauer, M.; Opitz, R.; Wiebach, Th.; Koehler, R.
2001-01-01
The inclined inheritance of interface roughness is investigated for an AlASGaAs superlattice grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a vicinal (001) GaAs substrate. As a consequence of vertical correlation of the roughness of subsequent interfaces the diffusely scattered x-ray intensity is bunched into resonant diffuse scattering (RDS) sheets in reciprocal space. Inclined inheritance leads to corresponding shearing of the RDS sheets. A simple model for the evaluation of inclined roughness inheritance in three dimensions is presented, where the sheared RDS sheets are modeled by anisotropic sheared ellipsoids. From measurements at different azimuthal sample orientations the two angles characterizing the inclined inheritance of interface roughness can be determined accurately. At the present sample the inheritance of interface roughness approximately follows the direction of step flow during growth. The results show that a three-dimensional analysis of diffuse scattering is necessary for a correct evaluation and interpretation
Gong, Yinchun; Ai, Zhijiu; Sun, Xu; Fu, Biwei
2016-01-01
Analytical buckling models are important for down-hole operations to ensure the structural integrity of the drill string. A literature survey shows that most published analytical buckling models do not address the effects of inclination angle, boundary conditions or friction. The objective of this paper is to study the effects of boundary conditions, friction and angular inclination on the helical buckling of coiled tubing in an inclined wellbore. In this paper, a new theoretical model is established to describe the buckling behavior of coiled tubing. The buckling equations are derived by applying the principles of virtual work and minimum potential energy. The proper solution for the post-buckling configuration is determined based on geometric and natural boundary conditions. The effects of angular inclination and boundary conditions on the helical buckling of coiled tubing are considered. Many significant conclusions are obtained from this study. When the dimensionless length of the coiled tubing is greater than 40, the effects of the boundary conditions can be ignored. The critical load required for helical buckling increases as the angle of inclination and the friction coefficient increase. The post-buckling behavior of coiled tubing in different configurations and for different axial loads is determined using the proposed analytical method. Practical examples are provided that illustrate the influence of the angular inclination on the axial force. The rate of change of the axial force decreases with increasing angular inclination. Moreover, the total axial friction also decreases with an increasing inclination angle. These results will help researchers to better understand helical buckling in coiled tubing. Using this knowledge, measures can be taken to prevent buckling in coiled tubing during down-hole operations.
Treatment of Class III malocclusion: the key role of the occlusal plane.
Raymond, Jean-Louis; Matern, Olivier; Grollemund, Bruno; Bacon, William
2010-01-01
Patients with a Class III malocclusion generally present with a counterclockwise inclination of the occlusal plane, converging with Camper's line towards the front. This slope has an effect on mandibular movement (forward posture) and on chewing mechanisms in general. As dysfunctional mastication is likely to influence facial growth and inter-arch stability negatively, early orthopedic therapy of the occlusal unbalance concurrent with Class III malocclusion is justified. The aim of this article is to present a method of Class III treatment based on a correct re-orientation of the occlusal plane in order to achieve an optimal masticatory mechanism, essential for stability of early treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2010 Società Italiana di Ortodonzia (SIDO). Published by Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.
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Carolina Baratieri
2012-06-01
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this laboratory study is to evaluate the influence of the shape and the length limitation of superelastic nickel-titanium (NiTi archwires on lower incisors inclination during alignment and leveling. METHODS: Metal teeth mounted on a typodont articulator device were used to simulate a malocclusion of the mandibular arch (-3.5 mm model discrepancy. Three different shapes (Standard, Accuform and Ideal of superelastic NiTi archwires (Sentalloy, GAC, USA were tested. Specimens were divided in two groups: Group I, with no limitation of the archwire length; and Group II, with distal limitation. Each group had thirty specimens divided into three subgroups differentiated by the archwire shape. All groups used round wires with diameters of 0.014-in, 0.016-in, 0.018-in and 0.020-in. The recording of all intervals was accomplished using standardized digital photographs with orthogonal norm in relation to median sagittal plane. The buccolingual inclination of the incisor was registered using photographs and software CorelDraw. RESULTS: The results were obtained using ANOVA and Tukey's test at a significant level of 5%. The inclination of the lower incisor increased in both groups and subgroups. The shape of the archwire had statistically significant influence only in Group I - Standard (11.76º, Ideal (5.88º and Accuform (1.93º. Analyzing the influence of the length limitation, despite the mean incisor tipping in Group II (3.91º had been smaller than Group I (6.52º, no statistically significant difference was found, except for Standard, 3.89º with limitation and 11.76º without limitation. The greatest incisor tipping occurred with the 0.014-in archwires.
Influence of Stern Shaft Inclination on the Cooling Performance of Water-Lubricated Bearing
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Zou Li
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The water film model of the marine water-lubricated stern bearing was established by FLUENT. The influence law of water flow rate on the cooling performance of water-lubricated bearing was studied in consideration of the stern shaft inclination. It will be helpful to improve the performance of marine water-lubricated stern bearing and both security and reliability of propulsion system. The simulation results show that the increase of cooling water flow rate in a certain range can effectively reduce bearing temperature. The bearing temperature rises sharply with thinning of water film thickness which is caused by the increase of inclination angle. Larger inclination angle can deteriorate the operating reliability of bearing.
Vibration characteristics of an inclined flip-flow screen panel in banana flip-flow screens
Xiong, Xiaoyan; Niu, Linkai; Gu, Chengxiang; Wang, Yinhua
2017-12-01
A banana flip-flow screen is an effective solution for the screening of high-viscosity, high-water and fine materials. As one of the key components, the vibration characteristics of the inclined flip-flow screen panel largely affects the screen performance and the processing capacity. In this paper, a mathematical model for the vibration characteristic of the inclined flip-flow screen panel is proposed based on Catenary theory. The reasonability of Catenary theory in analyzing the vibration characteristic of flip-flow screen panels is verified by a published experiment. Moreover, the effects of the rotation speed of exciters, the incline angle, the slack length and the characteristics of the screen on the vertical deflection, the vertical velocity and the vertical acceleration of the screen panel are investigated parametrically. The results show that the rotation speed of exciters, the incline angle, the slack length and the characteristics of the screen have significant effects on the vibrations of an inclined flip-flow screen panel, and these parameters should be optimized.
Modelling the Impact of Ground Planes on Antenna Radiation Using the Method of Auxiliary Sources
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav
2007-01-01
The Method of Auxiliary Sources is employed to model the impact of finite ground planes on the radiation from antennas. In many cases the computational cost of available commercial tools restricts the simulations to include only a small ground plane or, by use of the image principle, the infinitely...... large ground plane. The method proposed here makes use of results from such simulations to model large and moderate-sized finite ground planes. The method is applied to 3 different antenna test cases and a total of 5 different ground planes. Firstly it is validated through comparison with reference...... and measured reference solutions and the method is thus found to be a useful tool in determining the impact of finite ground planes....
Movements of a Sphere Moving Over Smooth and Rough Inclines
Jan, Chyan-Deng
1992-01-01
The steady movements of a sphere over a rough incline in air, and over smooth and rough inclines in a liquid were studied theoretically and experimentally. The principle of energy conservation was used to analyze the translation velocities, rolling resistances, and drag coefficients of a sphere moving over the inclines. The rolling resistance to the movement of a sphere from the rough incline was presumed to be caused by collisions and frictional slidings. A varnished wooden board was placed on the bottom of an experimental tilting flume to form a smooth incline and a layer of spheres identical to the sphere moving over them was placed on the smooth wooden board to form a rough incline. Spheres used in the experiments were glass spheres, steel spheres, and golf balls. Experiments show that a sphere moving over a rough incline with negligible fluid drag in air can reach a constant translation velocity. This constant velocity was found to be proportional to the bed inclination (between 11 ^circ and 21^circ) and the square root of the sphere's diameter, but seemingly independent of the sphere's specific gravity. Two empirical coefficients in the theoretical expression of the sphere's translation velocity were determined by experiments. The collision and friction parts of the shear stress exerted on the interface between the moving sphere and rough incline were determined. The ratio of collision to friction parts appears to increase with increase in the bed inclination. These two parts seem to be of the same order of magnitude. The rolling resistances and the relations between the drag coefficient and Reynolds number for a sphere moving over smooth and rough inclines in a liquid, such as water or salad oil, were determined by a regression analysis based on experimental data. It was found that the drag coefficient for a sphere over the rough incline is larger than that for a sphere over the smooth incline, and both of which are much larger than that for a sphere in free
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Geeta Maruti Doodamani
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Aims and Objective: The aim of this study was to assess crown angulations, crown inclinations, and tooth size discrepancy in a sample population from Davangere, South India. Materials and Methods: One hundred adults (50 male and 50 female of age 18-30 years, with Angle′s class I ideal occlusion and balanced profiles, were selected for the study. Study models were prepared and crown angulations and crown inclinations were measured using a customized protractor device. Bolton′s analysis was used to measure the tooth size discrepancies. Results: Maxillary and mandibular teeth had less crown angulations. Maxillary and mandibular incisors and maxillary molars showed increased crown inclinations, whereas mandibular molars and premolars had less crown inclinations than the original Andrews sample. The mean maxillary and mandibular tooth size ratios, overall and anterior, were similar to Bolton′s ratios. Conclusions: The finding of this study indicates that there are possible racial and ethnic factors contributing to variations in crown angulations and crown inclinations.
Modelling of the UV Index on vertical and 40° tilted planes for different orientations.
Serrano, D; Marín, M J; Utrillas, M P; Tena, F; Martínez-Lozano, J A
2012-02-01
In this study, estimated data of the UV Index on vertical planes are presented for the latitude of Valencia, Spain. For that purpose, the UVER values have been generated on vertical planes by means of four different geometrical models a) isotropic, b) Perez, c) Gueymard, d) Muneer, based on values of the global horizontal UVER and the diffuse horizontal UVER, measured experimentally. The UVER values, obtained by any model, overestimate the experimental values for all orientations, with the exception of the Perez model for the East plane. The results show statistical values of the MAD parameter (Mean Absolute Deviation) between 10% and 25%, the Perez model being the one that obtained a lower MAD for all levels. As for the statistic RMSD parameter (Root Mean Square Deviation), the results show values between 17% and 32%, and again the Perez model provides the best results in all vertical planes. The difference between the estimated UV Index and the experimental UV Index, for vertical and 40° tilted planes, was also calculated. 40° is an angle close to the latitude of Burjassot, Valencia, (39.5°), which, according to various studies, is the optimum angle to capture maximum radiation on tilted planes. We conclude that the models provide a good estimate of the UV Index, as they coincide or differ in one unit compared to the experimental values in 99% of cases, and this is valid for all orientations. Finally, we examined the relation between the UV Index on vertical and 40° tilted planes, both the experimental and estimated by the Perez model, and the experimental UV Index on a horizontal plane at 12 GMT. Based on the results, we can conclude that it is possible to estimate with a good approximation the UV Index on vertical and 40° tilted planes in different directions on the basis of the experimental horizontal UVI value, thus justifying the interest of this study. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry and Owner Societies 2012
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Reza Hidayatullah
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Alat penukar kalor sangat berpengaruh dalam industri terhadap keberhasilan keseluruhan rangkaian proses, karena kegagalan operasi alat ini baik akibat kegagalan mekanikal maupun opersional dapat menyebabkan berhentinya operasi unit. Penelitian terhadap desain heat exchanger masih terus dilakukan untuk mencari kinerja dari heat exchanger yang paling optimal, baik pada bagian baffle cut dan baffles inclination maupun susunan dari tube dengan menggunakan heat exchanger ukuran kecil sebagai model. Berdasarkan pada permasalahan di atas, maka dilakukan penelitian terhadap kinerja heat exchanger tipe U-tube dengan memvariasikan baffle inclination. Penelitian ini dilakukan secara numerik dengan variasi baffle inclination sebesar 0o, 10o, 20o dan variasi laju aliran massa sebesar 0,5 kg/s, 1kg/s, dan 2 kg/s. Tube yang digunakan adalah tipe U-tube yang disusun secara persegi. Model viskous yang digunakan adalah turbulensi model yaitu k-ε standar, dimana fluida yang digunakan adalah air pada boundary condition. Hasil analisa numerik menunjukkan adanya pengaruh baffle inclination pada alat penukar kalor tipe U – tube terhadap aliran fluida dan perpindahan panas. Peningkatan laju aliran massa dapat meningkatkan pressure drop secara cepat, alat penukar kalor shell and tube tipe U – tube dengan baffle inclination 20o memiliki unjuk kerja yang terbaik dibandingkan dengan baffle inclination 0o dan 10o.
A two-layer model for buoyant inertial displacement flows in inclined pipes
Etrati, Ali; Frigaard, Ian A.
2018-02-01
We investigate the inertial flows found in buoyant miscible displacements using a two-layer model. From displacement flow experiments in inclined pipes, it has been observed that for significant ranges of Fr and Re cos β/Fr, a two-layer, stratified flow develops with the heavier fluid moving at the bottom of the pipe. Due to significant inertial effects, thin-film/lubrication models developed for laminar, viscous flows are not effective for predicting these flows. Here we develop a displacement model that addresses this shortcoming. The complete model for the displacement flow consists of mass and momentum equations for each fluid, resulting in a set of four non-linear equations. By integrating over each layer and eliminating the pressure gradient, we reduce the system to two equations for the area and mean velocity of the heavy fluid layer. The wall and interfacial stresses appear as source terms in the reduced system. The final system of equations is solved numerically using a robust, shock-capturing scheme. The equations are stabilized to remove non-physical instabilities. A linear stability analysis is able to predict the onset of instabilities at the interface and together with numerical solution, is used to study displacement effectiveness over different parametric regimes. Backflow and instability onset predictions are made for different viscosity ratios.
The Gothic arch (needle point) tracing and condylar inclination.
el-Gheriani, A S; Winstanley, R B
1987-11-01
The records of 11 patients referred for treatment of TMJ disorders were used to compare condylar inclination found by drawing a tangent and by using a mathematic technique. Needle point tracing angles were also measured for the same patients and were compared with the condylar inclination. It can be concluded that (1) the mathematic technique outlined records a more accurate condylar angulation, and (2) there is a great variation in condylar inclination values between patients and between left and right sides of the same patient, and (3) there is no direct relationship between condylar inclination and the needle point tracing angle.
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Paulo H.T. Almeida
2018-06-01
Full Text Available Purpose: To make a comparative evaluation, by means of the finite element method, of the stress generated on supporting tissues and prosthetic system components, using zygomatic implants with the exteriorized and extramaxillary techniques, and different placement positions, associated either with inclined anterior implants, or those without inclination. Materials and methods: Eight (8 tridimensional models were created to represent the clinical situations being researched, using the dataset of scanned images of an edentulous model. The implants and prosthetic components were photographed on millimeter paper and inserted into Rhinoceros 3D modeling computer software. From the measurements made on the image, the virtual models were made. The application force was distributed on the occlusal surface of the working side of the left maxillary first molar, first and second premolars, and incisal regions of the central incisor, simulating the occlusal load during mastication, in a total of 150 N. Results: The extramaxillary technique presented considerable variation in increased tension on the prosthesis screws and bone tissue. In the exteriorized technique, the highest tension values occurred in the region of the ridge, and the lowest, on the zygomatic process; the absence of cantilever reduced the stress on bone tissue in almost all regions. Conclusion: The exteriorized technique was shown to be more favorable to the distribution of stresses on the micro-unit screws and bone tissue, with the model with zygomatic implant placed in the region of the first molar and inclined anterior implant presenting the best results. Keywords: Zygomatic implants, Atrophic maxilla, Finite element analysis, Cantilever, Inclined implant
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Zareena Kausar
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Two-wheeled mobile robots (TWMRs have a capability of avoiding the tip-over problem on inclined terrain by adjusting the centre of mass position of the robot body. The effects of terrain inclination on the robot performance are studied to exploit this capability. Prior to the real-time implementation of position control, an estimation of the stability region of the TWMR is essential for safe operation. A numerical method to estimate the stability region is applied and the effects of inclined surfaces on the performance and stability region of the robot are investigated. The dynamics of a TWMR is modelled on a general uneven terrain and reduced for cases of inclined and horizontal flat terrain. A full state feedback (FSFB controller is designed based on optimal gains with speed tracking on a horizontal flat terrain. The performance and stability regions are simulated for the robot on a horizontal flat and inclined terrain with the same controller. The results endorse a variation in equilibrium points and a reduction in stability region for robot motion on inclined terrain.
Experimental study on two-phase flow parameters of subcooled boiling in inclined annulus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Tae Ho; Kim, Moon Oh; Park, Goon Cherl
1999-01-01
Local two-phase flow parameters of subcooled flow boiling in inclined annulus were measured to investigate the effect of inclination on the internal flow structure. Two-conductivity probe technique was applied to measured local gas phasic parameters, including void by fraction, vapor bubble frequency, chord length, vapor bubble velocity and interfacial area concentration. Local liquid velocity was measured by Pitot tube. Experiments were conducted for three angles of inclination: 0 o (vertical), 30 o , 60 o . The system pressure was maintained at atmospheric pressure. The range of average void fraction was up to 10 percent and the average liquid superficial velocities were less than 1.3 m/sec. The results of experiments showed that the distributions of two-phase flow parameters were influenced by the angle of channel inclination. Especially, the void fraction and chord length distributions were strongly affected by the increase of inclination angle, and flow pattern transition to slug flow was observed depending on the flow conditions. The profiles of vapor velocity, liquid velocity and interfacial area concentration were found to be affected by the non-symmetric bubble size distribution in inclined channel. Using the measured distributions of local phasic parameters, an analysis for predicting average void fraction was performed based on the drift flux model and flowing volumetric concentration. And it was demonstrated that the average void fraction can be more appropriately presented in terms of flowing volumetric concentration. (Author). 18 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs
Numerical modelling of orthogonal cutting: application to woodworking with a bench plane.
Nairn, John A
2016-06-06
A numerical model for orthogonal cutting using the material point method was applied to woodcutting using a bench plane. The cutting process was modelled by accounting for surface energy associated with wood fracture toughness for crack growth parallel to the grain. By using damping to deal with dynamic crack propagation and modelling all contact between wood and the plane, simulations could initiate chip formation and proceed into steady-state chip propagation including chip curling. Once steady-state conditions were achieved, the cutting forces became constant and could be determined as a function of various simulation variables. The modelling details included a cutting tool, the tool's rake and grinding angles, a chip breaker, a base plate and a mouth opening between the base plate and the tool. The wood was modelled as an anisotropic elastic-plastic material. The simulations were verified by comparison to an analytical model and then used to conduct virtual experiments on wood planing. The virtual experiments showed interactions between depth of cut, chip breaker location and mouth opening. Additional simulations investigated the role of tool grinding angle, tool sharpness and friction.
Effect of solar chimney inclination angle on space flow pattern and ventilation rate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bassiouny, Ramadan; Korah, Nader S.A. [Department of Mechanical Power Engineering and Energy, Minia University, Minia 61111 (Egypt)
2009-02-15
The solar chimney is a simple and practical idea that is applied to enhance space natural ventilation. The chimney could be vertical or inclined. The chimney inclination angle is an important parameter that greatly affects space flow pattern and ventilation rate. In the present study, the effect of chimney inclination angle on air change per hour and indoor flow pattern was numerically and analytically investigated. A numerical simulation using Ansys, a FEM-based code, was used to predict flow pattern. Then the results were compared with published experimental measurements. A FORTRAN program was developed to iteratively solve the mathematical model that was obtained through an overall energy balance on the solar chimney. The analytical results showed that an optimum air flow rate value was achieved when the chimney inclination is between 45 and 70 for latitude of 28.4 . The numerically predicted flow pattern inside the space supports this finding. Moreover, in the present study a correlation to predict the air change per hour was developed. The correlation was tested within a solar intensity greater than or equal to 500 W/m{sup 2}, and chimney width from 0.1 m to 0.35 m for different inclination angles with acceptable values. (author)
Conway, Paul; Gawronski, Bertram
2013-02-01
Dual-process theories of moral judgment suggest that responses to moral dilemmas are guided by two moral principles: the principle of deontology states that the morality of an action depends on the intrinsic nature of the action (e.g., harming others is wrong regardless of its consequences); the principle of utilitarianism implies that the morality of an action is determined by its consequences (e.g., harming others is acceptable if it increases the well-being of a greater number of people). Despite the proposed independence of the moral inclinations reflecting these principles, previous work has relied on operationalizations in which stronger inclinations of one kind imply weaker inclinations of the other kind. The current research applied Jacoby's (1991) process dissociation procedure to independently quantify the strength of deontological and utilitarian inclinations within individuals. Study 1 confirmed the usefulness of process dissociation for capturing individual differences in deontological and utilitarian inclinations, revealing positive correlations of both inclinations to moral identity. Moreover, deontological inclinations were uniquely related to empathic concern, perspective-taking, and religiosity, whereas utilitarian inclinations were uniquely related to need for cognition. Study 2 demonstrated that cognitive load selectively reduced utilitarian inclinations, with deontological inclinations being unaffected. In Study 3, a manipulation designed to enhance empathy increased deontological inclinations, with utilitarian inclinations being unaffected. These findings provide evidence for the independent contributions of deontological and utilitarian inclinations to moral judgments, resolving many theoretical ambiguities implied by previous research. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
A plane stress softening plasticity model for orthotropic materials
Lourenço, P.B.; Borst, R. de; Rots, J.G.
1997-01-01
A plane stress model has been developed for quasi-brittle orthotropic materials. The theory of plasticity, which is adopted to describe the inelastic behaviour, utilizes modern algorithmic concepts, including an implicit Euler backward return mapping scheme, a local Newton-Raphson method and a
Locomotor Behavior of Chickens Anticipating Incline Walking
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Chantal LeBlanc
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Keel bone damage (KBD is prevalent in hens raised for egg production, and ramps between different tiers in aviaries have potential to reduce the frequency of falls resulting in KBD. Effective use of ramps requires modulation of locomotion in anticipation of the incline. Inadequate adaptive locomotion may be one explanation why domestic layer hens (Gallus gallus domesticus exhibit high rates of KBD. To improve understanding of the capacity of hens to modulate their locomotion in anticipation of climbing, we measured the effects of incline angle upon the mechanics of the preparatory step before ascending a ramp. Because the energetic challenge of climbing increases with slope, we predicted that as angle of incline increased, birds during foot contact with the ground before starting to climb would increase their peak force and duration of contact and reduce variation in center of pressure (COP under their foot. We tested 20 female domestic chickens on ramp inclines at slopes of +0°, +40°, and +70° when birds were 17, 21, 26, 31, and 36 weeks of age. There were significantly higher vertical peak ground reaction forces in preparation at the steepest slope, and ground contact time increased significantly with each increase in ramp angle. Effects upon variation in COP were not apparent; likewise, effects of limb length, age, body mass were not significant. Our results reveal that domestic chickens are capable of modulating their locomotion in response to incline angle.
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Xiaodi Hu
2017-07-01
Full Text Available In this study, ABAQUS finite element (FE modeling in three-dimensional (3-D loading mode was utilized to analytically investigate and quantify the effects of tire inclination and dynamic loading on the stress–strain responses of a pavement structure under varying loading and environmental conditions. The input variables for modeling consisted of actual laboratory and field data obtained from an in-service highway US 59 and included the in-situ pavement structure, material properties (i.e., modulus and shear strength, traffic, and climatic (i.e., temperature data. Computational modeling and sensitivity analyses were conducted through variation of the following two input variables with a focus on the top surfacing hot-mix asphalt (HMA layer: a tire inclination angle to simulate turning traffic, and, b dynamic loading to simulate accelerating, steady rolling, and decelerating (braking traffic. The generated maximum shear stress and vertical strain responses were then analyzed and correlated to the HMA material strength and the actual measured/observed field rutting performance data. The corresponding results indicated that inclined tires (simulating turning traffic and decelerating (braking vehicles induced the most severe shear stresses and vertical strains on the pavement structure in terms of magnitude (i.e., increased; exceeding the HMA material strength in some cases. Thus, for pavement design and structural analysis purposes, the following critical highway areas that may be subjected to extreme stresses and strains due to turning and stopping (braking traffic, particularly in high temperature environments, should be given more attention with respect to material strength characterization to mitigate potential shear/rutting failures: intersections, junctions; urban stop–go sections, and curves. Keywords: 3-D FE stress–strain modeling, Rutting, Shear deformation, Shear stress, Vertical strains
Wei, Haoyang
A new critical plane-energy model is proposed in this thesis for multiaxial fatigue life prediction of homogeneous and heterogeneous materials. Brief review of existing methods, especially on the critical plane-based and energy-based methods, are given first. Special focus is on one critical plane approach which has been shown to work for both brittle and ductile metals. The key idea is to automatically change the critical plane orientation with respect to different materials and stress states. One potential drawback of the developed model is that it needs an empirical calibration parameter for non-proportional multiaxial loadings since only the strain terms are used and the out-of-phase hardening cannot be considered. The energy-based model using the critical plane concept is proposed with help of the Mroz-Garud hardening rule to explicitly include the effect of non-proportional hardening under fatigue cyclic loadings. Thus, the empirical calibration for non-proportional loading is not needed since the out-of-phase hardening is naturally included in the stress calculation. The model predictions are compared with experimental data from open literature and it is shown the proposed model can work for both proportional and non-proportional loadings without the empirical calibration. Next, the model is extended for the fatigue analysis of heterogeneous materials integrating with finite element method. Fatigue crack initiation of representative volume of heterogeneous materials is analyzed using the developed critical plane-energy model and special focus is on the microstructure effect on the multiaxial fatigue life predictions. Several conclusions and future work is drawn based on the proposed study.
Vehicle with inclinable caterpillars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carra, O.; Delevallee, A.
1991-01-01
Vehicle has a body with propulsion assemblies that drive caterpillar tracks. When a propulsion unit inclines about its articulation axis it is aided by an advance movement of the caterpillar track in the opposite direction of rotation [fr
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmed Majeed Ali
2016-08-01
Full Text Available In real conditions of structures, foundations like retaining walls, industrial machines and platforms in offshore areas are commonly subjected to eccentrically inclined loads. This type of loading significantly affects the overall stability of shallow foundations due to exposing the foundation into two components of loads (horizontal and vertical and consequently reduces the bearing capacity Based on a numerical analysis performed using finite element software (Plaxis 3D Foundation, the behavior of model strip foundation rested on dry sand under the effect of eccentric inclined loads with different embedment ratios (D/B ranging from (0-1 has been explored. The results display that, the bearing capacity of strip foundation is noticeably decreased with the increase of inclination angle (α and eccentricity ratio (e/B. As well as, a reduction factor (RF expression was appointed to measure the degree of decreasing in the bearing capacity when the model footing is subjected to eccentric inclined load. It was observed that, the (RF decreases as the embedment ratio increases. Moreover, the test results also exhibit that, the model footing bearing capacity is reduced by about (69% when the load inclination is varied from (0° to 20° and the model footing is on the surface. While, the rate of decreasing in the bearing capacity was found to be (58%, for both cases of footing when they are at embedment ratios of (0.5 and 1.0. Also, a comparative study was carried out between the present results and previous experimental test results under the same conditions (soil properties and boundary condition. A good agreement was obtained between the predicted bearing capacities for the two related studies.
Evaluation of performance of veterinary in-clinic hematology analyzers.
Rishniw, Mark; Pion, Paul D
2016-12-01
A previous study provided information regarding the quality of in-clinic veterinary biochemistry testing. However, no similar studies for in-clinic veterinary hematology testing have been conducted. The objective of this study was to assess the quality of hematology testing in veterinary in-clinic laboratories using results obtained from testing 3 levels of canine EDTA blood samples. Clinicians prepared blood samples to achieve measurand concentrations within, below, and above their RIs and evaluated the samples in triplicate using their in-clinic analyzers. Quality was assessed by comparison of calculated total error with quality requirements, determination of sigma metrics, use of a quality goal index, and agreement between in-clinic and reference laboratory instruments. Suitability for statistical quality control was determined using adaptations from the computerized program, EZRules3. Evaluation of 10 veterinary in-clinic hematology analyzers showed that these instruments often fail to meet quality requirements. At least 60% of analyzers reasonably determined RBC, WBC, HCT, and HGB, when assessed by most quality goal criteria; platelets were less reliably measured, with 80% deemed suitable for low platelet counts, but only 30% for high platelet counts, and automated differential leukocyte counts were generally considered unsuitable for clinical use with fewer than 40% of analyzers meeting the least stringent quality goal requirements. Fewer than 50% of analyzers were able to meet requirements for statistical quality control for any measurand. These findings reflect the current status of in-clinic hematology analyzer performance and provide a basis for future evaluations of the quality of veterinary laboratory testing. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
Contact of dual mobility implants: effects of cup wear and inclination.
Uddin, M S
2015-01-01
Cup wear and inclination on the pelvic bone are significant factors, which change the contact of the articulating surfaces, thus, impacting the long-term performance of hip implants. This paper presents a finite element (FE) analysis of the contact of the dual mobility implants under the influence of cup wear and inclination. A 3D FE model of the implant was developed with the application of equivalent physiological loading and boundary conditions. Effects of cup inclination angle ranging from 45° to 60° and the wear depth ranging from 0 to 2.46 mm equivalent to up to 30 years of the implant's life on the contact pressure and von Mises stress were investigated. Simulation results show that the contact pressure and von Mises stress decrease significantly with a modest wear depth and remains quite in-sensitive to the cup inclination angle and wear depth up to 1.64 mm. With wear depth further up to 2.46 mm, the cup thickness (i.e. cup thinning on worn region) may be more predominant than increasing of contact area between the cup and the head. The wear on the inner surface of the cup is found to rule out the overall contact pressure and stress in the implant. Furthermore, individual and combined effects of both important parameters are analysed and discussed with respect to available clinical/laboratory studies.
Analysis of two-phase flow and boiling heat transfer in inclined channel of core-catcher
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tahara, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Abe, N.; Kurita, T.; Hamazaki, R.; Kojima, Y.
2008-01-01
Passive Corium Cooling System (CCS) provides a function of ex-vessel debris cooling and molten core stabilization during a severe accident. CCS features inclined cooling channels arranged axi-symmetrically below the core-catcher basin. In order to estimate the coolability of the inclined cooling channel, it is indispensable to identify the flow pattern of the two-phase flow in the cooling channel. Several former studies for the two-phase flow pattern in the inclined channel are referred. Taitel and Dukler (1976) developed a prediction method of the flow pattern transition in horizontal and near horizontal tubes. Barnea et al. (1980) showed the flow pattern map of upward flow with 10 degrees inclination. Sakaguti et al. (1996) observed the two-phase flow patterns in the horizontal pipe connected with slightly upward pipe, in which the flow pattern in the pipe with a bending part was expressed by the combination of a basic flow pattern and some auxiliary flow patterns. Then we investigated these studies In order to identify the flow patterns observed in the inclined cooling channel of CCS. Furthermore we experimentally observed the flow patterns in the inclined cooling channel with various inlet conditions. As a result of the investigation and observation, typical flow patterns in the inclined cooling channel were identified. Two typical flow patterns were observed depending on the steam flow rate, one of which is 'elongated bubble 'flow, and the other is 'churn with collapsing backward and upward slug 'flow The flow and heat transfer in the inclined channel of CCS is analyzed by using a two-phase analysis code employing two-fluid model in which the constitutive equations for the two-phase flow in inclined channels are incorporated. That is, drift flux parameter for each of the elongated bubble flow, and the churn with collapsing backward and upward slug flow are incorporated to the two-phase analysis code, which are based on the rising velocity of the long bubble in
Behavior of a strip footing on reinforced soil subjected to inclined load
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Abbas Jawdat
2018-01-01
Full Text Available This study investigates the behavior of a strip footing under inclined load on reinforced sandy soil by using experimental model. The effect of the load inclination angle (α, number of geogrid layers (N and the relative density (RD on the bearing capacity, settlement and horizontal displacement were studied. The results showed that by increasing the number of reinforcement layers (N, the bearing capacity increased, but there is an optimum value (N=4-5 depending on relative density of supporting soil. Also the settlement and horizontal displacement of footing decreasing with increase number of reinforcement layers.
Cross plane scattering correction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shao, L.; Karp, J.S.
1990-01-01
Most previous scattering correction techniques for PET are based on assumptions made for a single transaxial plane and are independent of axial variations. These techniques will incorrectly estimate the scattering fraction for volumetric PET imaging systems since they do not take the cross-plane scattering into account. In this paper, the authors propose a new point source scattering deconvolution method (2-D). The cross-plane scattering is incorporated into the algorithm by modeling a scattering point source function. In the model, the scattering dependence both on axial and transaxial directions is reflected in the exponential fitting parameters and these parameters are directly estimated from a limited number of measured point response functions. The authors' results comparing the standard in-plane point source deconvolution to the authors' cross-plane source deconvolution show that for a small source, the former technique overestimates the scatter fraction in the plane of the source and underestimate the scatter fraction in adjacent planes. In addition, the authors also propose a simple approximation technique for deconvolution
Enhanced photovoltaic performance of an inclined nanowire array solar cell.
Wu, Yao; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin
2015-11-30
An innovative solar cell based on inclined p-i-n nanowire array is designed and analyzed. The results show that the inclined geometry can sufficiently increase the conversion efficiency of solar cells by enhancing the absorption of light in the active region. By tuning the nanowire array density, nanowire diameter, nanowire length, as well as the proportion of intrinsic region of the inclined nanowire solar cell, a remarkable efficiency in excess of 16% can be obtained in GaAs. Similar results have been obtained in InP and Si nanowire solar cells, demonstrating the universality of the performance enhancement of inclined nanowire arrays.
Thermo-economic performance of inclined solar water distillation systems
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Agboola Phillips O.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This study investigates the thermo-economic performance of different configurations of inclined solar water desalination for parameters such as daily production, efficiency, system cost and distilled water production cost. The four different configurations considered for this study are as follows; 1. Inclined solar water distillation with bare absorber plate (IISWD with daily production of 5.46 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency of 48.3%. 2. Inclined solar water distillation with wick on absorber plate (IISWDW with daily production of 6.41kg/m2 day and daily efficiency 50.3%. 3. Inclined solar water distillation with wire mesh on absorber plate (IISWDWM with daily production n of 3.03 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency 32.6%. 4. Inclined solar water distillation with bare absorber plate (ISWD. (Control System with daily production of 3.25 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency of 40.1%. The systems potable water cost price ranges from 0.03 $/L for IISWDW to 0.06$/L for IISWDWM System. All the systems are economically and technically feasible as a solar distillation system for potable water in Northern Cyprus. The price of potable water from water vendors/hawkers ranges from 0.11-0.16 $/L. It is more economically viable to have the rooftop inclined solar water desalination system than procuring potable water from vendors.`
Modelling the heart with the atrioventricular plane as a piston unit.
Maksuti, Elira; Bjällmark, Anna; Broomé, Michael
2015-01-01
Medical imaging and clinical studies have proven that the heart pumps by means of minor outer volume changes and back-and-forth longitudinal movements in the atrioventricular (AV) region. The magnitude of AV-plane displacement has also shown to be a reliable index for diagnosis of heart failure. Despite this, AV-plane displacement is usually omitted from cardiovascular modelling. We present a lumped-parameter cardiac model in which the heart is described as a displacement pump with the AV plane functioning as a piston unit (AV piston). This unit is constructed of different upper and lower areas analogous with the difference in the atrial and ventricular cross-sections. The model output reproduces normal physiology, with a left ventricular pressure in the range of 8-130 mmHg, an atrial pressure of approximatly 9 mmHg, and an arterial pressure change between 75 mmHg and 130 mmHg. In addition, the model reproduces the direction of the main systolic and diastolic movements of the AV piston with realistic velocity magnitude (∼10 cm/s). Moreover, changes in the simulated systolic ventricular-contraction force influence diastolic filling, emphasizing the coupling between cardiac systolic and diastolic functions. The agreement between the simulation and normal physiology highlights the importance of myocardial longitudinal movements and of atrioventricular interactions in cardiac pumping. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
A Numerical Study on a Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine with Inclined Arms
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Agostino De Marco
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This work focuses on a particular type of vertical-axis wind turbine, in which a number of inclined arms with airfoil-shaped cross-sections are mounted to connect the principal blades to their hub. While the majority of the known studies on vertical-axis turbines is devoted to the role of principal blades, in most of the cases without taking into account other parts of the wind turbine, the objective of this work is to investigate the effect of uncommon arm geometries, such as the inclined arms. The inclined arms are known to have a potentially beneficial role in the power extraction from the wind current but, due to the complexity of the phenomena, the investigation on aerodynamics of this type of turbine is often impossible through analytical models, such as blade-element momentum theory. It turns out that adequate studies can only be carried out by wind tunnel experiments or CFD simulations. This work presents a methodical CFD study on how inclined arms can be used on a selected wind turbine configuration to harvest additional power from the wind. The turbine configuration, geometry, and some fundamental definitions are introduced first. Then an in-depth CFD analysis is presented and discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sethi, V.P.; Pal, D.S.; Sumathy, K.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Optimally inclined solar cooker is presented for efficient cooking. • A new parallelepiped shaped cooking vessel for higher solar radiation capture is presented. • Optimum tilt angles of the boosted mirror are computed for maximization of reflected components. • Solar radiation capture ratios show the better cooking performance of inclined cooker. • Standard performance parameters establish the better cooking performance of inclined cooker. - Abstract: An optimally inclined box type solar cooker with single booster mirror is presented along with design and development of a novel parallelepiped shaped cooking vessel design for efficient cooking especially in winter conditions. The main feature of new parallelepiped shaped design is its longer inclined south wall (facing the sun) and a trapezoidal cavity on the vessel lid for greater heat transfer to the food material. The ends of the vessel towards east and west direction are minimized. The cooking performance parameters of proposed inclined cooker coupled with new vessel design were compared with horizontally placed identical cooker of same material and dimensions coupled with conventional cylindrical vessel design during winter month (January) of the year 2010 at Ludhiana climate (30°N 77°E), India. Results showed that the first and the second figures of merit (F 1 and F 2 ) for inclined cooker were 0.16 and 0.54 as compared to 0.14 and 0.43 for horizontally placed cooker. Time taken to boil the water τ boil and standard cooking power P n was 37% less and 40% more respectively in parallelepiped shaped cooking vessel of inclined cooker as compared to conventional cylindrical vessel of horizontally placed cooker. A mathematical model is developed to compute the total solar radiation availability on the absorber plate of inclined as well as horizontal cooker which establishes the better cooking performance of the inclined cooker due to greater width of sun rays intercepting the absorber
Ma, Lin
2017-11-01
This paper develops a method for precisely determining the tension of an inclined cable with unknown boundary conditions. First, the nonlinear motion equation of an inclined cable is derived, and a numerical model of the motion of the cable is proposed using the finite difference method. The proposed numerical model includes the sag-extensibility, flexural stiffness, inclination angle and rotational stiffness at two ends of the cable. Second, the influence of the dynamic parameters of the cable on its frequencies is discussed in detail, and a method for precisely determining the tension of an inclined cable is proposed based on the derivatives of the eigenvalues of the matrices. Finally, a multiparameter identification method is developed that can simultaneously identify multiple parameters, including the rotational stiffness at two ends. This scheme is applicable to inclined cables with varying sag, varying flexural stiffness and unknown boundary conditions. Numerical examples indicate that the method provides good precision. Because the parameters of cables other than tension (e.g., the flexural stiffness and rotational stiffness at the ends) are not accurately known in practical engineering, the multiparameter identification method could further improve the accuracy of cable tension measurements.
Use of digital photography in the reconstruction of the occlusal plane orientation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert Antonić,
2009-08-01
Full Text Available Aim This study evaluated whether the occlusal plane measurementson digital photographs were reliable for the reconstructionof occlusal plane.Methods Forty-two subjects (25 female and 17 male subjects,aged 19 to 30 years with all teeth and Angle Class I participated.Irreversible hydrocolloid impressions were made and the castswere poured in dental stone (ISO Type I and finally mounted inthe S.A.M. 2 “P”, articulator (S.A.M. Praezisiontechnik, GmbH,Munich, Germany by a quick mount face-bow transfer. Lateraldigital photographs were taken from a distance of 1.5 m in a naturalhead position with a subject in erect posture. A Fox plane wasplaced over the maxillary dental arch. A quick-mounting face-bowwas positioned. The angles between the articulator horizontalplane and the occlusal plane (AHP-OP, as well as those betweenthe face bow and the Fox plane (FB-FP were measured, and thesignificance of the difference between the means was tested by thet-test (p<0.05.Results The mean value of AHP-OP angle was 8.56 ± 3.1 degreesand the mean value of FB-FP angle was 8.80 ± 4.2 degrees. Therewas no significant difference between the male and the female subjects(p<0.05. There was no significant difference between AHPOPand FB-FP angles (p<0.05.Conclusion Measurements of occlusal plane inclination fromdigital photographs could be helpful in future prosthodontic reconstructiontreatment.
Treating domestic sewage by Integrated Inclined-Plate-Membrane bio-reactor
Song, Li Ming; Wang, Zi; Chen, Lei; Zhong, Min; Dong, Zhan Feng
2017-12-01
Membrane fouling shorten the service life of the membrane and increases aeration rate for membrane surface cleaning. Two membrane bio-reactors, one for working and another for comparing, were set up to evaluate the feasibility of alleviating membrane fouling and improving wastewater treatment efficiency by integrating inclined-plate precipitation and membrane separation. The result show that: (1) Inclined-plate in reactor had a good effect on pollutant removal of membrane bioreactor. The main role of inclined-plate is dividing reactor space and accelerating precipitation. (2) Working reactor have better performance in COD, TN and TP removal, which can attribute to that working reactor (integrated inclined-plate-Membrane bioreactor) takes both advantages of membrane separation and biological treatment. When influent COD, TP and TN concentration is 163-248 mg/L, 2.08-2.81 mg/L and 24.38-30.49 mg/L in working reactor, effluent concentration is 27-35 mg/L, 0.53-0.59 mg/L and 11.28-11.56 mg/L, respectively. (3) Membrane fouling was well alleviated in integrated inclined-plate-Membrane bioreactor, and membrane normal service time is significantly longer than that in comparing reactor, which can attribute to accelerating precipitation of inclined-plate. In summary, integrated inclined-plate-Membrane bioreactor is a promising technology to alleviating membrane fouling and improving wastewater treatment efficiency, having good performance and bright future in application.
Collisionless encounters and the origin of the lunar inclination.
Pahlevan, Kaveh; Morbidelli, Alessandro
2015-11-26
The Moon is generally thought to have formed from the debris ejected by the impact of a planet-sized object with the proto-Earth towards the end of planetary accretion. Models of the impact process predict that the lunar material was disaggregated into a circumplanetary disk and that lunar accretion subsequently placed the Moon in a near-equatorial orbit. Forward integration of the lunar orbit from this initial state predicts a modern inclination at least an order of magnitude smaller than the lunar value--a long-standing discrepancy known as the lunar inclination problem. Here we show that the modern lunar orbit provides a sensitive record of gravitational interactions with Earth-crossing planetesimals that were not yet accreted at the time of the Moon-forming event. The currently observed lunar orbit can naturally be reproduced via interaction with a small quantity of mass (corresponding to 0.0075-0.015 Earth masses eventually accreted to the Earth) carried by a few bodies, consistent with the constraints and models of late accretion. Although the encounter process has a stochastic element, the observed value of the lunar inclination is among the most likely outcomes for a wide range of parameters. The excitation of the lunar orbit is most readily reproduced via collisionless encounters of planetesimals with the Earth-Moon system with strong dissipation of tidal energy on the early Earth. This mechanism obviates the need for previously proposed (but idealized) excitation mechanisms, places the Moon-forming event in the context of the formation of Earth, and constrains the pristineness of the dynamical state of the Earth-Moon system.
Electrostatic instability of some jellium model lattices of high symmetry to their plane cleavage
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kholopov, Eugene V; Kalashnikova, Vita V
2007-01-01
Jellium model structures composed of regular lattices of equal point charges immersed in a neutralizing uniform background are considered. The symmetric description eliminating the effect of potentials without transverse structural modulation is extended to the events specified by alternating distances between point-charge planes. Based on modulated potentials typical of plane-wise lattice summation, the energy of interaction between two semi-infinite hemi-crystals divided by a plane is obtained for cubic and hexagonal crystals, where all the characteristic orientations of the cleavage plane are taken into account. We found that simple cubic and hexagonal lattices, as well as cubic and hexagonal diamond structures, turn out to be unstable for certain cleavage planes. The most favourable cleavage planes for the bcc, fcc and hcp structures are also emphasized
Bang, Wonbae; Lim, Jinho; Trossman, Jonathan; Tsai, C. C.; Ketterson, John B.
2018-06-01
We have observed the propagation of spin waves across a thin yttrium iron garnet film on (1 1 1) gadolinium gallium garnet for magnetic fields inclined with respect to the film plane. Two principle planes were studied: that for H in the plane defined by the wave vector k and the plane normal, n, with limiting forms corresponding to the Backward Volume and Forward Volume modes, and that for H in the plane perpendicular to k, with limiting forms corresponding to the Damon-Eshbach and Forward Volume modes. By exciting the wave at one edge of the film and observing the field dependence of the phase of the received signal at the opposing edge we determined the frequency vs. wavevector relation, ω = ω (k), of various propagating modes in the film. Avoided crossings are observed in the Damon-Eshbach and Forward Volume regimes when the propagating mode intersects the higher, exchange split, volume modes, leading to an extinction of the propagating mode; analysis of the resulting behavior allows a determination of the exchange parameter. The experimental results are compared with theoretical simulations.
Can plane wave modes be physical modes in soliton models?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aldabe, F.
1995-08-01
I show that plane waves may not be used as asymptotic states in soliton models because they describe unphysical states. When asymptotic states are taken to the physical there is not T-matrix of O(1). (author). 9 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rios, Paulo R; Assis, Weslley L S; Ribeiro, Tatiana C S; Villa, Elena
2012-01-01
In a classical paper, Cahn derived expressions for the kinetics of transformations nucleated on random planes and lines. He used those as a model for nucleation on the boundaries, edges and vertices of a polycrystal consisting of equiaxed grains. In this paper it is demonstrated that Cahn's expression for random planes may be used in situations beyond the scope envisaged in Cahn's original paper. For instance, we derived an expression for the kinetics of transformations nucleated on random parallel planes that is identical to that formerly obtained by Cahn considering random planes. Computer simulation of transformations nucleated on random parallel planes is carried out. It is shown that there is excellent agreement between simulated results and analytical solutions. Such an agreement is to be expected if both the simulation and the analytical solution are correct. (paper)
Biscarini, Andrea; Botti, Fabio M; Pettorossi, Vito E
2013-02-01
We developed a biomechanical model to determine the joint torques and loadings during squatting with a backward/forward-inclined Smith machine. The Smith squat allows a large variety of body positioning (trunk tilt, foot placement, combinations of joint angles) and easy control of weight distribution between forefoot and heel. These distinctive aspects of the exercise can be managed concurrently with the equipment inclination selected to unload specific joint structures while activating specific muscle groups. A backward (forward) equipment inclination decreases (increases) knee torque, and compressive tibiofemoral and patellofemoral forces, while enhances (depresses) hip and lumbosacral torques. For small knee flexion angles, the strain-force on the posterior cruciate ligament increases (decreases) with a backward (forward) equipment inclination, whereas for large knee flexion angles, this behavior is reversed. In the 0 to 60 degree range of knee flexion angles, loads on both cruciate ligaments may be simultaneously suppressed by a 30 degree backward equipment inclination and selecting, for each value of the knee angle, specific pairs of ankle and hip angles. The anterior cruciate ligament is safely maintained unloaded by squatting with backward equipment inclination and uniform/forward foot weight distribution. The conditions for the development of anterior cruciate ligament strain forces are clearly explained.
Fourier plane modeling of the jet in the galaxy M81
Ramessur, Arvind; Bietenholz, Michael F.; Leeuw, Lerothodi L.; Bartel, Norbert
2015-03-01
The nearby spiral galaxy M81 has a low-luminosity Active Galactic Nucleus in its center with a core and a one-sided curved jet, dubbed M81*, that is barely resolved with VLBI. To derive basic parameters such as the length of the jet, its orientation and curvature, the usual method of model-fitting with point sources and elliptical Gaussians may not always be the most appropriate one. We are developing Fourier-plane models for such sources, in particular an asymmetric triangle model to fit the extensive set of VLBI data of M81* in the u-v plane. This method may have an advantage over conventional ones in extracting information close to the resolution limit to provide us with a more comprehensive picture of the structure and evolution of the jet. We report on preliminary results.
TRANSIT TIMING VARIATIONS FOR INCLINED AND RETROGRADE EXOPLANETARY SYSTEMS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Payne, Matthew J.; Ford, Eric B.; Veras, Dimitri
2010-01-01
We perform numerical calculations of the expected transit timing variations (TTVs) induced on a hot-Jupiter by an Earth-mass perturber. Motivated by the recent discoveries of retrograde transiting planets, we concentrate on an investigation of the effect of varying relative planetary inclinations, up to and including completely retrograde systems. We find that planets in low-order (e.g., 2:1) mean-motion resonances (MMRs) retain approximately constant TTV amplitudes for 0 deg. 170 deg. Systems in higher order MMRs (e.g., 5:1) increase in TTV amplitude as inclinations increase toward 45 deg., becoming approximately constant for 45 deg. 135 deg. Planets away from resonance slowly decrease in TTV amplitude as inclinations increase from 0 deg. to 180 deg., whereas planets adjacent to resonances can exhibit a huge range of variability in TTV amplitude as a function of both eccentricity and inclination. For highly retrograde systems (135 deg. < i ≤ 180 deg.), TTV signals will be undetectable across almost the entirety of parameter space, with the exceptions occurring when the perturber has high eccentricity or is very close to an MMR. This high inclination decrease in TTV amplitude (on and away from resonance) is important for the analysis of the known retrograde and multi-planet transiting systems, as inclination effects need to be considered if TTVs are to be used to exclude the presence of any putative planetary companions: absence of evidence is not evidence of absence.
The orbital inclination of Cygnus XR-1 measured polarimetrically
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolan, J.F.; Tapia, S.
1989-01-01
The X-ray binary Cyg XR-1/HDE 226868 was observed polarimetrically over one orbit at three different optical wavelengths. The standard theory of Brown, et al. (1978) is used to derive an orbital inclination i = 62 deg (+5 deg, -37 deg), where the error is the 90-percent-confidence interval derived by the method of Simmons, et al. (1980). The value of the orbital inclination is significantly lower than values based on polarimetric observations. The difference is a result of the observational protocols used. A bias toward larger values of the inclination caused by the tidal distortion of the primary is still found in the present result. The inclination derived corresponds to a mass of the compact component of 6.3 solar masses, above the maximum mass of any degenerate configuration consistent with general relativity except a black hole. 37 refs
Instability of in-plane vortices in two-dimensional easy-plane ferromagnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wysin, G.M.
1994-01-01
An analysis of the core region of an in-plane vortex in the two-dimensional Heisenberg model with easy-plane anisotropy λ=J z /J xy leads to a clear understanding of the instability towards transformation into an out-of-plane vortex as a function of anisotropy. The anisotropy parameter λ c at which the in-plane vortex becomes unstable and develops into an out-of-plane vortex is determined with an accuracy comparable to computer simulations for square, hexagonal, and triangular lattices. For λ c , the in-plane vortex is stable but exhibits a normal mode whose frequency goes to zero as ω∝(λ c -λ) 1/2 as λ approaches λ c . For λ>λ c , the static nonzero out-of-plane spin components grow as (λ-λ c ) 1/2 . The lattice dependence of λ c is determined strongly by the number of spins in the core plaquette, is fundamentally a discreteness effect, and cannot be obtained in a continuum theory
Development of an Inclined Plate Extractor-Separator for Immiscible Liquids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Syed Zahoor ul Hassan Rizvi
2009-10-01
Full Text Available A new inclined plates extractor-separator is developed for operation with immiscible liquids in which extraction and separation is achieved in one unit contrary to mixer settlers. The inclined plates extractor-separator combines turbulent jets for contacting, and an inclined plate for separation of the two phases. The inclined plates extractor-separator does not have any moving part inside the vessel. This feature makes it free from the mechanical problems associated with conventional apparatus. The proposed inclined plates extractor-separator was operated in batch mode under various operating conditions to evaluate its performance on the basis of extraction efficiency. Water (light phase was used as solvent to extract ethyl acetate from a heavy phase pool of tetrachloroethylene and ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate content was analysed using chromatography. A hydrodynamic study was carried out using high speed photography to understand the mechanisms occurring during mass transfer across the two phases. Furthermore, it was found that the proposed inclined plate extractor-separator reduces the overall operating time by 67% and consumes only 13% of the power in comparison to a mixer-settler. A hydraulic power consumption comparison with a mixer settler and a gullwing extractor-separator is also presented.
Reconstruction of inclined air showers detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory
Pierre Auger Collaboration; Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Samarai, I. Al; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; D\\'\\iaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fuji, T.; Gaior, R.; Garc\\'\\ia, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Islo, K.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agëra, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Mart\\'\\inez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Mas\\'\\ias Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, A. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Newton, D.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodr\\'\\iguez-Fr\\'\\ias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiał kowski, A.; Šm\\'\\ida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Thao, N. T.; Theodoro, V. M.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.
2014-08-01
We describe the method devised to reconstruct inclined cosmic-ray air showers with zenith angles greater than 60° detected with the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The measured signals at the ground level are fitted to muon density distributions predicted with atmospheric cascade models to obtain the relative shower size as an overall normalization parameter. The method is evaluated using simulated showers to test its performance. The energy of the cosmic rays is calibrated using a sub-sample of events reconstructed with both the fluorescence and surface array techniques. The reconstruction method described here provides the basis of complementary analyses including an independent measurement of the energy spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using very inclined events collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory.
Reconstruction of inclined air showers detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2014-01-01
We describe the method devised to reconstruct inclined cosmic-ray air showers with zenith angles greater than 60° detected with the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The measured signals at the ground level are fitted to muon density distributions predicted with atmospheric cascade models to obtain the relative shower size as an overall normalization parameter. The method is evaluated using simulated showers to test its performance. The energy of the cosmic rays is calibrated using a sub-sample of events reconstructed with both the fluorescence and surface array techniques. The reconstruction method described here provides the basis of complementary analyses including an independent measurement of the energy spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using very inclined events collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory
Inclined nanoimprinting lithography for 3D nanopatterning
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Zhan; Bucknall, David G; Allen, Mark G
2011-01-01
We report a non-conventional shear-force-driven nanofabrication approach, inclined nanoimprint lithography (INIL), for producing 3D nanostructures of varying heights on planar substrates in a single imprinting step. Such 3D nanostructures are fabricated by exploiting polymer anisotropic dewetting where the degree of anisotropy can be controlled by the magnitude of the inclination angle. The feature size is reduced from micron scale of the template to a resultant nanoscale pattern. The underlying INIL mechanism is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The results indicate that the shear force generated at a non-zero inclination angle induced by the INIL apparatus essentially leads to asymmetry in the polymer flow direction ultimately resulting in 3D nanopatterns with different heights. INIL removes the requirements in conventional nanolithography of either utilizing 3D templates or using multiple lithographic steps. This technique enables various 3D nanoscale devices including angle-resolved photonic and plasmonic crystals to be fabricated.
Families Among High-Inclination Asteroids
Novakovic, B.; Cellino, A.; Knezevic, Z.
2012-05-01
We review briefly the most important results of the classification of high-inclination asteroids into families performed by Novakovic et al.(Icarus, 2011,216) and present some new results about a very interesting (5438) Lorre cluster.
Pool Boiling CHF in Inclined Narrow Annuli
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kang, Myeong Gie
2010-01-01
Pool boiling heat transfer has been studied extensively since it is frequently encountered in various heat transfer equipment. Recently, it has been widely investigated in nuclear power plants for application to the advanced light water reactors designs. Through the review on the published results it can be concluded that knowledge on the combined effects of the surface orientation and a confined space on pool boiling heat transfer is of great practical importance and also of great academic interest. Fujita et al. investigated pool boiling heat transfer, from boiling inception to the critical heat flux (CHF, q' CHF ), in a confined narrow space between heated and unheated parallel rectangular plates. They identified that both the confined space and the surface orientation changed heat transfer much. Kim and Suh changed the surface orientation angles of a downward heating rectangular channel having a narrow gap from the downward-facing position (180 .deg.) to the vertical position (90 .deg.). They observed that the CHF generally decreased as the inclination angle (θ ) increased. Yao and Chang studied pool boiling heat transfer in a confined heat transfer for vertical narrow annuli with closed bottoms. They observed that when the gap size ( s ) of the annulus was decreased the effect of space confinement to boiling heat transfer increased. The CHF was occurred at much lower value for the confined space comparing to the unconfined pool boiling. Pool boiling heat transfer in narrow horizontal annular crevices was studied by Hung and Yao. They concluded that the CHF decreased with decreasing gap size of the annuli and described the importance of the thin film evaporation to explain the lower CHF of narrow crevices. The effect of the inclination angle on the CHF on countercurrent boiling in an inclined uniformly heated tube with closed bottoms was also studied by Liu et al. They concluded that the CHF reduced with the inclination angle decrease. A study was carried out
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berger, P. E.; Sele, R. [Baker Hughes INTEQ (United States)
1998-12-31
Wellbore position calculations are typically performed by measuring azimuth and inclination at 10 to 30 meter intervals and using interpolation techniques to determine the borehole position between survey stations. The input parameters are measured depth (MD), azimuth and inclination, where the two parameters are measured with an MWD tool. Output parameters are the geometric coordinates; true value depth (TVD), north and east. By improving the accuracy of the inclination measurement reduces the uncertainty of the calculated TVD value, resulting in increased confidence in wellbore position. Significant improvements in quality control can be achieved by using multiple sensors. This paper describes a set of quality control parameters that can be used to verify individual sensor performance and a method for calculating TVD uncertainty in horizontal wells, using a single sensor or a combination of sensors. 6 refs., 5 figs.
Benchmark models, planes lines and points for future SUSY searches at the LHC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
AbdusSalam, S.S.; Allanach, B.C.; Dreiner, H.K.
2012-03-01
We define benchmark models for SUSY searches at the LHC, including the CMSSM, NUHM, mGMSB, mAMSB, MM-AMSB and p19MSSM, as well as models with R-parity violation and the NMSSM. Within the parameter spaces of these models, we propose benchmark subspaces, including planes, lines and points along them. The planes may be useful for presenting results of the experimental searches in different SUSY scenarios, while the specific benchmark points may serve for more detailed detector performance tests and comparisons. We also describe algorithms for defining suitable benchmark points along the proposed lines in the parameter spaces, and we define a few benchmark points motivated by recent fits to existing experimental data.
Benchmark models, planes lines and points for future SUSY searches at the LHC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
AbdusSalam, S.S. [The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Allanach, B.C. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics; Dreiner, H.K. [Bonn Univ. (DE). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics and Physikalisches Inst.] (and others)
2012-03-15
We define benchmark models for SUSY searches at the LHC, including the CMSSM, NUHM, mGMSB, mAMSB, MM-AMSB and p19MSSM, as well as models with R-parity violation and the NMSSM. Within the parameter spaces of these models, we propose benchmark subspaces, including planes, lines and points along them. The planes may be useful for presenting results of the experimental searches in different SUSY scenarios, while the specific benchmark points may serve for more detailed detector performance tests and comparisons. We also describe algorithms for defining suitable benchmark points along the proposed lines in the parameter spaces, and we define a few benchmark points motivated by recent fits to existing experimental data.
Benchmark Models, Planes, Lines and Points for Future SUSY Searches at the LHC
AbdusSalam, S S; Dreiner, H K; Ellis, J; Ellwanger, U; Gunion, J; Heinemeyer, S; Krämer, M; Mangano, M L; Olive, K A; Rogerson, S; Roszkowski, L; Schlaffer, M; Weiglein, G
2011-01-01
We define benchmark models for SUSY searches at the LHC, including the CMSSM, NUHM, mGMSB, mAMSB, MM-AMSB and p19MSSM, as well as models with R-parity violation and the NMSSM. Within the parameter spaces of these models, we propose benchmark subspaces, including planes, lines and points along them. The planes may be useful for presenting results of the experimental searches in different SUSY scenarios, while the specific benchmark points may serve for more detailed detector performance tests and comparisons. We also describe algorithms for defining suitable benchmark points along the proposed lines in the parameter spaces, and we define a few benchmark points motivated by recent fits to existing experimental data.
Psychosocial Determinants of Romantic Inclination Among Indian Youth
D. Barani Ganth; S. Kadhiravan
2017-01-01
The present study was conducted with the aim of understanding the psychosocial determinants of romantic inclination among youth in India. We involved 779 student participants from a large central university in south India in the age range of 18-24 years. The participants filled measures on romantic inclination, personality, attachment style, interpersonal attraction, and social influence on romantic relationship in addition to a questionnaire on demographic information and relationship histor...
The orbital inclination of A0620 - 00 measured polarimetrically
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolan, J.F.; Tapia, S.
1989-01-01
The mass of the degenerate primary in A0620 - 00 is inferred from its spectroscopic mass function to be not less than 3.2 solar masses, making it an excellent candidate for a black hole. The exact value of the mass depends on the orbital inclination. The inclination of a binary system can be determined from the shape of its Stokes parameter light curves if the linear polarization of the system varies as a function of orbital phase. A0620 - 00 over one 8-hour binary period was observed with the 4.5-m equivalent MMT. Its polarization in the visible is variable with orbital phase. The standard theory of Brown et al. (1978) was used to derive an orbital inclination of i = 57 deg (+20 deg, -50 deg), where the error is the 90-percent confidence interval. An inclination of i = 57 deg corresponds to a mass of the compact primary of 6.6 solar masses, but the large uncertainty in the measured value of the inclination allows the derived mass of A0620 - 00 to be as low as 3.8 solar masses. If this is taken to be the maximum mass of any degenerate configuration consistent with general relativity except a black hole, then the mass of A0620 - 00 is still not well enough determined to conclude that it must be a black hole. 21 refs
EXTINCTION IN STAR-FORMING DISK GALAXIES FROM INCLINATION-DEPENDENT COMPOSITE SPECTRA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yip, Ching-Wa; Szalay, Alex S.; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Budavari, Tamas; Dobos, Laszlo; Csabai, Istvan
2010-01-01
Extinction in galaxies affects their observed properties. In scenarios describing the distribution of dust and stars in individual disk galaxies, the amplitude of the extinction can be modulated by the inclination of the galaxies. In this work, we investigate the inclination dependency in composite spectra of star-forming disk galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5. In a volume-limited sample within a redshift range 0.065-0.075 and a r-band Petrosian absolute magnitude range -19.5 to -22 mag which exhibits a flat distribution of inclination, the inclined relative to face-on extinction in the stellar continuum is found empirically to increase with inclination in the g, r, and i bands. Within the central 0.5 intrinsic half-light radius of the galaxies, the g-band relative extinction in the stellar continuum for the highly inclined objects (axis ratio b/a = 0.1) is 1.2 mag, agreeing with previous studies. The extinction curve of the disk galaxies is given in the rest-frame wavelengths 3700-8000 A, identified with major optical emission and absorption lines in diagnostics. The Balmer decrement, Hα/Hβ, remains constant with inclination, suggesting a different kind of dust configuration and/or reddening mechanism in the H II region from that in the stellar continuum. One factor is shown to be the presence of spatially non-uniform interstellar extinction, presumably caused by clumped dust in the vicinity of the H II region.
Instability timescale for the inclination instability in the solar system
Zderic, Alexander; Madigan, Ann-Marie; Fleisig, Jacob
2018-04-01
The gravitational influence of small bodies is often neglected in the study of solar system dynamics. However, this is not always an appropriate assumption. For example, mutual secular torques between low mass particles on eccentric orbits can result in a self-gravity instability (`inclination instability'; Madigan & McCourt 2016). During the instability, inclinations increase exponentially, eccentricities decrease (detachment), and orbits cluster in argument of perihelion. In the solar system, the orbits of the most distant objects show all three of these characteristics (high inclination: Volk & Malhotra (2017), detachment: Delsanti & Jewitt (2006), and argument of perihelion clustering: Trujillo & Sheppard (2014)). The inclination instability is a natural explanation for these phenomena.Unfortunately, full N-body simulations of the solar system are unfeasible (N ≈ O(1012)), and the behavior of the instability depends on N, prohibiting the direct application of lower N simulations. Here we present the instability timescale's functional dependence on N, allowing us to extrapolate our simulation results to that appropriate for the solar system. We show that ~5 MEarth of small icy bodies in the Sedna region is sufficient for the inclination instability to occur in the outer solar system.
Efficient light trapping in silicon inclined nanohole arrays for photovoltaic applications
Deng, Can; Tan, Xinyu; Jiang, Lihua; Tu, Yiteng; Ye, Mao; Yi, Yasha
2018-01-01
Structural design with high light absorption is the key challenge for thin film solar cells because of its poor absorption. In this paper, the light-trapping performance of silicon inclined nanohole arrays is systematically studied. The finite difference time domain method is used to calculate the optical absorption of different inclination angles in different periods and diameters. The results indicate that the inclined nanoholes with inclination angles between 5° and 45° demonstrate greater light-trapping ability than their counterparts of the vertical nanoholes, and they also show that by choosing the optimal parameters for the inclined nanoholes, a 31.2 mA/cm2 short circuit photocurrent density could be achieved, which is 10.25% higher than the best vertical nanohole system and 105.26% higher than bare silicon with a thickness of 2330 nm. The design principle proposed in this work gives a guideline for choosing reasonable parameters in the application of solar cells.
Role of edge inclination in an optical microdisk resonator for label-free sensing.
Gandolfi, Davide; Ramiro-Manzano, Fernando; Rebollo, Francisco Javier Aparicio; Ghulinyan, Mher; Pucker, Georg; Pavesi, Lorenzo
2015-02-26
In this paper, we report on the measurement and modeling of enhanced optical refractometric sensors based on whispering gallery modes. The devices under test are optical microresonators made of silicon nitride on silicon oxide, which differ in their sidewall inclination angle. In our approach, these microresonators are vertically coupled to a buried waveguide with the aim of creating integrated and cost-effective devices. Device modeling shows that the optimization of the device is a delicate balance of the resonance quality factor and evanescent field overlap with the surrounding environment to analyze. By numerical simulations, we show that the microdisk thickness is critical to yield a high figure of merit for the sensor and that edge inclination should be kept as high as possible. We also show that bulk-sensing figures of merit as high as 1600 RIU(-1) (refractive index unit) are feasible.
Composition sensitivity of the Auger observatory through inclined showers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ave, M.; Watson, A.A.; Hinton, J.A.; Vazquez, R.A.; Zas, E.
2003-01-01
We report a calculation of the expected rate of inclined air showers induced by ultra high-energy cosmic rays to be obtained by the Auger Southern Observatory assuming different mass compositions. We describe some features that can be used to distinguish photons at energies as high as 10 20 eV. The discrimination of photons at such energies will help to test some models of the origin of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays
Modelling the Landing of a Plane in a Calculus Lab
Morante, Antonio; Vallejo, Jose A.
2012-01-01
We exhibit a simple model of a plane landing that involves only basic concepts of differential calculus, so it is suitable for a first-year calculus lab. We use the computer algebra system Maxima and the interactive geometry software GeoGebra to do the computations and graphics. (Contains 5 figures and 1 note.)
Rachid, Hassan
2015-12-01
In the present study,we investigate the unsteady peristaltic transport of a viscoelastic fluid with fractional Burgers' model in an inclined tube. We suppose that the viscosity is variable in the radial direction. This analysis has been carried out under low Reynolds number and long-wavelength approximations. An analytical solution to the problem is obtained using a fractional calculus approach. Figures are plotted to show the effects of angle of inclination, Reynolds number, Froude number, material constants, fractional parameters, parameter of viscosity and amplitude ratio on the pressure gradient, pressure rise, friction force, axial velocity and on the mechanical efficiency.
A simple model for normal state in- and out-of-plane resistivities of hole doped cuprates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Naqib, S.H., E-mail: shnaqib.physicsru@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Azam, M. Afsana [Department of Physics, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Department of Physics, DUET, Gazipur, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Uddin, M. Borhan [Department of Physics, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Department of CSE, International Islamic University Chittagong, Sitakunda, IIUC Rd, Kumira 4314 Bangladesh (Bangladesh); Cole, J.R. [Cambridge Flow Solutions Ltd., Histon, Cambridge CB24 9AD (United Kingdom)
2016-05-15
Highlights: • In- and out-of-plane charge transport have been investigated for hole doped cuprates. • Effect of quantum critical point (QCP) on non-Fermi liquid behavior has been explored. • The impact of pseudogap (PG) on carrier scattering rate has been studied. • In- and out-of plane resistivities have been modeled by considering the QCP and the PG. • The model explains the non-Fermi liquid charge transport in hole doped cuprates. - Abstract: The highly anisotropic and qualitatively different nature of the normal state in- and out-of-plane charge dynamics in high-T{sub c} cuprates cannot be accommodated within the conventional Boltzmann transport theory. The variation of in-plane and out-of-plane resistivities with temperature and hole content are anomalous and cannot be explained by Fermi-liquid theory. In this study, we have proposed a simple phenomenological model for the dc resistivity of cuprates by incorporating two firmly established generic features of all hole doped cuprate superconductors—(i) the pseudogap in the quasiparticle energy spectrum and (ii) the T-linear resistivity at high temperatures. This T-linear behavior over an extended temperature range can be attributed to a quantum criticality, affecting the electronic phase diagram of cuprates. Experimental in-plane and out-of-plane resistivities (ρ{sub p}(T) and ρ{sub c}(T), respectively) of double-layer Y(Ca)123 have been analyzed using the proposed model. This phenomenological model describes the temperature and the hole content dependent resistivity over a wide range of temperature and hole content, p. The characteristic PG energy scale, ε{sub g}(p), extracted from the analysis of the resistivity data, agrees quite well with those found in variety of other experiments. Various other extracted parameters from the analysis of ρ{sub p}(T) and ρ{sub c}(T) data showed systematic trends with changing hole concentration. We have discussed important features found from the analysis in
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, Devander; Kumar, Sudhir
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Year-round performance of SPTC under the various climatic conditions is presented. • A detailed thermo-optical model for PTC system is developed. • A comparison of developed thermal model is done with experimental data of SNL. • Developed model is very helpful and effective tool in analyzing the PTC system. • Enlightens the importance of mini-level SPTC as a promising system to fulfill the energy demands. - Abstract: Solar parabolic trough collector (SPTC) is a well-known solar thermal system applied for solar electric generation. Nowadays, major attention is directed toward improving the performance of solar thermal systems with optimization of solar field production. In this research work, a comprehensive thermo-optical modeling has been proposed to evaluate the performance of a mini-level SPTC considering various heat equilibriums with the environment. Here, receiver wall temperature is considered as the base for modeling. Collector consists of a non-evacuated receiver tube with black paint coating and enveloped with glass cover. Available meteorological data in terms of global and diffuse solar insolations, air temperatures and wind speeds have been used as inputs for performance evaluation of SPTC with horizontal and inclined aperture planes. The validation of the proposed analytical model is justified with existing experimental results and yielded a close agreement. The developed model is successfully applied to a SPTC in order to estimate the through-out year performance characteristics in terms of water temperature rise, heat energy generation, optical and thermal efficiency for the climactic conditions of Bhiwani. The results enlighten that using 0.010 kg/s mass flow rate of water and aperture area of around 1.34 m"2, collector achieved maximum rise in water temperature 11.1 °C and 12.2 °C on horizontal and inclined planes, respectively in the month of April. The uppermost heat energy generation is found to be 2.38 kW h/day in May
Kroon, M.
2011-11-01
Rubbers and soft biological tissues may undergo large deformations and are also viscoelastic. The formulation of constitutive models for these materials poses special challenges. In several applications, especially in biomechanics, these materials are also relatively thin, implying that in-plane stresses dominate and that plane stress may therefore be assumed. In the present paper, a constitutive model for viscoelastic materials in the finite strain regime and under the assumption of plane stress is proposed. It is assumed that the relaxation behaviour in the direction of plane stress can be treated separately, which makes it possible to formulate evolution laws for the plastic strains on explicit form at the same time as incompressibility is fulfilled. Experimental results from biomechanics (dynamic inflation of dog aorta) and rubber mechanics (biaxial stretching of rubber sheets) were used to assess the proposed model. The assessment clearly indicates that the model is fully able to predict the experimental outcome for these types of material.
Chung, Beom Sun; Chung, Min Suk; Shin, Byeong Seok; Kwon, Koojoo
2018-02-19
The hand anatomy, including the complicated hand muscles, can be grasped by using computer-assisted learning tools with high quality two-dimensional images and three-dimensional models. The purpose of this study was to present up-to-date software tools that promote learning of stereoscopic morphology of the hand. On the basis of horizontal sectioned images and outlined images of a male cadaver, vertical planes, volume models, and surface models were elaborated. Software to browse pairs of the sectioned and outlined images in orthogonal planes and software to peel and rotate the volume models, as well as a portable document format (PDF) file to select and rotate the surface models, were produced. All of the software tools were downloadable free of charge and usable off-line. The three types of tools for viewing multiple aspects of the hand could be adequately employed according to individual needs. These new tools involving the realistic images of a cadaver and the diverse functions are expected to improve comprehensive knowledge of the hand shape. © 2018 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.
Breakwaters with Vertical and Inclined Concrete Walls
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Burcharth, Hans Falk
Following the PIANC PTC II working group on Analyses of Rubble Mound Breakwaters it was, in 1991, decided to form Working Group (WG) n° 28 on "Breakwaters with vertical and inclined concrete walls" The scope of the work was to achieve a better understanding of the overall safety aspects in the de......Following the PIANC PTC II working group on Analyses of Rubble Mound Breakwaters it was, in 1991, decided to form Working Group (WG) n° 28 on "Breakwaters with vertical and inclined concrete walls" The scope of the work was to achieve a better understanding of the overall safety aspects...
A Method of Auxiliary Sources Approach for Modelling the Impact of Ground Planes on Antenna
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav
2006-01-01
The Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS) is employed to model the impact of finite ground planes on the radiation from antennas. Two different antenna test cases are shown and the calculated results agree well with reference measurements......The Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS) is employed to model the impact of finite ground planes on the radiation from antennas. Two different antenna test cases are shown and the calculated results agree well with reference measurements...
Simple Model for Simulating Characteristics of River Flow Velocity in Large Scale
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Husin Alatas
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We propose a simple computer based phenomenological model to simulate the characteristics of river flow velocity in large scale. We use shuttle radar tomography mission based digital elevation model in grid form to define the terrain of catchment area. The model relies on mass-momentum conservation law and modified equation of motion of falling body in inclined plane. We assume inelastic collision occurs at every junction of two river branches to describe the dynamics of merged flow velocity.
Van Laerhoven, Christa L.
2015-05-01
Considering the secular dynamics of multi-planet systems provides substantial insight into the interactions between planets in those systems. Secular interactions are those that don't involve knowing where a planet is along its orbit, and they dominate when planets are not involved in mean motion resonances. These interactions exchange angular momentum among the planets, evolving their eccentricities and inclinations. To second order in the planets' eccentricities and inclinations, the eccentricity and inclination perturbations are decoupled. Given the right variable choice, the relevant differential equations are linear and thus the eccentricity and inclination behaviors can be described as a sum of eigenmodes. Since the underlying structure of the secular eigenmodes can be calculated using only the planets' masses and semi-major axes, one can elucidate the eccentricity and inclination behavior of planets in exoplanet systems even without knowing the planets' current eccentricities and inclinations. I have calculated both the eccentricity and inclination secular eigenmodes for the population of known multi-planet systems whose planets have well determined masses and periods. Using this catalog of secular character, I will discuss the prevalence of dynamically grouped planets ('groupies') versus dynamically uncoupled planets ('loners') and how this relates to the exoplanets' long-term eccentricity and inclination behavior. I will also touch on the distribution of the secular eigenfreqiencies.
Zeng, Fanxue; Huang, Jianke; Meng, Chen; Zhu, Fachao; Chen, Jianpei; Li, Yuanguang
2016-01-01
The open raceway ponds are nowadays the most used large-scale reactors for microalgae culture. To avoid the stacking of microalgae, the paddle wheels are the most widely used to circulate and mix the culture medium. In this paper, a numerical simulation using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to investigate the hydrodynamic characteristics of open raceway ponds with different types of paddle wheels (the traditional paddle wheels and the novel paddle wheels with specially inclined angle of the blades). The particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to validate the reliability of the CFD model. The CFD simulation results showed that the novel raceway pond with 15° inclined angle of the blades had the best mixing efficiency under the same power consumption. Lastly, the results of microalgae culture experiments showed that the growth rates of Chlorella pyrenoidosa in the novel raceway pond with 15° inclined angle of the blades were higher than those in the traditional reactor. The results of the culture experiments and CFD simulations were identical with each other. Therefore, a novel paddle wheel with 15° inclined angle of the blades was obtained for better microalgae cultivation.
Investigation of the rolling motion of a hollow cylinder using a smartphone
Puttharugsa, Chokchai; Khemmani, Supitch; Utayarat, Patipan; Luangtip, Wasutep
2016-09-01
This paper describes the use of smartphone’s gyroscope sensor to analyse a hollow cylinder rolling down an inclined plane. The smartphone (iPhone 4s) was attached to the end of hollow cylinder and was equipped with the Sensorlog application (Sensorlog app) to record the angular speed of rolling down an inclined plane. The experimental results agree with the theoretical model that is familiar to students for the rolling motion on an inclined plane. Moreover, the coefficients of static friction and kinetic friction were determined to be 0.205 ± 0.011 and 0.178 ± 0.003 from the measurements, respectively. This experiment demonstrated an alternative way to teach the rolling motion in a physics laboratory.
Perović Bojan D.; Klimenta Jelena Lj.; Tasić Dragan S.; Peuteman Joan L.G.; Klimenta Dardan O.; Anđelković Ljiljana N.
2017-01-01
The main purpose of this paper is to show how the inclination angle affects natural convection from a flat-plate photovoltaic module which is mounted on the ground surface. In order to model this effect, novel correlations for natural convection from isothermal flat plates are developed by using the fundamental dimensionless number. On the basis of the available experimental and numerical results, it is shown that the natural convection correlations correspond well with the existing empirical...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Efremova, S.A.; Tsarevskij, S.L.
1997-01-01
Magnetic field distribution in a unit cell of the Abrikosov vortex lattice near the surface of monoaxial anisotropic type-ii superconductors in inclined external magnetic field has been found in the framework of London model for the cases when the symmetry axis is perpendicular and parallel to the superconductor surface interface. Distribution of local magnetic field as a function of the distance from the superconductor interface surface and external field inclination angle has been obtained. Using high-Tc superconductor Y-Ba-Cu-O by way of examples, it has been shown that the study of local magnetic field distribution function, depending on external magnetic field inclination angle towards the superconductor symmetry axis and towards the superconductor surface, can provide important data on anisotropic properties of the superconductor [ru
Inoue, Shinji; Akagi, Masao; Asada, Shigeki; Mori, Shigeshi; Zaima, Hironori; Hashida, Masahiko
2016-09-01
Medial tibial condylar fractures (MTCFs) are a rare but serious complication after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. Although some surgical pitfalls have been reported for MTCFs, it is not clear whether the varus/valgus tibial inclination contributes to the risk of MTCFs. We constructed a 3-dimensional finite elemental method model of the tibia with a medial component and assessed stress concentrations by changing the inclination from 6° varus to 6° valgus. Subsequently, we repeated the same procedure adding extended sagittal bone cuts of 2° and 10° in the posterior tibial cortex. Furthermore, we calculated the bone volume that supported the tibial component, which is considered to affect stress distribution in the medial tibial condyle. Stress concentrations were observed on the medial tibial metaphyseal cortices and on the anterior and posterior tibial cortices in the corner of cut surfaces in all models; moreover, the maximum principal stresses on the posterior cortex were larger than those on the anterior cortex. The extended sagittal bone cuts in the posterior tibial cortex increased the stresses further at these 3 sites. In the models with a 10° extended sagittal bone cut, the maximum principal stress on the posterior cortex increased as the tibial inclination changed from 6° varus to 6° valgus. The bone volume decreased as the inclination changed from varus to valgus. In this finite element method, the risk of MTCFs increases with increasing valgus inclination of the tibial component and with increased extension of the sagittal cut in the posterior tibial cortex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Plane symmetric cosmological model with thick domain walls in Brans-Dicke theory of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pawar, D.; Bayaskar, S.; Patil, V.
2009-01-01
We have investigated plane symmetric cosmological model in presence of thick domain walls in Brans-Dicke theory of gravitation, some geometrical and physical behavior of the model are discussed. (authors)
A MULTIRESOLUTION METHOD FOR THE SIMULATION OF SEDIMENTATION IN INCLINED CHANNELS
Buerger, Raimund; Ruiz-Baier, Ricardo; Schneider, Kai; Torres, Hector
2012-01-01
An adaptive multiresolution scheme is proposed for the numerical solution of a spatially two-dimensional model of sedimentation of suspensions of small solid particles dispersed in a viscous fluid. This model consists in a version of the Stokes equations for incompressible fluid flow coupled with a hyperbolic conservation law for the local solids concentration. We study the process in an inclined, rectangular closed vessel, a configuration that gives rise a well-known increase of settling rat...
The quality of veterinary in-clinic and reference laboratory biochemical testing.
Rishniw, Mark; Pion, Paul D; Maher, Tammy
2012-03-01
Although evaluation of biochemical analytes in blood is common in veterinary practice, studies assessing the global quality of veterinary in-clinic and reference laboratory testing have not been reported. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of biochemical testing in veterinary laboratories using results obtained from analyses of 3 levels of assayed quality control materials over 5 days. Quality was assessed by comparison of calculated total error with quality requirements, determination of sigma metrics, use of a quality goal index to determine factors contributing to poor performance, and agreement between in-clinic and reference laboratory mean results. The suitability of in-clinic and reference laboratory instruments for statistical quality control was determined using adaptations from the computerized program, EZRules3. Reference laboratories were able to achieve desirable quality requirements more frequently than in-clinic laboratories. Across all 3 materials, > 50% of in-clinic analyzers achieved a sigma metric ≥ 6.0 for measurement of 2 analytes, whereas > 50% of reference laboratory analyzers achieved a sigma metric ≥ 6.0 for measurement of 6 analytes. Expanded uncertainty of measurement and ± total allowable error resulted in the highest mean percentages of analytes demonstrating agreement between in-clinic and reference laboratories. Owing to marked variation in bias and coefficient of variation between analyzers of the same and different types, the percentages of analytes suitable for statistical quality control varied widely. These findings reflect the current state-of-the-art with regard to in-clinic and reference laboratory analyzer performance and provide a baseline for future evaluations of the quality of veterinary laboratory testing. © 2012 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
Huang, Wentao; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Lippert, Peter C.; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Hallot, Erwan
2013-09-01
A systematic bias towards low palaeomagnetic inclination recorded in clastic sediments, that is, inclination shallowing, has been recognized and studied for decades. Identification, understanding and correction of this inclination shallowing are critical for palaeogeographic reconstructions, particularly those used in climate models and to date collisional events in convergent orogenic systems, such as those surrounding the Neotethys. Here we report palaeomagnetic inclinations from the sedimentary Eocene upper Linzizong Group of Southern Tibet that are ˜20° lower than conformable underlying volcanic units. At face value, the palaeomagnetic results from these sedimentary rocks suggest the southern margin of Asia was located ˜10°N, which is inconsistent with recent reviews of the palaeolatitude of Southern Tibet. We apply two different correction methods to estimate the magnitude of inclination shallowing independently from the volcanics. The mean inclination is corrected from 20.5° to 40.0° within 95 per cent confidence limits between 33.1° and 49.5° by the elongation/inclination (E/I) correction method; an anisotropy-based inclination correction method steepens the mean inclination to 41.3 ± 3.3° after a curve fitting- determined particle anisotropy of 1.39 is applied. These corrected inclinations are statistically indistinguishable from the well-determined 40.3 ± 4.5º mean inclination of the underlying volcanic rocks that provides an independent check on the validity of these correction methods. Our results show that inclination shallowing in sedimentary rocks can be corrected. Careful inspection of stratigraphic variations of rock magnetic properties and remanence anisotropy suggests shallowing was caused mainly by a combination of syn- and post-depositional processes such as particle imbrication and sedimentary compaction that vary in importance throughout the section. Palaeolatitudes calculated from palaeomagnetic directions from Eocene sedimentary
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ross C. Hollett
2017-05-01
Full Text Available According to the ambivalence model of craving, alcohol craving involves the dynamic interplay of separate approach and avoidance inclinations. Cue-elicited increases in approach inclinations are posited to be more likely to result in alcohol consumption and risky drinking behaviors only if unimpeded by restraint inclinations. Current study aims were (1 to test if changes in the net balance between approach and avoidance inclinations following alcohol cue exposure differentiate between low and high risk drinkers, and (2 if this balance is associated with alcohol consumption on a subsequent taste test. In two experiments (N = 60; N = 79, low and high risk social drinkers were exposed to alcohol cues, and pre- and post- approach and avoidance inclinations measured. An ad libitum alcohol consumption paradigm and a non-alcohol exposure condition were also included in Study 2. Cue-elicited craving was characterized by a predominant approach inclination only in the high risk drinkers. Conversely, approach inclinations were adaptively balanced by equally strong avoidance inclinations when cue-elicited craving was induced in low risk drinkers. For these low risk drinkers with the balanced craving profile, neither approach or avoidance inclinations predicted subsequent alcohol consumption levels during the taste test. Conversely, for high risk drinkers, where the approach inclination predominated, each inclination synergistically predicted subsequent drinking levels during the taste test. In conclusion, results support the importance of assessing both approach and avoidance inclinations, and their relative balance following alcohol cue exposure. Specifically, this more comprehensive assessment reveals changes in craving profiles that are not apparent from examining changes in approach inclinations alone, and it is this shift in the net balance that distinguishes high from low risk drinkers.
Regularized plane-wave least-squares Kirchhoff migration
Wang, Xin
2013-09-22
A Kirchhoff least-squares migration (LSM) is developed in the prestack plane-wave domain to increase the quality of migration images. A regularization term is included that accounts for mispositioning of reflectors due to errors in the velocity model. Both synthetic and field results show that: 1) LSM with a reflectivity model common for all the plane-wave gathers provides the best image when the migration velocity model is accurate, but it is more sensitive to the velocity errors, 2) the regularized plane-wave LSM is more robust in the presence of velocity errors, and 3) LSM achieves both computational and IO saving by plane-wave encoding compared to shot-domain LSM for the models tested.
A Study of Static Performance of Fixed Inclined Slider Bearings – A ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Michael Horsfall
A Study of Static Performance of Fixed Inclined Slider Bearings – A Power Law Model. 1OLADEINDE, M H; 2EDOKPIA, R O; ... Keyword: power law, slider bearing, finite element, load capacity, pressure. Traditionally, most lubricants are .... The volumetric flow rate per unit width is computed by using the expression shown in ...
Comparison of the buccolingual inclination in alveolar bone and tooth using dental CBCT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Jin Soo; Kim, Jae Duk
2008-01-01
It is important to determine the bucco-lingual inclination of implants on radiographs before the implant surgery. The purpose of this study was to compare the buccolingual inclination in alveolar bone and the tooth with dental cone beam CT and to prepare the standard for the buccolingual inclination of implant. Axial, panoramic, and buccolingually sectioned images of 80 implant cases with stent including straight marker using CB Mercuray TM (Hitachi, Japan) were evaluated. The comparison of the buccolingual inclination of remained alveolar bone with the tooth and the marker on buccolingually sectioned views was performed statistically. The average buccolingual inclination of remained alveolar bone and tooth was 82.8 ± 4.6 .deg. C and 85.8 ± 4.7 .deg. C (p 0.05, r=0.12) at the 2nd premolar area in upper jaw. The average buccolingual inclination of remained alveolar bone and tooth was 81.3 ± 8.3 .deg. C and 87.5 ± 6.3 .deg. C (p>0.05, r=0.85) at the lower 2nd premolar area and 94.3 ± 6.6 .deg. C and 93.3 ± 7.2 .deg. C respectively (p>0.05, r=0.91) at the 1st molar area in lower jaw. The inclinations of markers were very different from those of remained bone at the most of areas except the upper 2nd premolar area (r=0.79). We recommend dental CBCT analysis for determining the buccolingual inclination of dental implant, because of significant difference, in average, between the buccolingual inclination of remained alveolar bone and tooth.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belova, N.E.; Somenkov, V.A.; Utemisov, K.; Shilshtein, S.Sh.
1983-01-01
Pendelloesung interferences in a wide range of crystal thicknesses and extinction lengths can be measured by the inclination method. The positions of the extrema of intensity coincide well with the calculated ones but the observed contrast of the oscillations is considerably weaker than the theoretical one. A mathematical model is given, taking into account the influence of several factors which characterize the incident radiation as well as the crystal examined. From this follows, that the inclination method is insensitive to many disturbing factors, and therefore it can be used for metrological purposes. (author)
Modeling of Electromagnetic Fields in Parallel-Plane Structures: A Unified Contour-Integral Approach
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M. Stumpf
2017-04-01
Full Text Available A unified reciprocity-based modeling approach for analyzing electromagnetic fields in dispersive parallel-plane structures of arbitrary shape is described. It is shown that the use of the reciprocity theorem of the time-convolution type leads to a global contour-integral interaction quantity from which novel both time- and frequency-domain numerical schemes can be arrived at. Applications of the numerical method concerning the time-domain radiated interference and susceptibility of parallel-plane structures are discussed and illustrated on numerical examples.
Interplay between geometry and temperature for inclined Casimir plates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weber, Alexej; Gies, Holger
2009-01-01
We provide further evidence for the nontrivial interplay between geometry and temperature in the Casimir effect. We investigate the temperature dependence of the Casimir force between an inclined semi-infinite plate above an infinite plate in D dimensions using the worldline formalism. Whereas the high-temperature behavior is always found to be linear in T in accordance with dimensional-reduction arguments, different power-law behaviors at small temperatures emerge. Unlike the case of infinite parallel plates, which shows the well-known T D behavior of the force, we find a T D-1 behavior for inclined plates, and a ∼T D-0.3 behavior for the edge effect in the limit where the plates become parallel. The strongest temperature dependence ∼T D-2 occurs for the Casimir torque of inclined plates. Numerical as well as analytical worldline results are presented.
The metabolic cost of walking on an incline in the Peacock (Pavo cristatus).
Wilkinson, Holly; Thavarajah, Nathan; Codd, Jonathan
2015-01-01
Altering speed and moving on a gradient can affect an animal's posture and gait, which in turn can change the energetic requirements of terrestrial locomotion. Here, the energetic and kinematic effects of locomoting on an incline were investigated in the Indian peacock, Pavo cristatus. The mass-specific metabolic rate of the Indian peacock was elevated on an incline, but this change was not dependent on the angle ascended and the cost of lifting remained similar between the two inclines (+5 and +7°). Interestingly, the Indian peacock had the highest efficiency when compared to any other previously studied avian biped, despite the presence of a large train. Duty factors were higher for birds moving on an incline, but there was no difference between +5 and +7°. Our results highlight the importance of investigating kinematic responses during energetic studies, as these may enable explanation of what is driving the underlying metabolic differences when moving on inclines. Further investigations are required to elucidate the underlying mechanical processes occurring during incline movement.
The metabolic cost of walking on an incline in the Peacock (Pavo cristatus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Holly Wilkinson
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Altering speed and moving on a gradient can affect an animal’s posture and gait, which in turn can change the energetic requirements of terrestrial locomotion. Here, the energetic and kinematic effects of locomoting on an incline were investigated in the Indian peacock, Pavo cristatus. The mass-specific metabolic rate of the Indian peacock was elevated on an incline, but this change was not dependent on the angle ascended and the cost of lifting remained similar between the two inclines (+5 and +7°. Interestingly, the Indian peacock had the highest efficiency when compared to any other previously studied avian biped, despite the presence of a large train. Duty factors were higher for birds moving on an incline, but there was no difference between +5 and +7°. Our results highlight the importance of investigating kinematic responses during energetic studies, as these may enable explanation of what is driving the underlying metabolic differences when moving on inclines. Further investigations are required to elucidate the underlying mechanical processes occurring during incline movement.
Saunders, Fritha C; Cave, Nick J; Hartman, Karl M; Gee, Erica K; Worth, Andrew J; Bridges, Janis P; Hartman, Angela C
2013-09-01
To develop an in vivo CT method to measure inclination angles and motion of the sacroiliac joints in dogs of performance breeds. 10 German Shepherd Dogs and 12 Greyhounds without signs of lumbosacral region pain or neurologic problems. CT of the ilium and sacrum was performed in flexed, neutral, and extended hind limb positions. Lines were drawn on volume-rendered images acquired in the flexed and extended positions to measure motion of the ilia relative to the sacra. Inclination angles of the synovial and ligamentous components of the sacroiliac joints were measured on transverse-plane CT images acquired at cranial and caudal locations. Coefficients of variance of measurements were calculated to determine intraobserver variability. Coefficients of variance of measurements ranged from 0.17% to 2.45%. A significantly higher amount of sacroiliac joint rotational motion was detected for German Shepherd Dogs versus Greyhounds. The cranial synovial joint component had a significantly more sagittal orientation in German Shepherd Dogs versus Greyhounds. No significant differences were detected between breeds for x- or y-axis translational motion or caudal synovial or ligamentous joint component inclination angles. The small amounts of sacroiliac joint motion detected in this study may buffer high-frequency vibrations during movement of dogs. Differences detected between breeds may be associated with the predisposition of German Shepherd Dogs to develop lumbosacral region signs of pain, although the biological importance of this finding was not determined. Future studies are warranted to compare sacroiliac joint variables between German Shepherd Dogs with and without lumbosacral region signs of pain.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Imad Khan
Full Text Available Current work highlights the computational aspects of MHD Carreau nanofluid flow over an inclined stretching cylinder with convective boundary conditions and Joule heating. The mathematical modeling of physical problem yields nonlinear set of partial differential equations. A suitable scaling group of variables is employed on modeled equations to convert them into non-dimensional form. The integration scheme Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg on the behalf of shooting technique is utilized to solve attained set of equations. The interesting aspects of physical problem (linear momentum, energy and nanoparticles concentration are elaborated under the different parametric conditions through graphical and tabular manners. Additionally, the quantities (local skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt number and local Sherwood number which are responsible to dig out the physical phenomena in the vicinity of stretched surface are computed and delineated by varying controlling flow parameters. Keywords: MHD, Carreau nanofluid, Inclined stretching cylinder, Joule heating, Shooting technique
Models of Quantum Space Time: Quantum Field Planes
Mack, G.; Schomerus, V.
1994-01-01
Quantum field planes furnish a noncommutative differential algebra $\\Omega$ which substitutes for the commutative algebra of functions and forms on a contractible manifold. The data required in their construction come from a quantum field theory. The basic idea is to replace the ground field ${\\bf C}$ of quantum planes by the noncommutative algebra ${\\cal A}$ of observables of the quantum field theory.
Entrepreneurial Inclination Among Business Students: A Malaysian Study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yet-Mee Lim
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Entrepreneurship has been the fundamental topics of discussion among the politicians, economists, and academics. Business creation is especially critical in developing countries to stimulate economic growth. The present study attempts to examine entrepreneurial inclination among students who are a potential source of entrepreneurs. The fi ndings of the present research study indicate that majority of our business students are not entrepreneurial-inclined. They do not seem to possess strong entrepreneurial characteristics and entrepreneurial skills, and they are not keen in starting a new business. The roles of higher institutes of education and the government in promoting entrepreneurship are discussed.
Devour, Brian M.; Bell, Eric F.
2017-06-01
Accurate measurement of galaxy structures is a prerequisite for quantitative investigation of galaxy properties or evolution. Yet, the impact of galaxy inclination and dust on commonly used metrics of galaxy structure is poorly quantified. We use infrared data sets to select inclination-independent samples of disc and flattened elliptical galaxies. These samples show strong variation in Sérsic index, concentration and half-light radii with inclination. We develop novel inclination-independent galaxy structures by collapsing the light distribution in the near-infrared on to the major axis, yielding inclination-independent 'linear' measures of size and concentration. With these new metrics we select a sample of Milky Way analogue galaxies with similar stellar masses, star formation rates, sizes and concentrations. Optical luminosities, light distributions and spectral properties are all found to vary strongly with inclination: When inclining to edge-on, r-band luminosities dim by >1 magnitude, sizes decrease by a factor of 2, 'dust-corrected' estimates of star formation rate drop threefold, metallicities decrease by 0.1 dex and edge-on galaxies are half as likely to be classified as star forming. These systematic effects should be accounted for in analyses of galaxy properties.
On Leak Localization in the Main Branched and Simple Inclined Gas Pipelines
T. Davitashvili; G. Gubelidze
2013-01-01
In this paper two mathematical models for definition of gas accidental escape localization in the gas pipelines are suggested. The first model was created for leak localization in the horizontal branched pipeline and second one for leak detection in inclined section of the main gas pipeline. The algorithm of leak localization in the branched pipeline did not demand on knowledge of corresponding initial hydraulic parameters at entrance and ending points of each sections of pipeline. For detect...
Gravitational Couplings for Gop-Planes and y-Op-Planes
Giraldo, Juan Fernando Ospina
2000-01-01
The Wess-Zumino actions for generalized orientifold planes (GOp-planes) and y-deformed orientifold planes (yOp-planes) are presented and two series power expantions are realized from whiches processes that involves GOp-planes,yOp-planes, RR-forms, gravitons and gaugeons, are obtained. Finally non-standard GOp-planes and y-Op-planes are showed.
Economic Investigation of Different Configurations of Inclined Solar Water Desalination Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. Phillips Agboola
2014-02-01
Full Text Available This study empirically investigated the performance of four configurations of inclined solar water desalination (ISWD system for parameters such as daily production, efficiency, system cost, and distilled water production cost. The empirical findings show that in terms of daily productivity improved inclined solar water desalination (IISWD performed best with 6.41 kg/m2/day while improved inclined solar water desalination with wire mesh (IISWDWM produced the least with 3.0 kg/m2/day. In terms of cost price of the systems, the control system inclined solar water desalination (ISWD is the cheapest while IISWDWM is the most expensive system. Distilled water cost price ranges from 0.059 TL/kg, for IISWDW, to 0.134 TL/kg, for IISWDWM system. All the systems are economically and technically feasible as a solar desalination system for potable water in northern Cyprus. Potable water from vendors/hawkers ranges from 0.2 to 0.3 TL/kg.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aung, Nay Zar; Li, Songjing
2013-01-01
Highlights: • Optimum inclination for maximum heat flux changes with latitude of location. • Optimum inclination for maximum heat flux also changes local solar time. • Maximum flow rate increases with increasing of riser tube size. • Maximum mass flow rate is obtained at different inclinations for different risers. • Length of two-phase region depends on inclination angles but not riser tube size. - Abstract: In this work, the effect of riser diameter and its inclination angle on system parameters in a two-phase closed loop thermosyphon solar water heater has been numerically investigated. Here, receivable heat flux by the collector, circulating mass flow rate, driving pressure, total pressure drop, heat transfer coefficient in risers and collector efficiency are defined as system parameters. For this aim, a model of two-phase thermosyphon solar water heater that is acceptable for various inclinations is presented and variations of riser diameter and inclination are considered. The riser tube size is varied from 1.25 cm to 2.5 cm with inclination range 2–75°. The system absolute pressure is set as 3567 Pa and water is chosen as working fluid. The results show that higher inclination angle is required for higher latitude location to obtain maximum solar heat flux. At local solar noon of 21.996 north latitude, the optimum inclination angle increases in the range of 24–44° with increasing of riser diameter giving maximum circulating mass flow rate from 0.02288 kg/s to 0.03876 kg/s. The longer two-phase heat transfer characteristics can be obtained at smaller inclination angles and mass flow rate for all riser tube sizes. Therefore, it is observed that the optimum inclination angles and diameters for solar heat flux, circulating mass flow rate and heat transfer coefficient in two-phase thermosyphon systemdo not coincide. From this work, better understanding and useful information are provided for constructing two-phase thermosyphon solar heaters
Computational parametric study of a Richtmyer-Meshkov instability for an inclined interface.
McFarland, Jacob A; Greenough, Jeffrey A; Ranjan, Devesh
2011-08-01
A computational study of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability for an inclined interface is presented. The study covers experiments to be performed in the Texas A&M University inclined shock tube facility. Incident shock wave Mach numbers from 1.2 to 2.5, inclination angles from 30° to 60°, and gas pair Atwood numbers of ∼0.67 and ∼0.95 are used in this parametric study containing 15 unique combinations of these parameters. Qualitative results are examined through a time series of density plots for multiple combinations of these parameters, and the qualitative effects of each of the parameters are discussed. Pressure, density, and vorticity fields are presented in animations available online to supplement the discussion of the qualitative results. These density plots show the evolution of two main regions in the flow field: a mixing region containing driver and test gas that is dominated by large vortical structures, and a more homogeneous region of unmixed fluid which can separate away from the mixing region in some cases. The interface mixing width is determined for various combinations of the parameters listed at the beginning of the Abstract. A scaling method for the mixing width is proposed using the interface geometry and wave velocities calculated using one-dimensional gas dynamic equations. This model uses the transmitted wave velocity for the characteristic velocity and an initial offset time based on the travel time of strong reflected waves. It is compared to an adapted Richtmyer impulsive model scaling and shown to scale the initial mixing width growth rate more effectively for fixed Atwood number.
Kamiaka, Shoya; Benomar, Othman; Suto, Yasushi
2018-05-01
Advances in asteroseismology of solar-like stars, now provide a unique method to estimate the stellar inclination i⋆. This enables to evaluate the spin-orbit angle of transiting planetary systems, in a complementary fashion to the Rossiter-McLaughlineffect, a well-established method to estimate the projected spin-orbit angle λ. Although the asteroseismic method has been broadly applied to the Kepler data, its reliability has yet to be assessed intensively. In this work, we evaluate the accuracy of i⋆ from asteroseismology of solar-like stars using 3000 simulated power spectra. We find that the low signal-to-noise ratio of the power spectra induces a systematic under-estimate (over-estimate) bias for stars with high (low) inclinations. We derive analytical criteria for the reliable asteroseismic estimate, which indicates that reliable measurements are possible in the range of 20° ≲ i⋆ ≲ 80° only for stars with high signal-to-noise ratio. We also analyse and measure the stellar inclination of 94 Kepler main-sequence solar-like stars, among which 33 are planetary hosts. According to our reliability criteria, a third of them (9 with planets, 22 without) have accurate stellar inclination. Comparison of our asteroseismic estimate of vsin i⋆ against spectroscopic measurements indicates that the latter suffers from a large uncertainty possibly due to the modeling of macro-turbulence, especially for stars with projected rotation speed vsin i⋆ ≲ 5km/s. This reinforces earlier claims, and the stellar inclination estimated from the combination of measurements from spectroscopy and photometric variation for slowly rotating stars needs to be interpreted with caution.
Simulation of a plane wavefront propagating in cardiac tissue using a cellular automata model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barbosa, Carlos R Hall
2003-01-01
We present a detailed description of a cellular automata model for the propagation of action potential in a planar cardiac tissue, which is very fast and easy to use. The model incorporates anisotropy in the electrical conductivity and a spatial variation of the refractory time. The transmembrane potential distribution is directly derived from the cell states, and the intracellular and extracellular potential distributions are calculated for the particular case of a plane wavefront. Once the potential distributions are known, the associated current densities are calculated by Ohm's law, and the magnetic field is determined at a plane parallel to the cardiac tissue by applying the law of Biot and Savart. The results obtained for propagation speed and for magnetic field amplitude with the cellular automata model are compared with values predicted by the bidomain formulation, for various angles between wavefront propagation and fibre direction, characterizing excellent agreement between the models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, W.; Zhang, S.; Ma, Y. G.; Cai, X. Z.; Chen, J. H.; Ma, G. L.; Zhong, C.; Huang, H. Z.
2009-01-01
Dihadron azimuthal angle correlations relative to the reaction plane have been investigated in Au+Au collisions at √(s NN )=200 GeV using a multiphase transport model (AMPT). Such reaction plane azimuthal-angle-dependent correlations can shed light on the path-length effect of energy loss of high-transverse-momentum particles propagating through a hot dense medium. The correlations vary with the trigger particle azimuthal angle with respect to the reaction plane direction, φ s =φ T -Ψ EP , which is consistent with the experimental observation by the STAR Collaboration. The dihadron azimuthal angle correlation functions on the away side of the trigger particle present a distinct evolution from a single-peak to a broad, possibly double-peak structure when the trigger particle direction goes from in-plane to out-of-plane with the reaction plane. The away-side angular correlation functions are asymmetric with respect to the back-to-back direction in some regions of φ s , which could provide insight into the testing v 1 method for reconstructing the reaction plane. In addition, both the root-mean-square width (W rms ) of the away-side correlation distribution and the splitting parameter (D) between the away-side double peaks increase slightly with φ s , and the average transverse momentum of away-side-associated hadrons shows a strong φ s dependence. Our results indicate that a strong parton cascade and resultant energy loss could play an important role in the appearance of a double-peak structure in the dihadron azimuthal angular correlation function on the away side of the trigger particle.
Simulating the dependence of seismo-ionospheric coupling on the magnetic field inclination
Mohan Joshi, Lalit; Sripathi, Samireddipelle; Kumar, Muppidi Ravi; Alam Kherani, Esfhan
2018-01-01
Infrasound generated during a seismic event upon reaching the ionospheric heights possesses the ability to perturb the ionosphere. Detailed modelling investigation considering 1-D dissipative linear dynamics, however, indicates that the magnitude of ionospheric perturbation strongly depends on the magnetic field inclination. Physics-based SAMI2 model codes have been utilized to simulate the ionosphere perturbations that are generated due to the action of the vertical wind perturbations associated with the seismic infrasound. The propagation of the seismic energy and the vertical wind perturbations associated with the infrasound in the model has been considered to be symmetric about the epicentre in the north-south directions. Ionospheric response to the infrasound wind, however, has been highly asymmetric in the model simulation in the north-south directions. This strong asymmetry is related to the variation in the inclination of the Earth's magnetic field north and south of the epicentre. Ionospheric monitoring generally provides an efficient tool to infer the crustal propagation of the seismic energy. However, the results presented in this paper indicate that the mapping between the crustal process and the ionospheric response is not a linear one. These results also imply that the lithospheric behaviour during a seismic event over a wide zone in low latitudes can be estimated through ionospheric imaging only after factoring in the magnetic field geometry.
Simulating the dependence of seismo-ionospheric coupling on the magnetic field inclination
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. M. Joshi
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Infrasound generated during a seismic event upon reaching the ionospheric heights possesses the ability to perturb the ionosphere. Detailed modelling investigation considering 1-D dissipative linear dynamics, however, indicates that the magnitude of ionospheric perturbation strongly depends on the magnetic field inclination. Physics-based SAMI2 model codes have been utilized to simulate the ionosphere perturbations that are generated due to the action of the vertical wind perturbations associated with the seismic infrasound. The propagation of the seismic energy and the vertical wind perturbations associated with the infrasound in the model has been considered to be symmetric about the epicentre in the north–south directions. Ionospheric response to the infrasound wind, however, has been highly asymmetric in the model simulation in the north–south directions. This strong asymmetry is related to the variation in the inclination of the Earth's magnetic field north and south of the epicentre. Ionospheric monitoring generally provides an efficient tool to infer the crustal propagation of the seismic energy. However, the results presented in this paper indicate that the mapping between the crustal process and the ionospheric response is not a linear one. These results also imply that the lithospheric behaviour during a seismic event over a wide zone in low latitudes can be estimated through ionospheric imaging only after factoring in the magnetic field geometry.
Bulbous head formation in bidisperse shallow granular flows over inclined planes
Denissen, I.; Thornton, A.; Weinhart, T.; Luding, S.
2017-12-01
Predicting the behaviour of hazardous natural granular flows (e.g. debris-flows and pyroclastic flows) is vital for an accurate assessment of the risks posed by such events. In these situations, an inversely graded vertical particle-size distribution develops, with larger particles on top of smaller particles. As the surface velocity of such flows is larger than the mean velocity, the larger material is then transported to the flow front. This creates a downstream size-segregation structure, resulting in a flow front composed purely of large particles, that are generally more frictional in geophysical flows. Thus, this segregation process reduces the mobility of the flow front, resulting in the formation of, a so-called, bulbous head. One of the main challenges of simulating these hazardous natural granular flows is the enormous number of particles they contain, which makes discrete particle simulations too computationally expensive to be practically useful. Continuum methods are able to simulate the bulk flow- and segregation behaviour of such flows, but have to make averaging approximations that reduce the huge number of degrees of freedom to a few continuum fields. Small-scale periodic discrete particle simulations can be used to determine the material parameters needed for the continuum model. In this presentation, we use a depth-averaged model to predict the flow profile for particulate chute flows, based on flow height, depth-averaged velocity and particle-size distribution [1], and show that the bulbous head structure naturally emerges from this model. The long-time behaviour of this solution of the depth-averaged continuum model converges to a novel travelling wave solution [2]. Furthermore, we validate this framework against computationally expensive 3D particle simulations, where we see surprisingly good agreement between both approaches, considering the approximations made in the continuum model. We conclude by showing that the travelling distance and
How do the substrate reaction forces acting on a gecko's limbs respond to inclines?
Wang, Zhouyi; Dai, Zhendong; Li, Wei; Ji, Aihong; Wang, Wenbao
2015-02-01
Locomotion is an essential character of animals, and excellent moving ability results from the delicate sensing of the substrate reaction forces (SRF) acting on body and modulating the behavior to adapt the motion requirement. The inclined substrates present in habitats pose a number of functional challenges to locomotion. In order to effectively overcome these challenges, climbing geckos execute complex and accurate movements that involve both the front and hind limbs. Few studies have examined gecko's SRF on steeper inclines of greater than 90°. To reveal how the SRFs acting on the front and hind limbs respond to angle incline changes, we obtained detailed measurements of the three-dimensional SRFs acting on the individual limbs of the tokay gecko while it climbed on an inclined angle of 0-180°. The fore-aft forces acting on the front and hind limbs show opposite trends on inverted inclines of greater than 120°, indicating propulsion mechanism changes in response to inclines. When the incline angles change, the forces exerted in the normal and fore-aft directions by gecko's front and hind limbs are reassigned to take full advantage of limbs' different roles in overcoming resistance and in propelling locomotion. This also ensures that weight acts in the angle range between the forces generated by the front and hind limbs. The change in the distribution of SRF with a change in the incline angle is directly linked to the favorable trade-off between locomotive maneuverability and stability.
The measurement of inclination on gravity concrete dams using the tiltmeter instrument
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Radovanović Slobodan D.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The measurement of inclination on gravity concrete dams using the instrument tiltmeter is described and discussed with special reference on obtained results on the dam 'Đerdap 2' acquired in the three years period. Tiltmetar way of operation is presented both through physical principle of vibrating wire sensors and through described design of the instrument. The influence of the temperature on the measurement of the slope is specially emphasized and presented through temperature correction. Processing the results of real inclination measurements on the dam 'Đerdap 2' with and without temperature correction showed the significant difference. Statistical analysis of measurement data consisted of performed regression analysis and forming of corresponding series with the expected measurement values depending on environmental conditions. At the end we give a summary conclusion on the instrument, the influence of temperature on the measurement and statistical model.
Space Station Freedom assembly and operation at a 51.6 degree inclination orbit
Troutman, Patrick A.; Brewer, Laura M.; Heck, Michael L.; Kumar, Renjith R.
1993-01-01
This study examines the implications of assembling and operating Space Station Freedom at a 51.6 degree inclination orbit utilizing an enhanced lift Space Shuttle. Freedom assembly is currently baselined at a 220 nautical mile high, 28.5 degree inclination orbit. Some of the reasons for increasing the orbital inclination are (1) increased ground coverage for Earth observations, (2) greater accessibility from Russian and other international launch sites, and (3) increased number of Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) landing sites. Previous studies have looked at assembling Freedom at a higher inclination using both medium and heavy lift expendable launch vehicles (such as Shuttle-C and Energia). The study assumes that the shuttle is used exclusively for delivering the station to orbit and that it can gain additional payload capability from design changes such as a lighter external tank that somewhat offsets the performance decrease that occurs when the shuttle is launched to a 51.6 degree inclination orbit.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suomo Mitra
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Background and Objective: Buccolingual inclination of teeth is an essential factor in establishing good occlusion. The objective of this study was to evaluate the buccolingual inclination of molar teeth in different vertical skeletal patterns by using computed tomography scans. Materials and Methods: Coronal section of the jaws obtained from computed tomograms were used to measure the buccolingual inclination of the long axis of the molars relative to their skeletal base. Forty male adult individuals with class I dental occlusion were selected. They were classified as short (Group 1, average (Group II, and long faced (Group III as per their skeletal patterns measured by GoGn-SN, FH-MP, Y-axis and facial height index in cephalograms. Statistical Analysis: ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests were applied to calculate if there were any significant differences in the mean molar inclination between the groups. Pearson′s coefficients of correlation were calculated between the facial parameters and tooth inclination. Results: The differences in the mean molar inclination between the short, average, and long faced groups is significant for mandibular 1 st and 2 nd molars and maxillary 2 nd molars. Conclusion: Variations in mean molar inclination values are observed between short, average, and long faced groups.
Jonkers, PAE
2002-01-01
The conceptual similarity between current perpendicular to plane giant magnetoresistance (CPP-GMR) and tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) is exploited by utilizing a unified single-particle model accounting for both types of magnetoresistance. By defining structures composed of ferromagnetic,
Xu, Mianguang; Isac, Mihaiela; Guthrie, Roderick I. L.
2018-06-01
Horizontal single belt casting (HSBC) has great potential to replace current conventional continuous casting (CCC) processes for sheet metal production, by directly casting 3 to 1 mm sheet for the automobile industry. In the present paper, two-dimensional mathematical models were developed to study transport phenomena, for the case of an inclined wall feeding system for a liquid aluminum wrought alloy (AA6111). Based on the commercial software ANSYS FLUENT 14.5 and user-defined functions, a two-layer turbulence model was used to examine the fluid flow emanating from a slot nozzle set above a water-cooled, high-speed, steel belt. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) method was used to predict the shape of the melt-air interface. A transformed coordinate system ( x', y') was established in order to analyze the fluid flow on the inclined wall of the feeding system. The total pressure gauge gradient ( ∂p total/ ∂x) was used to describe the behavior of the melt film inside the slot nozzle of the head box. The modeling results show that during the melt film falling process, the total gauge pressure varies within the slot nozzle, which can decrease the stability of the falling film. The first impingement between the falling film and the inclined refractory wall of the feeding system gives rise to a local oscillation, and this influences the stability of the melt film moving downwards. At the rear meniscus position between the inclined wall and the moving belt, there is a clear vibration of the air-melt interface, together with a recirculation zone. The weak vibration of the air-melt interface could be induced by the periodic variation of the melt-air interface. Moreover, the formation of tiny air pockets is predicted. Finally, on the inclined wall of the feeding system, a suitable length of the transition area is needed to avoid over-acceleration of the melt film due to the force of gravity.
Xu, Mianguang; Isac, Mihaiela; Guthrie, Roderick I. L.
2018-03-01
Horizontal single belt casting (HSBC) has great potential to replace current conventional continuous casting (CCC) processes for sheet metal production, by directly casting 3 to 1 mm sheet for the automobile industry. In the present paper, two-dimensional mathematical models were developed to study transport phenomena, for the case of an inclined wall feeding system for a liquid aluminum wrought alloy (AA6111). Based on the commercial software ANSYS FLUENT 14.5 and user-defined functions, a two-layer turbulence model was used to examine the fluid flow emanating from a slot nozzle set above a water-cooled, high-speed, steel belt. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) method was used to predict the shape of the melt-air interface. A transformed coordinate system (x', y') was established in order to analyze the fluid flow on the inclined wall of the feeding system. The total pressure gauge gradient (∂p total/∂x) was used to describe the behavior of the melt film inside the slot nozzle of the head box. The modeling results show that during the melt film falling process, the total gauge pressure varies within the slot nozzle, which can decrease the stability of the falling film. The first impingement between the falling film and the inclined refractory wall of the feeding system gives rise to a local oscillation, and this influences the stability of the melt film moving downwards. At the rear meniscus position between the inclined wall and the moving belt, there is a clear vibration of the air-melt interface, together with a recirculation zone. The weak vibration of the air-melt interface could be induced by the periodic variation of the melt-air interface. Moreover, the formation of tiny air pockets is predicted. Finally, on the inclined wall of the feeding system, a suitable length of the transition area is needed to avoid over-acceleration of the melt film due to the force of gravity.
Inclination and anteversion of Collum femoris in hip dysplasia and coxarthritis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Madsen, J. S.; Svalastoga, E. [Kongelige Veterinaer- og Landbohoejskole, Copenhagen (Denmark)
1994-07-01
Femoral neck angles were measured radiographically in 41 dogs examined for hip dysplasia. Steep femoral neck inclination was found to be a phenomenon of hip dysplasia and coxofemoral joint laxity. The altered biomechanics of a steep femoral neck inclination may be a factor in the pathogenesis of hip dysplasia and secondary osteoarthritis.
Interfacial friction factors for air-water co-current stratified flow in inclined channels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Ki Yong; No, Hee Cheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1998-12-31
The interfacial shear stress is experimentally investigated for co-current air-water stratified flow in inclined rectangular channels having a length of 1854mm, width of 120 mm and height of 40mm at almost atmospheric pressure. Experiments are carried out in several inclinations from 0 deg up to 10 deg. The local film thickness and the wave height are measured at three locations, i.e., L/H = 8,23, and 40. According to the inclination angle, the experimental data are categorized into two groups; nearly horizontal data group (0 deg {<=} {theta} {<=} 0.7 deg), and inclined channel data group (0.7 deg {<=} {theta} {<=} 10 deg ). Experimental observations for nearly horizontal data group show that the flow is not fully developed due to the water level gradient and the hydraulic jump within the channel. For the inclined channel data group, a dimensionless wave height, {Delta}h/h, is empirically correlated in terms of Re{sub G} and h/H. A modified root-mean-square wave height is proposed to consider the effects of the interfacial and wave propagation velocities. It is found that an equivalent roughness has a linear relationship with the modified root-mean-square wave height and its relationship is independent of the inclination. 10 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab. (Author)
Interfacial friction factors for air-water co-current stratified flow in inclined channels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Ki Yong; No, Hee Cheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1997-12-31
The interfacial shear stress is experimentally investigated for co-current air-water stratified flow in inclined rectangular channels having a length of 1854mm, width of 120 mm and height of 40mm at almost atmospheric pressure. Experiments are carried out in several inclinations from 0 deg up to 10 deg. The local film thickness and the wave height are measured at three locations, i.e., L/H = 8,23, and 40. According to the inclination angle, the experimental data are categorized into two groups; nearly horizontal data group (0 deg {<=} {theta} {<=} 0.7 deg), and inclined channel data group (0.7 deg {<=} {theta} {<=} 10 deg ). Experimental observations for nearly horizontal data group show that the flow is not fully developed due to the water level gradient and the hydraulic jump within the channel. For the inclined channel data group, a dimensionless wave height, {Delta}h/h, is empirically correlated in terms of Re{sub G} and h/H. A modified root-mean-square wave height is proposed to consider the effects of the interfacial and wave propagation velocities. It is found that an equivalent roughness has a linear relationship with the modified root-mean-square wave height and its relationship is independent of the inclination. 10 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab. (Author)
Finite Element Model for Nonlinear Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Beams and Plane Frames
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R.S.B. STRAMANDINOLI
Full Text Available Abstract In this work, a two-dimensional finite element (FE model for physical and geometric nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete beams and plane frames, developed by the authors, is presented. The FE model is based on the Euler-Bernoulli Beam Theory, in which shear deformations are neglected. The bar elements have three nodes with a total of seven degrees of freedom. Three Gauss-points are utilized for the element integration, with the element section discretized into layers at each Gauss point (Fiber Model. It is assumed that concrete and reinforcing bars are perfectly bonded, and each section layer is assumed to be under a uniaxial stress-state. Nonlinear constitutive laws are utilized for both concrete and reinforcing steel layers, and a refined tension-stiffening model, developed by the authors, is included. The Total Lagrangean Formulation is adopted for geometric nonlinear consideration and several methods can be utilized to achieve equilibrium convergence of the nonlinear equations. The developed model is implemented into a computer program named ANEST/CA, which is validated by comparison with some tests on RC beams and plane frames, showing an excellent correlation between numerical and experimental results.
Role of Edge Inclination in an Optical Microdisk Resonator for Label-Free Sensing
Gandolfi, Davide; Ramiro-Manzano, Fernando; Rebollo, Francisco Javier Aparicio; Ghulinyan, Mher; Pucker, Georg; Pavesi, Lorenzo
2015-01-01
In this paper, we report on the measurement and modeling of enhanced optical refractometric sensors based on whispering gallery modes. The devices under test are optical microresonators made of silicon nitride on silicon oxide, which differ in their sidewall inclination angle. In our approach, these microresonators are vertically coupled to a buried waveguide with the aim of creating integrated and cost-effective devices. Device modeling shows that the optimization of the devic...
Zhou, Shihua; Song, Guiqiu; Sun, Maojun; Ren, Zhaohui; Wen, Bangchun
2018-01-01
In order to analyze the nonlinear dynamics and stability of a novel design for the monowheel inclined vehicle-vibration platform coupled system (MIV-VPCS) with intermediate nonlinearity support subjected to a harmonic excitation, a multi-degree of freedom lumped parameter dynamic model taking into account the dynamic interaction of the MIV-VPCS with quadratic and cubic nonlinearities is presented. The dynamical equations of the coupled system are derived by applying the displacement relationship, interaction force relationship at the contact position and Lagrange's equation, which are further discretized into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations with coupled terms by Galerkin's truncation. Based on the mathematical model, the coupled multi-body nonlinear dynamics of the vibration system is investigated by numerical method, and the parameters influences of excitation amplitude, mass ratio and inclined angle on the dynamic characteristics are precisely analyzed and discussed by bifurcation diagram, Largest Lyapunov exponent and 3-D frequency spectrum. Depending on different ranges of system parameters, the results show that the different motions and jump discontinuity appear, and the coupled system enters into chaotic behavior through different routes (period-doubling bifurcation, inverse period-doubling bifurcation, saddle-node bifurcation and Hopf bifurcation), which are strongly attributed to the dynamic interaction of the MIV-VPCS. The decreasing excitation amplitude and inclined angle could reduce the higher order bifurcations, and effectively control the complicated nonlinear dynamic behaviors under the perturbation of low rotational speed. The first bifurcation and chaotic motion occur at lower value of inclined angle, and the chaotic behavior lasts for larger intervals with higher rotational speed. The investigation results could provide a better understanding of the nonlinear dynamic behaviors for the dynamic interaction of the MIV-VPCS.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matsumoto, Yuji [Planetary Exploration Research Center, Chiba Institute of Technology, Narashino, Chiba, 275-0016 (Japan); Kokubo, Eiichiro, E-mail: ymatsumoto@cfca.nao.ac.jp [Center for Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan)
2017-07-01
Recent observations have revealed the eccentricity and inclination distributions of close-in super-Earths. These distributions have the potential to constrain their formation processes. In the in situ formation scenario, the eccentricities and inclinations of planets are determined by gravitational scattering and collisions between protoplanets on the giant impact stage. We investigate the effect of the initial eccentricities and inclinations of protoplanets on the formation of close-in super-Earths. We perform N -body simulations of protoplanets in gas-free disks, changing the initial eccentricities and inclinations systematically. We find that while the eccentricities of protoplanets are well relaxed through their evolution, the inclinations are not. When the initial inclinations are small, they are not generally pumped up since scattering is less effective and collisions occur immediately after orbital crossing. On the other hand, when the initial inclinations are large, they tend to be kept large since collisional damping is less effective. Not only the resultant inclinations of planets, but also their number, eccentricities, angular momentum deficit, and orbital separations are affected by the initial inclinations of protoplanets.
The Effects of Various Running Inclines on Three-Segment Foot Mechanics and Plantar Fascia Strain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sinclair Jonathan
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Purpose. There has yet to be a combined analysis of three-dimensional multi-segment foot kinematics and plantar fascia strain in running gait at various degrees of inclination. The aim of the current study was therefore to investigate the above during treadmill running at different inclines (0°, 5°, 10° and 15°. Methods. Twelve male participants ran at 4.0 m · s-1 in the four different inclinations. Three-dimensional kinematics of the foot segments and plantar fascia strain were quantified for each incline and contrasted using one-way repeated measures ANOVA. Results and conclusions. The results showed that plantar fascia strain increased significantly as a function of running incline. Given the projected association between plantar fascia strain and the aetiology of injury, inclined running may be associated with a greater incidence of injury to the plantar fascia.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Příhoda, Jaromír; Zubík, P.; Šulc, J.; Sedlář, M.
2012-01-01
Roč. 14, 4a (2012), s. 6-12 ISSN 1335-4205 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/09/0977 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : open channel flow * inclined backward-facing step Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics
Li, Hongyu; Mao, Shude; Cappellari, Michele; Ge, Junqiang; Long, R. J.; Li, Ran; Mo, H. J.; Li, Cheng; Zheng, Zheng; Bundy, Kevin; Thomas, Daniel; Brownstein, Joel R.; Roman Lopes, Alexandre; Law, David R.; Drory, Niv
2018-05-01
We perform full spectrum fitting stellar population analysis and Jeans Anisotropic modelling of the stellar kinematics for about 2000 early-type galaxies (ETGs) and spiral galaxies from the MaNGA DR14 sample. Galaxies with different morphologies are found to be located on a remarkably tight mass plane which is close to the prediction of the virial theorem, extending previous results for ETGs. By examining an inclined projection (`the mass-size' plane), we find that spiral and early-type galaxies occupy different regions on the plane, and their stellar population properties (i.e. age, metallicity, and stellar mass-to-light ratio) vary systematically along roughly the direction of velocity dispersion, which is a proxy for the bulge fraction. Galaxies with higher velocity dispersions have typically older ages, larger stellar mass-to-light ratios and are more metal rich, which indicates that galaxies increase their bulge fractions as their stellar populations age and become enriched chemically. The age and stellar mass-to-light ratio gradients for low-mass galaxies in our sample tend to be positive (centre Spiral galaxies with large mass and size have the steepest gradients, while the most massive ETGs, especially above the critical mass Mcrit ≳ 2 × 1011 M⊙, where slow rotator ETGs start dominating, have much flatter gradients. This may be due to differences in their evolution histories, e.g. mergers.
Analyses and testing of model prestressed concrete reactor vessels with built-in planes of weakness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dawson, P.; Paton, A.A.; Fleischer, C.C.
1990-01-01
This paper describes the design, construction, analyses and testing of two small scale, single cavity prestressed concrete reactor vessel models, one without planes of weakness and one with planes of weakness immediately behind the cavity liner. This work was carried out to extend a previous study which had suggested the likely feasibility of constructing regions of prestressed concrete reactor vessels and biological shields, which become activated, using easily removable blocks, separated by a suitable membrane. The paper describes the results obtained and concludes that the planes of weakness concept could offer a means of facilitating the dismantling of activated regions of prestressed concrete reactor vessels, biological shields and similar types of structure. (author)
Cognitive self-affirmation inclination : An individual difference in dealing with self-threats
Pietersma, Suzanne; Dijkstra, Arie
The current research shows that people differ in their inclination to use positive self-images when their self is threatened (i.e., cognitive self-affirmation inclination, CSAI). Just as self-affirmation manipulations do, the use of positive self-images induces open mindedness towards threatening
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, S; Hunt, H
2009-01-01
Ground vibration due to underground railways is a significant source of disturbance for people living or working near the subways. The numerical models used to predict vibration levels have inherent uncertainty which must be understood to give confidence in the predictions. A semi-analytical approach is developed herein to investigate the effect of soil layering on the surface vibration of a halfspace where both soil properties and layer inclination angles are varied. The study suggests that both material properties and inclination angle of the layers have significant effect (± 10dB) on the surface vibration response.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhou, Q.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Qu, W. L.
2006-01-01
Three-dimensional semi-active vibration control of an inclined sag cable with discrete magnetorheological (MR) dampers is investigated in this paper using the finite difference method (FDM). A modified Dahl model is used to describe the dynamic property of MR damper. The nonlinear equations...
Entrepreneurial Inclination Among Business Students: A Malaysian Study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yet-Mee Lim
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Entrepreneurship has been the fundamental topics of discussion among the politicians, economists, and academics. Business creation is especially critical in developing countries to stimulate economic growth. The present study attempts to examine entrepreneurial inclination among students who are a potential source of entrepreneurs. The fi ndings of the present research study indicate that majority of our business students are not entrepreneurial-inclined. They do not seem to possess strong entrepreneurial characteristics and entrepreneurial skills, and they are not keen in starting a new business. The roles of higher institutes of education and the government in promoting entrepreneurship are discussed.
Internally cooled V-shape inclined monochromator
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Oberta, Peter; Áč, V.; Hrdý, Jaromír
2008-01-01
Roč. 15, - (2008), 8-11 ISSN 0909-0495 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100716 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 1/4134/07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : inclined monochromator * heat load * internal cooling Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.333, year: 2008
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geroyannis, V.S.
1990-01-01
In this paper, a numerical method, called complex-plane strategy, is implemented in the computation of polytropic models distorted by strong and rapid differential rotation. The differential rotation model results from a direct generalization of the classical model, in the framework of the complex-plane strategy; this generalization yields very strong differential rotation. Accordingly, the polytropic models assume extremely distorted interiors, while their boundaries are slightly distorted. For an accurate simulation of differential rotation, a versatile method, called multiple partition technique is developed and implemented. It is shown that the method remains reliable up to rotation states where other elaborate techniques fail to give accurate results. 11 refs
Mayrink, Gabriela; Sawazaki, Renato; Asprino, Luciana; de Moraes, Márcio; Fernandes Moreira, Roger William
2011-11-01
Compare the traditional method of mounting dental casts on a semiadjustable articulator and the new method suggested by Wolford and Galiano, 1 analyzing the inclination of maxillary occlusal plane in relation to FHP. Two casts of 10 patients were obtained. One of them was used for mounting of models on a traditional articulator, by using a face bow transfer system and the other one was used to mounting models at Occlusal Plane Indicator platform (OPI), using the SAM articulator. After that, na analysis of the accuracy of mounting models was performed. The angle made by de occlusal plane and FHP on the cephalogram should be equal the angle between the occlusal plane and the upper member of the articulator. The measures were tabulated in Microsoft Excell(®) and calculated using a 1-way analysis variance. Statistically, the results did not reveal significant differences among the measures. OPI and face bow presents similar results but more studies are needed to verify its accuracy relative to the maxillary cant in OPI or develop new techniques able to solve the disadvantages of each technique. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The metabolic cost of walking on an incline in the Peacock (Pavo cristatus)
Wilkinson, Holly; Thavarajah, Nathan; Codd, Jonathan
2015-01-01
Altering speed and moving on a gradient can affect an animal’s posture and gait, which in turn can change the energetic requirements of terrestrial locomotion. Here, the energetic and kinematic effects of locomoting on an incline were investigated in the Indian peacock, Pavo cristatus. The mass-specific metabolic rate of the Indian peacock was elevated on an incline, but this change was not dependent on the angle ascended and the cost of lifting remained similar between the two inclines (+5 a...
Walait, Ahsan; Siddiqui, A M; Rana, M A
2018-02-13
The present theoretical analysis deals with biomechanics of the self-propulsion of a swimming sheet with heat transfer through non-isothermal fluid filling an inclined human cervical canal. Partial differential equations arising from the mathematical modeling of the proposed model are solved analytically. Flow variables like pressure gradient, propulsive velocity, fluid velocity, time mean flow rate, fluid temperature, and heat-transfer coefficients are analyzed for the pertinent parameters. Striking features of the pumping characteristics are explored. Propulsive velocity of the swimming sheet becomes faster for lower Froude number, higher Reynolds number, and for a vertical channel. Temperature and peak value of the heat-transfer coefficients below the swimming sheet showed an increase by the increment of Brinkmann number, inclination, pressure difference over wavelength, and Reynolds number whereas these quantities decrease with increasing Froude number. Aforesaid parameters have shown opposite effects on the peak value of the heat-transfer coefficients below and above the swimming sheet. Relevance of the current results to the spermatozoa transport with heat transfer through non-isothermal cervical mucus filling an inclined human cervical canal is also explored.
Spatio-kinematic modelling: Testing the link between planetary nebulae and close binaries
Jones, David; Tyndall, Amy A.; Huckvale, Leo; Prouse, Barnabas; Lloyd, Myfanwy
2011-01-01
It is widely believed that central star binarity plays an important role in the formation and evolution of aspherical planetary nebulae, however observational support for this hypothesis is lacking. Here, we present the most recent results of a continuing programme to model the morphologies of all planetary nebulae known to host a close binary central star. Initially, this programme allows us to compare the inclination of the nebular symmetry axis to that of the binary plane, testing the theo...
Loading factor and inclination parameter of diagonal type MHD generators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishikawa, Motoo
1979-01-01
Regarding diagonal type MHD generators is studied the relation between the loading factor and inclination parameter which is required for attaining the maximum power density with a given electrical efficiency on the assumption of infinitely segmented electrodes. The average current density on electrodes is calculated against the Hall parameter, loading factor, and inclination parameter. The diagonal type generator is compared with Faraday type generator regarding the average current density. Decreasing the loading factor from inlet to outlet is appropriate to small size generators but increasing to large size generators. The inclination parameter had better decrease in both generators, being smaller for small generators than for large ones. The average current density on electrodes of diagonal type generators varies less with the loading factor than the Faraday type. In large size generators its value can become smaller compared with that of the Faraday type. (author)
On the inclination and habitability of the HD 10180 system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kane, Stephen R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Gelino, Dawn M., E-mail: skane@sfsu.edu [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, Caltech, MS 100-22, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)
2014-09-10
There are numerous multi-planet systems that have now been detected via a variety of techniques. These systems exhibit a range of both planetary properties and orbital configurations. For those systems without detected planetary transits, a significant unknown factor is the orbital inclination. This produces an uncertainty in the mass of the planets and their related properties, such as atmospheric scale height. Here we investigate the HD 10180 system, which was discovered using the radial velocity technique. We provide a new orbital solution for the system which allows for eccentric orbits for all planets. We show how the inclination of the system affects the mass/radius properties of the planets and how the detection of phase signatures may resolve the inclination ambiguity. We finally evaluate the Habitable Zone properties of the system and show that the g planet spends 100% of an eccentric orbit within the Habitable Zone.
Impinging Water Droplets on Inclined Glass Surfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Armijo, Kenneth Miguel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lance, Blake [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ho, Clifford K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2017-09-01
Multiphase computational models and tests of falling water droplets on inclined glass surfaces were developed to investigate the physics of impingement and potential of these droplets to self-clean glass surfaces for photovoltaic modules and heliostats. A multiphase volume-of-fluid model was developed in ANSYS Fluent to simulate the impinging droplets. The simulations considered different droplet sizes (1 mm and 3 mm), tilt angles (0°, 10°, and 45°), droplet velocities (1 m/s and 3 m/s), and wetting characteristics (wetting=47° contact angle and non-wetting = 93° contact angle). Results showed that the spread factor (maximum droplet diameter during impact divided by the initial droplet diameter) decreased with increasing inclination angle due to the reduced normal force on the surface. The hydrophilic surface yielded greater spread factors than the hydrophobic surface in all cases. With regard to impact forces, the greater surface tilt angles yielded lower normal forces, but higher shear forces. Experiments showed that the experimentally observed spread factor (maximum droplet diameter during impact divided by the initial droplet diameter) was significantly larger than the simulated spread factor. Observed spread factors were on the order of 5 - 6 for droplet velocities of ~3 m/s, whereas the simulated spread factors were on the order of 2. Droplets were observed to be mobile following impact only for the cases with 45° tilt angle, which matched the simulations. An interesting phenomenon that was observed was that shortly after being released from the nozzle, the water droplet oscillated (like a trampoline) due to the "snapback" caused by the surface tension of the water droplet being released from the nozzle. This oscillation impacted the velocity immediately after the release. Future work should evaluate the impact of parameters such as tilt angle and surface wettability on the impact of particle/soiling uptake and removal to investigate ways that
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salvador, F.J.; Carreres, M.; Jaramillo, D.; Martínez-López, J.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Effect of inclination angle and rounding radius of diesel nozzle holes is explored. • The study starts with experimental tests and is extended by CFD simulations. • A CFD code with a HEM model for two-phase flow and a RANS approach is used. • Differences in flow parameters, cavitation inception and morphology are analysed. • The flow is generally favoured by low inclination angles and high rounding radius. - Abstract: A computational study to investigate the influence of the orifices inclination and the rounding radius at the orifice inlet (consequence of the hydro-erosive grinding process applied after the orifices machining) over the internal nozzle flow is performed in this paper. The study starts with the analysis of experimental results where the mass flow and momentum flux of two nozzles with very different values of these two variables are compared. This analysis shows relatively small differences in terms of mass flow and momentum flux, since the higher losses associated to the higher deflection of the streamlines with a higher inclination of the orifices are counteracted by the higher rounding radius, which favours the flow entrance to the orifice. To explain this experimental outcome, an extensive computational study involving nine geometries that combine different inclination angles and rounding radius is conducted, in order to quantify the influence of both parameters on the flow separately, as well as to assess the potential of their combination. These geometries are compared in terms of discharge coefficient, critical cavitation conditions and effective injection velocity, among others. Results show differences up to 15% in terms of mass flow rate and 8% for the effective injection velocity among the two extreme cases (lowest inclination and highest hydro-erosion level versus the nozzle with the highest inclination and lowest hydro-erosion level). Given the importance of these phenomena on the subsequent mixing and combustion
Basic Boiling Experiments with An Inclined Narrow Gap Associated With In-Vessel Retention
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terazu, Kuninobu; Watanabe, Fukashi; Iwaki, Chikako; Yokobori, Seiichi; Akinaga, Makoto; Hamazaki, Ryoichi; SATO, Ken-ichi
2002-01-01
In the case of a severe accident with relocation of the molten corium into the lower plenum of reactor pressure vessel (RPV), the successful in-vessel corium retention (IVR) can prevent the progress to ex-vessel events with uncertainties and avoid the containment failure. One of the key phenomena governing the possibility of IVR would be the gap formation and cooling between a corium crust and the RPV wall, and for the achievement of IVR, it would be necessary to supply cooling water to RPV as early as possible. The BWR features relative to IVR behavior are a deep and massive water pool in the lower plenum, and many of control rod drive guide tubes (CRDGT) installed in the lower head of RPV, in which water is injected continuously except in the case of station blackout scenario. The present paper describes the basic boiling experiment conducted in order to investigate the boiling characteristics in an inclined narrow gap simulating a part of the lower head curvature. The boiling experiments were composed of visualization tests and heat transfer tests. In the visualization tests, two types of inclined gap were constructed using the parallel plate and the V-shaped parallel plate with heating from the top plate, and the boiling flow pattern was observed with various gap width and heat flux. These observation results showed that water was easily supplied from the gap bottom of parallel plate even in a very narrow gap with smaller width than 1 mm, and water could flow continuously in the narrow gap by the geometric and thermal imbalance from the experiment results using the V-shaped parallel plate. In the heat transfer tests, the critical heat flux (CHF) data in an inclined narrow channel formed by the parallel plates were measured in terms of the parameters of gap width, heated length and inclined angle of a channel, and the effect of inclination was incorporated into the existing CHF correlation for a narrow gap. The CHF correlation modified for an inclined narrow gap
Vehicle with inclinable caterpillar propulsion units
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clar, G.
1991-01-01
This vehicle usable in hostile environment such nuclear industry has four propulsion units with a caterpillar track and two integrated motors: one for advancing the caterpillar track and the other for inclining the propulsion unit when overcoming obstacles. Each propulsion unit is easily replaceable because there are no mechanical parts in the body of the vehicle [fr
Phase Plane Analysis Method of Nonlinear Traffic Phenomena
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wenhuan Ai
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A new phase plane analysis method for analyzing the complex nonlinear traffic phenomena is presented in this paper. This method makes use of variable substitution to transform a traditional traffic flow model into a new model which is suitable for the analysis in phase plane. According to the new model, various traffic phenomena, such as the well-known shock waves, rarefaction waves, and stop-and-go waves, are analyzed in the phase plane. From the phase plane diagrams, we can see the relationship between traffic jams and system instability. So the problem of traffic flow could be converted into that of system stability. The results show that the traffic phenomena described by the new method is consistent with that described by traditional methods. Moreover, the phase plane analysis highlights the unstable traffic phenomena we are chiefly concerned about and describes the variation of density or velocity with time or sections more clearly.
Stress field of a dislocating inclined fault
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, F.; Wang, T.
1980-02-01
Analytical expressions are derived for the stress field caused by a rectangular dislocating fault of an arbitrary dip in a semi-infinite elastic medium for the case of unequal Lame constants. The results of computations for the stress fields on the ground surface of an inclined strike-slip and an inclined dip-slip fault are represented by contour maps. The effects of Poisson Ratio of the medium, the dip angle, upper and lower boundaries of the faults on the stress field at surface have been discussed. As an application, the contour maps for shear stress and hydrostatic stress of near fields of the Tonghai (1970), Haicheng (1975) and Tangshan (1976) earthquakes have been calculated and compared with the spatial distributions of strong aftershocks of these earthquakes. It is found that most of the strong aftershocks are distributed in the regions of tensional stress, where the hydrostatic stress is positive.
Theoretical-experimental assesment of braking sistems for inclined lifts according to EN 81:22-2014
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Valles Fernandez, B.; Martin Lopez, A.L.; Alcala, E.
2016-07-01
The inclined lifts, in case of emergency braking, can experience high longitudinal decelerations that can lead to passengers’ collisions with lift walls and interior elements. In 2014 the CEN/TC10 WG1 published the part 22 of the norm series 81 with regard to the construction elements and installation of electrical lifts with inclined trajectory. This norm stablishes, amongst other requirements, the maximum and minimum deceleration levels in both longitudinal and vertical directions. Both requirements, in opposite senses and the definition of the braking system, do not cause design difficulties in case of high slopes, but in case of lifts with the slope under a certain level they can be needed, to guarantee the fulfilment of the norm, elements that allow and additional relative displacement between the braking system and the cabin. To define the performances and the optimal behaviour of these systems it has been defined a simulation model of the dynamical behaviour of the lift under the conditions of the norm tests. Additionally, in this work it is presented a calculation methodology to define the cabin allowable weight corridor, for each braking effort made by each safety gear model, and the simulations have been validated with the results of tests with different braking efforts, weights and lift slopes. The present work has been performed in cooperation with Thyssen Krupp Elevadores with the aim of improving the knowledge of the brake dynamics of inclined lifts. (Author)
Zhu, Ting-Lei; Zhao, Chang-Yin; Zhang, Ming-Jiang
2017-04-01
This paper aims to obtain an analytic approximation to the evolution of circular orbits governed by the Earth's J2 and the luni-solar gravitational perturbations. Assuming that the lunar orbital plane coincides with the ecliptic plane, Allan and Cook (Proc. R. Soc. A, Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 280(1380):97, 1964) derived an analytic solution to the orbital plane evolution of circular orbits. Using their result as an intermediate solution, we establish an approximate analytic model with lunar orbital inclination and its node regression be taken into account. Finally, an approximate analytic expression is derived, which is accurate compared to the numerical results except for the resonant cases when the period of the reference orbit approximately equals the integer multiples (especially 1 or 2 times) of lunar node regression period.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohtake, H.; Koizumi, Y.; Takano, K.I.
2001-01-01
The Ex-vessel cooling of Reactor-Pressure-Vessel in Light-Water-Reactor at the severe accident have been proposed for future nuclear reactors. The estimation of Critical-Heat-Flux on a downward-facing curvilinear surface, like a hemisphere, is important to the assessment of the cooling. In this study, the CHFs on inclined surfaces were examined experimentally focusing on orientation of the heating surface. In order to discuss detailed mechanism of the CHF, the behaviors of coalesced bubbles near the heating surface were investigated through visual observations. The critical heat flux obtained in the present experiments increased with the inclined angle over the present experimental range. The dependence of the inclined angle on the critical heat flux was q CHF,R-113 [q] = f (q 0.33 ) for the present experimental results. The effect of the surface orientation on the critical heat flux was roughly explained by using the simple analytical model based on the macro-layer model and Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. From visual observations for behavior of bubbles near the heating surface, whereas the coalesced bubble covered over the heating surface for the inclined angle of 0 degree, the coalesced bubble moved upward to avoid packing the bubble on the surface above 5 degree. As the inclined angle increased, the velocity of the coalesced bubble was high, the period covered the heater and the bubble length were small. The results suggested that the CHF was closely related to forming the coalesced bubble and the behavior of the bubble. (author)
Stratis, A.; Zhang, G.; Jacobs, R.; Bogaerts, R.; Bosmans, H.
2016-12-01
In order to carry out Monte Carlo (MC) dosimetry studies, voxel phantoms, modeling human anatomy, and organ-based segmentation of CT image data sets are applied to simulation frameworks. The resulting voxel phantoms preserve patient CT acquisition geometry; in the case of head voxel models built upon head CT images, the head support with which CT scanners are equipped introduces an inclination to the head, and hence to the head voxel model. In dental cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging, patients are always positioned in such a way that the Frankfort line is horizontal, implying that there is no head inclination. The orientation of the head is important, as it influences the distance of critical radiosensitive organs like the thyroid and the esophagus from the x-ray tube. This work aims to propose a procedure to adjust head voxel phantom orientation, and to investigate the impact of head inclination on organ doses in dental CBCT MC dosimetry studies. The female adult ICRP, and three in-house-built paediatric voxel phantoms were in this study. An EGSnrc MC framework was employed to simulate two commonly used protocols; a Morita Accuitomo 170 dental CBCT scanner (FOVs: 60 × 60 mm2 and 80 × 80 mm2, standard resolution), and a 3D Teeth protocol (FOV: 100 × 90 mm2) in a Planmeca Promax 3D MAX scanner. Result analysis revealed large absorbed organ dose differences in radiosensitive organs between the original and the geometrically corrected voxel models of this study, ranging from -45.6% to 39.3%. Therefore, accurate dental CBCT MC dose calculations require geometrical adjustments to be applied to head voxel models.
Plane symmetric cosmological micro model in modified theory of Einstein’s general relativity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Panigrahi U.K.
2003-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we have investigated an anisotropic homogeneous plane symmetric cosmological micro-model in the presence of massless scalar field in modified theory of Einstein's general relativity. Some interesting physical and geometrical aspects of the model together with singularity in the model are discussed. Further, it is shown that this theory is valid and leads to Einstein's theory as the coupling parameter λ →>• 0 in micro (i.e. quantum level in general.
Two Mechanisms of Sensorimotor Set Adaptation to Inclined Stance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kyoung-Hyun Lee
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Orientation of posture relative to the environment depends on the contributions from the somatosensory, vestibular, and visual systems mixed in varying proportions to produce a sensorimotor set. Here, we probed the sensorimotor set composition using a postural adaptation task in which healthy adults stood on an inclined surface for 3 min. Upon returning to a horizontal surface, participants displayed a range of postural orientations – from an aftereffect that consisted of a large forward postural lean to an upright stance with little or no aftereffect. It has been hypothesized that the post-incline postural change depends on each individual’s sensorimotor set: whether the set was dominated by the somatosensory or vestibular system: Somatosensory dominance would cause the lean aftereffect whereas vestibular dominance should steer stance posture toward upright orientation. We investigated the individuals who displayed somatosensory dominance by manipulating their attention to spatial orientation. We introduced a distraction condition in which subjects concurrently performed a difficult arithmetic subtraction task. This manipulation altered the time course of their post-incline aftereffect. When not distracted, participants returned to upright stance within the 3-min period. However, they continued leaning forward when distracted. These results suggest that the mechanism of sensorimotor set adaptation to inclined stance comprises at least two components. The first component reflects the dominant contribution from the somatosensory system. Since the postural lean was observed among these subjects even when they were not distracted, it suggests that the aftereffect is difficult to overcome. The second component includes a covert attentional component which manifests as the dissipation of the aftereffect and the return of posture to upright orientation.
Relativistic and the first sectorial harmonics corrections in the critical inclination
Rahoma, W. A.; Khattab, E. H.; Abd El-Salam, F. A.
2014-05-01
The problem of the critical inclination is treated in the Hamiltonian framework taking into consideration post-Newtonian corrections as well as the main correction term of sectorial harmonics for an earth-like planet. The Hamiltonian is expressed in terms of Delaunay canonical variables. A canonical transformation is applied to eliminate short period terms. A modified critical inclination is obtained due to relativistic and the first sectorial harmonics corrections.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moh, Jeong Hah; Cho, Y. I.
2014-01-01
This paper presents the theoretical analysis of a flow driven by surface tension and gravity in an inclined circular tube. A governing equation is developed for describing the displacement of a non-Newtonian fluid(Power-law model) that continuously flows into a circular tube owing to surface tension, which represents a second-order, nonlinear, non-homogeneous, and ordinary differential form. It was found that quantitatively, the theoretical predictions of the governing equation were in excellent agreement with the solutions of the equation for horizontal tubes and the past experimental data. In addition, the predictions compared very well with the results of the force balance equation for steady
Experimental research of inclined-micro-fin flat tube on single phase convection heat transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fan Guangming; Sun Zhongning; Wang Meng
2011-01-01
The experimental research of heat transfer and flow resistance characteristics of single phase water in four inclined-micro-fin flat tubes with different physical dimensions was conducted. At the same time,suitable criteria were selected to evaluate the efficiency of inclined-micro-fin flat tubes within the experimental scope and the optimal working region was determined. The results indicate that inclined-micro-fin flat tubes can greatly enhance the single-phase heat transfer in turbulent flow and the maximum heat transfer coefficient attains to 5.9 times of that in smooth tube. The quantities of heat transfer for inclined-micro-fin flat tubes are three times higher than that of smooth tube with the same of heat exchange area and pump power. (authors)
Psychopathic Inclination Among Incarcerated Youth of Hazara Division Pakistan
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Sher Dil
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Present study aimed at evaluating the psychopathic inclination among youth and finding the gender differences in psychopathy. An indigenously developed Psychopathy scale (Urdu has been used in this study. Alpha reliability of the scale was .90. The study was conducted on 100 males (50 criminals and 50 non-criminals and 100 females (26 criminals and 74 non-criminals using a convenient sampling technique from three districts of Hazara division: Haripur, Abbottabad, and Mansehra. Results confirmed that there is significant difference in psychopathic inclination of males and females; criminals differed significantly from the non-criminals. The study also paves way for further investigation in the field in Pakistan.
Lauer, Susanne K; Hillman, Robert B; Li, Li; Hosgood, Giselle L
2009-05-01
To evaluate the effect of treadmill incline on muscle activity and joint range of motion (ROM) in hind limbs of dogs. 8 purpose-bred healthy adult hounds. Activities of the hamstring (semimembranosus, semitendinosus, and biceps femoris muscles), gluteal (superficial, middle, and deep gluteal muscles), and quadriceps (femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, and vastus medialis muscles) muscle groups and hip and stifle joint ROM were measured with surface electrogoniometric and myographic sensors in hounds walking on a treadmill at 0.54 m/s at inclines of 5%, 0%, and -5% in random order. Mean electromyographic activities and mean ROMs at each inclination were compared for swing and stance phases. Treadmill inclination did not affect duration of the stance and swing phases or the whole stride. When treadmill inclination was increased from -5% to 5%, hip joint ROM increased and the degree of stifle joint extension decreased significantly. In the beginning of the stance phase, activity of the hamstring muscle group was significantly increased when walking at a 5% incline versus a 5% decline. In the end of the stance phase, that activity was significantly increased when walking at a 5% incline versus at a 5% decline or on a flat surface. Activity of the gluteal and quadriceps muscle groups was not affected when treadmill inclination changed. Treadmill inclination affected joint kinematics only slightly. Walking on a treadmill at a 5% incline had more potential to strengthen the hamstring muscle group than walking on a treadmill with a flat or declined surface.
The Relationship between Mg ii Broad Emission and Quasar Inclination Angle
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Conor Wildy
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Several observed spectral properties of quasars are believed to be influenced by quasar orientation. In this investigation we examine the effect of orientation on the Mg ii line located at 2,798 Å in a sample of 36 radio-loud quasars, with orientation angles having been obtained in a previous study using radio observations. We find no significant relationship between orientation angle and either Mg ii line full-width at half-maximum or equivalent width. The lack of correlation with inclination angle contradicts previous studies which also use radio data as a proxy for inclination angle and suggests the Mg ii emission region does not occupy a disk-like geometry. The lack of correlation with Mg ii equivalent width, however, is reported in at least one previous study. Although the significance is not very strong (86%, there is a possible negative relationship between inclination angle and Fe ii strength which, if true, could explain the Fe ii anti-correlation with [O iii] strength associated with Eigenvector 1. Interestingly, there are objects having almost edge-on inclinations while still exhibiting broad lines. This could be explained by a torus which is either clumpy (allowing sight lines to the central engine or mis-aligned with the accretion disk.
The Relationship between Mg ii Broad Emission and Quasar Inclination Angle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wildy, Conor; Czerny, Bozena, E-mail: wildy@cft.edu.pl [Center for Theoretical Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland)
2017-11-14
Several observed spectral properties of quasars are believed to be influenced by quasar orientation. In this investigation we examine the effect of orientation on the Mg ii line located at 2,798 Å in a sample of 36 radio-loud quasars, with orientation angles having been obtained in a previous study using radio observations. We find no significant relationship between orientation angle and either Mg ii line full-width at half-maximum or equivalent width. The lack of correlation with inclination angle contradicts previous studies which also use radio data as a proxy for inclination angle and suggests the Mg ii emission region does not occupy a disk-like geometry. The lack of correlation with Mg ii equivalent width, however, is reported in at least one previous study. Although the significance is not very strong (86%), there is a possible negative relationship between inclination angle and Fe ii strength which, if true, could explain the Fe ii anti-correlation with [O iii] strength associated with Eigenvector 1. Interestingly, there are objects having almost edge-on inclinations while still exhibiting broad lines. This could be explained by a torus which is either clumpy (allowing sight lines to the central engine) or mis-aligned with the accretion disk.
Stress field of a dislocating inclined fault
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, F.; Wang, T.
1980-02-01
In this paper, analytical expressions of the stress field given rise by a rectangular dislocating fault of an arbitrary dip in a semi-infinite elastic medium for the case of unequal Lame constants are derived. The results of computations for the stress fields on the ground surface of an inclined strike-slip and an inclined dip-slip fault are represented by contour maps. The effects of the Poisson Ratio of the medium, the dip angle, upper and lower boundaries of the faults on the stress field at the surface have been discussed. As an application, the contour maps for shear stress and hydrostatic stress of near fields of the Tonghai (1970), Haicheng, (1975) and Tangshan (1976) earthquakes have been calculated and compared with the spatial distributions of strong aftershocks of these earthquakes. It is found that most of the strong aftershocks are distributed in the regions of tensional stress where the hydrostatic stress is positive.
Performance of an inclined solar still with rectangular grooves and ridges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anburaj, P.; Kalidasa, Murugavel K.; Samuel Hansen, R.
2013-01-01
This work investigates the experimental performance of a new type inclined solar still with rectangular grooves and ridges in absorber plate. The still was fabricated and tested for various inclination angles of 25, 30 and 35 facing south with absorber plate. Performances of the still were compared with different wick materials (Black cotton cloth, Jute cloth, and Waste cotton pieces) on the absorber plate. The effect of placing porous material (Clay pot) and energy storing material (Mild steel pieces) in the grooves were studied. The results demonstrate that 30 inclination is optimum which yielded 3.77 L/day production. Compared to different wick materials, black cotton cloth helps to achieve maximum productivity of 4.21 L/day. The addition of permeable materials and energy absorbing materials also enhances the distillate output to 4.27 L/day. (authors)
Hedberg, Yolanda S; Goidanich, Sara; Herting, Gunilla; Wallinder, Inger Odnevall
2015-01-01
Predictions of the diffuse dispersion of metals from outdoor constructions such as roofs and facades are necessary for environmental risk assessment and management. An existing predictive model has been compared with measured data of copper runoff from copper sheets exposed at four different inclinations facing four orientations at two different urban sites (Stockholm, Sweden, and Milan, Italy) during a 4-year period. Its applicability has also been investigated for copper sheet exposed at two marine sites(Cadiz, Spain, for 5 years, and Brest, France, for 9 years). Generally the model can be used for all given conditions. However, vertical surfaces should be considered as surfaces inclined 60-80 due to wind driven effects. The most important parameters that influence copper runoff, and not already included in the model, are the wind and rain characteristics that influence the actual rainfall volume impinging the surface of interest.
Zhang, Xiaoping; Dang, Fangchao; Li, Yangmei; Jin, Zhenxing
2015-06-01
In this paper, we present a novel compact P-band magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) with specially inclined slow-wave-structure (SWS) vanes to decrease its total dimension and weight. The dispersion characteristics of the inclined SWS are investigated in detail and made comparisons with that of the traditional straight SWS. The results show that the inclined SWS is more advantageous in operating on a steady frequency in a wide voltage range and has a better asymmetric mode segregation and a relatively large band-gap between the TM00 and TM01 modes which are in favor of avoiding the asymmetric and transverse mode competition. Besides, the transverse dimension of the proposed novel inclined SWS with the same operation frequency is decreased by about 50%, and correspondingly the device volume shrinks remarkably to its 0.35 times. In particle-in-cell simulation, the electron bunching spokes are obviously formed in the inclined SWS, and a P-band high-power microwave with a power of 5.8 GW, frequency of 645 MHz, and efficiency of 17.2% is generated by the proposed device, which indicates the feasibility of the compact design with the inclined vanes at the P-band.
Dissipative N-point-vortex Models in the Plane
Shashikanth, Banavara N.
2010-02-01
A method is presented for constructing point vortex models in the plane that dissipate the Hamiltonian function at any prescribed rate and yet conserve the level sets of the invariants of the Hamiltonian model arising from the SE (2) symmetries. The method is purely geometric in that it uses the level sets of the Hamiltonian and the invariants to construct the dissipative field and is based on elementary classical geometry in ℝ3. Extension to higher-dimensional spaces, such as the point vortex phase space, is done using exterior algebra. The method is in fact general enough to apply to any smooth finite-dimensional system with conserved quantities, and, for certain special cases, the dissipative vector field constructed can be associated with an appropriately defined double Nambu-Poisson bracket. The most interesting feature of this method is that it allows for an infinite sequence of such dissipative vector fields to be constructed by repeated application of a symmetric linear operator (matrix) at each point of the intersection of the level sets.
Walking on inclines: how do desert ants monitor slope and step length
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seidl Tobias
2008-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background During long-distance foraging in almost featureless habitats desert ants of the genus Cataglyphis employ path-integrating mechanisms (vector navigation. This navigational strategy requires an egocentric monitoring of the foraging path by incrementally integrating direction, distance, and inclination of the path. Monitoring the latter two parameters involves idiothetic cues and hence is tightly coupled to the ant's locomotor behavior. Results In a kinematic study of desert ant locomotion performed on differently inclined surfaces we aimed at pinpointing the relevant mechanisms of estimating step length and inclination. In a behavioral experiment with ants foraging on slippery surfaces we broke the otherwise tightly coupled relationship between stepping frequency and step length and examined the animals' ability to monitor distances covered even under those adverse conditions. We show that the ants' locomotor system is not influenced by inclined paths. After removing the effect of speed, slope had only marginal influence on kinematic parameters. Conclusion From the obtained data we infer that the previously proposed monitoring of angles of the thorax-coxa joint is not involved in inclinometry. Due to the tiny variations in cycle period, we also argue that an efference copy of the central pattern generator coding the step length in its output frequency will most likely not suffice for estimating step length and complementing the pedometer. Finally we propose that sensing forces acting on the ant's legs could provide the desired neuronal correlate employed in monitoring inclination and step length.
Experimental studies on the flow characteristics in an inclined bend-free OWC device
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krishnil Ravinesh Ram
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A bend-free rectangular cross-section OWC device was designed and constructed for studying the effect of inclination on the flow characteristics inside the device. The inclination is meant to reduce reflection of waves and induce higher velocities in the turbine section. Experimental measurements were made in a wave channel where the OWC device was tested. An S-type Pitot tube was used to measure dynamic pressure of air in the turbine section at several inclinations. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV was also done to study the flow of both air and water in the OWC device. In order to focus solely on primary energy capture, no turbine was installed in the OWC device. The dynamic pressure readings were analysed for suction and compression stages. Water volume fluctuations inside the capture chamber were also recorded and compared for different inclinations. The result was an increase in the velocity of air flowing in the capture chamber and hence a rise in the kinetic energy available to the turbine. It was found from experimental studies that as the angle of inclination reduced, the velocity of air in the turbine section increased. The lower angles also caused higher run-up and larger volume of water into the capture chamber.
Sośnica, Krzysztof; Prange, Lars; Kaźmierski, Kamil; Bury, Grzegorz; Drożdżewski, Mateusz; Zajdel, Radosław; Hadas, Tomasz
2018-02-01
The space segment of the European Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Galileo consists of In-Orbit Validation (IOV) and Full Operational Capability (FOC) spacecraft. The first pair of FOC satellites was launched into an incorrect, highly eccentric orbital plane with a lower than nominal inclination angle. All Galileo satellites are equipped with satellite laser ranging (SLR) retroreflectors which allow, for example, for the assessment of the orbit quality or for the SLR-GNSS co-location in space. The number of SLR observations to Galileo satellites has been continuously increasing thanks to a series of intensive campaigns devoted to SLR tracking of GNSS satellites initiated by the International Laser Ranging Service. This paper assesses systematic effects and quality of Galileo orbits using SLR data with a main focus on Galileo satellites launched into incorrect orbits. We compare the SLR observations with respect to microwave-based Galileo orbits generated by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) in the framework of the International GNSS Service Multi-GNSS Experiment for the period 2014.0-2016.5. We analyze the SLR signature effect, which is characterized by the dependency of SLR residuals with respect to various incidence angles of laser beams for stations equipped with single-photon and multi-photon detectors. Surprisingly, the CODE orbit quality of satellites in the incorrect orbital planes is not worse than that of nominal FOC and IOV orbits. The RMS of SLR residuals is even lower by 5.0 and 1.5 mm for satellites in the incorrect orbital planes than for FOC and IOV satellites, respectively. The mean SLR offsets equal -44.9, -35.0, and -22.4 mm for IOV, FOC, and satellites in the incorrect orbital plane. Finally, we found that the empirical orbit models, which were originally designed for precise orbit determination of GNSS satellites in circular orbits, provide fully appropriate results also for highly eccentric orbits with variable linear
Fermi system with planes and charge reservoir: Anisotropic in-plane resistivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levin, G.A.; Quader, K.F.
1992-01-01
The authors explore the normal state in-plane resistivity of a model Fermi system with two planes and a charge reservoir. When the Fermi energy lies near the top of one of the resulting sub-bands, the system can be described by two types of quasiparticle excitations with different energy spectra and relaxation times. They show that for certain stoichiometry, ρ ab is linear in temperature with positive or negative intercepts. A relation between the slopes and intercepts of resistivities in the a and b directions in untwinned crystals is derived. The results are in good agreement with experimental data on YBCO. 7 refs., 1 tab
Beam Shear Design According to Eurocode 2 - Limitations for the Concrete Strut Inclinations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hagsten, Lars German; Hestbech, Lars; Fisker, Jakob
2011-01-01
and are presented. These beams are all designed to fail in shear and the shear reinforcement is designed for different values of the concrete strut inclinations (cot θ varies from 1.5 to 3.4). These tests indicate a clear connection between the values of the concrete strut inclinations and crack width in the SLS......The beam shear design method adopted in Eurocode 2 is based on a lower bound plastic solution. This method is combined with limitations on the concrete strut inclination, θ. These limitations are introduced to ensure acceptable crack width in the SLS. 7 full scale beams have been tested....... In cases where larger crack widths (w > 0.4 mm) can be accepted, larger values of the concrete strut inclinations can be chosen. This will lead to less shear reinforcements. The results are also compared with analytical analysis based on energy methods. At the SLS the beams are expected to be cracked...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yi Luo; Jian-wei Cheng [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States). Department of Mining Engineering
2009-09-15
The distribution of the final surface subsidence basin induced by longwall operations in inclined coal seam could be significantly different from that in flat coal seam and demands special prediction methods. Though many empirical prediction methods have been developed, these methods are inflexible for varying geological and mining conditions. An influence function method has been developed to take the advantage of its fundamentally sound nature and flexibility. In developing this method, significant modifications have been made to the original Knothe function to produce an asymmetrical influence function. The empirical equations for final subsidence parameters derived from US subsidence data and Chinese empirical values have been incorporated into the mathematical models to improve the prediction accuracy. A corresponding computer program is developed. A number of subsidence cases for longwall mining operations in coal seams with varying inclination angles have been used to demonstrate the applicability of the developed subsidence prediction model. 9 refs., 8 figs.
Heat removal capability of core-catcher with inclined cooling channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, Y.; Tahara, M.; Kurita, T.; Hamazaki, R.; Morooka, S.
2009-01-01
A core-catcher is one of the mitigation systems that provide functions of molten corium cooling and stabilization during a severe accident. Toshiba has been developing a compact core-catcher to be placed at the lower drywell floor in the containment vessel for the next generation BWR as well as near term ABWR. This paper presents the evaluation of heat removal capability of the core-catcher with inclined cooling channels, our verification status and plan. The heat removal capability of the core-catcher is analyzed by using the newly developed two-phase flow analysis code which incorporates drift flux parameters for inclined channels and the CHF correlation obtained from SULTAN tests. Effects of geometrical parameters such as the inclination and the gap size of the cooling channel on the heat removal capability are also evaluated. These results show that the core-catcher has sufficient capability to cool the molten corium during a severe accident. Based on the analysis, it has been shown that the core-catcher has an efficient capability of heat removal to cool the molten corium. (author)
In-plane fluidelastic instability analysis for large steam generators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mureithi, Njuki; Olala, Stephen; Hadji, Abdallah
2015-01-01
Fluidelastic instability remains the most important vibration excitation mechanism in nuclear steam generators (SGs). Design guidelines, aimed at eliminating the possibility of fluidelastic instability, have been developed over the past 40 years. The design guidelines, based on the Connors equation, depend on a large database on cross-flow fluidelastic instability i.e. instability in the direction transverse to the flow. Past experience had shown that for an axi-symmetrically flexible tube, instability generally occurred in the transverse direction, at least at first. Although often not explicitly stated, there has been an implicit assumption that the in-plane direction was either stable, or would only suffer instability at velocities significantly higher than the transverse direction. This explains why SGs are fitted with anti-vibrations bars (AVBs) to mitigate transverse (out-of-plane) vibrations with no equivalent consideration for potential in-plane instability. This 'oversight' recently came to a head when SG at the San-Onofre NPP suffered in-plane fluidelastic instability. The present paper addresses the question of in-plane fluidelastic instability in large SGs. A historical review is presented to explain why this potential problem was left unresolved (or ignored) over the past 40+ years, and why engineers got away with it - at least until recently. Following the review, some recent work on in-plane fluidelastic instability modeling, using the quasi-steady model is presented. It is shown that in-plane fluidelastic instability can be fully modelled using this approach. The model results are used to propose some changes to existing design guidelines to cover the case of in-plane fluidelastic instability. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yurtsever, U.
1988-01-01
It is well known that when two precisely plane-symmetric gravitational waves propagating in an otherwise flat background collide, they focus each other so strongly as to produce a curvature singularity. This paper is the first of several devoted to almost-plane gravitational waves and their collisions. Such waves are more realistic than plane waves in having a finite but very large transverse size. In this paper we review some crucial features of the well-known exact solutions for colliding plane waves and we argue that one of these features, the breakdown of ''local inextendibility'' can be regarded as nongeneric. We then introduce a new framework for analyzing general colliding plane-wave spacetimes; we give an alternative proof of a theorem due to Tipler implying the existence of singularities in all generic colliding plane-wave solutions; and we discuss the fact that the recently constructed Chandrasekhar-Xanthopoulos colliding plane-wave solutions are not strictly plane symmetric and thus do not satisfy the conditions and the conclusion of Tipler's theorem
Takagaki, Kyozo; Gonda, Tomoya; Maeda, Yoshinobu
2015-09-01
Lateral force to mini-implants should be avoided because mini-implants are weak mechanically because of its small diameter. Overdentures retained by mini-implants are usually formed using ball attachments. However, bar attachments can offer the advantage of splinting the mini-implants. This study examined the effect of attachments in withstanding these lateral forces in tilted mini-implants of overdentures. Strain gauges were attached to the mini-implants (2.5 × 18 mm) embedded in an acrylic resin block. Two mini-implants were inserted vertically (Control) or with one mini-implant inclined at 10° or 20° (10-inclined and 20-inclined, respectively). The female portions of the attachments were secured to the denture base. A prefabricated ball attachment and CAD/CAM-fabricated bar attachment were compared. A vertical load of 49 N was applied to the occlusal surface at a distance 10 mm away from the center of two mini-implants. The lateral force borne by the mini-implants was measured via the attached strain gauge. Mann-Whitney U-test and an analysis of Bonferroni correction were used to compare differences between the two attachments and among the three models (P < 0.05). The lateral force exerted to the inclined mini-implant was significantly greater than that borne by a vertical mini-implant for both attachment types. The lateral force on the 20° inclined mini-implants with bar attachments was smaller than that on mini-implants with ball attachments. Inclined mini-implants are subjected to greater stresses than vertical ones, and a bar attachment can reduce the lateral forces borne by the mini-implant when one mini-implant inclined at 20°. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Coordination patterns of shoulder muscles during level-ground and incline wheelchair propulsion.
Qi, Liping; Wakeling, James; Grange, Simon; Ferguson-Pell, Martin
2013-01-01
The aim of this study was to investigate how the coordination patterns of shoulder muscles change with level-ground and incline wheelchair propulsion. Wheelchair kinetics and electromyography (EMG) activity of seven muscles were recorded with surface electrodes for 15 nondisabled subjects during wheelchair propulsion on a stationary ergometer and wooden ramp (4 degree slope). Kinetic data were measured by a SmartWheel. The kinetics variables and the onset, cessation, and duration of EMG activity from seven muscles were compared with paired t-tests for two sessions. Muscle coordination patterns across seven muscles were analyzed by principal component analysis. Push forces on the push rim and the percentage of push phase in the cycle increased significantly during incline propulsion. Propulsion condition and posture affected muscle coordination patterns. During incline propulsion, there was more intense and longer EMG activity of push muscles in the push phase and less EMG activity of the recovery muscles, which corresponded with the increased kinetic data total force output and longer push phase in the incline condition. This work establishes a framework for developing a performance feedback system for wheelchair users to better coordinate their muscle patterning activity.
In-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities of molybdenum disulfide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ding, Zhiwei; Pei, Qing-Xiang; Zhang, Yong-Wei; Jiang, Jin-Wu
2015-01-01
We investigate the in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities of molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the in-plane thermal conductivity of monolayer MoS 2 is about 19.76 W mK −1 . Interestingly, the in-plane thermal conductivity of multilayer MoS 2 is insensitive to the number of layers, which is in strong contrast to the in-plane thermal conductivity of graphene where the interlayer interaction strongly affects the in-plane thermal conductivity. This layer number insensitivity is attributable to the finite energy gap in the phonon spectrum of MoS 2 , which makes the phonon–phonon scattering channel almost unchanged with increasing layer number. For the cross-plane thermal transport, we find that the cross-plane thermal conductivity of multilayer MoS 2 can be effectively tuned by applying cross-plane strain. More specifically, a 10% cross-plane compressive strain can enhance the thermal conductivity by a factor of 10, while a 5% cross-plane tensile strain can reduce the thermal conductivity by 90%. Our findings are important for thermal management in MoS 2 based nanodevices and for thermoelectric applications of MoS 2 . (paper)
3D plane-wave least-squares Kirchhoff migration
Wang, Xin
2014-08-05
A three dimensional least-squares Kirchhoff migration (LSM) is developed in the prestack plane-wave domain to increase the quality of migration images and the computational efficiency. Due to the limitation of current 3D marine acquisition geometries, a cylindrical-wave encoding is adopted for the narrow azimuth streamer data. To account for the mispositioning of reflectors due to errors in the velocity model, a regularized LSM is devised so that each plane-wave or cylindrical-wave gather gives rise to an individual migration image, and a regularization term is included to encourage the similarities between the migration images of similar encoding schemes. Both synthetic and field results show that: 1) plane-wave or cylindrical-wave encoding LSM can achieve both computational and IO saving, compared to shot-domain LSM, however, plane-wave LSM is still about 5 times more expensive than plane-wave migration; 2) the regularized LSM is more robust compared to LSM with one reflectivity model common for all the plane-wave or cylindrical-wave gathers.
Evolution of the Orbital Elements for Geosynchronous Orbit of Communications Satellite, II
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kyu-Hong Choi
1987-06-01
Full Text Available For a geostationary satellite north-south station keeping maneuver must control the inclination elements. The effects on the orbit plane of maneuvers and natural perturbations may be represented by a plane plot of Wc versus Ws, since these inclination elements represent the projection of the unit orbit normal onto the equatorial plane. The evolution of the semi-major axis and the inclination elements are obtained.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yang, Yan; Li, Jingbo; Wang, Shuli
2018-01-01
The Volume of Fluid method and Re-Normalisation Group (RNG) k-ε turbulence model were employed to predict the gas-liquid two-phase flow in a terrain-inclined pipeline with deposited liquids. The simulation was carried out in a 22.5 m terrain-inclined pipeline with a 150 mm internal diameter...... on the liquid level under the suction force which caused by the negative pressure around the elbow, and then it touched to the top of the pipe. When the liquid blocked the pipe, the pressure drop between the upstream and downstream of the elbow increased with the increase of the gas velocity. At larger gas...
Modeling of cross-plane interface thermal conductance between graphene nano-ribbons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Varshney, Vikas; Lee, Jonghoon; Farmer, Barry L; Voevodin, Andrey A; Roy, Ajit K
2014-01-01
Using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics for thermal energy transfer, we investigate the interfacial thermal conductance between non-covalently interacting graphene nano-ribbons (GNRs) of varying lengths and widths in a cross-contact (x-shaped) geometry. Our results show that the out-of-plane conductance between GNRs can vary significantly (up to a factor of 4) depending upon their geometric parameters. We observe that when plotted against aspect ratio, the predicted interface thermal conductance values fit excellently on a single master-plot with a logarithmic scaling, suggesting the importance of GNR aspect ratio towards thermal conductance. We propose a model based on incorporating different thermal conductance characteristics of edge and inner interacting regions which predicts the observed logarithmic dependence on aspect ratio. We also study the effect of graphene edge roughness, temperature, and strain on out-of-plane thermal conductance and discuss the observed results based on local vibrational characteristics of atoms within interacting region, number of interacting phonons, and the degree to which they interact across the interaction zone. (paper)
Numerical modelling of micro-plasto-hydrodynamic lubrication in plane strip drawing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Carretta, Y.; Bech, Jakob Ilsted; Legrand, N.
2017-01-01
is conducted. Then, a second simulation highlighting microscopic liquid lubrication mechanisms is achieved using boundary conditions provided by the first model. These fluid-structure interaction computations are made possible through the use of the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) formalism.The developed...... methodology is validated by comparison to experimental measurements conducted in plane strip drawing. The effect of physical parameters like the drawing speed, the die angle and the strip thickness reduction is investigated. The numerical results show good agreement with experiments....
The Effects of Moon’s Uneven Mass Distribution on the Critical Inclinations of a Lunar Orbiter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Walid A. Rahoma
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The uneven mass distribution of the Moon highly perturbs the lunar spacecrafts. This uneven mass distribution leads to peculiar dynamical features of the lunar orbiters. The critical inclination is the value of inclination which keeps the deviation of the argument of pericentre from the initial values to be zero. Considerable investigations have been performed for critical inclination when the gravity field is assumed to be symmetric around the equator, namely for oblate gravity field to which Earth’s satellites are most likely to be subjected. But in the case of a lunar orbiter, the gravity field of mass distribution is rather asymmetric, that is, sectorial, and tesseral, harmonic coefficients are big enough so they can’t be neglected. In the present work, the effects of the first sectorial and tesseral harmonic coefficients in addition to the first zonal harmonic coefficients on the critical inclination of a lunar artificial satellite are investigated. The study is carried out using the Hamiltonian framework. The Hamiltonian of the problem is cconstructed and the short periodic terms are eliminated using Delaunay canonical variables. Considering the above perturbations, numerical simulations for a hypothetical lunar orbiter are presented. Finally, this study reveals that the critical inclination is quite different from the critical inclination of traditional sense and/or even has multiple solutions. Consequently, different families of critical inclination are obtained and analyzed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mair Khan
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The present analysis is devoted to explore the computational solution of the problem addressing the variable viscosity and inclined Lorentz force effects on Williamson nanofluid over a stretching sheet. Variable viscosity is assumed to vary as a linear function of temperature. The basic mathematical modelled problem i.e. system of PDE’s is converted nonlinear into ODE’s via applying suitable transformations. Computational solutions of the problem is also achieved via efficient numerical technique shooting. Characteristics of controlling parameters i.e. stretching index, inclined angle, Hartmann number, Weissenberg number, variable viscosity parameter, mixed convention parameter, Brownian motion parameter, Prandtl number, Lewis number, thermophoresis parameter and chemical reactive species on concentration, temperature and velocity gradient. Additionally, friction factor coefficient, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are describe with the help of graphics as well as tables verses flow controlling parameters. Keywords: Williamson nanofluid, Temperature depended viscosity, Inclined magnetic field, Mixed convection, Chemical reactive species, Variable viscosity, Shooting method
Wilbrink, H.A.
1982-01-01
In this paper we develop a theory for nearaffine planes analogous to the theory of ordinary affine translation planes. In a subsequent paper we shall use this theory to give a characterization of a certain class of Minkowski planes.
Modeling of Ship Collision Risk Index Based on Complex Plane and Its Realization
Xiaoqin Xu; Xiaoqiao Geng; Yuanqiao Wen
2016-01-01
Ship collision risk index is the basic and important concept in the domain of ship collision avoidance. In this paper, the advantages and deficiencies of the various calculation methods of ship collision risk index are pointed out. Then the ship collision risk model based on complex plane, which can well make up for the deficiencies of the widely-used evaluation model proposed by Kearon.J and Liu ruru is proposed. On this basis, the calculation method of collision risk index under the encount...
Numerical modeling of normal turbulent plane jet impingement on solid wall
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo, C.Y.; Maxwell, W.H.C.
1984-10-01
Attention is given to a numerical turbulence model for the impingement of a well developed normal plane jet on a solid wall, by means of which it is possible to express different jet impingement geometries in terms of different boundary conditions. Examples of these jets include those issuing from VTOL aircraft, chemical combustors, etc. The two-equation, turbulent kinetic energy-turbulent dissipation rate model is combined with the continuity equation and the transport equation of vorticity, using an iterative finite difference technique in the computations. Peak levels of turbulent kinetic energy occur not only in the impingement zone, but also in the intermingling zone between the edges of the free jet and the wall jet. 20 references.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Amaral Alves Marlière
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Dentofacial deformities (DFD presenting mainly as Class III malocclusions that require orthognathic surgery as a part of definitive treatment. Class III patients can have obvious signs such as increasing the chin projection and chin throat length, nasolabial folds, reverse overjet, and lack of upper lip support. However, Class III patients can present different facial patterns depending on the angulation of occlusal plane (OP, and only bite correction does not always lead to the improvement of the facial esthetic. We described two Class III patients with different clinical features and inclination of OP and had undergone different treatment planning based on 6 clinical features: (I facial type; (II upper incisor display at rest; (III dental and gingival display on smile; (IV soft tissue support; (V chin projection; and (VI lower lip projection. These patients were submitted to orthognathic surgery with different treatment plannings: a clockwise rotation and counterclockwise rotation of OP according to their facial features. The clinical features and OP inclination helped to define treatment planning by clockwise and counterclockwise rotations of the maxillomandibular complex, and two patients undergone to bimaxillary orthognathic surgery showed harmonic outcomes and stables after 2 years of follow-up.
Tenebrio beetles use magnetic inclination compass
Vácha, Martin; Drštková, Dana; Půžová, Tereza
2008-08-01
Animals that guide directions of their locomotion or their migration routes by the lines of the geomagnetic field use either polarity or inclination compasses to determine the field polarity (the north or south direction). Distinguishing the two compass types is a guideline for estimation of the molecular principle of reception and has been achieved for a number of animal groups, with the exception of insects. A standard diagnostic method to distinguish a compass type is based on reversing the vertical component of the geomagnetic field, which leads to the opposite reactions of animals with two different compass types. In the present study, adults of the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor were tested by means of a two-step laboratory test of magnetoreception. Beetles that were initially trained to memorize the magnetic position of the light source preferred, during the subsequent test, this same direction, pursuant geomagnetic cues only. In the following step, the vertical component was reversed between the training and the test. The beetles significantly turned their preferred direction by 180°. Our results brought until then unknown original findings that insects, represented here by the T. molitor species, use—in contrast to another previously researched Arthropod, spiny lobster—the inclination compass.
Two-phase gas bubble-liquid boundary layer flow along vertical and inclined surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheung, F.B.; Epstein, M.
1985-01-01
The behavior of a two-phase gas bubble liquid boundary layer along vertical and inclined porous surfaces with uniform gas injection is investigated experimentally and analytically. Using argon gas and water as the working fluids, a photographical study of the two-phase boundary layer flow has been performed for various angles of inclination ranging from 45 0 to 135 0 and gas injection rates ranging from 0.01 to 0.1 m/s. An integral method has been employed to solve the system of equations governing the two-phase motion. The effects of the gas injection rate and the angle of inclination on the growth of the boundary layer have been determined
Frontal Plane Modelling of Human Dynamics during Standing in Narrow-Stance
Sonobe, M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Hino, J.
2016-09-01
Standing ride type vehicles like electric skateboards have been developed in recent years. Although these vehicles have advantages as being compact and low cost due to their simple structure, it is necessary to improve the riding quality. Therefore, the system aiding riders to keep their balance on a skateboard by feedback control or feedforward control has been required. To achieve it, a human balance model should be built as simple as possible. In this study, we focus on the human balance modelling during standing when the support surface moves largely. We restricted the model on frontal plane and narrow stance because the restrictions allow us to assume single-degree-of-freedom model. The balance control system is generally assumed as a delayed feedback control system. The model was identified through impulse response test and frequency response test. As a result, we found the phase between acceleration of the skateboard and posture angle become opposite phase in low frequency range.
Effect of Boundary-Layer Bleed Hole Inclination Angle and Scaling on Flow Coefficient Behavior
Eichorn, Michael B.; Barnhart, Paul J.; Davis, David O.; Vyas, Manan A.; Slater, John W.
2013-01-01
Phase II data results of the Fundamental Inlet Bleed Experiments study at NASA Glenn Research Center are presented which include flow coefficient behavior for 21 bleed hole configurations. The bleed configurations are all round holes with hole diameters ranging from 0.795 to 6.35 mm, hole inclination angles from 20deg to 90deg, and thickness-to-diameter ratios from 0.25 to 2.0. All configurations were tested at a unit Reynolds number of 2.46 10(exp 7)/m and at discrete local Mach numbers of 1.33, 1.62, 1.98, 2.46, and 2.92. Interactions between the design parameters of hole diameter, hole inclination angle, and thickness-to-diameter as well as the interactions between the flow parameters of pressure ratio and Mach number upon the flow coefficient are examined, and a preliminary statistical model is proposed. An existing correlation is also examined with respect to this data.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tomaž Vrtovec
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Objective measurement of coronal vertebral inclination (CVI is of significant importance for evaluating spinal deformities in the coronal plane. The purpose of this study is to systematically analyze and compare manual and computerized measurements of CVI in cross-sectional and volumetric computed tomography (CT images. Three observers independently measured CVI in 14 CT images of normal and 14 CT images of scoliotic vertebrae by using six manual and two computerized measurements. Manual measurements were obtained in coronal cross-sections by manually identifying the vertebral body corners, which served to measure CVI according to the superior and inferior tangents, left and right tangents, and mid-endplate and mid-wall lines. Computerized measurements were obtained in two dimensions (2D and in three dimensions (3D by manually initializing an automated method in vertebral centroids and then searching for the planes of maximal symmetry of vertebral anatomical structures. The mid-endplate lines were the most reproducible and reliable manual measurements (intra- and inter-observer variability of 0.7° and 1.2° standard deviation, SD, respectively. The computerized measurements in 3D were more reproducible and reliable (intra- and inter-observer variability of 0.5° and 0.7° SD, respectively, but were most consistent with the mid-wall lines (2.0° SD and 1.4° mean absolute difference. The manual CVI measurements based on mid-endplate lines and the computerized CVI measurements in 3D resulted in the lowest intra-observer and inter-observer variability, however, computerized CVI measurements reduce observer interaction.
Gralla, Samuel E.; Lupsasca, Alexandru; Philippov, Alexander
2017-12-01
In the canonical model of a pulsar, rotational energy is transmitted through the surrounding plasma via two electrical circuits, each connecting to the star over a small region known as a “polar cap.” For a dipole-magnetized star, the polar caps coincide with the magnetic poles (hence the name), but in general, they can occur at any place and take any shape. In light of their crucial importance to most models of pulsar emission (from radio to X-ray to wind), we develop a general technique for determining polar cap properties. We consider a perfectly conducting star surrounded by a force-free magnetosphere and include the effects of general relativity. Using a combined numerical-analytical technique that leverages the rotation rate as a small parameter, we derive a general analytic formula for the polar cap shape and charge-current distribution as a function of the stellar mass, radius, rotation rate, moment of inertia, and magnetic field. We present results for dipole and quadrudipole fields (superposed dipole and quadrupole) inclined relative to the axis of rotation. The inclined dipole polar cap results are the first to include general relativity, and they confirm its essential role in the pulsar problem. The quadrudipole pulsar illustrates the phenomenon of thin annular polar caps. More generally, our method lays a foundation for detailed modeling of pulsar emission with realistic magnetic fields.
Czekala, Ian; Andrews, Sean M.; Torres, Guillermo; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Latham, David W.; Wilner, David J.; Gully-Santiago, Michael A.; Grankin, Konstantin N.; Lund, Michael B.; Kuhn, Rudolf B.; Stevens, Daniel J.; Siverd, Robert J.; James, David; Gaudi, B. Scott; Shappee, Benjamin J.; Holoien, Thomas W.-S.
2017-12-01
We present spatially and spectrally resolved Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of gas and dust orbiting the pre-main-sequence hierarchical triple-star system GW Ori. A forward modeling of the 13CO and C18O J = 2–1 transitions permits a measurement of the total stellar mass in this system, 5.29+/- 0.09 {M}ȯ , and the circumtriple disk inclination, 137\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 6+/- 2\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 0. Optical spectra spanning a 35 yr period were used to derive new radial velocities and, coupled with a spectroscopic disentangling technique, revealed that the A and B components of GW Ori form a double-lined spectroscopic binary with a period of 241.50 ± 0.05 days; a tertiary companion orbits that inner pair with a period of 4218 ± 50 days. Combining the results from the ALMA data and the optical spectra with three epochs of astrometry in the literature, we constrain the individual stellar masses in the system ({M}{{A}}≈ 2.7 {M}ȯ , {M}{{B}}≈ 1.7 {M}ȯ , {M}{{C}}≈ 0.9 {M}ȯ ) and find strong evidence that at least one of the stellar orbital planes (and likely both) is misaligned with the disk plane by as much as 45°. A V-band light curve spanning 30 yr reveals several new ∼30-day eclipse events 0.1–0.7 mag in depth and a 0.2 mag sinusoidal oscillation that is clearly phased with the AB–C orbital period. Taken together, these features suggest that the A–B pair may be partially obscured by material in the inner disk as the pair approaches apoastron in the hierarchical orbit. Lastly, we conclude that stellar evolutionary models are consistent with our measurements of the masses and basic photospheric properties if the GW Ori system is ∼1 Myr old.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moelans, N.; Blanpain, B.; Wollants, P.
2008-01-01
A phase-field approach for quantitative simulations of grain growth in anisotropic systems is introduced, together with a new methodology to derive appropriate model parameters that reproduce given misorientation and inclination dependent grain boundary energy and mobility in the simulations. The proposed model formulation and parameter choice guarantee a constant diffuse interface width and consequently give high controllability of the accuracy in grain growth simulations
Zanazzi, J. J.; Lai, Dong
2018-04-01
Many hot Jupiter (HJ) systems have been observed to have their stellar spin axis misaligned with the planet's orbital angular momentum axis. The origin of this spin-orbit misalignment and the formation mechanism of HJs remain poorly understood. A number of recent works have suggested that gravitational interactions between host stars, protoplanetary disks, and inclined binary companions may tilt the stellar spin axis with respect to the disk's angular angular momentum axis, producing planetary systems with misaligned orbits. These previous works considered idealized disk evolution models and neglected the gravitational influence of newly formed planets. In this paper, we explore how disk photoevaporation and planet formation and migration affect the inclination evolution of planet-star-disk-binary systems. We take into account planet-disk interactions and the gravitational spin-orbit coupling between the host star and the planet. We find that the rapid depletion of the inner disk via photoevaporation reduces the excitation of stellar obliquities. Depending on the formation and migration history of HJs, the spin-orbit coupling between the star and the planet may reduces and even completely suppress the excitation of stellar obliquities. Our work constrains the formation/migration history of HJs. On the other hand, planetary systems with "cold" Jupiters or close-in super-earths may experience excitation of stellar obliquities in the presence of distant inclined companions.
Effects of turbulence and flow inclination on the performance of cup anemometers in the field
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Papadopoulos, K.H.; Stefantos, N.C.; Schmidt Paulsen, U.
2001-01-01
Four commercial and one research cup anemometers were comparatively tested in a complex terrain site to quantify the effects of turbulence and flow inclination on the wind speed measurements. The difference of the mean wind speed reading between the anemometers was as much as 2% for wind directions...... where the mean flow was horizontal. This difference was large enough to be attributed to the well-known overspeeding effect related to the differing distance constant (ranging from 1.7 to 5 m) of the cup anemometers. The application of a theoretical model of the cup-anemometer behaviour in a three...... to correct the 10-min mean wind speed. The necessary information for the correction is the turbulent intensity (preferably in the vertical direction) and the mean flow inclination. For demanding applications, the angular response parameters of cup anemometers should be taken into account. The incorporation...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rensburg, E J Janse van; Ma, J
2006-01-01
We examine partitions and their natural three-dimensional generalizations, plane partitions, as models of vesicles undergoing an inflation-deflation transition. The phase diagrams of these models include a critical point corresponding to an inflation-deflation transition, and exhibits multicritical scaling in the vicinity of a multicritical point located elsewhere on the critical curve. We determine the locations of the multicritical points by analysing the generating functions using analytic and numerical means. In addition, we determine the numerical values of the multicritical scaling exponents associated with the multicritical scaling regimes in these models
Meng, Fanchao; Chen, Cheng; Hu, Dianyin; Song, Jun
2017-12-01
Combining atomistic simulations and continuum modeling, a comprehensive study of the out-of-plane compressive deformation behaviors of equilateral three-dimensional (3D) graphene honeycombs was performed. It was demonstrated that under out-of-plane compression, the honeycomb exhibits two critical deformation events, i.e., elastic mechanical instability (including elastic buckling and structural transformation) and inelastic structural collapse. The above events were shown to be strongly dependent on the honeycomb cell size and affected by the local atomic bonding at the cell junction. By treating the 3D graphene honeycomb as a continuum cellular solid, and accounting for the structural heterogeneity and constraint at the junction, a set of analytical models were developed to accurately predict the threshold stresses corresponding to the onset of those deformation events. The present study elucidates key structure-property relationships of 3D graphene honeycombs under out-of-plane compression, and provides a comprehensive theoretical framework to predictively analyze their deformation responses, and more generally, offers critical new knowledge for the rational bottom-up design of 3D networks of two-dimensional nanomaterials.
Xia, Yongfang; Shi, Junrui; Xu, Youning; Ma, Rui
2018-03-01
Filtration combustion (FC) is one style of porous media combustion with inert matrix, in which the combustion wave front propagates, only downstream or reciprocally. In this paper, we investigate the FC flame front inclinational instability of lean methane/air mixtures flowing through a packed bed as a combustion wave front perturbation of the initial preheating temperature non-uniformity is assumed. The predicted results show that the growth rate of the flame front inclinational angle is proportional to the magnitude of the initial preheating temperature difference. Additionally, depending on gas inlet gas velocity and equivalence ratio, it is demonstrated that increase of gas inlet gas velocity accelerates the FC wave front deformation, and the inclinational instability evolves faster at lower equivalence ratio. The development of the flame front inclinational angle may be regarded as a two-staged evolution, which includes rapid increase, and approaching maximum value of inclinational angle due to the quasi-steady condition of the combustion system. The hydrodynamic and thermal mechanisms of the FC inclinational instability are analyzed. Consequently, the local propagation velocity of the FC wave front is non-uniform to result in the development of inclinational angle at the first stage of rapid increase.
The Bearing Capacity of Strip Footings in Cohesionless Soil Subject to Eccentric and Inclined Loads
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krabbenhøft, Sven; Damkilde, Lars; Krabbenhøft, Kristian
2014-01-01
Lower bound calculations based on the finite element method is used to determine the bearing capacity of a strip foundation subjected to an inclined, eccentric load on cohesionless soil with varying surcharges and with friction angles 25, 30 and 35°. The soil is assumed perfectly plastic following...... the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. The results are reported as graphs showing the bearing capacity as a function of the friction angle, the eccentricity, inclination and the surcharge. The results have been compared with the Eurocode 7 and for smaller eccentricities, except in the case of no surcharge......, the lower bound values are the greater, the discrepancy increasing with growing surcharge. Positive load inclinations has a negative effect for smaller eccentricities but may have a beneficial effect on the bearing capacity for greater eccentricities. Negative load inclinations have the opposite effect...
Origin of the Local Group satellite planes
Banik, Indranil; O'Ryan, David; Zhao, Hongsheng
2018-04-01
We attempt to understand the planes of satellite galaxies orbiting the Milky Way (MW) and M31 in the context of Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND), which implies a close MW-M31 flyby occurred ≈8 Gyr ago. Using the timing argument, we obtain MW-M31 trajectories consistent with cosmological initial conditions and present observations. We adjust the present M31 proper motion within its uncertainty in order to simulate a range of orbital geometries and closest approach distances. Treating the MW and M31 as point masses, we follow the trajectories of surrounding test particle disks, thereby mapping out the tidal debris distribution. Around each galaxy, the resulting tidal debris tends to cluster around a particular orbital pole. We find some models in which these preferred spin vectors align fairly well with those of the corresponding observed satellite planes. The radial distributions of material in the simulated satellite planes are similar to what we observe. Around the MW, our best-fitting model yields a significant fraction (0.22) of counter-rotating material, perhaps explaining why Sculptor counter-rotates within the MW satellite plane. In contrast, our model yields no counter-rotating material around M31. This is testable with proper motions of M31 satellites. In our best model, the MW disk is thickened by the flyby 7.65 Gyr ago to a root mean square height of 0.75 kpc. This is similar to the observed age and thickness of the Galactic thick disk. Thus, the MW thick disk may have formed together with the MW and M31 satellite planes during a past MW-M31 flyby.
Plane-wave least-squares reverse-time migration
Dai, Wei
2013-06-03
A plane-wave least-squares reverse-time migration (LSRTM) is formulated with a new parameterization, where the migration image of each shot gather is updated separately and an ensemble of prestack images is produced along with common image gathers. The merits of plane-wave prestack LSRTM are the following: (1) plane-wave prestack LSRTM can sometimes offer stable convergence even when the migration velocity has bulk errors of up to 5%; (2) to significantly reduce computation cost, linear phase-shift encoding is applied to hundreds of shot gathers to produce dozens of plane waves. Unlike phase-shift encoding with random time shifts applied to each shot gather, plane-wave encoding can be effectively applied to data with a marine streamer geometry. (3) Plane-wave prestack LSRTM can provide higher-quality images than standard reverse-time migration. Numerical tests on the Marmousi2 model and a marine field data set are performed to illustrate the benefits of plane-wave LSRTM. Empirical results show that LSRTM in the plane-wave domain, compared to standard reversetime migration, produces images efficiently with fewer artifacts and better spatial resolution. Moreover, the prestack image ensemble accommodates more unknowns to makes it more robust than conventional least-squares migration in the presence of migration velocity errors. © 2013 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. M. Bohomaz
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Purpose.One of the main elements of the inclined belt bucket elevators is their drive. To determine the drive power, it is necessary to carry out calculations according to standard methods, which are described in the modern literature. The basic design parameters are the productivity, lifting height, type and properties of the transported material, the angle of inclination. It is necessary to build a parametric dependence of the driving power of the elevator on its design parameters, which takes into account the standard sizes and types of buckets and belts. Methodology. Using the methodology of traction calculation of inclined belt bucket elevator there were built parametric dependences of efforts in specific points of the route of the elevator, as well as the parametric dependences of the drive power of high-speed elevators with deep and shallow buckets on their design parameters and characteristics. Findings. On the basis of constructed parametric dependencies, it was found that the function of changing the value of the elevator’s power from design capacity (at fixed lifting height, type of cargo, belt speed is piecewise constant and monotonically increasing. It was built a graphical representation of elevator drive power on the angle of its inclination within acceptable limits of change. The resulting relationship is non-linear and monotonically decreasing. In general terms the intervals of project performance values, which provide a constant value of drive power of inclined elevator were defined. As an example of the obtained results it was observed the process of dependence construction of the drive power on design capacity and inclination angle of the elevator for transporting the fine coal. Originality. For the first time there were constructed the parametric dependences of drive power of inclined bucket elevator on its design parameters that take into account the standard sizes and types of buckets and belts. Practical value. Using
Cong, Li; Qifei, Jian; Wu, Shifeng
2017-02-01
An experimental study and theoretical analysis of heat transfer performance of a sintered heat pipe radiator that implemented in a 50 L domestic semiconductor refrigerator have been conducted to examine the effect of inclination angle, combined with a minimum entropy generation analysis. The experiment results suggest that inclination angle has influences on both the evaporator and condenser section, and the performance of the heat pipe radiator is more sensitive to the inclination change in negative inclined than in positive inclined position. When the heat pipe radiator is in negative inclination angle position, large amplitude of variation on the thermal resistance of this heat pipe radiator is observed. As the thermal load is below 58.89 W, the influence of inclination angle on the overall thermal resistance is not that apparent as compared to the other three thermal loads. Thermal resistance of heat pipe radiator decreases by 82.86 % in inclination of 60° at the set of 138.46 W, compared to horizontal position. Based on the analysis results in this paper, in order to achieve a better heat transfer performance of the heat pipe radiator, it is recommended that the heat pipe radiator be mounted in positive inclination angle positions (30°-90°), where the condenser is above the evaporator.
16 CFR 1507.12 - Multiple-tube fireworks devices.
2010-01-01
... Section 1507.12 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT... the inclined plane (not including the portion of the plane below the mechanical stop) shall be at... equivalent instrument. The mechanical stop on the inclined plane shall be 1/16 inches (1.6 mm) in height and...
Some Considerations Regarding Plane to Plane Parallelism Error Effects in Robotic Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stelian Alaci
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The paper shows that by imposing the parallelism constraint between the measured plane and the reference plane, the position of the current plane is not univocal specified and is impossible to specify the way to attain the parallelism errors imposed by accuracy constrains. The parameters involved in the calculus of plane to plane parallelism error can be used to set univocal the relative position between the two planes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elgiz Baskaya
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Dispersion of super-paramagnetic nanoparticles in nonmagnetic carrier fluids, known as ferrofluids, offers the advantages of tunable thermo-physical properties and eliminate the need for moving parts to induce flow. This study investigates ferrofluid flow characteristics in an inclined channel under inclined magnetic field and constant pressure gradient. The ferrofluid considered in this work is comprised of Cu particles as the nanoparticles and water as the base fluid. The governing differential equations including viscous dissipation are non-dimensionalised and discretized with Generalized Differential Quadrature Method. The resulting algebraic set of equations are solved via Newton-Raphson Method. The work done here contributes to the literature by searching the effects of magnetic field angle and channel inclination separately on the entropy generation of the ferrofluid filled inclined channel system in order to achieve best design parameter values so called entropy generation minimization is implemented. Furthermore, the effect of magnetic field, inclination angle of the channel and volume fraction of nanoparticles on velocity and temperature profiles are examined and represented by figures to give a thorough understanding of the system behavior.
Improved efficiency of lifting freight on inclined mine shafts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Molchanov, A A
1980-01-01
Design and operating principles are described for a self-propelled inclined lifter with hinged-lever mechanism of forced compression of the drive wheels to the rails. Limit values are defined for the main parameters of the traction device.
A waveless two-dimensional flow in a channel against an inclined wall with surface tension effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Merzougui, Abdelkrim; Mekias, Hocine; Guechi, Fairouz
2007-01-01
Surface tension effect on a two-dimensional channel flow against an inclined wall is considered. The flow is assumed to be steady, irrotational, inviscid and incompressible. The effect of surface tension is taken into account and the effect of gravity is neglected. Numerical solutions are obtained via series truncation procedure. The problem is solved numerically for various values of the Weber number α and for various values of the inclination angle β between the horizontal bottom and the inclined wall
A waveless two-dimensional flow in a channel against an inclined wall with surface tension effect
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Merzougui, Abdelkrim [Departement de Mathematiques, Faculte des sciences, Universite Mohamed Boudiaf, M' sila, 28000 (Algeria); Mekias, Hocine [Departement de Mathematiques, Faculte des sciences, Universite Farhat Abbas Setif 19000 (Algeria); Guechi, Fairouz [Departement de Mathematiques, Faculte des sciences, Universite Farhat Abbas Setif 19000 (Algeria)
2007-11-23
Surface tension effect on a two-dimensional channel flow against an inclined wall is considered. The flow is assumed to be steady, irrotational, inviscid and incompressible. The effect of surface tension is taken into account and the effect of gravity is neglected. Numerical solutions are obtained via series truncation procedure. The problem is solved numerically for various values of the Weber number {alpha} and for various values of the inclination angle {beta} between the horizontal bottom and the inclined wall.
Oblique Wave-Induced Responses of A VLFS Edged with A Pair of Inclined Perforated Plates
Cheng, Yong; Ji, Chun-yan; Zhai, Gang-jun; Oleg, Gaidai
2018-03-01
This paper is concerned with the hydroelastic responses of a mat-like, rectangular very large floating structure (VLFS) edged with a pair of horizontal/inclined perforated anti-motion plates in the context of the direct coupling method. The updated Lagrangian formulae are applied to establish the equilibrium equations of the VLFS and the total potential formula is employed for fluids in the numerical model including the viscous effect of the perforated plates through the Darcy's law. The hybrid finite element-boundary element (FE-BE) method is implemented to determine the response reduction of VLFS with attached perforated plates under various oblique incident waves. Also, the numerical solutions are validated against a series of experimental tests. The effectiveness of the attached perforated plates in reducing the deflections of the VLFS can be significantly improved by selecting the proper design parameters such as the porous parameter, submergence depth, plate width and inclination angle for the given sea conditions.
A plane-wave final-state theory of ATI
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parker, J.S.; Clark, C.W.
1993-01-01
A Fermi Golden Rule calculation of ionization cross-sections provides us with the simplest example of a plane-wave final-state theory. In this method the final (unbound) state is modeled as a plane wave, an approximation that generally gives best results in the high energy limit in which the affect of the atomic potential on the final state can be neglected. A cross-section is then calculated from the matrix element connecting the bound initial state with the final state. The idea of generalizing this method to model transitions among unbound states is credited to L.V. Keldysh, and a number of related formalisms have been proposed that are consistent with the general features of experimental data. Here we describe a plane-wave final-state model of ATI that is in the spirit of these theories, but differs significantly in its implementation and predictions. We will present a comparison of the predictions of the plane-wave model with those of a full numerical integration of the time-dependent Schrodinger equation for atomic hydrogen in a radiation field. The theory and the numerical integration give good qualitative agreement in their predictions of photoelectron spectra over about 14 orders of magnitude
A math model for high velocity sensoring with a focal plane shuttered camera.
Morgan, P.
1971-01-01
A new mathematical model is presented which describes the image produced by a focal plane shutter-equipped camera. The model is based upon the well-known collinearity condition equations and incorporates both the translational and rotational motion of the camera during the exposure interval. The first differentials of the model with respect to exposure interval, delta t, yield the general matrix expressions for image velocities which may be simplified to known cases. The exposure interval, delta t, may be replaced under certain circumstances with a function incorporating blind velocity and image position if desired. The model is tested using simulated Lunar Orbiter data and found to be computationally stable as well as providing excellent results, provided that some external information is available on the velocity parameters.
A semi-analytical stationary model of a point-to-plane corona discharge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yanallah, K; Pontiga, F
2012-01-01
A semi-analytical model of a dc corona discharge is formulated to determine the spatial distribution of charged particles (electrons, negative ions and positive ions) and the electric field in pure oxygen using a point-to-plane electrode system. A key point in the modeling is the integration of Gauss' law and the continuity equation of charged species along the electric field lines, and the use of Warburg's law and the corona current–voltage characteristics as input data in the boundary conditions. The electric field distribution predicted by the model is compared with the numerical solution obtained using a finite-element technique. The semi-analytical solutions are obtained at a negligible computational cost, and provide useful information to characterize and control the corona discharge in different technological applications. (paper)
Anomalies and inflow on D-branes and O-planes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scrucca, Claudio A.; Serone, Marco
1999-01-01
We derive the general form of the anomaly for chiral spinors and self-dual antisymmetric tensors living on D-brane and O-plane intersections, using both path-integral and index theorem methods. We then show that the anomalous couplings to RR forms of D-branes and O-planes in a general background are precisely those required to cancel these anomalies through the inflow mechanism. This allows, for instance, for local anomaly cancellation in generic orientifold models, the relevant Green-Schwarz term being given by the sum of the anomalous couplings of all the D-branes and O-planes in the model
Lieb's correlation inequality for plane rotors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rivasseau, V.
1980-01-01
We prove a conjecture by E. Lieb, which leads to the Lieb inequality for plane rotors. As in the Ising model case, this inequality implies the existence of an algorithm to compute the transition temperature of this model. (orig.)
Huang, W.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; Lippert, P.C.; Hinsbergen, D.J.J. van; Hallot, E.
2013-01-01
A systematic bias towards low palaeomagnetic inclination recorded in clastic sediments, that is, inclination shallowing, has been recognized and studied for decades. Identification, understanding and correction of this inclination shallowing are critical for palaeogeographic
An Inclination-Dependent IRX-beta Relation for Galaxies at z~1.5
Wang, Weichen; Kassin, Susan A.; Pacifici, Camilla; de la Vega, Alexander; Simons, Raymond C.; Barro, Guillermo; Gordon, Karl D.; Snyder, Gregory
2018-01-01
Star-forming galaxies near cosmic noon are substantially obscured by dust. Therefore, to measure galaxy star-formation rates (SFRs), it is crucial to accurately account for dust obscuration. This is usually done by measuring the slopes of spectra in the rest-frame ultraviolet (i.e., β). Another independent method is to measure the infrared excess IRX, defined as the ratio between infrared and ultraviolet luminosity. In this work, we present the discovery that the relation between IRX and β varies systematically with galaxy inclination at z~1.5. Edge-on galaxies are on average ~0.5 dex higher in IRX than face-on galaxies at fixed β. Furthermore, we find that the difference between SFR(UV+IR) and β-corrected SFR(UV) is correlated with inclination. Our finding is consistent with the study of local galaxies (Wild et al. 2011), where the dust attenuation curve is found to flatten with increasing inclination. We interpret our results using a picture where dust and young stars are spatially mixed. In this case, β is more sensitive to the optically-thin regions near the surface of galaxy disks. Therefore, compared to the case of face-on galaxies, β measures a smaller fraction of the total dust optical depth for the edge-on galaxies, whereas IRX always probes the total optical depth. We conclude that inclination must be taken into account when evaluating dust attenuation with β at high redshift.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aydin, O.; Uenal, A.; Ayhan, T.
1999-01-01
Buoyancy-driven flows in enclosures play a vital role in many engineering applications such as double glazing, ventilation of rooms, nuclear reactor insulation, solar energy collection, cooling of electronic components, and crystal growth in liquids. Here, numerical study on buoyancy-driven laminar flow in an inclined square enclosure heated from one side and cooled from the adjacent side is conducted using finite difference methods. The effect of inclination angle on fluid flow and heat transfer is investigated by varying the angle of inclination between 0 degree and 360degree, and the results are presented in the form of streamlines and isotherms for different inclination angles and Rayleigh numbers. On the basis of the numerical data, the authors determine the critical values of the inclination angle at which the rate of the transfer within the enclosure is either maximum or minimum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Radhouane, A.; Mahjoub Said, Nejla; Mhiri, H. [Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir, Unite de Thermique et Thermodynamique des Procedes Industriels, Monastir (Tunisia); Palec, G. le; Bournot, P. [IUSTI, UMR 6595, Technopole de Chateau-Gombert, Marseille (France)
2009-04-15
An experimental study and a numerical modeling are carried out simultaneously on a twin inclined jets' configuration issuing into a cooler crossflow. The main purpose of this study is to track the overall evolution of the jets among the surrounding flow and then determine the thermal and mass transfer features that characterize the resulting flowfield. The experimental data are depicted by means of a particle image velocimetry technique; whereas the numerical three-dimensional model is simulated through the resolution of the different governing Navier-Stokes' equations by means of the finite volume method. Two different closure models were tested: the standard k-{epsilon} model and the Reynolds stress model (RSM) second order model. The introduction of the latter in such a configuration brings some valuable improvement since it allows the detection of the slightest variations within the domain and then describes the least occurring mechanisms. The confrontation of the differently processed numerical results with the experimentally tracked data comforted our opinion since it proved the better efficiency of the RSM model for the description of the handled flow; that's why we adopted it for the rest of the paper. Once the validation obtained, we proceeded to the evaluation of the influence of the initial streamwise inclination of the emitted jets on the engendered thermal field and on the pollutants' dispersion. For the matter, we tested the following angles: 30 , 45 , 60 and 90 . After that, we represented the temperature variation along different directions in order to detail its behavior in all of them and at different levels. This characterization is highly recommended since it may promote the efficiency of several applications (mainly the cooling applications). We also evaluated the influence of this same parameter; the initial inclination; on the pollutants' dispersion due to the high and alarming importance of the problem on the
Grünheid, Thorsten; Gaalaas, Sara; Hamdan, Hani; Larson, Brent E
2016-01-01
To compare the changes in buccolinugal inclination of mandibular canines and intercanine distance in patients treated with clear aligners to those treated with preadjusted edgewise appliances. The buccolingual inclination of mandibular canines and the intercanine distance were measured on pre- and posttreatment cone-beam computed tomograms of 30 patients who had been treated with clear aligners and 30 patients who had been treated with fixed preadjusted edgewise appliances. Differences between the aligner and fixed appliance groups and between pre- and posttreatment measurements were tested for statistical significance. In both groups, most of the mandibular canines had positive buccolingual inclinations (ie, their crowns were positioned lateral to their roots) both before and after treatment. While there was no difference between the groups pretreatment, the posttreatment buccolingual inclination was significantly greater in the aligner group. In the fixed appliance group, the canines became more upright with treatment, while the buccolingual inclination did not change significantly in the clear aligner group. The intercanine distance did not differ between the groups either before or after treatment. However, it increased significantly over the course of treatment in the aligner group, whereas it did not change significantly in the fixed appliance group. Orthodontic treatment with clear aligners tends to increase the mandibular intercanine distance with little change in inclination in contrast to treatment with fixed appliances, which leaves the intercanine distance unchanged but leads to more upright mandibular canines.
INCLINATION AND VIBRATION MEASUREMENT BY INERTIAL SENSING FOR STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING
Sugisaki, Koichi; Abe, Masato; Koshimizu, Satoru
To develop a practical health monitoring system, inertial sensing which can readily be done for wide variety of situations is useful. However inertial sensors are measuring inclination and acceleration in reference to gravity. Therefore inclination are influence by acceleration and vice versa caused measuring errors. Especially, errors are more affected at low-frequency band which is important to estimate displacement. In this study, to establish correcting theory for inertial sensing and to develop method to estimate parameters for some structural system. And conducted a field test targeted at the real railway bridge to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method using response records of the pier under passing train load.
Effects of the inclined femto laser incidence at the phase mask on FBG carving
Wang, Jian; Wu, Shengli; Zhang, Jintao; Ren, Wenyi
2015-12-01
The inclined incidence of the femto laser on the phase mask in fiber Bragg grating (FBG) carving has a significant effect on the quality of FBG fabrication. Based on that the infrared femto laser has highly spatial coherence and the order walk-off will happen behind the phase mask, the interferogram generated at the fiber core by the inclined femto laser beam has been analyzed using the multi-beam interference principle. The influence of beam inclination on the coherence of the 0th and ± 1st orders diffraction with different exposure distance, the visibility of interferogram and the frequency component of the transverse interferogram intensity has also been analyzed. It is meaningful for the FBG fabricating with the femto laser.
Kumara, W.A.S.; Halvorsen, Britt; Melaaen, Morten Christian
2009-01-01
Oil-water flows in horizontal and slightly inclined pipes are investigated using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). PIV offers a powerful non-invasive tool to study such flow fields. The experiments are conducted in a 15 m long, 56 mm diameter, inclinable steel pipe using Exxsol D60 oil (viscosity 1.64 mPa s, density 790 kg/m3) and water (viscosity 1.0 mPa s, density 996 kg/m3) as test fluids. The test pipe inclination is changed in the range from 5° upward to 5° downward. The experiments are ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. M. Bohomaz
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Purpose.One of the main elements of band conveyors is a drive. To analyze the effect of design parameters on the drive power it is necessary to carry out the calculations according to standard procedures outlined in the current technical literature. The main design parameters of the band conveyor are: the type of cargo, project performance, the geometric dimensions of sections and track configuration as a whole. The feature of band conveyor calculation as compared to the elevators is the dependence of the band width on its performance, the inclination angle and the type of cargo. In the article for the account of this fact during calculations it is necessary to construct the dependence of the band width on the generalized parameter, which takes into account change in the design parameters. To determine the general pattern of changing the value of band conveyor drive power when varying its design parameters in the article it is necessary to construct the corresponding graphic dependences taking into account the standard sizes and bands parameters. Methodology. We consider the band conveyor with two sections: the inclined and horizontal one. It is conducted a detailed analysis of dependence of the conveyor band width and its drive power on the type of cargo, project performance, geometric dimensions and configuration of the conveyor track, using the appropriate parameter dependences constructed by the authors in previous papers. Findings. For band conveyors of this type there were constructed the graphics dependences of the band width on the parameter characterizing the project performance and the inclination angle of the track section, and on the performance at a fixed angle of inclination. Taking into account the changes in the band width with an increase in the value of project performance the graph dependences of drive power on the productivity and the inclination angle of the inclined section were built. Originality. For the first time there
Plane Symmetric Cosmological Model with Quark and Strange ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Keywords. f(R,T) theory of gravity—plane symmetric space-time—quark and strange quark matter—constant deceleration parameter. 1. Introduction. Modern astrophysical observations point out that present expansion of the Universe is an accelerated epoch. The most fascinating evidence for this is found in measurements ...
On the highly inclined vW leptokurtic asteroid families
Carruba, V.; Domingos, R. C.; Aljbaae, S.; Huaman, M.
2016-11-01
vW leptokurtic asteroid families are families for which the distribution of the normal component of the terminal ejection velocity field vW is characterized by a positive value of the γ2 Pearson kurtosis, I.e. they have a distribution with a more concentrated peak and larger tails than the Gaussian one. Currently, eight families are known to have γ2(vW) > 0.25. Among these, three are highly inclined asteroid families, the Hansa, Barcelona, and Gallia families. As observed for the case of the Astrid family, the leptokurtic inclination distribution seems to be caused by the interaction of these families with node secular resonances. In particular, the Hansa and Gallia family are crossed by the s - sV resonance with Vesta, that significantly alters the inclination of some of their members. In this work we use the time evolution of γ2(vW) for simulated families under the gravitational influence of all planets and the three most massive bodies in the main belt to assess the dynamical importance (or lack of) node secular resonances with Ceres, Vesta, and Pallas for the considered families, and to obtain independent constraints on the family ages. While secular resonances with massive bodies in the main belt do not significantly affect the dynamical evolution of the Barcelona family, they significantly increase the γ2(vW) values of the simulated Hansa and Gallia families. Current values of the γ2(vW) for the Gallia family are reached over the estimated family age only if secular resonances with Vesta are accounted for.
Multiple fracture planes in deuteron irradiated metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, W.R.; Johnson, P.B.
1987-01-01
Evidence has been found of multiple fracture planes in the blistering and flaking of metals observed at room temperature following irradiation at 120 K with 200 keV deuterons. In particular, two fracture planes are identified in copper, gold and stainless steel and three in aluminium. In nickel only one fracture plane is found. Qualitative models are proposed which explain the different fracture planes that are observed. In these models it is proposed that several mechanisms are important. (i) High levels of compressional stress in the implanted layer inhibits bubble nucleation and bubble growth in the depth region near the maxima in the damage and gas deposition profiles. (ii) The lateral stress varies from compression in the implant region to tension in the material below. In the region of tension bubble growth is enhanced. The vertical gradient in the lateral stress may also assist gas to move deeper into the target to further enhance bubble growth in this region. (iii) Shear resulting from differential expansion due to a combination of radiation induced swelling and localised heating is an important mechanism leading to fracture. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Freeman, Janine; Freestate, David; Riley, Cameron; Hobbs, William
2016-11-01
Measured plane-of-array (POA) irradiance may provide a lower-cost alternative to standard irradiance component data for photovoltaic (PV) system performance modeling without loss of accuracy. Previous work has shown that transposition models typically used by PV models to calculate POA irradiance from horizontal data introduce error into the POA irradiance estimates, and that measured POA data can correlate better to measured performance data. However, popular PV modeling tools historically have not directly used input POA data. This paper introduces a new capability in NREL's System Advisor Model (SAM) to directly use POA data in PV modeling, and compares SAM results from both POA irradiance and irradiance components inputs against measured performance data for eight operating PV systems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Constantin, M; Sawkey, D; Johnsen, S; Hsu, H [Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA (United States)
2014-06-01
Purpose: To validate the physics parameters of a Monte Carlo model for patient plane leakage calculations on the 6MV Unique linac by comparing the simulations against IEC patient plane leakage measurements. The benchmarked model can further be used for shielding design optimization, to predict leakage in the proximity of intended treatment fields, reduce the system weight and cost, and improve components reliability. Methods: The treatment head geometry of the Unique linac was simulated in Geant4 (v9.4.p02 with “Opt3” standard electromagnetic physics list) based on CAD drawings of all collimation and shielding components projected from the target to the area within 2m from isocenter. A 4×4m2 scorer was inserted 1m from the target in the patient plane and multiple phase space files were recorded by performing a 40-node computing cluster simulation on the EC2 cloud. The photon energy fluence was calculated relative to the value at isocenter for a 10×10cm2 field using 10×10mm2 bins. Tungsten blocks were parked accordingly to represent MLC120. The secondary particle contamination to patient plane was eliminated by “killing” those particles prior to the primary collimator entrance using a “kill-plane”, which represented the upper head shielding components not being modeled. Both IEC patient-plane leakage and X/Y-jaws transmission were simulated. Results: The contribution of photons to energy fluence was 0.064% on average, in excellent agreement with the experimental data available at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5m from isocenter, characterized by an average leakage of 0.045% and a maximum leakage of 0.085%. X- and Y-jaws transmissions of 0.43% and 0.44% were found in good agreement with measurements of 0.48% and 0.43%, respectively. Conclusion: A Geant4 model based on energy fluence calculations for the 6MV Unique linac was created and validated using IEC patient plane leakage measurements. The “kill-plane” has effectively eliminated electron contamination to
Heteroepitaxial growth of basal plane stacking fault free a-plane GaN
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wieneke, Matthias; Hempel, Thomas; Noltemeyer, Martin; Witte, Hartmut; Dadgar, Armin; Blaesing, Juergen; Christen, Juergen; Krost, Alois [Otto-von-Guericke Universitaet Magdeburg, FNW/IEP, Magdeburg (Germany)
2010-07-01
Growth of light emitting quantum-wells based on a-plane GaN is a possibility to reduce or even to avoid polarization correlated luminescence red shift and reduction of radiative recombination efficiency. But until now heteroepitaxially grown a-plane GaN films are characterized by a poor crystalline quality expressed by a high density of basal plane stacking faults (BSF) and partial dislocations. We present Si doped a-plane GaN films grown on r-plane sapphire substrates by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy using high temperature AlGaN nucleation layers. FE-SEM images revealed three dimensionally grown GaN crystallites sized up to tenth micrometer in the basal plane and a few tenth micrometers along the c-axes. Though, the full width at half maxima of the X-ray diffraction {omega}-scans of the in-plane GaN(1 anti 100) and GaN(0002) Bragg reflections exhibited a very high crystal quality. Furthermore, luminescence spectra were dominated by near band gap emission, while there was no separated peak of the basal plane stacking fault. In summary we present heteroepitaxially grown a-plane GaN without an evidence of basal plane stacking faults in X-ray diffraction measurements and luminescence spectra.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chao Zhou
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Rain–wind–induced galloping phenomenon often occurs on overhead transmission tower-lines system, just as icing galloping and vortex-excited vibration; this kind of instability oscillation can cause power-line breakage or tower failure. However, the existing theoretical models of rain–wind–induced galloping are mainly based on the hypothesis of the overhead power-lines with fixed ends, which is inconsistent with the actual operation situation. Therefore, this article thus presents a preliminary theoretical study and proposes a new theoretical model taking into account the effect of tower excitations on the in-plane galloping of the overhead power-line and on the motion of the upper rain-line. The theoretical model is solved by Galerkin method and verified by the comparison with the test data obtained in the available literature involved with the overhead power-lines with fixed towers or moving towers. It turns out that the tower excitations may intensify the in-plane galloping amplitude of the overhead power-line within a certain range of frequency ratio and enable better comprehension of rain–wind–induced galloping mechanism.
Davide, Apicella; Raffaella, Aversa; Marco, Tatullo; Michele, Simeone; Syed, Jamaluddin; Massimo, Marrelli; Marco, Ferrari; Antonio, Apicella
2015-12-01
To quantify the influence of fracture geometry and restorative materials rigidity on the stress intensity and distribution of restored fractured central maxillary incisors (CMI) with particular investigation of the adhesive interfaces. Ancillary objectives are to present an innovative technology to measure the in vivo strain state of sound maxillary incisors and to present the collected data. A validation experimental biomechanics approach has been associated to finite element analysis. FEA models consisted of CMI, periodontal ligament and the corresponding alveolar bone process. Three models were created representing different orientation of the fracture planes. Three different angulations of the fracture plane in buccal-palatal direction were modeled: the fracture plane perpendicular to the long axis in the buccal-palatal direction (0°); the fracture plane inclined bucco-palatally in apical-coronal direction (-30°); the fracture plane inclined palatal-buccally in apical-coronal direction (+30°). First set of computing runs was performed for in vivo FE-model validation purposes. In the second part, a 50N force was applied on the buccal aspect of the CMI models. Ten patients were selected and subjected to the strain measurement of CMI under controlled loading conditions. The main differences were noticed in the middle and incisal thirds of incisors crowns, due to the presence of the incisal portion restoration. The stress intensity in -30° models is increased in the enamel structure close to the restoration, due to a thinning of the remaining natural tissues. The rigidity of the restoring material slightly reduces such phenomenon. -30° model exhibits the higher interfacial stress in the adhesive layer with respect to +30° and 0° models. The lower stress intensity was noticed in the 0° models, restoration material rigidity did not influenced the interfacial stress state in 0° models. On the contrary, material rigidity influenced the interfacial stress state
Vortex trapping by tilted columnar defects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baladie, I.; Buzdin, A.
2000-01-01
The irradiation of high-T c superconductors by inclined heavy-ion beam can create columnar defects (CD's) practically at any angle towards the crystal c axis. We calculate the energy of a tilted vortex trapped on an inclined columnar defect within the framework of an electromagnetic model. Under a weak perpendicular magnetic field, and if the CD radius is larger than the superconducting coherence length, vortices always prefer to be on a tilted CD than to be aligned along the external field. We calculate also the interaction energy between two tilted vortices and find that large attractive regions appear. In particular, in the plane defined by c axis and the CD axis, tilted vortices attract each other at long distances, leading to the formation of vortex chains. The equilibrium distance between vortices in a chain is of the order of the magnitude of the in-plane London penetration depth. The existence of the inclined trapped vortices could be revealed by torque measurements, and could also lead to the anisotropy of the in-plane resistivity and the critical current
Two-phase gas bubble-liquid boundary layer flow along vertical and inclined surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheung, F.B.; Epstein, M.
1985-01-01
The behavior of a two-phase gas bubble-liquid boundary layer along vertical and inclined porous surfaces with uniform gas injection is investigated experimentally and analytically. Using argon gas and water as the working fluids, a photographical study of the two-phase boundary layer flow has been performed for various angles of inclination ranging from 45 0 to 135 0 and gas injection rates ranging from 0.01 to 0.1 m/s. An integral method has been employed to solve the system of equations governing the two-phase motion. The effects of the gas injection rate and the angle of inclination on the growth of the boundary layer have been determined. The predicted boundary layer thickness is found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. The calculated axial liquid velocity and the void fraction in the two-phase region are also presented along with the observed flow behavior
Biswas, A.; Sharma, S. P.
2012-12-01
Self-Potential anomaly is an important geophysical technique that measures the electrical potential due natural source of current in the Earth's subsurface. An inclined sheet type model is a very familiar structure associated with mineralization, fault plane, groundwater flow and many other geological features which exhibits self potential anomaly. A number of linearized and global inversion approaches have been developed for the interpretation of SP anomaly over different structures for various purposes. Mathematical expression to compute the forward response over a two-dimensional dipping sheet type structures can be described in three different ways using five variables in each case. Complexities in the inversion using three different forward approaches are different. Interpretation of self-potential anomaly using very fast simulated annealing global optimization has been developed in the present study which yielded a new insight about the uncertainty and equivalence in model parameters. Interpretation of the measured data yields the location of the causative body, depth to the top, extension, dip and quality of the causative body. In the present study, a comparative performance of three different forward approaches in the interpretation of self-potential anomaly is performed to assess the efficacy of the each approach in resolving the possible ambiguity. Even though each forward formulation yields the same forward response but optimization of different sets of variable using different forward problems poses different kinds of ambiguity in the interpretation. Performance of the three approaches in optimization has been compared and it is observed that out of three methods, one approach is best and suitable for this kind of study. Our VFSA approach has been tested on synthetic, noisy and field data for three different methods to show the efficacy and suitability of the best method. It is important to use the forward problem in the optimization that yields the
Sandbakk, Oyvind; Hegge, Ann Magdalen; Ettema, Gertjan
2013-01-01
The ability to efficiently utilize metabolic energy to produce work is a key factor for endurance performance. The present study investigated the effects of incline, performance level, and gender on the gross mechanical efficiency during roller ski skating. Thirty-one male and nineteen female elite cross-country skiers performed a 5-min submaximal session at approximately 75% of VO2peak on a 5% inclined treadmill using the G3 skating technique. Thereafter, a 5-min session on a 12% incline using the G2 skating technique was performed at a similar work rate. Gross efficiency was calculated as the external work rate against rolling friction and gravity divided by the metabolic rate using gas exchange. Performance level was determined by the amount of skating FIS points [the Federation of International Skiing (FIS) approved scoring system for ski racing] where fewer points indicate a higher performance level. Strong significant correlations between work rate and metabolic rate within both inclines and gender were revealed (r = -0.89 to 0.98 and P gender differences being apparent. Significant correlations between gross efficiency and performance level were found for both inclines and genders (r = -0.65 to 0.81 and P genders used less metabolic energy to perform the same amount of work at steeper inclines, and that the better ranked elite male and female skiers skied more efficiently.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grishina, T.A.; Sviridova, V.Yu.
1983-01-01
Theoretical and experimental investigation of the influence of the FCC-lattice crystal (gold, nickel) thickness on conditions of visulization of atomic plane projections (APP) on the crystal image in a transmission high-resolution electron microscope (THREM) is reported. Results of electron diffraction theory are used for theoretical investigation. Calculation analysis of the influence of the monocrystal thickness and orientation on conitions of visualization of APP and atomic columns in monocrystal images formed in THREM in multibeam regimes with inclined and axial illumination is conducted. It is shown that, to visualize the atomic column projections in a crystal image formed in the multibeam regime with axial illumination, optimal are the thicknesses from 0.1 xisub(min) to 0.25 xisub(min) and at some object orientations also the thicknesses from 0.8 xisub(min) to 0.9 xisub(min), where xisub(min) is the extinction length minimum for the given orientation. It is shown that, to realize the ultimate resolutions in multibeam regimes both with inclined and axial illumination the optimal thickness of the object is 0.63 xisub(min). Satisfactory coincidence of theoretical and experimental data is obtained
Fluorescence intensity dependence on the propagation plane inclination
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fernandez, J.E.; Rubio, Marcelo; Sanchez, H.J.
1987-01-01
A theoretical study of the emission from layers of primary and secondary fluorescent components for a sample of infinite thickness was made, finding out that this emission depends mainly on the α angle as a maximum emission selector of a certain layer, which means 'tuning' the fluorescent radiation that comes primarily from a certain depth. These results can be applied to the study of both selective emission by layers and to the selection of superficial fluorescence. The analytical results have been confirmed by a Monte Carlo simulation. (Author) [es
Modeling of steady motion and vertical-plane dynamics of a tunnel hull
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chaney Christopher S.
2014-06-01
Full Text Available High-speed marine vehicles can take advantage of aerodynamically supported platforms or air wings to increase maximum speed or transportation efficiency. However, this also results in increased complexity of boat dynamics, especially in the presence of waves and wind gusts. In this study, a mathematical model based on the fully unsteady aerodynamic extreme-ground-effect theory and the hydrodynamic added-mass strip theory is applied for simulating vertical-plane motions of a tunnel hull in a disturbed environment, as well as determining its steady states in calm conditions. Calculated responses of the boat to wind gusts and surface waves are demonstrated. The present model can be used as a supplementary method for preliminary estimations of performance of aerodynamically assisted marine craft.
Non-dispersive traveling waves in inclined shallow water channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Didenkulova, Ira; Pelinovsky, Efim
2009-01-01
Existence of traveling waves propagating without internal reflection in inclined water channels of arbitrary slope is demonstrated. It is shown that traveling non-monochromatic waves exist in both linear and nonlinear shallow water theories in the case of a uniformly inclined channel with a parabolic cross-section. The properties of these waves are studied. It is shown that linear traveling waves should have a sign-variable shape. The amplitude of linear traveling waves in a channel satisfies the same Green's law, which is usually derived from the energy flux conservation for smoothly inhomogeneous media. Amplitudes of nonlinear traveling waves deviate from the linear Green's law, and the behavior of positive and negative amplitudes are different. Negative amplitude grows faster than positive amplitude in shallow water. The phase of nonlinear waves (travel time) is described well by the linear WKB approach. It is shown that nonlinear traveling waves of any amplitude always break near the shoreline if the boundary condition of the full absorption is applied.
Numerical study of heat and mass transfer optimization in a 3D inclined solar distiller
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ghachem Kaouther
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A numerical study of the 3-D double-diffusive natural convection in an inclined solar distiller was established. The flow is considered laminar and caused by the interaction of thermal energy and the chemical species diffusions. The governing equations of the problem, are formulated using vector potential-vorticity formalism in its 3-D form, then solved by the finite volumes method. The Rayleigh number is fixed at Ra = 105 and effects of the buoyancy ratio and inclination are studied for opposed temperature and concentration gradients. The main purpose of the study is to find the optimum inclination angle of the distiller which promotes the maximum mass and heat transfer.
Inclinations to Conformity as a Potential Social Limit of Giftedness Development
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ilona Kočvarová
2017-04-01
Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of gifted pupils´ conformity, which may form a social barrier to their development during school teaching. The aim of the research is to analyse the inclination to conformity of gifted pupils during the application of differentiated enriching curriculum. The research sample consists of 86 diagnosed gifted pupils from the level of education ISCED2. The research instrument is semantically differentially based on the principle of the tool ATER. The study results suggest non-conformal inclinations of gifted pupils, which are subjectively declared in relation to the five statements describing work on a task during the application of differentiated enriching curriculum in school lessons.
Jiménez-Castellanos, Emilio; Orozco-Varo, Ana; Arroyo-Cruz, Gema; Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro
2016-06-01
Deviation from the facial midline and inclination of the dental midline or occlusal plane has been described as extremely influential in the layperson's perceptions of the overall esthetics of the smile. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of deviation from the facial midline and inclination of the dental midline or occlusal plane in a selected sample. White participants from a European population (N=158; 93 women, 65 men) who met specific inclusion criteria were selected for the present study. Standardized 1:1 scale frontal photographs were made, and 3 variables of all participants were measured: midline deviation, midline inclination, and inclination of the occlusal plane. Software was used to measure midline deviation and inclination, taking the bipupillary line and the facial midline as references. Tests for normality of the sample were explored and descriptive statistics (means ±SD) were calculated. The chi-square test was used to evaluate differences in midline deviation, midline inclination, and occlusion plane (α=.05) RESULTS: Frequencies of midline deviation (>2 mm), midline inclination (>3.5 degrees), and occlusal plane inclination (>2 degrees) were 31.64% (mean 2.7±1.23 mm), 10.75% (mean 7.9 degrees ±3.57), and 25.9% (mean 9.07 degrees ±3.16), respectively. No statistically significant differences (P>.05) were found between sex and any of the esthetic smile values. The incidence of alterations with at least 1 altered parameter that affected smile esthetics was 51.9% in a population from southern Europe. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Flame spread over inclined electrical wires with AC electric fields
Lim, Seung J.; Park, Sun H.; Park, Jeong; Fujita, Osamu; Keel, Sang I.; Chung, Suk-Ho
2017-01-01
Flame spread over polyethylene-insulated electrical wires was studied experimentally with applied alternating current (AC) by varying the inclination angle (θ), applied voltage (VAC), and frequency (fAC). For the baseline case with no electric field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Young Hwan; Yoon, Ji Sup; Jung, Jae Hoo; Hong, Dong Hee; Park, Gee Yong
2001-01-01
In this paper, a method of measuring the size of defects on the wall and restructuring the defect image is proposed based on the estimation algorithm of a camera orientation which uses the declination angle of the line slit beam. To reconstruct the image, an algorithm of estimating the horizontally inclined angle of CCD camera is presented. This algorithm adopts a 3-dimensional coordinate transformation of the image plane where both the LASER beam and the original image of the defects exist. The estimation equation is obtained by using the information of the beam projected on the wall and the parameters of this equation are experimentally obtained. With this algorithm, the original image of the defect can be reconstructed into the image which is obtained by a camera normal to the wall. From the result of a series of experiment shows that the measuring accuracy of the defect is within 0.5% error bound of real defect size under 30 degree of the horizontally inclined angle. Also, the accuracy is deteriorates with the error rate of 1% for every 10 degree increase of the horizontally inclined angle. The estimation error increases in the range of 30{approx}50 degree due to the existence of dead zone of defect depth, and defect length can not be measured due to the disappearance of image data above 70 degree. In case of under water condition, the measuring accuracy is also influenced due to the changed field of view of both the camera and the laser slit beam caused by the refraction rate in the water. The proposed algorithm provides the method of reconstructing the image taken at any arbitrary camera orientation into the image which is obtained by a camera normal to the wall and thus it enables the accurate measurement of the defect lengths only by using a single camera and a laser slit beam.
Sandbakk, Øyvind; Hegge, Ann Magdalen; Ettema, Gertjan
2013-01-01
The ability to efficiently utilize metabolic energy to produce work is a key factor for endurance performance. The present study investigated the effects of incline, performance level, and gender on the gross mechanical efficiency during roller ski skating. Thirty-one male and nineteen female elite cross-country skiers performed a 5-min submaximal session at approximately 75% of VO2peak on a 5% inclined treadmill using the G3 skating technique. Thereafter, a 5-min session on a 12% incline using the G2 skating technique was performed at a similar work rate. Gross efficiency was calculated as the external work rate against rolling friction and gravity divided by the metabolic rate using gas exchange. Performance level was determined by the amount of skating FIS points [the Federation of International Skiing (FIS) approved scoring system for ski racing] where fewer points indicate a higher performance level. Strong significant correlations between work rate and metabolic rate within both inclines and gender were revealed (r = −0.89 to 0.98 and P < 0.05 in all cases). Gross efficiency was higher at the steeper incline, both for men (17.1 ± 0.4 vs. 15.8 ± 0.5%, P < 0.05) and women (16.9 ± 0.5 vs. 15.7 ± 0.4%, P < 0.05), but without any gender differences being apparent. Significant correlations between gross efficiency and performance level were found for both inclines and genders (r = −0.65 to 0.81 and P < 0.05 in all cases). The current study demonstrated that cross-country skiers of both genders used less metabolic energy to perform the same amount of work at steeper inclines, and that the better ranked elite male and female skiers skied more efficiently. PMID:24155722
DEM study of granular flow around blocks attached to inclined walls
Samsu, Joel; Zhou, Zongyan; Pinson, David; Chew, Sheng
2017-06-01
Damage due to intense particle-wall contact in industrial applications can cause severe problems in industries such as mineral processing, mining and metallurgy. Studying the flow dynamics and forces on containing walls can provide valuable feedback for equipment design and optimising operations to prolong the equipment lifetime. Therefore, solids flow-wall interaction phenomena, i.e. induced wall stress and particle flow patterns should be well understood. In this work, discrete element method (DEM) is used to study steady state granular flow in a gravity-fed hopper like geometry with blocks attached to an inclined wall. The effects of different geometries, e.g. different wall angles and spacing between blocks are studied by means of a 3D DEM slot model with periodic boundary conditions. The findings of this work include (i) flow analysis in terms of flow patterns and particle velocities, (ii) force distributions within the model geometry, and (iii) wall stress vs. model height diagrams. The model enables easy transfer of the key findings to other industrial applications handling granular materials.
DEM study of granular flow around blocks attached to inclined walls
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samsu Joel
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Damage due to intense particle-wall contact in industrial applications can cause severe problems in industries such as mineral processing, mining and metallurgy. Studying the flow dynamics and forces on containing walls can provide valuable feedback for equipment design and optimising operations to prolong the equipment lifetime. Therefore, solids flow-wall interaction phenomena, i.e. induced wall stress and particle flow patterns should be well understood. In this work, discrete element method (DEM is used to study steady state granular flow in a gravity-fed hopper like geometry with blocks attached to an inclined wall. The effects of different geometries, e.g. different wall angles and spacing between blocks are studied by means of a 3D DEM slot model with periodic boundary conditions. The findings of this work include (i flow analysis in terms of flow patterns and particle velocities, (ii force distributions within the model geometry, and (iii wall stress vs. model height diagrams. The model enables easy transfer of the key findings to other industrial applications handling granular materials.
Experimental investigation of turbulent flow in a channel with the backward-facing inclined step
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Uruba Václav
2012-04-01
Full Text Available The work deals with the experimental investigation of turbulent flow in a closed channel with the backward-facing inclined step. Experiments were carried by means of the PIV optical measuring method in the channel of the rectangular cross-section in the inlet part and with inclined steps of the constant height H mm and various inclination angles for a wide range of the Reynolds number. The attention was paid especially to the separation region behind the step and to the relaxation of the shear layer after the reattachment in the outlet part of the channel. The dependence of the length of the separation region on the Reynolds number was obtained for various step angles. Optical measurements were completed by the measurement of static pressure distribution in the inlet and outlet part of the channel to estimate energy losses.
Discrete Element Modeling (DEM) of Triboelectrically Charged Particles: Revised Experiments
Hogue, Michael D.; Calle, Carlos I.; Curry, D. R.; Weitzman, P. S.
2008-01-01
In a previous work, the addition of basic screened Coulombic electrostatic forces to an existing commercial discrete element modeling (DEM) software was reported. Triboelectric experiments were performed to charge glass spheres rolling on inclined planes of various materials. Charge generation constants and the Q/m ratios for the test materials were calculated from the experimental data and compared to the simulation output of the DEM software. In this paper, we will discuss new values of the charge generation constants calculated from improved experimental procedures and data. Also, planned work to include dielectrophoretic, Van der Waals forces, and advanced mechanical forces into the software will be discussed.
Crack Propagation in Plane Strain under Variable Amplitude Loading
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ricardo, Luiz Carlos Hernandes
2010-01-01
. In this paper procedures to determine the crack opening and closure by finite elements analyses in plane strain will be presented. The objective of this paper is also provide a review of retardation models under variable spectrum loading considering plane strain constraint as well as their correlation...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamai, Hideki; Konishi, Satoshi; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Okuno, Kenji
1994-01-01
Liquid phase catalytic exchange (LPCE) is effective method for enrichment and removal of tritium from tritiated water. Capacity coefficients of operating LPCE column that are essential to evaluate column performance were measured. Experiments were performed with short catalyst packed columns and effect of inclination was studied. Method for evaluation of capacity coefficients was established from measurement of isotope concentration of liquid, vapor, gas phases at the two ends of the column. The capacity coefficients were measured under various superficial gas velocities. Feasibility study of helical columns with roughened inner surface was performed with short inclined columns. The column performance was not strongly affected by the inclination. The result indicates technological feasibility of helical LPCE column, that is expected to have operation stability and reduced height
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan Changqi; Jin Guangyuan; Sun Licheng; Wang Yang
2015-01-01
Characteristics of local parameters of bubbly flow were investigated in rectangular channel (40 mm × 3 mm) under inclined and rolling conditions. Under vertical condition, the distribution type 'wall peak' and 'core peak' are observed, and 'core peak' exists when the liquid superficial velocity is low and the gas superficial velocity is high. Under inclined condition, the peaks of two distribution types get strengthened at the top of the channel, and weakened at the bottom. Under rolling condition, the peaks of two distribution types get strengthened compared with the same angle under inclined condition when the angle is getting larger. The influence from rolling motion gets stronger on the peak of two distribution types when the rolling movement is more violent. (authors)
Measurement, characterization, and modeling of noise in staring infrared focal plane arrays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scribner, D.A.; Kruer, M.R.; Gridley, C.J.; Sarkady, K.
1987-01-01
An account is given of selected methods for the measurement and characterization of spatial and temporal noise in staring focal plane arrays (FPAs), in order to demonstrate how these results can be used in simulations and analytic models to predict the performance of selected staring sensors. Attention is given to MIR FPAs applicable to the detection and tracking of point sources, and to the ways in which these spatial and temporal noise measurements can be incorporated into simulations and sensors having staring FPAs. Methods for predicting the performance of selected staring sensor systems are derivable from spatial and temporal noise values. 13 references
Modeling of Ship Collision Risk Index Based on Complex Plane and Its Realization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaoqin Xu
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Ship collision risk index is the basic and important concept in the domain of ship collision avoidance. In this paper, the advantages and deficiencies of the various calculation methods of ship collision risk index are pointed out. Then the ship collision risk model based on complex plane, which can well make up for the deficiencies of the widely-used evaluation model proposed by Kearon.J and Liu ruru is proposed. On this basis, the calculation method of collision risk index under the encountering situation of multi-ships is constructed, then the three-dimensional image and spatial curve of the risk index are figured out. Finally, single chip microcomputer is used to realize the model. And attaching this single chip microcomputer to ARPA is helpful to the decision-making of the marine navigators.
Affine planes, ternary rings, and examples of non-Desarguesian planes
Ivanov, Nikolai V.
2016-01-01
The paper is devoted to a detailed self-contained exposition of a part of the theory of affine planes leading to a construction of affine (or, equivalently, projective) planes not satisfying the Desarques axiom. It is intended to complement the introductory expositions of the theory of affine and projective planes. A novelty of our exposition is a new notation for the ternary operation in a ternary ring, much more suggestive than the standard one.
Fractal behaviour of flow of an inhomogeneous fluid over a smooth inclined surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rouhani, S.; Maleki Jirsarani, N.; Ghane Motlagh, B.; Baradaran, S.; Shokrian, E.
2001-01-01
We have observed and analyzed fractal patterns made by the flow of an inhomogeneous fluid (a suspension) over an inclined smooth surface. We observed that if the angle of inclination is above a threshold (10 d eg C - 12 d eg C), the length of fractal clusters become infinity. We measured a fractal dimension of df=1.40 ± 0.05. This falls within the same general class of patterns of flow of water over an inhomogeneous surface. This observation is consistent with the results of theoretical modes for nonlinear fluid flow in random media
Inclined asymmetric librations in exterior resonances
Voyatzis, G.; Tsiganis, K.; Antoniadou, K. I.
2018-04-01
Librational motion in Celestial Mechanics is generally associated with the existence of stable resonant configurations and signified by the existence of stable periodic solutions and oscillation of critical (resonant) angles. When such an oscillation takes place around a value different than 0 or π , the libration is called asymmetric. In the context of the planar circular restricted three-body problem, asymmetric librations have been identified for the exterior mean motion resonances (MMRs) 1:2, 1:3, etc., as well as for co-orbital motion (1:1). In exterior MMRs the massless body is the outer one. In this paper, we study asymmetric librations in the three-dimensional space. We employ the computational approach of Markellos (Mon Not R Astron Soc 184:273-281, https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/184.2.273, 1978) and compute families of asymmetric periodic orbits and their stability. Stable asymmetric periodic orbits are surrounded in phase space by domains of initial conditions which correspond to stable evolution and librating resonant angles. Our computations were focused on the spatial circular restricted three-body model of the Sun-Neptune-TNO system (TNO = trans-Neptunian object). We compare our results with numerical integrations of observed TNOs, which reveal that some of them perform 1:2 resonant, inclined asymmetric librations. For the stable 1:2 TNO librators, we find that their libration seems to be related to the vertically stable planar asymmetric orbits of our model, rather than the three-dimensional ones found in the present study.
Modelling radiative transfer through ponded first-year Arctic sea ice with a plane-parallel model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Taskjelle
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Under-ice irradiance measurements were done on ponded first-year pack ice along three transects during the ICE12 expedition north of Svalbard. Bulk transmittances (400–900 nm were found to be on average 0.15–0.20 under bare ice, and 0.39–0.46 under ponded ice. Radiative transfer modelling was done with a plane-parallel model. While simulated transmittances deviate significantly from measured transmittances close to the edge of ponds, spatially averaged bulk transmittances agree well. That is, transect-average bulk transmittances, calculated using typical simulated transmittances for ponded and bare ice weighted by the fractional coverage of the two surface types, are in good agreement with the measured values. Radiative heating rates calculated from model output indicates that about 20 % of the incident solar energy is absorbed in bare ice, and 50 % in ponded ice (35 % in pond itself, 15 % in the underlying ice. This large difference is due to the highly scattering surface scattering layer (SSL increasing the albedo of the bare ice.
Modelling radiative transfer through ponded first-year Arctic sea ice with a plane-parallel model
Taskjelle, Torbjørn; Hudson, Stephen R.; Granskog, Mats A.; Hamre, Børge
2017-09-01
Under-ice irradiance measurements were done on ponded first-year pack ice along three transects during the ICE12 expedition north of Svalbard. Bulk transmittances (400-900 nm) were found to be on average 0.15-0.20 under bare ice, and 0.39-0.46 under ponded ice. Radiative transfer modelling was done with a plane-parallel model. While simulated transmittances deviate significantly from measured transmittances close to the edge of ponds, spatially averaged bulk transmittances agree well. That is, transect-average bulk transmittances, calculated using typical simulated transmittances for ponded and bare ice weighted by the fractional coverage of the two surface types, are in good agreement with the measured values. Radiative heating rates calculated from model output indicates that about 20 % of the incident solar energy is absorbed in bare ice, and 50 % in ponded ice (35 % in pond itself, 15 % in the underlying ice). This large difference is due to the highly scattering surface scattering layer (SSL) increasing the albedo of the bare ice.
Pankrats, A I; Demidov, A A; Ritter, C; Velikanov, D A; Semenov, S V; Tugarinov, V I; Temerov, V L; Gudim, I A
2016-10-05
The magnetic structure of the mixed rare-earth system Pr x Y1-x Fe3(BO3)4 (x = 0.75, 0.67, 0.55, 0.45, 0.25) was studied via magnetic and resonance measurements. These data evidence the successive spin reorientation from the easy-axis antiferromagnetic structure formed in PrFe3(BO3)4 to the easy-plane one of YFe3(BO3)4 associated with the weakening of the magnetic anisotropy of the Pr subsystem due to its diamagnetic dilution by nonmagnetic Y. This reorientation occurs through the formation of an inclined magnetic structure, as was confirmed by our previous neutron research in the range of x = 0.67 ÷ 0.45. In the compounds with x = 0.75 and 0.67 whose magnetic structure is close to the easy-axis one, a two-step spin reorientation takes place in the magnetic field H||c. Such a peculiarity is explained by the formation of an interjacent inclined magnetic structure with magnetic moments of Fe ions located closer to the basal plane than in the initial state, with these intermediate states remaining stable in some ranges of the magnetic field. An approach based on a crystal field model for the Pr(3+) ion and the molecular-field approximation is used to describe the magnetic characteristics of the system Pr x Y1-x Fe3(BO3)4. With the parameters of the d-d and f-d exchange interactions, of the magnetic anisotropy of the iron subsystem and of the crystal field parameters of praseodymium thus determined, it is possible to achieve a good agreement between the experimental and calculated temperature and field dependences of the magnetization curves (up to 90 kOe) and magnetic susceptibilities (2-300 K).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Simon Schuffert
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Due to the increasing scarcity of fossil fuels and the upwards trend in energy costs over time, many countries—especially in Europe—have begun to modify their energy policies aiming to increase that percentage obtained from renewable energies. The EAGLE (FP7 program, European Commission has developed a web-based platform to promote renewable energy systems (RES in the public and private sectors, and to deliver a comprehensive information source for all interested users. In this paper, a comprehensive quality assessment of extracted roof planes suitable for solar energy installations (photovoltaic, solar thermal from height data derived automatically from both LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging and aerial images will be presented. A shadow analysis is performed regarding the daily path of the sun including the shading effects of nearby objects (chimneys, dormers, vegetation, buildings, topography, etc.. A quality assessment was carried out for both LiDAR and aerial images of the same test sites in UK and Germany concerning building outline accuracy, extraction rate of roof planes and the accuracy of their geometric parameters (inclination and aspect angle, size. The benefit is an optimized system to extract roof planes for RES with a high level of detail, accuracy and flexibility (concerning different commonly available data sources including an estimation of quality of the results which is important for individual house owners as well as for regional applications by governments or solar energy companies to judge their usefulness.
Schlauch, Robert C; Gwynn-Shapiro, Daniel; Stasiewicz, Paul R; Molnar, Danielle S; Lang, Alan R
2013-04-01
Research on reactivity to alcohol and drug cues has either ignored affective state altogether or has focused rather narrowly on the role of negative affect in craving. Moreover, until recently, the relevant analyses of affect and craving have rarely addressed the ambivalence often associated with craving itself. The current study investigated how both negative and positive affect moderate approach and avoidance inclinations associated with cue-elicited craving in a clinical sample diagnosed with substance use disorders. One hundred forty-four patients (age range of 18-65, mean 42.0; n=92 males) were recruited from an inpatient detoxification unit for substance abuse. Participants completed a baseline assessment of both positive and negative affect prior to completing a cue-reactivity paradigm for which they provided self-report ratings of inclinations to approach (use) and avoid (not use) alcohol, cigarettes, and non-psychoactive control substances (food and beverages). Participants with elevated negative affect reported significantly higher approach ratings for cigarette and alcohol cues, whereas those high in positive affect showed significantly higher levels of avoidance inclinations for both alcohol and cigarette cues and also significantly lower approach ratings for alcohol cues, all relative to control cues. Results for negative affect are consistent with previous cue reactivity research, whereas results for positive affect are unique and call attention to its clinical potential for attenuating approach inclinations to substance use cues. Further, positive affect was related to both approach and avoidance inclinations, underscoring the utility of a multidimensional conceptualization of craving in the analysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
New plastic plane stress model for concrete
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Winnicki, A.; Cichon, Cz.
1993-01-01
In the paper a description of concrete behaviour in the plane stress case is given on the basis of the modified bounding surface plasticity theory. Three independent plastic mechanisms have been introduced describing axiatoric and deviatoric plastic strains and their coupling. All the new analytical formulae for material functions being in agreement with experiments and loading/unloading criteria have been proposed. In addition, for the proper description of concrete behaviour in tension a new, separate function of bounding surface shrinkage has been introduced. (author)
Stanek, F.; Jechumtalova, Z.; Eisner, L.
2017-12-01
We present a geomechanical model explaining microseismicity induced by hydraulic fracturing in shales developed from many datasets acquired with two most common types of seismic monitoring arrays, surface and dual-borehole arrays. The geomechanical model explains the observed source mechanisms and locations of induced events from two stimulated shale reservoirs. We observe shear dip-slip source mechanisms with nodal planes aligned with location trends. We show that such seismicity can be explained as a shearing along bedding planes caused by aseismic opening of vertical hydraulic fractures. The source mechanism inversion was applied only to selected high-quality events with sufficient signal-to-noise ratio. We inverted P- and P- and S-wave arrival amplitudes to full-moment tensor and decomposed it to shear, volumetric and compensated linear vector dipole components. We also tested an effect of noise presented in the data to evaluate reliability of non-shear components. The observed seismicity from both surface and downhole monitoring of shale stimulations is very similar. The locations of induced microseismic events are limited to narrow depth intervals and propagate along distinct trend(s) showing fracture propagation in direction of maximum horizontal stress from injection well(s). The source mechanisms have a small non-shear component which can be partly explained as an effect of noise in the data, i.e. events represent shearing on faults. We observe predominantly dip-slip events with a strike of the steeper (almost vertical) nodal plane parallel to the fracture propagation. Therefore the other possible nodal plane is almost horizontal. The rake angles of the observed mechanisms divide these dip-slips into two groups with opposite polarities. It means that we observe opposite movements on the nearly identically oriented faults. Realizing a typical structural weakness of shale in horizontal planes, we interpret observed microseismicity as a result of shearing
Sanjaya, Kadek Heri; Lee, Soomin; Sriwarno, Andar Bagus; Shimomura, Yoshihito; Katsuura, Tetsuo
2014-06-01
In order to reconcile contradictory results from previous studies on manual pushing, a study was conducted to examine the effect of trunk inclination on muscular activities, centre of pressure (COP) and force exertion during static pushing. Ten subjects pushed at 0 degrees, 15 degrees, 30 degrees, and 45 degrees body inclinations in parallel and staggered feet stances. Wall and ground force plates measured pushing force, wall COP, vertical ground reaction force (GRF) and ground COP. Electromyogram data were recorded at 10 trunk muscle sites. Pushing force was found to increase with body inclination. GRF peaked at 15 degrees and reached its lowest level at the 45 degrees inclination. The lowest wall force plate standard deviation of COP displacement was found at the 30 degrees inclination. The lowest low back muscular activity was found at the 15 degrees and 30 degrees inclinations. Based on force exertion, muscular load, and stability, the 30 degrees body inclination was found to be the best posture for static pushing. This study also showed asymmetry in muscular activity and force exertion which has been received less attention in manual pushing studies. These findings will require further study.
Markov chain sampling of the O(n) loop models on the infinite plane
Herdeiro, Victor
2017-07-01
A numerical method was recently proposed in Herdeiro and Doyon [Phys. Rev. E 94, 043322 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevE.94.043322] showing a precise sampling of the infinite plane two-dimensional critical Ising model for finite lattice subsections. The present note extends the method to a larger class of models, namely the O(n) loop gas models for n ∈(1 ,2 ] . We argue that even though the Gibbs measure is nonlocal, it is factorizable on finite subsections when sufficient information on the loops touching the boundaries is stored. Our results attempt to show that provided an efficient Markov chain mixing algorithm and an improved discrete lattice dilation procedure the planar limit of the O(n) models can be numerically studied with efficiency similar to the Ising case. This confirms that scale invariance is the only requirement for the present numerical method to work.
MEASUREMENTS OF DUST EXTINCTION IN HIGHLY INCLINED SPIRAL GALAXIES
JANSEN, RA; KNAPEN, JH; BECKMAN, JE; PELETIER, RF; HES, R
1994-01-01
We study the extinction properties of dust in the well-defined dust lanes of four highly inclined galaxies, using U-, B-, V-, R- and I-band CCD and J- and K'-band near-infrared array images. For three of these galaxies, we could use the symmetry of the underlying light profile to obtain absolute
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mori, H; Waters, T; Saotome, N; Nagamine, T; Sato, Y
2016-01-01
Passive vibration isolators are desired to have both high static stiffness to support large static load and low local stiffness to reduce the displacement transmissibility at frequencies greater than resonance. Utilization of a vertical buckled beam as a spring component is one way to realize such a stiffness characteristic since it exhibits a smaller ratio of local stiffness to static stiffness than that of a linear spring. This paper investigates the behaviour of a vibration isolator using inclined beams as well as vertical ones and examines the effect of beam inclination for the purpose of improving the isolation performance. The experimental system investigated has an isolated mass which is supported by a combination of two types of beams: buckled beams and constraining beams. The buckled beams can be inclined from the vertical by attachment devices, and the constraining beams are employed to prevent off-axis motion of the isolated mass. The results demonstrate that the inclination of the buckled beams reduces the resonance frequency and improves the displacement transmissibility at frequencies greater than resonance. (paper)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kadhum Audaa Jehhef
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Anumerical solutions is presented to investigate the effect of inclination angle (θ , perforation ratio (m and wall temperature of the plate (Tw on the heat transfer in natural convection from isothermal square flat plate up surface heated (with and without concentrated hole. The flat plate with dimensions of (128 mm length × (64 mm width has been used five with square models of the flat plate that gave a rectangular perforation of (m=0.03, 0.06, 0.13, 0.25, 0.5. The values of angle of inclination were (0o, 15o 30o 45o 60o from horizontal position and the values of wall temperature (50oC, 60 oC, 70 oC, 90 oC, 100oC. To investigate the temperature, boundary layer thickness and heat flux distributions; the numerical computation is carried out using a very efficient integral method to solve the governing equation. The results show increase in the temperature gradient with increase in the angle of inclination and the high gradient and high heat transfer coefficients located in the external edges of the plate, for both cases: with and without holed plate. There are two separation regions of heat transfer in the external edge and the internal edges. The boundary layer thickness is small in the external edge and high in the center of the plate and it decreases as the inclination angle of plate increases. Theoretical results are compared with previous result and it is found that the Nusslet numbers in the present study are higher by (22 % than that in the previous studies. And the results show good agreement in range of Raleigh number from 105 to 106.
An Algorithm for constructing Hjelmslev planes
Hall, Joanne L.; Rao, Asha
2013-01-01
Projective Hjelmslev planes and Affine Hjelmselv planes are generalisations of projective planes and affine planes. We present an algorithm for constructing a projective Hjelmslev planes and affine Hjelsmelv planes using projective planes, affine planes and orthogonal arrays. We show that all 2-uniform projective Hjelmslev planes, and all 2-uniform affine Hjelsmelv planes can be constructed in this way. As a corollary it is shown that all 2-uniform Affine Hjelmselv planes are sub-geometries o...
PLANETESIMAL ACCRETION IN BINARY SYSTEMS: ROLE OF THE COMPANION'S ORBITAL INCLINATION
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xie Jiwei; Zhou Jilin
2009-01-01
Recent observations show that planets can reside in close binary systems with stellar separation of only ∼20 AU. However, planet formation in such close binary systems is a challenge to current theory. One of the major theoretical problems occurs in the intermediate stage-planetesimals accretion into planetary embryos-during which the companion's perturbations can stir up the relative velocities (utriV) of planetesimals and thus slow down or even cease their growth. Recent studies have shown that conditions could be even worse for accretion if the gas-disk evolution was included. However, all previous studies assumed a two-dimensional disk and a coplanar binary orbit. Extending previous studies by including a three-dimensional gas disk and an inclined binary orbit with small relative inclination of i B = 0. 0 1-5 0 , we numerically investigate the conditions for planetesimal accretion at 1-2 AU, an extension of the habitable zone (∼1-1.3 AU), around α Centauri A in this paper. Inclusion of the binary inclination leads to the following: (1) differential orbital phasing is realized in the three-dimensional space, and thus different-sized bodies are separated from each other, (2) total impact rate is lower, and impacts mainly occur between similar-sized bodies, (3) accretion is more favored, but the balance between accretion and erosion remains uncertain, and the 'possible accretion region' extends up to 2 AU when assuming an optimistic Q* (critical specific energy that leads to catastrophic fragmentation), and (4) impact velocities (utriV) are significantly reduced but still much larger than their escape velocities, which infers that planetesimals grow by means of type II runaway mode. As a conclusion, the inclusion of a small binary inclination is a promising mechanism that favors accretion, opening a possibility that planet formation in close binary systems can go through the difficult stage of planetesimals accretion into planetary embryos.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsutsumi, K.; Nishitani, M. [Dai Ichi University, College of Technology, Kagoshima (Japan)
1997-11-25
Experiment/study were conducted on the influence of angle of inclination on output of solar modules. In the experiment, changing the angle of inclination of the photovoltaic module installed on the top of school building to 0, 30, 60 and 90 degC, the global radiation on an inclined surface was measured by pyranometer equipped with the module, and at the same time output characteristics were measured by I-V curve tracer. In the I-V curve tracer, voltage, current, and output capability diagram are illustrated automatically changing bias voltage to get the maximum output. The global radiation on an inclined surface and the maximum output indicated an almost proportional relation and were expressed in a recursion method. Moreover, measurement of the global radiation is usually conducted using the amount of global radiation on a horizontal surface, and the global radiation on an inclined surface is calculated as a sum of the direct solar radiation amount and the sky solar radiation amount after determining a penetration rate by the relational equation. By calculating the global radiation on an inclined surface, it becomes possible to calculate the maximum output of photovoltaic modules by this recursion method. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab.
Ultrasound-Guided Out-of-Plane vs. In-Plane Interscalene Catheters: A Randomized, Prospective Study.
Schwenk, Eric S; Gandhi, Kishor; Baratta, Jaime L; Torjman, Marc; Epstein, Richard H; Chung, Jaeyoon; Vaghari, Benjamin A; Beausang, David; Bojaxhi, Elird; Grady, Bernadette
2015-12-01
Continuous interscalene blocks provide excellent analgesia after shoulder surgery. Although the safety of the ultrasound-guided in-plane approach has been touted, technical and patient factors can limit this approach. We developed a caudad-to-cephalad out-of-plane approach and hypothesized that it would decrease pain ratings due to better catheter alignment with the brachial plexus compared to the in-plane technique in a randomized, controlled study. To compare an out-of-plane interscalene catheter technique to the in-plane technique in a randomized clinical trial. Eighty-four patients undergoing open shoulder surgery were randomized to either the in-plane or out-of-plane ultrasound-guided continuous interscalene technique. The primary outcome was VAS pain rating at 24 hours. Secondary outcomes included pain ratings in the recovery room and at 48 hours, morphine consumption, the incidence of catheter dislodgments, procedure time, and block difficulty. Procedural data and all pain ratings were collected by blinded observers. There were no differences in the primary outcome of median VAS pain rating at 24 hours between the out-of-plane and in-plane groups (1.50; IQR, [0 - 4.38] vs. 1.25; IQR, [0 - 3.75]; P = 0.57). There were also no differences, respectively, between out-of-plane and in-plane median PACU pain ratings (1.0; IQR, [0 - 3.5] vs. 0.25; IQR, [0 - 2.5]; P = 0.08) and median 48-hour pain ratings (1.25; IQR, [1.25 - 2.63] vs. 0.50; IQR, [0 - 1.88]; P = 0.30). There were no differences in any other secondary endpoint. Our out-of-plane technique did not provide superior analgesia to the in-plane technique. It did not increase the number of complications. Our technique is an acceptable alternative in situations where the in-plane technique is difficult to perform.
Students' Entrepreneurial Inclination at a Malaysian Polytechnic: A Preliminary Investigation
Yasin, Ahmad Yasruddin Md; Mahmood, Nik Abdul Aziz Nik; Jaafar, Nik Azyyati Nik
2011-01-01
This paper reports preliminary results of an ongoing project to examine students' inclination towards entrepreneurship at a Malaysian polytechnic. The study used a self-administered questionnaire to explore the influence of entrepreneurial intent, perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, perceived barriers, perceived support factors and…
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pinheiro, Larissa Cunha
2017-07-01
Passive decay heat removal systems based on natural circulation are essential assets for the new Gen III+ nuclear power reactors and nuclear spent fuel pools. The aim of the present work is to study both laminar and turbulent flow and heat transfer in single-phase natural circulation systems through computational fluid dynamics simulations. The working fluid is considered to be incompressible with constant properties. In the way, the Boussinesq Natural Convection Hypothesis was applied. The model chosen for the turbulence closure problem was the k -- εThe commercial computational fluid dynamics code ANSYS CFX 15.0 was used to obtain the numerical solution of the governing equations. Two single-phase natural circulation circuits were studied, a 2D toroidal loop and a 3D rectangular loop, both with the same boundary conditions of: prescribed heat flux at the heater and fixed wall temperature at the cooler. The validation and verification was performed with the numerical data provided by DESRAYAUD et al. [1] and the experimental data provided by MISALE et al. [2] and KUMAR et al. [3]. An excellent agreement between the Reynolds number (Re) and the modified Grashof number (Gr{sub m}), independently of Prandtl Pr number was observed. However, the convergence interval was observed to be variable with Pr, thus indicating that Pr is a stability governing parameter for natural circulation. Multiple steady states was obtained for Pr = 0,7. Finally, the effect of inclination was studied for the 3D circuit, both in-plane and out-of-plane inclinations were verified for the steady state laminar regime. As a conclusion, the Re for the out-of-plane inclination was in perfect agreement with the correlation found for the zero inclination system, while for the in-plane inclined system the results differ from that of the corresponding vertical loop. (author)
Computational simulation of flow and heat transfer in single-phase natural circulation loops
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pinheiro, Larissa Cunha
2017-01-01
Passive decay heat removal systems based on natural circulation are essential assets for the new Gen III+ nuclear power reactors and nuclear spent fuel pools. The aim of the present work is to study both laminar and turbulent flow and heat transfer in single-phase natural circulation systems through computational fluid dynamics simulations. The working fluid is considered to be incompressible with constant properties. In the way, the Boussinesq Natural Convection Hypothesis was applied. The model chosen for the turbulence closure problem was the k -- εThe commercial computational fluid dynamics code ANSYS CFX 15.0 was used to obtain the numerical solution of the governing equations. Two single-phase natural circulation circuits were studied, a 2D toroidal loop and a 3D rectangular loop, both with the same boundary conditions of: prescribed heat flux at the heater and fixed wall temperature at the cooler. The validation and verification was performed with the numerical data provided by DESRAYAUD et al. [1] and the experimental data provided by MISALE et al. [2] and KUMAR et al. [3]. An excellent agreement between the Reynolds number (Re) and the modified Grashof number (Gr_m), independently of Prandtl Pr number was observed. However, the convergence interval was observed to be variable with Pr, thus indicating that Pr is a stability governing parameter for natural circulation. Multiple steady states was obtained for Pr = 0,7. Finally, the effect of inclination was studied for the 3D circuit, both in-plane and out-of-plane inclinations were verified for the steady state laminar regime. As a conclusion, the Re for the out-of-plane inclination was in perfect agreement with the correlation found for the zero inclination system, while for the in-plane inclined system the results differ from that of the corresponding vertical loop. (author)
Aerodynamic coefficients of stationary dry inclined bridge cables in laminar flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Matteoni, Giulia; Georgakis, Christos; Ricciardelli, Francesco
2011-01-01
Stay cables are the most flexible elements of cable-stayed bridges. When exposed to wind loading, they often undergo large amplitude vibrations, thus motivating serious design concerns. In most cases, vibrations are observed in the presence of water rivulets or ice accretions, which lead to an ef......Stay cables are the most flexible elements of cable-stayed bridges. When exposed to wind loading, they often undergo large amplitude vibrations, thus motivating serious design concerns. In most cases, vibrations are observed in the presence of water rivulets or ice accretions, which lead...... experimental and theoretical research in the last two decades, even though a definitive understanding of the flow around inclined cables under various surface conditions has not been achieved. A comparative study on the aerodynamic coefficients of stationary inclined stay cables, under various surface...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rodriguez G.
2013-06-01
Full Text Available The average muon content of measured showers with zenith angles between 62∘ and 80∘ detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory is obtained as a function of shower energy using a reconstruction method specifically designed for inclined showers and the hybrid character of the detector. The reconstruction of inclined showers relies on a comparison between the measured signals at ground and reference patterns at ground level from which an overall normalization factor is obtained. Since inclined showers are dominated by muons this factor gives the relative muon size. It can be calibrated using a subsample of showers simultaneously recorded with the fluorescence detector (FD and the surface detector (SD which provides an independent calorimetric measurement of the energy. The muon size obtained for each shower becomes a measurement of the relative number of muons with respect to the reference distributions. The precision of the measurement is assessed using simulated events which are reconstructed using exactly the same procedure. We compare the relative number of muons versus energy as obtained to simulations. Proton simulations with QGSJETII show a factor of 2.13 ± 0.04(stat ± 0.11(sys at 1019eV without significant variations in the energy range explored between 4 × 1018eV to 7 × 1019eV. We find that none of the current shower models, neither for proton nor for iron primaries, are able to predict as many muons as are observed.
Heat transfer coefficient in pool boiling for an electrically heated tube at various inclinations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fahmy, A.S.A.; Mariy, A.H.; Mahmoud, S.I.; Ibrahim, N.A.
1987-01-01
An experimental investigation is carried out study the behaviour of heat transfer in pool boiling from a vertical and inclined heated tube at atmospheric pressure. An imperial correlation joining the different parameters affecting the heat transfer coefficient in pool boiling for an electrically heated tube at various inclinations is developed. Two test sections (zircaloy-4 and stainless steel) of 16 n n outer diameter and 120 nm length are investigated. Four levels of heat flux are used for heating the two lest sections (e.g. 381, 518, 721 and 929 k.watt/n 2). The maximum surface temperature achieved is 146.5 degree c for both materials, and the maximum bulk temperature is 95 degree C. It is found that the average heat transfer coefficient is inversely proportional with heated length l, where it reaches a constant value in the horizontal position. The heat transfer coefficient curves at various inclinations with respect to the heated tube length pass around one point which is defined as limit length
Ballistic Target PHD Filter Based on Infrared Focal Plane Ambiguous Observation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Zhao
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Space-based early warning system, the main detection means of which is passive detection based on focal plane, is an important part of ballistic missile defense system. The focal plane is mainly composed of CCD, and its size can reach the micron level, so the pixel is often regarded as point of no area in image postprocessing. The design of traditional tracking methods is based on this, and the observation based on the focal plane is modeled as the azimuth with random noise. However, this modeling is inaccurate. In the context of space-based detection, CCD cannot be simplified as a point, and its size should be considered. And the corresponding observation cannot be treated as azimuth with random noise. In this paper, the observation based on focal plane is modeled as Unambiguously Generated Ambiguous (UGA measurement. The PHD filter algorithm is redesigned and simplified. The simulation results show that the algorithm based on UGA measurement observation model has better tracking effect compared with that based on traditional observation model. This method provides technical support for more accurate target tracking for space-based early warning system.
Determination of the optimal conditions for inclination maneuvers using a Swing-by
Moura, O.; Celestino, C. C.; Prado, A. F. B. A.
2018-05-01
The search for methods to reduce the fuel consumption in orbital transfers is something relevant and always current in astrodynamics. Therefore, the maneuvers assisted by the gravity, also called Swing-by maneuvers, can be an advantageous option to save fuel. The proposal of the present research is to explore the influence of some parameters in a Swing-by of an artificial satellite orbiting a planet with one of the moons of this mother planet, with the goal of changing the inclination of the artificial satellite around the main body of the system. The fuel consumption of this maneuver is compared with the required consumption to perform the same change of inclination using the classical approach of impulsive maneuvers.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kaishi Wang
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The ceramic-metal interface is present in various material structures and devices that are vulnerable to failures, like cracking, which are typically due to their incompatible properties, e.g., thermal expansion mismatch. In failure of these multilayer systems, interfacial shear strength is a good measure of the robustness of interfaces, especially for planar films. There is a widely-used shear lag model and method by Agrawal and Raj to analyse and measure the interfacial shear strength of thin brittle film on ductile substrates. The use of this classical model for a type of polymer derived ceramic coatings (thickness ~18 μm on steel substrate leads to high values of interfacial shear strength. Here, we present finite element simulations for such a coating system when it is subjected to in-plane tension. Results show that the in-plane stresses in the coating are non-uniform, i.e., varying across the thickness of the film. Therefore, they do not meet one of the basic assumptions of the classical model: uniform in-plane stress. Furthermore, effects of three significant parameters, film thickness, crack spacing, and Young’s modulus, on the in-plane stress distribution have also been investigated. ‘Thickness-averaged In-plane Stress’ (TIS, a new failure criterion, is proposed for estimating the interfacial shear strength, which leads to a more realistic estimation of the tensile strength and interfacial shear strength of thick brittle films/coatings on ductile substrates.
Wang, Kaishi; Zhang, Fangzhou; Bordia, Rajendra K
2018-03-27
The ceramic-metal interface is present in various material structures and devices that are vulnerable to failures, like cracking, which are typically due to their incompatible properties, e.g., thermal expansion mismatch. In failure of these multilayer systems, interfacial shear strength is a good measure of the robustness of interfaces, especially for planar films. There is a widely-used shear lag model and method by Agrawal and Raj to analyse and measure the interfacial shear strength of thin brittle film on ductile substrates. The use of this classical model for a type of polymer derived ceramic coatings (thickness ~18 μm) on steel substrate leads to high values of interfacial shear strength. Here, we present finite element simulations for such a coating system when it is subjected to in-plane tension. Results show that the in-plane stresses in the coating are non-uniform, i.e., varying across the thickness of the film. Therefore, they do not meet one of the basic assumptions of the classical model: uniform in-plane stress. Furthermore, effects of three significant parameters, film thickness, crack spacing, and Young's modulus, on the in-plane stress distribution have also been investigated. 'Thickness-averaged In-plane Stress' (TIS), a new failure criterion, is proposed for estimating the interfacial shear strength, which leads to a more realistic estimation of the tensile strength and interfacial shear strength of thick brittle films/coatings on ductile substrates.
Practice of Meteorological Services in Turpan Solar Eco-City in China (Invited)
Shen, Y.; Chang, R.; He, X.; Jiang, Y.; Zhao, D.; Ma, J.
2013-12-01
Turpan Solar Eco-City is located in Gobi in Northwest China, which is one of the National New Energy Demonstration Urban. The city was planed and designed from October of 2008 and constructed from May of 2010, and the first phase of the project has been completed by October of 2013. Energy supply in Turpan Solar Eco-City is mainly from PV power, which is installed in all of the roof and the total capacity is 13.4MW. During the planning and designing of the city, and the running of the smart grid, meteorological services have played an important role. 1) Solar Energy Resource Assessment during Planning Phase. According to the observed data from meteorological stations in recent 30 years, solar energy resource was assessed and available PV power generation capacity was calculated. The results showed that PV power generation capacity is 1.3 times the power consumption, that is, solar energy resource in Turpan is rich. 2) Key Meteorological Parameters Determination for Architectural Design. A professional solar energy resource station was constructed and the observational items included Global Horizontal Irradiance, Inclined Total Solar Irradiance at 30 degree, Inclined Total Solar Irradiance at local latitude, and so on. According these measured data, the optical inclined angle for PV array was determined, that is, 30 degree. The results indicated that the annual irradiation on inclined plane with optimal angle is 1.4% higher than the inclined surface with latitude angle, and 23.16% higher than the horizontal plane. The diffuse ratio and annual variation of the solar elevation angle are two major factors that influence the irradiation on inclined plane. 3) Solar Energy Resource Forecast for Smart Grid. Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model was used to forecast the hourly solar radiation of future 72 hours and the measured irradiance data was used to forecast the minutely solar radiation of future 4 hours. The forecast results were submitted to smart grid and used to
Khan, Mair; Malik, M. Y.; Salahuddin, T.; Hussian, Arif.
2018-03-01
The present analysis is devoted to explore the computational solution of the problem addressing the variable viscosity and inclined Lorentz force effects on Williamson nanofluid over a stretching sheet. Variable viscosity is assumed to vary as a linear function of temperature. The basic mathematical modelled problem i.e. system of PDE's is converted nonlinear into ODE's via applying suitable transformations. Computational solutions of the problem is also achieved via efficient numerical technique shooting. Characteristics of controlling parameters i.e. stretching index, inclined angle, Hartmann number, Weissenberg number, variable viscosity parameter, mixed convention parameter, Brownian motion parameter, Prandtl number, Lewis number, thermophoresis parameter and chemical reactive species on concentration, temperature and velocity gradient. Additionally, friction factor coefficient, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are describe with the help of graphics as well as tables verses flow controlling parameters.
In-plane and out-of-plane bending tests on carbon steel pipe bends
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brouard, D.; Tremblais, A.; Vrillon, B.
1979-01-01
The objectives of these tests were to obtain experimental results on bends behaviour in elastic and plastic regime by in plane and out of plane bending. Results were used to improve the computer model, for large distorsion of bends, to be used in a simplified beam type computer code for piping calculations. Tests were made on type ANSI B 169 DN 5 bends in ASTM A 106 Grade B carbon steel. These tests made it possible to measure, for identical bends, in elastic regime, the flexibility factors and, in plastic regime, the total evolution in opening, in closing and out of plane. Flexibility factors of 180 0 bend without flanges are approximately the same in opening and in closing. The end effect due to flanges is not very significant, but it is important for 90 0 bends. In plastic regime, collapse loads or collapse moments of bends depends also of both the end effects and the angle bend. The end effects and the angle bend are more sensitive in opening than in closing. The interest of these tests is to procure some precise evolution curves of identical bends well characterized in geometry and metal strength, deflected in large distorsions. (orig./HP)
MHD natural convection in open inclined square cavity with a heated circular cylinder
Hosain, Sheikh Anwar; Alim, M. A.; Saha, Satrajit Kumar
2017-06-01
MHD natural convection in open cavity becomes very important in many scientific and engineering problems, because of it's application in the design of electronic devices, solar thermal receivers, uncovered flat plate solar collectors having rows of vertical strips, geothermal reservoirs, etc. Several experiments and numerical investigations have been presented for describing the phenomenon of natural convection in open cavity for two decades. MHD natural convection and fluid flow in a two-dimensional open inclined square cavity with a heated circular cylinder was considered. The opposite wall to the opening side of the cavity was first kept to constant heat flux q, at the same time the surrounding fluid interacting with the aperture was maintained to an ambient temperature T∞. The top and bottom wall was kept to low and high temperature respectively. The fluid with different Prandtl numbers. The properties of the fluid are assumed to be constant. As a result a buoyancy force is created inside the cavity due to temperature difference and natural convection is formed inside the cavity. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code are used to discretize the solution domain and represent the numerical result to graphical form.. Triangular meshes are used to obtain the solution of the problem. The streamlines and isotherms are produced, heat transfer parameter Nu are obtained. The results are presented in graphical as well as tabular form. The results show that heat flux decreases for increasing inclination of the cavity and the heat flux is a increasing function of Prandtl number Pr and decreasing function of Hartmann number Ha. It is observed that fluid moves counterclockwise around the cylinder in the cavity. Various recirculations are formed around the cylinder. The almost all isotherm lines are concentrated at the right lower corner of the cavity. The object of this work is to develop a Mathematical model regarding the effect of MHD natural convection flow around
Yun, Seong-Woo; Lee, Byung Kook; Jeung, Kyung Woon; Park, Sang Wook; Choi, Sung Soo; Lee, Chang-Hee; Ryu, So-Yeon
2014-08-01
A step stool is an ordinary device to improve the quality of chest compression (CC) during in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). We investigated the effect of an inclined step stool on the quality of CC during CPR on a hospital bed. We conducted a randomized crossover study of simulation using a manikin. Two different methods of CC were performed and compared: CC using a flat stool and CC using an inclined (20°) stool. Each session of CC was performed for 2 minutes using a metronome at a rate of 110 beats per minute. The primary outcome was the depth of CC. The adequate CC rate, duty cycle, rate of incomplete recoil, and the angle between the arm of the participants and the bed were also measured. The median value of the mean depth of CC was 50.5 mm (45.0-57.0 mm) in the flat stool group and 54.5 mm (47.0-58.3 mm) in the inclined stool group (P = .014). The adequate CC rate was significantly higher in the inclined stool group (84.2% [37.6%-99.1%] vs 57.0% [15.2%-95.0%]; P = .016). The duty cycle and the rate of incomplete recoil were comparable between the 2 groups. The angles between the arm of the participants and the bed were more vertical in the inclined stool group (84.0° ± 5.2° vs 81.0° ± 4.8°; P = .014). Using an inclined stool resulted in an improvement in the depth of CC and the adequate CC rate without increasing the rate of incomplete chest recoil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ekşi, K. Y.; Andaç, I. C.; Çıkıntoğlu, S.; Motlagh, A. Vahdat; Gügercinoğlu, E.; Kızıltan, B.
2016-01-01
The recently discovered rotationally powered pulsar PSR J1640–4631 is the first to have a braking index measured, with high enough precision, that is greater than 3. An inclined magnetic rotator in vacuum or plasma would be subject not only to spin-down but also to an alignment torque. The vacuum model can address the braking index only for an almost orthogonal rotator, which is incompatible with the single-peaked pulse profile. The magnetic dipole model with the corotating plasma predicts braking indices between 3 and 3.25. We find that the braking index of 3.15 is consistent with two different inclination angles, 18.°5 ± 3° and 56° ± 4°. The smaller angle is preferred given that the pulse profile has a single peak and the radio output of the source is weak. We infer the change in the inclination angle to be at the rate −0.°23 per century, three times smaller in absolute value than the rate recently observed for the Crab pulsar.
Three-dimensional microstructural effects on plane strain ductile crack growth
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tvergaard, Viggo; Needleman, Alan
2006-01-01
Ductile crack growth under mode 1, plane strain, small scale yielding conditions is analyzed. Overall plane strain loading is prescribed, but a full 3D analysis is carried out to model three dimensional microstructural effects. An elastic-viscoplastic constitutive relation for a porous plastic...
Fathonah, N. N.; Nurtono, T.; Kusdianto; Winardi, S.
2018-03-01
Single phase turbulent flow in a vessel agitated by side entering inclined blade turbine has simulated using CFD. The aim of this work is to identify the hydrodynamic characteristics of a model vessel, which geometrical configuration is adopted at industrial scale. The laboratory scale model vessel is a flat bottomed cylindrical tank agitated by side entering 4-blade inclined blade turbine with impeller rotational speed N=100-400 rpm. The effect of the impeller diameter on fluid flow pattern has been investigated. The fluid flow patterns in a vessel is essentially characterized by the phenomena of macro-instabilities, i.e. the flow patterns change with large scale in space and low frequency. The intensity of fluid flow in the tank increase with the increase of impeller rotational speed from 100, 200, 300, and 400 rpm. It was accompanied by shifting the position of the core of circulation flow away from impeller discharge stream and approached the front of the tank wall. The intensity of fluid flow in the vessel increase with the increase of the impeller diameter from d=3 cm to d=4 cm.
Sadeghifar, Hamidreza
2018-05-01
The present study experimentally investigates the realistic functionality of in-plane and through-plane pressure drops of layered fibrous media with porosity, fiber diameter, fiber spacing, fiber-fiber angles and fiber-flow angles. The study also reveals that pressure drop may increase with porosity and fiber diameter under specific circumstances. This counter-intuitive point narrows down the validity range of widely-used permeability-porosity-diameter models or correlations. It is found that, for fibrous materials, the most important parameter that impacts the in-plane pressure drop is not their porosities but the number of fibers extended in the flow direction. It is also concluded that in-plane pressure drop is highly dependent upon the flow direction (fiber-flow angles), especially at lower porosities. Contrary to in-plane pressure drop, through-plane pressure drop is a weak function of fiber-fiber angles but is strongly impacted by fiber spacing, especially at lower porosities. At a given porosity, low through-plane pressure drops occur if fiber spacing does not change practically from one layer to another. Through-plane pressure drop also, insignificantly, increases with the intersecting angles between fibers. An optimized microstructure of fibrous media resulting in minimal in-plane and through-plane pressure drops is also offered for the first time in this work.
Zhang, Lisong; Li, Zhongquan; Wu, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Ziyuan
2017-01-01
Previous studies have demonstrated the key role of emotion in moral judgment, and explored the relationship between emotion regulation and moral judgment. The present study investigated the influence of individual differences in emotion regulation difficulties on moral judgment. Study 1 examined whether individuals with high emotion regulation difficulties made a more deontological judgment. Study 2 explored the underlying mechanism using a process-dissociation approach, examining whether deontological inclinations and utilitarian inclinations separately or jointly accounted for the association. The results indicated that individuals with high emotion regulation difficulties rated the utilitarian actions less morally appropriate, and one's deontological inclinations mediated the association between emotion regulation difficulties and moral judgment.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rolison, L; Samant, S; Baciak, J; Jordan, K
2016-01-01
Purpose: To develop a Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) model for the validation of a prototype backscatter x-ray (BSX) imager, and optimization of BSX technology for medical applications, including selective object-plane imaging. Methods: BSX is an emerging technology that represents an alternative to conventional computed tomography (CT) and projective digital radiography (DR). It employs detectors located on the same side as the incident x-ray source, making use of backscatter and avoiding ring geometry to enclose the imaging object. Current BSX imagers suffer from low spatial resolution. A MCNP model was designed to replicate a BSX prototype used for flaw detection in industrial materials. This prototype consisted of a 1.5mm diameter 60kVp pencil beam surrounded by a ring of four 5.0cm diameter NaI scintillation detectors. The imaging phantom consisted of a 2.9cm thick aluminum plate with five 0.6cm diameter holes drilled halfway. The experimental image was created using a raster scanning motion (in 1.5mm increments). Results: A qualitative comparison between the physical and simulated images showed very good agreement with 1.5mm spatial resolution in plane perpendicular to incident x-ray beam. The MCNP model developed the concept of radiography by selective plane detection (RSPD) for BSX, whereby specific object planes can be imaged by varying kVp. 10keV increments in mean x-ray energy yielded 4mm thick slice resolution in the phantom. Image resolution in the MCNP model can be further increased by increasing the number of detectors, and decreasing raster step size. Conclusion: MCNP modelling was used to validate a prototype BSX imager and introduce the RSPD concept, allowing for selective object-plane imaging. There was very good visual agreement between the experimental and MCNP imaging. Beyond optimizing system parameters for the existing prototype, new geometries can be investigated for volumetric image acquisition in medical applications. This material is
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rolison, L; Samant, S; Baciak, J; Jordan, K [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)
2016-06-15
Purpose: To develop a Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) model for the validation of a prototype backscatter x-ray (BSX) imager, and optimization of BSX technology for medical applications, including selective object-plane imaging. Methods: BSX is an emerging technology that represents an alternative to conventional computed tomography (CT) and projective digital radiography (DR). It employs detectors located on the same side as the incident x-ray source, making use of backscatter and avoiding ring geometry to enclose the imaging object. Current BSX imagers suffer from low spatial resolution. A MCNP model was designed to replicate a BSX prototype used for flaw detection in industrial materials. This prototype consisted of a 1.5mm diameter 60kVp pencil beam surrounded by a ring of four 5.0cm diameter NaI scintillation detectors. The imaging phantom consisted of a 2.9cm thick aluminum plate with five 0.6cm diameter holes drilled halfway. The experimental image was created using a raster scanning motion (in 1.5mm increments). Results: A qualitative comparison between the physical and simulated images showed very good agreement with 1.5mm spatial resolution in plane perpendicular to incident x-ray beam. The MCNP model developed the concept of radiography by selective plane detection (RSPD) for BSX, whereby specific object planes can be imaged by varying kVp. 10keV increments in mean x-ray energy yielded 4mm thick slice resolution in the phantom. Image resolution in the MCNP model can be further increased by increasing the number of detectors, and decreasing raster step size. Conclusion: MCNP modelling was used to validate a prototype BSX imager and introduce the RSPD concept, allowing for selective object-plane imaging. There was very good visual agreement between the experimental and MCNP imaging. Beyond optimizing system parameters for the existing prototype, new geometries can be investigated for volumetric image acquisition in medical applications. This material is
Tsutsumi, Takeshi; Ikeda, Takuo; Watanabe, Kensuke; Kikuchi, Shigeru
2011-12-01
Three-dimensional analysis of video-oculograms can be used to calculate Listing plane for patients and experimental subjects. Listing plane reflects the head's orientation with respect to gravity, which suggests that the plane is derived from otolithic vestibular input, itself, or from a gravity-oriented internal model constructed through integration of visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive sensory inputs. The goal of this study was to determine whether the Listing plane can serve as a parameter for evaluating static (peripheral or central) vestibular function. Prospective study. Tertiary referral center. Healthy subjects and patients with unilateral vestibular schwannoma without any previous treatment. Diagnostic. Video-oculograms were recorded from healthy subjects (aged 36.8 ± 6.3 yr) and from patients (aged 60.3 ± 7.5 yr) during voluntary gaze with the head in an upright or each-side-down orientation, and the thicknesses of the calculated Listing planes were then compared. Results revealed thickening of the Listing plane in patients only when the head was in an impaired-side-down orientation (1.250 ± 0.795 and 1.074 ± 0.759 degrees in the right- and left-side-down head orientations in healthy subjects versus 2.222 ± 1.237 degrees in the impaired-side-down orientation in patients), and this thickening correlated with caloric weakness. By contrast, neither the sensation of postural instability nor postural disturbance in force platform recordings contributed to the thickness of Listing plane. The thickness of the Listing plane could be a novel parameter for quantitatively evaluating static vestibular (otolithic) function, although central compensation might exist.
Rijavec, B; Košak, R; Daniel, M; Kralj-Iglič, V; Dolinar, D
2015-01-01
In order to increase the lifetime of the total hip endoprosthesis, it is necessary to understand mechanisms leading to its failure. In this work, we address volumetric wear of the artificial cup, in particular the effect of its inclination with respect to the vertical. Volumetric wear was calculated by using mathematical models for resultant hip force, contact stress and penetration of the prosthesis head into the cup. Relevance of the dependence of volumetric wear on inclination of the cup (its abduction angle ϑA) was assessed by the results of 95 hips with implanted endoprosthesis. Geometrical parameters obtained from standard antero-posterior radiographs were taken as input data. Volumetric wear decreases with increasing cup abduction angle ϑA. The correlation within the population of 95 hips was statistically significant (P = 0.006). Large cup abduction angle minimises predicted volumetric wear but may increase the risk for dislocation of the artificial head from the cup in the one-legged stance. Cup abduction angle and direction of the resultant hip force may compensate each other to achieve optimal position of the cup with respect to wear and dislocation in the one-legged stance for a particular patient.
Control by damping Injection of Electrodynamic Tether System in an Inclined Orbit
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Martin Birkelund; Blanke, Mogens
2009-01-01
dynamical system. Based on this model, a nonlinear controller is designed that will make the system asymptotically stable around its open-loop equilibrium. The control scheme handles the time-varying nature of the system in a suitable manner resulting in a large operational region. The performance...... of the closed loop system is treated using Floquet theory, investigating the closed loop properties for their dependency of the controller gain and orbit inclination.......Control of a satellite system with an electrodynamic tether as actuator is a time-periodic and underactuated control problem. This paper considers the tethered satellite in a Hamiltonian framework and determines a port-controlled Hamiltonian formulation that adequately describes the nonlinear...
Kovacs, Geza
2018-04-01
The distribution of the stellar rotation axes of 113 main sequence stars in the open cluster Praesepe are examined by using current photometric rotation periods, spectroscopic rotation velocities, and estimated stellar radii. Three different samples of stellar rotation data on spotted stars from the Galactic field and two independent samples of planetary hosts are used as control samples to support the consistency of the analysis. Considering the high completeness of the Praesepe sample and the behavior of the control samples, we find that the main sequence F - K stars in this cluster are susceptible to rotational axis alignment. Using a cone model, the most likely inclination angle is 76° ± 14° with a half opening angle of 47° ± 24°. Non-isotropic distribution of the inclination angles is preferred over the isotropic distribution, except if the rotation velocities used in this work are systematically overestimated. We found no indication of this being the case on the basis of the currently available data. Data are only available at the CDS, together with the other two compiled datasets used in this paper, via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/612/L2
Data-plane Defenses against Routing Attacks on Tor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tan Henry
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Tor is susceptible to traffic correlation attacks in which an adversary who observes flows entering and leaving the anonymity network can apply statistical techniques to correlate flows and de-anonymize their endpoints. While an adversary may not be naturally positioned to conduct such attacks, a recent study shows that the Internet’s control-plane can be manipulated to increase an adversary’s view of the network, and consequently, improve its ability to perform traffic correlation. This paper explores, in-depth, the effects of control-plane attacks on the security of the Tor network. Using accurate models of the live Tor network, we quantify Tor’s susceptibility to these attacks by measuring the fraction of the Tor network that is vulnerable and the advantage to the adversary of performing the attacks. We further propose defense mechanisms that protect Tor users from manipulations at the control-plane. Perhaps surprisingly, we show that by leveraging existing trust anchors in Tor, defenses deployed only in the data-plane are sufficient to detect most control-plane attacks. Our defenses do not assume the active participation of Internet Service Providers, and require only very small changes to Tor. We show that our defenses result in a more than tenfold decrease in the effectiveness of certain control-plane attacks.
Flame spread over inclined electrical wires with AC electric fields
Lim, Seung J.
2017-07-21
Flame spread over polyethylene-insulated electrical wires was studied experimentally with applied alternating current (AC) by varying the inclination angle (θ), applied voltage (VAC), and frequency (fAC). For the baseline case with no electric field applied, the flame spread rate and the flame width of downwardly spreading flames (DSFs) decreased from the horizontal case for −20° ≤ θ < 0° and maintained near constant values for −90° ≤ θ < −20°, while the flame spread rate increased appreciably as the inclination angle of upwardly spreading flames (USFs) increased. When an AC electric field was applied, the behavior of flame spread rate in DSFs (USFs) could be classified into two (three) sub-regimes characterized by various functional dependences on VAC, fAC, and θ. In nearly all cases of DSFs, a globular molten polyethylene formed ahead of the spreading flame edge, occasionally dripping onto the ground. In these cases, an effective flame spread rate was defined to represent the burning rate by measuring the mass loss due to dripping. This effective spread rate was independent of AC frequency, while it decreased linearly with voltage and was independent of the inclination angle. In DSFs, when excessively high voltage and frequency were applied, the dripping led to flame extinction during propagation and the extinction frequency correlated well with applied voltage. In USFs, when high voltage and frequency were applied, multiple globular molten PEs formed at several locations, leading to ejections of multiple small flame segments from the main flame, thereby reducing the flame spread rate, which could be attributed to the electrospray phenomenon.
A model for the chain-to-plane charge transfer in YBa2Cu3O6+x
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matic, V. M.; Lazarov, N. Dj.; Milic, M.
2012-01-01
A model for the chain-to-plane charge transfer is proposed to account for the two plateaus, at 60 K and at 90 K, of the T c (x) characteristics of the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+x high-T c superconductor. It is assumed that the number of holes transferred from a CuO chain of length l to two nearby CuO 2 sheets is proportional to l (that is, to the number of oxygen atoms in the chain), if the chain length is greater than, or equal to, a certain critical chain length, l cr , that is required to trigger the charge transfer process. No holes are assumed to have been transferred from chains of length l cr . The calculated T c (x) dependence is found to be in excellent agreement with the experimentally reported T c (x). The critical chain length parameter is estimated to be equal to l cr = 11 (eleven oxygen atoms in a chain), which is a greater value than that obtained in the previously proposed model for the chain-to-plane charge transfer (l cr = 4). The results obtained out of the proposed model are briefly discussed
Algebraic Structures on MOD Planes
Kandasamy, Vasantha; Ilanthenral, K.; Smarandache, Florentin
2015-01-01
Study of MOD planes happens to a very recent one. In this book, systematically algebraic structures on MOD planes like, MOD semigroups, MOD groups and MOD rings of different types are defined and studied. Such study is innovative for a large four quadrant planes are made into a small MOD planes. Several distinct features enjoyed by these MOD planes are defined, developed and described.
The effect of circular bridge piers with different inclination angles ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
comparing the data obtained from vertical bridge pier and well-known relationships, a relationship ... pier nose, horseshoe vortex, surface vortex wake vortex. ..... After passing several hours and discharging of ..... It is recommended to use this ... Energy. 109–119. [4] Bozkus Z and Yaldiz O 2004 Effects of inclination of bridge.
Reconstruction of inclined shower coordinates in electromagnetic calorimeters based on lead glass
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vasil'ev, A.N.; Mochalov, V.V.; Solov'ev, L.F.
2007-01-01
A method for reconstructing the coordinates of inclined showers in lead glass electromagnetic calorimeters is described. Such showers are generated by photons with energies of 0.5-4.0 GeV that are incident on the detector at angles of as great as 30 deg. An analytical expression for the description of the actual photon coordinate in the calorimeter versus the coordinates of the shower center of gravity is proposed. Using this expression, it is possible to reconstruct the coordinates of inclined electromagnetic showers over wide ranges of angles and energies. The dependences of the spatial resolution on the photon energy and angle are determined. The longitudinal fluctuations of the shower length and their effect on the spatial resolution of the calorimeter are discussed [ru
Simulation on Natural Convection of a Nanofluid along an Isothermal Inclined Plate
Mitra, Asish
2017-08-01
A numerical algorithm is presented for studying laminar natural convection flow of a nanofluid along an isothermal inclined plate. By means of similarity transformation, the original nonlinear partial differential equations of flow are transformed to a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Subsequently they are reduced to a first order system and integrated using Newton Raphson and adaptive Runge-Kutta methods. The computer codes are developed for this numerical analysis in Matlab environment. Dimensionless velocity, temperature profiles and nanoparticle concentration for various angles of inclination are illustrated graphically. The effects of Prandtl number, Brownian motion parameter and thermophoresis parameter on Nusselt number are also discussed. The results of the present simulation are then compared with previous one available in literature with good agreement.
Experimental study on pool boiling critical heat flux in inclined confined spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wen Qinglong; Chen Jun; Zhao Hua
2011-01-01
CHF experiments in confined spaces are performed for near-saturated demineralized water at atmospheric pressure with gap sizes of 3 mm, 5 mm and 8 mm, and inclination angles of 0°, 5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, and 30°. Analysis of CHF data shows that CHF decreases as the inclination angle changes from 300 to full downward facing position (0°) and increases as the gap size varies from 3 mm to 8 mm. In the present study, certain transition angles are also identified for different gap sizes. For the gap sizes of 3 mm, 5 mm and 8 mm, the transition angles are found to be 10°, 15° and 20°, respectively. (authors)
Inclined fluidized bed system for drying fine coal
Cha, Chang Y.; Merriam, Norman W.; Boysen, John E.
1992-02-11
Coal is processed in an inclined fluidized bed dryer operated in a plug-flow manner with zonal temperature and composition control, and an inert fluidizing gas, such as carbon dioxide or combustion gas. Recycled carbon dioxide, which is used for drying, pyrolysis, quenching, and cooling, is produced by partial decarboxylation of the coal. The coal is heated sufficiently to mobilize coal tar by further pyrolysis, which seals micropores upon quenching. Further cooling with carbon dioxide enhances stabilization.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Fei; Wang, Yueyu; Zhou, Faquan; Zhao, Xuezeng
2010-01-01
The accuracy of topography imaging in contact force mode of atomic force microscopy (AFM) depends on the one-to-one corresponding relationship between the cantilever deflection and the tip-sample distance, whereas such a relationship cannot be always achieved in the presence of friction and incline angle of sample surface. Recently, we have developed a novel operation mode in which we keep the van der Waals force as constant instead of the applied normal force, to eliminate the effect of inclination angle and friction on topography imaging in the contact force mode. We have improved our AFM to enable the new operation mode for validation. Comparative experiments have been performed and the results have shown that the effect of friction and inclination angle on topography imaging in contact mode of AFM can be eliminated or at least decreased effectively by working in the new operation mode we present.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Øyvind eSandbakk
2013-10-01
Full Text Available The ability to efficiently utilize metabolic energy to produce work is a key factor for endurance performance. The present study investigated the effects of incline, performance level and gender on the gross mechanical efficiency during roller ski skating. Thirty-one male and nineteen female elite cross-country skiers performed a 5-min submaximal session at approximately 75% of VO2peak on a 5% inclined treadmill using the G3 skating technique. Thereafter, a 5-min session on a 12% incline using the G2 skating technique was performed at a similar work rate. Gross efficiency was calculated as the external work rate against rolling friction and gravity divided by the metabolic rate using gas exchange. Performance level was determined by the amount of skating FIS points (the Federation of International Skiing approved scoring system for ski racing where fewer points indicate a higher performance level. Strong significant correlations between work rate and metabolic rate within both inclines and gender were revealed (r=-0.89-0.98 and P
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Varma, Amit H.; Malushte, Sanjeev R.; Sener, Kadir C.; Lai, Zhichao
2014-01-01
Steel-concrete (SC) composite walls being considered and used as an alternative to conventional reinforced concrete (RC) walls in safety-related nuclear facilities due to their construction economy and structural efficiency. However, there is a lack of standardized codes for SC structures, and design guidelines and approaches are still being developed. This paper presents the development and verification of: (a) mechanics based model, and (b) detailed nonlinear finite element model for predicting the behavior and failure of SC wall panels subjected to combinations of in-plane forces. The models are verified using existing test results, and the verified models are used to explore the behavior of SC walls subjected to combinations of in-plane forces and moments. The results from these investigations are used to develop an interaction surface in principle force (S p1 –S p2 ) space that can be used to design or check the adequacy of SC wall panels. The interaction surface is easy to develop since it consists of straight line segments connecting anchor points defined by the SC wall section strengths in axial tension, in-plane shear, and compression. Both models and the interaction surface (for design) developed in this paper are recommended for future work. However, in order to use these approaches, the SC wall section should be detailed with adequate shear connector and tie bar strength and spacing to prevent non-ductile failure modes
Yin, Peng-Fei; Yang, Sheng-Qi
2018-05-01
As a typical inherently anisotropic rock, layered sandstones can differ from each other in several aspects, including grain size, type of material, type of cementation, and degree of compaction. An experimental study is essential to obtain and convictive evidence to characterize the mechanical behavior of such rock. In this paper, the mechanical behavior of a layered sandstone from Xuzhou, China, is investigated under uniaxial compression and Brazilian test conditions. The loading tests are conducted on 7 sets of bedding inclinations, which are defined as the angle between the bedding plane and horizontal direction. The uniaxial compression strength (UCS) and elastic modulus values show an undulatory variation when the bedding inclination increases. The overall trend of the UCS and elastic modulus values with bedding inclination is decreasing. The BTS value decreases with respect to the bedding inclination and the overall trend of it is approximating a linear variation. The 3D digital high-speed camera images reveal that the failure and fracture of a specimen are related to the surface deformation. Layered sandstone tested under uniaxial compression does not show a typical failure mode, although shear slip along the bedding plane occurs at high bedding inclinations. Strain gauge readings during the Brazilian tests indicate that the normal stress on the bedding plane transforms from compression to tension as the bedding inclination increases. The stress parallel to the bedding plane in a rock material transforms from tension to compression and agrees well with the fracture patterns; "central fractures" occur at bedding inclinations of 0°-75°, "layer activation" occurs at high bedding inclinations of 75°-90°, and a combination of the two occurs at 75°.
Pittayapat, Pisha; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Bornstein, Michael M; Odri, Guillaume A; Lambrichts, Ivo; Willems, Guy; Politis, Constantinus; Olszewski, Raphael
2018-05-25
To assess the reproducibility of landmarks in three dimensions that determine the Frankfort horizontal plane (FH) as well as two new landmarks, and to evaluate the angular differences of newly introduced planes to the FH. Three-dimensional (3D) surface models were created from CBCT scans of 26 dry human skulls. Porion (Po), orbitale (Or), internal acoustic foramen (IAF), and zygomatico-maxillary suture (ZyMS) were indicated in the software by three observers twice with a 4-week interval. Angles between two FHs (FH 1: Or-R, Or-L, mid-Po; FH 2: Po-R, Po-L, mid-Or) and between FHs and new planes (Plane 1-6) were measured. Coordinates were exported to a spreadsheet. A statistical analysis was performed to define the landmark reproducibility and 3D angles. Intra- and inter-observer landmark reproducibility showed mean difference more than 1 mm for x-coordinates of all landmarks except IAF. IAF showed significantly better reproducibility than other landmarks (P Plane 3, connecting Or-R, Or-L and mid-IAF, and Plane 4, connecting Po-R, Po-L and mid-ZyMS, both showed an angular difference of less than 1 degree when compared to FHs. This study revealed poor reproducibility of the traditional FH landmarks on the x-axis and good reproducibility of a new landmark tested to replace Po, the IAF. Yet, Or showed superior results compared to ZyMS. The potential of using new horizontal planes was demonstrated. Future studies should focus on identification of a valid alternative for Or and ZyMS and on clinical implementation of the findings.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xing Dianchuan; Yan Changqi; Sun Licheng; Liu Jingyu
2013-01-01
Experimental study on characteristics of interfacial parameter distribution for air-water bubbly flow in an inclined circular tube was performed by using the double sensor probe method. Parameters including radial distributions of local void fraction, bubble passing frequency, interfacial area concentration and bubble equivalent diameter were measured using the probe. The inner diameter of test section is 50 mm, and the liquid superficial velocity is 0.144 m/s, with the gas superficial velocity ranging from 0 to 0.054 m/is. The results show that bubbles obviously move toward the upper wall and congregate. The local interfacial area concentration, bubble passing frequency and void fraction have similar radial distribution profiles. Different from the vertical condition, for a cross-sectional area of the test section, the peak value near the upper side increases, while decreases or even disappears near the underside. The local parameter increases as the radial positions change from lower to upper location, and the increased slope becomes larger as the inclination angles increase. The equivalent bubble diameter doesn't vary with radial position, superficial gas velocity and inclination angle, and bubble aggregation and breaking up nearly doesn't occur. The mechanism of effects of inclination on local parameter distribution for bubbly flow is explained by analyzing the transverse force governing the bubble motion. (authors)
Phase-plane analysis to an “anisotropic” higher-order traffic flow model
Wu, Chun-Xiu
2018-04-01
The qualitative theory of differential equations is applied to investigate the traveling wave solution to an “anisotropic” higher-order viscous traffic flow model under the Lagrange coordinate system. The types and stabilities of the equilibrium points are discussed in the phase plane. Through the numerical simulation, the overall distribution structures of trajectories are drawn to analyze the relation between the phase diagram and the selected conservative solution variables, and the influences of the parameters on the system are studied. The limit-circle, limit circle-spiral point, saddle-spiral point and saddle-nodal point solutions are obtained. These steady-state solutions provide good explanation for the phenomena of the oscillatory and homogeneous congestions in real-world traffic.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jeremić, B.; Tafazzoli, N.; Ancheta, T.; Orbović, N.; Blahoianu, A.
2013-01-01
Highlights: • Full 3D, inclined, incoherent seismic motions used for modeling SSI of an NPP. • Analyzed effects of variable and uniform soil/rock layering profiles on SSI. • Surface and embedded foundations were modeled and differences analyzed. - Abstract: Presented here is an investigation of the seismic response of a massive NPP structures due to full 3D, inclined, un-correlated input motions for different soil and rock profiles. Of particular interest are the effects of soil and rock layering on the response and the changes of input motions (frequency characteristics) due to such layering. In addition to rock/soil layering effects, investigated are also effects of foundation embedment on dynamic response. Significant differences were observed in dynamic response of containment and internal structure founded on surface and on embedded foundations. These differences were observed for both rock and soil profiles. Select results are used to present most interesting findings
Wafer plane inspection for advanced reticle defects
Nagpal, Rajesh; Ghadiali, Firoz; Kim, Jun; Huang, Tracy; Pang, Song
2008-05-01
Readiness of new mask defect inspection technology is one of the key enablers for insertion & transition of the next generation technology from development into production. High volume production in mask shops and wafer fabs demands a reticle inspection system with superior sensitivity complemented by a low false defect rate to ensure fast turnaround of reticle repair and defect disposition (W. Chou et al 2007). Wafer Plane Inspection (WPI) is a novel approach to mask defect inspection, complementing the high resolution inspection capabilities of the TeraScanHR defect inspection system. WPI is accomplished by using the high resolution mask images to construct a physical mask model (D. Pettibone et al 1999). This mask model is then used to create the mask image in the wafer aerial plane. A threshold model is applied to enhance the inspectability of printing defects. WPI can eliminate the mask restrictions imposed on OPC solutions by inspection tool limitations in the past. Historically, minimum image restrictions were required to avoid nuisance inspection stops and/or subsequent loss of sensitivity to defects. WPI has the potential to eliminate these limitations by moving the mask defect inspections to the wafer plane. This paper outlines Wafer Plane Inspection technology, and explores the application of this technology to advanced reticle inspection. A total of twelve representative critical layers were inspected using WPI die-to-die mode. The results from scanning these advanced reticles have shown that applying WPI with a pixel size of 90nm (WPI P90) captures all the defects of interest (DOI) with low false defect detection rates. In validating CD predictions, the delta CDs from WPI are compared against Aerial Imaging Measurement System (AIMS), where a good correlation is established between WPI and AIMSTM.
Research on spatial-variant property of bistatic ISAR imaging plane of space target
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo Bao-Feng; Wang Jun-Ling; Gao Mei-Guo
2015-01-01
The imaging plane of inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) is the projection plane of the target. When taking an image using the range-Doppler theory, the imaging plane may have a spatial-variant property, which causes the change of scatter’s projection position and results in migration through resolution cells. In this study, we focus on the spatial-variant property of the imaging plane of a three-axis-stabilized space target. The innovative contributions are as follows. 1) The target motion model in orbit is provided based on a two-body model. 2) The instantaneous imaging plane is determined by the method of vector analysis. 3) Three Euler angles are introduced to describe the spatial-variant property of the imaging plane, and the image quality is analyzed. The simulation results confirm the analysis of the spatial-variant property. The research in this study is significant for the selection of the imaging segment, and provides the evidence for the following data processing and compensation algorithm. (paper)
Choi, Ahnryul; Sim, Taeyong; Mun, Joung Hwan
2016-01-01
Golf requires proper dynamic balance to accurately control the club head through a harmonious coordination of each human segment and joint. In this study, we evaluated the ability for dynamic balance during a golf swing by using the centre of mass (COM)-centre of pressure (COP) inclination variables. Twelve professional, 13 amateur and 10 novice golfers participated in this study. Six infrared cameras, two force platforms and SB-Clinic software were used to measure the net COM and COP trajectories. In order to evaluate dynamic balance ability, the COM-COP inclination angle, COM-COP inclination angular velocity and normalised COM-COP inclination angular jerk were used. Professional golfer group revealed a smaller COM-COP inclination angle and angular velocity than novice golfer group in the lead/trail direction (P golf injuries.
Gas-liquid flow splitting in T-junction with inclined lateral arm
Yang, Le-le; Liu, Shuo; Li, Hua; Zhang, Jian; Wu, Ying-xiang; Xu, Jing-yu
2018-02-01
This paper studies the gas-liquid flow splitting in T-junction with inclined lateral arm. The separation mechanism of the T-junction is related to the pressure distribution in the T-junction. It is shown that the separation efficiency strongly depends on the inclination angle, when the angle ranges from 0° to 30°, while not so strongly for angles in the range from 30° to 90° Increasing the number of connecting tubes is helpful for the gas-liquid separation, and under the present test conditions, with four connecting tubes, a good separation performance can be achieved. Accordingly, a multi-tube Y-junction separator with four connecting tubes is designed for the experimental investigation. A good agreement between the simulated and measured data shows that there is an optimal split ratio to achieve the best performance for the multi-tube Y-junction separator.
Probing Disk Stratification by Combining X-ray and Disk Inclination Data for Taurus-Auriga
Arraki, Kenza S.; Daly, B.; Harding, M.; McCleary, J.; Cox, A. W.; Grady, C. A.; Woodgate, B. E.; Hamaguchi, K.; Wisniewski, J. P.; Brakken-Thal, S.; Hilton, G.; Bonfield, D.; Williger, G. M.
2010-01-01
Photoelectric neutral Hydrogen absorption, N(H), is a probe of the gas and dust column towards the star. Kastner et al. (2005) found a correlation between N(H) and proplyd aspect ratio in the Orion nebula cluster. We extend this study to Taurus-Auriga by combining publicly available N(H) data from the XMM-Newton Extended Survey of the Taurus molecular cloud (XEST), with published disk inclination data obtained from HST coronagraphic imagery and mm interferometry. Additional inclinations were derived from jet proper motion and radial velocity data obtained from archival HST imagery and the Apache Point Observatory 3.5m telescope's Goddard Fabry-Perot and DIS long-slit spectrograph. Both N(H) and extinction have linear relations with system inclination, where the extinction has a smaller slope than the N(H) trend. Correlations with system inclination demonstrate that the bulk of both N(H) and extinction arise in the disk rather than in remnant envelopes, nearby molecular cloud material, or foreground material. The deficit in extinction compared with predictions for ISM-like gas to dust ratios is consistent with grain growth and settling toward the disk midplane and stratification in disks occurring by 2 Myr. However, the disks remain gas-rich, indicating that giant planet formation is still feasible. We gratefully acknowledge the support of the NASA Motivating Undergraduates in Science and Technology (MUST) Project and of NASA's APRA program under WBS#399131.02.06.02.32. A grant of Director's Discretionary Time funded observing time at the Apache Point Observatory.
Simulation of Solar Radiation Incident on Horizontal and Inclined Surfaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
MA Basunia
2012-12-01
Full Text Available A computer model was developed to simulate the hourly, daily and monthly average of daily solar radiation on horizontal and inclined surfaces. The measured hourly and daily solar radiation was compared with simulated radiation, and favourable agreement was observed for the measured and predicted values on clear days. The measured and simulated monthly averages of total (diffuse and beam daily solar radiation were compared and a reasonable agreement was observed for a number of stations in Japan. The simulation showed that during the rice harvesting season, September to October, there is a daily average of 14.7 MJ/m2 of solar irradiation on a horizontal surface in Matsuyama, Japan. There is a similar amount of solar radiation on a horizontal surface during the major rice harvesting season, November to December, in Bangladesh. This radiation can be effectively utilized for drying rough rice and other farm crops.
Schmitt, M; Groß, K; Grub, J; Heib, F
2015-06-01
Contact angle determination by sessile drop technique is essential to characterise surface properties in science and in industry. Different specific angles can be observed on every solid which are correlated with the advancing or the receding of the triple line. Different procedures and definitions for the determination of specific angles exist which are often not comprehensible or reproducible. Therefore one of the most important things in this area is to build standard, reproducible and valid methods for determining advancing/receding contact angles. This contribution introduces novel techniques to analyse dynamic contact angle measurements (sessile drop) in detail which are applicable for axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric drops. Not only the recently presented fit solution by sigmoid function and the independent analysis of the different parameters (inclination, contact angle, velocity of the triple point) but also the dependent analysis will be firstly explained in detail. These approaches lead to contact angle data and different access on specific contact angles which are independent from "user-skills" and subjectivity of the operator. As example the motion behaviour of droplets on flat silicon-oxide surfaces after different surface treatments is dynamically measured by sessile drop technique when inclining the sample plate. The triple points, the inclination angles, the downhill (advancing motion) and the uphill angles (receding motion) obtained by high-precision drop shape analysis are independently and dependently statistically analysed. Due to the small covered distance for the dependent analysis (contact angle determination. They are characterised by small deviations of the computed values. Additional to the detailed introduction of this novel analytical approaches plus fit solution special motion relations for the drop on inclined surfaces and detailed relations about the reactivity of the freshly cleaned silicon wafer surface resulting in acceleration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goyal, A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6116 (United States)]. E-mail: goyala@ornl.gov; Rutter, N. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6116 (United States); University of Cambridge, Pembroke St., Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Cantoni, C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6116 (United States); Lee, D.F. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6116 (United States)
2005-10-01
Calculations of long-range current flow using an advanced percolation model show that with the presently observed texture in RABiTS substrates, the dependence of J {sub c} on length as a function of width is greatly reduced. Furthermore, this dependence becomes almost negligible in applied fields. These results suggest that sub-division of a wide conductor into narrow filaments should be possible without loss in J {sub c}. The relative importance of the out-of-plane texture in affecting intergranular J {sub c} was also explored by fabricating RABiTS substrates with different out-of-plane textures but approximately the same in-plane texture. This was accomplished by using TiN as a seed layer for which significant sharpening of the out-of-plane texture is observed. Similar J {sub c} was found for samples with differing out-of-plane texture but almost the same in-plane texture. Finally, separation of the total misorientation in GB networks into in-plane and out-of-plane misorientations using manipulations in Rodrigues space shows that J {sub c} correlates best with in-plane texture.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nazarov, A.A.; Kamenev, Yu.B.; Kuusk, L.V.; Kormin, E.G.; Vasil'ev, A.N.; Sumbaeva, T.E.
1986-01-01
Methods of automated control of 18-10-type steel inclination to IGC are developed and a corresponding automated testing complex (ATS) is created. 08Kh18N10T steel samples had two variants of thermal treatment: 1) 1200 deg (5 h), 600 deg (50 h); 2) 1200 deg (5 h). Methods of non-destructive automated control of 18-10-type steel inclination to IGC are developed on the basis of potentiodynamic reactivation (PR) principle. Automated testing complex is developed, which has undergone experimental running and demonstrated a high confidence of results, reliability and easy operation