WorldWideScience

Sample records for inclined plane energy

  1. Inclined planes

    CERN Document Server

    Rivera, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    From moving ramps to playground slides, inclined planes are at work all over in our world today. Learn all about them in five easy-to-read chapters. Vibrant, full-color photos, bolded glossary words, and a key stats section let readers zoom in even deeper. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Abdo Zoom is a division of ABDO.

  2. Precession of a Spinning Ball Rolling down an Inclined Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2015-01-01

    A routine problem in an introductory physics course considers a rectangular block at rest on a plane inclined at angle a to the horizontal. In order for the block not to slide down the incline, the coefficient of sliding friction, µ, must be at least tan a. The situation is similar for the case of a ball rolling down an inclined plane. In order…

  3. Structural equation modeling for alteration of occlusal plane inclination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeta, Yuko; Ogawa, Takumi; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Ando, Eriko; Hirabayashi, Rio; Ikawa, Tomoko

    2015-07-01

    Occlusal plane inclination is important to maintain a normal opening closing/biting function. However, there can be several causes that lead to alterations of the occlusal plane. The purpose of this study was to observe variations of occlusal plane inclination in adult patients, and to uncover the factors affecting changes in occlusal plane inclination with aging. Subjects were 143 patients. A cephalometric image was taken of these patients. In this study, our inquiry points were age, 3 variables on intra-oral findings, and 7 variables on cephalometric analysis. To evaluate the possible causes that affect occlusal plane inclination, factor analysis was carried out, and each component was treated as factors, which were then statistically applied to a structural equation model. Statistical analysis was carried out through the SPSS 20.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, USA). In all patients, Camper-occlusal plane angle (COA) ranged from -25.7 to -4.9° (Mean±SD: -6.4±5.36). In the 60 patients who had no missing teeth, COA ranged from -11.6 to -4.9° (Mean±SD: -3.3±3.31). From the results of the structural analysis, it was suggested that the occlusal plane changes to counter-clockwise (on the right lateral cephalograms) with aging. In this study, variations of occlusal plane inclination in adult patients were observed, and the factors affecting changes in occlusal plane inclination with aging were investigated via factor analysis. From our results, it was suggested that the mandibular morphology change and loss of teeth with aging influence occlusal plane inclination. Copyright © 2015 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Granular flow down a flexible inclined plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonar Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Discrete and continuous systems are commonly studied individually, but seldom together. Indeed, granular flows are typically studied through flows over a rigid base. Here, we investigate the behaviour of granular flows over an inclined, flexible base. The flexible base is modeled as a rigid platform mounted on springs and has one degree of freedom. The base vibrations are introduced by the flow. We simulate such flows through a discrete element method and compare with experiments. We find that a flexible base increased the upper limit of the inclination up to which a steady flow is possible by at least 3 degrees. This stabilized zone may have important implications in applications such as conveyor belts and chutes.

  5. Granular flow down a flexible inclined plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonar, Prasad; Sharma, Ishan; Singh, Jayant

    2017-06-01

    Discrete and continuous systems are commonly studied individually, but seldom together. Indeed, granular flows are typically studied through flows over a rigid base. Here, we investigate the behaviour of granular flows over an inclined, flexible base. The flexible base is modeled as a rigid platform mounted on springs and has one degree of freedom. The base vibrations are introduced by the flow. We simulate such flows through a discrete element method and compare with experiments. We find that a flexible base increased the upper limit of the inclination up to which a steady flow is possible by at least 3 degrees. This stabilized zone may have important implications in applications such as conveyor belts and chutes.

  6. Influence of occlusal plane inclination and mandibular deviation on esthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corte, Cristiane Cherobini Dalla; Silveira, Bruno Lopes da; Marquezan, Mariana

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the degree of perception of occlusal plane inclination and mandibular deviation in facial esthetics, assessed by laypeople, dentists and orthodontists. A woman with 5.88° of inclination and 5.54 mm of mandibular deviation was selected and, based on her original photograph, four new images were created correcting the deviations and creating more symmetric faces and smiles. Examiners assessed the images by means of a questionnaire. Their opinions were compared by qualitative and quantitative analyses. A total of 45 laypeople, 27 dentists and 31 orthodontists filled out the questionnaires. All groups were able to perceive the asymmetry; however, orthodontists were more sensitive, identifying asymmetries as from 4.32° of occlusal plane inclination and 4.155 mm of mandibular deviation (pocclusal plane inclination and 5.54 mm of mandibular deviation (pOcclusal plane inclination and mandibular deviation were perceived by all groups, but orthodontists presented higher perception of deviations.

  7. Motion on an Inclined Plane and the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendrill, Ann-Marie; Ekström, Peter; Hansson, Lena; Mars, Patrik; Ouattara, Lassana; Ryan, Ulrika

    2014-01-01

    Friction is an important phenomenon in everyday life. All children are familiar with playground slides, which may thus be a good starting point for investigating friction. Motion on an inclined plane is a standard physics example. This paper presents an investigation of friction by a group of 11-year olds. How did they plan their investigations?…

  8. Inclined Planes and Motion Detectors: A Study of Acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Dyanne M.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students work in cooperative groups and roll balls down inclined planes, collect data with the help of an electronic motion detector, and represent data with a graphing calculator to explore concepts such as mass, gravity, velocity, and acceleration. (Contains 12 references.) (Author/ASK)

  9. Reconstruction of Galileo Galilei's Experiment: The Inclined Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straulino, S.

    2008-01-01

    In the "Third Day" of the "Discourses and Mathematical Demonstrations Concerning Two New Sciences" Galileo Galilei describes the famous experiment of the inclined plane and uses it to bring an experimental confirmation to the laws of uniformly accelerated motion. We describe a reconstruction of the experiment and how the results can be used for…

  10. Fluorescence intensity dependence on the propagation plane inclination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.E.; Rubio, Marcelo; Sanchez, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation of the primary and secondary X-ray fluorescent emission from an homogeneous and infinite thickness sample, irradiated under different inclination of the propagation plane, is carried out. An agreement with the predictions based on Sherman equations depending on the inclination angle α was found. The invariance of the primary fluorescence with respect to α and the decrease until evanescence of the secondary fluorescence for a α → π/2 are confirmed. A discussion about the physical basis of this dependence is carried out. Similar results are expected for tertiary fluorescence. (Author) [es

  11. Three-dimensional volumetric display by inclined-plane scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Daisuke; Eto, Takuma; Nishimura, Yasuhiro; Matsushita, Kenji

    2003-05-01

    A volumetric display system based on three-dimensional (3-D) scanning that uses an inclined two-dimensional (2-D) image is described. In the volumetric display system a 2-D display unit is placed obliquely in an imaging system into which a rotating mirror is inserted. When the mirror is rotated, the inclined 2-D image is moved laterally. A locus of the moving image can be observed by persistence of vision as a result of the high-speed rotation of the mirror. Inclined cross-sectional images of an object are displayed on the display unit in accordance with the position of the image plane to observe a 3-D image of the object by persistence of vision. Three-dimensional images formed by this display system satisfy all the criteria for stereoscopic vision. We constructed the volumetric display systems using a galvanometer mirror and a vector-scan display unit. In addition, we constructed a real-time 3-D measurement system based on a light section method. Measured 3-D images can be reconstructed in the 3-D display system in real time.

  12. Deformation Analysis of Fixed Bearing Inclined Plane Thrust Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Yong--hai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the theory of lubrication,Numerical simulation of the deformation of the thrust bearing of the fixed inclined plane was carried out,by finite element numerical analysis method and using the ANSYS software. The mathematical model of the oil film shape control equations about of the deformation and bearing is established. Analytical result showed that the force caused the tile surface generating concave deformation,and convex deformation increased with the height and the size of the load and bearing;Tile surface temperature generated convex deformation and increased with the height and the size of the temperature of bearing bush;The actual deformation of the tile surface is the superposition of the force and the thermal deformation. This conclusion can provide reference for the design and the application of thrust bearing,to reduce the tile surface,which is not conducive to the carrying capacity of the concave deformation.

  13. Fluorescence intensity dependence on the propagation plane inclination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.E.; Rubio, Marcelo; Sanchez, H. J.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental confirmation of the fluorescence intensity behaviour with the inclination of the propagation plane (α angle) was carried out. A special angular sample-holder was developed and set up on our X-ray spectrometer. This sample-holder allows different positions of irradiation of the sample modifying the α angle until the maximum angle (α Μ ) is reached in the limit situation. In this work, this maximum angle was 86 deg and the incidence and take off angles were both 45 deg. The sample-holder and the collimation system were carefully lined up. The fluorescent spectra of three National Bureau of Standards (NBS) standard samples were taken for sixteen different α angle positions. The theoretical scheme for both enhanced fluorescent lines and nonenhanced fluorescent lines was confirmed, i.e. the invariance of the primary intensity with the α angle and the decline of the enhanced fluorescence intensities under the same conditions. This experimental confirmation agrees with theoretical prediction: the vanishing of the secondary fluorescence in the extreme case α = π/2. (Author) [es

  14. Motion of a carrier with a mobile load along a rough inclined plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilchenko, G. G.

    2018-03-01

    The mechanical system consisting of a carrier and a load is considered. The load can move respectively the carrier according to the preset given motion law. The carrier motion from rest caused the load motion is investigated. The carrier can move translationally along rectilinear trajectory along rough inclined plane. The trajectory is the line of the greatest descent. The axis of rectilinear channel along which the load moves is situated in vertical plane containing the carrier trajectory. The Coulomb model is taken to describe the friction forces on sloped plane. Differential equations of motion of carrier with load are obtained. The sufficient condition of the carrier motion without detachment from inclined plane is given. For two special cases of the channel installation angle and the plane inclination angle combination the motion types are described. The computation experiments results are presented: the carrier motions in the special cases are illustrated, the phase portraits for some types of motions are constructed.

  15. Lost of solar energy by not optimized guidance and inclination of the planes, in Galicia; Perdidas de energia solar por orientacion e inclinacion no optimizadas de los planos, en Galicia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, M.; Pose, M.; Izquierdo, P.; Prado, T.

    2008-07-01

    Graphs of percentages of solar energy received in planes with different orientations and tilts, with respect to the maximum solar energy received on the plane with optimum orientation and tilt, are obtained for Galicia. The graphs are needed to calculate the losses because orientation and tilt that the Spanish Technical Building Code (TBC) limits. (Author)

  16. Friction and drag forces on spheres propagating down inclined planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Yi Hui; Longmire, Ellen

    2017-11-01

    When a submerged sphere propagates along an inclined wall at terminal velocity, it experiences gravity, drag, lift, and friction forces. In the related equations of motion, the drag, lift and friction coefficients are unknown. Experiments are conducted to determine the friction and drag coefficients of the sphere over a range of Reynolds numbers. Through high speed imaging, translational and rotational velocities of spheres propagating along a glass plate are determined in liquids with several viscosities. The onset of sliding motion is identified by computing the dimensionless rotation rate of the sphere. Using drag and lift coefficients for Re friction coefficients are calculated for several materials. The friction coefficients are then employed to estimate the drag coefficient for 350 frictional force over this Re range. Supported by NSF (CBET-1510154).

  17. An inclined plane system with microcontroller to determine limb motor function of laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ming-Wen; Young, Ming-Shing; Lin, Mao-Tsun

    2008-02-15

    This study describes a high-accuracy inclined plane test system for quantitative measurement of the limb motor function of laboratory rats. The system is built around a microcontroller and uses a stepping motor to drive a ball screw, which changes the angle of the inclined plane. Any of the seven inclination speeds can be selected by the user. Two infrared (IR) LED/detector pairs function as interrupt sensors for objective determination of the moment that the rat loses its grip on the textured flooring of the starting area and slips down the plane. Inclination angle at the moment of IR interrupt (i.e. rat slip) is recorded. A liquid crystal display module shows the inclination speed and the inclination angle. The system can function as a stand alone device but a RS232 port allows connection to a personal computer (PC), so data can be sent directly to hard disk for storage and analysis. Experiments can be controlled by a local keypad or by the connected PC. Advantages of the presented system include easy operation, high accuracy, non-dependence on human observation for determination of slip angle, stand-alone capability, low cost and easy modification of the controlling software for different types of experiments. A fully functional prototype of the system is described. The prototype was used experimentally by a hospital group testing traumatic brain injury experiments, and some of their results are presented for system verification. It is found that the system is stable, accurate and easily used by investigators.

  18. Aerodynamics of flapping insect wing in inclined stroke plane hovering with ground effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda v, Krishne; Vengadesan, S.

    2014-11-01

    This work presents the time-varying aerodynamic forces and the unsteady flow structures of flapping insect wing in inclined stroke plane hovering with ground effect. Two-dimensional dragonfly model wing is chosen and the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved numerically by using immersed boundary method. The main objective of the present work is to analyze the ground effect on the unsteady forces and vortical structures for the inclined stroke plane motions. We also investigate the influences of kinematics parameters such as Reynolds number (Re), stroke amplitude, wing rotational timing, for various distances between the airfoil and the ground. The effects of aforementioned parameters together with ground effect, on the stroke averaged force coefficients and regimes of force behavior are similar in both normal (horizontal) and inclined stroke plane motions. However, the evolution of the vortex structures which produces the effects are entirely different.

  19. Finding the Acceleration and Speed of a Light-Emitting Object on an Inclined Plane with a Smartphone Light Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapucu, Serkan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates how the acceleration and speed of a light-emitting object on an inclined plane may be determined using a smartphone's light sensor. A light-emitting object was released from the top of an inclined plane and its illuminance values were detected by a smartphone's light sensor during its subsequent motion down the plane. Using…

  20. Hairpin packet structure of a turbulent boundary layer in inclined wall-normal/spanwise planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Hwa; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2009-11-01

    Turbulent coherent structures associated with hairpin packet motions have been scrutinized using the instantaneous flow fields obtained from the direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a turbulent boundary layer (TBL). The Reynolds number based on the momentum thickness was varied in the range Reθ=890˜2560. This study focused on the hairpin packet motions in inclined wall-normal/spanwise planes. The hairpin vortex signature associated with the hairpin leg components in the vertical inclined plane consists of a counter-rotating vortex pair, upward and downward motions and a stagnation point induced by the Q2 and Q4 events. These hairpin signatures were observed in the instantaneous flow field, in the two-point correlations and in the conditionally averaged flow fields, respectively. We considered three inclined planes (45^o, 90^o, and 135^o) to investigate the spatial characteristics of the hairpin packet motions in the log and wake regions. The statistical flow fields showed that significantly different flow patterns are induced by the intersections of the three inclined planes with the hairpin packet motions.

  1. Rapid prototyping and inclined plane technique in the treatment of maxillofacial malformations in a fox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Elisangela P.; Rahal, Sheila C.; Teixeira, Carlos R.; Silva, Jorge V.L.; Noritomi, Pedro Y.; Villela, Carlos H.S.; Yamashita, Seizo

    2010-01-01

    An approximately 9-month-old fox (Pseudalopex vetulus) was presented with malocclusion and deviation of the lower jaw to the right side. Orthodontic treatment was performed using the inclined plane technique. Virtual 3D models and prototypes of the head were based on computed tomography (CT) image data to assist in diagnosis and treatment. PMID:20514249

  2. Changes of occlusal plane inclination after orthodontic treatment in different dentoskeletal frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-le; Kau, Chung; Wang, Min

    2014-06-25

    The inclination of the occlusal plane (OP) is related to facial types and experiences physiological growth-related changes. The aims of this research were to determine if there were any differences in the inclination of OP in subjects with three types of skeletal malocclusion and to investigate the characteristics and differences of functional occlusal plane (FOP) compared to bisected occlusal plane (BOP). A sample of 90 Caucasians patients was skeletal-classified into three (n = 30), and pre- and post-treatment cephalograms were digitized. Six linear and 8 angular cephalometric measurements were selected. The changes of OP inclination within each group and the differences among the three groups pre- and post-treatment were compared with paired t test and ANOVA test, respectively. The comparison and correlation between BOP and FOP were analyzed with paired t test and coefficient of correlation, respectively. The BOP angle increased in all of the three groups but only had statistically significant differences in skeletal class II patients in a mean of 1.51° (p stability (p > 0.05) in all three groups. The inclination of FOP was closely related to that of BOP (p stability in orthodontically treated patients with all three skeletal patterns.

  3. Valuation of coefficient of rolling friction by the inclined plane method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciornei, F. C.; Alaci, S.; Ciogole, V. I.; Ciornei, M. C.

    2017-05-01

    A major objective of tribological researches is characterisation of rolling friction, due to various cases encountered in classical engineering applications, like gear transmissions and cam mechanisms or more recent examples met in bioengineering and biomedical devices. A characteristic of these examples consists in reduced dimensions of the contact zones, theoretically zero, the relative motion occurring between the contact points being either sliding or rolling. A characteristic parameter for the rolling motion is the coefficient of rolling friction. The paper proposes a method for estimation of coefficient of rolling friction by studying the motion of a body of revolution on an inclined plane. Assuming the hypothesis that moment of rolling friction is proportional to the normal reaction force, the law of motion for the body on the inclined plane is found under the premise of pure rolling. It is reached the conclusion that there is an uniformly accelerated motion, and thus for a known plane slope, it is sufficient to find the time during which the body runs a certain distance, starting from motionless situation. To obtain accurate results assumes finding precisely the time of motion. The coefficient of rolling friction was estimated for several slopes of the inclined plane and it is concluded that with increased slope, the values of coefficient of rolling friction increase, fact that suggest that the proportionality between the rolling torque and normal load is valid only for domains of limited variations of normal load.

  4. Students’ understanding of forces: Force diagrams on horizontal and inclined plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirait, J.; Hamdani; Mursyid, S.

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to analyse students’ difficulties in understanding force diagrams on horizontal surfaces and inclined planes. Physics education students (pre-service physics teachers) of Tanjungpura University, who had completed a Basic Physics course, took a Force concept test which has six questions covering three concepts: an object at rest, an object moving at constant speed, and an object moving at constant acceleration both on a horizontal surface and on an inclined plane. The test is in a multiple-choice format. It examines the ability of students to select appropriate force diagrams depending on the context. The results show that 44% of students have difficulties in solving the test (these students only could solve one or two items out of six items). About 50% of students faced difficulties finding the correct diagram of an object when it has constant speed and acceleration in both contexts. In general, students could only correctly identify 48% of the force diagrams on the test. The most difficult task for the students in terms was identifying the force diagram representing forces exerted on an object on in an inclined plane.

  5. Lateral dynamic flight stability of a model hoverfly in normal and inclined stroke-plane hovering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Na; Sun, Mao

    2014-01-01

    Many insects hover with their wings beating in a horizontal plane (‘normal hovering’), while some insects, e.g., hoverflies and dragonflies, hover with inclined stroke-planes. Here, we investigate the lateral dynamic flight stability of a hovering model hoverfly. The aerodynamic derivatives are computed using the method of computational fluid dynamics, and the equations of motion are solved by the techniques of eigenvalue and eigenvector analysis. The following is shown: The flight of the insect is unstable at normal hovering (stroke-plane angle equals 0) and the instability becomes weaker as the stroke-plane angle increases; the flight becomes stable at a relatively large stroke-plane angle (larger than about 24°). As previously shown, the instability at normal hovering is due to a positive roll-moment/side-velocity derivative produced by the ‘changing-LEV-axial-velocity’ effect. When the stroke-plane angle increases, the wings bend toward the back of the body, and the ‘changing-LEV-axial-velocity’ effect decreases; in addition, another effect, called the ‘changing-relative-velocity’ effect (the ‘lateral wind’, which is due to the side motion of the insect, changes the relative velocity of its wings), becomes increasingly stronger. This causes the roll-moment/side-velocity derivative to first decrease and then become negative, resulting in the above change in stability as a function of the stroke-plane angle. (paper)

  6. Pemakaian Inclined Bite Plane untuk Koreksi Gigitan Terbalik Interior pada Anak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debrania Santoso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Latar Belakang. Anak dengan gigitan terbalik pada anterior pada umumnya mempunyai keluhan dalam hal estetik dan fungsi pengunyahan. Kondisi gigitan terbalik biasanya disebabkan oleh adanya kebiasaan buruk dan faktor keturunan yang semakin memperparah keadaan tersebut. Pada kasus ini ditampilkan dua anak dengan gigitan terbalik anterior yang disebabkan oleh adanya kebiasaan buruk bertopang dagu dan mendorong lidah ke gigi anterior bawah. Perawatan menggunakan inclined bite plane dapat mengkoreksi gigitan terbalik anterior. Tujuan. Laporan kasus ini adalah untuk melaporkan bahwa pemakaian alat inlined bite plane dapat mengkoreksi gigitan terbalik anterior pada anak. Kasus. Dua orang anak perempuan dengan kasus gigitan terbalik anterior dilakukan pemeriksaan di poli gigi anak RSGM. Dari anamnesa diketahui bahwa anak pertama memiliki kebiasaan buruk bertopang dagu dan anak kedua mendorong lidah ke gigi anterior bawah. Perawatan yang dipilih adalah menggunakan alat inlined bite plane yang harus digunakan setiap hari saat tidur kecuali waktu makan dan menggosok gigi. Perawatan lanjutan pasien pertama tetap menggunakan alat removable dan pasien kedua dengan fixed orthodonti. Kesimpulan. Pasien pertama setelah 7 minggu gigitan terbalik anterior terkoreksi dan kebiasaan buruk dapat dihentikan. Pada pasien kedua gigitan terbalik anterior terkoreksi setelah 5 minggu. Hubungan oklusi pada pasien kedua lebih baik dibandingkan pasien pertama.   Background. Children with anterior crossbite generally complaint about aesthetic and masticatory function. Anterior crossbite is usually caused by bad habits and hereditary factors that exacerbated this situation. In this case was displayed two children with anterior crossbite caused by a bad habit pushing the chin with one hand and pushing the tongue to the lower anterior teeth. Treatment approach using inclined bite plane correct the anterior crossbite. Purpose. The purpose of this case report is to report the use

  7. Motion of phospholipidic vesicles along an inclined plane: sliding and rolling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abkarian, M; Lartigue, C; Viallat, A

    2001-04-01

    The migration of giant phospholipidic vesicles along an inclined plane in a quiescent fluid was observed as a function of the mass and the radius R of the vesicles, and as a function of the angle of inclination of the plane. Vesicles were swollen, and did not adhere to the substrate surface. It was observed from a side-view chamber that they have quasispherical shapes. The vesicles mainly slide along the plane, but also roll. The ratio omegaR/v of rotational to translational velocities is of the order of 0.15 for vesicles of radius ranging from 10 to 30 microm. Values of this ratio, and variations of v versus R, are well described by Goldman et al.'s model developed for the motion of rigid spheres close to a wall [Chem. Eng. Sci. 22, 637 (1967)]. In this framework, the thickness of the fluid film between the vesicle and the substrate derived from fitting experimental data was found to be equal to 48 nm.

  8. The effect of anterior inclined plane treatment on the dentoskeletal of Class II division 1 patients

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    Emami Meibodi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of Class II malocclusions are due to underdeveloped mandible with increased overjet and overbite. Lack of incisal contact results in the extrusion of the upper and lower anterior dentoalveolar complex, which helps to lock the mandible and prevent its normal growth and development, and this abnormality is exaggerated by soft tissue imbalance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the skeletal and dental changes in patients treated with anterior inclined plane appliance in growing patients with moderate Class II Division 1 having deep overbite. In this study, 25 patients, including 15 girls and 10 boys, with a mean age of 9 ±1.2 years were selected; all of them presented with moderate Class II deep bite with increased overjet and normal or horizontal growth pattern. Pre- and post-treatment X-rays and photos for an average of 8 months were taken. The statistical assessment of the data suggested that there were no significant changes in the vertical skeletal parameters. The mandibular incisors were protruded, whereas the maxillary incisors were retruded. Overbite and overjet were also reduced. There was significant increase in the mandibular length. The results revealed that in mixed dentition patients, the inclined plane corrected Class II discrepancies mostly through dentoskeletal changes.

  9. Class II malocclusion with accentuated occlusal plane inclination corrected with miniplate: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farret, Marcel Marchiori; Farret, Milton M. Benitez

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: A canted occlusal plane presents an unesthetic element of the smile. The correction of this asymmetry has been typically considered difficult by orthodontists, as it requires complex mechanics and may sometimes even require orthognathic surgery. Objective: This paper outlines the case of a 29-year-old woman with Class II malocclusion, pronounced midline deviation and accentuated occlusal plane inclination caused by mandibular deciduous molar ankylosis. Methods: The patient was treated with a miniplate used to provide anchorage in order to intrude maxillary teeth and extrude mandibular teeth on one side, thus eliminating asymmetry. Class II was corrected on the left side by means of distalization, anchored in the miniplate as well. On the right side, maxillary first premolar was extracted and molar relationship was kept in Class II, while canines were moved to Class I relationship. The patient received implant-prosthetic rehabilitation for maxillary left lateral incisor and mandibular left second premolar. Results: At the end of treatment, Class II was corrected, midlines were matched and the canted occlusal plane was totally corrected, thereby improving smile function and esthetics. PMID:27409658

  10. DEM simulation of flow of dumbbells on a rough inclined plane

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    Mandal, Sandip; Khakhar, Devang

    2015-11-01

    The rheology of non-spherical granular materials such as food grains, sugar cubes, sand, pharmaceutical pills, among others, is not understood well. We study the flow of non-spherical dumbbells of different aspect ratios on a rough inclined plane by using soft sphere DEM simulations. The dumbbells are generated by fusing two spheres together and a linear spring dashpot model along with Coulombic friction is employed to calculate inter-particle forces. At steady state, a uni-directional shear flow is obtained which allows for a detailed study of the rheology. The effect of aspect ratio and inclination angle on mean velocity, volume fraction, shear rate, shear stress, pressure and viscosity profiles is examined. The effect of aspect ratio on probability distribution of angles, made by the major axes of the dumbbells with the flow direction, average angle and order parameter is analyzed. The dense flow rheology is well explained by Bagnold's law and the constitutive laws of JFP model. The dependencies of first and second normal stress differences on aspect ratio are studied. The probability distributions of translational and rotational velocity are analyzed.

  11. Changes of occlusal plane inclination after orthodontic treatment with four premolars extraction in dento-alveolar bimaxillary protrusion cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NR Yuliawati Zenab

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find out whether there were changes in occlusal plane inclination after fixed orthodontic treatment of bimaxillary protrusion cases where extraction of four first premolars was needed using the standard Edgewise appliances. The sample was fourteen orthodontic patients, aged above sixteen years old, no sexual discrimination, treated with fixed appliances at Orthodontic Specialist Clinic Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran. The method was a pre-post design which compared occlusal plane inclination obtained from tracings of lateral cephalograms before and after orthodontic treatment. The results were calculated with the paired t-test analysis. The study revealed that there were no significant changes in occlusal plane inclination after the orthodontic treatment.

  12. Features in subjects with the frontal occlusal plane inclined toward the contralateral side of the mandibular deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesugi, Shunsuke; Yonemitsu, Ikuo; Kokai, Satoshi; Takei, Maki; Omura, Susumu; Ono, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    The frontal occlusal plane of the maxilla generally inclines toward the ipsilateral side of the mandibular deviation in subjects with facial asymmetry; however, a few patients with facial asymmetry have their frontal occlusal planes inclined toward the contralateral side. We aimed to investigate the morphologic and functional features of such patients. The subjects were 40 patients with facial asymmetry divided into 2 groups based on the inclination of the frontal occlusal plane toward the ipsilateral or the contralateral side. We analyzed lateral and posteroanterior cephalometric radiographs and occlusal variables and evaluated temporomandibular joint symptoms. Statistical comparisons were performed between the 2 groups (P Occlusal force and occlusal contact area were significantly larger, and temporomandibular joint symptoms were more frequently found on the side of the upward-inclined frontal occlusal plane than on the opposite side in both groups. The features in the contralateral group in terms of occlusal force and temporomandibular disorders were clinically significant. Clinicians should note that the conditions associated with the contralateral group require less presurgical decompensation. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Multi-layer film flow down an inclined plane: experimental investigation

    KAUST Repository

    Henry, Daniel

    2014-11-19

    We report the results from an experimental study of the flow of a film down an inclined plane where the film itself is comprised of up to three layers of different liquids. By measuring the total film thickness for a broad range of parameters including flow rates and liquid physical properties, we provide a thorough and systematic test of the single-layer approximation for multi-layer films for Reynolds numbers Re = ρQ/μ≈0.03-60. In addition, we also measure the change in film thickness of individual layers as a function of flow rates for a variety of experimental configurations. With the aid of high-speed particle tracking, we derive the velocity fields and free-surface velocities to compare to the single-layer approximation. Furthermore, we provide experimental evidence of small capillary ridge formations close to the point where two layers merge and compare our experimental parameter range for the occurrence of this phenomenon to those previously reported.

  14. PENGGUNAAN INCLINED BITE PLANE SEBAGAI ALAT BANTU UNTUK KOREKSI GIGITAN SILANG ANTERIOR PADA KASUS MALOKLUSI KLAS III SKELETAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amutavia P. Artsianti P.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Anterior crossbite occurs in children and adult. This anterior crossbite could be a dental (pseudo class III or a skeletal class III malocclusions. A 15 year old young female came to orthodontic clinic RSGM FKGUI with maxillary dental crowding which canines were more protruded. The dental of mandible were more protruded than maxillary dental. The clinical examination, anamnesis, functional analyses and cephalometric evaluation and model study showed that it was a skeletal class III malocclusion with maxillary skeletal retrusion. To treat the anterior crossbite, the inclined bite plane is used for 2 weeks and followed by fixed appliance. After 2 month treatment, the anterior crossbite is resolved. The result of cephalometric evaluation showed that the use of inclined bite plane as a tool is quite effective to resolve this case.

  15. Investigating the free-body diagram of a stationary object on an inclined plane using Apple Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilek, Ufuk; Çalışkan, Serap

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we present an activity in which the free-body diagram of a real stationary object on an inclined plane can be examined interactively. We use an Apple Watch and a few other materials that can be accessed easily. Instead of an Apple Watch, a mobile phone or a tablet could also be used. This activity may be employed to introduce the fundamental concepts associated with free-body diagrams in classroom settings, or adapted to physics labs.

  16. Investigating the Free-Body Diagram of a Stationary Object on an Inclined Plane Using Apple Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilek, Ufuk; Çaliskan, Serap

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we present an activity in which the free-body diagram of a real stationary object on an inclined plane can be examined interactively. We use an Apple Watch and a few other materials that can be accessed easily. Instead of an Apple Watch, a mobile phone or a tablet could also be used. This activity may be employed to introduce the…

  17. Theoretical study of moving magnetic beads on an inclined plane and its application in the ratchet separation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashidi, M.M., E-mail: mm_rashidi@tongji.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Lab of Vehicle Aerodynamics and Vehicle Thermal Management Systems, Tongji University, 4800 Cao An Rd., Jiading, Shanghai, 201804 (China); ENN-Tongji Clean Energy Institute of Advanced Studies, Shanghai (China); ENN-Tongji Clean Energy Institute of Advanced Studies, Shanghai (China); Johnson, S., E-mail: mm_rashidi@sawtc.com [University of Michigan-Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Yang, Z., E-mail: shane.johnson@sjtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Lab of Vehicle Aerodynamics and Vehicle Thermal Management Systems, Tongji University, 4800 Cao An Rd., Jiading, Shanghai, 201804 (China); ENN-Tongji Clean Energy Institute of Advanced Studies, Shanghai (China)

    2016-01-15

    For first time, motion of a magnetic bead ascending an inclined surface is investigated. The translational and rotational velocities of magnetic beads traveling on an inclined plane in the creeping flow regime are studied. The governing equations considering lift force and magnetic torque are obtained. Rolling and slipping cases are studied in detail. It is shown that the lift force effect is critical for large values of sedimentation Reynolds number (Res) and negligible for small values of Res. This method is applicable for neutrally buoyant and heavy magnetic bead motion. Practical application of this study is implemented in the ratchet configuration for separation of magnetic beads with different sizes. This is applicable for novel applications such as drug delivery, magnetic tweezers, and magnetic actuated stiffness testing systems which require accurate magnetic bead sizes for accurate function. - Graphical abstract: Free body diagram for rolling/slipping motion a rough magnetic bead up a smooth plane. - Highlights: • For first time, motion of a magnetic bead ascending an inclined surface is investigated. • The governing equations considering lift force and magnetic torque are obtained. • Practical application of this study is implemented in the ratchet configuration for separation of magnetic beads with different sizes.

  18. Theoretical study of moving magnetic beads on an inclined plane and its application in the ratchet separation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, M. M.; Johnson, S.; Yang, Z.

    2016-01-01

    For first time, motion of a magnetic bead ascending an inclined surface is investigated. The translational and rotational velocities of magnetic beads traveling on an inclined plane in the creeping flow regime are studied. The governing equations considering lift force and magnetic torque are obtained. Rolling and slipping cases are studied in detail. It is shown that the lift force effect is critical for large values of sedimentation Reynolds number (Res) and negligible for small values of Res. This method is applicable for neutrally buoyant and heavy magnetic bead motion. Practical application of this study is implemented in the ratchet configuration for separation of magnetic beads with different sizes. This is applicable for novel applications such as drug delivery, magnetic tweezers, and magnetic actuated stiffness testing systems which require accurate magnetic bead sizes for accurate function.

  19. Finding the acceleration and speed of a light-emitting object on an inclined plane with a smartphone light sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapucu, Serkan

    2017-09-01

    This study investigates how the acceleration and speed of a light-emitting object on an inclined plane may be determined using a smartphone’s light sensor. A light-emitting object was released from the top of an inclined plane and its illuminance values were detected by a smartphone’s light sensor during its subsequent motion down the plane. Using the illuminance and time values recorded by the smartphone, the distances between the sensor and the light-emitting object can be calculated. From these known distance and time values, the uniform acceleration and speed of the light-emitting object at any time could also be determined. A second method was also used to determine these values, i.e. the analysis of video-recordings of the light-emitting object during its motion. The values found by these two different methods were in good agreement. Thus, this experiment demonstrates that a smartphone’s light sensor can be used as a reliable instrument to determine the constant acceleration and speed of light-emitting objects.

  20. Rolling and sliding motion of spheres propagating down inclined planes in still water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Yi Hui; Longmire, Ellen

    2016-11-01

    In modelling the motion of spheres submerged in liquid, gravity, drag, lift, and added mass forces have to be taken into account. For spheres contacting bounding surfaces, friction coefficients due to rolling and sliding increase the complexity of the model. In this study, experiments are conducted to investigate the effects of particle density and diameter on the rolling and sliding motion of spheres. Spherical particles with marked surfaces are released from rest on an inclined glass plate in still water at various inclination angles and allowed to accelerate. A 45° mirror mounted beneath the plate allows simultaneous capture of both longitudinal and spanwise motions of the sphere. Based on sequences obtained by high speed imaging, the translational and rotational velocities are determined. Particle Reynolds numbers at terminal velocity range from 400 to 2500 corresponding with Galileo numbers of 800 to 2800. By comparing the translational and rotational velocities, the occurrence of sliding motion can be identified. The onset of sliding motion is then determined as a function of inclination angle and Galileo number for multiple particle materials. The experimental results are also compared against the existing models from the literature. Supported by NSF (CBET-1510154).

  1. Numerical study of the flow of granular materials down an inclined plane. Quarterly report, October 1, 1993--February 28, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajagopal, K.R.

    1994-05-01

    In the previous report the governing equations for the flow of granular materials down an inclined plane, modeled by the constitutive theory proposed by Boyle and Massoudi (1990) were derived. These equations are solved numerically subject to the appropriate boundary conditions. The effect of various non-dimensional parameters on the volume fraction and velocity are presented in the form of graphs. In this report we derive the governing equations for the flow of granular materials down an inclined plane using the continuum model proposed by Rajagopal and Massoudi [cf. Goodman and Cowin (1971, 1972), Rajagopal and Massoudi (1990)]. Here, we study the effect of the various forms of the materials parameters ({Beta}`s) as discussed in Case I, II, and III in the following sections. The numerical solutions for case I and case II were presented in the earlier reports and case III are presented in the form of graphs for various nondimensional parameters. Also, the solutions from Case I, II, and III are compared to see how the structure of the material parameters affect the velocity, volume fraction and temperature fields.

  2. [Impact of the vertical dimension on the occlusal plane inclination in a Moroccan population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaroual, Mohamed Faouzi; Halimi, Abdelalli; Benyahia, Hicham; Abouqal, Redouan; Zaoui, Fatima; Aalloula, Elhoucine

    2009-06-01

    This study was performed in order to investigate the influence of the vertical dimension on the occlusal plane angle. Cephalometric tracing were made from sideview headfilms from a sample of 150 patients consulting at the consultation and treatment center in Rabat, Morocco. This sample group included 60 males and 90 females. The aims of our research were to study statistically the impact of the vertical dimension on the occlusal plane angle and to check the validity of the Wits (Ao-Bo) by evaluating the impact of the vertical dimension on the Wits and by comparing it with the AF-BF value (Ao-Bo/Frankfurt) proposed by Chang.

  3. Ground plane detection for autonomous robots in complex environments inclined with flexed far-field terrains

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osunmakind, IO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, collective intelligence of the Emergent Situation Awareness (ESA) technology is proposed as a supportive strategy for autonomous robotic navigation. The ability to reveal uncertainties over time on flexed far-field is a ground plane...

  4. Rolling stones: The motion of a sphere down an inclined plane coated with a thin liquid film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bico, J.; Ashmore-Chakrabarty, J.; McKinley, G. H.; Stone, H. A.

    2009-08-01

    A spherical bead deposited on a smooth tilted dry plane wall rolls down the slope under the uniform acceleration of gravity. We describe an analogous experiment conducted using a plane wall that is coated with a thin layer (of order 50-100 μm) of a viscous liquid. The steady motion of the sphere under gravity involves a combination of rotation and sliding. We examine the dependence of the experimentally observed steady translational and rotational speeds on the physical parameters in the system. In particular, the interplay between viscous forces and interfacial forces leads to nontrivial exponents for the scaling of the speeds with the characteristics of the sphere and the viscous liquid. The overhang situation, in which the sphere rolls down the underside of an inclined lubricated plane, is also examined. In this case, the steady motion is still observed for a certain range of angles and bead sizes; that is, the sphere does not always detach from the surface. The adhesive force arises dynamically from the motion of the sphere and can exceed classical quasistatic capillary forces. Such a force should also play a role in other problems of lubrication mechanics such as humid granular flows.

  5. The effect of drainage channels on the hydrodynamic drag of non-colloidal spheres down an inclined plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Brian; Dhong, Charles; Frechette, Joelle

    While it is well known that surface asperities and roughness alter the hydrodynamic drag of a non-colloidal sphere down an inclined plane, less is known about how the hydrodynamic drag is modified if the asperities and roughness are connected through a network of drainage channels, which allows the movement of fluid between asperities. We investigate the rotational and translation motion of spheres on several pairs of surfaces that have the same porosity and asperity size, but one surface has interconnected drainage channels whereas the other does not. These can have direct relevance to lubricated surfaces such as ball bearings in industrial settings, or biological relevance of leucocyte movement across rough surfaces. Provost's Undergraduate Research Awards, Office of Naval Research, National Science Foundation.

  6. An Experimental Study of the Thermal Performance of Solar Air Collector Inclined (75o on the Horizontal Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasasn Ali Jurmut

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an experimental study of the thermal performance of the solar air collector manufactured of galvanized iron sheet with dimension 100×120cm, frame width 20cm, has holes 0.5cm arrangement on horizontal and vertical, the collector inclined at an angle (75o on the horizontal plane. All author faces of the collector (four sides and background are insulations in order to minimize the thermal losses .All the result recorded in winter season for two different days one of them sunny and the other was cloudy. The result shows the effect of the angle of collector gives more heat to the collector, hence higher outlet temperature, especially in sunny day. Maximum outlet temperature  of the collector (35.5o when inlet temperature 18o and maximum Nusselt  number(Nu at twelve o’clock of the sunny day more than the cloudy day.  At the end its high system efficiency and good collector effectiveness.

  7. Minimum energy shapes of one-side-pinned static drops on inclined surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thampi, Sumesh P; Govindarajan, Rama

    2011-10-01

    The shape that a liquid drop will assume when resting statically on a solid surface inclined to the horizontal is studied here in two dimensions. Earlier experimental and numerical studies yield multiple solutions primarily because of inherent differences in surface characteristics. On a solid surface capable of sustaining any amount of hysteresis, we obtain the global, and hence unique, minimum energy shape as a function of equilibrium contact angle, drop volume, and plate inclination. It is shown, in the energy minimization procedure, how the potential energy of this system is dependent on the basis chosen to measure it from, and two realistic bases, front-pinned and back-pinned, are chosen for consideration. This is at variance with previous numerical investigations where both ends of the contact line are pinned. It is found that the free end always assumes Young's equilibrium angle. Using this, simple equations that describe the angles and the maximum volume are then derived. The range of parameters where static drops are possible is presented. We introduce a detailed force balance for this problem and study the role of the wall in supporting the drop. We show that a portion of the wall reaction can oppose gravity while the other portion aids it. This determines the maximum drop volume that can be supported at a given plate inclination. This maximum volume is the least for a vertical wall, and is higher for all other wall inclinations. This study can be extended to three-dimensional drops in a straightforward manner and, even without this, lends itself to experimental verification of several of its predictions.

  8. Energy level shifts in atoms between metallic planes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luetken, C.A.; Ravndal, F.

    1984-04-01

    The vacuum fluctations of the electric field will shift the energy levels of an atom between two neutral, conducting planes. These shifts in hydrogen atoms have been calculated and numerical values for the shifts of the lowest levels are given

  9. Flow of visco-elastic fluid of Rivlin-Ericksen type between two inclined parallel planes in presence of gravity and uniform transverse magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, P.R.; Sadat, Khondokar Anowarus; Kundu, Shyamal Kumar

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, an attempt has been made to study the flow of Rivlin-Ericksen visco-elastic fluid between two inclined parallel planes in presence of gravity and uniform transverse magnetic field. It has been assumed that the lower plane is at rest and the upper plane is moving with a transient velocity in the first case, while in the second case it is moving longitudinally with a periodic velocity. In both cases the fluid velocity and flux of fluid have been obtained by variable separation technique. These results are then deduced for the case of visco-elastic Maxwell fluid taking the fluid to be electrically conducting and placed in presence of a uniform transverse magnetic field. Further, when the magnetic field is absent the corresponding results are obtained by passing to the limit as uniform magnetic field tending to zero. Moreover, the titled problem has also been solved in case of inviscid fluid in both cases of hydromagnetic flow and flow in absence of magnetic field. Thus the present problem is focused to a wide range of flow problems of different types of fluid models. (author)

  10. Direct spontaneous growth and interfacial structural properties of inclined GaN nanopillars on r-plane sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adikimenakis, A.; Aretouli, K. E.; Tsagaraki, K.; Androulidaki, M.; Georgakilas, A. [Microelectronics Research Group (MRG), IESL, FORTH, P.O. Box 1385, GR 711 10 Heraklion Crete, Greece and Physics Department, University of Crete, GR 710 03 Heraklion Crete (Greece); Lotsari, A.; Dimitrakopulos, G. P., E-mail: gdim@auth.gr; Kehagias, Th.; Komninou, Ph. [Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR 541 24, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2015-06-28

    The spontaneous growth of GaN nanopillars (NPs) by direct plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on nitridated r-plane sapphire substrates has been studied. The emanation of metal-polarity NPs from inside an a-plane nonpolar GaN film was found to depend on both the substrate nitridation and the growth conditions. The density of NPs increased with increasing the duration of the nitridation process and the power applied on the radio-frequency plasma source, as well as the III/V flux ratio, while variation of the first two parameters enhanced the roughness of the substrate's surface. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques were employed to reveal the structural characteristics of the NPs and their nucleation mechanism from steps on the sapphire surface and/or interfacial semipolar GaN nanocrystals. Lattice strain measurements showed a possible Al enrichment of the first 5–6 monolayers of the NPs. By combining cross-sectional and plan-view TEM observations, the three-dimensional model of the NPs was constructed. The orientation relationship and interfacial accommodation between the NPs and the nonpolar a-plane GaN film were also elucidated. The NPs exhibited strong and narrow excitonic emission, suggesting an excellent structural quality.

  11. A theoretical and numerical study of the flow of granular materials down an inclined plane. [Quarterly progress report, January--March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajagopal, K.R.

    1995-09-01

    The mechanics of the flowing granular materials such as coal, agricultural products, fertilizers, dry chemicals, metal ores, etc. have received a great deal of attention as it has relevance to several important technological problems. Despite wide interest and more than five decades of experimental and theoretical investigations, most aspects of the behavior of flowing granular materials are still not well understood. So Experiments have to be devised which quantify and describe the non-linear behavior of the granular materials, and theories developed which can explain the experimentally observed facts. Here we carry out a systematic numerical study of the flow of granular materials down an inclined plane using the models that stem from both the continuum theory approach and the kinetic theory approach. We also look at the existence of solutions, multiplicity and stability of solutions to the governing equations.

  12. Investigation of very high energy cosmic rays by means of inclined muon bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, A. G.; Kokoulin, R. P.; Mannocchi, G.; Petrukhin, A. A.; Saavedra, O.; Shutenko, V. V.; Trinchero, G.; Yashin, I. I.

    2018-03-01

    In a typical approach to extensive air shower (EAS) investigations, horizontal arrays are used and near-vertical EAS are detected. In contrast, in this work vertically arranged muon detectors are used to study inclined EAS. At large zenith angles, EAS consisting solely of muon component are employed. The transverse dimensions of EAS rapidly increase when the zenith angle increases. Hence, EAS in a wide energy interval can be explored by means of a relatively small detector. Here we present results of the analysis of the data on inclined muon bundles accumulated from 2002 to 2016 in the DECOR experiment. For the first time, these results demonstrate with more than 3σ significance the existence of the second knee in the EAS muon component spectrum near 1017 eV primary energy. An excess of muon bundles at energies about 1 EeV found earlier in DECOR data has been confirmed and analyzed in detail. It is highly likely that the obtained outcomes indicate the appearance of new processes of muon generation.

  13. Bounds on poloidal kinetic energy in plane layer convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilgner, A.

    2017-12-01

    A numerical method is presented that conveniently computes upper bounds on heat transport and poloidal energy in plane layer convection for infinite and finite Prandtl numbers. The bounds obtained for the heat transport coincide with earlier results. These bounds imply upper bounds for the poloidal energy, which follow directly from the definitions of dissipation and energy. The same constraints used for computing upper bounds on the heat transport lead to improved bounds for the poloidal energy.

  14. Energy and rice quality aspects during drying of freshly harvested paddy with industrial inclined bed dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarker, M.S.H.; Ibrahim, M. Nordin; Ab. Aziz, N.; Mohd. Salleh, P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We presented performance evaluation approach for industrial inclined bed paddy dryer. • Specific electrical energy consumption was 1.44–1.95 MJ/kg water evaporated. • Specific thermal energy consumption was 2.77–3.47 MJ/kg water evaporated. • Dryer yielded 1–4% higher head rice at drying temperature of 38–39 °C than 41–42 °C. • Dryers should be operated at 38–39 °C for 1–4% higher head rice at reasonable energy. - Abstract: The performance evaluation of any industrial dryer regarding energy consumption and product quality should be assessed to check its present status and to suggest for further efficient operation. An investigation was carried out to evaluate the impact of drying temperature and air flow on energy consumption and quality of rice during paddy drying with industrial inclined bed dryer (IBD) with average holding capacity of 15 ton in the selected complexes of Padiberas Nasional Berhad (BERNAS)-the national paddy custodian of Malaysia. In reducing paddy moisture content (mc) from 22% to 23% wet basis (wb) down to around 12.5% wb, the final mc, the specific electrical (in terms of primary energy) and the specific thermal energy consumption were found to be varied between 1.44 to 1.95 MJ/kg water evaporated and 2.77 to 3.47 MJ/kg water evaporated, respectively. Analysis revealed that the specific electrical energy consumption was around 20% lesser and the specific thermal energy consumption of IBDs was around 10% higher during drying with air temperature of 41–42 °C than drying with 38–39 °C in reducing paddy mc from 22% to 23% (wb) down to around 12.5% (wb). However, paddy being with almost same initial mc dried using drying temperature of 38–39 °C, IBDs yielded 1–4% higher head rice yield while milling recovery and whiteness were comparable at acceptable milling degree and transparency. The bed air flows between 0.27 and 0.29 m 3 m −2 s −1 resulted in higher head rice yield slightly while its

  15. Clinically acceptable agreement between the ViMove wireless motion sensor system and the Vicon motion capture system when measuring lumbar region inclination motion in the sagittal and coronal planes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mjøsund, Hanne Leirbekk; Boyle, Eleanor; Kjær, Per

    2017-01-01

    . CONCLUSIONS: We found a clinically acceptable level of agreement between these two methods for measuring standing lumbar inclination motion in these two cardinal movement planes. Further research should investigate the ViMove system's ability to measure lumbar motion in more complex 3D functional movements...

  16. Mi Quinto Libro de Maquinas Simples: El Plano Inclinado. Escuela Intermedia Grados 7, 8 y 9 (My Fifth Book of Simple Machines: The Inclined Plane. Intermediate School Grades 7, 8, and 9).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Patricio R.; Montalvo, Luis

    This is the fifth book in a five-book physical science series on simple machines. The books are designed for Spanish-speaking junior high school students. This volume explains the principles and some of the uses of inclined planes, as they appear in simple machines, by suggesting experiments and posing questions concerning drawings in the book…

  17. Energy and mass-analyzer based on two plane capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zashkvara, V.V.; Shestakov, V.P.; AN Kazakhskoj SSR, Alma-Ata. Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1983-01-01

    An energy and mass-analyzer of charged particle beams consisting of two plane capacitors has been calculated. Energy analysis is performed in the statistical regime, mass analysis - in the regime of time of flight measurement. Focusing in the time-of-flight is performed both according to an angle of beam divergence and to energy. Different modes of energy and mass analyzer operation were considered. In the first mode the energy analysis of a charged particle beam escaping a linearly extended source is accomplished and the energy distribution function N(W) is measured. In the second mode energy analysis and time-of-flight mass analysis of the charged particle beam are performed which permits to measure the spectral distribution function N(W, m) both in masses and energy. In the third mode the time-of-flight mass analysis of the beam is accomplished which enables to measure integral with respect to energy distribution function N(m) in masses. So, the simple device based on two plane capacitors can considerably improve the possibilities of the energy and mass analysis of charged particle beams emitted with linearly extended sources

  18. DRYING PERFORMANCE AND OVERALL ENERGY REQUISITE OF INDUSTRIAL INCLINED BED PADDY DRYING IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. NORDIN IBRAHIM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An attempt was undertaken to evaluate the performance of industrial inclined bed dryers (IBDs in terms of drying capacity, drying rate, overall energy requisite and final quality of dried product in drying of freshly harvested paddy. In drying of paddy with initial moisture content of 22-23% wet basis (wb to around 12.5% (wb final moisture content, drying capacity and drying rate of the dryers were found to vary between 0.66 to 1.03 ton dry paddy/hour and 90 to 121 kg moisture/hour, respectively, for the holding capacity of each dryer at about 15 ton. The electrical energy consumption of the IBDs was found to vary between 18.15 to 27.55 kWh/t while the thermal energy consumption ranged between 960 to 1328.15 MJ/t. The IBDs operated at air temperature of 38-39oC yielded 1 to 4% higher head rice yield than the IBDs were operated at 41-42oC for drying of similar moist paddy, but milling recovery and whiteness were comparable.

  19. On the energy-momentum density of gravitational plane waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dereli, T; Tucker, R W

    2004-01-01

    By embedding Einstein's original formulation of general relativity into a broader context, we show that a dynamic covariant description of gravitational stress-energy emerges naturally from a variational principle. A tensor T G is constructed from a contraction of the Bel tensor with a symmetric covariant second degree tensor field Φ and has a form analogous to the stress-energy tensor of the Maxwell field in an arbitrary spacetime. For plane-fronted gravitational waves helicity-2 polarized (graviton) states can be identified carrying non-zero energy and momentum

  20. In vitro comparative study on the friction of stainless steel wires with and without Orthospeed® (JAL 90458) on an inclined plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alió-Sanz, Juan J; Claros-Stucchi, Miguel; Albaladejo, Alberto; Iglesias-Conde, Carmen; Alvarado-Lorenzo, Alfonso

    2016-04-01

    During the treatment of orthodontics, in the mechanics of slide, there takes place friction, which they reduce the slide of the arch across bracket. Therefore, clinical there takes place an increase of the time of treatment. There are different the technologies that try to reduce this friction, as the self-ligating braces. The purpose of this study was to research the in vitro behavior of JAL 90458 as a buffering agent which reduces friction between brackets and stainless steel arch wires of different cross sections and sizes. Three types of stainless steel wires with different cross sections and three types of ligatures were used with and without JAL 90458 to measure the friction according to the time and distance traveled by the brackets on an inclined plane with two angulations. The Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance by ranks was applied to determine the degree of friction between the group using and the group not using the product (P ≤ .05). Separate analysis of the arch wires, ligatures and angulation with and without the compound revealed statistically significant differences between the groups, showing that friction was reduced significantly when JAL 90458 was used (P ≤ .01). The 0.021x0.025" arch wires and the arch wires attached using elastic ligatures produce the least resistance to sliding among all of those analyzed when the product was not used (P ≤ .05). The results show that JAL 90458 reduces friction independently of arch wire cross section, type of ligature and angulation of the measuring instrument. Friction, JAL 90458, arch wires, ligatures, in vitro.

  1. Deformation energy of a toroidal nucleus and plane fragmentation barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauchard, C.; Royer, G.

    1996-01-01

    The path leading to pumpkin-like configurations and toroidal shapes is investigated using a one-parameter shape sequence. The deformation energy is determined within the analytical expressions obtained for the various shape-dependent functions and the generalized rotating liquid drop model taking into account the proximity energy and the temperature. With increasing mass and angular momentum, a potential well appears in the toroidal shape path. For the heaviest systems, the pocket is large and locally favourable with respect to the plane fragmentation barriers which might allow the formation of evanescent toroidal systems which would rapidly decay in several fragments to minimize the surface tension. (orig.)

  2. Transient laminar opposing mixed convection in a symmetrically heated duct with a plane symmetric sudden contraction-expansion: Buoyancy an inclination effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Suástegui, Lorenzo; Barreto, Enrique; Treviño, César

    2015-11-01

    Transient laminar opposing mixed convection is studied experimentally in an open vertical rectangular channel with two discrete protruded heat sources subjected to uniform heat flux simulating electronic components. Experiments are performed for a Reynolds number of Re = 700, Prandtl number of Pr = 7, inclination angles with respect to the horizontal of γ =0o , 45o and 90o, and different values of buoyancy strength or modified Richardson number, Ri* =Gr* /Re2 . From the experimental measurements, the space averaged surface temperatures, overall Nusselt number of each simulated electronic chip, phase-space plots of the self-oscillatory system, characteristic times of temperature oscillations and spectral distribution of the fluctuating energy have been obtained. Results show that when a threshold in the buoyancy parameter is reached, strong three-dimensional secondary flow oscillations develop in the axial and spanwise directions. This research was supported by the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT), Grant number 167474 and by the Secretaría de Investigación y Posgrado del IPN, Grant number SIP 20141309.

  3. Quality Assessment of Roof Planes Extracted from Height Data for Solar Energy Systems by the EAGLE Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Schuffert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing scarcity of fossil fuels and the upwards trend in energy costs over time, many countries—especially in Europe—have begun to modify their energy policies aiming to increase that percentage obtained from renewable energies. The EAGLE (FP7 program, European Commission has developed a web-based platform to promote renewable energy systems (RES in the public and private sectors, and to deliver a comprehensive information source for all interested users. In this paper, a comprehensive quality assessment of extracted roof planes suitable for solar energy installations (photovoltaic, solar thermal from height data derived automatically from both LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging and aerial images will be presented. A shadow analysis is performed regarding the daily path of the sun including the shading effects of nearby objects (chimneys, dormers, vegetation, buildings, topography, etc.. A quality assessment was carried out for both LiDAR and aerial images of the same test sites in UK and Germany concerning building outline accuracy, extraction rate of roof planes and the accuracy of their geometric parameters (inclination and aspect angle, size. The benefit is an optimized system to extract roof planes for RES with a high level of detail, accuracy and flexibility (concerning different commonly available data sources including an estimation of quality of the results which is important for individual house owners as well as for regional applications by governments or solar energy companies to judge their usefulness.

  4. Measurement of the ultra high energy cosmic ray flux from data of very inclined showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dembinski, Hans Peter

    2009-12-03

    This work describes the derivation of the energy dependent flux of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from data of very inclined air showers observed with the Pierre Auger Observatory. It focuses on the event class of very inclined air showers with zenith angles larger than 60 . The lateral ground profile of these showers is muon dominated and not radially symmetric around the shower axis due to geomagnetic deflections and other effects. The dependency of this profile on the direction, energy and mass of the cosmic ray is discussed with a mixture of detailed Monte-Carlo simulations and a simplified analytical model of the air shower cascade. It is found in agreement with other studies that the normalized shape of the muon density profile is approximately universal over the range of cosmic ray energies and masses measured at the Pierre Auger Observatory, that the amplitude of the profile is almost proportional to the cosmic ray energy, and that its shower-to-shower fluctuations are sensitive to the mass composition of the cosmic rays. (orig.)

  5. Measurement of the ultra high energy cosmic ray flux from data of very inclined showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dembinski, Hans Peter

    2009-01-01

    This work describes the derivation of the energy dependent flux of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from data of very inclined air showers observed with the Pierre Auger Observatory. It focuses on the event class of very inclined air showers with zenith angles larger than 60 . The lateral ground profile of these showers is muon dominated and not radially symmetric around the shower axis due to geomagnetic deflections and other effects. The dependency of this profile on the direction, energy and mass of the cosmic ray is discussed with a mixture of detailed Monte-Carlo simulations and a simplified analytical model of the air shower cascade. It is found in agreement with other studies that the normalized shape of the muon density profile is approximately universal over the range of cosmic ray energies and masses measured at the Pierre Auger Observatory, that the amplitude of the profile is almost proportional to the cosmic ray energy, and that its shower-to-shower fluctuations are sensitive to the mass composition of the cosmic rays. (orig.)

  6. Evaluation of the inclination of maxillary occlusal plane on mounted casts using a fixed value and customized nasion indicator in artex articulator: Facebow system - An in-vivo comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manikandan Ramasamy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate and compare the variations in the inclination of occlusal plane of casts mounted on Artex articulator using a facebow with a fixed value and customized nasion indicator. Materials and Methods: Twenty two subjects were selected for this investigation. Two maxillary impressions were made, and casts poured. For each of the twenty two subjects, the facebow records were made with, Artex face-bow using a fixed value nasion indicator and customized nasion indicator and mounted. The angle between the occlusal plane of upper cast and the upper articulator arm was measured with a Universal bevel protractor and compared with the gold standard cephalometric value. Results: It shows that, when angle was measured between maxillary occlusal plane and upper member of the articulator, on the mounted cast using a customized nasion indicator and fixed value nasion indicator against the gold standard cephalometric value as a whole, it was found to be not significant. But, if each patient were evaluated individually, there found to be the difference in the angle. Discussion and Conclusion: Variation in occlusal plane was very minimal and close to the cephalometric value when using customized nasion indicator compared to fixed value nasion indicator on the Artex.

  7. Determination of viscosity of fayalite slags for kv model and measurements by means of inclined plane; Estimacion de la viscosidad de escorias fayaliticas utilizando el modelo de calculo kv y el metodo experimental del plano inclinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan, V.; Goni, C.; Castella, L.; Brandaleze, E.; Verdeja, L. F.; Parra, R.

    2006-07-01

    The viscosity of the lands represents one of the most relevant variables of most of the processes metallurgical and kinetics of the refine operations, since it is one of the decisive factors of the efficiency in the reactions between metal and lag, as much as slag-refractory. In the last decades, the mathematical models of different metallurgical processes have established methods to predict viscosity of mixtures of oxides fused to high temperatures in function of the chemical composition. The model developed by Toguri, based on the data reported by Johasen and Winterhager et al has proposed the Kv model. The used index it is similar to the relationship used in the steel industry like the basicity index. It is presented in this work values determined of viscosity in experimental form by means of the technique of inclined plane. (Author)

  8. Towards New Renewable Energy Policies in Urban Areas: the Re-Definition of Optimum Inclination of Photovoltaic Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Weissenbacher

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The optimum inclination and orientation of fixed photovoltaic (PV panels has long been defined in terms of maximizing the annual electricity yield per capacity installed according to the hemisphere and latitude where the PV system is located. Such optimum setup would thus also maximize the output per system cost, but it would not maximize the output per unit of available area, and it would not necessarily optimize the contribution of photovoltaic electricity vis-à-vis overall electricity demand patterns. This study seeks to draw the attention of policy-makers to the fact that incentivizing lower-than-optimum PV panel tilt angles can be an inexpensive strategy to substantially increase the renewable electricity yield in a given area. It also discusses how such strategy can be incorporated into an overall supply/demand grid management and renewable energy integration plan.

  9. Search for ultrahigh energy neutrinos in highly inclined events at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Nožka, Libor; Nyklíček, Michal; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovancová, Jaroslava; Schovánek, Petr; Šmída, Radomír; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 12 (2011), "122005-1"-"122005-16" ISSN 1550-7998 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC527; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002; GA MŠk(CZ) MEB111003; GA AV ČR KJB100100904; GA MŠk(CZ) LA08016 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502; CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : cosmic rays * neutrinos Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.558, year: 2011 http://prd.aps.org/abstract/PRD/v84/i12/e122005

  10. Developing countries inclined to nuclear energy. Advent of newcomer countries age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masaharu

    2017-01-01

    Although a certain degree of braking was applied to the nuclear power development of the world after the accident of TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in 2011, many countries maintain the attitude of promoting nuclear power from the viewpoints of global environmental issues and energy security. This paper overviews the trends of nuclear power generation around the world, and then introduces the nuclear power situation of the nuclear power generation countries such as Finland, Germany, Switzerland, Ukraine, Argentina, and Taiwan. In Germany, nuclear departure policy since before the Fukushima Daiichi accident was accelerated, and the nuclear phase-out law was passed and put into force in August 2011. This paper also introduces the nuclear development trends in the newly introducing countries of United Arab Emirates (UAE), Belarus, Bangladesh, Turkey, Vietnam, and Saudi Arabia. Iran's first Bushehr No.1 unit began operation in 2013, and in the future United Arab Emirates will join in 2018 and Belarus will join 2019 as the nuclear power generation country. In the 2020s, several more countries are expected to newly join. (A.O.)

  11. Design of energy efficient optical networks with software enabled integrated control plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiayuan; Yan, Ying; Dittmann, Lars

    2015-01-01

    methods and the control over quality of service (QoS). The structure is defined as an overlay generalised multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) control model. With the defined structure, the integrated control plane is able to gather information from different domains (i.e. optical core network...... energy consumption by proposing a new integrated control plane structure utilising Software Defined Networking technologies. The integrated control plane increases the efficiencies of exchanging control information across different network domains, while introducing new possibilities to the routing...... and the access networks), and enable energy efficiency networking over a wider area. In the case presented, the integrated control plane collects the network energy related information and the QoS requirements of different types of traffic. This information is used to define the specific group of traffic's (flow...

  12. An efficient global energy optimization approach for robust 3D plane segmentation of point clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhen; Yang, Bisheng; Hu, Pingbo; Scherer, Sebastian

    2018-03-01

    Automatic 3D plane segmentation is necessary for many applications including point cloud registration, building information model (BIM) reconstruction, simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM), and point cloud compression. However, most of the existing 3D plane segmentation methods still suffer from low precision and recall, and inaccurate and incomplete boundaries, especially for low-quality point clouds collected by RGB-D sensors. To overcome these challenges, this paper formulates the plane segmentation problem as a global energy optimization because it is robust to high levels of noise and clutter. First, the proposed method divides the raw point cloud into multiscale supervoxels, and considers planar supervoxels and individual points corresponding to nonplanar supervoxels as basic units. Then, an efficient hybrid region growing algorithm is utilized to generate initial plane set by incrementally merging adjacent basic units with similar features. Next, the initial plane set is further enriched and refined in a mutually reinforcing manner under the framework of global energy optimization. Finally, the performances of the proposed method are evaluated with respect to six metrics (i.e., plane precision, plane recall, under-segmentation rate, over-segmentation rate, boundary precision, and boundary recall) on two benchmark datasets. Comprehensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed method obtained good performances both in high-quality TLS point clouds (i.e., http://SEMANTIC3D.NET)

  13. Electrostatic energy harvesting device with out-of-the-plane gap closing scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fei; Hansen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report on an electrostatic energy harvester with an out-of-the-plane gap closing scheme. Using advanced MEMS technology, energy harvesting devices formed by a four wafer stack are batch fabricated and fully packaged at wafer scale. A spin coated CYTOP polymer is used both...

  14. Electrostatic energy harvesting device with out-of-the-plane gap closing scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fei; Hansen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we report on an electrostatic energy harvester with an out-of-the-plane gap closing scheme. Using advanced MEMS technology, energy harvesting devices with a four wafer stack are batch fabricated and fully packaged at wafer scale. CYTOP polymer is used both as an electret material...

  15. The Space-, Time-, and Energy-distribution of Neutrons from a Pulsed Plane Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claesson, Arne

    1962-05-15

    The space-, time- and energy-distribution of neutrons from a pulsed, plane, high energy source in an infinite medium is determined in a diffusion approximation. For simplicity the moderator is first assumed to be hydrogen gas but it is also shown that the method can be used for a moderator of arbitrary mass.

  16. Effect of landing height on frontal plane kinematics, kinetics and energy dissipation at lower extremity joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeow, C H; Lee, P V S; Goh, J C H

    2009-08-25

    Lack of the necessary magnitude of energy dissipation by lower extremity joint muscles may be implicated in elevated impact stresses present during landing from greater heights. These increased stresses are experienced by supporting tissues like cartilage, ligaments and bones, thus aggravating injury risk. This study sought to investigate frontal plane kinematics, kinetics and energetics of lower extremity joints during landing from different heights. Eighteen male recreational athletes were instructed to perform drop-landing tasks from 0.3- to 0.6-m heights. Force plates and motion-capture system were used to capture ground reaction force and kinematics data, respectively. Joint moment was calculated using inverse dynamics. Joint power was computed as a product of joint moment and angular velocity. Work was defined as joint power integrated over time. Hip and knee joints delivered significantly greater joint power and eccentric work (phip joint in response to increasing landing height. Knee and hip joints acted as key contributors to total energy dissipation in the frontal plane with increase in peak ground reaction force (GRF). The hip joint was the top contributor to energy absorption, which indicated a hip-dominant strategy in the frontal plane in response to peak GRF during landing. Future studies should investigate joint motions that can maximize energy dissipation or reduce the need for energy dissipation in the frontal plane at the various joints, and to evaluate their effects on the attenuation of lower extremity injury risk during landing.

  17. Plane Symmetric Dark Energy Models in the Form of Wet Dark Fluid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we have investigated the plane symmetric space- time with wet dark fluid (WDF), which is a candidate for dark energy, in the framework of f(R, T ) gravity Harko et al. 2011, Phys. Rev. D,. 84, 024020), where R and T denote the Ricci scalar and the trace of the energy–momentum tensor respectively.

  18. Identification of intermediate energy heavy ions in the focal plane of a spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buenerd, M.; Ballon, J.; Chauvin, J.; Lebrun, D.; Martin, P.; Bonin, B.; Bruge, G.; Lugol, J.C.; Alamanos, N.; Papineau, L.; Roussel, P.

    1985-01-01

    Heavy ions with mass A<14 and E/Aproportional120 MeV have been identified in the focal plane of a magnetic spectrometry by means of a simple telescope made of two slabs of plastic scintillator. The method should be applicable up to Aproportional20 in mass and down to E/Aproportional50 MeV in energy per nucleon. (orig.)

  19. A 4-Mid-Node Plane Model of Base Force Element Method on Complementary Energy Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghua Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the base forces as fundamental variables to describe the stress state and the displacement gradients that are the conjugate variables of the base forces to describe the deformation state for the two-dimensional elasticity problems, a 4-mid-node plane model of base force element method (BFEM based on complementary energy principle is proposed. In this paper, the complementary energy of an element of the BFEM is constructed by using the base forces. The equilibrium conditions are released by the Lagrange multiplier method, and a modified complementary energy principle described by the base forces is obtained. The formulation of the 4-mid-node plane element of the BFEM is derived by assuming that the stress is uniformly distributed on each edge of the plane elements. A procedure of the BFEM on complementary energy principle is developed using MATLAB language. The numerical results of examples show that this model of the BFEM has high precision and is free from mesh sensitivity. This model shows good performances.

  20. Design and measured performances of a plane reflector augmented box-type solar-energy cooker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekechukwu, O.V.

    2001-06-01

    The design philosophy, construction and measured performances of a plane-reflector augmented box-type solar-energy cooker are presented. The experimental solar cooker consists of an aluminum plate absorber painted matt black and a double-glazed lid. The bottom and sides are lagged with fibreglass wool insulator. The reflector consists of a wooden-framed commercially-available specular plane mirror which is sized to form a cover for the box when not in use. Provision is made for four cooking vessels each capable of holding up to 1 kg of water. Results of thermal performance tests show stagnation absorber plate temperatures of 138 deg. C and 119 deg. C for the cooker with and without the plane reflector in place, respectively. Boiling times of 60 minutes (3600 seconds) and 70 minutes (4200 seconds) for 1 kg of water, for the cooker with and without the reflector in place, respectively, were recorded. The solar cooker performance has been rated using the first figure of merit (F 1 ) on the no-load test and the second figure of merit (F 2 ) on the sensible heat tests. Predicted water boiling times using the two figures of merit compared favourable with measured values. The performance of the cooker with the plane reflector in place was improved tremendously compared to that without the reflector in place. (author)

  1. An Experimental Study of Energy-Saving Shoes for Robot as Sagittal Plane Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakata, Hideaki; Tadakuma, Susumu

    In this paper, we propose flexible shoe system to apply passive walking manner to ordinary humanoid biped. In this system, 2DOF (FF & FB) control scheme is used and realize walking with less ankle torque. Besides, this system is consisted as reference modification of position control system, so it can be applicable to most of walking robot even if its joint servo is black box. The effectiveness and characteristics of this system is confirmed by computer simulations and experimental result. The softness of shoe is very important parameter for energy consumption and walking stability. From the discussions of the system, it is said that sagittal plane assistance shoes reduce the energy loss due to the ankle joint friction. Finally, we confirmed the reduction of energy consumption on walking experiment, so we call this system as “energy saving shoes.”

  2. Extreme nonlinear energy exchanges in a geometrically nonlinear lattice oscillating in the plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Manevitch, Leonid I.; Smirnov, Valeri; Bergman, Lawrence A.; Vakakis, Alexander F.

    2018-01-01

    We study the in-plane damped oscillations of a finite lattice of particles coupled by linear springs under distributed harmonic excitation. Strong nonlinearity in this system is generated by geometric effects due to the in-plane stretching of the coupling spring elements. The lattice has a finite number of nonlinear transverse standing waves (termed nonlinear normal modes - NNMs), and an equal number of axial linear modes which are nonlinearly coupled to the transverse ones. Nonlinear interactions between the transverse and axial modes under harmonic excitation give rise to unexpected and extreme nonlinear energy exchanges in the lattice. In particular, we directly excite a transverse NNM by harmonic forcing (causing simulataneous indirect excitation of a corresponding axial linear mode due to nonlinear coupling), and identify three energy transfer mechanisms in the lattice. First, we detect the stable response of the directly excited transverse NNM (despite its instability in the absence of forcing), with simultaneous stability of the indirectly excited axial linear mode. Second, by changing the system and forcing parameters we report extreme nonlinear "energy explosions," whereby, after an initial regime of stability, the directly excited transverse NNM loses stability, leading to abrupt excitation of all transverse and axial modes of the lattice, at all possible wave numbers. This strong instability is triggered by the parametric instability of an indirectly excited axial mode which builds energy until the explosion. This is proved through theoretical analysis. Finally, in other parameter ranges we report intermittent, intense energy transfers from the directly excited transverse NNM to a small set of transverse NNMs with smaller wavelengths, and from the indirectly excited axial mode to a small set of axial modes, but with larger wavelengths. These intermittent energy transfers resemble energy cascades occurring in turbulent flows. Our results show that

  3. Energy efficiency with QoS control in dynamic optical networks with SDN enabled integrated control plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiayuan; Chen, Xin; Phillips, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents energy efficient routing algorithms based on a novel integrated control plane platform. The centralized control plane structure enables the use of flexible heuristic algorithms for route selection in optical networks. Differentiated routing for various traffic types is used in ...

  4. Quantum fields interacting with colliding plane waves: the stress-energy tensor and backreaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorca, M.; Verdaguer, E.

    1997-01-01

    Following a previous work on the quantization of a massless scalar field in a space-time representing the head on collision of two plane waves which focus into a Killing-Cauchy horizon, we compute the renormalized expectation value of the stress-energy tensor of the quantum field near that horizon in the physical state which corresponds to the Minkowski vacuum before the collision of the waves. It is found that for minimally coupled and conformally coupled scalar fields the respective stress-energy tensors are unbounded in the horizon. The specific form of the divergences suggests that when the semiclassical Einstein equations describing the backreaction of the quantum fields on the space-time geometry are taken into account, the horizon will acquire a curvature singularity. Thus the Killing-Cauchy horizon which is known to be unstable under ''generic'' classical perturbations is also unstable by vacuum polarization. The calculation is done following the point-splitting regularization technique. The dynamical colliding wave space-time has four quite distinct space-time regions, namely, one flat region, two single plane wave regions, and one interaction region. Exact mode solutions of the quantum field equation cannot be found exactly, but the blueshift suffered by the initial modes in the plane wave and interaction regions makes the use of the WKB expansion a suitable method of solution. To ensure the correct regularization of the stress-energy tensor, the initial flat modes propagated into the interaction region must be given to a rather high adiabatic order of approximation. (orig.)

  5. Nuclear energy - a plane without landing run? Status quo of final waste disposal in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomauske, B.; Brammer, K.J.

    2006-01-01

    In public discussion about peaceful use of nuclear energy it is often said that apparently nuclear waste disposal is not ensured - one even refers to it as ''a plane without al landing run'' Allegedly large quantities of radioactive waste have been produced in the past decades without consideration of its final whereabouts. The following article looks into the argumentation of the subject and reveals, that indeed at a very early stage methods of disposal of nuclear waste generated by nuclear power plants have been established in Germany. (orig.)

  6. Effects of occlusal inclination and loading on mandibular bone remodeling: a finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungsiyakull, Chaiy; Rungsiyakull, Pimdeun; Li, Qing; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael

    2011-01-01

    To provide a preliminary understanding of the biomechanics with respect to the effect of cusp inclination and occlusal loading on the mandibular bone remodeling. Three different cusp inclinations (0, 10, and 30 degrees) of a ceramic crown and different occlusal loading locations (central fossa and 1- and 2-mm offsets horizontally) were taken into account to explore the stresses and strains transferred from the crown to the surrounding dental bone through the implant. A strain energy density obtained from two-dimensional plane-strain finite element analysis was used as the mechanical stimulus to drive cancellous and cortical bone remodeling in a buccolingual mandibular section. Different ceramic cusp inclinations had a significant effect on bone remodeling responses in terms of the change in the average peri-implant bone density and overall stability. The remodeling rate was relatively high in the first few months of loading and gradually decreased until reaching its equilibrium. A larger cusp inclination and horizontal offset (eg, 30 degrees and 2-mm offset) led to a higher bone remodeling rate and greater interfacial stress. The dental implant superstructure design (in terms of cusp inclination and loading location) determines the load transmission pattern and thus largely affects bone remodeling activities. Although the design with a lower cusp inclination recommended in previous studies may reduce damage and fracture failure, it could, to a certain extent, compromise bone engagement and long-term stability.

  7. Impact of flow inclination on downwind turbine loads and power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, C.; Chokani, N.; Abhari, R. S.; Hashimoto, T.; Watanabe, M.; Sano, T.; Saeki, M.

    2016-09-01

    Wind turbines frequently operate under situations of pronounced flow inclinations, such as in complex terrain. In the present work the performance and rotor thrust of downwind and upwind turbines in upward and downward flow inclinations are experimentally investigated. In an upward flow inclination of +13°, downwind turbines are shown to have a 29% larger power output than a corresponding upwind turbine, whereas the relative increase in rotor thrust is only 9%. Furthermore, it is also shown that the performance of downwind turbines is less sensitive to changes in the flow inclination, as the upstream nacelle on downwind turbines beneficially redirects and accelerates the flow around the nacelle into the rotor plane.

  8. A New Energy-Critical Plane Damage Parameter for Multiaxial Fatigue Life Prediction of Turbine Blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Yong Yu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available As one of fracture critical components of an aircraft engine, accurate life prediction of a turbine blade to disk attachment is significant for ensuring the engine structural integrity and reliability. Fatigue failure of a turbine blade is often caused under multiaxial cyclic loadings at high temperatures. In this paper, considering different failure types, a new energy-critical plane damage parameter is proposed for multiaxial fatigue life prediction, and no extra fitted material constants will be needed for practical applications. Moreover, three multiaxial models with maximum damage parameters on the critical plane are evaluated under tension-compression and tension-torsion loadings. Experimental data of GH4169 under proportional and non-proportional fatigue loadings and a case study of a turbine disk-blade contact system are introduced for model validation. Results show that model predictions by Wang-Brown (WB and Fatemi-Socie (FS models with maximum damage parameters are conservative and acceptable. For the turbine disk-blade contact system, both of the proposed damage parameters and Smith-Watson-Topper (SWT model show reasonably acceptable correlations with its field number of flight cycles. However, life estimations of the turbine blade reveal that the definition of the maximum damage parameter is not reasonable for the WB model but effective for both the FS and SWT models.

  9. Vehicle with inclinable caterpillars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carra, O.; Delevallee, A.

    1991-01-01

    Vehicle has a body with propulsion assemblies that drive caterpillar tracks. When a propulsion unit inclines about its articulation axis it is aided by an advance movement of the caterpillar track in the opposite direction of rotation [fr

  10. One- and two-quasiparticle states in the complex energy plane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dussel, G.G. [Departamento de Fisica, FCEyN-UBA, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon 1, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Id Betan, R. [Departamento de Quimica y Fisica, FCEIA, UNR - CONICET, Avenida Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina)]. E-mail: idbetan@ifir.edu.ar; Liotta, R.J. [KTH, Alba Nova University Center, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Vertse, T. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4001 Debrecen, PO Box 51 (Hungary); University of Debrecen, Faculty of Informatics, H-4010 Debrecen, PO Box 12 (Hungary)

    2007-06-01

    One- and two-quasiparticle states are studied in the complex energy plane. It is found that the pairing interaction does not change the character of the complex state. If a normal state is a physically meaningful resonance, then it will remain as such throughout the shell and if it is unphysical it will also remain as such throughout the shell. An important consequence of this is that it justifies the use of bound representations to evaluate many-body systems within the shell-model in cases where the single-particle states are narrow resonances. The character of two-quasiparticle states may oscillate between meaningful resonances and unphysical complex excitations as the number of particles increases.

  11. Observation of high-energy cosmic rays by very inclined muon bundles in the NEVOD-DECOR experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saavedra O.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Russian-Italian NEVOD-DECOR experiment on measurements of the local muon density spectra at various zenith angles gave the possibility to obtain important information on the primary cosmic ray flux and interaction characteristics in a wide energy range from 1015 to more than 1018 eV. At large zenith angles and high muon densities, a considerable excess of muon bundles has been found in comparison with expectation. In this paper, an update of these investigations is presented and some new results obtained by the collaboration are discussed.

  12. Evaluation of a plane-parallel ionization chamber for low-energy radiotherapy beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perini, Ana Paula; Neves, Lucio Pereira; Santos, William de Souza; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: aperini@ipen.br, E-mail: lpneves@ipen.br, E-mail: wssantos@ipen.br, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    A plane-parallel ionization chamber, with a sensitive volume of 6.3 cm{sup 3}, developed at the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN (LCI), was utilized to verify the possibility of its application in low-energy X-ray beam qualities for radiotherapy (T-qualities). This homemade ion chamber was manufactured using polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) coated with graphite, and co-axial cables. In order to evaluate the performance of this ionization chamber, some characterization tests were performed: short- and medium-term stability, leakage current, saturation, ion collection efficiency, polarity effect and linearity of response. The maximum value obtained in the short-term stability test was 0.2%, in accordance with the limit value of 0.3% provided by the IEC 60731 standard. The saturation curve was obtained varying the applied voltage from -400 V to +400 V, in steps of 50 V, using the charge collecting time of 20 s. From the saturation curve two other characteristics were analyzed: the polarity effect and the ion collection efficiency, with results within the international recommendations. The leakage current of the ionization chamber was measured in time intervals of 20 minutes, before and after its irradiations, and all the results obtained were in agreement with the IEC 60731 standard. The linearity of response was verified utilizing the T-50(b) radiation quality, and the ionization chamber was exposed to different air kerma rates. The response of the ionization chamber presented a linear behavior. Therefore, all results were considered satisfactory, within international recommendations, indicating that this homemade ionization chamber presents potential routine use in dosimetry of low-energy radiotherapy beams. (author)

  13. Evaluation of a plane-parallel ionization chamber for low-energy radiotherapy beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perini, Ana Paula; Neves, Lucio Pereira; Santos, William de Souza; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2014-01-01

    A plane-parallel ionization chamber, with a sensitive volume of 6.3 cm 3 , developed at the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN (LCI), was utilized to verify the possibility of its application in low-energy X-ray beam qualities for radiotherapy (T-qualities). This homemade ion chamber was manufactured using polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) coated with graphite, and co-axial cables. In order to evaluate the performance of this ionization chamber, some characterization tests were performed: short- and medium-term stability, leakage current, saturation, ion collection efficiency, polarity effect and linearity of response. The maximum value obtained in the short-term stability test was 0.2%, in accordance with the limit value of 0.3% provided by the IEC 60731 standard. The saturation curve was obtained varying the applied voltage from -400 V to +400 V, in steps of 50 V, using the charge collecting time of 20 s. From the saturation curve two other characteristics were analyzed: the polarity effect and the ion collection efficiency, with results within the international recommendations. The leakage current of the ionization chamber was measured in time intervals of 20 minutes, before and after its irradiations, and all the results obtained were in agreement with the IEC 60731 standard. The linearity of response was verified utilizing the T-50(b) radiation quality, and the ionization chamber was exposed to different air kerma rates. The response of the ionization chamber presented a linear behavior. Therefore, all results were considered satisfactory, within international recommendations, indicating that this homemade ionization chamber presents potential routine use in dosimetry of low-energy radiotherapy beams. (author)

  14. G W with linearized augmented plane waves extended by high-energy local orbitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Blaha, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Many-body perturbation theory in the G W approximation is currently the most accurate and robust first-principles approach to determine the electronic band structure of weakly correlated insulating materials without any empirical input. Recent G W results for ZnO with more careful investigation of the convergence with respect to the number of unoccupied states have led to heated debates regarding the numerical accuracy of previously reported G W results using either pseudopotential plane waves or all-electron linearized augmented plane waves (LAPWs). The latter has been arguably regarded as the most accurate scheme for electronic-structure theory for solids. This work aims to solve the ZnO puzzle via a systematic investigation of the effects of including high-energy local orbitals (HLOs) in the LAPW-based G W calculations of semiconductors. Using ZnO as the prototypical example, it is shown that the inclusion of HLOs has two main effects: it improves the description of high-lying unoccupied states by reducing the linearization errors of the standard LAPW basis, and in addition it provides an efficient way to achieve the completeness in the summation of states in G W calculations. By investigating the convergence of G W band gaps with respect to the number of HLOs for several other typical examples, it was found that the effects of HLOs are highly system-dependent, and in most cases the inclusion of HLOs changes the band gap by less than 0.2 eV. Compared to its effects on the band gap, the consideration of HLOs has even stronger effects on the G W correction to the valence-band maximum, which is of great significance for the G W prediction of the ionization potentials of semiconductors. By considering an extended set of semiconductors with relatively well-established experimental band gaps, it was found that in general using a HLO-enhanced LAPW basis significantly improves the agreement with experiment for both the band gap and the ionization potential, and overall

  15. Genetic algorithm for minimizing the energy costs for the reorientation of the plane of the spacecraft orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankratov I.A.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the quaternion formulation, the problem of optimal reorientation of the orbital plane of a spacecraft (SC is considered. The control (acceleration from the vector of the jet thrust orthogonal to the plane of the orbit is limited in magnitude. It is necessary to minimize energy costs for the reorientation of the plane of the spacecraft orbit. An actual special case of a problem when the spacecraft orbit is circular, and control assumes constant values in certain sections of the active motion of the spacecraft is considered. An original genetic algorithm for finding the trajectories of optimal spacecraft flights is constructed. No information about the unknown initial values of the conjugate variables is required when we apply this method. Examples of the numerical solution of the problem are given for the case when the difference between the initial and final orientations of the spacecraft orbit equals to a few degrees in angular measure. In this case, the final orientation of the plane of the spacecraft orbit corresponds to the orientation of the orbital plane of the satellites of the Russian GLONASS orbital grouping.

  16. Revealing the inclined circumstellar disk in the UX Orionis system KK Ophiuchi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreplin, A.; Weigelt, G.; Kraus, S.; Grinin, V.; Hofmann, K.-H.; Kishimoto, M.; Schertl, D.; Tambovtseva, L.; Clausse, J.-M.; Massi, F.; Perraut, K.; Stee, Ph.

    2013-03-01

    Aims: We study the inner sub-AU region of the circumstellar environment of the UX Ori-type star KK Oph with near-infrared VLTI/AMBER interferometry. We are particularly interested in the inclination of the star-disk system, and we use this information to test the current standard picture for UX Ori stars. Methods: We recorded spectrally dispersed (R ~ 35) interferograms in the near-infrared H and K bands with the VLTI/AMBER instrument. The derived visibilities, closure phases, and the spectral energy distribution of KK Oph were compared with two-dimensional geometric and radiative transfer models (RADMC). Results: We obtained visibilities at four different position angles. Using two-dimensional geometric models, we derive an axis ratio ~3.0 corresponding to an inclination of ~70°. A fitted inclined ring model leads to a ring radius of 2.8 ± 0.2 mas, corresponding to 0.44 ± 0.03 AU at a distance of 160 pc, which is larger than the dust sublimation radius of ~0.1 AU predicted for a dust sublimation temperature of 1500 K. Our derived two-dimensional RADMC model consists of a circumstellar disk with an inclination angle of ~70° and an additional dust envelope. Conclusions: The finding of an ~70° inclined disk around KK Oph is consistent with the prediction that UX Ori objects are seen under large inclination angles, and orbiting clouds in the line of sight cause the observed variability. Furthermore, our results suggest that the orbit of the companion KK Oph B and the disk plane are coplanar. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at Paranal Observatory under program ID: 083.D-0224(C) and 088.C-0575(A).

  17. Evaporation of inclined water droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Hwang, In Gyu; Weon, Byung Mook

    2017-01-01

    When a drop is placed on a flat substrate tilted at an inclined angle, it can be deformed by gravity and its initial contact angle divides into front and rear contact angles by inclination. Here we study on evaporation dynamics of a pure water droplet on a flat solid substrate by controlling substrate inclination and measuring mass and volume changes of an evaporating droplet with time. We find that complete evaporation time of an inclined droplet becomes longer as gravitational influence by inclination becomes stronger. The gravity itself does not change the evaporation dynamics directly, whereas the gravity-induced droplet deformation increases the difference between front and rear angles, which quickens the onset of depinning and consequently reduces the contact radius. This result makes the evaporation rate of an inclined droplet to be slow. This finding would be important to improve understanding on evaporation dynamics of inclined droplets. PMID:28205642

  18. Plane Symmetric Dark Energy Models in the Form of Wet Dark Fluid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    5. Isotropization and the solution. The isotropy of the expansion can be parametrized after defining the directional. Hubble's parameters and the average Hubble's parameter of the expansion. The directional Hubble parameters in the directions X, Y, Z for the plane symmetric metric defined in (16) may be defined as follows:.

  19. Bidispersive-inclined convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulone, Giuseppe; Straughan, Brian

    2016-01-01

    A model is presented for thermal convection in an inclined layer of porous material when the medium has a bidispersive structure. Thus, there are the usual macropores which are full of a fluid, but there are also a system of micropores full of the same fluid. The model we employ is a modification of the one proposed by Nield & Kuznetsov (2006 Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 49, 3068–3074. (doi:10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2006.02.008)), although we consider a single temperature field only. PMID:27616934

  20. On the mathematic simulation of the energy efficiency for heat exchangers with the systems of impingement plane-parallel jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haritonova Larisa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives the analytical generalization of the data on the energy efficiency for heat exchangers with the flat heat exchange surface to which systems of impact plane parallel jets are sent. Functional relations of specific power consumption (per unit of area, which were obtained for the first time using the techniques of the similarity law, for moving a heat carrier are shown with regard to design and operation factors. The regression equations representing a mathematical model of the process enable to carry out an analysis of various factors impact on the parameter to be determined. The obtained results can be used to optimize or to create the calculation techniques for new highly-efficient heat exchange devices with jet plane -parallel impingement systems and also to reduce power consumption for moving a heat carrier.

  1. Energy-Based Yield Criteria for Orthotropic Materials, Exhibiting Strength-Differential Effect. Specification for Sheets under Plane Stress State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szeptyński P.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A general proposition of an energy-based limit condition for anisotropic materials exhibiting strength-differential effect (SDE based on spectral decomposition of elasticity tensors and the use of scaling pressure-dependent functions is specified for the case of orthotropic materials. A detailed algorithm (based on classical solutions of cubic equations for the determination of elastic eigenstates and eigenvalues of the orthotropic stiffness tensor is presented. A yield condition is formulated for both two-dimensional and three-dimensional cases. Explicit formulas based on simple strength tests are derived for parameters of criterion in the plane case. The application of both criteria for the description of yielding and plastic deformation of metal sheets is discussed in detail. The plane case criterion is verified with experimental results from the literature.

  2. Submarine granular flow down a rough plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Maxime; Cassar, Cyril; Pouliquen, Olivier

    2003-11-01

    We lead experiments of submarine granular flows in a water tank. The particles are spherical 100 microns glass beads and flow down a rough inclined plane from a reservoir with a controlled opening. Different flow regimes are observed, the flow velocity and thickness are measured. The basal water pressure is also measured and give information on the suspension rate of the flow. No flow was observed for an angle below 24 degrees. The flow velocity increases smoothly for a [24-36] degrees inclination range, and a strong velocity increase occurs for inclination over 36 degrees. The thickness of the flow decreases when inclination increases but no abrupt change of thickness is observed around 36 degrees. That suggests that a transition exists between a granular regime, where friction on the rough plane and particle contacts are dominant, and a suspension regime where basal friction vanishes. A thin film ripple instability is also observed for large inclination angles.

  3. An energy-aware engineered control plane for wavelength-routed networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricciardi, Sergio; Wang, Jiayuan; Palmieri, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    ' operational expenditures. To face this problem, we propose a single-stage routing and wavelength assignment scheme, based on several network engineering extensions to the Generalised Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) control plane protocols, mainly Open Shortest Path First, with new composed metrics...... is able to operate effectively in wide area wavelength routing scenarios, where multiple heterogeneous equipment, ranging from pure photonic to opaque routing/switching, amplification and regeneration devices are deployed in a GMPLS-empowered network. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  4. Evidences of inclined transpression at the contact between ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 125; Issue 5. Evidences of inclined ... a right lateral strike-slip component. As a whole, it is suggested that Udayagiri group is thrusted over Vinjamuru group along a westerly dipping thrust plane with a right lateral strike-slip motion and simultaneous E–W contraction.

  5. Changing inclination of earth satellites using the gravity of the moon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla de Souza Torres

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the problem of the orbital control of an Earth's satellite using the gravity of the Moon. The main objective is to study a technique to decrease the fuel consumption of a plane change maneuver to be performed in a satellite that is in orbit around the Earth. The main idea of this approach is to send the satellite to the Moon using a single-impulsive maneuver, use the gravity field of the Moon to make the desired plane change of the trajectory, and then return the satellite to its nominal semimajor axis and eccentricity using a bi-impulsive Hohmann-type maneuver. The satellite is assumed to start in a Keplerian orbit in the plane of the lunar orbit around the Earth and the goal is to put it in a similar orbit that differs from the initial orbit only by the inclination. A description of the close-approach maneuver is made in the three-dimensional space. Analytical equations based on the patched conics approach are used to calculate the variation in velocity, angular momentum, energy, and inclination of the satellite. Then, several simulations are made to evaluate the savings involved. The time required by those transfers is also calculated and shown.

  6. Estudo da inclinação do plano palatino em relação à base posterior do crânio em indivíduos portadores de oclusão normal Study of palatal plane inclination related to the posterior cranial base in subjects with normal occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia T. Lopes de Alcântara Gil

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estudar a relação entre o plano palatino e a região posterior da base do crânio, em indivíduos portadores de oclusão normal. METODOLOGIA: a amostra foi constituída por telerradiografias em norma lateral de 95 indivíduos portadores de oclusão normal natural. O plano palatino foi determinado pelos pontos Ena e Enp (Espinha Nasal Anterior e Posterior. Utilizou-se o ponto mais posterior e inferior do osso occipital (OPI, para definição da região póstero-inferior da base do crânio. Avaliou-se o comportamento do ângulo formado pelos planos OPI-Ena e Ena-Enp, denominado ângulo OPI.Ena.Enp, tendo como vértice o ponto Ena. Desta forma, valores angulares próximos a 0º indicaram tendência à coincidência entre os planos OPI-Ena e Ena-Enp, o que equivale a dizer que, nestes casos, a extensão do plano palatino tangencia a base posterior do crânio, representada pelo Ponto OPI. RESULTADOS: a média de valor encontrada em relação ao ângulo OPI.Ena.Enp na referida amostra foi de -0,13º, valor próximo a zero, indicando tendência à coincidência entre os planos OPI-Ena e Ena-Enp. CONCLUSÃO: os resultados indicam que em pacientes portadores de oclusão normal natural, o prolongamento do plano palatino tende a tangenciar a região posterior da base do crânio, o que se revela uma característica estrutural em crânios de indivíduos portadores de oclusão equilibrada.AIM: to study the inclination of the palatal plane in 95 subjects with clinically normal occlusion. METHODS: the study was made using lateral headfilms and the results showed that in normal occlusion the extension of the palatal plane (ANS-PNS passes trough the most posterior and inferior region of the skull, defined as Point "OPI". RESULTS: OPI.Ena.Enp mean value was -0.13º, close to zero. CONCLUSION: the results indicated that in normal occlusion patients the palatal plane presents a tendency to be tangent with posterior cranial base.

  7. Minimum descent time along a set of connected inclined planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Carl E.; Lipscombe, Trevor C.

    2017-07-01

    The time required for a particle to slide frictionlessly down a set of ramps connected end to end can be minimized numerically as a function of the coordinates of the connection points between ramps and compared to the exact cycloidal solution of the brachistochrone problem. It is found that a set of just three joined ramps over a large range of geometrical aspect ratios has a descent time within 5% of the optimal cycloid. The special case where the particle starts and ends at the same height has sufficient symmetry that it can be analyzed analytically using algebra alone. The level of analysis is appropriate to an undergraduate classical mechanics course.

  8. Fluorescence intensity dependence on the propagation plane inclination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.E.; Rubio, Marcelo; Sanchez, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    A theoretical study of the emission from layers of primary and secondary fluorescent components for a sample of infinite thickness was made, finding out that this emission depends mainly on the α angle as a maximum emission selector of a certain layer, which means 'tuning' the fluorescent radiation that comes primarily from a certain depth. These results can be applied to the study of both selective emission by layers and to the selection of superficial fluorescence. The analytical results have been confirmed by a Monte Carlo simulation. (Author) [es

  9. Variation of the Friction Coefficient for a Cylinder Rolling down an Inclined Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zixiang; Xia, Heming; Lan, Yueheng; Xiao, Jinghua

    2018-01-01

    A cylinder rolling down an inclined board is a commonly seen and interesting object to study and it is also easy to experiment with and model. Following what has become a popular practice, we use smartphones to measure the angular acceleration of a cylinder rolling down a plane of different inclining angles. The friction force deviates from the…

  10. Incisor inclination and perceived tooth colour changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciucchi, Philip; Kiliaridis, Stavros

    2017-10-01

    Social attractiveness is influenced by a variety of different smile-related factors. We evaluated whether the degree of upper central incisor proclination can result in tooth colour change. Forty young adult subjects (20-25 years) in good health with a complete sound dentition were selected. The subjects were seated in standardized light conditions with an above-directed light source. Their natural head position was stated as 0 degrees. To mimic the range of possible anterior torque movements they were asked to tilt their heads upward +15 degrees (upward tilting) and downward -15 degrees (downward tilting). Frontal macro photographs, parallel to the Frankfort plane of the patient's natural head position were taken at the three head angulations (+15, 0, and -15 degrees ). Photographs were analysed for colour differences at the centre of the incisor clinical crowns with a CIE L*a*b* colour model based software. A paired t-test was used to test for significance between each value for each inclination. Differences were found between the CIE L*a*b* colour values for: upward tilting, downward tilting, and -15 to +15 degrees (total tilting) except for b* values for downward tilting. As the inclination of the subject's head changed downward, the upper incisors were retroclined and the CIE L*a*b* values indicated a darker and less green but redder colour component. As the inclination of the subject's head changed upwards the upper incisors were proclined and the L*a*b* values indicated a lighter and less green and yellow but redder and bluer colour component. Proclination of upper incisors caused lighter tooth colour parameters compared to retroclined incisors and colour changes. Orthodontic change of upper incisor inclination may induce alterations on how tooth colour is perceived.

  11. Augmenting the Energy-Saving Impact of IEEE 802.3az via the Control Plane

    OpenAIRE

    Thaenchaikun , Chakadkit; Jakllari , Gentian; Paillassa , Béatrice

    2015-01-01

    International audience; IEEE 802.3az, the recent standard for Energy Efficient Ethernet, is one of the main contributions of the ICT industry to the global quest for energy efficiency. Energy consumption reduction is accomplished by essentially replacing the continuous IDLE of legacy IEEE 802.3 cards with a Low Power Idle. While this is an important step in the right direction, studies have shown that the energy saving with IEEE 802.3az highly depends on the traffic load and stops for link ut...

  12. Optimal energy-harvesting cycles for load-driven dielectric generators in plane strain

    OpenAIRE

    Springhetti, R.; Bortot, E.; deBotton, G.; Gei, M.

    2014-01-01

    The performances of energy harvesting generators based on dielectric elastomers are investigated. The configuration is of a thin dielectric film coated by stretchable electrodes at both sides. The film is first stretched, then charged and subsequently, afterwards it is released, and finally the charge is harvested at a higher electric potential. The amount of energy extracted by this cycle is bounded by the electric breakdown and the ultimate stretch ratio of the film as well as by structural...

  13. Elliptical, parabolic, and hyperbolic exchanges of energy in drag reducing plane Couette flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Anselmo S.; Mompean, Gilmar; Thompson, Roney L.; Soares, Edson J.

    2017-11-01

    In the present paper, we investigate the polymer-turbulence interaction by discriminating between the mechanical responses of this system to three different subdomains: elliptical, parabolic, and hyperbolic, corresponding to regions where the magnitude of vorticity is greater than, equal to, or less than the magnitude of the rate of strain, respectively, in accordance with the Q-criterion. Recently, it was recognized that hyperbolic structures play a crucial role in the drag reduction phenomenon of viscoelastic turbulent flows, thanks to the observation that hyperbolic structures, as well as vortical ones, are weakened by the action of polymers in turbulent flows in a process that can be referred to as flow parabolization. We employ direct numerical simulations of a viscoelastic finite extensible nonlinear elastic model with the Peterlin approximation to examine the transient evolution and statistically steady regimes of a plane Couette flow that has been perturbed from a laminar flow at an initial time and developed a turbulent regime as a result of this perturbation. We have found that even more activity is located within the confines of the hyperbolic structures than in the elliptical ones, which highlights the importance of considering the role of hyperbolic structures in the drag reduction mechanism.

  14. Inclination evolution of protoplanetary discs around eccentric binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanazzi, J. J.; Lai, Dong

    2018-01-01

    It is usually thought that viscous torque works to align a circumbinary disc with the binary's orbital plane. However, recent numerical simulations suggest that the disc may evolve to a configuration perpendicular to the binary orbit ('polar alignment) if the binary is eccentric and the initial disc-binary inclination is sufficiently large. We carry out a theoretical study on the long-term evolution of inclined discs around eccentric binaries, calculating the disc warp profile and dissipative torque acting on the disc. For discs with aspect ratio H/r larger than the viscosity parameter α, bending wave propagation effectively makes the disc precess as a quasi-rigid body, while viscosity acts on the disc warp and twist to drive secular evolution of the disc-binary inclination. We derive a simple analytic criterion (in terms of the binary eccentricity and initial disc orientation) for the disc to evolve towards polar alignment with the eccentric binary. When the disc has a non-negligible angular momentum compared to the binary, the final 'polar alignment' inclination angle is reduced from 90°. For typical protoplanetary disc parameters, the time-scale of the inclination evolution is shorter than the disc lifetime, suggesting that highly inclined discs and planets may exist orbiting eccentric binaries.

  15. Particle acceleration in relativistic magnetized collisionless pair shocks: a survey of magnetic inclination angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sironi, Lorenzo

    We investigate particle acceleration in relativistic magnetized collisionless pair shocks with two-dimensional particle-in-cell numerical simulations. For fixed upstream bulk Lorentz factor γ0 = 15 and magnetic to kinetic energy fraction σ = 0.1, we explore a range of inclination angles θ between the magnetic field and the shock normal. The inclination is measured in the downstream rest frame and the magnetic field lies in a plane perpendicular to the simulation plane. The downstream energy spectrum for subluminal shocks consists of a relativistic Maxwellian and a high-energy power-law tail modified by an exponential cutoff. For parallel shocks (θ = 0° ), the tail accounts for ˜ 1% of the downstream particle number and ˜ 5% of the energy, and its energy spectral index is -2.7 ± 0.1. Accelerated particles bounce between the upstream and the downstream, and the upstream scattering is provided by oblique filaments, which have both an electromagnetic and an electrostatic component. Such filaments propagate towards the shock and are generated by the accelerated particles that escape upstream. For larger inclination angles the acceleration efficiency increases, and particles are efficiently boosted by the motional upstream electric field when gyrating across the shock. Close to the superluminality threshold θ ≈ 30° , the number and energy fractions of downstream accelerated particles are ˜ 3% and ˜ 12% respectively; the spectral index of the corresponding power-law tail is -2.4 ± 0.1. When the shock becomes superluminal (θ 30° ), the acceleration efficiency abruptly drops. Our results show that the range of upstream-frame inclination angles suitable for efficient acceleration in relativistic magnetized pair shocks is indeed very small 30° /γ0 , as suggested by previous Monte-Carlo simulations. Self-generated shock turbulence is shown to be not large enough to overcome the kinematic constraints for superluminal shocks. These findings place constraints

  16. Energy behaviour of neutrons generated by Witch-type distributed axi-symmetrical deuteron beams accelerated onto plane tritium targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timus, D.M.; Bradley, D.A.; Timus, B.D.; Kalla, S.L.; Srivastava, H.M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is an analytical study of the spatial dependency of the d-T neutron energy in the vicinity of a homogeneous tritium-occluded plane target. Close to the target, and along the path of incidence of axially symmetric deuteron beams, the transverse density of accelerated deuterons is assumed to be governed by a law approximated by the 'Witch' function. In particular circumstances, the elementary neutron emission process in non-dispersive media can be considered to be omni-directional (due consideration being paid to collision kinetics, depending upon mass and kinetic energy of particles involved in the nuclear collision, nuclear reaction energy, etc.). Consequently, analytical expressions can be considerably simplified. By applying the classical kinetic energy and momentum conservation laws to nuclear processes, a theoretical description is obtained, taking into account the exoergic character of d-T fusion reaction. A number of expressions for energetic prediction of the fast neutron field are proposed. The associated relations, involving elementary functions, can be investigated using a desk-top computer. Computationally tractable tools are of importance in the study of diverse situations such as induced reactions and activation analysis using 14 MeV neutron generators, investigations in health-physics, radiation dose measurements, nuclear medicine, damage effects, and simulation studies

  17. Comparison of normal permanent and primary dentition sagittal tooth-crown inclinations of Japanese females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inada, Emi; Saitoh, Issei; Hayasaki, Haruaki; Iwase, Yoko; Kubota, Naoko; Takemoto, Yoshihiko; Yamasaki, Youichi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics of permanent and primary tooth-crown inclinations. Landmark points from cephalograms and dental casts of two groups; 23 women (mean 20.3 +/- 3.3 years) and 11 girls (mean 5.2 +/- 0.1 years) were digitized, and the coordinates were integrated and transformed to a standardized plane. The 3-dimensional crown inclinations were projected on the sagittal plane, and the angles between the tooth vectors and the FH plane were calculated. An independent-group t-test was used to test for group differences of each tooth inclination, and correlation coefficients were generated for the inclination angles among the permanent and primary teeth. Most maxillary tooth-crown inclinations showed significant age-related differences, while only the second premolar and primary second molar differed significantly in the mandible. The maxillary molars were parallel to the corresponding mandibular molars and correlated with each other, but the primary molars were not. Significant correlations were found between inclinations of most permanent teeth, but not the primary teeth. Maxillary tooth-crown inclinations change during growth, but tooth-crown inclinations of the mandibular teeth do not.

  18. Natural Frequencies and Mode Shapes of Statically Deformed Inclined Risers

    KAUST Repository

    Alfosail, Feras

    2016-10-15

    We investigate numerically the linear vibrations of inclined risers using the Galerkin approach. The riser is modeled as an Euler-Bernoulli beam accounting for the nonlinear mid-plane stretching and self-weight. After solving for the initial deflection of the riser due to self-weight, we use a Galerkin expansion employing 15 axially loaded beam mode shapes to solve the eigenvalue problem of the riser around the static equilibrium configuration. This yields the riser natural frequencies and corresponding exact mode shapes for various values of inclination angles and tension. The obtained results are validated against a boundary-layer analytical solution and are found to be in good agreement. This constitutes a basis to study the nonlinear forced vibrations of inclined risers.

  19. Determining The Plane of The Kuiper Belt with OSSOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laerhoven, Christa; Kavelaars, J. J.; Volk, Kathryn; Gladman, Brett; Petit, Jean-Marc

    2018-04-01

    We present the OSSOS-based measurement of the semi-major axes dependent orientation of the Kuiper Belt plane. A Kuiper Belt object's (KBO's) inclination can be broken down into a forced component and a free component. The inclination and longitude of ascending node of the forced inclination define the 'forced plane,' the plane about which the KBO's inclination will precess. Secular theory predicts that this forced plane should depend on semi-major axis. For example, the nu18 secular resonance should create a significant warp in the forced planet near 40.5 au (Chiang and Choi 2008). Not predicted by secular theory is a warp in the distant Kuiper Belt (semi-major axes greater than 50 au) seen by Volk and Malhotra 2016 using KBOs from the Minor Planet Catalog. We investigate what the inclination distribution is for objects beyond Neptune as a function of semi-major axis using the OSSOS characterized sample. Through use of the OSSOS survey simulator we test various underlying orbital distributions and compare how the survey would have observed those populations to the actual observed sample. In particular, we test various widths for the inclination distribution about various local forcing planes for the kernel, stirred, and hot classical Kuiper Belt. We find that the forced plane in matches well with the expected forced plane from secular theory. Through most of the main Kuiper Belt (between the 3:2 and 2:1 resonances), we can reject both the ecliptic plane and the invariable plane as the true forced plane. Only as the expected secularly forced plane approaches the invariable plane does the invariable plane become non-rejectable. In the outer Kuiper Belt we reject the nominal mean-plane measured by Volk and Malhotra, but smaller warps are still allowed by the data.

  20. Improved upper bounds on energy dissipation rates in plane Couette flow with boundary injection and suction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Harry; Wen, Baole; Doering, Charles

    2017-11-01

    The rate of viscous energy dissipation ɛ in incompressible Newtonian planar Couette flow (a horizontal shear layer) imposed with uniform boundary injection and suction is studied numerically. Specifically, fluid is steadily injected through the top plate with a constant rate at a constant angle of injection, and the same amount of fluid is sucked out vertically through the bottom plate at the same rate. This set-up leads to two control parameters, namely the angle of injection, θ, and the Reynolds number of the horizontal shear flow, Re . We numerically implement the `background field' variational problem formulated by Constantin and Doering with a one-dimensional unidirectional background field ϕ(z) , where z aligns with the distance between the plates. Computation is carried out at various levels of Re with θ = 0 , 0 .1° ,1° and 2°, respectively. The computed upper bounds on ɛ scale like Re0 as Re > 20 , 000 for each fixed θ, this agrees with Kolmogorov's hypothesis on isotropic turbulence. The outcome provides new upper bounds to ɛ among any solution to the underlying Navier-Stokes equations, and they are sharper than the analytical bounds presented in Doering et al. (2000). This research was partially supported by the NSF Award DMS-1515161, and the University of Michigan's Rackham Graduate Student Research Grant.

  1. Inclined solar chimney for power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panse, S.V., E-mail: sudhirpanse@yahoo.com [Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019 (India); Jadhav, A.S.; Gudekar, A.S. [Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019 (India); Joshi, J.B. [Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Trombay, Mumbai 400 094 (India)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} Solar energy harnessing using inclined face of high mountains as solar chimney. {yields} Solar chimneys with structural stability, ease of construction and lower cost. {yields} Mathematical model developed, using complete (mechanical and thermal) energy balance. {yields} Can harness wind power also, as wind velocities at mountain top add to power output. {yields} Air temperature and velocity increase, as air rises in inclined chimney. - Abstract: The present concept of solar chimney is a tall vertical chimney constructed at the center of a large area, which is the collector. This creates questions about stability and economic viability of the chimney and also demands elaborate engineering techniques for constructing a tall chimney. We suggest geometry of 'Inclined Solar Chimney' (ISC), which is constructed along the face of a high rising mountain, on which maximum solar insolation is incident throughout the year. The chimney and the collector get merged here. This makes the structure stable, cost effective and easy for construction. A mathematical model has been developed considering the total energy balance. It predicts the temperature and velocity and kinetic power of the emerging air draft for some chosen values of other parameters. The model also shows the proportion in which absorbed solar energy is divided into different forms, and hence predicts the dependence of kinetic of emerging air draft upon dimensions of the chimney and properties of materials used. Further, it is shown that external winds enhance the kinetic power of the emerging air. Thus ISC can also harness the wind energy, available at the top of the mountain.

  2. Sagittal x-ray beam deviation at asymmetric inclined diffractors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korytár, D.; Hrdý, Jaromír; Artemiev, Nikolai; Ferrari, C.; Freund, A.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2001), s. 1136-1139 ISSN 0909-0495 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OK 305; GA MPO PZ-CH/22 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : x-ray optics * Si(111) W/grooved crystals * inclined diffraction * out-of-diffraction-plane beams * sagittal focusing Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.519, year: 2001

  3. Articulator-related registration and analysis of sagittal condylar inclination

    OpenAIRE

    Čimić, Samir; Kraljević Šimunković, Sonja; Simonić Kocijan, Sunčana; Matijević, Jurica; Dulčić, Nikša; Ćatić, Amir

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study sagittal condylar inclination values within a uniform sample (Angle class I occlusion) using ‘articulator-related registration’ and Camper’s plane as a reference plane. The study was performed on a sample of 58 Angle class I subjects (mean age 25.1, SD 3.1). Measurements were performed with an ultrasonic jaw tracking device with six degrees of freedom. After a paraocclusal tray was fixed in the mouth, each subject had to make three protrusive ...

  4. A jig for measuring incisor inclination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, N; Spary, D J; Rock, W P

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was to design and construct a jig for measuring the inclination of the upper incisors to the maxillary plane and of the lower incisors to the mandibular plane. After several prototypes had been tested, the required properties for a successful jig were identified and a simple inexpensive device was produced. Measurements obtained when using the jig on 51 subjects were compared with cephalometric values by means of regression analysis. This revealed that measurements obtained using the jig against the upper and then the lower incisor crowns could be converted to cephalometric incisor angulations with 96 per cent accuracy to 10 degrees, by adding 23 and 3 degrees, respectively. The jig was accurate to 5 degrees on 69 per cent of occasions for the upper teeth. The 5 degrees accuracy with the lower incisors was only 27 per cent, although over a 6 degree range it improved to 78 per cent. For upper and lower tooth measurements combined, the jig was accurate to within 6 degrees on 75 per cent of occasions.

  5. The influence of incline walking on joint mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, Mason; Dickin, D Clark; Popp, Jennifer; Wang, Henry

    2014-04-01

    Walking is a popular form of exercise and is associated with many health benefits; however, frontal-plane knee joint loading brought about by a large internal knee-abduction moment and cyclic loading could lead to cartilage degeneration over time. Therefore, knee joint mechanics during an alternative walking exercise needs to be analyzed. The purpose of this study was to examine the lower-extremity joint mechanics in the frontal and sagittal planes during incline walking. Fifteen healthy males walked on a treadmill at five gradients (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) at 1.34m/s, and lower-extremity joint mechanics in the frontal and sagittal planes were quantified. The peak internal knee-abduction moment significantly decreased from the level walking condition at all gradients except 5%. Also, a negative relationship between the internal knee-abduction moment and the treadmill gradient was found to exist in 10% increments (0-10%, 5-15%, and 10-20%). The decrease in the internal knee-abduction moment during incline walking could have positive effects on knee joint health such as potentially reducing cartilage degeneration of the knee joint, reducing pain, and decreasing the rate of development of medial tibiofemoral osteoarthritis. This would be beneficial for a knee surgery patient, obese persons, and older adults who are using incline walking for rehabilitation and exercise protocols. Findings from the current study can provide guidance for the development of rehabilitation and exercise prescriptions incorporating incline walking. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of plasma-induced energy deposition effects, the equation of state, thermal ionization, pulse shaping, and radiation on ion-beam-driven expansions of plane metal targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, K.A.; Tahir, N.A.

    1986-01-01

    In a previous paper by Long and Tahir [Phys. Fluids 29, 275 (1986)], the motion of plane targets irradiated by ion beams whose energy deposition was assumed to be independent of the ion energy, and the temperature and density of the plasma, was analyzed. In this paper, the analytic solution is extended in order to include the effects of a temperature-and density-dependent energy deposition as a result of electron excitation, an improved equation of state, thermal ionization, a pulse shape, and radiation losses. The change in the energy deposition with temperature and density leads to range shortening and an increased power deposition in the target. It is shown how the analytic theory can be used to analyze experiments to measure the enhanced energy deposition. In order to further analyze experiments, numerical simulations are presented which include the plasma-induced effects on the energy deposition. It is shown that since the change in the range is due to both decrease in density and the increase in temperature, it is not possible to separate these two effects in present experiments. Therefore, the experiments which measure the time-dependent energy of the ions emerging from the back side of a plane target do not as yet measure the energy loss as a function of the density and temperature of the plasma or of the energy of the ion, but only an averaged loss over certain ranges of these physical quantities

  7. Diagnosing Model Errors in Simulations of Solar Radiation on Inclined Surfaces: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yu; Sengupta, Manajit

    2016-06-01

    Transposition models have been widely used in the solar energy industry to simulate solar radiation on inclined PV panels. Following numerous studies comparing the performance of transposition models, this paper aims to understand the quantitative uncertainty in the state-of-the-art transposition models and the sources leading to the uncertainty. Our results suggest that an isotropic transposition model developed by Badescu substantially underestimates diffuse plane-of-array (POA) irradiances when diffuse radiation is perfectly isotropic. In the empirical transposition models, the selection of empirical coefficients and land surface albedo can both result in uncertainty in the output. This study can be used as a guide for future development of physics-based transposition models.

  8. Performance Analysis of Transposition Models Simulating Solar Radiation on Inclined Surfaces: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yu; Sengupta, Manajit

    2016-06-01

    Transposition models are widely used in the solar energy industry to simulate solar radiation on inclined photovoltaic (PV) panels. These transposition models have been developed using various assumptions about the distribution of the diffuse radiation, and most of the parameterizations in these models have been developed using hourly ground data sets. Numerous studies have compared the performance of transposition models, but this paper aims to understand the quantitative uncertainty in the state-of-the-art transposition models and the sources leading to the uncertainty using high-resolution ground measurements in the plane of array. Our results suggest that the amount of aerosol optical depth can affect the accuracy of isotropic models. The choice of empirical coefficients and the use of decomposition models can both result in uncertainty in the output from the transposition models. It is expected that the results of this study will ultimately lead to improvements of the parameterizations as well as the development of improved physical models.

  9. Granular flow over inclined channels with constrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunuguntla, Deepak; Weinhart, Thomas; Thornton, Anthony; Bokhove, Onno

    2013-04-01

    Study of granular flows down inclined channels is essential in understanding the dynamics of natural grain flows like landslides and snow avalanches. As a stepping stone, dry granular flow over an inclined channel with a localised constriction is investigated using both continuum methods and particle simulations. Initially, depth-averaged equations of motion (Savage & Hutter 1989) containing an unknown friction law are considered. The shallow-layer model for granular flows is closed with a friction law obtained from particle simulations of steady flows (Weinhart et al. 2012) undertaken in the open source package Mercury DPM (Mercury 2010). The closed two-dimensional (2D) shallow-layer model is then width-averaged to obtain a novel one-dimensional (1D) model which is an extension of the one for water flows through contraction (Akers & Bokhove 2008). Different flow states are predicted by this novel one-dimensional theory. Flow regimes with distinct flow states are determined as a function of upstream channel Froude number, F, and channel width ratio, Bc. The latter being the ratio of the channel exit width and upstream channel width. Existence of multiple steady states is predicted in a certain regime of F - Bc parameter plane which is in agreement with experiments previously undertaken by (Akers & Bokhove 2008) and for granular flows (Vreman et al. 2007). Furthermore, the 1D model is verified by solving the 2D shallow granular equations using an open source discontinuous Galerkin finite element package hpGEM (Pesch et al. 2007). For supercritical flows i.e. F > 1 the 1D asymptotics holds although the two-dimensional oblique granular jumps largely vary across the converging channel. This computationally efficient closed 1D model is validated by comparing it to the computationally more expensiveaa three-dimensional particle simulations. Finally, we aim to present a quasi-steady particle simulation of inclined flow through two rectangular blocks separated by a gap

  10. Low-Energy Dislocation Structure (LEDS) character of dislocation boundaries aligned with slip planes in rolled aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Grethe; Hong, Chuanshi; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2015-01-01

    For the specific slip geometry of two sets of coplanar systems (a total of four systems) in fcc metals, the range of dislocation networks in boundaries aligned with one of the two active slip planes is predicted from the Frank equation for boundaries free of long-range elastic stresses. Detailed...... by dislocation reactions. Cross slip plays a role in the boundary formation process....

  11. Surface Energy Anisotropy Effects on Pore-Channel Stability:Rayleigh Instabilities in m-Plane Sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santala, Melissa K.; Glaeser, Andreas M.

    2005-09-07

    Internal, high-aspect-ratio pore channels with their long axes parallel to the m(10{bar 1}0) plane of sapphire were generated through sequential application of photolithography, ion-beam etching and solid-state diffusion bonding. The axial orientation of channels within the m plane was systematically varied to sample a range of bounding-surface crystallographies. The morphologic evolution of these pore channels during anneals at 1700 C was recorded by postanneal optical microscopy. The development and growth of periodic axial variations in the pore channel radius was observed, and ultimately led to the formation of discrete pores. The wavelength and average pore spacing, assumed to reflect the kinetically dominant perturbation wavelength, varied with the in-plane pore channel orientation, as did the time for complete channel breakup. Results are compared to those previously obtained when pore channels were etched into c(0001)-plane sapphire and annealed under similar conditions. The results indicate a strong effect of surface stability on the evolution behavior.

  12. Laser-Guided Autonomous Landing of a Quadrotor UAV on an Inclined Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, John A.

    This thesis presents measurement, estimation, and control schemes to aid a quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in landing on a flat, inclined surface without prior knowledge of the surface's inclination. The system uses a single CMOS camera and several inexpensive laser modules for onboard sensing to measure the distance to and orientation of a landing surface. A nonlinear least squares estimation scheme yields the altitude of the quadrotor and the normal vector defining the ground plane. This information is used to design a hybrid landing trajectory composed of a position tracking phase and an attitude tracking phase. A geometric nonlinear control system is used during each phase and ensures that the quadrotor's attitude is aligned to the inclination of the ground surface at touchdown. A quadrotor is developed from the ground up to test the in-flight measurement process and to execute landing trajectories on an inclined surface. Experimental results demonstrate the quadrotor's ability to accurately estimate altitude and ground plane orientation during flight, and numerical simulations of landing trajectories for various surface inclinations are validated by experimental results up to a maximum inclination of thirty degrees.

  13. Generation of inclined protoplanetary discs and misaligned planets through mass accretion - I. Coplanar secondary discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang-Gruess, M.; Kroupa, P.

    2017-10-01

    We study the three-dimensional (3D) evolution of a viscous protoplanetary disc that accretes gas material from a second protoplanetary disc during a close encounter in an embedded star cluster. The aim is to investigate the capability of the mass accretion scenario to generate strongly inclined gaseous discs that could later form misaligned planets. We use smoothed particle hydrodynamics to study mass transfer and disc inclination for passing stars and circumstellar discs with different masses. We explore different orbital configurations to find the parameter space that allows significant disc inclination generation. Thies et al. suggested that significant disc inclination and disc or planetary system shrinkage can generally be produced by the accretion of external gas material with a different angular momentum. We found that this condition can be fulfilled for a large range of gas mass and angular momentum. For all encounters, mass accretion from the secondary disc increases with decreasing mass of the secondary proto-star. Thus, higher disc inclinations can be attained for lower secondary stellar masses. Variations of the secondary disc's orientation relative to the orbital plane can alter the disc evolution significantly. The results taken together show that mass accretion can change the 3D disc orientation significantly resulting in strongly inclined discs. In combination with the gravitational interaction between the two star-disc systems, this scenario is relevant for explaining the formation of highly inclined discs that could later form misaligned planets.

  14. Nanosecond-Timescale Low Energy Switching of In-Plane Magnetic Tunnel Junctions through Dynamic Oersted-Field-Assisted Spin Hall Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradhya, S V; Rowlands, G E; Oh, J; Ralph, D C; Buhrman, R A

    2016-10-12

    We investigate fast-pulse switching of in-plane-magnetized magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) within 3-terminal devices in which spin-transfer torque is applied to the MTJ by the giant spin Hall effect. We measure reliable switching, with write error rates down to 10 -5 , using current pulses as short as just 2 ns in duration. This represents the fastest reliable switching reported to date for any spin-torque-driven magnetic memory geometry and corresponds to a characteristic time scale that is significantly shorter than predicted possible within a macrospin model for in-plane MTJs subject to thermal fluctuations at room temperature. Using micromagnetic simulations, we show that in the three-terminal spin-Hall devices the Oersted magnetic field generated by the pulse current strongly modifies the magnetic dynamics excited by the spin-Hall torque, enabling this unanticipated performance improvement. Our results suggest that in-plane MTJs controlled by Oersted-field-assisted spin-Hall torque are a promising candidate for both cache memory applications requiring high speed and for cryogenic memories requiring low write energies.

  15. [Occlusal plane control in hyperdivergents: regarding one case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rerhrhaye, Wiam; Zaoui, Fatima; Aalloula, El Housseine

    2009-06-01

    Management of occlusal plane inclination in the sagittal dimension is one of the main concerns of practitioners. Inclination maintenance or correction can condition the success and stability of treatment. By means of a clinical case, we will attempt to discuss the different aspects of management from diagnosis to treatment, bearing in mind the local and regional context. The adopted treatment plan takes into consideration the functional and esthetic issues specific to Moroccan patients without neglecting soft tissue harmony.

  16. Geosynchronous inclined orbits for high-latitude communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantino, E.; Flores, R. M.; Di Carlo, M.; Di Salvo, A.; Cabot, E.

    2017-11-01

    We present and discuss a solution to the growing demand for satellite telecommunication coverage in the high-latitude geographical regions (beyond 55°N), where the signal from geostationary satellites is limited or unavailable. We focus on the dynamical issues associated to the design, the coverage, the maintenance and the disposal of a set of orbits selected for the purpose. Specifically, we identify a group of highly inclined, moderately eccentric geosynchronous orbits derived from the Tundra orbit (geosynchronous, eccentric and critically inclined). Continuous coverage can be guaranteed by a constellation of three satellites in equally spaced planes and suitably phased. By means of a high-precision model of the terrestrial gravity field and the relevant environmental perturbations, we study the evolution of these orbits. The effects of the different perturbations on the ground track (which is more important for coverage than the orbital elements themselves) are isolated and analyzed. The physical model and the numerical setup are optimized with respect to computing time and accuracy. We show that, in order to maintain the ground track unchanged, the key parameters are the orbital period and the argument of perigee. Furthermore, corrections to the right ascension of the ascending node are needed in order to preserve the relative orientation of the orbital planes. A station-keeping strategy that minimizes propellant consumption is then devised, and comparisons are made between the cost of a solution based on impulsive maneuvers and one with continuous thrust. Finally, the issue of end-of-life disposal is discussed.

  17. Dynamic Fracturing Behavior of Layered Rock with Different Inclination Angles in SHPB Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiadong Qiu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The fracturing behavior of layered rocks is usually influenced by bedding planes. In this paper, five groups of bedded sandstones with different bedding inclination angles θ are used to carry out impact compression tests by split Hopkinson pressure bar. A high-speed camera is used to capture the fracturing process of specimens. Based on testing results, three failure patterns are identified and classified, including (A splitting along bedding planes; (B sliding failure along bedding planes; (C fracturing across bedding planes. The failure pattern (C can be further classified into three subcategories: (C1 fracturing oblique to loading direction; (C2 fracturing parallel to loading direction; (C3 mixed fracturing across bedding planes. Meanwhile, a numerical model of layered rock and SHPB system are established by particle flow code (PFC. The numerical results show that the shear stress is the main reason for inducing the damage along bedding plane at θ = 0°~75°. Both tensile stress and shear stress on bedding planes contribute to the splitting failure along bedding planes when the inclination angle is 90°. Besides, tensile stress is the main reason that leads to the damage in rock matrixes at θ = 0°~90°.

  18. Stochastic Response of an Inclined Shallow Cable with Linear Viscous Dampers under Stochastic Excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qiang; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Qu, Weilian

    2010-01-01

    of several factors, which include excitation level and direction as well as damper size, on the dynamic response of the cable is extensively investigated. It is found that the sum of mean square in-plane and out-of-plane displacement is primarily independent of the load direction when the excitation level...... and viscous coefficient of the damper are fixed. Moreover, the peak frequency and half-band width of the spectra of both the in-plane and the out-of-plane displacements are increasing with excitation level when the damper size is constant. It is also observed that, even though the actual optimal damper size......Considering the coupling between the in-plane and out-of-plane vibration, the stochastic response of an inclined shallow cable with linear viscous dampers subjected to Gaussian white noise excitation is investigated in this paper. Selecting the static deflection shape due to a concentrated force...

  19. Simple Examples of the Interpretation of Changes in Kinetic and Potential Energy under Galilean Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Edw S.

    2018-01-01

    The compatibility of the Newtonian formulation of mechanical energy and the transformation equations of Galilean relativity is demonstrated for three simple examples of motion treated in most introductory physics courses (free fall, a frictionless inclined plane, and a mass/spring system). Only elementary concepts and mathematics, accessible to…

  20. Complex of programs for calculating radiation fields outside plane protecting shields, bombarded by high-energy nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gel'fand, E.K.; Man'ko, B.V.; Serov, A.Ya.; Sychev, B.S.

    1979-01-01

    A complex of programs for modelling various radiation situations at high energy proton accelerators is considered. The programs are divided into there main groups according to their purposes. The first group includes programs for preparing constants describing the processes of different particle interaction with a substanc The second group of programs calculates the complete function of particle distribution arising in shields under irradiation by high energy nucleons. Concrete radiation situations arising at high energy proton accelerators are calculated by means of the programs of the third group. A list of programs as well as their short characteristic are given

  1. [Relationship between occlusal plane and masticatory path in youth with individual normal occlusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xue-feng; Li, Shao-hua; Huang, Zhuo-shan; Wu, Xia-yi

    2010-06-01

    To investigate the characteristics of and relationship between occlusal plane and masticatory path in young adults with individual normal occlusion, and to provide clinical implications on both morphological and functional reference of occlusal plane location. Forty-three young adults with individual normal occlusion were included. Lateral projections of cephalometric radiographs were taken. The parameters of anatomical landmarks were analyzed. The BioEGN mandibular kinesiography analyzer was used to record the path of incisal edge of mandibular central incisor movement during mastication. The Pearson's linear correlation analysis was performed to analyze the relationship of inclination of occlusal plane and data mentioned above with SPSS13.0 software. The inclination of occlusal plane (the angle between occlusal plane and Camper's line OP-CP) was (2.1 ± 3.8)° in youth with normal occlusion. Means of maximal distances of 3-dimensional masticatory mandibular movement paths were as follow: the vertical length was (20.22 ± 4.28) mm, the anterior-posterior width was (11.42 ± 2.45) mm, and the lateral width was (8.62 ± 1.52) mm. The inclination of occlusal plane was negatively correlated to the lateral width of masticatory path in frontal plane (r = -0.39, P Occlusal plane was approximately vertical to the opening and closing path in the vicinity of intercuspal position during mastication. The inclination of occlusal plane was positively related to occlusal plane-closing angles in the upper segments of closing path during mastication (P occlusal plane (P > 0.05). These results suggest that the sagittal inclination of occlusal plane can influence 3-dimensional morphology of masticatory path.The inclination of occlusal plane has a guiding effect on masticatory movement in the upper segments of closing path.

  2. The Classical Laplace Plane and Its use as a Stable Disposal Orbit for GEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengren, A.; Scheeres, D.; McMahon, J.

    2013-09-01

    The geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) is the most susceptible region to space debris because there is no natural cleansing mechanism, such as atmospheric drag. Placing satellites in super-synchronous disposal orbits at the ends of their operational lifetimes has been recommended and practiced as one possible means of protecting this environment. The discovery of the high area-to-mass ratio (HAMR) debris population in near geosynchronous orbit (ca. 2004) raises concern for the long-term sustainability of this unique resource. It is currently believed that HAMR objects are sheets of multilayer insulation detaching from satellites in GEO disposal orbits due to surface degradation and material deterioration. The low energy release of HAMR objects from aging satellites abandoned in disposal orbits is not directly addressed in the national policies that established the graveyard. The current disposal regions cannot account for the large solar radiation pressure (SRP) perturbations of HAMR objects, implying that these storage orbits are not well suited as a graveyard. The orbital dynamics of uncontrolled GEO satellites is governed by the oblateness of the Earth and luni-solar gravitational interactions. By itself, Earth's oblateness causes the pole of the orbital plane to precess around Earth's rotation pole. Lunisolar perturbations will have a similar effect, but the precession will now take place about the orbit poles of the Moon and the Sun, respectively. The classical Laplace plane is the mean reference plane about whose axis the satellite's orbit precesses. On the Laplace place, the secular orbital evolution driven by the combined effects of these perturbations is zero, so that the orbits are frozen. The Laplace plane at GEO lies between the plane of the Earth's equator and that of the ecliptic, passing through their intersection, and has an inclination of about 7.5 degrees relative to Earth's equator. The uncontrolled GEO satellites precess at a constant inclination

  3. A secular model for efficient exploration of mutually-inclined planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitrick, Russell; Barnes, Rory

    2015-01-01

    Dynamical studies of exoplanets largely assume coplanarity because of the lack of inclination information in many cases. However, the multiplanet system Upsilon Andromedae has orbital planes inclined by 30 degrees, models of planet-planet scattering predict large mutual inclinations, and astrometry missions such as Gaia have the power to reveal the 3 dimensional architecture of planetary systems. As the dynamics of systems with non-planar orbits will be key to understanding origins, and ultimately habitability where applicable, we present a computationally efficient model for the orbital evolution of planetary systems with modest inclinations and eccentricities which are not in a mean motion resonance. Specifically, our model is based on the disturbing function and extends to 4th order in eccentricity and inclination. We present comparisons to N-body models for known systems, such as the Solar System and Upsilon Andromedae, and hypothetical systems with a range of orbital configurations. We describe the eccentricity and inclination conditions under which the model is valid. We further calculate the rotational evolution of planets based on the orbital evolution and the stellar torque and find a wide range of obliquity evolution is possible. As obliquity is a key driver of planetary climate, Earth-like planets in non-planar systems may have climates dominated by their orbital evolution.

  4. Impact of dietary plane of energy during the dry period on lipoprotein parameters in the transition period in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, A; Mann, S; Nydam, D V; Overton, T R; Behling-Kelly, E

    2016-02-01

    The high energy demands of dairy cows during the transition period from late gestation into early lactation can place them at an increased risk for the development of metabolic and infectious diseases. Modification of the dry period diet has been investigated as a preventive means to minimize the detrimental aspects of metabolic shifts during the transition period. Studies investigating the impact of dry period diet on lipid parameters during the transition period have largely focused on markers of lipolysis and ketogenesis. Total cholesterol declines during the periparturient period and increases in early lactation. The impact total energy in the dry period diet has on the ability of the cow to maintain total serum cholesterol, as well as its natural high-density lipoprotein-rich status, during this metabolically challenging window is not clear. The impact of lipoproteins on inflammation and immune function may have a clinical impact on the cow's ability to ward off production-related diseases. In this study, we hypothesized that the provision of adequate, but not excessive, total metabolizable energy, would better allow the cow to maintain total cholesterol and a higher relative proportion of HDL throughout the transition period. Cows were allocated to one of three dry period dietary treatment groups following a randomized block design. Total serum triglycerides, cholesterol and lipoprotein fractions were measured on a weekly basis from approximately 7 weeks pre-calving to 6 weeks post-calving. The cows on the high energy diet maintained total serum cholesterol as compared to the cows provided a lower energy diet, but there was no significant increase in the LDL fraction of lipoproteins between diet treatment groups. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. A DFT study of the interplay between dopants and oxygen functional groups over the graphene basal plane - implications in energy-related applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrota, Ana S; Pašti, Igor A; Mentus, Slavko V; Skorodumova, Natalia V

    2017-03-22

    Understanding the ways graphene can be functionalized is of great importance for many contemporary technologies. Using density functional theory calculations we investigate how vacancy formation and substitutional doping by B, N, P and S affect the oxidizability and reactivity of the graphene basal plane. We find that the presence of these defects enhances the reactivity of graphene. In particular, these sites act as strong attractors for OH groups, suggesting that the oxidation of graphene could start at these sites or that these sites are the most difficult to reduce. Scaling between the OH and H adsorption energies is found on both reduced and oxidized doped graphene surfaces. Using the O 2 molecule as a probe we show that a proper modelling of doped graphene materials has to take into account the presence of oxygen functional groups.

  6. Improving the accuracy of ground-state correlation energies within a plane-wave basis set: The electron-hole exchange kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Anant; Ángyán, János G; Rocca, Dario

    2016-09-14

    A new formalism was recently proposed to improve random phase approximation (RPA) correlation energies by including approximate exchange effects [B. Mussard et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 12, 2191 (2016)]. Within this framework, by keeping only the electron-hole contributions to the exchange kernel, two approximations can be obtained: An adiabatic connection analog of the second order screened exchange (AC-SOSEX) and an approximate electron-hole time-dependent Hartree-Fock (eh-TDHF). Here we show how this formalism is suitable for an efficient implementation within the plane-wave basis set. The response functions involved in the AC-SOSEX and eh-TDHF equations can indeed be compactly represented by an auxiliary basis set obtained from the diagonalization of an approximate dielectric matrix. Additionally, the explicit calculation of unoccupied states can be avoided by using density functional perturbation theory techniques and the matrix elements of dynamical response functions can be efficiently computed by applying the Lanczos algorithm. As shown by several applications to reaction energies and weakly bound dimers, the inclusion of the electron-hole kernel significantly improves the accuracy of ground-state correlation energies with respect to RPA and semi-local functionals.

  7. Dissipative descent: rocking and rolling down an incline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmforth, N. J.; Bush, J. W. M.; Vener, D.; Young, W. R.

    We consider the dynamics of a hollow cylindrical shell that is filled with viscous fluid and another, nested solid cylinder, and allowed to roll down an inclined plane. A mathematical model is compared to simple experiments. Two types of behaviour are observed experimentally: on steeper slopes, the device accelerates; on shallower inclines, the cylinders rock and roll unsteadily downhill, with a speed that is constant on average. The theory also predicts runaway and unsteady rolling motions. For the rolling solutions, however, the inner cylinder cannot be suspended in the fluid by the motion of the outer cylinder, and instead falls inexorably toward the outer cylinder. Whilst only occurs after an infinite time, the system slows progressively as the gap between the cylinders narrows, owing to heightened viscous dissipation. Such a deceleration is not observed in the experiments, suggesting that some mechanism limits the approach to contact. Coating the surface of the inner cylinder with sandpaper of different grades changes the rolling speed, consistent with the notion that surface roughness is responsible for limiting the acceleration.

  8. Compact Planetary Systems Perturbed by an Inclined Companion. II. Stellar Spin-Orbit Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boué, Gwenaël; Fabrycky, Daniel C.

    2014-07-01

    The stellar spin orientation relative to the orbital planes of multiplanet systems is becoming accessible to observations. Here, we analyze and classify different types of spin-orbit evolution in compact multiplanet systems perturbed by an inclined outer companion. Our study is based on classical secular theory, using a vectorial approach developed in a separate paper. When planet-planet perturbations are truncated at the second order in eccentricity and mutual inclination, and the planet-companion perturbations are developed at the quadrupole order, the problem becomes integrable. The motion is composed of a uniform precession of the whole system around the total angular momentum, and in the rotating frame, the evolution is periodic. Here, we focus on the relative motion associated with the oscillations of the inclination between the planet system and the outer orbit and of the obliquities of the star with respect to the two orbital planes. The solution is obtained using a powerful geometric method. With this technique, we identify four different regimes characterized by the nutation amplitude of the stellar spin axis relative to the orbital plane of the planets. In particular, the obliquity of the star reaches its maximum when the system is in the Cassini regime where planets have more angular momentum than the star and where the precession rate of the star is similar to that of the planets induced by the companion. In that case, spin-orbit oscillations exceed twice the inclination between the planets and the companion. Even if the mutual inclination is only ~= 20°, this resonant case can cause the spin-orbit angle to oscillate between perfectly aligned and retrograde values.

  9. Locomotor Behavior of Chickens Anticipating Incline Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal LeBlanc

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Keel bone damage (KBD is prevalent in hens raised for egg production, and ramps between different tiers in aviaries have potential to reduce the frequency of falls resulting in KBD. Effective use of ramps requires modulation of locomotion in anticipation of the incline. Inadequate adaptive locomotion may be one explanation why domestic layer hens (Gallus gallus domesticus exhibit high rates of KBD. To improve understanding of the capacity of hens to modulate their locomotion in anticipation of climbing, we measured the effects of incline angle upon the mechanics of the preparatory step before ascending a ramp. Because the energetic challenge of climbing increases with slope, we predicted that as angle of incline increased, birds during foot contact with the ground before starting to climb would increase their peak force and duration of contact and reduce variation in center of pressure (COP under their foot. We tested 20 female domestic chickens on ramp inclines at slopes of +0°, +40°, and +70° when birds were 17, 21, 26, 31, and 36 weeks of age. There were significantly higher vertical peak ground reaction forces in preparation at the steepest slope, and ground contact time increased significantly with each increase in ramp angle. Effects upon variation in COP were not apparent; likewise, effects of limb length, age, body mass were not significant. Our results reveal that domestic chickens are capable of modulating their locomotion in response to incline angle.

  10. Studies from Cassini's high-inclination orbits: ion cyclotron wave belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisner, J. S.; Russell, C. T.; Dougherty, M. K.; Persoon, A. M.; Blanco-Cano, X.; Strangeway, R. J.; Cowee, M. M.

    2007-08-01

    Surrounding Saturn is a cloud of neutral water-group molecules. When these particles are ionized and accelerated by Saturn's corotating magnetized plasma, they generate ion cyclotron waves. When the inclination of the Cassini spacecraft's orbits rose to about fifty-five degrees in late 2006, new insights into the behavior of these ion cyclotron waves were obtained as the spacecraft passed through the equatorial plane, revealing latitudinal structure of the wave belt. Centered at the magnetic equator the wave amplitude grows with height in either direction, reaching a maximum at +/- 0.2 Rs and then decreasing until they disappear by +/- 0.3 Rs. Doppler shifts caused by the motion of the spacecraft reveal that these waves propagate primarily away from the equatorial plane. Using these high-inclination orbits, we study the wave growth and damping regions and their propagation characteristics. These properties give insight into the structure and ionization of Saturn's water cloud.

  11. Inclined nanoimprinting lithography for 3D nanopatterning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhan; Bucknall, David G; Allen, Mark G

    2011-01-01

    We report a non-conventional shear-force-driven nanofabrication approach, inclined nanoimprint lithography (INIL), for producing 3D nanostructures of varying heights on planar substrates in a single imprinting step. Such 3D nanostructures are fabricated by exploiting polymer anisotropic dewetting where the degree of anisotropy can be controlled by the magnitude of the inclination angle. The feature size is reduced from micron scale of the template to a resultant nanoscale pattern. The underlying INIL mechanism is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The results indicate that the shear force generated at a non-zero inclination angle induced by the INIL apparatus essentially leads to asymmetry in the polymer flow direction ultimately resulting in 3D nanopatterns with different heights. INIL removes the requirements in conventional nanolithography of either utilizing 3D templates or using multiple lithographic steps. This technique enables various 3D nanoscale devices including angle-resolved photonic and plasmonic crystals to be fabricated.

  12. Breakwaters with Vertical and Inclined Concrete Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans Falk

    Following the PIANC PTC II working group on Analyses of Rubble Mound Breakwaters it was, in 1991, decided to form Working Group (WG) n° 28 on "Breakwaters with vertical and inclined concrete walls" The scope of the work was to achieve a better understanding of the overall safety aspects in the de......Following the PIANC PTC II working group on Analyses of Rubble Mound Breakwaters it was, in 1991, decided to form Working Group (WG) n° 28 on "Breakwaters with vertical and inclined concrete walls" The scope of the work was to achieve a better understanding of the overall safety aspects...

  13. Beam Shear Design According to Eurocode 2 - Limitations for the Concrete Strut Inclinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagsten, Lars German; Hestbech, Lars; Fisker, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    and are presented. These beams are all designed to fail in shear and the shear reinforcement is designed for different values of the concrete strut inclinations (cot θ varies from 1.5 to 3.4). These tests indicate a clear connection between the values of the concrete strut inclinations and crack width in the SLS......The beam shear design method adopted in Eurocode 2 is based on a lower bound plastic solution. This method is combined with limitations on the concrete strut inclination, θ. These limitations are introduced to ensure acceptable crack width in the SLS. 7 full scale beams have been tested....... In cases where larger crack widths (w > 0.4 mm) can be accepted, larger values of the concrete strut inclinations can be chosen. This will lead to less shear reinforcements. The results are also compared with analytical analysis based on energy methods. At the SLS the beams are expected to be cracked...

  14. MEASUREMENT OF LOW ENERGY DETECTION EFFICIENCY OF A PLASTIC SCINTILLATOR: IMPLICATIONS ON THE LOWER ENERGY LIMIT AND SENSITIVITY OF A HARD X-RAY FOCAL PLANE COMPTON POLARIMETER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, T.; Vadawale, S. V.; Shanmugam, M.; Goyal, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    The polarization measurements in X-rays offer a unique opportunity for the study of physical processes under the extreme conditions prevalent at compact X-ray sources, including gravitation, magnetic field, and temperature. Unfortunately, there has been no real progress in observational X-ray polarimetry thus far. Although photoelectron tracking-based X-ray polarimeters provide realistic prospects of polarimetric observations, they are effective in the soft X-rays only. With the advent of hard X-ray optics, it has become possible to design sensitive X-ray polarimeters in hard X-rays based on Compton scattering. An important point that should be carefully considered for the Compton polarimeters is the lower energy threshold of the active scatterer, which typically consists of a plastic scintillator due to its lowest effective atomic number. Therefore, an accurate understanding of the plastic scintillators energy threshold is essential to make a realistic estimate of the energy range and sensitivity of any Compton polarimeter. In this context, we set up an experiment to investigate the plastic scintillators behavior for very low energy deposition events. The experiment involves the detection of Compton scattered photons from a long, thin, plastic scintillator (a similar configuration as the eventual Compton polarimeter) by a high resolution CdTe detector at different scattering angles. We find that it is possible to detect energy deposition well below 1 keV, though with decreasing efficiency. We present detailed semianalytical modeling of our experimental setup and discuss the results in the context of the energy range and sensitivity of the Compton polarimeter involving plastic scintillators

  15. The Mid-plane of the Main Asteroid Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambioni, Saverio; Malhotra, Renu

    2018-03-01

    We measure the mid-plane of the main asteroid belt by using the observational data of a nearly complete and unbiased sample of asteroids and find that it has inclination \\bar{I}=0\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 93+/- 0\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 04 and longitude of ascending node \\bar{{{Ω }}}=87\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 6+/- 2\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 6 (in J2000 ecliptic-equinox coordinate system). This plane differs significantly from previously published measurements, and it is also distinctly different than the solar system’s invariable plane as well as Jupiter’s orbit plane. The mid-plane of the asteroid belt is theoretically expected to be a slightly warped sheet whose local normal is controlled by the gravity of the major planets. Specifically, its inclination and longitude of ascending node varies with semimajor axis and time (on secular timescales) and is defined by the forced solution of secular perturbation theory; the ν 16 nodal secular resonance is predicted to cause a significant warp of the mid-plane in the inner asteroid belt. We test the secular theory by measuring the current location of the asteroids’ mid-plane in finer semimajor axis bins. We find that the measured mid-plane in the middle and outer asteroid belt is consistent, within the 3σ confidence level, with the prediction of secular perturbation theory, but a notable discrepancy is present in the inner asteroid belt near ∼2 au.

  16. Stochastic Response of an Inclined Shallow Cable with Linear Viscous Dampers under Stochastic Excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qiang; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Qu, Weilian

    2010-01-01

    Considering the coupling between the in-plane and out-of-plane vibration, the stochastic response of an inclined shallow cable with linear viscous dampers subjected to Gaussian white noise excitation is investigated in this paper. Selecting the static deflection shape due to a concentrated force...... at the dampers location and the first sine term as shape functions, a reduced four-degree-of-freedom system of nonlinear stochastic ordinary differential equations are derived to describe dynamic response of the cable. Since only polynomial-type terms are contained, the fourth-order cumulant-neglect closure...... and viscous coefficient of the damper are fixed. Moreover, the peak frequency and half-band width of the spectra of both the in-plane and the out-of-plane displacements are increasing with excitation level when the damper size is constant. It is also observed that, even though the actual optimal damper size...

  17. Internally cooled V-shape inclined monochromator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oberta, Peter; Áč, V.; Hrdý, Jaromír

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 15, - (2008), 8-11 ISSN 0909-0495 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100716 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 1/4134/07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : inclined monochromator * heat load * internal cooling Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.333, year: 2008

  18. A matter of chance, environment and inclination

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lawrence

    Why did I opt for science subjects in school, and choose a career in science? Perhaps the best answer would be. 'Chance, Environment and Inclination'. Here I am, considered to be a professional woman scien- tist, working towards understanding the biology of the malaria parasite and the challenges put up by the same.

  19. Inclined test of nacelle wind lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courtney, Michael

    A nacelle wind lidar, placed at ground level, is tested by inclining the laser beams to bisect a measurement mast at a known distance and height. The horizontal wind speed reported by the lidar is compared to a reference cup anemometer mounted on the mast at the comparison height....

  20. Vehicle with inclinable caterpillar propulsion units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clar, G.

    1991-01-01

    This vehicle usable in hostile environment such nuclear industry has four propulsion units with a caterpillar track and two integrated motors: one for advancing the caterpillar track and the other for inclining the propulsion unit when overcoming obstacles. Each propulsion unit is easily replaceable because there are no mechanical parts in the body of the vehicle [fr

  1. Measurement of the buccolingual inclination of teeth: manual technique vs 3-dimensional software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Mahtab; Abdi, Amir Hossein; Farzan, Arash; Mokhtarpour, Faraneh; Baghban, AliReza Akbarzadeh

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we aimed to measure the inclination of teeth on dental casts by a manual technique with the tooth inclination protractor (TIP; MBI, Newport, United Kingdom) and a newly designed 3-dimensional (3D) software program. The correlation of the 2 techniques was evaluated, and the reliability of each technique was assessed separately. This study was conducted on 36 dental casts of normal, well-aligned Class I occlusions; we assessed 432 teeth. All casts had a normal Class I occlusion. After determining the facial axis of the clinical crown and the facial axis points on the dental casts, we measured the inclinations of the incisors and posterior teeth up to the first molars in each dental arch relative to Andrews' occlusal plane and the posterior occlusal plane using the TIP. Moreover, the casts were scanned by a structured-light 3D scanner. The inclination of teeth relative to the occlusal plane was determined using the new software. To assess the reliability, measurements of all teeth from 15 casts were repeated twice by the 2 methods. Intraclass correlation coefficient and Dahlberg's formula were used for calculation of correlation and reliability. Overall, the 2 techniques were not significantly different in the measurements of the inclinations of the teeth in both jaws. The ranges of Dahlberg's formula were 3.1° to 5.8° for the maxilla and 3.3° to 5.9° for the mandible. The overall correlation of the 2 techniques according to the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.91. For calculation of reliability, the intraclass correlation coefficients for the TIP and the 3D method were 0.73 and 0.82, respectively. The TIP and the 3D software showed a high correlation for measurement of the inclinations of maxillary and mandibular teeth relative to the occlusal plane. Also, the reproducibility of the measurements in each method was high. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. New inclination changing eclipsing binaries in the Magellanic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juryšek, J.; Zasche, P.; Wolf, M.; Vraštil, J.; Vokrouhlický, D.; Skarka, M.; Liška, J.; Janík, J.; Zejda, M.; Kurfürst, P.; Paunzen, E.

    2018-01-01

    Context. Multiple stellar systems are unique laboratories for astrophysics. Analysis of their orbital dynamics, if well characterized from their observations, may reveal invaluable information about the physical properties of the participating stars. Unfortunately, there are only a few known and well described multiple systems, this is even more so for systems located outside the Milky Way galaxy. A particularly interesting situation occurs when the inner binary in a compact triple system is eclipsing. This is because the stellar interaction, typically resulting in precession of orbital planes, may be observable as a variation of depth of the eclipses on a long timescale. Aims: We aim to present a novel method to determine compact triples using publicly available photometric data from large surveys. Here we apply it to eclipsing binaries (EBs) in Magellanic Clouds from OGLE III database. Our tool consists of identifying the cases where the orbital plane of EB evolves in accord with expectations from the interaction with a third star. Methods: We analyzed light curves (LCs) of 26121 LMC and 6138 SMC EBs with the goal to identify those for which the orbital inclination varies in time. Archival LCs of the selected systems, when complemented by our own observations with Danish 1.54-m telescope, were thoroughly analyzed using the PHOEBE program. This provided physical parameters of components of each system. Time dependence of the EB's inclination was described using the theory of orbital-plane precession. By observing the parameter-dependence of the precession rate, we were able to constrain the third companion mass and its orbital period around EB. Results: We identified 58 candidates of new compact triples in Magellanic Clouds. This is the largest published sample of such systems so far. Eight of them were analyzed thoroughly and physical parameters of inner binary were determined together with an estimation of basic characteristics of the third star. Prior to our

  3. Simple Examples of the Interpretation of Changes in Kinetic and Potential Energy Under Galilean Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Edw. S.

    2018-02-01

    The compatibility of the Newtonian formulation of mechanical energy and the transformation equations of Galilean relativity is demonstrated for three simple examples of motion treated in most introductory physics courses (free fall, a frictionless inclined plane, and a mass/spring system). Only elementary concepts and mathematics, accessible to students at that level, are used. Emphasis is on pedagogy and concepts related to the transformation properties of potential energy.

  4. Sex Differences in Incline-Walking among Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall-Scheffler, Cara M

    2015-12-01

    Previous research has shown that people tend to walk around the speed that minimizes energy consumption when traveling a given distance. It has further been shown that men and women have different speeds that minimize energy and that women will choose slower speeds when the activity itself is a high-rate activity (e.g. carrying a load). Here we investigate what men and women will do when given a high rate walking activity, namely walking on an inclined surface. Fourteen people (nine men and five women) walked at four speeds on a level treadmill and four speeds on an inclined treadmill while their metabolic rate, kinematics and core temperature were monitored. Following the data collection, participants were asked to identify their ‘preferred’ walking speed at each of the conditions. Cost of transport (CoT) curves were calculated for each individual, and the delta between the preferred and the ‘optimal’ speeds were calculated. People chose to walk at slightly slower speeds on the level; there was minimal change in the cost to walk at these slower speeds. Women walked at absolutely slower speeds on the incline than men (P=0.06) and had significantly larger speed deltas (P=0.02), thus choosing to walk at slower rate speeds. Women also showed a significant relationship between the rate of activity and core temperature, whereas men did not. This is consistent with other research showing that women choose behavioral strategies to minimize body temperature changes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. The Effect of Inclination Angle on Critical Heat Flux in a Locally Heated Liquid Film Moving Under the Action of Gas Flow in a Mini-Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkachenko Egor M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intensively evaporating liquid films moving under the action of the cocurrent gas flow in a microchannel are promising for the use in modern cooling systems of semiconductor devices with high local heat release. This work has studied the dependence of the critical heat flux on the inclination angle of the channel. It has been found that the inclination angle in the plane parallel to the flow has no significant effect on the critical heat flux. Whereas the inclination angle in the plane perpendicular to the flow, on the contrary, significantly changes the value of the critical heat flux. However, for a given flow rate of fluid there is a threshold gas velocity at which the critical heat flux does not differ from the case of zero inclination of the channel. Thus, it can be concluded that the cooling system based on shear-driven liquid films can be potentially used when direction of the gravity changes.

  6. LONG-LIVED CHAOTIC ORBITAL EVOLUTION OF EXOPLANETS IN MEAN MOTION RESONANCES WITH MUTUAL INCLINATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Rory; Deitrick, Russell; Quinn, Thomas R. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 951580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Greenberg, Richard [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 E. University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 86716 (United States); Raymond, Sean N., E-mail: rory@astro.washington.edu [NASA Astrobiology Institute-Virtual Planetary Laboratory Lead Team (United States)

    2015-03-10

    We present N-body simulations of resonant planets with inclined orbits that show chaotically evolving eccentricities and inclinations that can persist for at least 10 Gyr. A wide range of behavior is possible, from fast, low amplitude variations to systems in which eccentricities reach 0.9999 and inclinations 179.°9. While the orbital elements evolve chaotically, at least one resonant argument always librates. We show that the HD 73526, HD 45364, and HD 60532 systems may be in chaotically evolving resonances. Chaotic evolution is apparent in the 2:1, 3:1, and 3:2 resonances, and for planetary masses from lunar- to Jupiter-mass. In some cases, orbital disruption occurs after several gigayears, implying the mechanism is not rigorously stable, just long-lived relative to the main sequence lifetimes of solar-type stars. Planet-planet scattering appears to yield planets in inclined resonances that evolve chaotically in about 0.5% of cases. These results suggest that (1) approximate methods for identifying unstable orbital architectures may have limited applicability, (2) the observed close-in exoplanets may be produced during epochs of high eccentricit induced by inclined resonances, (3) those exoplanets' orbital planes may be misaligned with the host star's spin axis, (4) systems with resonances may be systematically younger than those without, (5) the distribution of period ratios of adjacent planets detected via transit may be skewed due to inclined resonances, and (6) potentially habitable planets may have dramatically different climatic evolution than Earth. The Gaia spacecraft is capable of discovering giant planets in these types of orbits.

  7. Revealing the inclined circumstellar disk in the UX Ori system KK Ophiuchi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreplin, A.; Weigelt, G.; Kraus, S.; Grinin, V.; Hofmann, K.-H.; Kishimoto, M.; Schertl, D.; Tambovtseva, L.; Clausse, J.-M.; Massi, F.; Perraut, K.; Stee, Ph.

    2013-07-01

    We study the inner sub-AU region of the circumstellar environment of the UX Ori type star KK Oph with near-infrared VLTI/AMBER interferometry. We are particularly interested in the inclination of the star-disk system, and we will use this information to test the current standard picture for UX Ori stars. We recorded spectrally dispersed (R˜35) interferograms in the near-infrared H and K bands with the VLTI/AMBER instrument. The derived visibilities, closure phases and the SED of KK Oph were compared with two-dimensional geometric and radiative transfer models (RADMC). We obtained visibilities at four different position angles. Using two-dimensional geometric models, we derive an axis ratio ˜3.0 corresponding to an inclination of ˜70 degree. A fitted inclined ring model leads to a ring radius of 2.8 ± 0.2 mas, corresponding to 0.44 ± 0.03 AU at a distance of 160 pc, which is larger than the dust sublimation radius of ˜0.1 AU predicted for a dust sublimation temperature of 1500 K. Our derived two-dimensional RADMC model consists of a circumstellar disk with an inclination angle of ˜70 degree and an additional dust envelope. The finding of an ˜70 degree inclined disk around KK Oph is consistent with the prediction that UX Ori objects are seen under large inclination angles, and orbiting clouds in the line of sight cause the observed variability. Furthermore, our results suggest that the orbit of the companion KK Oph B and the disk plane are coplanar.

  8. Radiography method mprising determination of corrected absorption values for members of sets of mutually inclined beam paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLeMay, C.A.G.

    1978-01-01

    An x-ray apparatus is described for examining a body including a source of a fan of radiation and detectors of the radiation along beams in the fan are transversed in a plane to provide data for a number of sets of parallel beams in the plane. An orbital motion is provided to give data for further sets at different inclinations in the plane. The data can be processed by arrangements using such parallel sets. The orbital motion is continuous but the extent of angular change in one lateral scan is kept small so that lack of parallelism in the parallel sets does not give excessive errors

  9. Inclined Weight-Loaded Walking at Different Speeds: Pelvis-Shoulder Coordination, Trunk Movements and Cost of Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Rodrigo Gomes da; Gomeñuka, Natalia Andrea; Oliveira, Henrique Bianchi de; Peyré-Tartaruga, Leonardo Alexandre

    2018-01-01

    Although studied at level surface, the trunk kinematics and pelvis-shoulder coordination of incline walking are unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the speed effects on pelvis-shoulder coordination and trunk movement and the cost of transport (C) during unloaded and loaded (25% of body mass) 15% incline walking. We collected 3-dimensional kinematic and oxygen consumption data from 10 physically active young men. The movements were analyzed in the sagittal plane (inclination and range of trunk motion) and the transverse plane (range of shoulder and pelvic girdle motion and phase difference). The rotational amplitude of the shoulder girdle decreased with load at all speeds, and it was lower at the highest speeds. The rotational amplitude of the pelvic girdle did not change with the different speeds. The phase difference was greater at optimal speed (3 km.hr -1 , at the lowest C) in the loaded and the unloaded conditions. The trunk inclination was greater with load and increased with speed, whereas the range of trunk motion was lower in the loaded condition and decreased with increasing speed. In conclusion, the load decreased the range of girdles and trunk motion, and the pelvis-shoulder coordination seemed to be critical for the incline walking performance.

  10. Stress field of a dislocating inclined fault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, F.; Wang, T.

    1980-02-01

    Analytical expressions are derived for the stress field caused by a rectangular dislocating fault of an arbitrary dip in a semi-infinite elastic medium for the case of unequal Lame constants. The results of computations for the stress fields on the ground surface of an inclined strike-slip and an inclined dip-slip fault are represented by contour maps. The effects of Poisson Ratio of the medium, the dip angle, upper and lower boundaries of the faults on the stress field at surface have been discussed. As an application, the contour maps for shear stress and hydrostatic stress of near fields of the Tonghai (1970), Haicheng (1975) and Tangshan (1976) earthquakes have been calculated and compared with the spatial distributions of strong aftershocks of these earthquakes. It is found that most of the strong aftershocks are distributed in the regions of tensional stress, where the hydrostatic stress is positive.

  11. Stress field of a dislocating inclined fault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, F.; Wang, T.

    1980-02-01

    In this paper, analytical expressions of the stress field given rise by a rectangular dislocating fault of an arbitrary dip in a semi-infinite elastic medium for the case of unequal Lame constants are derived. The results of computations for the stress fields on the ground surface of an inclined strike-slip and an inclined dip-slip fault are represented by contour maps. The effects of the Poisson Ratio of the medium, the dip angle, upper and lower boundaries of the faults on the stress field at the surface have been discussed. As an application, the contour maps for shear stress and hydrostatic stress of near fields of the Tonghai (1970), Haicheng, (1975) and Tangshan (1976) earthquakes have been calculated and compared with the spatial distributions of strong aftershocks of these earthquakes. It is found that most of the strong aftershocks are distributed in the regions of tensional stress where the hydrostatic stress is positive.

  12. Bubble streams rising beneath an inclined surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, James; Brasz, Frederik; Kim, Dayoung; Menesses, Mark; Belden, Jesse

    2017-11-01

    Bubbles released beneath a submerged inclined surface can tumble along the wall as they rise, dragging the surrounding fluid with them. This effect has recently regained attention as a method to mitigate biofouling in marine environment, such as a ship hull. It appears that the efficacy of this approach may be related to the velocity of the rising bubbles and the extent that they spread laterally as they rise. Yet, it is unclear how bubble stream rise velocity and lateral migration depend on bubble size, flow rate, and inclination angle. Here we perform systematic experiments to quantify these relationships for both individual bubble trajectories and ensemble average statistics. Research supported by the Office of Naval Research under Grant Number award N00014-16-1-3000.

  13. HIGH-INCLINATION ASTEROID FAMILIES V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the high-inclination asteroid families of Gil-Hutton (2006). A data set of 3652 high-inclination numbered asteroids was analyzed to search for...

  14. Tooth Wear Inclination in Great Ape Molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Sadler, Jordan; Fiorenza, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Primate dietary diversity is reflected in their dental morphology, with differences in size and shape of teeth. In particular, the tooth wear angle can provide insight into a species' ability to break down certain foods. To examine dietary and masticatory information, digitized polygon models of dental casts provide a basis for quantitative analysis of wear associated with tooth attrition. In this study, we analyze and compare the wear patterns of Pongo pygmaeus, Gorilla gorillagorilla and Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii lower molars, focusing on the degree of inclination of specific wear facets. The variation in wear angles appears to be indicative of jaw movements and the specific stresses imposed on food during mastication, reflecting thus the ecology of these species. Orangutans exhibit flatter wear angles, more typical of a diet consisting of hard and brittle foods, while gorillas show a wear pattern with a high degree of inclination, reflecting thus their more leafy diet. Chimpanzees, on the other hand, show intermediate inclinations, a pattern that could be related to their highly variable diet. This method is demonstrated to be a powerful tool for better understanding the relationship between food, mastication and tooth wear processes in living primates, and can be potentially used to reconstruct the diet of fossil species. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. A jumping cylinder in an incline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Raul W.; Hernandez, Jorge; Marquina, Vivianne

    2012-02-01

    The problem of a cylinder of mass m and radius r, with its center of mass out of the cylinder axis, rolling in an incline that makes an angle α respect to the horizontal is analyzed. The equation of motion is solved to obtain the site where the cylinder loses contact with the incline (jumps). Several simplifications are made: the analyzed system consists of an homogeneous disc with a one dimensional straight line of mass parallel to the disc axis at a distance d Styrofoam cylinder of radius r = 10.0 ± 0.05 cm, high h = 5.55 ± 0.05 cm and a mass m1 = 24.45 ± 0.05 g, to which a 9.50 ± 0.01 mm diameter and 5.10 ± 0.001 cm long brass road of mass m2 = 30.75 ± 0.05 g was imbibed parallel to the disc axis at a distance of 5.40 ± 0.05 cm from it. Then the disc rolls on a 3.20 m long wooden ramp inclined at 30 and 45 respect to the horizontal. To determine the jumping site, the movements were recorded with a high-speed video camera (Casio EX ZR100) at 400 frames per second. The experimental results agree well with the theoretical predictions.

  16. Articular Eminence Inclination, Height, and Condyle Morphology on Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilhan İlgüy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between articular eminence inclination, height, and thickness of the roof of the glenoid fossa (RGF according to age and gender and to assess condyle morphology including incidental findings of osseous characteristics associated with osteoarthritis (OA of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT. Materials and Methods. CBCT images of 105 patients were evaluated retrospectively. For articular eminence inclination and height, axial views on which the condylar processes were seen with their widest mediolateral extent being used as a reference view for secondary reconstruction. Condyle morphology was categorized both in the sagittal and coronal plane. Results. The mean values of eminence inclination and height of males were higher than those of females (P<0.05. There were significant differences in the RGF thickness in relation to sagittal condyle morphology. Among the group of OA, the mean value of the RGF thickness for “OA-osteophyte” group was the highest (1.59 mm, whereas the lowest RGF values were seen in the “OA-flattening.” Conclusion. The sagittal osteoarthritic changes may have an effect on RGF thickness by mechanical stimulation and changed stress distribution. Gender has a significant effect on eminence height (Eh and inclination.

  17. Coordinating bracket torque and incisor inclination : Part 3: Validity of bracket torque values in achieving norm inclinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Bernd; Sino, Hiba

    2018-03-19

    To analyze common values of bracket torque (Andrews, Roth, MBT, Ricketts) for their validity in achieving incisor inclinations that are considered normal by different cephalometric standards. Using the equations developed in part 1 (eU1 (BOP) = 90° - BT (U1) - TCA (U1) + α 1 - α 2 and eL1 (BOP) = 90° - BT (L1) - TCA (L1) + β 1 - β 2 ) (abbreviations see part 1) and the mean values (± SD) obtained as statistical measures in parts 1 and 2 of the study (α 1 and β 1 [1.7° ± 0.7°], α 2 [3.6° ± 0.3°], β 2 [3.2° ± 0.4°], TCA (U1) [24.6° ± 3.6°] and TCA (L1) [22.9° ± 4.3°]) expected (= theoretically anticipated) values were calculated for upper and lower incisors (U1 and L1) and compared to targeted (= cephalometric norm) values. For U1, there was no overlapping between the ranges of expected and targeted values, as the lowest targeted value of (58.3°; Ricketts) was higher than the highest expected value (56.5°; Andrews) relative to the bisected occlusal plane (BOP). Thus all of these torque systems will aim for flatter inclinations than prescribed by any of the norm values. Depending on target values, the various bracket systems fell short by 1.8-5.5° (Andrews), 6.8-10.5° (Roth), 11.8-15.5° (MBT), or 16.8-20.5° (Ricketts). For L1, there was good agreement of the MBT system with the Ricketts and Björk target values (Δ0.1° and Δ-0.8°, respectively), and both the Roth and Ricketts systems came close to the Bergen target value (both Δ2.3°). Depending on target values, the ranges of deviation for L1 were 6.3-13.2° for Andrews (Class II prescription), 2.3°-9.2° for Roth, -3.7 to -3.2° for MBT, and 2.3-9.2° for Ricketts. Common values of upper incisor bracket torque do not have acceptable validity in achieving normal incisor inclinations. A careful selection of lower bracket torque may provide satisfactory matching with some of the targeted norm values.

  18. Pool Boiling CHF in Inclined Narrow Annuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Myeong Gie

    2010-01-01

    Pool boiling heat transfer has been studied extensively since it is frequently encountered in various heat transfer equipment. Recently, it has been widely investigated in nuclear power plants for application to the advanced light water reactors designs. Through the review on the published results it can be concluded that knowledge on the combined effects of the surface orientation and a confined space on pool boiling heat transfer is of great practical importance and also of great academic interest. Fujita et al. investigated pool boiling heat transfer, from boiling inception to the critical heat flux (CHF, q' CHF ), in a confined narrow space between heated and unheated parallel rectangular plates. They identified that both the confined space and the surface orientation changed heat transfer much. Kim and Suh changed the surface orientation angles of a downward heating rectangular channel having a narrow gap from the downward-facing position (180 .deg.) to the vertical position (90 .deg.). They observed that the CHF generally decreased as the inclination angle (θ ) increased. Yao and Chang studied pool boiling heat transfer in a confined heat transfer for vertical narrow annuli with closed bottoms. They observed that when the gap size ( s ) of the annulus was decreased the effect of space confinement to boiling heat transfer increased. The CHF was occurred at much lower value for the confined space comparing to the unconfined pool boiling. Pool boiling heat transfer in narrow horizontal annular crevices was studied by Hung and Yao. They concluded that the CHF decreased with decreasing gap size of the annuli and described the importance of the thin film evaporation to explain the lower CHF of narrow crevices. The effect of the inclination angle on the CHF on countercurrent boiling in an inclined uniformly heated tube with closed bottoms was also studied by Liu et al. They concluded that the CHF reduced with the inclination angle decrease. A study was carried out

  19. Experimental studies on the flow characteristics in an inclined bend-free OWC device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnil Ravinesh Ram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A bend-free rectangular cross-section OWC device was designed and constructed for studying the effect of inclination on the flow characteristics inside the device. The inclination is meant to reduce reflection of waves and induce higher velocities in the turbine section. Experimental measurements were made in a wave channel where the OWC device was tested. An S-type Pitot tube was used to measure dynamic pressure of air in the turbine section at several inclinations. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV was also done to study the flow of both air and water in the OWC device. In order to focus solely on primary energy capture, no turbine was installed in the OWC device. The dynamic pressure readings were analysed for suction and compression stages. Water volume fluctuations inside the capture chamber were also recorded and compared for different inclinations. The result was an increase in the velocity of air flowing in the capture chamber and hence a rise in the kinetic energy available to the turbine. It was found from experimental studies that as the angle of inclination reduced, the velocity of air in the turbine section increased. The lower angles also caused higher run-up and larger volume of water into the capture chamber.

  20. Improvement of image quality of holographic projection on tilted plane using iterative algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Hui; Cao, Axiu; Wang, Jiazhou; Zhang, Man; Deng, Qiling

    2017-12-01

    Holographic image projection on tilted plane has an important application prospect. In this paper, we propose a method to compute the phase-only hologram that can reconstruct a clear image on tilted plane. By adding a constant phase to the target image of the inclined plane, the corresponding light field distribution on the plane that is parallel to the hologram plane is derived through the titled diffraction calculation. Then the phase distribution of the hologram is obtained by the iterative algorithm with amplitude and phase constrain. Simulation and optical experiment are performed to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Non-dispersive traveling waves in inclined shallow water channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didenkulova, Ira; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2009-01-01

    Existence of traveling waves propagating without internal reflection in inclined water channels of arbitrary slope is demonstrated. It is shown that traveling non-monochromatic waves exist in both linear and nonlinear shallow water theories in the case of a uniformly inclined channel with a parabolic cross-section. The properties of these waves are studied. It is shown that linear traveling waves should have a sign-variable shape. The amplitude of linear traveling waves in a channel satisfies the same Green's law, which is usually derived from the energy flux conservation for smoothly inhomogeneous media. Amplitudes of nonlinear traveling waves deviate from the linear Green's law, and the behavior of positive and negative amplitudes are different. Negative amplitude grows faster than positive amplitude in shallow water. The phase of nonlinear waves (travel time) is described well by the linear WKB approach. It is shown that nonlinear traveling waves of any amplitude always break near the shoreline if the boundary condition of the full absorption is applied.

  2. Microstructure of nitrides grown on inclined c-plane sapphire and SiC substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imura, M.; Honshio, A.; Miyake, Y.; Nakano, K.; Tsuchiya, N.; Tsuda, M.; Okadome, Y.; Balakrishnan, K.; Iwaya, M.; Kamiyama, S.; Amano, H.; Akasaki, I.

    2006-01-01

    High-quality (112-bar 0) GaN layers with atomically flat surface have been grown on a precisely offset-angle-controlled (11-bar 02) sapphire substrate by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). Insertion of AlGaN layer between underlying AlN layer and GaN was found to improve crystalline quality of upper GaN layer. In addition, a combination of high growth condition followed and epitaxial lateral overgrowth has been employed for the growth of GaN and this helped in reducing the dislocation density in the resultant layers. GaN and AlN were grown on (303-bar 8) SiC substrates by MOVPE and sublimation methods, respectively. The crystal orientation of GaN and AlN could be just aligned to that of the substrate. Microstructure analysis of the layers was also carried out by transmission electron microscopy

  3. Surprising Behavior of Spinning Tops and Eggs on an Inclined Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2016-01-01

    A spinning top or a spinning hard-boiled egg is fascinating to observe since both objects can remain upright for a relatively long time without falling over. If spun at sufficient speed on a horizontal surface, the spin axis rises to a vertical position and the bottom end tends to remain fixed in position on the surface. If the initial spin is…

  4. Changing Images of the Inclined Plane: A Case Study of a Revolution in American Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    Between 1880 and 1920 the way science was taught in American High Schools changed dramatically. The old "lecture/demonstration" method, where information was presented to essentially passive students, was replaced by the "laboratory" method, where students performed their own experiments in specially constructed student laboratories. National…

  5. Bulbous head formation in bidisperse shallow granular flows over inclined planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denissen, I.; Thornton, A.; Weinhart, T.; Luding, S.

    2017-12-01

    Predicting the behaviour of hazardous natural granular flows (e.g. debris-flows and pyroclastic flows) is vital for an accurate assessment of the risks posed by such events. In these situations, an inversely graded vertical particle-size distribution develops, with larger particles on top of smaller particles. As the surface velocity of such flows is larger than the mean velocity, the larger material is then transported to the flow front. This creates a downstream size-segregation structure, resulting in a flow front composed purely of large particles, that are generally more frictional in geophysical flows. Thus, this segregation process reduces the mobility of the flow front, resulting in the formation of, a so-called, bulbous head. One of the main challenges of simulating these hazardous natural granular flows is the enormous number of particles they contain, which makes discrete particle simulations too computationally expensive to be practically useful. Continuum methods are able to simulate the bulk flow- and segregation behaviour of such flows, but have to make averaging approximations that reduce the huge number of degrees of freedom to a few continuum fields. Small-scale periodic discrete particle simulations can be used to determine the material parameters needed for the continuum model. In this presentation, we use a depth-averaged model to predict the flow profile for particulate chute flows, based on flow height, depth-averaged velocity and particle-size distribution [1], and show that the bulbous head structure naturally emerges from this model. The long-time behaviour of this solution of the depth-averaged continuum model converges to a novel travelling wave solution [2]. Furthermore, we validate this framework against computationally expensive 3D particle simulations, where we see surprisingly good agreement between both approaches, considering the approximations made in the continuum model. We conclude by showing that the travelling distance and height of a bidisperse granular avalanche can be well predicted by our continuum model. REFERENCES [1] M. J. Woodhouse, A. R. Thornton, C. G. Johnson, B. P. Kokelaar, J. M. N. T. Gray, J. Fluid Mech., 709, 543-580 (2012) [2] I.F.C. Denissen, T. Weinhart, A. Te Voortwis, S. Luding, J. M. N. T. Gray, A. R. Thornton, under review with J. Fluid Mech. (2017)png" class="documentimage" >

  6. Approaching the Brachistochrone Using Inclined Planes--Striving for Shortest or Equal Travelling Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theilmann, Florian

    2017-01-01

    The classical "brachistochrone" problem asks for the path on which a mobile point M just driven by its own gravity will travel in the shortest possible time between two given points "A" and "B." The resulting curve, the cycloid, will also be the "tautochrone" curve, i.e. the travelling time of the mobile…

  7. Impact of slope inclination on salt accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachshon, Uri

    2017-04-01

    Field measurements indicated on high variability in salt accumulation along natural and cultivated slopes, even for relatively homogeneous soil conditions. It was hypothesised that slope inclination has an impact on the location of salt accumulation along the slope. A set of laboratory experiments and numerical models were used to explore the impact of slope inclination on salt accumulation. It was shown, experimentally, that for conditions of saline water source at the lower boundary of the slope - salt accumulates in low concentrations and homogeneously along the entire slope, for moderate slopes. However, as inclination increases high salt concentrations were observed at the upper parts of the slope, leaving the lower parts of the slope relatively free of salt. The traditional flow and transport models did not predict the experimental observations as they indicated also for the moderate slopes on salt accumulation in the elevated parts of the slope, away of the saline water source. Consequently - a conceptual model was raised to explain the laboratory observations. It was suggested that the interactions between slope angle, evaporation rates, hydraulic conductivity of the medium and distribution of wetness along the slope affect the saline water flow path through the medium. This lead to preferential flow path close to the soil-atmosphere interface for the steep slopes, which leads to constant wash of the salts from the evaporation front upward towards the slope upper parts, whereas for the moderate slopes, flow path is below the soil-atmosphere interface, therefore salt that accumulates at the evaporation front is not being transported upward. Understanding of salt dynamics along slopes is important for agricultural and natural environments, as well as for civil engineering purposes. Better understanding of the salt transport processes along slopes will improve our ability to minimize and to cope with soil salinization processes. The laboratory experiments and

  8. Articular Eminence Inclination in Medieval and Contemporary Croatian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranjčić, Josip; Šlaus, Mario; Vodanović, Marin; Peršić, Sanja; Vojvodić, Denis

    2016-12-01

    Articular eminence inclination (AEI) of the temporomandibular joint leads the mandible in its movements. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine AEI values in medieval (MP) and recent (RP) Croatian population. The study was carried out on two groups of specimens: first group with 30 MP human dry skulls, while the other, serving as control group consisted of 137 dry skulls. The AEI was measured on lateral digital skull images as the angle between the best fi t line drawn along the posterior wall of the articular eminence and the Frankfurt horizontal plane. No statistically significant (p>0.05) differences between the left and right side AEI were found between MP skulls and RP skulls. The mean value of MP AEI was 45.5˚, with a range of 20.9˚-64˚. The mean RP AEI value was steeper (61.99˚), with a range of 30˚-94˚. Difference between the mean MP and RP AEI values was statistically significant (pmedieval time, and consequently different masticatory loads and forces.

  9. Influence of thread shape and inclination on the biomechanical behaviour of plateau implant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calì, Michele; Zanetti, Elisabetta Maria; Oliveri, Salvatore Massimo; Asero, Riccardo; Ciaramella, Stefano; Martorelli, Massimo; Bignardi, Cristina

    2018-03-01

    To assess the influence of implant thread shape and inclination on the mechanical behaviour of bone-implant systems. The study assesses which factors influence the initial and full osseointegration stages. Point clouds of the original implant were created using a non-contact reverse engineering technique. A 3D tessellated surface was created using Geomagic Studio ® software. From cross-section curves, generated by intersecting the tessellated model and cutting-planes, a 3D parametric CAD model was created using SolidWorks ® 2017. By the permutation of three thread shapes (rectangular, 30° trapezoidal, 45° trapezoidal) and three thread inclinations (0°, 3° or 6°), nine geometric configurations were obtained. Two different osseointegration stages were analysed: the initial osseointegration and a full osseointegration. In total, 18 different FE models were analysed and two load conditions were applied to each model. The mechanical behaviour of the models was analysed by Finite Element (FE) Analysis using ANSYS ® v. 17.0. Static linear analyses were also carried out. ANOVA was used to assess the influence of each factor. Models with a rectangular thread and 6° inclination provided the best results and reduced displacement in the initial osseointegration stages up to 4.58%. This configuration also reduced equivalent VM stress peaks up to 54%. The same effect was confirmed for the full osseointegration stage, where 6° inclination reduced stress peaks by up to 62%. The FE analysis confirmed the beneficial effect of thread inclination, reducing the displacement in immediate post-operative conditions and equivalent VM stress peaks. Thread shape does not significantly influence the mechanical behaviour of bone-implant systems but contributes to reducing stress peaks in the trabecular bone in both the initial and full osseointegration stages. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. HEAT EXCHANGE AND AERODYNAMICS OF THE COMBINED TUBING BUNDLES WITH CROSS INCLINED FINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knyazyuk V. I

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of experimental research and analyses air-side thermal performance of combined tube bundles with cross inclined fins. The empirical correlations for heat transfer and flow friction of tubes with inclined fins at different orientation finned tubes relatively of air flow are presented. The errors of thermal and aerodynamic tests are 3-5% and 9.2%, respectively. The proposed correlations describe an experimental data with a coefficient of determination about 0.979-0.998. The impact of tubes arrangement in a bundle on energy performance of heat exchanger were analyzed using complete and local heat modeling methods at a stationary heat flux. Experimental research indicates that efficiency of inclined fins can be calculated by using the equation for cross rectangular fins with average deviation of ±5 %.

  11. Numerical study of heat and mass transfer optimization in a 3D inclined solar distiller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghachem Kaouther

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study of the 3-D double-diffusive natural convection in an inclined solar distiller was established. The flow is considered laminar and caused by the interaction of thermal energy and the chemical species diffusions. The governing equations of the problem, are formulated using vector potential-vorticity formalism in its 3-D form, then solved by the finite volumes method. The Rayleigh number is fixed at Ra = 105 and effects of the buoyancy ratio and inclination are studied for opposed temperature and concentration gradients. The main purpose of the study is to find the optimum inclination angle of the distiller which promotes the maximum mass and heat transfer.

  12. Experimental investigation of turbulent flow in a channel with the backward-facing inclined step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uruba Václav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The work deals with the experimental investigation of turbulent flow in a closed channel with the backward-facing inclined step. Experiments were carried by means of the PIV optical measuring method in the channel of the rectangular cross-section in the inlet part and with inclined steps of the constant height H mm and various inclination angles for a wide range of the Reynolds number. The attention was paid especially to the separation region behind the step and to the relaxation of the shear layer after the reattachment in the outlet part of the channel. The dependence of the length of the separation region on the Reynolds number was obtained for various step angles. Optical measurements were completed by the measurement of static pressure distribution in the inlet and outlet part of the channel to estimate energy losses.

  13. Dense, layered, inclined flows of spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, James T.; Larcher, Michele

    2017-12-01

    We consider dense, inclined flows of spheres in which the particles translate in layers, whose existence may be promoted by the presence of a rigid base and/or sidewalls. We imagine that in such flows a sphere of a layer is forced up the back of a sphere of the layer below, lifting a column of spheres above it, and then falls down the front of the lower sphere, until it bumps against the preceding sphere of the lower layer. We calculate the forces and rate of momentum transfer associated with this process of rub, lift, fall, and bump and determine a relation between the ratio of shear stress to normal stress and the rate of strain that may be integrated to obtain the velocity profile. The fall of a sphere and that of the column above it results in a linear increase in the magnitude of the velocity fluctuations with distance from the base of the flow. We compare the predictions of the model with measured profiles of velocity and granular temperature in several different dense, inclined flows.

  14. How do ants make sense of gravity? A Boltzmann Walker analysis of Lasius niger trajectories on various inclines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaïs Khuong

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to describe accurately how the directional information given by support inclinations affects the ant Lasius niger motion in terms of a behavioral decision. To this end, we have tracked the spontaneous motion of 345 ants walking on a 0.5×0.5 m plane canvas, which was tilted with 5 various inclinations by [Formula: see text] rad ([Formula: see text] data points. At the population scale, support inclination favors dispersal along uphill and downhill directions. An ant's decision making process is modeled using a version of the Boltzmann Walker model, which describes an ant's random walk as a series of straight segments separated by reorientation events, and was extended to take directional influence into account. From the data segmented accordingly ([Formula: see text] segments, this extension allows us to test separately how average speed, segments lengths and reorientation decisions are affected by support inclination and current walking direction of the ant. We found that support inclination had a major effect on average speed, which appeared approximately three times slower on the [Formula: see text] incline. However, we found no effect of the walking direction on speed. Contrastingly, we found that ants tend to walk longer in the same direction when they move uphill or downhill, and also that they preferentially adopt new uphill or downhill headings at turning points. We conclude that ants continuously adapt their decision making about where to go, and how long to persist in the same direction, depending on how they are aligned with the line of maximum declivity gradient. Hence, their behavioral decision process appears to combine klinokinesis with geomenotaxis. The extended Boltzmann Walker model parameterized by these effects gives a fair account of the directional dispersal of ants on inclines.

  15. On liquid films on an inclined plate

    KAUST Repository

    BENILOV, E. S.

    2010-08-18

    This paper examines two related problems from liquid-film theory. Firstly, a steady-state flow of a liquid film down a pre-wetted plate is considered, in which there is a precursor film in front of the main film. Assuming the former to be thin, a full asymptotic description of the problem is developed and simple analytical estimates for the extent and depth of the precursor film\\'s influence on the main film are provided. Secondly, the so-called drag-out problem is considered, where an inclined plate is withdrawn from a pool of liquid. Using a combination of numerical and asymptotic means, the parameter range where the classical Landau-Levich-Wilson solution is not unique is determined. © 2010 Cambridge University Press.

  16. Inclined Buildings – Some Reasons and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijanka, Małgorzata; Kowalska, Magdalena

    2017-10-01

    To straighten a leaning building is never easy. There are no standard solutions. On the other hand, there are several, usually historical, leaning structures which have not been rectified, mostly because in the current shape they are a touristic attraction - the best example being the famous Leaning Tower of Pisa. This does not mean however that inclination of load bearing walls can be ignored. Even though in some cases the problem can be treated in terms of serviceability limit states (the deformation is only decreasing the comfort of ‘normal use’ of the building), in the other – it may be a signal of the forthcoming structural failure. The situation must always be treated individually – if the problem concerns a residential building, then cracks on the walls, not-opening doors or tilted ceilings, which often coincide with the leaning of the external walls, are always the reason of worry and such a building needs to be straightened. The reasons of the problem lie usually in uneven settlement of the ground, which in turn, may be caused by various problems, such as the presence of too soft, too weak, unconsolidated or expansive soils under the building, varying groundwater table, mining activity etc. Solving of the problem by just straightening the building is often not enough. To prevent further deformations a detailed analysis of the possible causes is necessary. Sometimes it may be helpful to review similar cases. The paper contains a general overview of selected inclined buildings: starting with the well-known historical examples and ending with individual houses from the Region of Silesia. Since the problem of instability mostly affects structures with critical height to width ratio, tall and narrow structures (towers) are dominating in the work. The aim of the study was to describe the reasons of the problems and present solutions that have been successfully applied and can be also useful to engineers and designers to prevent similar situations.

  17. Impinging Water Droplets on Inclined Glass Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armijo, Kenneth Miguel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lance, Blake [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ho, Clifford K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Multiphase computational models and tests of falling water droplets on inclined glass surfaces were developed to investigate the physics of impingement and potential of these droplets to self-clean glass surfaces for photovoltaic modules and heliostats. A multiphase volume-of-fluid model was developed in ANSYS Fluent to simulate the impinging droplets. The simulations considered different droplet sizes (1 mm and 3 mm), tilt angles (0°, 10°, and 45°), droplet velocities (1 m/s and 3 m/s), and wetting characteristics (wetting=47° contact angle and non-wetting = 93° contact angle). Results showed that the spread factor (maximum droplet diameter during impact divided by the initial droplet diameter) decreased with increasing inclination angle due to the reduced normal force on the surface. The hydrophilic surface yielded greater spread factors than the hydrophobic surface in all cases. With regard to impact forces, the greater surface tilt angles yielded lower normal forces, but higher shear forces. Experiments showed that the experimentally observed spread factor (maximum droplet diameter during impact divided by the initial droplet diameter) was significantly larger than the simulated spread factor. Observed spread factors were on the order of 5 - 6 for droplet velocities of ~3 m/s, whereas the simulated spread factors were on the order of 2. Droplets were observed to be mobile following impact only for the cases with 45° tilt angle, which matched the simulations. An interesting phenomenon that was observed was that shortly after being released from the nozzle, the water droplet oscillated (like a trampoline) due to the "snapback" caused by the surface tension of the water droplet being released from the nozzle. This oscillation impacted the velocity immediately after the release. Future work should evaluate the impact of parameters such as tilt angle and surface wettability on the impact of particle/soiling uptake and removal to investigate ways that

  18. Psychosocial Determinants of Romantic Inclination Among Indian Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Barani Ganth

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted with the aim of understanding the psychosocial determinants of romantic inclination among youth in India. We involved 779 student participants from a large central university in south India in the age range of 18-24 years. The participants filled measures on romantic inclination, personality, attachment style, interpersonal attraction, and social influence on romantic relationship in addition to a questionnaire on demographic information and relationship history. Analysis of the data revealed that males showed higher level of romantic inclination than females. Those who had current/past involvement in a romantic relationship (Lovers showed higher levels of romantic inclination than those who had never involved in a romantic relationship (Non-lovers. Parents’ type of marriage (Love/arranged, close fiends’ involvement in romantic relationship too had a discriminatory role in romantic inclination. Romantic inclination was significantly related to personality factors, attachment style, media and peer influences on romantic relationships and interpersonal attraction. Extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, media influence, peer influence, secure attachment and physical attraction emerged as significant predictors of romantic inclination in a regression model. Structural Equations Modeling (SEM indicated that personality, attachment style and interpersonal attraction had a significant influence on romantic inclination mediated by both media and peer influences. Romantic inclination in turn significantly predicted romantic relationship status.

  19. The Gothic arch (needle point) tracing and condylar inclination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Gheriani, A S; Winstanley, R B

    1987-11-01

    The records of 11 patients referred for treatment of TMJ disorders were used to compare condylar inclination found by drawing a tangent and by using a mathematic technique. Needle point tracing angles were also measured for the same patients and were compared with the condylar inclination. It can be concluded that (1) the mathematic technique outlined records a more accurate condylar angulation, and (2) there is a great variation in condylar inclination values between patients and between left and right sides of the same patient, and (3) there is no direct relationship between condylar inclination and the needle point tracing angle.

  20. In-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities of molybdenum disulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Zhiwei; Pei, Qing-Xiang; Zhang, Yong-Wei; Jiang, Jin-Wu

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities of molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the in-plane thermal conductivity of monolayer MoS 2 is about 19.76 W mK −1 . Interestingly, the in-plane thermal conductivity of multilayer MoS 2 is insensitive to the number of layers, which is in strong contrast to the in-plane thermal conductivity of graphene where the interlayer interaction strongly affects the in-plane thermal conductivity. This layer number insensitivity is attributable to the finite energy gap in the phonon spectrum of MoS 2 , which makes the phonon–phonon scattering channel almost unchanged with increasing layer number. For the cross-plane thermal transport, we find that the cross-plane thermal conductivity of multilayer MoS 2 can be effectively tuned by applying cross-plane strain. More specifically, a 10% cross-plane compressive strain can enhance the thermal conductivity by a factor of 10, while a 5% cross-plane tensile strain can reduce the thermal conductivity by 90%. Our findings are important for thermal management in MoS 2 based nanodevices and for thermoelectric applications of MoS 2 . (paper)

  1. Approaching the brachistochrone using inclined planes—striving for shortest or equal travelling times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theilmann, Florian

    2017-01-01

    The classical brachistochrone problem asks for the path on which a mobile point M just driven by its own gravity will travel in the shortest possible time between two given points A and B. The resulting curve, the cycloid, will also be the tautochrone curve, i.e. the travelling time of the mobile point will not depend on its starting position. We discuss three similar problems of increasing complexity that restrict the motion to inclined planes. Without using calculus we derive the respective optimal geometry and compare the theoretical values to measured travelling times. The observed discrepancies are quantitatively modelled by including angular motion and friction. We also investigate the correspondence between the original problem and our setups. The topic provides a conceptually simple yet non-trivial problem setting inviting for problem based learning and complex learning activities such as planing suitable experiments or modelling the relevant kinematics.

  2. Linearized transfer between inclined circular orbits using low-thrust blow down propulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kechichian, J. A.; White, L. K.

    1983-01-01

    Noncoplanar transfers between neighboring circular orbits are presented for spacecraft using their own low-thrust blow down propulsion system. It is assumed that the out-of-plane angle between the decaying thrust vector and the current orbit plane remains constant for each extended burn. Switching conditions are derived for the cutoff and relight of the propulsion system in order to carry out a given transfer with inclination change. Furthermore the location where the thrust acceleration is initially applied with respect to the line of nodes of the two orbits is uniquely determined. Finally an analytic derivation of the linearized coplanar motion for stationkeeping and terminal rendezvous studies is also presented and a scheme for deriving the second order correction shown.

  3. Simulation of Canopy Leaf Inclination Angle in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-cui ZHANG

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A leaf inclination angle distribution model, which is applicable to simulate leaf inclination angle distribution in six heights of layered canopy at different growth stages, was established by component factors affecting plant type in rice. The accuracy of the simulation results was validated by measured values from a field experiment. The coefficient of determination (R2 and the root mean square error (RMSE between the simulated and measured values were 0.9472 and 3.93%, respectively. The simulation results showed that the distribution of leaf inclination angles differed among the three plant types. The leaf inclination angles were larger in the compact variety Liangyoupeijiu with erect leaves than in the loose variety Shanyou 63 with droopy leaves and the intermediate variety Liangyou Y06. The leaf inclination angles were distributed in the lower range in Shanyou 63, which matched up with field measurements. The distribution of leaf inclination angles in the same variety changed throughout the seven growth stages. The leaf inclination angles enlarged gradually from transplanting to booting. During the post-booting period, the leaf inclination angle increased in Shanyou 63 and Liangyou Y06, but changed little in Liangyoupeijiu. At every growth stage of each variety, canopy leaf inclination angle distribution on the six heights of canopy layers was variable. As canopy height increased, the layered leaf area index (LAI decreased in all the three plant types. However, while the leaf inclination angles showed little change in Liangyoupeijiu, they became larger in Shanyou 63 but smaller in Liangyou Y06. The simulation results used in the constructed model were very similar to the actual measurement values. The model provides a method for estimating canopy leaf inclination angle distribution in rice production.

  4. Reconstruction of inclined air showers detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    collaboration, The Pierre Augur

    2014-08-01

    We describe the method devised to reconstruct inclined cosmic-ray air showers with zenith angles greater than 60° detected with the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The measured signals at the ground level are fitted to muon density distributions predicted with atmospheric cascade models to obtain the relative shower size as an overall normalization parameter. The method is evaluated using simulated showers to test its performance. The energy of the cosmic rays is calibrated using a sub-sample of events reconstructed with both the fluorescence and surface array techniques. The reconstruction method described here provides the basis of complementary analyses including an independent measurement of the energy spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using very inclined events collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  5. Reconstruction of inclined shower coordinates in electromagnetic calorimeters based on lead glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, A.N.; Mochalov, V.V.; Solov'ev, L.F.

    2007-01-01

    A method for reconstructing the coordinates of inclined showers in lead glass electromagnetic calorimeters is described. Such showers are generated by photons with energies of 0.5-4.0 GeV that are incident on the detector at angles of as great as 30 deg. An analytical expression for the description of the actual photon coordinate in the calorimeter versus the coordinates of the shower center of gravity is proposed. Using this expression, it is possible to reconstruct the coordinates of inclined electromagnetic showers over wide ranges of angles and energies. The dependences of the spatial resolution on the photon energy and angle are determined. The longitudinal fluctuations of the shower length and their effect on the spatial resolution of the calorimeter are discussed [ru

  6. Entrepreneurial inclinations of women from rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković-Savić Olivera S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurial inclinations of women from rural areas are shaped by the lack of business ideas and economic capital, which, in addition to financial resources, includes cultural capital in the form of knowledge and skills. The paper presents a part of a broader study on the social position of women from the rural areas of northern Kosovo and Metohija, conducted in 2013. The research was predominantly focused on entrepreneurial inclinations of rural women, and the findings suggest that private enterprise in the studied population is undeveloped as a result of two dominant reasons. The first reason is the situation which is unfavorable in terms of politics and security, and therefore, not conducive to investment security, together with the specificity in the form of complex administrative business conditions requiring compliance to parallel and mutually incompatible standards (of the Republic of Serbia and of the UNMIK administration. The second important reason for the lack of entrepreneurial initiatives is the lack of ownership of property and the means of production, since banks do not give loans without guarantees in the form of ownership of the mortgage, while other forms of financial incentives are unavailable. The respondents attended programs for acquiring new knowledge and skills only in a small number of cases, while showing the greatest susceptibility to education in traditional skills, such as training in agriculture and handicrafts, which are not the skills in line with the needs of the labor market. As the most important reasons that -prevent them from having their own business, the respondents -mentioned: the lack of ideas and the lack of financial resources. In this regard, they would find incentives in the form of grants most helpful to start their own business. The absence of funds and gender inequality form the basis for the lack of ownership of property and means of production. In addition to the shortage of financial

  7. Self-filtering extremely inclined x-ray crystal monochromator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrdá, Jaromíra; Hrdý, Jaromír

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 6 (2011), 1169-1172 ISSN 0021-8898 R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI1/412 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : synchrotron radiation monochromator * x-ray crystal monochromator * inclined monochromator * inclined diffraction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 5.152, year: 2011

  8. Shallow bias in Mediterranean paleomagnetic directions caused by inclination error

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijgsman, W.; Tauxe, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    A variety of paleomagnetic data from the Mediterranean region show a strong bias toward shallow inclinations. This pattern of shallow inclinations has been interpreted to be the result of (1) major northward terrane displacement, (2) large nondipole components in the Earth’s magnetic field, and

  9. Analysis of deformation due to inclined load in generalized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present investigation deals with study of deformation in homogeneous, isotropic thermodiffusion elastic half-space as a result of inclined load. The inclined load is assumed to be a linear combination of normal load and tangential load. The integral transform technique is used to solve the problem. As an application of ...

  10. 46 CFR 58.01-40 - Machinery, angles of inclination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery, angles of inclination. 58.01-40 Section 58.01-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-40 Machinery, angles of inclination. (a) Propulsion machinery and all auxiliary...

  11. An analytic solution of the static problem of inclined risers conveying fluid

    KAUST Repository

    Alfosail, Feras

    2016-05-28

    We use the method of matched asymptotic expansion to develop an analytic solution to the static problem of clamped–clamped inclined risers conveying fluid. The inclined riser is modeled as an Euler–Bernoulli beam taking into account its self-weight, mid-plane stretching, an applied axial tension, and the internal fluid velocity. The solution consists of three parts: an outer solution valid away from the two boundaries and two inner solutions valid near the two ends. The three solutions are then matched and combined into a so-called composite expansion. A Newton–Raphson method is used to determine the value of the mid-plane stretching corresponding to each applied tension and internal velocity. The analytic solution is in good agreement with those obtained with other solution methods for large values of applied tensions. Therefore, it can be used to replace other mathematical solution methods that suffer numerical limitations and high computational cost. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

  12. Proof of Polyakov conjecture on supercomplex plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachkachi, M.; Kouadik, S.

    1994-10-01

    Using Neumann series, we solve iteratively SBE to arbitrary order. Then applying this, we compute the energy momentum tensor and n points functions for generic n starting from WZP action on the supercomplex plane. We solve the superconformal Ward identity and we show that the iterative solution to arbitrary order is resumed by WZP action. This proves the Polyakov conjecture on supercomplex plane. (author). 8 refs

  13. Review of data and methods recommended in the international code of practice for dosimetry IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 381, The Use of Plane Parallel Ionization Chambers in High Energy Electron and Photon beams. Final report of the co-ordinated research project on dose determination with plane parallel ionization chambers in therapeutic electron and photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusautoy, A.; Roos, M.; Svensson, H.; Andreo, P.

    2000-01-01

    An IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project was designed to validate the data and procedures included in the International Code of Practice Technical Reports Series (TRS) No. 381, ''The Use of Plane Parallel Ionization Chambers in High Energy Electron and Photon Beams''. This work reviews and analyses the procedures used and the data obtained by the participants of the project. The analysis shows that applying TRS-381 generally produces reliable results. The determination of absorbed dose to water using the electron method in reference conditions is within the stated uncertainties (2.9%). Comparisons have shown TRS-381 is consistent with the AAPM TG-39 protocol within 1% for measurements made in water. Based on the analysis, recommendations are given with respect to: (i) the use of plane parallel ionization chambers of the Markus type, (ii) the values for the fluence correction factor for cylindrical chambers, (iii) the value of the wall correction factor for the Roos chamber in 60 Co beams, and (iv) the use of plastic phantoms and the values of the fluence correction factors. (author)

  14. The Effects of Boundary Conditions and Friction on the Helical Buckling of Coiled Tubing in an Inclined Wellbore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yinchun; Ai, Zhijiu; Sun, Xu; Fu, Biwei

    2016-01-01

    Analytical buckling models are important for down-hole operations to ensure the structural integrity of the drill string. A literature survey shows that most published analytical buckling models do not address the effects of inclination angle, boundary conditions or friction. The objective of this paper is to study the effects of boundary conditions, friction and angular inclination on the helical buckling of coiled tubing in an inclined wellbore. In this paper, a new theoretical model is established to describe the buckling behavior of coiled tubing. The buckling equations are derived by applying the principles of virtual work and minimum potential energy. The proper solution for the post-buckling configuration is determined based on geometric and natural boundary conditions. The effects of angular inclination and boundary conditions on the helical buckling of coiled tubing are considered. Many significant conclusions are obtained from this study. When the dimensionless length of the coiled tubing is greater than 40, the effects of the boundary conditions can be ignored. The critical load required for helical buckling increases as the angle of inclination and the friction coefficient increase. The post-buckling behavior of coiled tubing in different configurations and for different axial loads is determined using the proposed analytical method. Practical examples are provided that illustrate the influence of the angular inclination on the axial force. The rate of change of the axial force decreases with increasing angular inclination. Moreover, the total axial friction also decreases with an increasing inclination angle. These results will help researchers to better understand helical buckling in coiled tubing. Using this knowledge, measures can be taken to prevent buckling in coiled tubing during down-hole operations.

  15. The Effects of Boundary Conditions and Friction on the Helical Buckling of Coiled Tubing in an Inclined Wellbore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinchun Gong

    Full Text Available Analytical buckling models are important for down-hole operations to ensure the structural integrity of the drill string. A literature survey shows that most published analytical buckling models do not address the effects of inclination angle, boundary conditions or friction. The objective of this paper is to study the effects of boundary conditions, friction and angular inclination on the helical buckling of coiled tubing in an inclined wellbore. In this paper, a new theoretical model is established to describe the buckling behavior of coiled tubing. The buckling equations are derived by applying the principles of virtual work and minimum potential energy. The proper solution for the post-buckling configuration is determined based on geometric and natural boundary conditions. The effects of angular inclination and boundary conditions on the helical buckling of coiled tubing are considered. Many significant conclusions are obtained from this study. When the dimensionless length of the coiled tubing is greater than 40, the effects of the boundary conditions can be ignored. The critical load required for helical buckling increases as the angle of inclination and the friction coefficient increase. The post-buckling behavior of coiled tubing in different configurations and for different axial loads is determined using the proposed analytical method. Practical examples are provided that illustrate the influence of the angular inclination on the axial force. The rate of change of the axial force decreases with increasing angular inclination. Moreover, the total axial friction also decreases with an increasing inclination angle. These results will help researchers to better understand helical buckling in coiled tubing. Using this knowledge, measures can be taken to prevent buckling in coiled tubing during down-hole operations.

  16. The effect of model inclination during fabrication on mouthguard calliper-measured and CT scan-assessed thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, Timothy; Coward, Trevor; Onambele-Pearson, Gladys; Taylor, Rebecca L; Earl, Philip; Winwood, Keith

    2016-06-01

    Excessive material thinning has been observed in the production of custom-made mouthguards in a number of studies, due to production anomalies that may lead to such thinning. This study investigated thinning material patterns of custom-made mouthguards when the anterior angulation of dental model was increased during the thermoforming process. A total of 60 samples of mouthguard blanks were thermoformed on identical maxillary models under four anterior inclination conditions (n = 4 × 15): control 0, 15, 30 and 45°. Each mouthguard sample was measured, using an electronic calliper gauge at three anatomical points (anterior labial sulcus, posterior occlusion and posterior lingual). Mouthguards were then CT scanned to give a visual representation of the surface thickness. Data showed a significant difference (P < 0.005) in the anterior mouthguard thickness between the four levels of anterior inclination, with the 45° inclination producing the thickest mouthguards, increasing the mean anterior thickness by 75% (2.8 mm, SD: 0.16) from the model on a flat plane (1.6 mm, SD: 0.34). Anterior model inclination of 30 and 45° inclinations increased consistencies between the thickest and thinnest mouthguards in the anterior region of these sample groups. This study highlights the importance of standardizing the thermoforming process, as this has a significant effect on the quality and material distribution of the resultant product. In particular, greater model inclination is advised as this optimizes the thickness of the anterior sulcus of the mouthguard which may be more prominently at risk from sport-related impact. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Method to reduce variations of inclination angle of the acetabular component during mini-incision hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shigeru; Matsuda, Kenta; Arai, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Makoto; Wakimoto, Nobuhiro; Matsushita, Takashi

    2006-05-01

    To reduce variations of cup inclination after total hip arthroplasty using the mini-incision posterior approach, we introduced two techniques, one at a time. The first technique is measuring a pelvic tilt angle in the frontal plane in the initial lateral position in the operating room. The second technique is using a tilt-meter to adjust the direction of a cup holder. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of these techniques. For 106 hips operated on, the cementless acetabular component was impacted using a cup holder targeting 45 degrees in inclination and 20 degrees in anteversion. These hips were divided into three consecutive groups. For the first group (30 hips), no radiograph in the lateral position was obtained, and the alignment frame of the cup holder was aligned parallel to the floor by eye measurement. For the second group (56 hips), we measured the pelvic tilt angle, and tilted the alignment frame by eye measurement. For the third group (20 hips), we measured the pelvic tilt angle and tilted the alignment frame using the tilt meter. Inclination and anteversion angles were measured on postoperative radiographs. The absolute value of the difference between the measured angle and the target angle was defined as the inclination error or anteversion error, respectively. The inclination error was more than 5 degrees for 33% in the first group, 20% in the second group, and 0% in the third group (P = 0.015, chi-squared test). There was a significant difference between the first group and the third group (P = 0.0039). For the anteversion error, there were no significant differences among the three groups. Adjustment using a tilt-meter after measuring a pelvic tilt angle is a useful method to reduce the rate of large inclination error.

  18. SNAP Satellite Focal Plane Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bebek, C.; Akerlof, C.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, S.; Bercovitz, J.; Bergstrom, L.; Berstein, G.P.; Bester, M.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Campbell, M.; Carithers, W.; Commins, E.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.; Emmett, W.; Eriksson, M.; Fouchez, D.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Heetderks, H.; Holland, S.; Huterer, D.; Johnson, W.; Kadel, R.; Karcher, A.; Kim, A.; Kolbe, W.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureaux, J.; Lampton, M.; Lefevre, O.; Levi, M.; Levin, D.; Linder, E.; Loken, S.; Malina, R.; Mazure, A.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.; Miquel, R.; Morgan, N.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Roe, N.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Prieto, E.; Rabinowitz, D.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Schubnell, M.; Sholl, M.; Smadja, G.; Smith, R.; Smoot, G.; Snyder, J.; Spadafora, A.; Szymkowiak, A.; Tarle, G.; Taylor, K.; Tilquin, A.; Tomasch, A.; Vincent, D.; von der Lippe, H.; Walder, J-P.; Wang, G.

    2003-01-01

    The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square degree field in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. The requirements for the instrument suite and the present configuration of the focal plane concept are presented. A two year R and D phase, largely supported by the Department of Energy, is just beginning. We describe the development activities that are taking place to advance our preparedness for mission proposal in the areas of detectors and electronics

  19. Sagittal crystal focusing of undulator radiation with high heat load inclined crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ice, G.E.; Sparks, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    Sagittal focusing of undulator radiation is shown to be compatible with the proposed inclined double-crystal monochromator geometry for heat load reduction. The focusing aberrations are found to be negligible for typical undulator-beam divergences over a range of magnifications from 1:2 to 6:1 and energies from 3 to 40 keV. The inclined geometry reduces the required signal sagittal curvature of the focusing crystal compared to focusing with conventional symmetric crystals; hence, focusing is possible at higher X-ray energies and with less anticlastic bending. In addition, anticlastic stiffening ribs project a smaller footprint to the beam so that the achievable focal spot size is potentially better than with conventional symmetrically cut crystals. 16 refs

  20. Transformational plane geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Umble, Ronald N

    2014-01-01

    Axioms of Euclidean Plane Geometry The Existence and Incidence Postulates The Distance and Ruler Postulates The Plane Separation Postulate The Protractor Postulate The Side-Angle-Side Postulate and the Euclidean Parallel Postulate Theorems of Euclidean Plane Geometry The Exterior Angle Theorem Triangle Congruence Theorems The Alternate Interior Angles Theorem and the Angle Sum Theorem Similar Triangles Introduction to Transformations, Isometries, and Similarities Transformations Isometries and SimilaritiesAppendix: Proof of Surjectivity Translations, Rotations, and Reflections Translations Rotations Reflections Appendix: Geometer's Sketchpad Commands Required by Exploratory Activities Compositions of Translations, Rotations, and Reflections The Three Points Theorem Rotations as Compositions of Two Reflections Translations as Compositions of Two Halfturns or Two Reflections The Angle Addition Theorem Glide Reflections Classification of Isometries The Fundamental Theorem and Congruence Classification of Isometr...

  1. Inclined asymmetric librations in exterior resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyatzis, G.; Tsiganis, K.; Antoniadou, K. I.

    2018-04-01

    Librational motion in Celestial Mechanics is generally associated with the existence of stable resonant configurations and signified by the existence of stable periodic solutions and oscillation of critical (resonant) angles. When such an oscillation takes place around a value different than 0 or π , the libration is called asymmetric. In the context of the planar circular restricted three-body problem, asymmetric librations have been identified for the exterior mean motion resonances (MMRs) 1:2, 1:3, etc., as well as for co-orbital motion (1:1). In exterior MMRs the massless body is the outer one. In this paper, we study asymmetric librations in the three-dimensional space. We employ the computational approach of Markellos (Mon Not R Astron Soc 184:273-281, https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/184.2.273, 1978) and compute families of asymmetric periodic orbits and their stability. Stable asymmetric periodic orbits are surrounded in phase space by domains of initial conditions which correspond to stable evolution and librating resonant angles. Our computations were focused on the spatial circular restricted three-body model of the Sun-Neptune-TNO system (TNO = trans-Neptunian object). We compare our results with numerical integrations of observed TNOs, which reveal that some of them perform 1:2 resonant, inclined asymmetric librations. For the stable 1:2 TNO librators, we find that their libration seems to be related to the vertically stable planar asymmetric orbits of our model, rather than the three-dimensional ones found in the present study.

  2. Development of locomotion over inclined surfaces in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, C; Tobalske, B; Bowley, S; Harlander-Matauschek, A

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate locomotor strategies during development in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus); we were motivated, in part, by current efforts to improve the design of housing systems for laying hens which aim to reduce injury and over-exertion. Using four strains of laying hens (Lohmann Brown, Lohmann LSL lite, Dekalb White and Hyline Brown) throughout this longitudinal study, we investigated their locomotor style and climbing capacity in relation to the degree (0 to 70°) of incline, age (2 to 36 weeks) and the surface substrate (sandpaper or wire grid). Chicks and adult fowl performed only walking behavior to climb inclines ⩽40° and performed a combination of wing-assisted incline running (WAIR) or aerial ascent on steeper inclines. Fewer birds used their wings to aid their hind limbs when climbing 50° inclines on wire grid surface compared with sandpaper. The steepness of angle achieved during WAIR and the tendency to fly instead of using WAIR increased with increasing age and experience. White-feathered strains performed more wing-associated locomotor behavior compared with brown-feathered strains. A subset of birds was never able to climb incline angles >40° even when using WAIR. Therefore, we suggest that inclines of up to 40° should be provided for hens in three-dimensional housing systems, which are easily negotiated (without wing use) by chicks and adult fowl.

  3. Natural Circulation Characteristics of a Symmetric Loop under Inclined Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingtuan Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural circulation is an important process for primary loops of some marine integrated reactors. The reactor works under inclined conditions when severe accidents happen to the ship. In this paper, to investigate the characteristics of natural circulation, experiments were conducted in a symmetric loop under the inclined angle of 0~45°. A CFD model was also set up to predict the behaviors of the loop beyond the experimental scope. Total circulation flow rate decreases with the increase of inclined angle. Meanwhile one circulation is depressed while the other is enhanced, and accordingly the disparity between the branch circulations arises and increases with the increase of inclined angle. Circulation only takes place in one branch circuit at large inclined angle. Also based on the CFD model, the influences of flow resistance distribution and loop configuration on natural circulation are predicted. The numerical results show that to design the loop with the configuration of big altitude difference and small width, it is favorable to reduce the influence of inclination; however too small loop width will cause severe reduction of circulation ability at large angle inclination.

  4. The digestive system of 1-week-old Jersey calves is well suited to digest, absorb, and incorporate protein and energy into tissue growth even when calves are fed a high plane of milk replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu; Carroll, Jeffery A; Ballou, Michael A

    2016-03-01

    The objectives of the current study were to determine the apparent digestibilities of nitrogen, organic matter, ash, and energy as well as investigate the nitrogen retention of calves fed different planes of milk replacer nutrition during the first week of life. Twelve Jersey calves were blocked by body weight at birth and randomly assigned to either a high plane of nutrition (HPN) or low plane of nutrition (LPN) treatment. The HPN calves were offered 19.2g of dry matter/kg of body weight of a 28% all-milk crude protein and 20% fat milk replacer. The LPN calves were fed 11.6g of dry matter/kg of body weight of a 20% all-milk crude protein and 20% fat milk replacer. All calves were given 3 L of pooled colostrum within 1h of birth after which they were assigned to treatments; no starter was offered during the study. Calves were given 1 d to adapt to their treatments and environment, so calves were 30 to 36 h old at the start of data collection. The study was divided into two 72-h periods. Total collection of feces occurred over each 72 h period, and total urine was collected for the last 24h of each period. Peripheral blood samples were collected at the beginning and end of each period and analyzed for plasma glucose and urea nitrogen concentrations. Data are reported as HPN vs. LPN, respectively. Fecal scores were greater for HPN calves during both periods; however, no difference was found in the dry matter percentage of feces (30.9 vs. 31.9 ± 0.06). No differences were found between treatments in either digestible or metabolizable energy efficiencies, which averaged 93.3 and 83.7%, respectively. A treatment × period interaction was found on the percentage of intake nitrogen retained, in which calves fed the HPN had a greater percentage of intake nitrogen retained during period 1 (87.9 vs. 78.4 ± 1.79%), but was not different from calves fed the LPN during period 2 (85.4 vs. 84.9 ± 1.79%). From these data therefore, we conclude that healthy neonatal calves have

  5. Fast Plane Wave Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas

    This PhD project investigates and further develops methods for ultrasound plane wave imaging and blood flow estimation with the objective of overcoming some of the major limitations in conventional ultrasound systems, which are related to low frame rates and only estimation of velocities along th...

  6. A new dimension to cephalometry: DW plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti K Hatewar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: An accurate jaw relationship is critically important in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. Various angular and linear measurements that have been proposed can be erroneous because they depend on various factors. Aim: The purpose of this study is to establish a new cephalometric measurement to assess the skeletal jaw discrepancy using Walker's point. Settings and Design: Lateral cephalogram of 100 Indian subjects with age range (8–11, 12–18, 19-27 were obtained. Inclusion criteria were – clinically Class I occlusion; normal overjet and overbite; orthoganthic profile; competent lips and cephalometrically normal ANB; Wits appraisal; Rakosi Jarabak's angle of inclination and mandibular plane angle. Materials and Methods: Four skeletal landmarks: Point A, Point B, Walker's point (W and Wing point (w were used to indicate the severity and type of skeletal dysplasia. Double W (DW was constructed joining the Walker's and Wing point. Statistical Analysis Used: Analysis of variance test and Student's t-test was applied which showed significant results. Results: The difference between Walker's perpendicular to A Point and Walker's perpendicular to B Point gave the sagittal jaw discrepancy and was found to be 8.2 ± 0.9 mm. This measurement remained relatively constant throughout life. Conclusions: DW plane is an effective way to accurately establish the skeletal jaw relationship. It analyses the variance between linear measurements to determine the sagittal jaw relationship, linear measurements for vertical maxillary height and angular measurements to determine rotational jaw changes.

  7. Kinematic control of aerodynamic forces on an inclined flapping wing with asymmetric strokes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyungmin; Choi, Haecheon

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we conduct an experiment using a one-paired dynamically scaled model of an insect wing, to investigate how asymmetric strokes with different wing kinematic parameters are used to control the aerodynamics of a dragonfly-like inclined flapping wing in still fluid. The kinematic parameters considered are the angles of attack during the mid-downstroke (α md ) and mid-upstroke (α mu ), and the duration (Δτ) and time of initiation (τ p ) of the pitching rotation. The present dragonfly-like inclined flapping wing has the aerodynamic mechanism of unsteady force generation similar to those of other insect wings in a horizontal stroke plane, but the detailed effect of the wing kinematics on the force control is different due to the asymmetric use of the angle of attack during the up- and downstrokes. For example, high α md and low α mu produces larger vertical force with less aerodynamic power, and low α md and high α mu is recommended for horizontal force (thrust) production. The pitching rotation also affects the aerodynamics of a flapping wing, but its dynamic rotational effect is much weaker than the effect from the kinematic change in the angle of attack caused by the pitching rotation. Thus, the influences of the duration and timing of pitching rotation for the present inclined flapping wing are found to be very different from those for a horizontal flapping wing. That is, for the inclined flapping motion, the advanced and delayed rotations produce smaller vertical forces than the symmetric one and the effect of pitching duration is very small. On the other hand, for a specific range of pitching rotation timing, delayed rotation requires less aerodynamic power than the symmetric rotation. As for the horizontal force, delayed rotation with low α md and high α mu is recommended for long-duration flight owing to its high efficiency, and advanced rotation should be employed for hovering flight for nearly zero horizontal force. The present

  8. Kinematic control of aerodynamic forces on an inclined flapping wing with asymmetric strokes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyungmin; Choi, Haecheon

    2012-03-01

    In the present study, we conduct an experiment using a one-paired dynamically scaled model of an insect wing, to investigate how asymmetric strokes with different wing kinematic parameters are used to control the aerodynamics of a dragonfly-like inclined flapping wing in still fluid. The kinematic parameters considered are the angles of attack during the mid-downstroke (α(md)) and mid-upstroke (α(mu)), and the duration (Δτ) and time of initiation (τ(p)) of the pitching rotation. The present dragonfly-like inclined flapping wing has the aerodynamic mechanism of unsteady force generation similar to those of other insect wings in a horizontal stroke plane, but the detailed effect of the wing kinematics on the force control is different due to the asymmetric use of the angle of attack during the up- and downstrokes. For example, high α(md) and low α(mu) produces larger vertical force with less aerodynamic power, and low α(md) and high α(mu) is recommended for horizontal force (thrust) production. The pitching rotation also affects the aerodynamics of a flapping wing, but its dynamic rotational effect is much weaker than the effect from the kinematic change in the angle of attack caused by the pitching rotation. Thus, the influences of the duration and timing of pitching rotation for the present inclined flapping wing are found to be very different from those for a horizontal flapping wing. That is, for the inclined flapping motion, the advanced and delayed rotations produce smaller vertical forces than the symmetric one and the effect of pitching duration is very small. On the other hand, for a specific range of pitching rotation timing, delayed rotation requires less aerodynamic power than the symmetric rotation. As for the horizontal force, delayed rotation with low α(md) and high α(mu) is recommended for long-duration flight owing to its high efficiency, and advanced rotation should be employed for hovering flight for nearly zero horizontal force. The

  9. Aqua/Aura Spring 2017 Inclination Adjust Maneuver Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Thomas; Stezelberger, Shane

    2017-01-01

    This will be presented at the International Earth Science Constellation Mission Operations Working Group meeting June 13-15, 2017 to discuss the AquaAura Spring 2017 Inclination Adjust Maneuver series.

  10. Brilliance and flux reduction in imperfect inclined crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.K.; Blasdell, R.C.; Fernandez, P.B.; Macrander, A.T.; Mills, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    The inclined crystal geometry has been suggested as a method of reducing the surface absorbed power density of high-heat-load monochromators for third-generation synchrotron radiation sources. Computer simulations have shown that if the crystals are perfectly aligned and have no strains then the diffraction properties of a pair of inclined crystals are very similar to a pair of conventional flat crystals with only subtle effects differentiating the two configurations. However, if the crystals are strained, these subtle differences in the behavior of inclined crystals can result in large beam divergences causing brilliance and flux losses. This manuscript elaborates on these issues and estimates potential brilliance and flux losses from strained inclined crystals at the APS

  11. Systems of pillarless working of adjacent, sloped and inclined seams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batmanov, Yu.K.; Bakhtin, A.F.; Bulavka, E.I.

    1979-01-01

    An analysis is made (advantages and disadvantages) of existing and recommended (pillarless) systems of working adjacent, sloped, and inclined seams. The economic benefits, area and extent of those systems are indicated. 8 references, 4 figures.

  12. Psychosocial Determinants of Romantic Inclination Among Indian Youth

    OpenAIRE

    D. Barani Ganth; S. Kadhiravan

    2017-01-01

    The present study was conducted with the aim of understanding the psychosocial determinants of romantic inclination among youth in India. We involved 779 student participants from a large central university in south India in the age range of 18-24 years. The participants filled measures on romantic inclination, personality, attachment style, interpersonal attraction, and social influence on romantic relationship in addition to a questionnaire on demographic information and relationship histor...

  13. Uplift Capacity of Inclined Underreamed Piles Subjected to Vertical Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Akilur; Sengupta, Siddhartha

    2017-12-01

    Many offshore structures are subjected to overturning moments due to wind load, wave pressure, and ship impacts. Inclined (batter) piles are used to support such structures, and to carry the horizontal and vertical loads resulted from the overturning moments. Though studies have been done with inclined piles having no underream bulb, little information is available in the literature about estimating the uplift capacity of inclined underreamed piles. In the present study laboratory experiments have been done with vertically loaded model piles having no underream as well as with one and two underreams. The piles were positioned at angle of inclination of θ = 0°, 10°, 20°, 30° (with vertical); and placed in locally available sand under vertical uplift load. Three different pile stem diameters (D = 20, 25, and 35 mm) were used. The corresponding pile length to stem diameter (l/D) ratio were 18, 14, and 10 respectively. Experiments had been conducted with two relative different densities (45 and 70%) of sand. The failure uplift loads were obtained in each case. It had been found that for inclined piles increase in number of underream bulbs from 0 to 2 was quite effective in resisting uplift loads corresponding to piles having l/D equals to 10. The percentage decreases in uplift capacity corresponding to increase in inclination angle were more pronounced for piles with double underreams.

  14. Trunk muscle activity with different sitting postures and pelvic inclination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masahiro; Kaneoka, Koji; Wada, Yusuke; Matsui, Yasushi; Miyakawa, Shumpei

    2014-01-01

    Sitting posture may often place large burden on trunk muscles, while trunk muscle activities in the sitting posture have not been well clarified. In this study, a difference in trunk muscle activity between two kinds of sitting postures was evaluated, focusing on low back pain induced by posture holding. An experiment was conducted on the subjects sitting on a stable-seat and on an unstable-seat, with the pelvis inclined forward, backward, rightward, and leftward. With the pelvis inclined forward, rightward and leftward, muscle activities were significantly increased in a stable-seat sitting posture. In contrast, no significant increase in muscle activity was observed with the pelvis inclined in every direction in an unstable-seat sitting posture. With the pelvis inclined in the stable-seat sitting posture, muscle activities were imbalanced, while with the pelvis inclined in the unstable-seat sitting posture, muscle activities were not imbalanced. Thus, it is suggested that with the pelvis inclined to the maximum extent in the stable-seat sitting posture, low back pain may be induced by imbalanced muscle activities.

  15. Thermo-economic performance of inclined solar water distillation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agboola Phillips O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the thermo-economic performance of different configurations of inclined solar water desalination for parameters such as daily production, efficiency, system cost and distilled water production cost. The four different configurations considered for this study are as follows; 1. Inclined solar water distillation with bare absorber plate (IISWD with daily production of 5.46 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency of 48.3%. 2. Inclined solar water distillation with wick on absorber plate (IISWDW with daily production of 6.41kg/m2 day and daily efficiency 50.3%. 3. Inclined solar water distillation with wire mesh on absorber plate (IISWDWM with daily production n of 3.03 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency 32.6%. 4. Inclined solar water distillation with bare absorber plate (ISWD. (Control System with daily production of 3.25 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency of 40.1%. The systems potable water cost price ranges from 0.03 $/L for IISWDW to 0.06$/L for IISWDWM System. All the systems are economically and technically feasible as a solar distillation system for potable water in Northern Cyprus. The price of potable water from water vendors/hawkers ranges from 0.11-0.16 $/L. It is more economically viable to have the rooftop inclined solar water desalination system than procuring potable water from vendors.`

  16. TRANSIT TIMING VARIATIONS FOR INCLINED AND RETROGRADE EXOPLANETARY SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, Matthew J.; Ford, Eric B.; Veras, Dimitri

    2010-01-01

    We perform numerical calculations of the expected transit timing variations (TTVs) induced on a hot-Jupiter by an Earth-mass perturber. Motivated by the recent discoveries of retrograde transiting planets, we concentrate on an investigation of the effect of varying relative planetary inclinations, up to and including completely retrograde systems. We find that planets in low-order (e.g., 2:1) mean-motion resonances (MMRs) retain approximately constant TTV amplitudes for 0 deg. 170 deg. Systems in higher order MMRs (e.g., 5:1) increase in TTV amplitude as inclinations increase toward 45 deg., becoming approximately constant for 45 deg. 135 deg. Planets away from resonance slowly decrease in TTV amplitude as inclinations increase from 0 deg. to 180 deg., whereas planets adjacent to resonances can exhibit a huge range of variability in TTV amplitude as a function of both eccentricity and inclination. For highly retrograde systems (135 deg. < i ≤ 180 deg.), TTV signals will be undetectable across almost the entirety of parameter space, with the exceptions occurring when the perturber has high eccentricity or is very close to an MMR. This high inclination decrease in TTV amplitude (on and away from resonance) is important for the analysis of the known retrograde and multi-planet transiting systems, as inclination effects need to be considered if TTVs are to be used to exclude the presence of any putative planetary companions: absence of evidence is not evidence of absence.

  17. Soret and Dufour effects on free convective heat and solute transfer in fluid saturated inclined porous cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Shekar Balla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present problem addresses double diffusive free convection in an inclined square cavity filled with fluid saturated porous medium under the influence of Soret and Dufour effects. The inclined cavity makes an angle with the horizontal plane. At the two horizontal walls of the cavity the heat and solute transverse gradients are applied and lateral walls of the cavity are being regarded insulated and impermeable. Using the appropriate dimensionless quantities, the governing equations with boundary conditions are transformed to non-dimensional form. The governing partial differential equations are solved by Finite element method of Galerkin weighted residual scheme. Numerical results are obtained for different values of the Rayleigh number, Lewis number, buoyancy ratio, Soret Number and Dufour number. The overall investigation of variation of streamlines, isotherms, iso-concentration, Nusselt number and Sherwood numbers are presented graphically. To examine the accuracy, the present results are compared with the available results.

  18. BKP plane partitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foda, Omar; Wheeler, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Using BKP neutral fermions, we derive a product expression for the generating function of volume-weighted plane partitions that satisfy two conditions. If we call a set of adjacent equal height-h columns, h > 0, an h-path, then 1. Every h-path can assume one of two possible colours. 2. There is a unique way to move along an h-path from any column to another

  19. BKP plane partitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, Omar; Wheeler, Michael [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2007-01-15

    Using BKP neutral fermions, we derive a product expression for the generating function of volume-weighted plane partitions that satisfy two conditions. If we call a set of adjacent equal height-h columns, h > 0, an h-path, then 1. Every h-path can assume one of two possible colours. 2. There is a unique way to move along an h-path from any column to another.

  20. Magnetohydrodynamics Carreau nanofluid flow over an inclined convective heated stretching cylinder with Joule heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad Khan

    Full Text Available Current work highlights the computational aspects of MHD Carreau nanofluid flow over an inclined stretching cylinder with convective boundary conditions and Joule heating. The mathematical modeling of physical problem yields nonlinear set of partial differential equations. A suitable scaling group of variables is employed on modeled equations to convert them into non-dimensional form. The integration scheme Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg on the behalf of shooting technique is utilized to solve attained set of equations. The interesting aspects of physical problem (linear momentum, energy and nanoparticles concentration are elaborated under the different parametric conditions through graphical and tabular manners. Additionally, the quantities (local skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt number and local Sherwood number which are responsible to dig out the physical phenomena in the vicinity of stretched surface are computed and delineated by varying controlling flow parameters. Keywords: MHD, Carreau nanofluid, Inclined stretching cylinder, Joule heating, Shooting technique

  1. Quasi-Rayleigh waves in transversely isotropic half-space with inclined axis of symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanovskaya, T.B.; Savina, L.S.

    2003-09-01

    A method for determination of characteristics of quasi-Rayleigh (qR) wave in a transversely isotropic homogeneous half-space with inclined axis of symmetry is outlined. The solution is obtained as a superposition of qP, qSV and qSH waves, and surface wave velocity is determined from the boundary conditions at the free surface and at infinity, as in the case of Rayleigh wave in isotropic half-space. Though the theory is simple enough, a numerical procedure for the calculation of surface wave velocity presents some difficulties. The difficulty is conditioned by necessity to calculate complex roots of a non-linear equation, which in turn contains functions determined as roots of nonlinear equations with complex coefficients. Numerical analysis shows that roots of the equation corresponding to the boundary conditions do not exist in the whole domain of azimuths and inclinations of the symmetry axis. The domain of existence of qR wave depends on the ratio of the elastic parameters: for some strongly anisotropic models the wave cannot exist at all. For some angles of inclination qR wave velocities deviate from those calculated on the basis of the perturbation method valid for weak anisotropy, though they have the same tendency of variation with azimuth. The phase of qR wave varies with depth unlike Rayleigh wave in isotropic half-space. Unlike Rayleigh wave in isotropic half-space, qR wave has three components - vertical, radial and transverse. Particle motion in horizontal plane is elliptic. Direction of the major axis of the ellipsis coincide with the direction of propagation only in azimuths 0 deg. (180 deg.) and 90 deg. (270 deg.). (author)

  2. The role of incline, performance level, and gender on the gross mechanical efficiency of roller ski skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbakk, Oyvind; Hegge, Ann Magdalen; Ettema, Gertjan

    2013-01-01

    The ability to efficiently utilize metabolic energy to produce work is a key factor for endurance performance. The present study investigated the effects of incline, performance level, and gender on the gross mechanical efficiency during roller ski skating. Thirty-one male and nineteen female elite cross-country skiers performed a 5-min submaximal session at approximately 75% of VO2peak on a 5% inclined treadmill using the G3 skating technique. Thereafter, a 5-min session on a 12% incline using the G2 skating technique was performed at a similar work rate. Gross efficiency was calculated as the external work rate against rolling friction and gravity divided by the metabolic rate using gas exchange. Performance level was determined by the amount of skating FIS points [the Federation of International Skiing (FIS) approved scoring system for ski racing] where fewer points indicate a higher performance level. Strong significant correlations between work rate and metabolic rate within both inclines and gender were revealed (r = -0.89 to 0.98 and P higher at the steeper incline, both for men (17.1 ± 0.4 vs. 15.8 ± 0.5%, P better ranked elite male and female skiers skied more efficiently.

  3. Evaluation of performance of veterinary in-clinic hematology analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishniw, Mark; Pion, Paul D

    2016-12-01

    A previous study provided information regarding the quality of in-clinic veterinary biochemistry testing. However, no similar studies for in-clinic veterinary hematology testing have been conducted. The objective of this study was to assess the quality of hematology testing in veterinary in-clinic laboratories using results obtained from testing 3 levels of canine EDTA blood samples. Clinicians prepared blood samples to achieve measurand concentrations within, below, and above their RIs and evaluated the samples in triplicate using their in-clinic analyzers. Quality was assessed by comparison of calculated total error with quality requirements, determination of sigma metrics, use of a quality goal index, and agreement between in-clinic and reference laboratory instruments. Suitability for statistical quality control was determined using adaptations from the computerized program, EZRules3. Evaluation of 10 veterinary in-clinic hematology analyzers showed that these instruments often fail to meet quality requirements. At least 60% of analyzers reasonably determined RBC, WBC, HCT, and HGB, when assessed by most quality goal criteria; platelets were less reliably measured, with 80% deemed suitable for low platelet counts, but only 30% for high platelet counts, and automated differential leukocyte counts were generally considered unsuitable for clinical use with fewer than 40% of analyzers meeting the least stringent quality goal requirements. Fewer than 50% of analyzers were able to meet requirements for statistical quality control for any measurand. These findings reflect the current status of in-clinic hematology analyzer performance and provide a basis for future evaluations of the quality of veterinary laboratory testing. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  4. A novel method of microneedle array fabrication using inclined deep x-ray exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Sang Jun; Jin, Chun Yan; Lee, Seung S

    2006-01-01

    We report a novel fabrication method for the microneedle array with a 3-dimensional feature and its replication method; 'Hot-pressing' process with bio-compatible material, PLLA (Poly L-LActide). Using inclined deep X-ray exposure technique, we fabricate a band type microneedle array with a single body on the same material basement. Since the single body feature does not make adhesion problem with the microneedle shank and basement during peel-off step of a mold, the PMMA (Poly-Methyl-MethAcrylate) microneedle array mold insert can be used for mold process which is used with the soft material mold, PDMS (Poly-Di- Methyl-Siloxane). The side inclined deep X-ray exposure also makes complex 3-dimensional features by the regions which are not exposed during twice successive exposure steps. In addition, the successive exposure does not need an additional mask alignment after the first side exposure. The fabricated band type microneedle array mold inserts are assembled for large area patch type out-of-plane microneedle array. The bio-compatible microneedle array can be fabricated to the laboratory scale mass production by the single body PMMA mold insert and 'Hot-pressing' process

  5. A novel method of microneedle array fabrication using inclined deep x-ray exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Sang Jun; Jin, Chun Yan; Lee, Seung S [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-dong, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-04-01

    We report a novel fabrication method for the microneedle array with a 3-dimensional feature and its replication method; 'Hot-pressing' process with bio-compatible material, PLLA (Poly L-LActide). Using inclined deep X-ray exposure technique, we fabricate a band type microneedle array with a single body on the same material basement. Since the single body feature does not make adhesion problem with the microneedle shank and basement during peel-off step of a mold, the PMMA (Poly-Methyl-MethAcrylate) microneedle array mold insert can be used for mold process which is used with the soft material mold, PDMS (Poly-Di- Methyl-Siloxane). The side inclined deep X-ray exposure also makes complex 3-dimensional features by the regions which are not exposed during twice successive exposure steps. In addition, the successive exposure does not need an additional mask alignment after the first side exposure. The fabricated band type microneedle array mold inserts are assembled for large area patch type out-of-plane microneedle array. The bio-compatible microneedle array can be fabricated to the laboratory scale mass production by the single body PMMA mold insert and 'Hot-pressing' process.

  6. Error Analysis on Plane-to-Plane Linear Approximate Coordinate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    c Indian Academy of Sciences. Error Analysis on Plane-to-Plane Linear Approximate Coordinate. Transformation. Q. F. Zhang1,∗, Q. Y. Peng1 & J. H. Fan2 ... In astronomy, some tasks require performing the coordinate transformation between two tangent planes in ... Based on these parameters, we get maxi- mum errors in ...

  7. Direct determination of k Q factors for cylindrical and plane-parallel ionization chambers in high-energy electron beams from 6 MeV to 20 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, A.; Kapsch, R.-P.

    2018-02-01

    For the ionometric determination of the absorbed dose to water, D w, in high-energy electron beams from a clinical accelerator, beam quality dependent correction factors, k Q, are required. By using a water calorimeter, these factors can be determined experimentally and potentially with lower standard uncertainties than those of the calculated k Q factors, which are tabulated in various dosimetry protocols. However, one of the challenges of water calorimetry in electron beams is the small measurement depths in water, together with the steep dose gradients present especially at lower energies. In this investigation, water calorimetry was implemented in electron beams to determine k Q factors for different types of cylindrical and plane-parallel ionization chambers (NE2561, NE2571, FC65-G, TM34001) in 10 cm  ×  10 cm electron beams from 6 MeV to 20 MeV (corresponding beam quality index R 50 ranging from 1.9 cm to 7.5 cm). The measurements were carried out using the linear accelerator facility of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. Relative standard uncertainties for the k Q factors between 0.50% for the 20 MeV beam and 0.75% for the 6 MeV beam were achieved. For electron energies above 8 MeV, general agreement was found between the relative electron energy dependencies of the k Q factors measured and those derived from the AAPM TG-51 protocol and recent Monte Carlo-based studies, as well as those from other experimental investigations. However, towards lower energies, discrepancies of up to 2.0% occurred for the k Q factors of the TM34001 and the NE2571 chamber.

  8. Plane partition vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rensburg, E J Janse van; Ma, J

    2006-01-01

    We examine partitions and their natural three-dimensional generalizations, plane partitions, as models of vesicles undergoing an inflation-deflation transition. The phase diagrams of these models include a critical point corresponding to an inflation-deflation transition, and exhibits multicritical scaling in the vicinity of a multicritical point located elsewhere on the critical curve. We determine the locations of the multicritical points by analysing the generating functions using analytic and numerical means. In addition, we determine the numerical values of the multicritical scaling exponents associated with the multicritical scaling regimes in these models

  9. Instability timescale for the inclination instability in the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zderic, Alexander; Madigan, Ann-Marie; Fleisig, Jacob

    2018-04-01

    The gravitational influence of small bodies is often neglected in the study of solar system dynamics. However, this is not always an appropriate assumption. For example, mutual secular torques between low mass particles on eccentric orbits can result in a self-gravity instability (`inclination instability'; Madigan & McCourt 2016). During the instability, inclinations increase exponentially, eccentricities decrease (detachment), and orbits cluster in argument of perihelion. In the solar system, the orbits of the most distant objects show all three of these characteristics (high inclination: Volk & Malhotra (2017), detachment: Delsanti & Jewitt (2006), and argument of perihelion clustering: Trujillo & Sheppard (2014)). The inclination instability is a natural explanation for these phenomena.Unfortunately, full N-body simulations of the solar system are unfeasible (N ≈ O(1012)), and the behavior of the instability depends on N, prohibiting the direct application of lower N simulations. Here we present the instability timescale's functional dependence on N, allowing us to extrapolate our simulation results to that appropriate for the solar system. We show that ~5 MEarth of small icy bodies in the Sedna region is sufficient for the inclination instability to occur in the outer solar system.

  10. Analytical theory of Mercury's rotation and reference planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hoedt, Sandrine; Noyelles, Benoit; Dufey, Julien; Lemaitre, Anne

    The space missions to Mercury (Messenger or BepiColombo) will provide new data about the rotation of the planet, which should induce a much better knowledge of its internal structure. Besides huge numerical integrations, an efficient treatment of these data requires a complete analytical model of rotation for Mercury, which is nowadays inexistent. Our team is implicated in the BepiColombo mission through the MORE project (Mercury Orbiter Radio Science Experiment). In particular, our task is to provide such a model of rotation, to be able to identify the parameters with the data. Our starting point is to take an Hamiltonian theory of the 3 : 2 resonant rotation of Mercury (D'Hoedt and Lemaˆ ıtre, 2004). In this kernel model, Mercury is supposed to be rigid and its orbits is considered as keplerian. The theory is a 2 degree of freedom one, limited at the second order in spherical harmonics and averaged over the short periods. These short periods (the orbital one and the rotational one, resp. 88 and 58 days) can be added on the averaged model as perturbations. In the same way, we can include the very long periods (longitude of the ascending node and of the pericenter argument) as perturbations on our Hamiltonian. Another method to insert the influence of the other planets is to consider that the orbital elements are slowly varying with time. More over, thanks to the adiabatic invariant theory, Peale (2006) and D'Hoedt and Lemaˆ (2008) showed that, if the eccentricity and the orbital inclination ıtre are slow functions of time, the angular momentum axis stays closed to the Cassini equilibrium. The precise definition of the Cassini states refers to different planes : in particular, an orbital plane, linked to a mean orbit of Mercury and a Laplace plane (orthogonal to the axis around which Mercury's orbit is precessing with a constant inclination). This mean orbital plane is obtained by numerical integration of the motion, on which we perform a frequency analysis to

  11. CORRELATION BETWEEN PRONATED FOOT AND PELVIC INCLINATION, FEMORAL ANTEVERSION, QUADRICEPS ANGLE AND TIBIAL TORSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishita Gandhi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: A pronated foot can produce changes in the lower limb kinetic chain. This can affect the gait and increase energy expenditure. However, the relationship between pronated foot and other static alignment factors remains poorly understood. Hence, the objective was to correlate pronated foot with pelvic inclination, femoral anteversion, Q-angle and tibial torsion. Method: An observational study was performed on 60 subjects in the age group of 18-30 years with a BMI of not more than 30. Foot Posture Index was performed on the subjects, and people with a score of +6 or more were selected. Pelvic inclination, femoral anteversion, Q-angle and tibial torsion were measured. Correlation between the Foot Posture Index score and the above four static alignment factors was done using Graph Pad Prism 7 (Pearson’s correlation coefficient and Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Results: There was no significant correlation between Pronated foot and Pelvic inclination (r-value = 0.03309, p-value = 0.8018, Pronated foot and Femoral anteversion (r-value = 0.2185, p-value = 0.0934 Pronated foot and Q-angle (r-value = 0.1801, p-value = 0.1685, Pronated foot and Tibial torsion (r- value = -0.1285, p-value = 0.3277. Conclusion: There is no significant correlation between foot pronation and pelvic inclination, femoral anteversion, Q-angle and tibial torsion. However, the correlation between these factors cannot be completely ignored, and thus, further studies and literature are required to prove the same.

  12. Droplet Depinning on Inclined Surfaces at High Reynolds Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Edward; Singh, Natasha; Lee, Sungyon

    2017-11-01

    Contact angle hysteresis enables a sessile liquid drop to adhere to a solid surface when the surface is inclined, the drop is exposed to gas-phase flow, or the drop is exposed to both forcing modalities. Previous work by Schmucker and White (2012.DFD.M4.6) identified critical depinning Weber numbers for water drops subject to gravity- and wind-dominated forcing. This work extends the Schmucker and White data and finds the critical depinning Weber number obeys a two-slope linear model. Under pure wind forcing at Reynolds numbers above 1500 and with zero surface inclination, Wecrit = 8.0 . For non-zero inclinations, α, Wecrit decreases proportionally to A Bo sinα where A is the drop aspect ratio and Bo is its Bond number. The same relationship holds for α behavior. Supported by the National Science Foundation through Grant CBET-1605947.

  13. Femoral bowing plane adaptation to femoral anteversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Alp; Demirkan, Fahir; Sabir, Nuran; Oto, Murat; Yorukoglu, Cagdas; Kiter, Esat

    2017-01-01

    Femoral bowing plane (FBP) is the unattended subject in the literature. More over the femoral shaft with its bowing is neglected in established anteversion determination methods. There is limited information about the relationship between FBP and anteversion. Thus we focused on this subject and hypothesized that there could be an adaptation of FBP to anteversion. FBP is determined on three-dimensional solid models derived from the left femoral computerized tomography data of 47 patients which were taken before for another reason and comparatively evaluated with anteversion. There were 20 women and 27 men. The mean age of patients was 56 years (range 21-84 years). The anteversion values were found as the angle between a distal condylar axis (DCA) and femoral neck anteversion axis (FNAA) along an imaginary longitudinal femoral axis (LFA) in the true cranio-caudal view. The FBP was determined as a plane that passes through the centre-points of three pre-determinated sections on the femoral shaft. The angles between DCA, FNAA and FBP were comparatively evaluated. The independent samples t -test was used for statistical analysis. At the end, it was found that FBP lies nearly perpendicular to the anteversion axis for the mean of our sample which is around 89° in females and 93° in males (range 78-102°). On the other hand, FBP does not lie close to the sagittal femoral plane (SFP); instead, there is an average 12.5° external rotation relative to the SFP. FBP is correlated well with anteversion in terms of FBP inclination from SFP and femoral torsion (i.e., angle between FBP and femoral neck anteversion axis ( P < 0.001; r = 0.680 and r = -0.682, respectively). Combined correlation is perfect ( R 2 = 1) as the FBP, SFP, and posterior femoral plane forms a triangle in the cranio-caudal view. We found that FBP adapts to anteversion. As FBP lies close to perpendicularity for the mean, femoral component positioning perpendicular to the FBP can be an alternate way in the

  14. Femoral bowing plane adaptation to femoral anteversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alp Akman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Femoral bowing plane (FBP is the unattended subject in the literature. More over the femoral shaft with its bowing is neglected in established anteversion determination methods. There is limited information about the relationship between FBP and anteversion. Thus we focused on this subject and hypothesized that there could be an adaptation of FBP to anteversion. Materials and Methods: FBP is determined on three-dimensional solid models derived from the left femoral computerized tomography data of 47 patients which were taken before for another reason and comparatively evaluated with anteversion. There were 20 women and 27 men. The mean age of patients was 56 years (range 21-84 years. Results: The anteversion values were found as the angle between a distal condylar axis (DCA and femoral neck anteversion axis (FNAA along an imaginary longitudinal femoral axis (LFA in the true cranio-caudal view. The FBP was determined as a plane that passes through the centre-points of three pre-determinated sections on the femoral shaft. The angles between DCA, FNAA and FBP were comparatively evaluated. The independent samples t-test was used for statistical analysis. At the end, it was found that FBP lies nearly perpendicular to the anteversion axis for the mean of our sample which is around 89° in females and 93° in males (range 78-102°. On the other hand, FBP does not lie close to the sagittal femoral plane (SFP; instead, there is an average 12.5° external rotation relative to the SFP. FBP is correlated well with anteversion in terms of FBP inclination from SFP and femoral torsion (i.e., angle between FBP and femoral neck anteversion axis (P0 < 0.001; r = 0.680 and r = −0.682, respectively. Combined correlation is perfect (R[2] = 1 as the FBP, SFP, and posterior femoral plane forms a triangle in the cranio-caudal view. Conclusions: We found that FBP adapts to anteversion. As FBP lies close to perpendicularity for the mean, femoral component

  15. Psychopathic Inclination Among Incarcerated Youth of Hazara Division Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sher Dil

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Present study aimed at evaluating the psychopathic inclination among youth and finding the gender differences in psychopathy. An indigenously developed Psychopathy scale (Urdu has been used in this study. Alpha reliability of the scale was .90. The study was conducted on 100 males (50 criminals and 50 non-criminals and 100 females (26 criminals and 74 non-criminals using a convenient sampling technique from three districts of Hazara division: Haripur, Abbottabad, and Mansehra. Results confirmed that there is significant difference in psychopathic inclination of males and females; criminals differed significantly from the non-criminals. The study also paves way for further investigation in the field in Pakistan.

  16. Entrepreneurial Inclination Among Business Students: A Malaysian Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yet-Mee Lim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship has been the fundamental topics of discussion among the politicians, economists, and academics. Business creation is especially critical in developing countries to stimulate economic growth. The present study attempts to examine entrepreneurial inclination among students who are a potential source of entrepreneurs. The fi ndings of the present research study indicate that majority of our business students are not entrepreneurial-inclined. They do not seem to possess strong entrepreneurial characteristics and entrepreneurial skills, and they are not keen in starting a new business. The roles of higher institutes of education and the government in promoting entrepreneurship are discussed.

  17. The OBS control plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manolova, Anna Vasileva; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2010-01-01

    . The applicability analysis carried out here focuses on the actual feasibility of the integration and the potential trade-offs which appear when two contradicting principles are combined. Taking advantage of the flexibility of the GMPLS control plane does not seem to be as easy and as straightforward as expected....... Thus, more than ten years later not many practical implementations of OBS networks with intelligent control can be found. The lack of active work in the ¯eld results in an incomplete set of proposals which address only few aspects of the integration challenge. Here, we analyze what is missing and why...... the existing solutions seem not to be able to provide the highly desirable strict QoS guarantees for the clients of the OBS networks....

  18. ESTIMATION OF TOTAL SOLAR RADIATION INCIDENT ON AN INCLINED SURFACE OF A SOUTH-FACING GREENHOUSE ROOF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RONOH E.K.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Solar radiation is the driving force for the surface energy balance in buildings such as greenhouses. Greenhouses are generally tilted towards the sun in order to maximize the solar irradiance on the surfaces. Precise computation of the solar radiation received on these surfaces assumes an important role in the energy simulation. It is practical to calculate the total solar irradiance on inclined surfaces based on the solar global and diffuse radiation intensities on horizontal surfaces. This study focused on estimating the total solar radiation incident on inclined greenhouse roof surfaces. In this work, a south-facing thermal box inclined at 26.5° from the horizontal was used for solar radiation measurements. Additionally, recorded solar radiation data were retrieved for the study location and used to develop an empirical correlation. The conversion factors for the beam, the diffuse and the reflected solar radiation components were essential in the prediction of the total solar radiation incident on the tilted surface. The measured solar radiation data were then compared with the simulated data. The model performance was assessed using both graphical and statistical methods. Overall, locally calibrated data led to a satisfactory improvement in estimation of the total solar radiation on an inclined surface.

  19. Radioactivity in the galactic plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walraven, G. D.; Haymes, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reports the detection of a large concentration of interstellar radioactivity during balloon-altitude measurements of gamma-ray energy spectra in the band between 0.02 and 12.27 MeV from galactic and extragalactic sources. Enhanced counting rates were observed in three directions towards the plane of the Galaxy; a power-law energy spectrum is computed for one of these directions (designated B 10). A large statistical deviation from the power law in a 1.0-FWHM interval centered near 1.16 MeV is discussed, and the existence of a nuclear gamma-ray line at 1.15 MeV in B 10 is postulated. It is suggested that Ca-44, which emits gamma radiation at 1.156 MeV following the decay of radioactive Sc-44, is a likely candidate for this line, noting that Sc-44 arises from Ti-44 according to explosive models of supernova nucleosynthesis. The 1.16-MeV line flux inferred from the present data is shown to equal the predicted flux for a supernova at a distance of approximately 3 kpc and an age not exceeding about 100 years.

  20. Transition to turbulence in plane channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biringen, S.; Goglia, G. L.

    1983-01-01

    A numerical simulation of the final stages of transition to turbulence in plane channel flow is reported. Three dimensional, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are numerically integrated to obtain the time-evolution of two and three dimensional finite amplitude disturbances. Computations are performed on the CYBER-203 vector processor for a 32x51x32 grid. Results are presented for no-slip boundary conditions at the solid walls as well as for periodic suction-blowing to simulate active control of transition by mass transfer. Solutions indicate that the method is capable of simulating the complex character of vorticity dynamics during the various stages of transition and final breakdown. In particular, evidence points to the formation of a lambda-shape vortex and the subsequent system of horseshoe vortices inclined to the main flow direction as the main elements of transition. Calculations involving suction-blowing indicate that interference with a wave of suitable phase and amplitude reduces the disturbance growth rates.

  1. Transition to turbulence in plane channel flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biringen, S.

    1984-01-01

    Results obtained from a numerical simulation of the final stages of transition to turbulence in plane channel flow are described. Three dimensional, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are numerically integrated to obtain the time evolution of two and three dimensional finite amplitude disturbances. Computations are performed on CYBER-203 vector processor for a 32x51x32 grid. Results are presented for no-slip boundary conditions at the solid walls as well as for periodic suction blowing to simulate active control of transition by mass transfer. Solutions indicate that the method is capable of simulating the complex character of vorticity dynamics during the various stages of transition and final breakdown. In particular, evidence points to the formation of a lambda-shape vortex and the subsequent system of horseshoe vortices inclined to the main flow direction as the main elements of transition. Calculations involving periodic suction-blowing indicate that interference with a wave of suitable phase and amplitude reduces the disturbance growth rates.

  2. Exploring the Strategic Inclinations of Japanese Environmental NPOs in Post-Fukushima Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Heuer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Following Sine and David’s research on the potential of environmental jolts shifting the status quo in U.S. energy policy, we focus on the potential for environmental non-profit organizations in Japan to shift the status quo through institutional entrepreneurial efforts following the environmental jolt from the Fukushima nuclear power catastrophe. We evaluate the institutionalization of energy policy in Japan both pre- and post-Fukushima as the context for examining the potential for change in Japan’s energy policy. We utilize mixed qualitative and quantitative research methods to evaluate the attitudes and strategic inclinations of privately funded Japanese environmental non-profit organizations. Following Dreiling and Wolf’s model of material–organizational dependencies versus ideological motivations of non-profit organizations, we develop a typology to identify which, if any, segments of environmental Japanese non-profit organizations might pursue institutional entrepreneurial (Levy and Scully opportunities in support of renewable energy policy.

  3. Aqua/Aura Inclination Adjust Maneuver Series Spring 2018 Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenholme, Elena; Boone, Spencer

    2017-01-01

    This will be presented at the International Earth Science Constellation Mission Operations Working Group meeting on December 6-8, 2017 to discuss the Aqua/Aura Spring 2018 Inclination Adjust Maneuver series planning. Presentation has been reviewed and approved by Eric Moyer, ESMO (Earth Science Mission Operations) Deputy Project Manager.

  4. MEASUREMENTS OF DUST EXTINCTION IN HIGHLY INCLINED SPIRAL GALAXIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JANSEN, RA; KNAPEN, JH; BECKMAN, JE; PELETIER, RF; HES, R

    1994-01-01

    We study the extinction properties of dust in the well-defined dust lanes of four highly inclined galaxies, using U-, B-, V-, R- and I-band CCD and J- and K'-band near-infrared array images. For three of these galaxies, we could use the symmetry of the underlying light profile to obtain absolute

  5. The effect of circular bridge piers with different inclination angles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    c Indian Academy of Sciences. The effect of circular bridge piers with different inclination angles toward downstream on scour. MOHAMMAD VAGHEFI1,∗, MASOUD GHODSIAN2 and. SAEID SALIMI3. 1Department of Civil Engineering, Persian Gulf University, Shahid Mahini Street, P.O. Box: 75169-13817,. Bushehr, Iran.

  6. The inter-relationships between angle of inclination, height and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the dependence of number of sprouted teak (Tectona grandis Linn. F) stumps on the height above root collar and angle of inclination of planted teak stumps. The studies were aim-ed at developing suitable methods of converting teak seedlings into stumps and planting practices to ...

  7. Optimization of PV array inclination in India using ANN estimator ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana; Volume 40; Issue 5. Optimization of PV array inclination in India using ANN estimator: Method comparison study ... Although different non-linear, empirical models have been proposed by different researchers in India, they have too many constraints and needs complex and rigorous computational ...

  8. A layered model for inclined pipe flow of settling slurry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoušek, Václav; Krupička, Jan; Kesely, Mikoláš

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 333, June (2018), s. 317-326 ISSN 0032-5910 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-14271S Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : inclined pipe * settling slurry * pressure drop * flow stratification * laboratory loop Impact factor: 2.942, year: 2016

  9. Evidences of inclined transpression at the contact between ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    zone may show different structures or dominance of certain type of structures, depending on whether that part is dominated by strike-slip, dip slip or compression. The present study finds evidences of inclined transpression at the contact between. Udayagiri and Vinjamuru group of NSB, which is the main focus of this paper.

  10. The Canada–France Ecliptic Plane Survey (CFEPS)—High-latitude Component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit, J-M. [Institut UTINAM, CNRS-UMR 6213, Observatoire de Besançon, BP 1615, F-25010 Besançon Cedex (France); Kavelaars, J. J. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Gladman, B. J.; Van Laerhoven, C.; Lawler, S. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 6224 Agricultural Road, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Jones, R. L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Parker, J. Wm.; Bieryla, A. [Planetary Science Directorate, Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Pike, R. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada); Nicholson, P. [Cornell University, Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Ashby, M. L. N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The High Ecliptic Latitude (HiLat) extension of the Canada–France Ecliptic Plane Survey (CFEPS), conducted from 2006 June to 2009 July, discovered a set of Trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) that we report here. The HiLat component was designed to address one of the shortcomings of ecliptic surveys (like CFEPS), their low sensitivity to high-inclination objects. We searched 701 deg{sup 2} of sky ranging from 12° to 85° ecliptic latitude and discovered 24 TNOs, with inclinations between 15° and 104°. This survey places a very strong constraint on the inclination distribution of the hot component of the classical Kuiper Belt, ruling out any possibility of a large intrinsic fraction of highly inclined orbits. Using the parameterization of Brown, the HiLat sample combined with CFEPS imposes a width 14° ≤  σ  ≤ 15.°5, with a best match for σ  = 14.°5. HiLat discovered the first retrograde TNO, 2008 KV{sub 42}, with an almost polar orbit with inclination 104°, and (418993) = 2009 MS{sub 9}, a scattering object with perihelion in the region of Saturn’s influence, with a  ∼ 400 au and i  = 68°.

  11. Effects of High Inclined and Eccentric Disturbers on the Dynamics of the Equator of an Axy-Simmetric Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Tadashi; Frouard, J. H.; Deienno, R.

    2013-05-01

    Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): In this work we consider the rotational long term dynamics of an axy-simmetric body under the action of a high inclined and eccentric disturber. The problem is written in terms of Andoyer canonical variables (L,G,H, l,g,h), with respect to an independent inertial frame. Since A=B (moments of inertia ), the l angle is an ignorable variable, so that spin-orbit resonance is ruled out. Therefore the Hamiltonian can be averaged in the mean anomaly of the orbital motion of the disturber. An extra average is still possible in g as it is a fast Andoyer variable. In order to have a first and rough idea of the real dynamics, the disturber is assumed in a simplified precessing keplerian motion (Henrard & Schwanen, 2004) . Then the Hamiltonian is reduced to a problem of one degree of freedom and the level curves show a gross idea of the basic dynamics. In particular the curves show interesting equilibrium points, some of them are related to Cassini’s second law. Depending on the mass and eccentricity or inclination of the disturber, a strong resonance between h and longitude of the node of the disturber can appear. This resonance can cause interesting variations of the inclination of the plane normal to the angular momentum of the perturbed body. Finally, numerical integrations of the complete averaged problem are performed. In particular, we study the possible cumulative effects of temporary satellites when they orbit their host planet in high inclined and eccentric orbit. These satellites ( planetesimals) might have existed during the planetary migration but due to Lidov-Kozai resonance they should have ejected after some time.

  12. Stability of a flow down an incline with respect to two-dimensional and three-dimensional disturbances for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allouche, M H; Millet, S; Botton, V; Henry, D; Ben Hadid, H; Rousset, F

    2015-12-01

    Squire's theorem, which states that the two-dimensional instabilities are more dangerous than the three-dimensional instabilities, is revisited here for a flow down an incline, making use of numerical stability analysis and Squire relationships when available. For flows down inclined planes, one of these Squire relationships involves the slopes of the inclines. This means that the Reynolds number associated with a two-dimensional wave can be shown to be smaller than that for an oblique wave, but this oblique wave being obtained for a larger slope. Physically speaking, this prevents the possibility to directly compare the thresholds at a given slope. The goal of the paper is then to reach a conclusion about the predominance or not of two-dimensional instabilities at a given slope, which is of practical interest for industrial or environmental applications. For a Newtonian fluid, it is shown that, for a given slope, oblique wave instabilities are never the dominant instabilities. Both the Squire relationships and the particular variations of the two-dimensional wave critical curve with regard to the inclination angle are involved in the proof of this result. For a generalized Newtonian fluid, a similar result can only be obtained for a reduced stability problem where some term connected to the perturbation of viscosity is neglected. For the general stability problem, however, no Squire relationships can be derived and the numerical stability results show that the thresholds for oblique waves can be smaller than the thresholds for two-dimensional waves at a given slope, particularly for large obliquity angles and strong shear-thinning behaviors. The conclusion is then completely different in that case: the dominant instability for a generalized Newtonian fluid flowing down an inclined plane with a given slope can be three dimensional.

  13. Natural convection in inclined hemispherical cavities with isothermal disk and dome faced downwards. Experimental and numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baïri, A.; Monier-Vinard, E.; Laraqi, N.; Baïri, I.; Nguyen, M.N.; Dia, C.T.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work is to propose correlations of Nusselt–Rayleigh type for controlling the thermal state of electronic devices used in various engineering sectors such as thermoregulation of electronic devices, solar energy, aeronautics or safety and security. The assemblies are contained in hemispherical air-filled cavities whose disk is maintained isothermal and inclined at an angle varying between 90° (vertical position) and 180° (disk horizontal with isothermal dome oriented downwards). The numerical approach performed by means of the finite volume method for Rayleigh numbers varying between 10 4 and 5 × 10 8 is validated by measurements for various combinations of inclination angle and Rayleigh number. The results of this work show that the natural convective heat transfer are between 13% and 21% higher when the disk is maintained isothermal as compared to the case corresponding to imposed heat flux on the disk, for the same inclination angle and Rayleigh ranges. - Highlights: • Quantification of steady state natural convective heat transfer. • Nu–Ra correlations for large Ra range and Dirichlet-type boundary condition. • Hemispherical air-filled inclined enclosure with dome oriented downwards. • Thermal control of electronic devices for engineering applications. • Experimental and numerical approaches

  14. Studi Numerik Pengaruh Baffle Inclination Pada Alat Penukar Kalor Tipe Shell And Tube Terhadap Aliran Fluida Dan Perpindahan Panas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezky Fadil Arnaw

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Heat exchanger atau alat penukar kalor merupakan suatu peralatan yang digunakan untuk memindahkan sejumlah energi dalam bentuk panas dari satu fluida ke fluida yang lain. Perpindahan panas tersebut terjadi dari suatu fluida yang suhunya lebih tinggi ke fluida lain yang suhunya lebih rendah. Pada tugas akhir ini akan dilakukan penelitian tentang pengaruh baffle inclination terhadap aliran fluida dan perpindahan panas pada alat penukar kalor tipe shell and tube. Dalam penelitian ini akan dilakukan tiga variasi sudut baffle inclination yaitu 0º, 10° dan 20° dengan besar laju aliran massa yang divariasikan yaitu sebesar 0.5 kg/s, 1 kg/s dan 2 kg/s. Tipe baffle yang digunakan adalah single segmental baffle dengan baffle cut sebesar 36% dan menggunakan arah aliran jenis parallel. Hasil analisa simulasi menunjukkan bahwa laju aliran massa yang meningkat akan menyebabkan kenaikan pressure drop yang cukup drastis dan penurunan temperatur outlet. Alat penukar kalor dengan baffle inclination 0° memiliki nilai perpindahan panas terbaik jika dibandingkan dengan baffle inclination 10° dan 20°.

  15. The role of incline, performance level and gender on the gross mechanical efficiency of roller ski skating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvind eSandbakk

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability to efficiently utilize metabolic energy to produce work is a key factor for endurance performance. The present study investigated the effects of incline, performance level and gender on the gross mechanical efficiency during roller ski skating. Thirty-one male and nineteen female elite cross-country skiers performed a 5-min submaximal session at approximately 75% of VO2peak on a 5% inclined treadmill using the G3 skating technique. Thereafter, a 5-min session on a 12% incline using the G2 skating technique was performed at a similar work rate. Gross efficiency was calculated as the external work rate against rolling friction and gravity divided by the metabolic rate using gas exchange. Performance level was determined by the amount of skating FIS points (the Federation of International Skiing approved scoring system for ski racing where fewer points indicate a higher performance level. Strong significant correlations between work rate and metabolic rate within both inclines and gender were revealed (r=-0.89-0.98 and P

  16. An inverse analysis of weak structural plane parameters for a limestone foundation pit based on critical stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    yan, LIU Jun; hua, SONG Xiang; Yan, LIU

    2017-11-01

    The article uses the Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua in 3 Dimensions (FLAC3D) to make an analysis of the deformation characteristics of the structural plane, which is based on a real rock foundation pit in Jinan city. It makes an inverse analysis of the strength of the surface structure and the occurrence of the parameters by Mohr-Coulomb strength criterion value criterion in the way of numerical simulation, which explores the change of stress field of x-z oblique section of pit wall and the relation between the exposed height of structural plane and the critical cohesion, the exposed height and critical inclination angle of the structure surface. We can find that when the foundation pit is in the critical stable state and the inclination angle of the structural plane is constant, the critical cohesive force of the structural plane increases with the increase of the exposed surface height. And when the foundation pit in the critical stability of the situation and the structural surface of the cohesive force is constant, the structural surface exposed height increases and the structural angle of inclination is declining. The conclusion can provide theoretical basis for the design and construction of the rock foundation pit with structural plane.

  17. Deontological and utilitarian inclinations in moral decision making: a process dissociation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Paul; Gawronski, Bertram

    2013-02-01

    Dual-process theories of moral judgment suggest that responses to moral dilemmas are guided by two moral principles: the principle of deontology states that the morality of an action depends on the intrinsic nature of the action (e.g., harming others is wrong regardless of its consequences); the principle of utilitarianism implies that the morality of an action is determined by its consequences (e.g., harming others is acceptable if it increases the well-being of a greater number of people). Despite the proposed independence of the moral inclinations reflecting these principles, previous work has relied on operationalizations in which stronger inclinations of one kind imply weaker inclinations of the other kind. The current research applied Jacoby's (1991) process dissociation procedure to independently quantify the strength of deontological and utilitarian inclinations within individuals. Study 1 confirmed the usefulness of process dissociation for capturing individual differences in deontological and utilitarian inclinations, revealing positive correlations of both inclinations to moral identity. Moreover, deontological inclinations were uniquely related to empathic concern, perspective-taking, and religiosity, whereas utilitarian inclinations were uniquely related to need for cognition. Study 2 demonstrated that cognitive load selectively reduced utilitarian inclinations, with deontological inclinations being unaffected. In Study 3, a manipulation designed to enhance empathy increased deontological inclinations, with utilitarian inclinations being unaffected. These findings provide evidence for the independent contributions of deontological and utilitarian inclinations to moral judgments, resolving many theoretical ambiguities implied by previous research. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. A measurement of the muon number in showers using inclined events detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez G.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The average muon content of measured showers with zenith angles between 62∘ and 80∘ detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory is obtained as a function of shower energy using a reconstruction method specifically designed for inclined showers and the hybrid character of the detector. The reconstruction of inclined showers relies on a comparison between the measured signals at ground and reference patterns at ground level from which an overall normalization factor is obtained. Since inclined showers are dominated by muons this factor gives the relative muon size. It can be calibrated using a subsample of showers simultaneously recorded with the fluorescence detector (FD and the surface detector (SD which provides an independent calorimetric measurement of the energy. The muon size obtained for each shower becomes a measurement of the relative number of muons with respect to the reference distributions. The precision of the measurement is assessed using simulated events which are reconstructed using exactly the same procedure. We compare the relative number of muons versus energy as obtained to simulations. Proton simulations with QGSJETII show a factor of 2.13 ± 0.04(stat ± 0.11(sys at 1019eV without significant variations in the energy range explored between 4 × 1018eV to 7 × 1019eV. We find that none of the current shower models, neither for proton nor for iron primaries, are able to predict as many muons as are observed.

  19. An experimental investigation of stratified two-phase pipe flow at small inclinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espedal, Mikal

    1998-12-31

    The prediction of stratified flow is important for several industrial applications. Stratified flow experiments were carefully performed in order to investigate the performance of a typical model which uses wall friction factors based on single phase pipe flow as described above. The test facility has a 18.5 m long and 60 mm i.d. (L/D=300) acrylic test section which can be inclined between -10 {sup o} and +10 {sup o}. The liquid holdup was measured by using fast closing valves and the pressure gradients by using three differential pressure transducers. Interfacial waves were measured by thin wire conductance probes mounted in a plane perpendicular to the main flow. The experiments were performed using water and air at atmospheric pressure. The selected test section inclinations were between -3 {sup o} and +0.5 {sup o} to the horizontal plane. A large number of experiments were performed for different combinations of air and water flow rates and the rates were limited to avoid slug flow and stratified flow with liquid droplets. The pressure gradient and the liquid holdup were measured. In addition the wave probes were used to find the wave heights and the wave power spectra. The results show that the predicted pressure gradient using the standard models is approximately 30% lower than the measured value when large amplitude waves are present. When the flow is driven by the interfacial force the test section inclination has minor influence on the deviation between predicted and measured pressure gradients. Similar trends are apparent in data from the literature, although they seem to have gone unnoticed. For several data sets large spread in the predictions are observed when the model described above was used. Gas wall shear stress experiments indicate that the main cause of the deviation between measured and predicted pressure gradient and holdup resides in the modelling of the liquid wall friction term. Measurements of the liquid wall shear stress distribution

  20. Rotating Convection in F-Planes: Mean Flow and Reynolds Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kwing L.

    2001-02-01

    We study turbulent compressible convection under the influence of rotation in an f-plane configuration using numerical simulation. Our focus is on the behaviors of the mean flows and the Reynolds stress. A parametric study is conducted, using 36 computed cases with different energy fluxes, rotation rates (Ω), and inclinations of the rotation vector. The flux varies over a factor of 8; the Coriolis number ranges from 0 to approximately 7; the inclination of the rotation vector covers the range from 0 (at the pole) to π/2 (at the equator). The coverage of this piece of parameter space is rather full and dense, so that we do not need to base our discussions on extrapolations of sparsely distributed cases. Special attention is paid to obtaining statistical convergence of the Reynolds stress, a very slow process that consumes much computer time. The numerical results show that: (1) Even though the properties of the convection zones are different (efficient versus inefficient convection), the behavior of our cases has considerable similarity to that of the turbulent cases explored by Brummell et al. (2) Between the two studies, the most significant difference in flow behavior occurs in the mean zonal velocity at low Rossby numbers. While Brummell et al. found a ``constant-with-depth profile in the bulk of the layer'' (and two ``boundary layers''), we find that the profile develops a prominent retrograde dip at the top of the convection zone. (3) We offer an explanation for the dip based on the vertical distribution of the vertical-meridional component of the Reynolds stress. This may have relevance for understanding the radial drop of the solar angular velocity near the Sun's surface. (4) When the rotation vector is perpendicular to the vertical direction (at the equator), the behavior of the system undergoes a qualitative jump from those with other rotation vector inclinations. A shear with a strain rate of -2Ω develops in the mean zonal velocity, independent of the

  1. A theoretical and numerical study of the flow of granular materials down an inclined plane. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajagopal, K.R.

    1995-12-31

    The mechanics of the flowing granular materials such as coal, agricultural products, at deal of attention as it has fertilizers, dry chemicals, metal ores, etc. have received a great deal of attention as it has relevance to several important technological problems. Despite wide interest and more than five decades of experimental and theoretical investigations, most aspects of the behavior of flowing granular materials are still not well understood. So Experiments have to be devised which quantify and describe the non-linear behavior of the modular materials, and theories developed which can explain the experimentally observed facts. As many models have been suggested for describing the behavior of granular materials, from both continuum and kinetic theory viewpoints, we proposed to investigate the validity and usefulness of representative models from both the continuum and kinetic theory points of view, by determining the prediction of such a theory, in a representative flow, with respect to existence, non-existence, multiplicity and stability of solutions. The continuum model to be investigated is an outgrowth of a model due to Goodman and Cowin (1971, 1972) and the kinetic theory models being those due to Jenkins and Richman (1985) and Boyle and Massoudi (1989). In this report we present detailed results regarding the same. Interestingly, we find that the predictions of all the theories, in certain parameter space associated with these models, are qualitatively similar. This ofcourse depends on the values assumed for various material parameters in the models, which as yet are unknown, as reliable experiments have not been carried out as yet for their determination.

  2. Calibration of the inclined contour planes formed on ESPI and optimization of ESPI optical system for contouring

    OpenAIRE

    Diao, Hongyan; Zou, Yunlu; Peng, Xiang; Tiziani, Hans J.; Chen, L.

    1992-01-01

    Es wird eine neue Konturing-Methode mit einer elektronischen Zweiwellenlängen-Speckle-Interferometrie (TWESPI) vorgeschlagen, bei der zwei Beleuchtungsstrahlen verwendet werden. Die optisch rauhe Oberfläche wird bei einer synthetischen längeren equivalenten Wellenlänge vermessen, so daß durch die Änderung der Wellenlängen eine variable Meßempfindlichkeit erhalten werden kann. Dadurch erweitert diese Technik den Meßbereich der Einwellen-Speckle-Interferometrie und erlaubt die Messung von Kontu...

  3. Study of structure and dynamics of shielding layer for inclined incidence of plasma stream at MK-200 facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkhipov, N.I. [Troitsk Inst. for Innovation and Fusion Res. (Russian Federation); Bakhtin, V.P. [Troitsk Inst. for Innovation and Fusion Res. (Russian Federation); Kurkin, S.M. [Troitsk Inst. for Innovation and Fusion Res. (Russian Federation); Safronov, V.M. [Troitsk Inst. for Innovation and Fusion Res. (Russian Federation); Toporkov, D.A. [Troitsk Inst. for Innovation and Fusion Res. (Russian Federation); Vasenin, S.G. [Troitsk Inst. for Innovation and Fusion Res. (Russian Federation); Wuerz, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Zhitlukhin, A.M. [Troitsk Inst. for Innovation and Fusion Res. (Russian Federation)

    1996-10-01

    Results of the first disruption simulation experiment under plasma stream power density of 30-40 MW/cm{sup 2} are presented. POCO and RGT graphite were exposed to perpendicular and inclined incidence of hydrogen plasma stream with energy density up to 1.4 kJ/cm{sup 2}, directed ion energy of 2-3 keV in the presence of magnetic field up to 3.3 T. Optical interferometry and soft X-ray spectroscopy were employed for analysis of target plasma. Contrary to well studied perpendicular plasma impact the inclined plasma incidence results in a drift of target plasma along the sample surface. This restricts the plasma shield effect and increases the erosion rate. (orig.).

  4. Spectrum of 100-kyr glacial cycle: orbital inclination, not eccentricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, R A; MacDonald, G J

    1997-08-05

    Spectral analysis of climate data shows a strong narrow peak with period approximately 100 kyr, attributed by the Milankovitch theory to changes in the eccentricity of the earth's orbit. The narrowness of the peak does suggest an astronomical origin; however the shape of the peak is incompatible with both linear and nonlinear models that attribute the cycle to eccentricity or (equivalently) to the envelope of the precession. In contrast, the orbital inclination parameter gives a good match to both the spectrum and bispectrum of the climate data. Extraterrestrial accretion from meteoroids or interplanetary dust is proposed as a mechanism that could link inclination to climate, and experimental tests are described that could prove or disprove this hypothesis.

  5. Entrepreneurial Inclination Among Business Students: A Malaysian Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yet-Mee Lim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Entrepreneurship has been the fundamental topics of discussion among the politicians, economists, and academics. Business creation is especially critical in developing countries to stimulate economic growth. The present study attempts to examine entrepreneurial inclination among students who are a potential source of entrepreneurs. The fi ndings of the present research study indicate that majority of our business students are not entrepreneurial-inclined. They do not seem to possess strong entrepreneurial characteristics and entrepreneurial skills, and they are not keen in starting a new business. The roles of higher institutes of education and the government in promoting entrepreneurship are discussed.

  6. Microfiber inclination, crystallinity, and water wettability of microfibrous thin-film substrates of Parylene C in relation to the direction of the monomer vapor during fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chindam, Chandraprakash; Wonderling, Nichole M.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Awadelkarim, Osama O.; Orfali, Wasim

    2015-08-01

    We experimentally determined the inclination of microfibers, crystallinity, and the water wettability of columnar microfibrous thin-film substrates (μFTFS) of Parylene C fabricated using a variant of conventional chemical vapor deposition, wherein a collimated vapor of reactive monomers is obliquely directed towards a planar wafer in a low-pressure chamber. The independent variable was the monomer deposition angle χv, which is the angle between the direction of the collimated vapor and the wafer plane. The dependence of the microfiber inclination angle χ on χv can be classified into four χv-regimes of two different types, and is reminiscent of the conversion of continuous rotation into intermittent rotary motion by a gear mechanism. X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments indicate that the columnar μFTFS contain three crystal planes not evident in bulk Parylene-C films, the columnar μFTFS are less crystalline than bulk Parylene-C films, and the crystallinity of the columnar μFTFS reflects the four χv-regimes. Identical resonance frequencies in infrared absorbance spectra revealed that the atomic bonding is the same for all monomer deposition angles. The static hydrophobicity is more pronounced in the morphologically significant plane (MSP) of a columnar μFTFS than in the vertical plane orthogonal to the MSP, but the upper and lower limits of static hydrophobicity are almost isotropic. Both the static hydrophobicity as well as water adhesion can be maximized by a proper choice of χv.

  7. Aqua/Aura Updated Inclination Adjust Maneuver Performance Prediction Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Spencer

    2017-01-01

    This presentation will discuss the updated Inclination Adjust Maneuver (IAM) performance prediction model that was developed for Aqua and Aura following the 2017 IAM series. This updated model uses statistical regression methods to identify potential long-term trends in maneuver parameters, yielding improved predictions when re-planning past maneuvers. The presentation has been reviewed and approved by Eric Moyer, ESMO Deputy Project Manager.

  8. Graphs and matroids weighted in a bounded incline algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ling-Xia; Zhang, Bei

    2014-01-01

    Firstly, for a graph weighted in a bounded incline algebra (or called a dioid), a longest path problem (LPP, for short) is presented, which can be considered the uniform approach to the famous shortest path problem, the widest path problem, and the most reliable path problem. The solutions for LPP and related algorithms are given. Secondly, for a matroid weighted in a linear matroid, the maximum independent set problem is studied.

  9. Drop impact and rebound dynamics on an inclined superhydrophobic surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeong, Yong Han; Burton, James; Loth, Eric; Bayer, Ilker S

    2014-10-14

    Due to its potential in water-repelling applications, the impact and rebound dynamics of a water drop impinging perpendicular to a horizontal superhydrophobic surface have undergone extensive study. However, drops tend to strike a surface at an angle in applications. In such cases, the physics governing the effects of oblique impact are not well studied or understood. Therefore, the objective of this study was to conduct an experiment to investigate the impact and rebound dynamics of a drop at various liquid viscosities, in an isothermal environment, and on a nanocomposite superhydrophobic surface at normal and oblique impact conditions (tilted at 15°, 30°, 45°, and 60°). This study considered drops falling from various heights to create normal impact Weber numbers ranging from 6 to 110. In addition, drop viscosity was varied by decreasing the temperature for water drops and by utilizing water-glycerol mixtures, which have similar surface tension to water but higher viscosities. Results revealed that oblique and normal drop impact behaved similarly (in terms of maximum drop spread as well as rebound dynamics) at low normal Weber numbers. However, at higher Weber numbers, normal and oblique impact results diverged in terms of maximum spread, which could be related to asymmetry and more complex outcomes. These asymmetry effects became more pronounced as the inclination angle increased, to the point where they dominated the drop impact and rebound characteristics when the surface was inclined at 60°. The drop rebound characteristics on inclined surfaces could be classified into eight different outcomes driven primarily by normal Weber number and drop Ohnesorge numbers. However, it was found that these outcomes were also a function of the receding contact angle, whereby reduced receding angles yielded tail-like structures. Nevertheless, the contact times of the drops with the coating were found to be generally independent of surface inclination.

  10. Two Mechanisms of Sensorimotor Set Adaptation to Inclined Stance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Hyun Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Orientation of posture relative to the environment depends on the contributions from the somatosensory, vestibular, and visual systems mixed in varying proportions to produce a sensorimotor set. Here, we probed the sensorimotor set composition using a postural adaptation task in which healthy adults stood on an inclined surface for 3 min. Upon returning to a horizontal surface, participants displayed a range of postural orientations – from an aftereffect that consisted of a large forward postural lean to an upright stance with little or no aftereffect. It has been hypothesized that the post-incline postural change depends on each individual’s sensorimotor set: whether the set was dominated by the somatosensory or vestibular system: Somatosensory dominance would cause the lean aftereffect whereas vestibular dominance should steer stance posture toward upright orientation. We investigated the individuals who displayed somatosensory dominance by manipulating their attention to spatial orientation. We introduced a distraction condition in which subjects concurrently performed a difficult arithmetic subtraction task. This manipulation altered the time course of their post-incline aftereffect. When not distracted, participants returned to upright stance within the 3-min period. However, they continued leaning forward when distracted. These results suggest that the mechanism of sensorimotor set adaptation to inclined stance comprises at least two components. The first component reflects the dominant contribution from the somatosensory system. Since the postural lean was observed among these subjects even when they were not distracted, it suggests that the aftereffect is difficult to overcome. The second component includes a covert attentional component which manifests as the dissipation of the aftereffect and the return of posture to upright orientation.

  11. Determination of angle of inclination for optimum power production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates the performance of the photovoltaic modules at different tilt angle (angle of inclination) from 5º to 90º. The solar panel of 45 Watts capacity was placed on the manual tracker between the hours of 7:00am and 6:15pm on the geographical location of latitude of 40 55' 58” North and longitude of 60 59' 55” ...

  12. Stability of satellite planes in M31 II: effects of the dark subhalo population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Nuwanthika; Arias, Veronica; Lewis, Geraint F.; Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Power, Chris

    2018-01-01

    The planar arrangement of nearly half the satellite galaxies of M31 has been a source of mystery and speculation since it was discovered. With a growing number of other host galaxies showing these satellite galaxy planes, their stability and longevity have become central to the debate on whether the presence of satellite planes are a natural consequence of prevailing cosmological models, or represent a challenge. Given the dependence of their stability on host halo shape, we look into how a galaxy plane's dark matter environment influences its longevity. An increased number of dark matter subhaloes results in increased interactions that hasten the deterioration of an already-formed plane of satellite galaxies in spherical dark haloes. The role of total dark matter mass fraction held in subhaloes in dispersing a plane of galaxies presents non-trivial effects on plane longevity as well. But any misalignment of plane inclines to major axes of flattened dark matter haloes lead to their lifetimes being reduced to ≤3 Gyr. Distributing ≥40 per cent of total dark mass in subhaloes in the overall dark matter distribution results in a plane of satellite galaxies which is prone to change through the 5-Gyr integration time period.

  13. Inclined Fiber Pullout from a Cementitious Matrix: A Numerical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that fibers improve the performance of cementitious composites by acting as bridging ligaments in cracks. Such bridging behavior is often studied through fiber pullout tests. The relation between the pullout force vs. slip end displacement is characteristic of the fiber-matrix interface. However, such a relation varies significantly with the fiber inclination angle. In the current work, we establish a numerical model to simulate the entire pullout process by explicitly representing the fiber, matrix and the interface for arbitrary fiber orientations. Cohesive elements endorsed with mixed-mode fracture capacities are implemented to represent the bond-slip behavior at the interface. Contact elements with Coulomb’s friction are placed at the interface to simulate frictional contact. The bond-slip behavior is first calibrated through pull-out curves for fibers aligned with the loading direction, then validated against experimental results for steel fibers oriented at 30 ∘ and 60 ∘ . Parametric studies are then performed to explore the influences of both material properties (fiber yield strength, matrix tensile strength, interfacial bond and geometric factors (fiber diameter, embedment length and inclination angle on the overall pullout behavior, in particular on the maximum pullout load. The proposed methodology provides the necessary pull-out curves for a fiber oriented at a given angle for multi-scale models to study fracture in fiber-reinforced cementitious materials. The novelty lies in its capacity to capture the entire pullout process for a fiber with an arbitrary inclination angle.

  14. Multi-modal vibration amplitudes of taut inclined cables due to direct and/or parametric excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, J. H. G.

    2016-02-01

    Cables are often prone to potentially damaging large amplitude vibrations. The dynamic excitation may be from external loading or motion of the cable ends, the latter including direct excitation, normally from components of end motion transverse to the cable, and parametric excitation induced by axial components of end motion causing dynamic tension variations. Geometric nonlinearity can be important, causing stiffening behaviour and nonlinear modal coupling. Previous analyses of the vibrations, often neglecting sag, have generally dealt with direct and parametric excitation separately or have reverted to numerical solutions of the responses. Here a nonlinear cable model is adopted, applicable to taut cables such as on cable-stayed bridges, that allows for cable inclination, small sag (such that the vibration modes are similar to those of a taut string), multiple modes in both planes and end motion and/or external forcing close to any natural frequency. Based on the method of scaling and averaging it is found that, for sinusoidal inputs and positive damping, non-zero steady state responses can only occur in the modes in each plane with natural frequencies close to the excitation frequency and those with natural frequencies close to half this frequency. Analytical solutions, in the form of non-dimensional polynomial equations, are derived for the steady state vibration amplitudes in up to three modes simultaneously: the directly excited mode, the corresponding nonlinearly coupled mode in the orthogonal plane and a parametrically excited mode with half the natural frequency. The stability of the solutions is also identified. The outputs of the equations are consistent with previous results, where available. Example results from the analytical solutions are presented for a typical inclined bridge cable subject to vertical excitation of the lower end, and they are validated by numerical integration of the equations of motion and against some previous experimental

  15. Properties of light transition radiation of 660 MeV proton inclined incidence (γ=1.7) on a thick nickel plate. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zrelov, V.P.; Pavlovic, P.; Ruzicka, J.

    1975-01-01

    The basic properties of transition radiation in the visible fraction of the spectrum have been calculated for 660 MeV protons (γ=1.7) obliquely incident on a thick nickel plate in vacuum. The angular distributions of the summary radiation (i.e. the sums of radiations of various polarizations) both 'forward' and 'backward' for different azimuthal planes are presented in tables and diagrams for different particle inclination angles to the separation boundary. The examples of angular distributions of radiation having various polarizations (at the inclination angle of 45 0 ) show that they differ considerably. The spectra of summary radiation are of a monotonous character. The calculations have shown that in a relativistic case the forward radiation is concentrated near the direction of particle motion and backward radiation moves in an opposite direction with respect to that of the particle inclination. The dependence of the total yield of forward and backward transition radiations upon the particle inclination angle is approximately cos 2 psi. (Auth.)

  16. An analysis of the stratified and nonstartified flow transition criterion in horizontal/inclined pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Chang Kyung

    1996-02-01

    The present studies are developed to present the two-step approach which is used in extending the phase-plane method and the hyperbolicity breaking concept for instability analyses of one-dimensional two-phase flow equations to the derivations of the new criterion for the stratified and non-stratified flow transition (e.g., onset of slugging), the critical flow condition criterion, and the flooding criterion. In the first step, more general forms for the onset of slugging criterion, the critical flow condition criterion, and the flooding criterion are derived based on the nonlinear analysis: more specifically, analyses of the phase-plane method and hyperbolicity breaking concept of the 'inflected nodes' (neutral stability conditions) and 'parallel lines' in the topological patterns of the linear system obtained from the transient one-dimensional two-phase flow equations of a two-fluid model. In the second step, through the introduction of simplifications and incorporation of a parameter (at the onset of slugging criterion) or an empirical constant (at the flooding criterion) into the general expression derived in the first step to satisfy a number of physical conditions a priori specified, new criteria for the onset of slugging and the onset of flooding have been derived. Validation of the present stratified and non-stratified flow transition criterion is achieved by comparison with the existing analytical criteria (Taitel and Dukler model and one-dimensional wave model) and experimental data from large test facilities (IFP, SINTEF, Harwell, Creare/PRC, ROSA and UPTF). The result of the validation shows good agreement at large pipe diameters and at high gas velocities. Present studies have revealed that the two-phase density ratio and pipe inclination angle are very important parameters that should be handled properly to determine the flow regime boundary correctly. Comparison between the present critical flow condition criterion with Gardner's critical flow

  17. Radiation effect on the mixed convection flow of a viscoelastic fluid along an inclined stretching sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qasim, Muhammad [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Mathematics; Hayat, Tasawar [Quaid-i-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Mathematics; Obaidat, Saleem [King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Mathematics

    2012-03-15

    This study concentrates on the heat transfer analysis of the steady flow of viscoelastic fluid along an inclined stretching surface. Analysis has been carried out in the presence of thermal radiation and the Rosseland approximation is used to describe the radiative heat flux in the energy equation. The equations of continuity, momentum and energy are reduced into the system of governing differential equations and solved by homotopy analysis method (HAM). The velocity and temperature are illustrated through graphs. Exact and homotopy solutions are compared in a limiting sense. It is noticed that viscoelastic parameter decreases the velocity and boundary layer thickness. It is also observed that increasing values of viscoelastic parameter reduces the thickness of momentum boundary layer and increase the heat transfer rate. However, it is found that increasing the radiation parameter has the effect of decreasing the local Nusselt number. (orig.)

  18. Suicide plane crash against nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, A.

    2002-01-01

    Cea (French atomic energy commission) and EDF (Electricity of France) are reassessing their safety standards concerning suicide plane attacks against nuclear facilities. The general idea is to study the non-linear behaviour of reinforced concrete in case of mechanical impact. American studies carried out in 1988 show that a F-14 phantom crashing into a 3,6 meter thick wall at a speed of 774 km/h penetrates only the first 5 cm of the wall. More recent studies performed in Germany and based on computerized simulations show that the reactor containment can sustain impacts from a F15 plane or even from a 747-Boeing but contiguous buildings like the one which houses spent fuels might be more easily damaged because of their metal roofing. (A.C.)

  19. Electric field effects on the dynamics of bubble detachment from an inclined surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Marco, P; Morganti, N; Saccone, G

    2015-01-01

    An experimental apparatus to study bubble detachment from an inclined surface under the action of electric forces is described. It consists of a container filled with FC72 at room temperature and pressure where a train of gas bubbles is injected from an orifice. An electrostatic field can be imposed around the bubble, while the cell can be tilted from 0 to 90°. It is possible to study interface growth with the aid of high-speed cinematography. Since the interface is asymmetrical, a mirror system allowed to acquire, in the same frame, two images at 90° of the bubble. Different inclinations, injection rates and voltages were tested in order to couple the effects of shear gravity and electric field. Curvature and contact angles have been derived with appropriate interpolation methods of the profile. Force balances on the bubble were checked, finding an electric force, which, at first pulls the bubbles from the orifice, then pushes it against the surface. The motion of the center of gravity confirms this behaviour. A power balance has been developed to determine the energy contributions, revealing that surface growth incorporates both the effects of inlet power and electric field. (paper)

  20. Mixed convection in inclined lid driven cavity by Lattice Boltzmann Method and heat flux boundary condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Orazio, A; Karimipour, A; Nezhad, A H; Shirani, E

    2014-01-01

    Laminar mixed convective heat transfer in two-dimensional rectangular inclined driven cavity is studied numerically by means of a double population thermal Lattice Boltzmann method. Through the top moving lid the heat flux enters the cavity whereas it leaves the system through the bottom wall; side walls are adiabatic. The counter-slip internal energy density boundary condition, able to simulate an imposed non zero heat flux at the wall, is applied, in order to demonstrate that it can be effectively used to simulate heat transfer phenomena also in case of moving walls. Results are analyzed over a range of the Richardson numbers and tilting angles of the enclosure, encompassing the dominating forced convection, mixed convection, and dominating natural convection flow regimes. As expected, heat transfer rate increases as increases the inclination angle, but this effect is significant for higher Richardson numbers, when buoyancy forces dominate the problem; for horizontal cavity, average Nusselt number decreases with the increase of Richardson number because of the stratified field configuration

  1. A couple stress fluid modeling on free convection oscillatory hydromagnetic flow in an inclined rotating channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahin Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses analytically on the oscillatory hydromagnetic flow of a viscous, incompressible, electrically-conducting, non-Newtonian fluid in an inclined, rotating channel with non-conducting walls, incorporating couple stress effects. The model is then non-dimensionalized with appropriate variables and shown to be controlled by the inverse Ekman number (K2 = 1/Ek, the hydromagnetic body force parameter (M, channel inclination (α, Grashof number (Gr, Prandtl number (Pr, oscillation frequency (ω and time variable (ωT. Analytical solutions are derived using complex variables. Excellent agreement is obtained between both previous and present work. The influence of the governing parameters on the primary velocity, secondary velocity, temperature (θ, primary and secondary flow discharges per unit depth in the channel, and frictional shear stresses due to primary and secondary flow, is studied graphically and using tables. Applications of the study arise in the simulation of the manufacture of electrically-conducting polymeric liquids and hydromagnetic energy systems exploiting rheological working fluids.

  2. Differential Quadrature Method Based Study of Vibrational Behaviour of Inclined Edge Cracked Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Shivani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of vibration behaviour of cracked system is an important area of research. In the present work we present a mathematical model to study the effect of inclination, location and size of the crack on the vibrational behavior of beam with different boundary conditions. The model is based on the assumption that the equivalent flexible rigidity of the cracked beam can be written in terms of the flexible rigidity of the uncracked beam, based on the energy approach as proposed by earlier researchers. In the present work the Differential Quadrature Method (DQM is used to solve equation of motion derived by using Euler’s beam theory. The primary interest of the paper is to study the effect of inclined crack on natural frequency. We have also studied the beam vibration with and without vertical edge crack as a special case to validate the model. The DQM results for the natural frequencies of cracked beams agree well with other literature values and ANSYS solutions.

  3. Inclined Pulsar Magnetospheres in General Relativity: Polar Caps for the Dipole, Quadrudipole, and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gralla, Samuel E.; Lupsasca, Alexandru; Philippov, Alexander

    2017-12-01

    In the canonical model of a pulsar, rotational energy is transmitted through the surrounding plasma via two electrical circuits, each connecting to the star over a small region known as a “polar cap.” For a dipole-magnetized star, the polar caps coincide with the magnetic poles (hence the name), but in general, they can occur at any place and take any shape. In light of their crucial importance to most models of pulsar emission (from radio to X-ray to wind), we develop a general technique for determining polar cap properties. We consider a perfectly conducting star surrounded by a force-free magnetosphere and include the effects of general relativity. Using a combined numerical-analytical technique that leverages the rotation rate as a small parameter, we derive a general analytic formula for the polar cap shape and charge-current distribution as a function of the stellar mass, radius, rotation rate, moment of inertia, and magnetic field. We present results for dipole and quadrudipole fields (superposed dipole and quadrupole) inclined relative to the axis of rotation. The inclined dipole polar cap results are the first to include general relativity, and they confirm its essential role in the pulsar problem. The quadrudipole pulsar illustrates the phenomenon of thin annular polar caps. More generally, our method lays a foundation for detailed modeling of pulsar emission with realistic magnetic fields.

  4. Molar heights and incisor inclinations in adults with Class II and Class III skeletal open-bite malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriola-Guillén, Luis Ernesto; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this research was to compare maxillary and mandibular molar heights and incisor inclinations in patients with skeletal open-bite Class II, patients with skeletal open-bite Class III, and an untreated control group. Pretreatment lateral cephalograms of 70 orthodontic patients (34 men, 36 women) between 16 and 40 years of age were examined. The sample was divided into 3 groups according to facial growth pattern and overbite. The control group (n = 25) included normodivergent Class I subjects with adequate overbite; the skeletal open-bite Class II group (n = 25) and the skeletal open-bite Class III group (n = 20) included hyperdivergent Class II or Class III subjects with negative overbite. Measurements considered were ANB angle, palatal and mandibular plane angles, maxillary incisor palatal plane angulation, and mandibular incisor mandibular plane angulation, as well as the distance from the palatal or the mandibular plane to the mesial cusp of the molars. Multivariate analysis of covariance and multivariate analysis of variance tests were used to determine the differences between the groups, followed by the Tukey post-hoc test. Additionally, the Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskall-Wallis test were performed. Significant differences in molar height were found (P open-bite and control groups was found. Mandibular molar height was greater in the skeletal open-bite Class II group (P open-bite Class III group by approximately 6°. Mandibular incisor to mandibular plane angulation was 10° more lingual in the skeletal open-bite Class III group (P open-bite groups had greater molar heights than did the control group. The skeletal open-bite Class II group had more eruption of the mandibular molars. The maxillary incisors were more proclined and the mandibular incisors were more lingual in the skeletal open-bite Class III group. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Modelling of subcritical free-surface flow over an inclined backward-facing step in a water channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šulc Jan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with the experimental and numerical modelling of subcritical turbulent flow in an open channel with an inclined backward-facing step. The step with the inclination angle α = 20° was placed in the water channel of the cross-section 200×200 mm. Experiments were carried out by means of the PIV and LDA measuring techniques. Numerical simulations were executed by means of the commercial software ANSYS CFX 12.0. Numerical results obtained for twoequation models and EARSM turbulence model completed by transport equations for turbulent energy and specific dissipation rate were compared with experimental data. The modelling was concentrated particularly on the development of the flow separation and on the corresponding changes of free surface.

  6. Flame spread over inclined electrical wires with AC electric fields

    KAUST Repository

    Lim, Seung J.

    2017-07-21

    Flame spread over polyethylene-insulated electrical wires was studied experimentally with applied alternating current (AC) by varying the inclination angle (θ), applied voltage (VAC), and frequency (fAC). For the baseline case with no electric field applied, the flame spread rate and the flame width of downwardly spreading flames (DSFs) decreased from the horizontal case for −20° ≤ θ < 0° and maintained near constant values for −90° ≤ θ < −20°, while the flame spread rate increased appreciably as the inclination angle of upwardly spreading flames (USFs) increased. When an AC electric field was applied, the behavior of flame spread rate in DSFs (USFs) could be classified into two (three) sub-regimes characterized by various functional dependences on VAC, fAC, and θ. In nearly all cases of DSFs, a globular molten polyethylene formed ahead of the spreading flame edge, occasionally dripping onto the ground. In these cases, an effective flame spread rate was defined to represent the burning rate by measuring the mass loss due to dripping. This effective spread rate was independent of AC frequency, while it decreased linearly with voltage and was independent of the inclination angle. In DSFs, when excessively high voltage and frequency were applied, the dripping led to flame extinction during propagation and the extinction frequency correlated well with applied voltage. In USFs, when high voltage and frequency were applied, multiple globular molten PEs formed at several locations, leading to ejections of multiple small flame segments from the main flame, thereby reducing the flame spread rate, which could be attributed to the electrospray phenomenon.

  7. Mining adjacent inclined coal seams of varying thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batmanov, Yu.K.; Bakhtin, A.F.; Bulavka, E.I.

    1980-01-01

    In the Donbass coal basin a large number of thin coal seams located near other thicker coal seams are left. It is suggested that coal output from the Donbass could be increased by 100% and cost of mining could be lowered by 0.4-1.1 roubles per 1 ton of coal if thinner coal seams were also mined. Mining methods in the Donbass are analyzed from the point of view of reducing the cost of mining and increasing coal production. Recommendations on methods of mining thin inclined coal seams are given. (6 refs.) (In Russian)

  8. Influence of patient head positioning on measured axial tooth inclination in panoramic radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Timothy C; Suri, Lokesh; Stark, Paul

    2009-06-01

    Panoramic radiographs are routinely used to assess the mesiodistal axial inclination of teeth (MDAI) in orthodontic treatment. These radiographs are sensitive to minor deviations from standard head position that result in image distortions. The aim of this study is to measure and quantify the changes in MDAI on panoramic radiograph resulting from changes in patient head position. The testing devise was a human skull with guide wires placed on the facial surface of the teeth and alveolar process along the long axis of each tooth. Panoramic radiographs were captured digitally with the orientation of the skull in Frankfurt horizontal plane parallel to the floor and with 1 degrees , 2 degrees , 5 degrees , 7 degrees , and 10 degrees both superior and inferior rotations. The mesiodistal tooth angulations were determined using MIPAC software (DentalEye and LEAD Technologies, Inc. 2005). The more distal the position of the tooth in the arch the greater the change in MDAI with a change in vertical head position. A maximum change of approximately 10 degrees was observed in MDAI of both the maxillary and mandibular molars with a corresponding superior head tilt of 10 degrees. The Mandibular anteriors displayed significant inconsistencies in MDAI with both superior and inferior head tilt. A superior head tilt produced a greater change in mesiodistal angulation than did an inferior head tilt. Accurately taken panoramic radiographs can serve as a convenient tool for evaluating the MDAI before, during and after orthodontic treatment. Additional radiographs are recommended for the mandibular anteriors.

  9. Modeling And Simulation Of Prolate Dual-Spin Satellite Dynamics In An Inclined Elliptical Orbit: Case Study Of Palapa B2R Satellite

    OpenAIRE

    Muliadi, J.; Jenie, S. D.; Budiyono, A.

    2008-01-01

    In response to the interest to re-use Palapa B2R satellite nearing its End of Life (EOL) time, an idea to incline the satellite orbit in order to cover a new region has emerged in the recent years. As a prolate dual-spin vehicle, Palapa B2R has to be stabilized against its internal energy dissipation effect. This work is focused on analyzing the dynamics of the reusable satellite in its inclined orbit. The study discusses in particular the stability of the prolate dual-spin satellite under th...

  10. Evaluation of the lower incisor inclination during alignment and leveling using superelastic NiTi archwires: a laboratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Baratieri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this laboratory study is to evaluate the influence of the shape and the length limitation of superelastic nickel-titanium (NiTi archwires on lower incisors inclination during alignment and leveling. METHODS: Metal teeth mounted on a typodont articulator device were used to simulate a malocclusion of the mandibular arch (-3.5 mm model discrepancy. Three different shapes (Standard, Accuform and Ideal of superelastic NiTi archwires (Sentalloy, GAC, USA were tested. Specimens were divided in two groups: Group I, with no limitation of the archwire length; and Group II, with distal limitation. Each group had thirty specimens divided into three subgroups differentiated by the archwire shape. All groups used round wires with diameters of 0.014-in, 0.016-in, 0.018-in and 0.020-in. The recording of all intervals was accomplished using standardized digital photographs with orthogonal norm in relation to median sagittal plane. The buccolingual inclination of the incisor was registered using photographs and software CorelDraw. RESULTS: The results were obtained using ANOVA and Tukey's test at a significant level of 5%. The inclination of the lower incisor increased in both groups and subgroups. The shape of the archwire had statistically significant influence only in Group I - Standard (11.76º, Ideal (5.88º and Accuform (1.93º. Analyzing the influence of the length limitation, despite the mean incisor tipping in Group II (3.91º had been smaller than Group I (6.52º, no statistically significant difference was found, except for Standard, 3.89º with limitation and 11.76º without limitation. The greatest incisor tipping occurred with the 0.014-in archwires.

  11. Kinetic models of two-dimensional plane and axially symmetric current sheets: Group theory approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasko, I. Y.; Artemyev, A. V. [Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Popov, V. Y. [Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Department of Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Malova, H. V. [Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-02-15

    In this paper, we present new class of solutions of Grad-Shafranov-like (GS-like) equations, describing kinetic plane and axially symmetric 2D current sheets. We show that these equations admit symmetry groups only for Maxwellian and {kappa}-distributions of charged particles. The admissible symmetry groups are used to reduce GS-like equations to ordinary differential equations for invariant solutions. We derive asymptotes of invariant solutions, while invariant solutions are found analytically for the {kappa}-distribution with {kappa}=7/2. We discuss the difference of obtained solutions from equilibria widely used in other studies. We show that {kappa} regulates the decrease rate of plasma characteristics along the current sheet and determines the spatial distribution of magnetic field components. The presented class of plane and axially symmetric (disk-like) current sheets includes solutions with the inclined neutral plane.

  12. Three-dimensional collimation of in-plane-propagating light using silicon micromachined mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabry, Yasser M.; Khalil, Diaa; Saadany, Bassam; Bourouina, Tarik

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate light collimation of single-mode optical fibers using deeply-etched three-dimensional curved micromirror on silicon chip. The three-dimensional curvature of the mirror is controlled by a process combining deep reactive ion etching and isotropic etching of silicon. The produced surface is astigmatic with out-of-plane radius of curvature that is about one half the in-plane radius of curvature. Having a 300-μm in-plane radius and incident beam inplane inclined with an angle of 45 degrees with respect to the principal axis, the reflected beam is maintained stigmatic with about 4.25 times reduction in the beam expansion angle in free space and about 12-dB reduction in propagation losses, when received by a limited-aperture detector.

  13. Finite element analysis of inclined nozzle-plate junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, K.B.; Seth, V.K.; Krishnan, A.; Ramamurthy, T.S.; Dattaguru, B.; Rao, A.K.

    1979-01-01

    Estimation of stress concentration at nozzle to plate or shell junctions is a significant problem in the stress analysis of nuclear reactors. The topic is a subject matter of extensive investigations and earlier considerable success has been reported on analysis for the cases when the nozzle is perpendicular to the plate or is radial to the shell. Analytical methods for the estimation of stress concentrations for the practical situations when the intersecting nozzle is inclined to the plate or is non-radial to the shell is rather scanty. Specific complications arise in dealing with the junction region when the nozzle with circular cross-section meets the non-circular cut-out on the plate or shell. In this paper a finite element analysis is developed for inclined nozzles and results are presented for nozzle-plate junctions. A method of analysis is developed with a view to achieving simultaneously accuracy of results and simplicity in the choice of elements and their connectivity. The circular nozzle is treated by axisymmetric conical shell elements. The nozzle portion in the region around the junction and the flat plate is dealt with by triangular flat shell elements. Special transition elements are developed for joining the flat shell elements with the axisymmetric elements under non-axisymmetric loading. A substructure method of analysis is adopted which achieves considerable economy in handling the structure and also conveniently combines the different types of elements in the structure. (orig.)

  14. An Experimental Investigation on Inclined Negatively Buoyant Jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed Bashitialshaaer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was performed to investigate the behavior of inclined negatively buoyant jets. Such jets arise when brine is discharged from desalination plants. A turbulent jet with a specific salinity was discharged through a circular nozzle at an angle to the horizontal into a tank with fresh water and the spatial evolution of the jet was recorded. Four different initial jet parameters were changed, namely the nozzle diameter, the initial jet inclination, the jet density and the flow rate. Five geometric quantities describing the jet trajectory that are useful in the design of brine discharge systems were determined. Dimensional analysis demonstrated that the geometric jet quantities studied, if normalized with the jet exit diameter, could be related to the densimetric Froude number. Analysis of the collected data showed that this was the case for a Froude number less than 100, whereas for larger values of the Froude number the scatter in the data increased significantly. As has been observed in some previous investigations, the slope of the best-fit straight line through the data points was a function of the initial jet angle (θ, where the slope increased with θ for the maximum levels (Ym studied, but had a more complex behavior for horizontal distances.

  15. Simplification of rat intubation on inclined metal plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastl, Sigrid; Kotschenreuther, U; Hille, B; Schmidt, J; Gepp, H; Hohenberger, W

    2004-12-01

    Small-animal intubation is often necessary during inhalation anesthesia to allow steady-state conditions for large operations and in vivo experiments in all fields of experimental surgery. In rats, placing an orotracheal tube is technically difficult primarily because of the small size of the subject and the lack of equipment specifically designed for this task. We describe a simple rat intubation technique in which the animal is suspended in dorsal recumbency on an inclined metal plate. The animal, anesthetized with ether, is fixed to a 70 degrees-inclined metal plate in a dorsal position by means of a Mersilene ribbon hooked around the upper incisors. This method of positioning the animal is the most important step in the intubation process and further facilitates the technique already described by other authors. A human otoscope was used as a laryngoscope, intubation was performed using the Seldinger technique, and a 14-gauge intravenous catheter served as an endotracheal tube. This inexpensive technique is quickly learned and can be used in any laboratory. Safe and reliable airway management can thus be achieved, permitting in vivo examinations and operations.

  16. Breakdown of air pockets in downwardly inclined sewerage pressure mains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbers, C L; Clemens, F H L R

    2006-01-01

    In the Netherlands, wastewater is collected in municipal areas and transported to centralised WWTPs by an extensive system of pressure mains. Over the last decades these pressure mains did not receive much attention in terms of monitoring of performance or maintenance. A recent inventory showed that half of the pressure mains show an increased pressure loss for no directly obvious reason. One of the many causes that account for the reduction of the flow capacity is the occurrence of free gas in the pipeline. During dry weather periods with low flow velocities, gas may accumulate at high points in the system. Once the velocity increases during storm weather flow, the air pockets may be broken down and transported to the end of the system. A research study is started focussing on the description of the gas-water phenomena in wastewater pressure mains with respect to transportation of gas. An experimental facility is constructed for the study of multi-phase flow. This paper describes the preliminary results of experiments on breakdown rates of gas pockets as a function of inclination angle and water flow rate. The results show an increasing breakdown rate with increasing inclination angle.

  17. Characterization of DECam focal plane detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, H.Thomas; Angstadt, Robert; Campa, Julia; Cease, Herman; Derylo, Greg; Emes, John H.; Estrada, Juan; Kibik, Donna; Flaugher, Brenna L.; Holland, Steve E.; Jonas, Michelle; /Fermilab /Madrid, CIEMAT /LBL, Berkeley /Argonne /Pennsylvania U.

    2008-06-01

    DECam is a 520 Mpix, 3 square-deg FOV imager being built for the Blanco 4m Telescope at CTIO. This facility instrument will be used for the 'Dark Energy Survey' of the southern galactic cap. DECam has chosen 250 ?m thick CCDs, developed at LBNL, with good QE in the near IR for the focal plane. In this work we present the characterization of these detectors done by the DES team, and compare it to the DECam technical requirements. The results demonstrate that the detectors satisfy the needs for instrument.

  18. The digestive system of 1-week old Jersey calves is well suited to digest, absorb, and incorporate protein and energy into tissue growth even when fed a high plane of milk replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of the current study were to determine the digestibilities of nutrients as well as investigate the nitrogen retention of calves fed different planes of milk replacer nutrition during the first week of life. Twelve Jersey calves were blocked by body weight at birth and randomly assigne...

  19. Plane waves as tractor beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgács, Péter; Lukács, Árpád; Romańczukiewicz, Tomasz

    2013-12-01

    It is shown that in a large class of systems, plane waves act as tractor beams: i.e., an incident plane wave can exert a pulling force on the scatterer. The underlying physical mechanism for the pulling force is due to the sufficiently strong scattering of the incoming wave into another mode carrying more momentum, in which case excess momentum is created behind the scatterer. This tractor beam or negative radiation pressure (NRP) effect, is found to be generic in systems with multiple scattering channels. In a birefringent medium, electromagnetic plane waves incident on a thin plate exert NRP of the same order of magnitude as optical radiation pressure, while in artificial dielectrics (metamaterials), the magnitude of NRP can even be macroscopic. In two dimensions, we study various scattering situations on vortices, and NRP is shown to occur by the scattering of heavy baryons into light leptons off cosmic strings, and by neutron scattering off vortices in the XY model.

  20. Self-similar decay to the marginally stable ground state in a model for film flow over inclined wavy bottoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Hacker

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The integral boundary layer system (IBL with spatially periodic coefficients arises as a long wave approximation for the flow of a viscous incompressible fluid down a wavy inclined plane. The Nusselt-like stationary solution of the IBL is linearly at best marginally stable; i.e., it has essential spectrum at least up to the imaginary axis. Nevertheless, in this stable case we show that localized perturbations of the ground state decay in a self-similar way. The proof uses the renormalization group method in Bloch variables and the fact that in the stable case the Burgers equation is the amplitude equation for long waves of small amplitude in the IBL. It is the first time that such a proof is given for a quasilinear PDE with spatially periodic coefficients.

  1. Error Analysis on Plane-to-Plane Linear Approximate Coordinate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, the error analysis has been done for the linear approximate transformation between two tangent planes in celestial sphere in a simple case. The results demonstrate that the error from the linear transformation does not meet the requirement of high-precision astrometry under some conditions, so the ...

  2. Error Analysis on Plane-to-Plane Linear Approximate Coordinate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... In this paper, the error analysis has been done for the linear approximate transformation between two tangent planes in celestial sphere in a simple case. The results demonstrate that the error from the linear transformation does not meet the requirement of high-precision astrometry under some conditions, ...

  3. Mixed convection heat and mass transfer in peristaltic flow with chemical reaction and inclined magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, S.; Hayat, T.; Alsaedi, A.; Qasim, M.

    2013-09-01

    A mathematical model is constructed to investigate the mixed convective heat and mass transfer effects on peristaltic flow of magnetohydrodynamic pseudoplastic fluid in a symmetric channel. An analysis has been carried out to examine the impact of an inclined magnetic field and chemical reaction in presence of heat sink/source. Mechanics of flow and heat/mass transfer described in terms of continuity, linear momentum, energy and concentration equations are predicted by using long wavelength and low Reynolds number. Expressions for stream function, temperature, concentration and pressure gradient are derived. Numerical simulation is performed for the rise in pressure per wave length. Effects of several physical parameters on the flow quantities are analyzed.

  4. Testing of focal plane arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merriam, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Problems associated with the testing of focal plane arrays are briefly examined with reference to the instrumentation and measurement procedures. In particular, the approach and instrumentation used as the Naval Ocean Systems Center is presented. Most of the measurements are made with flooded illumination on the focal plane array. The array is treated as an ensemble of individual pixels, data being taken on each pixel and array averages and standard deviations computed for the entire array. Data maps are generated, showing the pixel data in the proper spatial position on the array and the array statistics

  5. Algebraic Methods in Plane Geometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    a 6= 1, c 6= 1; then f ± g(z) = acz + ad + b. T he fact th a t jacj = 1,and the presence of z rath er th an z, ... alldisplacem ents in the plane;this is essentially the ad- ditive group of all vectors in the plane. In fact, D is ..... ro ta tio n s fa ;fb;fc as follow s: fa = R A ;® , fb = R B ;¯ , fc = R C ;° . A ssum e that the vertices of 4 A B C are ...

  6. Plane waves in noncommutative fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdalla, M.C.B., E-mail: mabdalla@ift.unesp.br [Instituto de Física Teórica, UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Dr. Bento Teobaldo Ferraz 271, Bloco 2, Barra-Funda, Caixa Postal 70532-2, 01156-970, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Holender, L., E-mail: holender@ufrrj.br [Grupo de Física Teórica e Matemática Física, Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Cx. Postal 23851, BR 465 Km 7, 23890-000 Seropédica, RJ (Brazil); Santos, M.A., E-mail: masantos@cce.ufes.br [Departamento de Física e Química, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (UFES), Avenida Fernando Ferarri S/N, Goiabeiras, 29060-900 Vitória, ES (Brazil); Vancea, I.V., E-mail: ionvancea@ufrrj.br [Grupo de Física Teórica e Matemática Física, Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Cx. Postal 23851, BR 465 Km 7, 23890-000 Seropédica, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-08-01

    We study the dynamics of the noncommutative fluid in the Snyder space perturbatively at the first order in powers of the noncommutative parameter. The linearized noncommutative fluid dynamics is described by a system of coupled linear partial differential equations in which the variables are the fluid density and the fluid potentials. We show that these equations admit a set of solutions that are monochromatic plane waves for the fluid density and two of the potentials and a linear function for the third potential. The energy–momentum tensor of the plane waves is calculated.

  7. Pelvic tilt and truncal inclination: two key radiographic parameters in the setting of adults with spinal deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafage, Virginie; Schwab, Frank; Patel, Ashish; Hawkinson, Nicola; Farcy, Jean-Pierre

    2009-08-01

    Prospective radiographic and clinical analysis. Investigate the relationship between spino-pelvic parameters and patient self reported outcomes on adult subjects with spinal deformities. It is becoming increasingly recognized that the study of spinal alignment should include pelvic position. While pelvic incidence determines lumbar lordosis, pelvic tilt (PT) is a positional parameter reflecting compensation to spinal deformity. Correlation between plumbline offset (sagittal vertical axis [SVA]) and Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) measures has been demonstrated, but such a study is lacking for PT. This prospective study was carried out on 125 adult patients suffering from spinal deformity (mean age: 57 years). Full-length free-standing radiographs including the spine and pelvis were available for all patients. HRQOL instruments included: Oswestry Disability Index, Short Form-12, Scoliosis Research Society. Correlation analysis between radiographic spinopelvic parameters and HRQOL measures was pursued. Correlation analysis revealed no significance pertaining to coronal plane parameters. Significant sagittal plane correlations were identified. SVA and truncal inclination measured by T1 spinopelvic inclination (T1-SPI) (angle between T1-hip axis and vertical) correlated with: Scoliosis Research Society (appearance, activity, total score), Oswestry Disability Index, and Short Form-12 (physical component score). Correlation coefficients ranged from 0.42 < r < 0.55 (P < 0.0001). T1-SPI revealed greater correlation with HRQOL compared to SVA. PT showed correlation with HRQOL (0.28 < r < 0.42) and with SVA (r = 0.64, P < 0.0001). This study confirms that pelvic position measured via PT correlates with HRQOL in the setting of adult deformity. High values of PT express compensatory pelvic retroversion for sagittal spinal malalignment. This study also demonstrates significant T1-SPI correlation with HRQOL measures and outperforms SVA. This parameter carries the

  8. Performances of packed bed double pass solar air heater with different inclinations and transverse wire mesh with different intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugantharaj Gnanadurai Sam Stanley

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar air heating is a technology in which the solar energy from the sun is captured by an absorbing medium and used to heat the air flowing through the heater. In this study, thermal performance of a double pass solar air heater has been investigated experimentally at different conditions. The experiments were conducted with different inclinations of the collector, with and without wire mesh vertically fixed at the second pass in transverse direction and with different mass flow rates. The effect of air mass flow rate, wire mesh pitch and collector inclination on temperature rise and thermal efficiency have been studied. Results show that efficiency increases with mass flow rate. For the same mass flow rate, the thermal efficiency increases with the decrease in the wire mesh pitch. The maximum daily average efficiency of air heater was 79.8% at 0.025 kg/s mass flow rate, 10 cm wire mesh gap and 9º collector inclination facing south. The highest collector efficiency was observed in solar air heaters with 10 cm wire mesh gap.

  9. Two-Sided Coded Aperture Imaging Without a Detector Plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziock, Klaus-Peter; Cunningham, Mark F.; Fabris, Lorenzo

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a novel design for a two-sided, coded-aperture, gamma-ray imager suitable for use in stand off detection of orphan radioactive sources. The design is an extension of an active-mask imager that would have three active planes of detector material, a central plane acting as the detector for two (active) coded-aperture mask planes, one on either side of the detector plane. In the new design the central plane is removed and the mask on the left (right) serves as the detector plane for the mask on the right (left). This design reduces the size, mass, complexity, and cost of the overall instrument. In addition, if one has fully position-sensitive detectors, then one can use the two planes as a classic Compton camera. This enhances the instrument's sensitivity at higher energies where the coded-aperture efficiency is decreased by mask penetration. A plausible design for the system is found and explored with Monte Carlo simulations

  10. Improvement in greenhouse solar drying using inclined north wall reflection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethi, V.P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141004, Punjab (India); Arora, Sadhna [Department of Processing and Food Engineering, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141004, Punjab (India)

    2009-09-15

    A conventional greenhouse solar dryer of 6 m{sup 2} x 4 m{sup 2} floor area (east-west orientation) was improved for faster drying using inclined north wall reflection (INWR) under natural as well as forced convection mode. To increase the solar radiation availability onto the product (to be dried) during extreme summer months, a temporary inclined wall covered with aluminized reflector sheet (of 50 {mu}m thickness and reflectance 0.93) was raised inside the greenhouse just in front of the vertical transparent north wall. By doing so, product fully received the reflected beam radiation (which otherwise leaves through the north wall) in addition to the direct total solar radiation available on the horizontal surface during different hours of drying. The increment in total solar radiation input enhanced the drying rate of the product by increasing the inside air and crop temperature of the dryer. Inclination angle of the reflective north wall with vertical ({beta}) was optimized for various selective widths of the tray W (1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3 m) and for different realistic heights of existing vertical north wall (h) at 25 N, 30 N and 35 N latitudes (hot climatic zones). Experimental performance of the improved dryer was tested during the month of May 2008 at Ludhiana (30.56 N) climatic conditions, India by drying bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Linn) slices. Results showed that by using INWR under natural convection mode of drying, greenhouse air and crop temperature increased by 1-6.7 C and 1-4 C, respectively, during different drying hours as compared to, when INWR was not used and saved 13.13% of the total drying time. By using INWR under forced convection mode of drying, greenhouse air and crop temperature increased by 1-4.5 C and 1-3 C, respectively, during different drying hours as compared to, when INWR was not used and saved 16.67% of the total drying time. (author)

  11. Hydraulic shock waves in an inclined chute contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, C.-D.; Chang, C.-J.

    2009-04-01

    A chute contraction is a common structure used in hydraulic engineering for typical reasons such as increase of bottom slope, transition from side channel intakes to tunnel spillways, reduction of chute width due to bridges, transition structures in flood diversion works, among others. One of the significant chute contractions in Taiwan is that used in the Yuanshantzu Flood Diversion Project of Keelung River. The diversion project is designed to divert flood water from upper Keelung River into East Sea with a capasity of 1,310 cubic meters per second for mitigating the flood damage of lower part of Keelung River basin in Northern Taiwan. An inclined chute contraction is used to connect Keelung River and a diversion turnel. The inlet and outlet works of the diversion project is located at Ruifang in the Taipei County of north Taiwan. The diameter of diversion tunnel is 12 meters and the total length of tunnel is 2,484 meters. The diversion project has been completed and successfully executed many times since 2004 to lower the water level of Keelung River in typhoon seasons for avioding flooding problems in the lower part of Keelung River basin. Flow in a chute contraction has complicated flow pattern due to the existence of shock waves in it. A simple and useful calculation procedure for the maximum height and its position of shock waves is essentially needed for the preliminary design stage of a chute contraction. Hydraulic shock waves in an inclined chute contraction were experimentally and numerically investigated in this study with the consideration of the effects of sidewall deflection angle, bottom inclination angle and Froude number of approaching flow. The flow pattern of hydraulic shock waves in a chute contraction was observed. The main issue of designing chute contraction is to estimate the height and position of maximum shock wave for the consideration of freeboards. Achieving this aim, the experimental data are adopted and analyzed for the shock angle

  12. Algebraic Methods in Plane Geometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 10. Algebraic Methods in Plane Geometry - The Use of Conic Sections. Shailesh A Shirali. General Article Volume 13 Issue 10 October 2008 pp 916-928. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  13. Distributed storage in the plane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altman, Eitan; Avrachenkov, Konstatin; Goseling, Jasper

    2013-01-01

    We consider storage devices located in the plane according to a general point process and specialize the results for the homogeneous Poisson process. A large data file is stored at the storage devices, which have limited storage capabilities. Hence, they can only store parts of the data. Clients can

  14. Force Lines in Plane Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathkjen, Arne

    A state of plane stress is illustrated by means of two families of curves, each family representing constant values of a derivative of Airy's stress function. The two families of curves form a map giving in the first place an overall picture of regions of high and low stress, and in the second pl...

  15. Complex Numbers and Plane Geometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 1. Complex Numbers and Plane Geometry. Anant R Shastri. General Article Volume 13 Issue 1 January 2008 pp 35-53. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/013/01/0035-0053. Keywords.

  16. Complex eigensolutions of coupled flexural and longitudinal modes in a beam with inclined elastic supports with non-proportional damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Scott; Dreyer, Jason; Singh, Rajendra

    2014-02-01

    Structure borne vibration and noise in an automobile are often explained by representing the full vehicle as a system of elastically coupled beam structures representing the body, engine cradle and body subframe where the engine is often connected to the chassis via inclined viscoelastic supports. To understand more clearly the interactions between a beam structure and isolators, this article examines the flexural and longitudinal motions in an elastic beam with intentionally inclined mounts (viscoelastic end supports). A new analytical solution is derived for the boundary coupled Euler beam and wave equations resulting in complex eigensolutions. This system is demonstrated to be self-adjoint when the support stiffness matrices are symmetric; thus, the modal analysis is used to decouple the equations of motion and solve for the steady state, damped harmonic response. Experimental validation and computational verifications confirm the validity of the proposed formulation. New and interesting phenomena are presented including coupled rigid motions, modal properties for ideal angled roller boundaries, and relationships between coupling and system modal loss factors. The ideal roller boundary conditions when inclined are seen as a limiting case of coupled longitudinal and flexural motions. In particular, the coupled rigid body motions illustrate the influence of support stiffness coupling on the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. The relative modal strain energy concept is used to distinguish the contribution of longitudinal and flexural deformation modes. Since the beam is assumed to be undamped, the system damping is derived from the viscoelastic supports. The support damping (for a given loss factor) is shown to be redistributed between the system modes due to the inclined coupling mechanisms. Finally, this article provides valuable insight by highlighting some technical issues a real-life designer faces when balancing modeling assumptions such as rigid or elastic

  17. Strength Calculation of Inclined Sections of Reinforced Concrete Elements under Transverse Bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatov, V. B.

    2017-11-01

    The authors propose a design model to determine the strength of inclined sections of bent reinforced concrete elements without shear reinforcement for the action of transverse force taking into account the aggregate interlock forces in the inclined crack. The calculated dependences to find out the components of forces acting in an inclined section are presented. The calculated dependences are obtained from the consideration of equilibrium conditions of the block over the inclined crack. A comparative analysis of the experimental values of the failure loads of the inclined section and the theoretical values obtained for the proposed dependencies and normative calculation methods is performed. It is shown that the proposed design model makes it possible to take into account the effect the longitudinal reinforcement percentage has on the inclined section strength, the element cross section height without the introduction of empirical coefficients which contributes to an increase in the structural safety of design solutions including the safety of high-strength concrete elements.

  18. Sagittal plane considerations and the pelvis in the adult patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Frank; Lafage, Virginie; Patel, Ashish; Farcy, Jean-Pierre

    2009-08-01

    Research update, focused review. Identify the role of the pelvis in the setting of adults with spinal deformity. Sagittal plane alignment is increasingly recognized as a critical parameter in the setting of adult spinal deformity. Additionally, pelvic parameters reveal to be a key component in the regulation of sagittal alignment. Analysis of the pelvis in the sagittal plane is commonly assessed by 3 angular measurements: the pelvic incidence (morphologic parameter directly linked to sagittal morphotypes), the pelvic tilt (or pelvis retroversion used to maintain an upright posture in the setting of spinal deformity), and the sacral slope. Recent work using force plate technology has revealed that in the setting of anterior trunk inclination ("spinal imbalance"), the pelvis shifted posteriorly (toward the heels) in order to maintain a balanced mass distribution. The complex relationship between pelvic and spinal parameter were investigated in order to construct predictive formulas of postoperative spinopelvic alignment. It has emerged that pelvic tilt is highly correlated with patient self reported function (ODI, SF-12, and SRS). It has become evident that good clinical outcome in the treatment of spinal deformity requires proper alignment. Pelvis parameters play an essential role not only in terms of spine morphotypes but also in regulating standing balance and postoperative alignment. Thus, optimal treatment of a patient with spinal deformity requires integration of the pelvis in the preoperative evaluation and treatment plan.

  19. Unique operations for a highly inclined, elliptical, geosynchronous satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglin, Patrick T.; Briskman, Robert D.

    2004-08-01

    The first space segment devoted to a Digital Audio Radio Service (DARS) for the Continental United States (CONUS) was established when the last satellite of a three satellite constellation (Flight Models FM-1, FM-2 and FM-3) was launched in November 2000. Each satellite is in a highly inclined, elliptical, geosynchronous orbit that is separated by 120° in Right Angle of the Ascending Node (RAAN) from the other two satellites' orbits. This results in an 8 h phasing in ground track between each satellite. These distinct orbits provide superior look angles and signal availability to mobile receivers in the northern third of the United States when compared to geostationary satellites. However, this unique orbital constellation results in some particular performance and operational differences from geostationary orbit satellites. Some of these are: Earth Sensor noise, maneuver implementation and power management. Descriptions and performance improvements of these orbit specific operations are detailed herein.

  20. Simulation of Solar Radiation Incident on Horizontal and Inclined Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Basunia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A computer model was developed to simulate the hourly, daily and monthly average of daily solar radiation on horizontal and inclined surfaces. The measured hourly and daily solar radiation was compared with simulated radiation, and favourable agreement was observed for the measured and predicted values on clear days. The measured and simulated monthly averages of total (diffuse and beam daily solar radiation were compared and a reasonable agreement was observed for a number of stations in Japan. The simulation showed that during the rice harvesting season, September to October, there is a daily average of 14.7 MJ/m2 of solar irradiation on a horizontal surface in Matsuyama, Japan. There is a similar amount of solar radiation on a horizontal surface during the major rice harvesting season, November to December, in Bangladesh. This radiation can be effectively utilized for drying rough rice and other farm crops.

  1. Inclined nanoimprinting lithography-based 3D nanofabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhan; Bucknall, David G.; Allen, Mark G.

    2011-06-01

    We report a 'top-down' 3D nanofabrication approach combining non-conventional inclined nanoimprint lithography (INIL) with reactive ion etching (RIE), contact molding and 3D metal nanotransfer printing (nTP). This integration of processes enables the production and conformal transfer of 3D polymer nanostructures of varying heights to a variety of other materials including a silicon-based substrate, a silicone stamp and a metal gold (Au) thin film. The process demonstrates the potential of reduced fabrication cost and complexity compared to existing methods. Various 3D nanostructures in technologically useful materials have been fabricated, including symmetric and asymmetric nanolines, nanocircles and nanosquares. Such 3D nanostructures have potential applications such as angle-resolved photonic crystals, plasmonic crystals and biomimicking anisotropic surfaces. This integrated INIL-based strategy shows great promise for 3D nanofabrication in the fields of photonics, plasmonics and surface tribology.

  2. Segregation in inclined flows of binary mixtures of spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larcher Michele

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We outline the equations that govern the evolution of segregation of a binary mixture of spheres in flows down inclines. These equations result from the mass and momentum balances of a kinetic theory for dense flows of inelastic spheres that interact through collisions. The theory employed for segregation is appropriate for particles with relatively small differences in size and mass. The flow of the mixture is assumed to reach a fully developed state much more rapidly than does the concentrations of the two species. We illustrate the predictions of the theory for a mixture of spheres of the same diameter but different masses and for spheres of different diameters but nearly the same mass. We show the evolution of the profiles of the concentration fractions of the two types of spheres and the profiles in the final, steady state. The latter compare favourably with those obtained in discrete-element numerical simulations.

  3. Method and apparatus for logging inclined earth boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youmans, A.H.

    1981-01-01

    An improved technique is provided for comparing the velocity of an elongated well logging instrument traversing an inclined earth borehole with the playout velocity of the well logging cable at the earth's surface to control both the cable hoist drum rotation and the rate of movement of the subsurface instrument and thus insure cable playout is in equilibrium with the logging instrument movement. Method and apparatus are described for detecting any reduction in movement of the logging instrument through the borehole and for reducing the velocity of the logging cable playout in response thereto by reducing drum rotation. Further, when the velocity of cable playout slows to a preselected value, a monitoring circuit generates control signals which actuate a means of power attached to or integral with the logging instrument which, upon initiation, apply a force to move the logging instrument upward or downward within the borehole

  4. Transient flow and heat transfer phenomena in inclined wavy films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serifi, Katerina; Bontozoglou, Vasilis [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Thessaly, 38334, Volos (Greece); Malamataris, Nikolaos A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technological Educational Institution of Western Macedonia, 50100, Kila Kozani (Greece)

    2004-08-01

    A finite-element numerical scheme is used to study rigorously the flow of an inclined liquid film and the heat transfer from the constant-temperature wall. Regular inlet disturbances are predicted to evolve into periodic or solitary waves depending on the frequency of the forcing. At very low disturbance frequencies parasitic crests appear and the regularity of the wave-train is lost. The effect of a solitary wave-train on heat transfer from the wall is studied, and it is predicted that a stationary temperature distribution develops with periodic flux variation that follows the waves. The thinning of the substrate between successive humps combines with the effect of convection at the crest and tail of the solitary humps to produce heat transfer enhancement significantly above the conduction limit. (authors)

  5. Inclined transpression in the Neka Valley, eastern Alborz, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Seyed Tohid; Díaz-Azpiroz, Manuel; Talbot, Christopher J.

    2017-07-01

    Three major nappes in the Neka Valley in the eastern Alborz Mountains of Iran allow the Cimmerian to present convergence following the oblique collision between Iran and the southern margin of Eurasia. This work reports the identification of an inclined transpression zone recognized by field investigations and strain analyses of the geometries of formations and detailed mesoscopic structural analyses of multiple faults, folds and a cleavage. The main structures encountered include refolded recumbent asymmetric fold nappes, highly curved fold hinges, in a transpression zone that dips 37° to the NW between boundaries thrusts striking from N050° to N060°. The β angle (the angle between the zone boundary and direction of horizontal far-field shortening) is about 80°. The north-west and south-east boundaries of this zone coincide with the Haji-abad thrust and the Shah-Kuh thrust, respectively. Fold axes generally trend NE-SW and step to both right and left as a result of strike-slip components of fault displacements. Strain analyses using Fry's method on macroscopic ooids and fusulina deformed into oblate ellipsoids indicate that the natural strain varies between 2.1 and 3.14. The estimated angle between the maximum instantaneous strain axis (ISAmax) and the transpression zone boundary ( θ') is between 6° and 20°. The estimated oblique convergence angle ( α), therefore, ranges between 31° and 43°. The average kinematic vorticity number ( W k ) is 0.6, in a zone of sinistral pure shear-dominated inclined triclinic transpression. These results support the applicability of kinematic models of triclinic transpression to natural brittle-ductile shear zones.

  6. Soil-structure interaction on inclined soil layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massa, G.; De Stefano, R.

    1983-01-01

    The case history presented deals with a Category I building having two-thirds of its base founded on a wedge of hard material. This wedge is underlain by an inclined layer of softer material, which also directly supports the remaining one-third of the foundation. The inclined layer is underlain by a third material, possessing large stiffness and extending to great depth. This case is analyzed with the methodology described below: - Determination of the static soil compliances by discretizing the foundation area into a number of strips and taking the soil profile as horizontally layered under each strip. Lumped parameter soil compliances for the whole foundation are obtained by weighting the contributions to stiffness in proportion to the area of each strip. - Definition of the degree of coupling between modes. The soil compliances defined in the previous step include coupling between the vertical and rocking modes and the horizontal and torsional modes through the positioning of the corresponding soil springs. The degree of coupling is checked through a static finite element analysis. - Frequency correction of the static soil compliances taking into account the inhomogeneity of the foundation conditions. The correction is based on obtaining dynamic stiffness coefficients for extreme configurations of the soil profile. - Assessment of the sliding potential of the structure under earthquake loading, considering eccentricities of the dynamic forces and non-uniform friction resistance over the foundation area, accounting for the frictional capacity of the different bearing materials. It is concluded that the simplified technique can provide accurate soil compliances, coupling and frequency corrections for soil-structure interaction on sloping layers, and an appropriate assessment of the sliding potential. (orig./HP)

  7. Sexual dimorphism and regional variation in human frontal bone inclination measured via digital 3D models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petaros, Anja; Garvin, Heather M; Sholts, Sabrina B; Schlager, Stefan; Wärmländer, Sebastian K T S

    2017-11-01

    The frontal bone is one of the most sexually dimorphic elements of the human skull, due to features such as the glabella, frontal eminences, and frontal inclination. While glabella is frequently evaluated in procedures to estimate sex in unknown human skeletal remains, frontal inclination has received less attention. In this study we present a straightforward, quick, and reproducible method for measuring frontal inclination angles from glabella and supraglabella. Using a sample of 413 human crania from four different populations (U.S. Whites, U.S. Blacks, Portuguese, and Chinese), we test the usefulness of the inclination angles for sex estimation and compare their performance to traditional methods of frontal inclination assessment. Accuracy rates in the range 75-81% were achieved for the U.S. White, U.S. Black, and Portuguese groups. For Chinese the overall accuracy was lower, i.e. 66%. Although some regional variation was observed, a cut-off value of 78.2° for glabellar inclination angles separates female and male crania from all studied populations with good accuracy. As inclination angles measured from glabella captures two sexually dimorphic features (i.e. glabellar prominence and frontal inclination) in a single measure, the observed clear male/female difference is not unexpected. Being continuous variables, inclination angles are suitable for use in statistical methods for sex estimations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A study on the edge chipping according to spindle speed and inclination angle of workpiece in laser-assisted milling of silicon nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Wan-Sik; Lee, Choon-Man

    2018-02-01

    Ceramics are difficult to machine due to their high hardness and brittleness. As an effective method for machining ceramics, laser-assisted machining (LAM) has been studied by many researchers. In particular, many studies of methods to improve the machinability of silicon nitride using LAM have been performed. However, there is little research on the effect of the inclination angle of the workpiece, because varying the angle increases the difficulty of controlling the laser preheating and tool path. This paper investigates the effect of preheating temperature, spindle speed and inclination angle of the workpiece on edge chipping of silicon nitride in an effort to obtain an enhanced surface finish using laser-assisted milling (LAMill). The machining conditions were determined by considering the parameters that can reduce edge chipping using related theory. Experimental results showed a reduction in edge chipping based on increases in preheating temperature, spindle speed and inclination angle of the workpiece. Also, by increasing the spindle speed and the inclination angle of the workpiece, surface roughness was decreased due to reduction in the cutting force. The energy efficiency of LAMill by comparing the specific cutting energy according to the machining conditions is analyzed.

  9. Hydrodynamics of planing monohull watercraft

    CERN Document Server

    Vorus, William S

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses the principles involved in the design and engineering of planing monohull power boats, with an emphasis on the theoretical fundamentals that readers need in order to be fully functional in marine design and engineering. Author William Vorus focuses on three topics: boat resistance, seaway response, and propulsion and explains the physical principles, mathematical details, and theoretical details that support physical understanding. In particular, he explains the approximations and simplifications in mathematics that lead to success in the applications of planing craft design engineering, and begins with the simplest configuration that embodies the basic physics. He leads readers, step-by-step, through the physical complications that occur, leading to a useful working knowledge of marine design and engineering. Included in the book are a wealth of examples that exemplify some of the most important naval architecture and marine engineering problems that challenge many of today’s engineers.

  10. Plane waves with weak singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Justin R.

    2003-03-01

    We study a class of time dependent solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations which are plane waves with weak null singularities. This singularity is weak in the sense that though the tidal forces diverge at the singularity, the rate of divergence is such that the distortion suffered by a freely falling observer remains finite. Among such weak singular plane waves there is a sub-class which does not exhibit large back reaction in the presence of test scalar probes. String propagation in these backgrounds is smooth and there is a natural way to continue the metric beyond the singularity. This continued metric admits string propagation without the string becoming infinitely excited. We construct a one parameter family of smooth metrics which are at a finite distance in the space of metrics from the extended metric and a well defined operator in the string sigma model which resolves the singularity. (author)

  11. Algebraic Methods in Plane Geometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    the role ofm appings and transform ation groups in plane geom etry. 1. P arabola in a Triangle. W e ¯rst recall tw o results from the geom etry of the parabola. Let P denote a parabola w ith focus F and d irectrix `. For any point P 2 P , let tP denote the tangent to P at P . (i) T he im age ofF under re°ection in any ofthe tangents.

  12. Design of an ultrahigh-energy-resolution and wide-energy-range soft X-ray beamline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, L; Reininger, R; Wu, Y-Q; Zou, Y; Xu, Z-M; Shi, Y-B; Dong, J; Ding, H; Sun, J-L; Guo, F-Z; Wang, Y; Tai, R-Z

    2014-01-01

    A new ultrahigh-energy-resolution and wide-energy-range soft X-ray beamline has been designed and is under construction at the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The beamline has two branches: one dedicated to angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and the other to photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM). The two branches share the same plane-grating monochromator, which is equipped with four variable-line-spacing gratings and covers the 20-2000 eV energy range. Two elliptically polarized undulators are employed to provide photons with variable polarization, linear in every inclination and circular. The expected energy resolution is approximately 10 meV at 1000 eV with a flux of more than 3 × 10(10) photons s(-1) at the ARPES sample positions. The refocusing of both branches is based on Kirkpatrick-Baez pairs. The expected spot sizes when using a 10 µm exit slit are 15 µm × 5 µm (horizontal × vertical FWHM) at the ARPES station and 10 µm × 5 µm (horizontal × vertical FWHM) at the PEEM station. The use of plane optical elements upstream of the exit slit, a variable-line-spacing grating and a pre-mirror in the monochromator that allows the influence of the thermal deformation to be eliminated are essential for achieving the ultrahigh-energy resolution.

  13. Aerodynamics of wing-assisted incline running in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobalske, Bret W; Dial, Kenneth P

    2007-05-01

    Wing-assisted incline running (WAIR) is a form of locomotion in which a bird flaps its wings to aid its hindlimbs in climbing a slope. WAIR is used for escape in ground birds, and the ontogeny of this behavior in precocial birds has been suggested to represent a model analogous to transitional adaptive states during the evolution of powered avian flight. To begin to reveal the aerodynamics of flap-running, we used digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) and measured air velocity, vorticity, circulation and added mass in the wake of chukar partridge Alectoris chukar as they engaged in WAIR (incline 65-85 degrees; N=7 birds) and ascending flight (85 degrees, N=2). To estimate lift and impulse, we coupled our DPIV data with three-dimensional wing kinematics from a companion study. The ontogeny of lift production was evaluated using three age classes: baby birds incapable of flight [6-8 days post hatching (d.p.h.)] and volant juveniles (25-28 days) and adults (45+ days). All three age classes of birds, including baby birds with partially emerged, symmetrical wing feathers, generated circulation with their wings and exhibited a wake structure that consisted of discrete vortex rings shed once per downstroke. Impulse of the vortex rings during WAIR was directed 45+/-5 degrees relative to horizontal and 21+/-4 degrees relative to the substrate. Absolute values of circulation in vortex cores and induced velocity increased with increasing age. Normalized circulation was similar among all ages in WAIR but 67% greater in adults during flight compared with flap-running. Estimated lift during WAIR was 6.6% of body weight in babies and between 63 and 86% of body weight in juveniles and adults. During flight, average lift was 110% of body weight. Our results reveal for the first time that lift from the wings, rather than wing inertia or profile drag, is primarily responsible for accelerating the body toward the substrate during WAIR, and that partially developed wings, not yet

  14. Percentiles relative to maxillary permanent canine inclination by age: a radiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandri Bonetti, Giulio; Zanarini, Matteo; Danesi, Margherita; Parenti, Serena Incerti; Gatto, Maria Rosaria

    2009-10-01

    Few studies have investigated developmental norms for maxillary permanent canine eruption. In this observational cross-sectional study, we aimed to provide an age-related description of the percentiles relative to canine inclination in a large sample of nonorthodontic patients. Associations between inclination and sector were also analyzed. Canine inclination and sector location were measured on 1020 panoramic radiographs obtained from subjects of white ancestry aged between 8 and 11 years not seeking orthodontic treatment. The total sample comprised 2037 canines. Canine inclination increases between 8 and 9 years and decreases between 9 and 11 years. The greatest value for each percentile is at 9 years. A linear model should be hypothesized for differences in canine inclination between 2 successive ages in correspondence to each percentile. The proportion of sector 2 canines decreases and that of sector 1 increases with age. In the same age group, the inclination generally decreases as the sector decreases. Percentiles by age show the average canine inclination in a certain population. Further studies are required to verify whether percentiles can be a diagnostic aid for determining normal canine inclination at a given age and for quantifying the risk of canine impaction or adjacent root resorption.

  15. How do the substrate reaction forces acting on a gecko's limbs respond to inclines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhouyi; Dai, Zhendong; Li, Wei; Ji, Aihong; Wang, Wenbao

    2015-02-01

    Locomotion is an essential character of animals, and excellent moving ability results from the delicate sensing of the substrate reaction forces (SRF) acting on body and modulating the behavior to adapt the motion requirement. The inclined substrates present in habitats pose a number of functional challenges to locomotion. In order to effectively overcome these challenges, climbing geckos execute complex and accurate movements that involve both the front and hind limbs. Few studies have examined gecko's SRF on steeper inclines of greater than 90°. To reveal how the SRFs acting on the front and hind limbs respond to angle incline changes, we obtained detailed measurements of the three-dimensional SRFs acting on the individual limbs of the tokay gecko while it climbed on an inclined angle of 0-180°. The fore-aft forces acting on the front and hind limbs show opposite trends on inverted inclines of greater than 120°, indicating propulsion mechanism changes in response to inclines. When the incline angles change, the forces exerted in the normal and fore-aft directions by gecko's front and hind limbs are reassigned to take full advantage of limbs' different roles in overcoming resistance and in propelling locomotion. This also ensures that weight acts in the angle range between the forces generated by the front and hind limbs. The change in the distribution of SRF with a change in the incline angle is directly linked to the favorable trade-off between locomotive maneuverability and stability.

  16. The effect of surfactants on upward air-water pipe flow at various inclinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nimwegen, A.T.; Portela, L.; Henkes, R.A.W.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we extend our previous efforts on the effect of surfactants on air-water flow in a vertical pipe by also considering pipe inclinations between 20° (with respect to horizontal) and vertical. For air-water flow, independent of the inclination, there is a regular annular flow at large

  17. Optimization of PV array inclination in India using ANN estimator ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1. Introduction. India is one of the fastest growing countries in terms of energy consumption. At present this huge energy requirement of the country is met by the consumption of fossil fuels and other non-renewable sources. Where, solar energy is most valuable, clean, reliable and safe source of energy gifted by the nature.

  18. Space Station Freedom assembly and operation at a 51.6 degree inclination orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troutman, Patrick A.; Brewer, Laura M.; Heck, Michael L.; Kumar, Renjith R.

    1993-01-01

    This study examines the implications of assembling and operating Space Station Freedom at a 51.6 degree inclination orbit utilizing an enhanced lift Space Shuttle. Freedom assembly is currently baselined at a 220 nautical mile high, 28.5 degree inclination orbit. Some of the reasons for increasing the orbital inclination are (1) increased ground coverage for Earth observations, (2) greater accessibility from Russian and other international launch sites, and (3) increased number of Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) landing sites. Previous studies have looked at assembling Freedom at a higher inclination using both medium and heavy lift expendable launch vehicles (such as Shuttle-C and Energia). The study assumes that the shuttle is used exclusively for delivering the station to orbit and that it can gain additional payload capability from design changes such as a lighter external tank that somewhat offsets the performance decrease that occurs when the shuttle is launched to a 51.6 degree inclination orbit.

  19. Efficient light trapping in silicon inclined nanohole arrays for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Can; Tan, Xinyu; Jiang, Lihua; Tu, Yiteng; Ye, Mao; Yi, Yasha

    2018-01-01

    Structural design with high light absorption is the key challenge for thin film solar cells because of its poor absorption. In this paper, the light-trapping performance of silicon inclined nanohole arrays is systematically studied. The finite difference time domain method is used to calculate the optical absorption of different inclination angles in different periods and diameters. The results indicate that the inclined nanoholes with inclination angles between 5° and 45° demonstrate greater light-trapping ability than their counterparts of the vertical nanoholes, and they also show that by choosing the optimal parameters for the inclined nanoholes, a 31.2 mA/cm2 short circuit photocurrent density could be achieved, which is 10.25% higher than the best vertical nanohole system and 105.26% higher than bare silicon with a thickness of 2330 nm. The design principle proposed in this work gives a guideline for choosing reasonable parameters in the application of solar cells.

  20. Experimental Study of Natural Convection Cooling of Vertical Cylinders with Inclined Plate Fins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Bum Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, natural convection from vertical cylinders with inclined plate fins is investigated experimentally for use in cooling electronic equipment. Extensive experimental investigations are performed for various inclination angles, fin numbers, and base temperatures. From the experimental data, a correlation for estimating the Nusselt number is proposed. The correlation is applicable when the Rayleigh number, inclination angle, and fin number are in the ranges 100,000–600,000, 30°–90°, and 9–36, respectively. Using the correlation, a contour map depicting the thermal resistance as a function of the fin number and fin thickness is presented. Finally, the optimal thermal resistances of cylinders with inclined plate fins and conventional radial plate fins are compared. It is found that that the optimal thermal resistance of the cylinder with inclined fins is 30% lower than that of the cylinder with radial plate fins.

  1. Numerical Analysis of Aerodynamic Characteristics of the Finned Surfaces with Cross-inclined Fins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagutin A. E.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of numerical research and analyses air-side hydraulic performance of tube bundles with cross inclined fins. The numerical simulation of the fin-tube heat exchanger was performed using the Comsol Femlab software. The results of modeling show the influence of fin inclination angle and tube pitch on hydraulic characteristics of finned surfaces. A series of numerical tests were carried out for tube bundles with different inclination angles (γ =900, 850, 650, 60, the fin pitch u=4 mm. The results indicate that tube bundles with cross inclined fins can significantly enhance the average integral value of the air flow rate in channel between fins in comparison with conventional straight fins. Aerodynamic processes on both sides of modificated channel between inclined fins were analyzed. The verification procedures for received results of numerical modeling with experimental data were performed.

  2. Reflection of plane waves in an initially stressed perfectly ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Reflection of plane waves is studied at a free surface of a perfectly conducting transversely isotropic elastic solid half-space with initial stress. The governing equations are solved to obtain the velocity equation which indicates the existence of two quasi planar waves in the medium. Reflection coefficients and energy.

  3. Reflection of plane waves in an initially stressed perfectly ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Reflection of plane waves is studied at a free surface of a perfectly conducting transversely isotropic elastic solid half-space with initial stress. The governing equations are solved to obtain the velocity equation which indicates the existence of two quasi planar waves in the medium. Reflection coefficients and energy ratios ...

  4. The DECam Plane Survey: Optical Photometry of Two Billion Objects in the Southern Galactic Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlafly, E. F.; Green, G. M.; Lang, D.; Daylan, T.; Finkbeiner, D. P.; Lee, A.; Meisner, A. M.; Schlegel, D.; Valdes, F.

    2018-02-01

    The DECam Plane Survey is a five-band optical and near-infrared survey of the southern Galactic plane with the Dark Energy Camera at Cerro Tololo. The survey is designed to reach past the main-sequence turn-off of old populations at the distance of the Galactic center through a reddening E(B-V) of 1.5 mag. Typical single-exposure depths are 23.7, 22.8, 22.3, 21.9, and 21.0 mag (AB) in the grizY bands, with seeing around 1\\prime\\prime . The footprint covers the Galactic plane with | b| ≲ 4^\\circ , 5^\\circ > l> -120^\\circ . The survey pipeline simultaneously solves for the positions and fluxes of tens of thousands of sources in each image, delivering positions and fluxes of roughly two billion stars with better than 10 mmag precision. Most of these objects are highly reddened and deep in the Galactic disk, probing the structure and properties of the Milky Way and its interstellar medium. The fully-processed images and derived catalogs are publicly available.

  5. Some Considerations Regarding Plane to Plane Parallelism Error Effects in Robotic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Alaci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows that by imposing the parallelism constraint between the measured plane and the reference plane, the position of the current plane is not univocal specified and is impossible to specify the way to attain the parallelism errors imposed by accuracy constrains. The parameters involved in the calculus of plane to plane parallelism error can be used to set univocal the relative position between the two planes.

  6. Stability of film boiling on inclined plates and spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aursand, Eskil; Hammer, Morten; Munkejord, Svend Tollak; Müller, Bernhard; Ytrehus, Tor

    2017-11-01

    In film boiling, a continuous sub-millimeter vapor film forms between a liquid and a heated surface, insulating the two from each other. While quite accurate steady state solutions are readily obtained, the intermediate Reynolds numbers can make transient analysis challenging. The present work is a theoretical study of film boiling instabilities. We study the formation of travelling waves that are a combination of Kelvin-Helmholtz and the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. In particular, we study how the nature of this process depends on the Reynolds number, the Bond number, and the inclination of the submerged heated plate. In addition we extend the analysis to the case of a submerged heated sphere. Modelling of the transient dynamics of such films is important for answering practical questions such as how instabilities affect the overall heat transfer, and whether they can lead to complete film boiling collapse (Leidenfrost point). This work has been financed under the MAROFF program. We acknowledge the Research Council of Norway (244076/O80) and The Gas Technology Centre NTNU-SINTEF (GTS) for support.

  7. Evaluation of primary stability of inclined orthodontic mini-implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Mizuki

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the initial stability of mini-implants when placed slanting or perpendicular to the bone surface, and to examine the effects of differences in tractional direction. Titanium mini-implants were inserted into rabbit nasal bones, slanting (60 degrees , 120 degrees ) or perpendicular (90 degrees ) to the bone surface. These implants were then loaded with a force of approximately 2 N, using a NiTi coil spring. The mobilities on the traction and non-traction sides were assessed using the Periotest device immediately after placement and after traction for two weeks. Then, the tissues with the mini-implants were resected, and the contact between the bone and the implant was examined by electron microscopy. There was a tendency for the mobilities of the mini-implants at 60 degrees and 120 degrees to be smaller than those at 90 degrees when measured before and after traction. The bone-implant contact lengths at 60 degrees were significantly longer than those at 90 degrees . There was no significant difference in the bone-implant contact ratio among the different angles. Correlations were evident between implant mobility and contact length or contact ratio. It is concluded that in clinical practice, implants inclined to the bone surface tend to have better primary stability.

  8. Combinatorial geometry in the plane

    CERN Document Server

    Hadwiger, Hugo; Klee, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Geared toward advanced undergraduates familiar with analysis and college geometry, this concise book discusses theorems on topics restricted to the plane such as convexity, coverings, and graphs. In addition to helping students cultivate rigorous thought, the text encourages the development of mathematical intuition and clarifies the nature of mathematical research.The two-part treatment begins with specific topics including integral distances, covering problems, point set geometry and convexity, simple paradoxes involving point sets, and pure combinatorics, among other subjects. The second pa

  9. Change in the mesiodistal axial inclination of the maxillary lateral teeth during the mixed dentition stage: Morphometric analysis of panoramic radiographs from two cases of mild crowding with a high canine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morio Masunaga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of the mesiodistal axial inclination of the maxillary lateral teeth relative to the functional occlusal plane (FOP on panoramic radiographs in patients with Angle Class I maxillary anterior crowding with high canines during the mixed dentition stage. Materials and Methods: Panoramic radiographs were used to measure the mesiodistal axial inclination of the teeth before orthodontic treatment in Cases 1 and 2. The long axes of the teeth were determined according to the previous study by Ursi et al. Finally, the angles between the long axes of teeth and the FOP were measured. Results: The first premolar and canine showed mesial tipping in the alveolar bone during eruption. The crown of the second premolar was located close to the apex of the first molar and showed excessive mesial inclination relative to the long axis of the second deciduous molar. Before orthodontic treatment, considerable autonomous changes in the mesiodistal inclination were found in the canine and the second premolar in the maxillary alveolar bone during eruption. With respect to the first molar, the mesiodistal inclination was invariable, or the angle was almost 90° without any significant change during the observation period. Conclusions: Based on the results of this study, two new findings are described. Autonomous changes in the inclination of the mesiodistal maxillary teeth were observed during exfoliation, particularly in the canine and second premolars. In addition, the eruption of the maxillary lateral teeth influenced the neighboring teeth, whereas the first molar maintained an environmentally defined position.

  10. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF SHOCK WAVE REFRACTION ON INCLINED CONTACT DISCONTINUITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Bulat

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We consider numerical simulation of shock wave refraction on plane contact discontinuity, separating two gases with different density. Discretization of Euler equations is based on finite volume method and WENO finite difference schemes, implemented on unstructured meshes. Integration over time is performed with the use of the third-order Runge–Kutta stepping procedure. The procedure of identification and classification of gas dynamic discontinuities based on conditions of dynamic consistency and image processing methods is applied to visualize and interpret the results of numerical calculations. The flow structure and its quantitative characteristics are defined. The results of numerical and experimental visualization (shadowgraphs, schlieren images, and interferograms are compared.

  11. Slip patterns and preferred dislocation boundary planes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, G.

    2003-01-01

    and polycrystals of fcc metals in three deformation modes (rolling, tension and torsion). In the macroscopic system, boundaries lie close to the macroscopically most stressed planes. In the crystallographic system, the boundary plane depends on the grain/crystal orientation. The boundary planes in both co...

  12. Treatment of Class III malocclusion: the key role of the occlusal plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Jean-Louis; Matern, Olivier; Grollemund, Bruno; Bacon, William

    2010-01-01

    Patients with a Class III malocclusion generally present with a counterclockwise inclination of the occlusal plane, converging with Camper's line towards the front. This slope has an effect on mandibular movement (forward posture) and on chewing mechanisms in general. As dysfunctional mastication is likely to influence facial growth and inter-arch stability negatively, early orthopedic therapy of the occlusal unbalance concurrent with Class III malocclusion is justified. The aim of this article is to present a method of Class III treatment based on a correct re-orientation of the occlusal plane in order to achieve an optimal masticatory mechanism, essential for stability of early treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2010 Società Italiana di Ortodonzia (SIDO). Published by Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  13. Importance of occlusal plane reproduction on the semi-adjustable articulator in planning maxillary impactions for orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, Erica Cristina; Garcia, Robson Rodrigues; Moreira, Roger William Fernandes

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a 6° counterclockwise change in occlusal plane inclination would produce significant modifications on the final result of a maxillary impaction and mandible advancement model surgery. Four groups were used in this study, with ten identical maxillary casts and one mandibular cast mounted on the same semi-adjustable articulator, with the same malocclusion. The occlusal plane of the two control and study groups had an inclination of 13° and 7°, respectively. Preoperative and postoperative measures were performed using the Erickson platform and impactions of 6 and 10 mm were tested. To control these movements during model surgery, two splints were fabricated using another two maxillary and mandibular casts mounted with occlusal plane of 13°, simulating the proposed movement. The results were compared using the t test. Only the antero-posterior movement of the upper incisor was statistically significant for both study groups (p occlusal plane transference occur, it will not be clinically significant, because differences smaller than 1 mm does not have influence on soft and hard tissue final result.

  14. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.; Ott, F.

    2002-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the current energy economy in Austria. The Austrian political aims of sustainable development and climate protection imply a reorientation of the Austrian energy policy as a whole. Energy consumption trends (1993-1998), final energy consumption by energy carrier (indexed data 1993-1999), comparative analysis of useful energy demand (1993 and 1999) and final energy consumption of renewable energy sources by sector (1996-1999) in Austria are given. The necessary measures to be taken in order to reduce the energy demand and increased the use of renewable energy are briefly mentioned. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  15. Revealing strong bias in common measures of galaxy properties using new inclination-independent structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devour, Brian M.; Bell, Eric F.

    2017-06-01

    Accurate measurement of galaxy structures is a prerequisite for quantitative investigation of galaxy properties or evolution. Yet, the impact of galaxy inclination and dust on commonly used metrics of galaxy structure is poorly quantified. We use infrared data sets to select inclination-independent samples of disc and flattened elliptical galaxies. These samples show strong variation in Sérsic index, concentration and half-light radii with inclination. We develop novel inclination-independent galaxy structures by collapsing the light distribution in the near-infrared on to the major axis, yielding inclination-independent 'linear' measures of size and concentration. With these new metrics we select a sample of Milky Way analogue galaxies with similar stellar masses, star formation rates, sizes and concentrations. Optical luminosities, light distributions and spectral properties are all found to vary strongly with inclination: When inclining to edge-on, r-band luminosities dim by >1 magnitude, sizes decrease by a factor of 2, 'dust-corrected' estimates of star formation rate drop threefold, metallicities decrease by 0.1 dex and edge-on galaxies are half as likely to be classified as star forming. These systematic effects should be accounted for in analyses of galaxy properties.

  16. Influence of Cusp Inclination and Type of Retention on Fracture Load of Implant-Supported Crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Cibele Oliveira de Melo; Longhini, Diogo; Pereira, Rodrigo de Paula; Arioli, João Neudenir

    2017-01-01

    There are few informations about the influence of cusp inclination on the fracture strength of implant-supported crowns. The study aimed to evaluate the influence of cusp inclination and retention type on fracture load in implant-supported metal-ceramic single crowns. Sixty crowns were made, classified as cemented and screw-retained with screw access hole (SAH) sealed or not. Standard (33°) and reduced (20°) cusp inclinations were tested for each group (n=10). To support crowns of a mandibular second molar, analogs of external hexagon implants 5.0 were used. The fracture load was measured in a universal testing machine EMIC DL2000 (10 kN load cell; 0.5 mm/min). Two-way ANOVA (retention and cusp inclination) followed by post hoc Tukey's honest significant difference test was used for the statistical analyses (a=0.05). Crowns with reduced cusp inclination exhibited significantly higher fracture load (pcrowns with standard cusp inclination. Cemented crowns showed significantly higher fracture load (pcrowns. The interaction among these factors was not significant (p>0.05) for the fracture load. The sealing of SAH did not influence the fracture load of screw-retained crowns (p>0.05). In conclusion, fracture load of implant-supported metal-ceramic crowns was influenced by retention and cusp inclination, and there was no influence of the sealing of SAH.

  17. Influence of dental chair backrest inclination on the registration of the mandibular position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Mariana Freire; Cavalcanti, Bruno das Neves; Claro Neves, Ana Christina; Jóias, Renata Pilli; Rode, Sigmar de Mello

    2015-11-01

    Varying the inclination of the dental chair backrest might alter the distribution of occlusal contact points. The purpose of this study was to identify the influence of backrest inclination on the registration of the mandibular position. Ten participants aged between 18 and 30 years with a complete permanent dentition, uncompromised motor function, no tooth mobility, and no temporomandibular disorders were selected. To register interocclusal contacts, an autopolymerizing methylmethacrylate device was adapted to the maxillary anterior teeth and a composite resin increment was added to the mandibular central incisors. Contacts were registered with the following variations in the inclination of the dental chair backrest: 90 degrees, 120 degrees, and 180 degrees. A standardized digital photograph was made of each mark in each backrest position, and the images were superimposed to measure the distances in registration from 90 to 120 and from 90 to 180 degrees. Data were analyzed with the Student paired t test (α=.05). When the chair was inclined from the 90-degree to the 120-degree position, the mandible was repositioned posteriorly by a mean of 0.67 mm, but the difference was not statistically significant. When the chair was inclined from the 90-degree to the 180-degree position, however, the mandible was repositioned posteriorly by a statistically significant mean of 1.41 mm. Mandibular position is influenced by increasing inclination, and this influence was statistically significant at a 180-degree incline. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Treating domestic sewage by Integrated Inclined-Plate-Membrane bio-reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Li Ming; Wang, Zi; Chen, Lei; Zhong, Min; Dong, Zhan Feng

    2017-12-01

    Membrane fouling shorten the service life of the membrane and increases aeration rate for membrane surface cleaning. Two membrane bio-reactors, one for working and another for comparing, were set up to evaluate the feasibility of alleviating membrane fouling and improving wastewater treatment efficiency by integrating inclined-plate precipitation and membrane separation. The result show that: (1) Inclined-plate in reactor had a good effect on pollutant removal of membrane bioreactor. The main role of inclined-plate is dividing reactor space and accelerating precipitation. (2) Working reactor have better performance in COD, TN and TP removal, which can attribute to that working reactor (integrated inclined-plate-Membrane bioreactor) takes both advantages of membrane separation and biological treatment. When influent COD, TP and TN concentration is 163-248 mg/L, 2.08-2.81 mg/L and 24.38-30.49 mg/L in working reactor, effluent concentration is 27-35 mg/L, 0.53-0.59 mg/L and 11.28-11.56 mg/L, respectively. (3) Membrane fouling was well alleviated in integrated inclined-plate-Membrane bioreactor, and membrane normal service time is significantly longer than that in comparing reactor, which can attribute to accelerating precipitation of inclined-plate. In summary, integrated inclined-plate-Membrane bioreactor is a promising technology to alleviating membrane fouling and improving wastewater treatment efficiency, having good performance and bright future in application.

  19. The effect of an inclined landing surface on biomechanical variables during a jumping task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagins, Marshall; Pappas, Evangelos; Kremenic, Ian; Orishimo, Karl F; Rundle, Andrew

    2007-11-01

    Professional dancers sustain a high number of injuries. Epidemiological studies have suggested that performing on inclined "raked" stages increases the likelihood of injury. However, no studies have examined if biomechanical differences exist between inclined and flat surfaces during functional tasks, such as landing from a jump. Such differences may provide a biomechanical rationale for differences in injury risk for raked stages. Eight professional dancers performed drop jumps from a 40cm platform on flat and inclined surfaces while forces, lower extremity kinematics, and electromyographic activity were collected in a controlled laboratory environment. Dancers landed on the laterally inclined surface with significantly higher knee valgus (4 degrees ), peak knee flexion (9 degrees ), and medial-lateral ground reaction force (GRF) (13.4% body weight) compared to the flat condition. The posterior GRF was higher in the anterior inclined condition compared to the flat condition. In the anterior inclined condition, subjects landed with 1.4 degrees higher knee valgus, 4 degrees more plantarflexion at initial contact, and 3 degrees less dorsiflexion at the end of landing. Biomechanical variables that have been suggested to contribute to injury in previous studies are increased in the inclined floor conditions. These findings provide a preliminary biomechanical rationale for differences in injury rates found in observational studies of raked stages.

  20. Systems considerations in mosaic focal planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K. P., III

    1983-08-01

    Two key reasons for pursuing the development of mosaic focal planes are reviewed and it is shown that rapid frame repetition rate is the only requirement that can be solved no other way than through mosaic focal planes. With the view that spaceborne mosaic focal plane sensors are necessarily 'smart sensors' requiring a lot of onboard processing just to function, it is pointed out that various artificial intelligence techniques may be the most appropriate to incorporate in the data processing. Finally, a novel mosaic focal plane design is proposed, termed a virtual mosaic focal plane, in response to other system constraints.

  1. An introduction to finite projective planes

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, Abraham Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Geared toward both beginning and advanced undergraduate and graduate students, this self-contained treatment offers an elementary approach to finite projective planes. Following a review of the basics of projective geometry, the text examines finite planes, field planes, and coordinates in an arbitrary plane. Additional topics include central collineations and the little Desargues' property, the fundamental theorem, and examples of finite non-Desarguesian planes.Virtually no knowledge or sophistication on the part of the student is assumed, and every algebraic system that arises is defined and

  2. Establishing the customized occlusal plane in systemized surgical treatment objectives of class III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seung-Hak; Ahn, Hyo-Won; Yang, Sang-Duck; Choi, Jin-Young

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to present a new approach for establishing the customized occlusal plane for an individual patient in systemized surgical treatment objective of class III cases. After the correction of incisor inclination to occlusal planes (U1-MxOP and L1-MnOP), the intermaxillary relationship can be established with normal overbite/overjet and maximum intercuspation. The anterior limits of the maxilla and the mandible can be positioned according to A to N perpendicular, Frankfort horizontal (FH) to AB plane angle, and upper incisor display. The vertical level of the upper first molar can then be determined in relation to the Y plane (an imaginary arch drawn using the distance between the lower incisor edge point and the rotation center point of the condylar head as a radius) and a triangle projected by the upper and lower limits of the FH to the occlusal plane (FH-OP triangle). Soft-tissue facial balance can be checked with the lip/chin projection in relation to the true vertical line at subnasale and the lower third facial height ratio. Appropriate superior impaction of the posterior part of the maxilla in relation to the Y plane and FH-OP triangle in case 1 produced significant improvement of the facial profile and occlusion. However, case 2 showed that the amount of superior impaction of the posterior part of the maxilla was not enough to produce a significant setback of the mandible and retraction of the lip and chin. The systemized surgical treatment objective flowchart that could set the customized occlusal plane for an individual patient might provide a useful guideline for obtaining optimal aesthetics and functional occlusion in class III cases.

  3. Canting of the occlusal plane: perceptions of dental professionals and laypersons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Amparo; Vicente, Ascensión; Jacobo, Carmen; Molina, Sara-María; Rodríguez, Alicia; Bravo, Luis-Alberto

    2013-05-01

    To determine if canting of the occlusal plane influences esthetic evaluation of the smile among orthodontists, dentists and laypersons. A frontal photo of a smile with 0 occlusal plane canting in relation to the bipupillary plane was modified using Adobe Photoshop C3 (Adobe Systems Inc, San José, California) to generate two images with occlusal plane inclinations of 2 and 4 . The three images were evaluated esthetically by orthodontists (n=40) general dentists (n=40) and laypersons (n=40). Each image was awarded a score as follows: 1=esthetically acceptable; 2=moderately acceptable; 3=esthetically unacceptable. Evaluators also placed the three images in order in preference. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis (p 0.05) were found between the three groups for 0 and 2 cants (median for orthodontists=1; general dentists=1; laypersons=1). Orthodontists (median score=3) made evaluations of the image with 4 occlusal plane that were significantly different from general dentists (median=2) and laypersons (median=2). All three groups put the 0 image in first place in order of esthetic acceptability, the 2 image in second place and the 4 image in third place. Orthodontists placed the 0 image in first place with significantly greater frequency (pOcclusal plane canting of 0 and 2 were evaluated as esthetically acceptable by the three groups. The 4 occlusal plane cant was evaluated more negatively by orthodontists than by general dentists and laypersons. All three groups placed the 0 image in first place of esthetic acceptability, 2 in second place and 4 in third. Orthodontists put the 0 image in first place with significantly greater frequency than laypersons.

  4. Effects of an inclined walking surface and balance abilities on spatiotemporal gait parameters of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Richard A; Pinto-Zipp, Genevieve; Simpkins, Susan; Clark, MaryAnn

    2013-01-01

    To date, few studies have investigated how walking patterns on inclines change in healthy older adults. The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of an inclined walking surface and balance abilities on various spatiotemporal gait parameters of healthy older adults. Seventy-eight self-reported independent community ambulators (mean age, 77.8 years; SD, 4.8) participated in this study. After completing the Berg Balance Scale and Dynamic Gait Index (DGI), all participants were asked to walk on the GaitRite on level and inclined surfaces (10° slope). Dependent t tests were used to determine statistical significance between level and inclined surfaces for cadence, step length, velocity, and gait stability ratio (GSR). GSR is a measure of the degree of adaptation an individual makes to increase stability during gait derived from a ratio of cadence/velocity. A 2 2 analysis of variance was performed to determine differences in means among the higher-risk participants (as determined by the Berg Balance Scale and Dynamic Gait Index) comparing their level and incline walking patterns. The level of significance was set at P 0.05. During incline walking a significant decrease occurred in mean step length, 63.1(8.8) cm, P 0.001, mean cadence, 111.6 (8.9) step/min, P 0.01 and mean normalized velocity, 1.4 (0.23), P 0.001. However, mean GSR increased on inclines, 1.62 (0.22) steps/m, P 0.004. Main effects were evident for both walking surface and fall risk for all gait parameters tested. Healthy older adults adopt a more stable gait pattern on inclines decreasing velocity and spending more time in the double support despite the increased physiological demands to perform this task. Clear changes were evident between level and incline surfaces regardless of fall risk as defined by 2 different objective balance measures [corrected].

  5. Comparison of the buccolingual inclination in alveolar bone and tooth using dental CBCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Jin Soo; Kim, Jae Duk

    2008-01-01

    It is important to determine the bucco-lingual inclination of implants on radiographs before the implant surgery. The purpose of this study was to compare the buccolingual inclination in alveolar bone and the tooth with dental cone beam CT and to prepare the standard for the buccolingual inclination of implant. Axial, panoramic, and buccolingually sectioned images of 80 implant cases with stent including straight marker using CB Mercuray TM (Hitachi, Japan) were evaluated. The comparison of the buccolingual inclination of remained alveolar bone with the tooth and the marker on buccolingually sectioned views was performed statistically. The average buccolingual inclination of remained alveolar bone and tooth was 82.8 ± 4.6 .deg. C and 85.8 ± 4.7 .deg. C (p 0.05, r=0.12) at the 2nd premolar area in upper jaw. The average buccolingual inclination of remained alveolar bone and tooth was 81.3 ± 8.3 .deg. C and 87.5 ± 6.3 .deg. C (p>0.05, r=0.85) at the lower 2nd premolar area and 94.3 ± 6.6 .deg. C and 93.3 ± 7.2 .deg. C respectively (p>0.05, r=0.91) at the 1st molar area in lower jaw. The inclinations of markers were very different from those of remained bone at the most of areas except the upper 2nd premolar area (r=0.79). We recommend dental CBCT analysis for determining the buccolingual inclination of dental implant, because of significant difference, in average, between the buccolingual inclination of remained alveolar bone and tooth.

  6. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of energy production, energy conversion, atomic energy and renewable energy. The development of the energy consumption in Austria for the years 1993 to 1999 is given for the different energy types. The development of the use of renewable energy sources in Austria is given, different domestic heat-systems are compared, life cycles and environmental balance are outlined. (a.n.)

  7. Experimental In-Plane Evaluation of Light Timber Walls Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge M. Branco

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In general, the satisfactory seismic performance of timber buildings can be partially attributed to the material characteristics of the wood itself and to the lightness of its own structure. The aim of this paper is to analyze the in-plane behavior of light timber walls panels through a series of monotonic and cyclic tests, and to evaluate how the sheathing material and the fixation to the base influence the overall response of the wall. Five tests are presented and discussed while the reliability of an analytical method to predict the response of the walls is studied. The sheathing material revealed to be important in the overall response of the wall. Moreover, the type of fixation to the base also revealed to be important in the in-plane response of timber walls. In-plane stiffnesses, static ductility, energy dissipation and damping ratio have been quantified.

  8. m-plane GaN layers grown by rf-plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy with varying Ga/N flux ratios on m-plane 4H-SiC substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armitage, R.; Horita, M.; Suda, J.; Kimoto, T.

    2007-01-01

    A series of m-plane GaN layers with the Ga beam-equivalent pressure (BEP) as the only varied parameter was grown by rf-plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy on m-plane 4H-SiC substrates using AlN buffer layers. The smoothest growth surfaces and most complete film coalescence were found for the highest Ga BEP corresponding to the Ga droplet accumulation regime. However, better structural quality as assessed by x-ray rocking curves was observed for growth at a lower Ga BEP value below the droplet limit. The variation of rocking curve widths for planes inclined with respect to the epilayer c axis followed a different trend with Ga BEP than those of reflections parallel to the c axis. The GaN layers were found to exhibit a large residual compressive strain along the a axis

  9. Functional Aesthetic Occlusal Plane (FAOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Câmara

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: A reasonable exposure of incisors and gingival tissues is generally considered more attractive than excess or lack of exposure. A reasonable gingival exposure is considered to be around 0 to 2 mm when smiling and 2-4 mm exposure of the maxillary incisor edge when the lips are at rest. Objective: The aim of this paper is to present the Functional Aesthetic Occlusal Plane (FAOP, which aims to help in the diagnosis of the relationships established among molars, incisors and the upper lip. Conclusion: FAOP can complement an existing and established orthodontic treatment plan, facilitating the visualization of functional and aesthetic demands by giving a greater focus on the position of incisors in the relationship established among the incisors, molars and the upper lip stomion.

  10. Functional Aesthetic Occlusal Plane (FAOP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Câmara, Carlos Alexandre; Martins, Renato Parsekian

    2016-01-01

    A reasonable exposure of incisors and gingival tissues is generally considered more attractive than excess or lack of exposure. A reasonable gingival exposure is considered to be around 0 to 2 mm when smiling and 2-4 mm exposure of the maxillary incisor edge when the lips are at rest. The aim of this paper is to present the Functional Aesthetic Occlusal Plane (FAOP), which aims to help in the diagnosis of the relationships established among molars, incisors and the upper lip. FAOP can complement an existing and established orthodontic treatment plan, facilitating the visualization of functional and aesthetic demands by giving a greater focus on the position of incisors in the relationship established among the incisors, molars and the upper lip stomion.

  11. Natural Convection in an Inclined Porous Cavity with Spatial Sidewall Temperature Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Selamat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural convection in an inclined porous square cavity is investigated numerically. The left wall is assumed to have spatial sinusoidal temperature variations about a constant mean value, while the right wall is cooled. The horizontal walls are considered adiabatic. A finite difference method is used to solve numerically the nondimensional governing equations. The effects of the inclination angle of the cavity, the amplitude and wave numbers of the heated sidewall temperature variation on the natural convection in the cavity are studied. The maximum average Nusselt number occurs at different wave number. It also found that the inclination could influence the Nusselt number.

  12. Effect of wall inclination on natural convection in a porous trapezoidal cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, H. T.; Sivasankaran, S.; Siri, Z.

    2014-07-01

    The present study investigates numerically the effect of wall inclination of a trapezoidal cavity on natural convective flow and heat transfer. The cavity is filled with porous medium. Sinusoidal temperature is applied on the inclined wall and the opposite wall is maintained at a constant temperature. The top and bottom walls are adiabatic. The Darcy model is adopted for porous medium. The governing equations are solved using the finite difference method with various values of wall inclination and Rayleigh number. The heat transfer of the square cavity is found to be higher than that of trapezoidal and triangular cavities.

  13. The metabolic cost of walking on an incline in the Peacock (Pavo cristatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Holly; Thavarajah, Nathan; Codd, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Altering speed and moving on a gradient can affect an animal’s posture and gait, which in turn can change the energetic requirements of terrestrial locomotion. Here, the energetic and kinematic effects of locomoting on an incline were investigated in the Indian peacock, Pavo cristatus. The mass-specific metabolic rate of the Indian peacock was elevated on an incline, but this change was not dependent on the angle ascended and the cost of lifting remained similar between the two inclines (+5 a...

  14. The Effect of the Angle of Inclination on the Efficiency in a Medium-Temperature Flat Plate Solar Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Montoya-Marquez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this experimental work, the effects of the inclination angle β and the (Ti − Ta/G on the efficiency and the UL-value were investigated on a medium-temperature flat plate solar collector. The experiments were based on steady-state energy balance, by heat flow calorimetry at indoor conditions and considering the standard American National Standard Institute/American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ANSI/ASHRAE 93-2010. The solar radiation was emulated by the Joule effect using a proportional integral derivative (PID control considering two conditions of the absorber temperature, Case 1: (To − Ti > 0, and Case 2: (To − Ti = 0. The inclination angles were 0°–90° and the (Ti − Ta/G were 0.044–0.083 m2·°C/W and 0.124–0.235 for Case 1 and Case 2, respectively. The variations of β and (Ti − Ta/G cause efficiency changes up to 0.37–0.45 (21.6% and 0.31–0.45 (45.0%, respectively, for Case 1. Also, the UL(β reached changes up to 10.1–12.0 W/m2·°C (19.2% and 8.4–12.0 W/m2·°C (41.7%, respectively, for Case 1. The most significant changes of UL(β/UL(90° vs. β were 8.0% at the horizontal position for Case 1, while for Case 2, the maximum change was 1.8% only. Therefore, the changes of the inclination angle cause significant variations of the convective flow patterns within the collector, which leads to considerable variation of the collector efficiency and its UL value.

  15. Energy conversion evolution at lunar polar sites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    described the motions of the Moon, including the orientation and precession of its spin axis rela- tive to its orbit and the plane of the ecliptic. The Moon's polar axis is inclined only about one- and-a-half degrees from the ecliptic pole, with the result that sunlight is nearly continuous and always horizontal in lunar polar regions.

  16. Inclination shallowing in the Eocene Linzizong sediments from Tibet: correction, possible causes and implications for reconstructing the India-Asia collision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, W.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; Lippert, P.C.; Hinsbergen, D.J.J. van; Hallot, E.

    2013-01-01

    A systematic bias towards low palaeomagnetic inclination recorded in clastic sediments, that is, inclination shallowing, has been recognized and studied for decades. Identification, understanding and correction of this inclination shallowing are critical for palaeogeographic

  17. Forming mechanism and prevention of water-coal-burst disaster on extremely inclined faces under Ordovician aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Q.; Qian, Z.; Dong, D.; Song, E.; Hong, Y. [China University Of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Beijing Campus

    2000-08-01

    The formation of a saturated body of coal-water mixture is due to the actions of multiple controlling factors of water source, coal characteristics, potential energy and time. Coal-water burst disaster is characterized by paroxysm, huge energy, short duration, strong explosive force and causing severe damages. Very often it takes place only under special background conditions. In extremely inclined coal seam districts, because the working faces are generally arranged under water-prevention coal pillars, the mining inbreak heights are too near the location of the body of coal-water mixture. Hence the mining activity may induce the occurrence of coal-water burst disaster. Based on the analysis of the disaster mechanism, some effective preventive measures for coal-water burst disaster in coal mines are put forward. 3 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Muscular activity of lower limb muscles associated with working on inclined surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ming-Lun; Kincl, Laurel; Lowe, Brian; Succop, Paul; Bhattacharya, Amit

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of visual cues, muscular fatigue, task performance and experience of working on inclined surfaces on activity of postural muscles in the lower limbs associated with maintaining balance on three inclined surfaces - 0°, 14° and 26°. Normalised electromyographic (NEMG) data were collected in 44 professional roofers bilaterally from the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialii anterior and gastrocnemii medial muscle groups. The 50th and 95th percentile NEMG amplitudes were used as EMG variables. Results showed that inclination angle and task performance caused a significant increase in the NEMG amplitudes of all postural muscles. Visual cues were significantly associated with a decrease in the 95th percentile EMG amplitude for the right gastrocnemius medial and tibialis anterior. Fatigue was related to a significant decrease in the NEMG amplitude for the rectus femoris. Experience of working on inclined surfaces did not have a significant effect on the NEMG amplitude.

  19. Determination of the photoelectron reference plane in nanostructured surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo-Checa, Jorge; Mugarza, Aitor; Ortega, Jose Enrique; Michel, Enrique G

    2011-01-01

    In angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) from crystalline solids, wave-vector conservation applies to the two-dimensional (2D) surface, which may thus be defined as the reference plane in ARPES. We investigate whether such reference varies for photoemitted electrons in nanometer-sized systems that expose different crystal planes. To this aim, we exploit the structural tunability of the Ag/Cu(223) system which is capable of offering surfaces with periodic arrays of nanofacets of varying size and orientation. A thorough, photon-energy-dependent analysis of the surface states confined to such nanostructures is performed comparing different reference planes for photoemitted electrons. Assuming the premise that k || must be a good quantum number for 2D states, we conclude that the (final state) photoelectron reference direction is not the average optical direction but the local facet that confines the (initial state) surface electrons. Moreover, in the general case of nanostructured systems with uneven surfaces, we show how the photoelectron reference plane can be empirically determined through such a photon-energy-dependent ARPES analysis. (paper)

  20. Position sensitive proportional counters as focal plane detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, J.L.C. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The rise time and charge division techniques for position decoding with RC-line proportional counters are reviewed. The advantages that these detectors offer as focal plane counters for nuclear spectroscopy performed with magnetic spectrographs are discussed. The theory of operation of proportional counters as position sensing devices is summarized, as well as practical aspects affecting their application. Factors limiting the position and energy resolutions obtainable with a focal plane proportional counter are evaluated and measured position and energy loss values are presented for comparison. Detector systems capable of the multiparameter measurements required for particle identification, background suppression and ray-tracing are described in order to illustrate the wide applicability of proportional counters within complex focal plane systems. Examples of the use of these counters other than with magnetic spectrographs are given in order to demonstrate their usefulness in not only nuclear physics but also in fields such as solid state physics, biology, and medicine. The influence of the new focal plane detector systems on future magnetic spectrograph designs is discussed. (Auth.)

  1. Temporal evolution of photon energy emitted from two-component advective flows: origin of time lag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Arka; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Ghosh, Himadri

    2017-12-01

    X-ray time lag of black hole candidates contains important information regarding the emission geometry. Recently, study of time lags from observational data revealed very intriguing properties. To investigate the real cause of this lag behavior with energy and spectral states, we study photon paths inside a two-component advective flow (TCAF) which appears to be a satisfactory model to explain the spectral and timing properties. We employ the Monte Carlo simulation technique to carry out the Comptonization process. We use a relativistic thick disk in Schwarzschild geometry as the CENtrifugal pressure supported BOundary Layer (CENBOL) which is the Compton cloud. In TCAF, this is the post-shock region of the advective component. Keplerian disk on the equatorial plane which is truncated at the inner edge i.e. at the outer boundary of the CENBOL, acts as the soft photon source. Ray-tracing code is employed to track the photons to a distantly located observer. We compute the cumulative time taken by a photon during Comptonization, reflection and following the curved geometry on the way to the observer. Time lags between various hard and soft bands have been calculated. We study the variation of time lags with accretion rates, CENBOL size and inclination angle. Time lags for different energy channels are plotted for different inclination angles. The general trend of variation of time lag with QPO frequency and energy as observed in satellite data is reproduced.

  2. Incisor inclination determined by the light reflection zone on the tooth's surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezniak, Naphtali; Turgeman, Ronit; Redlich, Meir

    2010-01-01

    Maxillary incisors are the most prominent teeth, and their inclination plays an important role in esthetics. In orthodontics, the inclination of central incisors is usually determined by cephalometric analysis. This publication suggests an adjunctive clinical measure to determine this inclination. The objective of the study was to examine the correlation between the inclinations of maxillary incisors measured on a cephalometric lateral headfilm and the light reflection zone appearing on the buccal surface of the teeth on anterior intraoral photographs. Maxillary incisor inclination, divided into three levels-proclination, normal inclination, and retroclination-of 65 patients was determined by means of cephalometric analysis, using three angular measurements (maxillary incisor to sella-nasion, maxillary incisor to Frankfort horizontal, and maxillary incisor to nasion-point A). The anterior intraoral photographs of the 65 patients were divided into 3 groups according to the reflection zone on the maxillary central incisors as determined from the photographs: incisal, middle, and gingival. The correlation and agreement between the two parameters were evaluated by chi-square and kappa statistics. The light reflection zone on the tooth surface as it appears on intraoral photographs-incisal, middle, or gingival-correlated with statistical significance to the angular inclination of the teeth-proclination, normal inclination, and retroclination, respectively-as determined by means of cephalometric analysis (P light reflection zone viewed on the buccal surface of intraoral photographs. This method might be used as a new screening tool and further as an additional clinical tool for assessing treatment plans in orthodontics and other fields of dentistry.

  3. Natural Convection in an Inclined Porous Cavity with Spatial Sidewall Temperature Variations

    OpenAIRE

    Selamat, M. S.; Roslan, R.; Hashim, I.

    2012-01-01

    The natural convection in an inclined porous square cavity is investigated numerically. The left wall is assumed to have spatial sinusoidal temperature variations about a constant mean value, while the right wall is cooled. The horizontal walls are considered adiabatic. A finite difference method is used to solve numerically the nondimensional governing equations. The effects of the inclination angle of the cavity, the amplitude and wave numbers of the heated sidewall temperature variation o...

  4. The effect of speleothem surface slope on the remanent magnetic inclination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte, J. M.; Font, E.; Veiga-Pires, C.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.; Ghaleb, B.

    2017-06-01

    Speleothems are of interest for high-resolution reconstruction of the Earth's magnetic field. However, little is known about the influence of speleothem morphologies on their natural remanent magnetization (NRM) record. Here we report on a high-resolution paleomagnetic study of a dome-shaped speleothem of middle Holocene age from southern Portugal, with special attention to the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and anisotropy of anhysteretic remanent magnetization (AARM). To assess the potential influence of the slope of the speleothem surface on the recorded remanent magnetization, we compare magnetic directions and AMS and AARM fabrics from subhorizontal to gradually subvertical calcite growth layers collected in a transversal cross section of the speleothem. A linear correlation is observed between magnetic inclinations, calcite laminae slope, and AARM k1 inclination. The AMS fabric is mostly controlled by calcite crystals, with direction of the minimum axes (k3) perpendicular to laminae growth. Magnetic inclinations recorded in inclined and vertical calcite growth layers are underestimated when compared to a global paleosecular variation (PSV) model. After extrapolating magnetic inclinations to the horizontal, the corrected data better fit the PSV model but are still lower than the predicted magnetic inclinations, suggesting that inclination shallowing affects the entire speleothem. We suggest that speleothem morphology exerts a critical role on the magnetic inclination recording, which is controlled by the Earth's magnetic field but also influenced by particle rolling along the sloping surfaces. These observations open new avenues for reconstructing high-resolution paleomagnetic secular variation records from speleothems and provide new insights into their NRM acquisition mechanisms.

  5. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobin, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Object of sciences and technologies, energy plays a major part in economics and relations between nations. Jean-Louis Bobin, physicist, analyses the relations between man and energy and wonders about fears that delivers nowadays technologies bound to nuclear energy and about the fear of a possible shortage of energy resources. (N.C.). 17 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Fem Simulation of Triple Diffusive Natural Convection Along Inclined Plate in Porous Medium: Prescribed Surface Heat, Solute and Nanoparticles Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, triple diffusive natural convection under Darcy flow over an inclined plate embedded in a porous medium saturated with a binary base fluid containing nanoparticles and two salts is studied. The model used for the nanofluid is the one which incorporates the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. In addition, the thermal energy equations include regular diffusion and cross-diffusion terms. The vertical surface has the heat, mass and nanoparticle fluxes each prescribed as a power law function of the distance along the wall. The boundary layer equations are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations with the help of group theory transformations. A wide range of parameter values are chosen to bring out the effect of buoyancy ratio, regular Lewis number and modified Dufour parameters of both salts and nanofluid parameters with varying angle of inclinations. The effects of parameters on the velocity, temperature, solutal and nanoparticles volume fraction profiles, as well as on the important parameters of heat and mass transfer, i.e., the reduced Nusselt, regular and nanofluid Sherwood numbers, are discussed. Such problems find application in extrusion of metals, polymers and ceramics, production of plastic films, insulation of wires and liquid packaging.

  7. Fem Simulation of Triple Diffusive Natural Convection Along Inclined Plate in Porous Medium: Prescribed Surface Heat, Solute and Nanoparticles Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, M.; Goyal, R.; Bhargava, R.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, triple diffusive natural convection under Darcy flow over an inclined plate embedded in a porous medium saturated with a binary base fluid containing nanoparticles and two salts is studied. The model used for the nanofluid is the one which incorporates the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. In addition, the thermal energy equations include regular diffusion and cross-diffusion terms. The vertical surface has the heat, mass and nanoparticle fluxes each prescribed as a power law function of the distance along the wall. The boundary layer equations are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations with the help of group theory transformations. A wide range of parameter values are chosen to bring out the effect of buoyancy ratio, regular Lewis number and modified Dufour parameters of both salts and nanofluid parameters with varying angle of inclinations. The effects of parameters on the velocity, temperature, solutal and nanoparticles volume fraction profiles, as well as on the important parameters of heat and mass transfer, i.e., the reduced Nusselt, regular and nanofluid Sherwood numbers, are discussed. Such problems find application in extrusion of metals, polymers and ceramics, production of plastic films, insulation of wires and liquid packaging.

  8. MHD Mixed Convection Flow in a Rotating Channel in the Presence of an Inclined Magnetic Field with the Hall Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A.; Sharma, B. K.

    2017-11-01

    A numerical study of an oscillatory unsteady MHD flow and heat and mass transfer in a vertical rotating channel with an inclined uniform magnetic field and the Hall effect is carried out. The conservation equations of momentum, energy, and species are formulated in a rotating frame of reference with inclusion of the buoyancy effects and Lorentz forces. The Lorentz forces are determined by using the generalized Ohm law with the Hall parameter taken into account. The obtained coupled partial differential equations are nondimensionalized and solved numerically by using the explicit finite difference method. The effects of various model parameters, like the Hall parameter, Hartmann number, wall suction/injection parameter, rotation parameter, angle of magnetic field inclination, Prandtl number, Schmidt number, etc., on the channel velocities, skin friction coefficients, Nusselt number, and the Sherwood number are examined. It is found that the influence of the Hartmann number and Hall parameter on the channel velocities and skin friction coefficients is dependent on the value of the wall suction/injection parameter.

  9. ECLAIRs detection plane: current state of development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, K.; Pons, R.; Amoros, C.; Atteia, J.-L.; Barret, D.; Billot, M.; Bordon, S.; Cordier, B.; Gevin, O.; Godet, O.; Gonzalez, F.; Houret, B.; Mercier, K.; Mandrou, P.; Marty, W.; Nasser, G.; Rambaud, D.; Ramon, P.; Rouaix, G.; Waegebaert, V.

    2014-07-01

    ECLAIRs, a 2-D coded-mask imaging camera on-board the Sino-French SVOM space mission, will detect and locate Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in near real time in the 4-150 keV energy band. The design of ECLAIRs has been mainly driven by the objective of achieving a low-energy threshold of 4 keV, unprecedented for this type of instrument. The detection plane is an assembly of 6400 Schottky CdTe semiconductor detectors of size 4x4x1 mm3 organized on elementary hybrid matrices of 4x8 detectors. The detectors will be polarized from -300V to -500V and operated at -20°C to reduce both the leakage current and the polarization effect induced by the Schottky contact. The remarkable low-energy threshold homogeneity required for the detection plane has been achieved thanks to: i) an extensive characterization and selection of the detectors, ii) the development of a specific low-noise 32-channel ASIC, iii) the realization of an innovative hybrid module composed of a thick film ceramic (holding 32 CdTe detectors with their high voltage grid), associated to an HTCC ceramic (housing the ASIC chip within an hermetic enclosure). In this paper, we start describing a complete hybrid matrix, and then the manufacturing of a first set of 50 matrices (representing 1600 detectors, i.e. a quarter of ECLAIRs detector's array). We show how this manufacturing allowed to validate the different technologies used for this hybridization, as well as the industrialization processes. During this phase, we systematically measured the leakage current on Detector Ceramics after an outgassing, and the Equivalent Noise Charge (ENC) for each of the 32 channels on ASIC Ceramics, in order to optimize the coupling of the two ceramics. Finally, we performed on each hybrid module, spectral measurements at -20°C in our vacuum chamber, using several calibrated radioactive sources (241Am and 55Fe), to check the performance homogeneity of the 50 modules. The results demonstrated that the 32-detector hybrid matrices

  10. Development of an Inclined Plate Extractor-Separator for Immiscible Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Zahoor ul Hassan Rizvi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A new inclined plates extractor-separator is developed for operation with immiscible liquids in which extraction and separation is achieved in one unit contrary to mixer settlers. The inclined plates extractor-separator combines turbulent jets for contacting, and an inclined plate for separation of the two phases. The inclined plates extractor-separator does not have any moving part inside the vessel. This feature makes it free from the mechanical problems associated with conventional apparatus. The proposed inclined plates extractor-separator was operated in batch mode under various operating conditions to evaluate its performance on the basis of extraction efficiency. Water (light phase was used as solvent to extract ethyl acetate from a heavy phase pool of tetrachloroethylene and ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate content was analysed using chromatography. A hydrodynamic study was carried out using high speed photography to understand the mechanisms occurring during mass transfer across the two phases. Furthermore, it was found that the proposed inclined plate extractor-separator reduces the overall operating time by 67% and consumes only 13% of the power in comparison to a mixer-settler. A hydraulic power consumption comparison with a mixer settler and a gullwing extractor-separator is also presented.

  11. Interfacial friction factors for air-water co-current stratified flow in inclined channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ki Yong; No, Hee Cheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The interfacial shear stress is experimentally investigated for co-current air-water stratified flow in inclined rectangular channels having a length of 1854mm, width of 120 mm and height of 40mm at almost atmospheric pressure. Experiments are carried out in several inclinations from 0 deg up to 10 deg. The local film thickness and the wave height are measured at three locations, i.e., L/H = 8,23, and 40. According to the inclination angle, the experimental data are categorized into two groups; nearly horizontal data group (0 deg {<=} {theta} {<=} 0.7 deg), and inclined channel data group (0.7 deg {<=} {theta} {<=} 10 deg ). Experimental observations for nearly horizontal data group show that the flow is not fully developed due to the water level gradient and the hydraulic jump within the channel. For the inclined channel data group, a dimensionless wave height, {Delta}h/h, is empirically correlated in terms of Re{sub G} and h/H. A modified root-mean-square wave height is proposed to consider the effects of the interfacial and wave propagation velocities. It is found that an equivalent roughness has a linear relationship with the modified root-mean-square wave height and its relationship is independent of the inclination. 10 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  12. Effect of clear aligner therapy on the buccolingual inclination of mandibular canines and the intercanine distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünheid, Thorsten; Gaalaas, Sara; Hamdan, Hani; Larson, Brent E

    2016-01-01

    To compare the changes in buccolinugal inclination of mandibular canines and intercanine distance in patients treated with clear aligners to those treated with preadjusted edgewise appliances. The buccolingual inclination of mandibular canines and the intercanine distance were measured on pre- and posttreatment cone-beam computed tomograms of 30 patients who had been treated with clear aligners and 30 patients who had been treated with fixed preadjusted edgewise appliances. Differences between the aligner and fixed appliance groups and between pre- and posttreatment measurements were tested for statistical significance. In both groups, most of the mandibular canines had positive buccolingual inclinations (ie, their crowns were positioned lateral to their roots) both before and after treatment. While there was no difference between the groups pretreatment, the posttreatment buccolingual inclination was significantly greater in the aligner group. In the fixed appliance group, the canines became more upright with treatment, while the buccolingual inclination did not change significantly in the clear aligner group. The intercanine distance did not differ between the groups either before or after treatment. However, it increased significantly over the course of treatment in the aligner group, whereas it did not change significantly in the fixed appliance group. Orthodontic treatment with clear aligners tends to increase the mandibular intercanine distance with little change in inclination in contrast to treatment with fixed appliances, which leaves the intercanine distance unchanged but leads to more upright mandibular canines.

  13. The metabolic cost of walking on an incline in the Peacock (Pavo cristatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Wilkinson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Altering speed and moving on a gradient can affect an animal’s posture and gait, which in turn can change the energetic requirements of terrestrial locomotion. Here, the energetic and kinematic effects of locomoting on an incline were investigated in the Indian peacock, Pavo cristatus. The mass-specific metabolic rate of the Indian peacock was elevated on an incline, but this change was not dependent on the angle ascended and the cost of lifting remained similar between the two inclines (+5 and +7°. Interestingly, the Indian peacock had the highest efficiency when compared to any other previously studied avian biped, despite the presence of a large train. Duty factors were higher for birds moving on an incline, but there was no difference between +5 and +7°. Our results highlight the importance of investigating kinematic responses during energetic studies, as these may enable explanation of what is driving the underlying metabolic differences when moving on inclines. Further investigations are required to elucidate the underlying mechanical processes occurring during incline movement.

  14. The metabolic cost of walking on an incline in the Peacock (Pavo cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Holly; Thavarajah, Nathan; Codd, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Altering speed and moving on a gradient can affect an animal's posture and gait, which in turn can change the energetic requirements of terrestrial locomotion. Here, the energetic and kinematic effects of locomoting on an incline were investigated in the Indian peacock, Pavo cristatus. The mass-specific metabolic rate of the Indian peacock was elevated on an incline, but this change was not dependent on the angle ascended and the cost of lifting remained similar between the two inclines (+5 and +7°). Interestingly, the Indian peacock had the highest efficiency when compared to any other previously studied avian biped, despite the presence of a large train. Duty factors were higher for birds moving on an incline, but there was no difference between +5 and +7°. Our results highlight the importance of investigating kinematic responses during energetic studies, as these may enable explanation of what is driving the underlying metabolic differences when moving on inclines. Further investigations are required to elucidate the underlying mechanical processes occurring during incline movement.

  15. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Foland, Andrew Dean

    2007-01-01

    Energy is the central concept of physics. Unable to be created or destroyed but transformable from one form to another, energy ultimately determines what is and isn''t possible in our universe. This book gives readers an appreciation for the limits of energy and the quantities of energy in the world around them. This fascinating book explores the major forms of energy: kinetic, potential, electrical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear.

  16. Curves along which plane waves can interfere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karp, S.N.; Machover, M.

    1977-07-01

    Partial results are given on a conjecture in inverse scattering theory concerning the interference of two-dimensional plane waves. The conjecture states that an odd number of plane waves of the same frequency can only cancel each other at isolated points and not along a simple continuous curve. It is partially confirmed here for curves which are nearly flat at some point. An analysis is also made for various possible nodes for an even number of plane waves.

  17. Investigating the heat transfer on the top side of inclined printed circuit boards during vapour phase soldering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illés, Balázs; Géczy, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Investigating the effect of inclination on heat transfer uniformity and intensity during VPS. • Even moderate inclination has high impact on the condensate layer and on the heat transfer. • Inclination under 1° has negative effect on temperature distribution of the soldered board. • Inclination from 1° to 10° improves heat transfer uniformity of vapour phase soldering. • Inclination can help to reduce soldering failures during vapour phase soldering. - Abstract: In this paper, heat transfer and condensate layer formation was investigated by numerical simulations on the top side of inclined printed circuit boards during vapour phase soldering. The phase change on the inclined surface and the transfer mechanisms in the condensate layer were embedded in a three-dimensional model. Steady-state and saturated vapour conditions were applied as boundary conditions in order to study the pure effect of the inclination. Due to the electronic component and circuit board structures during soldering only moderate inclination angles were studied between 0° and 10°. It was found that a moderate inclination of the printed circuit board has considerable effects on the formation of condensate layer and consequently on heat transfer. Compared to the default horizontal orientation of the board, the thickness differences of the condensate layer can be decreased with an optimised inclination of the printed circuit board. This effect homogenizes heat transfer during the process, enabling improved solder joint quality, with reduced overall soldering failure count.

  18. Use of digital photography in the reconstruction of the occlusal plane orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Antonić,

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim This study evaluated whether the occlusal plane measurementson digital photographs were reliable for the reconstructionof occlusal plane.Methods Forty-two subjects (25 female and 17 male subjects,aged 19 to 30 years with all teeth and Angle Class I participated.Irreversible hydrocolloid impressions were made and the castswere poured in dental stone (ISO Type I and finally mounted inthe S.A.M. 2 “P”, articulator (S.A.M. Praezisiontechnik, GmbH,Munich, Germany by a quick mount face-bow transfer. Lateraldigital photographs were taken from a distance of 1.5 m in a naturalhead position with a subject in erect posture. A Fox plane wasplaced over the maxillary dental arch. A quick-mounting face-bowwas positioned. The angles between the articulator horizontalplane and the occlusal plane (AHP-OP, as well as those betweenthe face bow and the Fox plane (FB-FP were measured, and thesignificance of the difference between the means was tested by thet-test (p<0.05.Results The mean value of AHP-OP angle was 8.56 ± 3.1 degreesand the mean value of FB-FP angle was 8.80 ± 4.2 degrees. Therewas no significant difference between the male and the female subjects(p<0.05. There was no significant difference between AHPOPand FB-FP angles (p<0.05.Conclusion Measurements of occlusal plane inclination fromdigital photographs could be helpful in future prosthodontic reconstructiontreatment.

  19. Large Format Uncooled Focal Plane Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Black Forest Engineering has identified innovative modifications in uncooled focal plane array (UFPA) architecture and processing that allows development of large...

  20. Flux dynamics in ultrasensitive superconducting focal planes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The performance of superconducting focal planes will drive the achievable specifications of ultrasensitive instruments for NASA astrophysics missions, yet they have...

  1. Hall and Joule heating effects on peristaltic flow of Powell–Eyring liquid in an inclined symmetric channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hayat

    Full Text Available This article is intended to investigate the influence of Hall current on peristaltic transport of conducting Eyring–Powell fluid in an inclined symmetric channel. Energy equation is modeled by taking Joule heating effect into consideration. Velocity and thermal slip conditions are imposed. Lubrication approximation is considered for the analysis. Fundamental equations are non-linear due to fluid parameter A. Regular perturbation technique is employed to find the solution of systems of equations. The key roles of different embedded parameters on velocity, temperature and heat transfer coefficient in the problem are discussed graphically. Trapping phenomenon is analyzed carefully. Keywords: Peristalsis, Hall effects, Slip conditions, Joule heating, Eyring–Powell fluid and inclined channel

  2. Three-dimensional benchmark for variable-density flow and transport simulation: matching semi-analytic stability modes for steady unstable convection in an inclined porous box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Clifford I.; Simmons, Craig T.; Robinson, Neville I.

    2010-01-01

    This benchmark for three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulators of variable-density groundwater flow and solute or energy transport consists of matching simulation results with the semi-analytical solution for the transition from one steady-state convective mode to another in a porous box. Previous experimental and analytical studies of natural convective flow in an inclined porous layer have shown that there are a variety of convective modes possible depending on system parameters, geometry and inclination. In particular, there is a well-defined transition from the helicoidal mode consisting of downslope longitudinal rolls superimposed upon an upslope unicellular roll to a mode consisting of purely an upslope unicellular roll. Three-dimensional benchmarks for variable-density simulators are currently (2009) lacking and comparison of simulation results with this transition locus provides an unambiguous means to test the ability of such simulators to represent steady-state unstable 3D variable-density physics.

  3. Crystallographically tilted and partially strain relaxed GaN grown on inclined (111) facets etched on Si(100) substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansah Antwi, K. K.; Soh, C. B.; Wee, Q.; Tan, Rayson J. N.; Tan, H. R.; Yang, P.; Sun, L. F.; Shen, Z. X.; Chua, S. J.

    2013-01-01

    High resolution X-ray diffractometry (HR-XRD), Photoluminescence, Raman spectroscopy, and Transmission electron microscope measurements are reported for GaN deposited on a conventional Si(111) substrate and on the (111) facets etched on a Si(100) substrate. HR-XRD reciprocal space mappings showed that the GaN(0002) plane is tilted by about 0.63° ± 0.02° away from the exposed Si(111) growth surface for GaN deposited on the patterned Si(100) substrate, while no observable tilt existed between the GaN(0002) and Si(111) planes for GaN deposited on the conventional Si(111) substrate. The ratio of integrated intensities of the yellow to near band edge (NBE) luminescence (I YL /I NBE ) was determined to be about one order of magnitude lower in the case of GaN deposited on the patterned Si(100) substrate compared with GaN deposited on the conventional Si(111) substrate. The Raman E 2 (high) optical phonon mode at 565.224 ± 0.001 cm −1 with a narrow full width at half maximum of 1.526 ± 0.002 cm −1 was measured, for GaN deposited on the patterned Si(100) indicating high material quality. GaN deposition within the trench etched on the Si(100) substrate occurred via diffusion and mass-transport limited mechanism. This resulted in a differential GaN layer thickness from the top (i.e., 1.8 μm) of the trench to the bottom (i.e., 0.3 μm) of the trench. Mixed-type dislocation constituted about 80% of the total dislocations in the GaN grown on the inclined Si(111) surface etched on Si(100)

  4. Aquantis C-Plane Ocean Current Turbine Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Alex [Dehlsen Associates, LLC, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2015-09-16

    The Aquantis 2.5 MW Ocean Current Generation Device technology developed by Dehlsen Associates, LLC (DA) is a derivation of wind power generating technology (a means of harnessing a slow moving fluid) adapted to the ocean environment. The Aquantis Project provides an opportunity for accelerated technological development and early commercialization, since it involves the joining of two mature disciplines: ocean engineering and wind turbine design. The Aquantis Current Plane (C-Plane) technology is an ocean current turbine designed to extract kinetic energy from a current flow. The technology is capable of achieving competitively priced, continuous, base-load, and reliable power generation from a source of renewable energy not before possible in this scale or form.

  5. Inclined head position improves dose distribution during hippocampal-sparing whole brain radiotherapy using VMAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Su; Seo, Suk-Jin; Lee, Jaegi; Kim, Eunji; Choi, Noorie; Seok, Jin-Yong; Hong, Joo Wan; Chung, Jin-Beom; Eom, Keun-Yong; Kim, Jae-Sung; Kim, In Ah

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal-sparing whole brain radiotherapy (HS-WBRT) aims to preserve neurocognitive functions in patients undergoing brain radiotherapy (RT). Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) involves intensity-modulated RT using a coplanar arc. An inclined head position might improve dose distribution during HS-WBRT using VMAT. This study analyzed 8 patients receiving brain RT with inclined head positioning. A comparable set of CT images simulating a non-inclined head position was obtained by rotating the original CT set. HS-WBRT plans of coplanar VMAT for each CT set were generated with a prescribed dose of 30 Gy in 10 fractions. Maximum dose to the hippocampi was limited to 16 Gy; to the optic nerve, optic chiasm, and eyeballs this was confined to less than 37.5 Gy; for the lenses to 8 Gy. Dosimetric parameters of the two different plans of 8 patients were compared with paired t-test. Mean inclined head angle was 11.09 ± 0.73 . The homogeneity (HI) and conformity (CI) indexes demonstrated improved results, with an average 8.4 ± 10.0 % (p = 0.041) and 5.3 ± 3.9 % (p = 0.005) reduction, respectively, in the inclined vs. non-inclined position. The inclined head position had lower hippocampi D min (10.45 ± 0.36 Gy), D max (13.70 ± 0.25 Gy), and D mean (12.01 ± 0.38 Gy) values vs. the non-inclined head position (D min = 12.07 ± 1.07 Gy; D max = 15.70 ± 1.25 Gy; D mean = 13.91 ± 1.01 Gy), with 12.8 ± 8.9 % (p = 0.007), 12.2 ± 6.8 % (p = 0.003), and 13.2 ± 7.2 % (p = 0.002) reductions, respectively. Mean D max for the lenses was 6.34 ± 0.72 Gy and 7.60 ± 0.46 Gy, respectively, with a 16.3 ± 10.8 % reduction in the inclined position (p = 0.004). D max for the optic nerve and D mean for the eyeballs also decreased by 7.0 ± 5.9 % (p = 0.015) and 8.4 ± 7.2 % (p = 0.015), respectively. Inclining the head position to approximately 11 during HS-WBRT using VMAT improved dose distribution in the planning target volume and allowed lower doses to the hippocampi and

  6. From in-plane to out-of-plane enhancement of the directed flow in 64Zn on 58Ni collisions between 35 and 79 MeV/u

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelique, J.C.; Bizard, G.; Brou, R.; Cussol, D.; Kerambrun, A.; Patry, J.P.; Peter, J.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Cabot, C.; Rosato, E.

    1994-05-01

    The azimuthal distributions of light particles relative to the reaction plane have been measured for several bins of experimentally estimated impact parameter in the reactions of 64 Zn + 58 Ni at energies between 35 and 79 MeV/u. An in-plane enhancement for mid-rapidity Z = 1, 2, 3 particles is observed at low incident energy but gradually evolves to out-of plane enhancement (squeeze-out effect) with increasing energy. This evolution depends on the impact parameter in a way similar to the flow parameter. The energies for this system at which the azimuthal distribution is uniform are lower than the corresponding balance energies. (authors)

  7. Measurement of defects on the wall by use of the inclination angle of laser slit beam and position tracking algorithm of camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Hwan; Yoon, Ji Sup; Jung, Jae Hoo; Hong, Dong Hee; Park, Gee Yong

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a method of measuring the size of defects on the wall and restructuring the defect image is proposed based on the estimation algorithm of a camera orientation which uses the declination angle of the line slit beam. To reconstruct the image, an algorithm of estimating the horizontally inclined angle of CCD camera is presented. This algorithm adopts a 3-dimensional coordinate transformation of the image plane where both the LASER beam and the original image of the defects exist. The estimation equation is obtained by using the information of the beam projected on the wall and the parameters of this equation are experimentally obtained. With this algorithm, the original image of the defect can be reconstructed into the image which is obtained by a camera normal to the wall. From the result of a series of experiment shows that the measuring accuracy of the defect is within 0.5% error bound of real defect size under 30 degree of the horizontally inclined angle. Also, the accuracy is deteriorates with the error rate of 1% for every 10 degree increase of the horizontally inclined angle. The estimation error increases in the range of 30{approx}50 degree due to the existence of dead zone of defect depth, and defect length can not be measured due to the disappearance of image data above 70 degree. In case of under water condition, the measuring accuracy is also influenced due to the changed field of view of both the camera and the laser slit beam caused by the refraction rate in the water. The proposed algorithm provides the method of reconstructing the image taken at any arbitrary camera orientation into the image which is obtained by a camera normal to the wall and thus it enables the accurate measurement of the defect lengths only by using a single camera and a laser slit beam.

  8. In-Clinic Blood Pressure Prediction of Normal Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Pediatric Hypertension Referrals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Philip K; Ferguson, Michael A; Zachariah, Justin P

    2016-07-01

    Since younger patients have low pretest probability of hypertension and are susceptible to reactive and masked hypertension, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) can be useful. To better target use in referred patients, we sought to define in-clinic systolic blood pressure (SBP) measures that predicted normal ABPM and target end organ damage. Data were collected on consecutive patients referred for high BP undergoing an ambulatory BP monitor from 2010 to 2013 (n = 248, 33.9% female, mean age 15.5 ± 3.6 years). Candidate in-clinic predictors were systolic maximum, minimum, or average BPs obtained by auscultative, oscillometric, or both. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine the prediction of normal ABPM by in-clinic BP predictors. Separate models considered predicting left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) by in-clinic SBP vs. ABPM-defined hypertension. Identified predictor utility was tested with receiver operator characteristic curves. Maximum (OR 0.97 [95% CI 0.94-0.99]; P = .047), minimum (0.96 [0.94-0.99]; P = .002), and average (0.97 [0.95-1.00]; P = .04) in-clinic auscultative SBP predicted normal ABPM. Each had a c-statistic of 0.58. LVH was associated with in-clinic auscultative minimum SBP treated continuously (1.05, [1.01-1.10], P = .01) or dichotomized at the 90th percentile (8.23, [1.48-45.80], P = .02), as well as ABPM-defined hypertension (3.31, [1.23-8.91], P = .02). Both predictors had poor sensitivity and specificity. In youth, normal auscultative in-clinic systolic blood pressure indices weakly predicted normal ambulatory blood pressure and target end organ damage. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Computational stability appraisal of rectangular natural circulation loop: Effect of loop inclination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnani, Mayur; Basu, Dipankar N.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Computational model developed for single-phase rectangular natural circulation loop. • Role of loop inclination to vertical on thermalhydraulic stability is explored. • Inclination has strong stabilizing effect due to lower effective gravitation force. • Increase in tilt angle reduces settling time and highest amplitude of oscillation. • An angle of 15° is suggested for the selected loop geometry. - Abstract: Controlling stability behavior of single-phase natural circulation loops, without significantly affecting its steady-state characteristics, is a topic of wide research interest. Present study explores the role of loop inclination on a particular loop geometry. Accordingly a 3D computational model of a rectangular loop is developed and transient conservation equations are solved to obtain the temporal variation in flow parameters. Starting from the quiescent state, simulations are performed for selected sets of operating conditions and also with a few selected inclination angles. System experiences instability at higher heater powers and also with higher sink temperatures. Inclination is found to have a strong stabilizing influence owing to the reduction in the effective gravitational acceleration and subsequent decline in local buoyancy effects. The settling time and highest amplitude of oscillations substantially reduces for a stable system with a small inclination. Typically-unstable systems can also suppress the oscillations, when subjected to tilting, within a reasonable period of time. It is possible to stabilize the loop within shorter time span by increasing the tilt angle, but at the expense of reduction in steady-state flow rate. Overall a tilt angle of 15° is suggested for the selected geometry. Results from the 3D model is compared with the predictions from an indigenous 1D code. While similar qualitative influence of inclination is observed, the 1D model predicts early appearance of the stability threshold and hence hints

  10. Differences in early sagittal plane alignment between thoracic and lumbar adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlösser, Tom P C; Shah, Suken A; Reichard, Samantha J; Rogers, Kenneth; Vincken, Koen L; Castelein, René M

    2014-02-01

    It has previously been shown that rotational stability of spinal segments is reduced by posteriorly directed shear loads that are the result of gravity and muscle tone. Posterior shear loads act on those segments of the spine that are posteriorly inclined, as determined by each individual's inherited sagittal spinal profile. Accordingly, it can be inferred that certain sagittal spinal profiles are more prone to develop a rotational deformity that may lead to idiopathic scoliosis; and lumbar scoliosis, on one end of the spectrum, develops from a different sagittal spinal profile than thoracic scoliosis on the other end. To examine the role of sagittal spinopelvic alignment in the etiopathogenesis of different types of idiopathic scoliosis. Multicenter retrospective analysis of lateral radiographs of patients with small thoracic and lumbar adolescent idiopathic scoliotic curves. We included 192 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients with either a thoracic (n=128) or lumbar (n=64) structural curve with a Cobb angle of less than 20° were studied. Children with other spinal pathology or with more severe idiopathic scoliosis were excluded, because this disturbs their original sagittal profile. Subjects who underwent scoliosis screening and had a normal spine were included in the control cohort (n=95). Thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, T9 sagittal offset, C7 and T4 sagittal plumb lines, pelvic incidence, pelvic tilt, and sacral slope, as well as parameters describing orientation in space of each individual vertebra between C7 and L5 and length of the posteriorly inclined segment. On standardized lateral radiographs of the spine, a systematic, semi-automatic measurement of the different sagittal spinopelvic parameters was performed for each subject using in-house developed computer software. Early thoracic scoliosis showed a significantly different sagittal plane from lumbar scoliosis. Furthermore, both scoliotic curve patterns were different from controls, but in a

  11. Discretization of superintegrable systems on a plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabát, Z.

    2012-02-01

    We construct difference analogues of so called Smorodinsky-Winternitz superintegrable systems in the Euclidean plane. Using methods of umbral calculus, we obtain difference equations for generalized isotropic harmonic oscillator on the uniform lattice, and also its solution in terms of power series. In the case of gauge-rotated Hamiltonian, the solution is a polynomial, well-defined in the whole plane.

  12. Trigonometric Characterization of Some Plane Curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    There is a way to describe a family of plane curves different from that using Cartesian or po- lar co-ordinates. This is a trigonometric equation involving two angles. In this article, we highlight the fact that trigonometric equations are conve- nient to describe certain one-parameter families of plane curves. In some cases, the ...

  13. Entropy generation of micropolar fluid flow in an inclined porous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Srinivasacharya

    collectors and geothermal energy systems depend on entropy generation. The concept of entropy generation rate in flow and thermal systems was introduced by Bejan [1]. It is observed that the thermal system efficiency is enhanced by minimizing the entropy generation of the system [2–4]. The flow through ducts or pipes is ...

  14. “Occlusal Plane Orientor”: An Innovative and Efficient Device for Occlusal Plane Orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Kuniyal, Harish; Katoch, Nidhi; Rao, P. Laxman

    2011-01-01

    Correct occlusal plane orientation is a prerequisite in Prosthodontic reconstructive treatment therapy as it helps in achieving esthetics and phonetics anteriorly and forms a milling surface posteriorly where tongue and buccinator muscle position the food bolus during mastication. Activity of Muscles during clenching will be least, when the occlusal plane is made parallel to plane of lost natural teeth. Conventionally the ala-tragus line (Camper’s plane) is used as a guide for assessment of t...

  15. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2002-01-01

    Confounded by kinetic energy? Suspect that teaching about simple machines isn t really so simple? Exasperated by electricity? If you fear the study of energy is beyond you, this entertaining book will do more than introduce you to the topic. It will help you actually understand it. At the book s heart are easy-to-grasp explanations of energy basics work, kinetic energy, potential energy, and the transformation of energy and energy as it relates to simple machines, heat energy, temperature, and heat transfer. Irreverent author Bill Robertson suggests activities that bring the basic concepts of energy to life with common household objects. Each chapter ends with a summary and an applications section that uses practical examples such as roller coasters and home heating systems to explain energy transformations and convection cells. The final chapter brings together key concepts in an easy-to-grasp explanation of how electricity is generated. Energy is the second book in the Stop Faking It! series published by NS...

  16. Effect of Initial Stress on the Dynamic Response of a Multi-Layered Plate-Strip Subjected to an Arbitrary Inclined Time-Harmonic Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daşdemir, A.

    2017-08-01

    The forced vibration of a multi-layered plate-strip with initial stress under the action of an arbitrary inclined time-harmonic force resting on a rigid foundation is considered. Within the framework of the piecewise homogeneous body model with the use of the three-dimensional linearized theory of elastic waves in initially stressed bodies (TLTEWISB), a mathematical modelling is presented in plane strain state. It is assumed that there exists the complete contact interaction at the interface between the layers and the materials of the layer are linearly elastic, homogeneous and isotropic. The governing system of the partial differential equations of motion for the considered problem is solved approximately by employing the Finite Element Method (FEM). Further, the influence of the initial stress parameter on the dynamic response of the plate-strip is presented.

  17. Plane-wave electronic structure calculations on a parallel supercomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.S.; Plimpton, S.J.; Sears, M.P.

    1993-01-01

    The development of iterative solutions of Schrodinger's equation in a plane-wave (pw) basis over the last several years has coincided with great advances in the computational power available for performing the calculations. These dual developments have enabled many new and interesting condensed matter phenomena to be studied from a first-principles approach. The authors present a detailed description of the implementation on a parallel supercomputer (hypercube) of the first-order equation-of-motion solution to Schrodinger's equation, using plane-wave basis functions and ab initio separable pseudopotentials. By distributing the plane-waves across the processors of the hypercube many of the computations can be performed in parallel, resulting in decreases in the overall computation time relative to conventional vector supercomputers. This partitioning also provides ample memory for large Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) meshes and the storage of plane-wave coefficients for many hundreds of energy bands. The usefulness of the parallel techniques is demonstrated by benchmark timings for both the FFT's and iterations of the self-consistent solution of Schrodinger's equation for different sized Si unit cells of up to 512 atoms

  18. Maxillomandibular plane angle bisector (MM) adjunctive to occlusal plane to evaluate anteroposterior measurement of dental base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganiger, Chanamallappa R; Nayak, U S Krishna; Cariappa, K U; Ahammed, A R Yusuf

    2012-07-01

    This study was undertaken to analyze the clinical usefulness of the maxillomandibular bisector, its reproducibility, its validity and its relationship to the functional occlusal plane, the bisecting occlusal plane and the nature of its cant. Thirty pretreatment lateral cephalograms, each of adolescents (above 18 years of age) and children (10- 12 years), seeking orthodontic treatment were randomly selected and the Wits technique of anteroposterior measurement was used to compare A-B values measured to the new plane with those measured to the functional occlusal plane (FOP) and to the traditional or bisecting occlusal plane (BOP). Present study showed that MM bisector plane is more reproducible and valid reference plane, than the FOP and BOP. A new plane, geometrically derived from the dental base planes, has been tested as an occlusal plane substitute for the measurement of anteroposterior jaw relationships. It lies close to but at an angle and inferior to the traditional occlusal planes and is highly reproducible at all times. Maxillomandibular planes angle bisector may be a useful adjunct for the cephalometric assessment of sagittal relationship of the patient.

  19. Structure of the poleward wall of the trough and the inclination of the geomagnetic field above the EISCAT radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Jones

    Full Text Available A special high-resolution routine of the EISCAT radar has been used to investigate the structure and development of the poleward wall of a deep trough in electron density. The feature was tracked by the radar during a 7-hour period under very quiet geomagnetic conditions. The field-aligned nature of the structure enabled an estimate to be made of the inclination of the geomagnetic field above EISCAT that was in good agreement with the current model. Observations of narrow field-aligned enhancements in electron temperature demonstrated that the wall of this trough is a dynamic feature, reforming regularly as the electron density responds on a time scale of tens of minutes to energy input from soft-particle precipitation.

  20. Structure of the poleward wall of the trough and the inclination of the geomagnetic field above the EISCAT radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Jones

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A special high-resolution routine of the EISCAT radar has been used to investigate the structure and development of the poleward wall of a deep trough in electron density. The feature was tracked by the radar during a 7-hour period under very quiet geomagnetic conditions. The field-aligned nature of the structure enabled an estimate to be made of the inclination of the geomagnetic field above EISCAT that was in good agreement with the current model. Observations of narrow field-aligned enhancements in electron temperature demonstrated that the wall of this trough is a dynamic feature, reforming regularly as the electron density responds on a time scale of tens of minutes to energy input from soft-particle precipitation.

  1. ANALYSIS OF INFLUENCE OF DESIGN CHARACTERISTICS OF INCLINED BUCKET ELEVATOR ON THE POWER OF ITS DRIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bohomaz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.One of the main elements of the inclined belt bucket elevators is their drive. To determine the drive power, it is necessary to carry out calculations according to standard methods, which are described in the modern literature. The basic design parameters are the productivity, lifting height, type and properties of the transported material, the angle of inclination. It is necessary to build a parametric dependence of the driving power of the elevator on its design parameters, which takes into account the standard sizes and types of buckets and belts. Methodology. Using the methodology of traction calculation of inclined belt bucket elevator there were built parametric dependences of efforts in specific points of the route of the elevator, as well as the parametric dependences of the drive power of high-speed elevators with deep and shallow buckets on their design parameters and characteristics. Findings. On the basis of constructed parametric dependencies, it was found that the function of changing the value of the elevator’s power from design capacity (at fixed lifting height, type of cargo, belt speed is piecewise constant and monotonically increasing. It was built a graphical representation of elevator drive power on the angle of its inclination within acceptable limits of change. The resulting relationship is non-linear and monotonically decreasing. In general terms the intervals of project performance values, which provide a constant value of drive power of inclined elevator were defined. As an example of the obtained results it was observed the process of dependence construction of the drive power on design capacity and inclination angle of the elevator for transporting the fine coal. Originality. For the first time there were constructed the parametric dependences of drive power of inclined bucket elevator on its design parameters that take into account the standard sizes and types of buckets and belts. Practical value. Using

  2. Growth kinetics of AlN and GaN films grown by molecular beam epitaxy on R-plane sapphire substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekaran, R.; Moustakas, T. D.; Ozcan, A. S.; Ludwig, K. F.; Zhou, L.; Smith, David J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the growth by molecular beam epitaxy of AlN and GaN thin films on R-plane sapphire substrates. Contrary to previous findings that GaN grows with its (1120) A-plane parallel to the (1102) R-plane of sapphire, our results indicate that the crystallographic orientation of the III-nitride films is strongly dependent on the kinetic conditions of growth for the GaN or AlN buffer layers. Thus, group III-rich conditions for growth of either GaN or AlN buffers result in nitride films having (1120) planes parallel to the sapphire surface, and basal-plane stacking faults parallel to the growth direction. The growth of these buffers under N-rich conditions instead leads to nitride films with (1126) planes parallel to the sapphire surface, with inclined c-plane stacking faults that often terminate threading dislocations. Moreover, electron microscope observations indicate that slight miscut (∼0.5 deg. ) of the R-plane sapphire substrate almost completely suppresses the formation of twinning defects in the (1126) GaN films.

  3. A comparative computed tomographic evaluation of expression of angulation and inclination in self ligating brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehana Bashir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: An important objective of orthodontic treatment is to obtain the correct angulation and inclination for all the teeth. Very few studies have been conducted so far comparing the expression of angulation and inclination in conventional and self-ligating brackets (SLBs. The present study was designed to evaluate and compare the inclination and angulation in conventional brackets and active and passive SLBs. Materials and Methods: Totally 21 patients who required four 1st premolar extractions were selected and were randomly allotted to three groups: Group 1: Conventional Brackets (3M Unitek MBT (mean age 19.14 ± 2.12 years, Group 2: Passive Brackets (Smart Clip Brackets-3M Unitek MBT (mean age 19.71 ± 1.80 years, Group 3: Active Brackets (Empower Brackets-American Orthodontics MBT (mean age 18.29 ± 2.29 years computed tomographic records were collected before the start of treatment, after leveling and aligning and at 6 months into retraction. Results: The data were evaluated using SPSS version 16.0 using one-way ANOVA and post hoc Bonferroni tests. There was no statistically significant difference in the expression of angulation and inclination in conventional, active, and passive SLB systems. Conclusion: Self-ligating brackets seem to be no better than conventional brackets when it comes to the expression of angulation and inclination.

  4. Critical heat flux during natural convective boiling in inclined tubes submerged in saturated liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhenhua; Yang Ronghua

    2005-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to improve and expand understanding of boiling phenomena and the critical heat flux (CHF) during natural convective boiling in uniformly heated inclined tubes submerged in a pool of saturated liquids under atmospheric pressure. The test conditions were as follows: inter diameters of the test tubes ranged from 0.9 to 8.0 mm; heated lengths ranged from 100 to 400 mm, and inclination angles varied from 30 o to vertical position. The test fluids were water and R-11. The experimental results showed that the CHF decreases with the increasing ratio of the tube length to the tube diameter, and with the reducing of the inclination angle. A semi-theoretical correlation, which originally used for the CHF during natural convective boiling in vertical tubes, was modified to predict the CHF occurs in the inclined tubes. The modified correlation agreed reasonably well with the present experimental data and other CHF data for narrow inclined annular tubes

  5. A Liquid-Surface-Based Three-Axis Inclination Sensor for Measurement of Stage Tilt Motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yuki; Kataoka, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Chen, Yuan-Liu; Chen, Xiuguo; Matsukuma, Hiraku; Gao, Wei

    2018-01-30

    In this paper a new concept of a liquid-surface-based three-axis inclination sensor for evaluation of angular error motion of a precision linear slide, which is often used in the field of precision engineering such as ultra-precision machine tools, coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) and so on, is proposed. In the liquid-surface-based three-axis inclination sensor, a reference float mounting a line scale grating having periodic line grating structures is made to float over a liquid surface, while its three-axis angular motion is measured by using an optical sensor head based on the three-axis laser autocollimation capable of measuring three-axis angular motion of the scale grating. As the first step of research, in this paper, theoretical analysis on the angular motion of the reference float about each axis has been carried out based on simplified kinematic models to evaluate the possibility of realizing the proposed concept of a three-axis inclination sensor. In addition, based on the theoretical analyses results, a prototype three-axis inclination sensor has been designed and developed. Through some basic experiments with the prototype, the possibility of simultaneous three-axis inclination measurement by the proposed concept has been verified.

  6. Investigation of Oriented Magnetic Field Effects on Entropy Generation in an Inclined Channel Filled with Ferrofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elgiz Baskaya

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dispersion of super-paramagnetic nanoparticles in nonmagnetic carrier fluids, known as ferrofluids, offers the advantages of tunable thermo-physical properties and eliminate the need for moving parts to induce flow. This study investigates ferrofluid flow characteristics in an inclined channel under inclined magnetic field and constant pressure gradient. The ferrofluid considered in this work is comprised of Cu particles as the nanoparticles and water as the base fluid. The governing differential equations including viscous dissipation are non-dimensionalised and discretized with Generalized Differential Quadrature Method. The resulting algebraic set of equations are solved via Newton-Raphson Method. The work done here contributes to the literature by searching the effects of magnetic field angle and channel inclination separately on the entropy generation of the ferrofluid filled inclined channel system in order to achieve best design parameter values so called entropy generation minimization is implemented. Furthermore, the effect of magnetic field, inclination angle of the channel and volume fraction of nanoparticles on velocity and temperature profiles are examined and represented by figures to give a thorough understanding of the system behavior.

  7. Study on natural circulation characteristics of an IPWR under inclined and rolling condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Lihui [College of Computer Science and Information Technology, Harbin Normal University, Harbin (China); Wang, Bing [Fundamental Science on Nuclear Safety and Simulation Technology Laboratory, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China); Xia, Genglei, E-mail: xiagenglei@163.com [Fundamental Science on Nuclear Safety and Simulation Technology Laboratory, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China); Peng, Minjun [Fundamental Science on Nuclear Safety and Simulation Technology Laboratory, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • An ocean-based thermal-hydraulic analysis code was developed based on RELAP5 codes. • The inclination condition can reduce the mass flow rate of reactor core. • The system parameters asymmetry increases with the increasing inclination angle. • Flow oscillation of different loops cancel each other due to the symmetrical arrangement of the reactor. • The off-center roll axis location can break the symmetry and enlarge fluctuation amplitude of the core flow rate. - Abstract: An ocean-based thermal-hydraulic system analysis code was developed based on RELAP5/MOD3 code by adding additional force model of ocean condition and control volume coordinate solver model. The natural circulation operation characteristics of integrated pressurized water reactor (IPWR) under ocean conditions were studied and the effects of inclination and rolling motions were analyzed. The results conclude that, the inclination condition can reduce the mass flow rate of reactor core and lead to inconsistent coolant flow rates of the left and right loops, furthermore, it affects the heat transfer of once-through steam generators (OTSGs). In the case of rolling motion, the additional pressure drop of the loop is dominated by tangential force, and flow oscillation of different loops cancel each other due to the symmetrical arrangement of the reactor. The off-center roll axis location, the combination of the inclination and rolling motion, both can break the thermal-hydraulic symmetry among different loops and enlarge fluctuation amplitude of the core flow rate.

  8. Peri-implant strain around mesially inclined two-implant-retained mandibular overdentures with Locator attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsyad, Moustafa A; Eltowery, Salem M; Gebreel, Ashraf A

    2017-12-27

    This study aimed to evaluate the peri-implant strain around mesially inclined implants used to retain mandibular overdentures with Locator resilient attachments. Four mandibular edentulous acrylic resin models received two implants in the canine areas with 0°, 5°, 10°, and 20° mesial inclinations. Overdentures were connected to the implants using Locator attachments. Pink nylon inserts (light retention) were used for all implant inclinations, and red inserts were used for 20° inclination (20°red). Four strain gages were bonded on the mesial (M), distal (D), buccal (B), and lingual (L) surfaces of each implant. Peri-implant strains were measured during bilateral and unilateral loading. The 20° inclination showed the highest strain, followed by 10° and 5°, and both 0° and 20°red presented with the lowest strain. Site D was associated with the highest strain, followed by M, B, and L, which showed the lowest strain values. Unilateral loading and the loading side presented with significantly higher strain values than bilateral loading and the nonloading side, respectively. Hence, in this study, strains around the two-implant-retained overdentures with Locator attachments increased with increases in mesial implant angulation, except when red male inserts were used.

  9. Walking on inclines: how do desert ants monitor slope and step length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidl Tobias

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During long-distance foraging in almost featureless habitats desert ants of the genus Cataglyphis employ path-integrating mechanisms (vector navigation. This navigational strategy requires an egocentric monitoring of the foraging path by incrementally integrating direction, distance, and inclination of the path. Monitoring the latter two parameters involves idiothetic cues and hence is tightly coupled to the ant's locomotor behavior. Results In a kinematic study of desert ant locomotion performed on differently inclined surfaces we aimed at pinpointing the relevant mechanisms of estimating step length and inclination. In a behavioral experiment with ants foraging on slippery surfaces we broke the otherwise tightly coupled relationship between stepping frequency and step length and examined the animals' ability to monitor distances covered even under those adverse conditions. We show that the ants' locomotor system is not influenced by inclined paths. After removing the effect of speed, slope had only marginal influence on kinematic parameters. Conclusion From the obtained data we infer that the previously proposed monitoring of angles of the thorax-coxa joint is not involved in inclinometry. Due to the tiny variations in cycle period, we also argue that an efference copy of the central pattern generator coding the step length in its output frequency will most likely not suffice for estimating step length and complementing the pedometer. Finally we propose that sensing forces acting on the ant's legs could provide the desired neuronal correlate employed in monitoring inclination and step length.

  10. Diffuse scattering from laser-irradiated plane targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessel, C.G.M. van; Olsen, J.N.; Sachsenmaier, P.; Sigel, R.; Eidmann, K.; Godwin, R.P.

    1976-11-01

    Optical calorimetry of the laser radiation scattered from plane targets irradiated by 0.3 Joule/30 ps Nd-laser pulses with intensities up to 10 16 W cm -2 has been performed with an emphasis on diffuse scattering. Diffuse scattering outside the solid angle of the focusing lens is found to be a major reflection loss from the target. A fraction of 0.3 to 0.5 of the incident pulse energy was absorbed in the target with only a very weak dependence on pulse energy and target material. (orig.) [de

  11. Changing Sagittal-Plane Landing Styles to Modulate Impact and Tibiofemoral Force Magnitude and Directions Relative to the Tibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimokochi, Yohei; Ambegaonkar, Jatin P.; Meyer, Eric G.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Ground reaction force (GRF) and tibiofemoral force magnitudes and directions have been shown to affect anterior cruciate ligament loading during landing. However, the kinematic and kinetic factors modifying these 2 forces during landing are unknown. Objective: To clarify the intersegmental kinematic and kinetic links underlying the alteration of the GRF and tibiofemoral force vectors secondary to changes in the sagittal-plane body position during single-legged landing. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty recreationally active participants (age = 23.4 ± 3.6 years, height = 171.0 ± 9.4 cm, mass = 73.3 ± 12.7 kg). Intervention(s): Participants performed single-legged landings using 3 landing styles: self-selected landing (SSL), body leaning forward and landing on the toes (LFL), and body upright with flat-footed landing (URL). Three-dimensional kinetics and kinematics were recorded. Main Outcome Measure(s): Sagittal-plane tibial inclination and knee-flexion angles, GRF magnitude and inclination angles relative to the tibia, and proximal tibial forces at peak tibial axial forces. Results: The URL resulted in less time to peak tibial axial forces, smaller knee-flexion angles, and greater magnitude and a more anteriorly inclined GRF vector relative to the tibia than did the SSL. These changes led to the greatest peak tibial axial and anterior shear forces in the URL among the 3 landing styles. Conversely, the LFL resulted in longer time to peak tibial axial forces, greater knee-flexion angles, and reduced magnitude and a more posteriorly inclined GRF vector relative to the tibia than the SSL. These changes in LFL resulted in the lowest peak tibial axial and largest posterior shear forces among the 3 landing styles. Conclusions: Sagittal-plane intersegmental kinematic and kinetic links strongly affected the magnitude and direction of GRF and tibiofemoral forces during the impact phase of single-legged landing

  12. Stability of hierarchical triples - I. Dependence on inner eccentricity and inclination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylläri, A.; Valtonen, M.; Pasechnik, A.; Mikkola, S.

    2018-05-01

    In simulations it is often important to decide if a given hierarchical triple star system is stable over an extended period of time. We introduce a stability criterion, modified from earlier work, where we use the closest approach ratio Q of the third star to the inner binary centre of mass in their initial osculating orbits. We study by numerical integration the orbits of over 1000 000 triple systems of the fixed masses and outer eccentricities eout, but varying inner eccentricities ein and inclinations i. 12 primary combinations of masses have been tried, representing the range encountered in stellar systems. The definition of the instability is either the escape of one of the bodies, or the exchange of the members between the inner and outer systems. An analytical approximation is derived using the energy change in a single close encounter between the inner and outer systems, assuming that the orbital phases in subsequent encounters occur randomly. The theory provides a fairly good description of the typical Qst, the smallest Q value that allows the system to be stable over N = 10 000 revolutions of the initial outer orbit. The final stability limit formula is Qst = 101/3A[( f g)2/(1 - eout)]1/6, where the coefficient A ˜ 1 should be used in N-body experiments, and A = 2.4 when the absolute long-term stability is required. The functions f (ein, cos i) and g(m1, m2, m3) are derived in the paper. At the limit of ein = i = m3 = 0, f g = 1.

  13. Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In the framework of the National Debate on the energies in a context of a sustainable development some associations for the environment organized a debate on the nuclear interest facing the renewable energies. The first part presents the nuclear energy as a possible solution to fight against the greenhouse effect and the associated problem of the wastes management. The second part gives information on the solar energy and the possibilities of heat and electric power production. A presentation of the FEE (French wind power association) on the situation and the development of the wind power in France, is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  14. Determination of the occlusal plane using a custom-made occlusal plane analyzer: a clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedia, Sumit V; Dange, Shankar P; Khalikar, Arun N

    2007-11-01

    In fixed prosthodontic procedures, when it has been determined that restoration of all or most of the posterior teeth is necessary, the use of the Broderick occlusal plane analyzer provides an easy and practical method to determine an occlusal plane that will fulfill esthetic and functional occlusion requirements. However, several manufacturers of semiadjustable articulators offer no such occlusal plane analyzers for use with these instruments. This article demonstrates the use of a custom-made Broderick occlusal plane analyzer with a semiadjustable articulator to determine the correct curve of Spee for the occlusal plane.

  15. Analytic study of plastic instabilities during tension or compression tests on a metallic plate bi-axially loaded in its plane: symmetric and antisymmetric modes with respect to the median plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouve, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    This report is a continuation of the thesis [23], devoted to the onset of necking plastic instabilities during tension tests on metallic plates bi-axially loaded in their plane. We are also interested here in compression tests, and in the development of antisymmetric defects with respect to the median plane of the plate. As in the thesis, we search for the dominant mode, i.e. the most unstable pair of wavelengths (λ1, λ2) in the loading plane. An approximate analytical formulation for the growth rate is proposed, especially for plane-strain tests in the absence of viscous effects, and for static tests in tension in the x1 and x2 loading directions. In that latter case, we retrieve published results [14][15]. For plane-strain tests, we show that infinitely dense networks of shear bands inclined at 45 deg. with respect to the loading direction instantaneously occur when heat softening prevails over work-hardening. (author)

  16. Influence of mandibular fixation method on stability of the maxillary occlusal plane after occlusal plane alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosano, Akira; Katakura, Akira; Takaki, Takashi; Shibahara, Takahiko

    2009-05-01

    In this study, we investigated how method of mandibular fixation influenced longterm postoperative stability of the maxilla in Class III cases. In particular, we investigated change in the maxillary occlusal plane after Occlusal Plane Alteration. Therefore, we focused on change in the palatal plane to evaluate stability of the maxillary occlusal plane, as the position of the palatal plane affects the maxillary occlusal plane. This study included 16 patients diagnosed with mandibular protrusion. Alteration of the occlusal plane was achieved by clockwise rotation of the maxilla by Le Fort I osteotomy and mandibular setback was performed by bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy. We analyzed and examined lateral cephalometric radiographs taken at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year after surgery. Stability achieved by two methods of mandibular fixation was compared. In one group of patients (group S) titanium screws were used, and in the other group (group P) titanium-locking mini-plates were used. No significant displacement was recognized in group S, whereas an approximately 0.7mm upward vertical displacement was recognized in the anterior nasal spine in group P. As a result, not only the angle of the palatal plane and S-N plane, but also occlusal plane angle in group P showed a greater decrease than that in group S. The results suggest that fixing the mandible with screws yielded greater stability of the maxilla and maxillary occlusal plane than fixing the mandible with titanium plates.

  17. [Reliability study in the measurement of the cusp inclination angle of a chairside digital model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinggang, Liu; Xiaoxian, Chen

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate the reliability of the software Picpick in the measurement of the cusp inclination angle of a digital model. Twenty-one trimmed models were used as experimental objects. The chairside digital impression was then used for the acquisition of 3D digital models, and the software Picpick was employed for the measurement of the cusp inclination of these models. The measurements were repeated three times, and the results were compared with a gold standard, which was a manually measured experimental model cusp angle. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated. The paired t test value of the two measurement methods was 0.91. The ICCs between the two measurement methods and three repeated measurements were greater than 0.9. The digital model achieved a smaller coefficient of variation (9.9%). The software Picpick is reliable in measuring the cusp inclination of a digital model.

  18. Flow behaviour and local concentration of coarse particles-water mixture in inclined pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasak Pavel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Narrow particle size distribution basalt pebbles of mean particle size 11.5 mm conveyed by water in the pipe sections of different inclination were investigated on an experimental pipe loop, consisting of smooth stainless steel pipes of inner diameter D = 100 mm. Mixture flow-behaviour and particles motion along the pipe invert were studied in a pipe viewing section, the concentration distribution in pipe cross-section was studied with the application of a gamma-ray densitometer. The study refers to the effect of mixture velocity, overall concentration, and angle of pipe inclination on chord-averaged concentration profiles and local concentration maps, and flow behaviour of the coarse particle-water mixtures. The study revealed that the coarse particle-water mixtures in the inclined pipe sections were significantly stratified, the solid particles moved principally close to the pipe invert, and for higher and moderate flow velocities particle saltation becomes the dominant mode of particle conveying.

  19. Experimental investigation of coarse particles-water mixture flow in horizontal and inclined pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasák Pavel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of solid concentration and mixture velocity on the flow behaviour, pressure drops, and concentration distribution of coarse particle-water mixtures in horizontal, vertical, and inclined smooth stainless steel pipes of inner diameter D = 100 mm was experimentally investigated. Graded basalt pebbles were used as solid particles. The study revealed that the coarse-grained particle-water mixtures in the horizontal and inclined pipes were significantly stratified. The solid particles moved principally in a layer close to the pipe invert; however for higher and moderate flow velocities, particle saltation became the dominant mode of particle conveyance. Frictional pressure drops in the horizontal pipe were found to be markedly higher than in the vertical pipe, while the frictional pressure drops in the ascending pipe increased with inclination angle up to about 30°.

  20. Measurement of capacity coefficient of inclined liquid phase catalytic exchange column for tritiated water processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamai, Hideki; Konishi, Satoshi; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Okuno, Kenji

    1994-01-01

    Liquid phase catalytic exchange (LPCE) is effective method for enrichment and removal of tritium from tritiated water. Capacity coefficients of operating LPCE column that are essential to evaluate column performance were measured. Experiments were performed with short catalyst packed columns and effect of inclination was studied. Method for evaluation of capacity coefficients was established from measurement of isotope concentration of liquid, vapor, gas phases at the two ends of the column. The capacity coefficients were measured under various superficial gas velocities. Feasibility study of helical columns with roughened inner surface was performed with short inclined columns. The column performance was not strongly affected by the inclination. The result indicates technological feasibility of helical LPCE column, that is expected to have operation stability and reduced height

  1. Optically sectioned imaging by oblique plane microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Lin, Ziduo; Lyon, Alex R.; MacLeod, Ken T.; Dunsby, Chris

    2011-03-01

    Oblique Plane Microscopy (OPM) is a light sheet microscopy technique that combines oblique illumination with correction optics that tilt the focal plane of the collection system. OPM can be used to image conventionally mounted specimens on coverslips or tissue culture dishes and has low out-of-plane photobleaching and phototoxicity. No moving parts are required to achieve an optically sectioned image and so high speed optically sectioned imaging is possible. The first OPM results obtained using a high NA water immersion lens on a commercially available inverted microscope frame are presented, together with a measurement of the achievable optical resolution.

  2. Effectiveness of a fixed anterior bite plane in Class II deep-bite patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deregibus, Andrea; Debernardi, Cesare Lorenzo; Persin, Leonid; Tugarin, Valery; Markova, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Orthodontic treatment of patients with distoclusion combined with dental deep bite and linguo version of the front upper teeth is one of the most difficult forms of malocclusion to treat to a functional and morphological optimum. Our objective was to analyze the efficacy of a fixed anterior bite plane appliance to disclude the teeth and correct this type of malocclusion. At the Department of Orthodontics MSUMD (Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry), we proposed the use of a fixed anterior bite plane for the effective treatment of patients with distoclusion combined to a dental deep bite. This appliance was used in 35 patients aged 11 to 15 years (13.2 +/- 1.2) with distoclusion combined with deep bite in a therapeutical approach that also involved an osteopathic correction. The appliance permitted the correction of the distoclusion by discluding the posterior teeth, allowing eruption of the molars and premolars which improved the occlusal plane line (Curve of Spee) and changed the inclination of the upper incisors which liberated the mandible from its retruded position. We also noted an effect on the postural status of the patient.

  3. A waveless two-dimensional flow in a channel against an inclined wall with surface tension effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merzougui, Abdelkrim; Mekias, Hocine; Guechi, Fairouz

    2007-01-01

    Surface tension effect on a two-dimensional channel flow against an inclined wall is considered. The flow is assumed to be steady, irrotational, inviscid and incompressible. The effect of surface tension is taken into account and the effect of gravity is neglected. Numerical solutions are obtained via series truncation procedure. The problem is solved numerically for various values of the Weber number α and for various values of the inclination angle β between the horizontal bottom and the inclined wall

  4. Comparison of the Activity of the Gluteus Medius According to the Angles of Inclination of a Treadmill with Vertical Load

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Da-Eun; Lee, Su-Kyoung; Kim, Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the muscle activity of the gluteus medius according to treadmill inclination during gait with a vertical load on a treadmill. [Methods] Sixteen healthy subjects were recruited for this study. The subjects walked on a treadmill at inclination angles of 0, 5, and 10 degrees. [Results] Muscle activity of the gluteus medius increased at 5° compared to 0° treadmill inclination, though the difference was not significant. On the other hand, gluteus ...

  5. Detecting and correcting for paleomagnetic inclination shallowing of sedimentary rocks: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Xiang eLi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic anisotropy and the elongation/inclination (E-I approaches have been increasingly employed as two important means for detecting and correcting the paleomagnetic inclination shallowing in sedimentary rocks that was first recognized sixty years ago. Both approaches are based on certain assumptions, and thus have advantages and intrinsic limitations in investigating shallow inclinations in sedimentary rocks. The E-I approach is relatively easy to use, but it needs a large dataset to adequately sample paleomagnetic directions due to paleosecular variation of the geomagnetic field. Also, slow sediment accumulation rates and local tectonics could lead to under- or over-corrections using the E-I approach. For the magnetic anisotropy technique, labor-intensive, sophisticated laboratory rock magnetic experiments are required in order to accurately determine both bulk magnetic anisotropy of remanence-carrying grains and magnetic anisotropy of an individual particle, i.e., a factor, of samples. Our review shows that, despite the intensive laboratory work necessary for applying anisotropy-based inclination corrections, it is worth investing the effort. In addition, the joint use of magnetic susceptibility and remanence anisotropy measurements as well as detailed rock magnetic measurements for determining the particle anisotropy a factor have the advantage of retrieving direct evidence of inclination shallowing and correcting for it with high confidence. We caution against use of either of the two approaches without full appreciation of the underlying assumptions and intrinsic limitations of each technique. The use and comparison of both techniques could provide the most robust inclination shallowing correction for sedimentary rocks.

  6. Detecting and correcting for paleomagnetic inclination shallowing of sedimentary rocks: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong-Xiang; Kodama, Kenneth

    2016-02-01

    Magnetic anisotropy and the elongation/inclination (E-I) approaches have been increasingly employed as two important means for detecting and correcting the paleomagnetic inclination shallowing in sedimentary rocks that was first recognized sixty years ago. Both approaches are based on certain assumptions, and thus have advantages and intrinsic limitations in investigating shallow inclinations in sedimentary rocks. The E-I approach is relatively easy to use, but it needs a large dataset to adequately sample paleomagnetic directions due to paleosecular variation of the geomagnetic field. Also, slow sediment accumulation rates and local tectonics could lead to under- or over-corrections using the E-I approach. For the magnetic anisotropy technique, labor-intensive, sophisticated laboratory rock magnetic experiments are required in order to accurately determine both bulk magnetic anisotropy of remanence-carrying grains and magnetic anisotropy of an individual particle, i.e., "a" factor, of samples. Our review shows that, despite the intensive laboratory work necessary for applying anisotropy-based inclination corrections, it is worth investing the effort. In addition, the joint use of magnetic susceptibility and remanence anisotropy measurements as well as detailed rock magnetic measurements for determining the particle anisotropy "a" factor have the advantage of retrieving direct evidence of inclination shallowing and correcting for it with high confidence. We caution against use of either of the two approaches without full appreciation of the underlying assumptions and intrinsic limitations of each technique. The use and comparison of both techniques could provide the most robust inclination shallowing correction for sedimentary rocks.

  7. COMPARISON OF PLANTAR PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION BETWEEN DIFFERENT SPEED AND INCLINE DURING TREADMILL JOGGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Ju Ho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effect of changes in speed and incline slope on plantar pressure distribution of the foot during treadmill jogging. Plantar pressure parameters were measured with the Pedar-X system in twenty healthy girls (mean age of 20.7 years, mean height of 1.60m, and a mean weight of 53.35kg. Because variations in walking speed or slope can significantly change the magnitude of plantar pressure, comparisons of plantar pressure distribution between the two independent protocols during treadmill jogging were considered in this study. First, the subjects ran at the same speed of 2 m·s-1 with different incline slopes of 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%. Second, they ran on the same slope of 0% with different speeds of 1.5 m·s-1, 2.0 m·s-1, and 2.5 m·s-1. The peak pressure of the eight plantar surface areas, apart from the medial forefoot and the hallux, significantly increased (p < 0.05 with an increase of 33% of peak pressure from 1.5 m·s-1 to 2.5 m·s-1 (speed at heel region. In contrast, the peak pressures at the heel, medial fore-foot, toe and hallux decreased significantly (p < 0. 05 with increasing incline slope. At the heel, peak pressure reduced by 27% from 0% to 15% incline, however, pressure at the lateral midfoot region increased as following. Different speeds and incline slopes during jogging were associated with changes in plantar pressures. By systematic investigation of foot kinematics and plantar pressure during jogging with varying incline slope and speed, the results of this study provided further insight into foot biomechanics during jogging

  8. Analysis of three-dimensional interference patterns of an inclined capillary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiding; Xu, Mingfeng; Tian, Wenjing; Xu, Qiwei; Xiao, Jinghua

    2016-08-01

    We study the interference patterns from an inclined capillary tube filled with liquid by using the ray tracing method and interference theory. A beautiful elliptical pattern is found on the screen, with refined fringes embedded in it. Particularly, the fringes on top of the pattern are continuously swallowed to the center with the angle of incidence increasing. In addition, a method is demonstrated to determine the refractive index of the liquid and the wavelength of the incident light by measuring the capillary tilt of every 10-fringe being swallowed, which looks like fringe crossover, with respect to the change of the inclined angle of the capillary.

  9. Model and experimental vizualisation of a bubble interacting with an inclined wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podvin, Berengere; Khoja, Suleman; Attinger, Daniel; Moraga, Francisco

    2006-11-01

    We describe the motion of an air bubble rising through water as it interacts with a wall of variable inclination. The bubble diameter varies about O(1) mm. We use lubrication theory to determine the modification of the bubble interface and compute the hydrodynamic force exerted by the wall. The present work is an extension of Moraga et al's model [Computers and Fluids 2006], which was devised for a horizontal wall. The predictions of the model are checked against experimental visualizations. The influence of the Weber number, Reynolds number and wall inclination is examined

  10. QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF DEPENDENCE OF DRIVE POWER HORIZONTAL-INCLINED BELT CONVEYOR ON ITS INITIAL PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bohomaz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.One of the main elements of band conveyors is a drive. To analyze the effect of design parameters on the drive power it is necessary to carry out the calculations according to standard procedures outlined in the current technical literature. The main design parameters of the band conveyor are: the type of cargo, project performance, the geometric dimensions of sections and track configuration as a whole. The feature of band conveyor calculation as compared to the elevators is the dependence of the band width on its performance, the inclination angle and the type of cargo. In the article for the account of this fact during calculations it is necessary to construct the dependence of the band width on the generalized parameter, which takes into account change in the design parameters. To determine the general pattern of changing the value of band conveyor drive power when varying its design parameters in the article it is necessary to construct the corresponding graphic dependences taking into account the standard sizes and bands parameters. Methodology. We consider the band conveyor with two sections: the inclined and horizontal one. It is conducted a detailed analysis of dependence of the conveyor band width and its drive power on the type of cargo, project performance, geometric dimensions and configuration of the conveyor track, using the appropriate parameter dependences constructed by the authors in previous papers. Findings. For band conveyors of this type there were constructed the graphics dependences of the band width on the parameter characterizing the project performance and the inclination angle of the track section, and on the performance at a fixed angle of inclination. Taking into account the changes in the band width with an increase in the value of project performance the graph dependences of drive power on the productivity and the inclination angle of the inclined section were built. Originality. For the first time there

  11. A Numerical Study on a Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine with Inclined Arms

    OpenAIRE

    Agostino De Marco; Domenico P. Coiro; Domenico Cucco; Fabrizio Nicolosi

    2014-01-01

    This work focuses on a particular type of vertical-axis wind turbine, in which a number of inclined arms with airfoil-shaped cross-sections are mounted to connect the principal blades to their hub. While the majority of the known studies on vertical-axis turbines is devoted to the role of principal blades, in most of the cases without taking into account other parts of the wind turbine, the objective of this work is to investigate the effect of uncommon arm geometries, such as the inclined ar...

  12. Cyclotron resonance in InAs/GaSb heterostructure in inclined magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Greshnov, A A; Vasilev, Yu B; Suchalkin, S D; Meltser, B Y; Ivanov, S V; Kopev, P S

    2002-01-01

    The mechanism of splitting the cyclotron resonance line in the InAs/GaSb heterostructure in the inclined magnetic field is experimentally and theoretically studied. It is shown that the electrons and holes mixing in leads to the anticrossing Landau levels and consequently to the cyclotron resonance line splitting. Splitting in the case of the inclined magnetic field was not observed which is explained by damping the electrons and holes states mixing in on the account of originating the additional barrier for the electrons and holes by availability of the magnetic field longitudinal constituent

  13. Aerodynamic coefficients of stationary dry inclined bridge cables in laminar flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteoni, Giulia; Georgakis, Christos; Ricciardelli, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Stay cables are the most flexible elements of cable-stayed bridges. When exposed to wind loading, they often undergo large amplitude vibrations, thus motivating serious design concerns. In most cases, vibrations are observed in the presence of water rivulets or ice accretions, which lead...... to an effective change in the cable cross section, and its aerodynamic properties. On the other hand, divergent, self-excited vibrations have been observed in the field also for dry, inclined stay cables, in warm temperatures. The need for reliable design guidelines for inclined stay cables has motivated...

  14. Non-destructive automated express method for determining the inclination of chromium-nickel steels IGC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarov, A.A.; Kamenev, Yu.B.; Kuusk, L.V.; Kormin, E.G.; Vasil'ev, A.N.; Sumbaeva, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    Methods of automated control of 18-10-type steel inclination to IGC are developed and a corresponding automated testing complex (ATS) is created. 08Kh18N10T steel samples had two variants of thermal treatment: 1) 1200 deg (5 h), 600 deg (50 h); 2) 1200 deg (5 h). Methods of non-destructive automated control of 18-10-type steel inclination to IGC are developed on the basis of potentiodynamic reactivation (PR) principle. Automated testing complex is developed, which has undergone experimental running and demonstrated a high confidence of results, reliability and easy operation

  15. An analytical model for force prediction in ball nose micro milling of inclined surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2010-01-01

    Ball nose micro milling is a key process for the generation of free form surfaces and inclined surfaces often present in mould inserts for micro replication. This paper presents a new cutting force model for ball nose micro milling that is capable of taking into account the effect of the edge rad...... radius and the effect of the surface topography due to the previous milling passes. The model is completely analytical can be applied to ball end micro milling of slanted surfaces for any value of the surface inclination angle relative to the tool axis....

  16. Formation of Close-in Super-Earths by Giant Impacts: Effects of Initial Eccentricities and Inclinations of Protoplanets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Yuji [Planetary Exploration Research Center, Chiba Institute of Technology, Narashino, Chiba, 275-0016 (Japan); Kokubo, Eiichiro, E-mail: ymatsumoto@cfca.nao.ac.jp [Center for Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan)

    2017-07-01

    Recent observations have revealed the eccentricity and inclination distributions of close-in super-Earths. These distributions have the potential to constrain their formation processes. In the in situ formation scenario, the eccentricities and inclinations of planets are determined by gravitational scattering and collisions between protoplanets on the giant impact stage. We investigate the effect of the initial eccentricities and inclinations of protoplanets on the formation of close-in super-Earths. We perform N -body simulations of protoplanets in gas-free disks, changing the initial eccentricities and inclinations systematically. We find that while the eccentricities of protoplanets are well relaxed through their evolution, the inclinations are not. When the initial inclinations are small, they are not generally pumped up since scattering is less effective and collisions occur immediately after orbital crossing. On the other hand, when the initial inclinations are large, they tend to be kept large since collisional damping is less effective. Not only the resultant inclinations of planets, but also their number, eccentricities, angular momentum deficit, and orbital separations are affected by the initial inclinations of protoplanets.

  17. Titanium Heat Pipe Thermal Plane, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermacore Inc. proposes an innovative titanium heat pipe thermal plane for passive thermal control of individual cells within a fuel cell stack. The proposed...

  18. Large Format Uncooled Focal Plane Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Uncooled focal plane arrays have improved dramatically and array sizes of 320x240 elements in a 50-?m pitch are commercially available at affordable cost. Black...

  19. Lieb's correlation inequality for plane rotors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivasseau, V.

    1980-01-01

    We prove a conjecture by E. Lieb, which leads to the Lieb inequality for plane rotors. As in the Ising model case, this inequality implies the existence of an algorithm to compute the transition temperature of this model. (orig.)

  20. Causal inheritance in plane wave quotients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubeny, Veronika E.; Rangamani, Mukund; Ross, Simon F.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the appearance of closed timelike curves in quotients of plane waves along spacelike isometries. First we formulate a necessary and sufficient condition for a quotient of a general spacetime to preserve stable causality. We explicitly show that the plane waves are stably causal; in passing, we observe that some pp-waves are not even distinguishing. We then consider the classification of all quotients of the maximally supersymmetric ten-dimensional plane wave under a spacelike isometry, and show that the quotient will lead to closed timelike curves iff the isometry involves a translation along the u direction. The appearance of these closed timelike curves is thus connected to the special properties of the light cones in plane wave spacetimes. We show that all other quotients preserve stable causality

  1. Null-plane quantization of fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustaki, D.

    1990-01-01

    Massive Dirac fermions are canonically quantized on the null plane using the Dirac-Bergmann algorithm. The procedure is carried out in the framework of quantum electrodynamics as an illustration of a rigorous treatment of interacting fermion fields

  2. Titanium Heat Pipe Thermal Plane, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Phase II program is to complete the development of the titanium heat pipe thermal plane and establish all necessary steps for production of this...

  3. Integration over Tropical Plane Curves and Ultradiscretization

    OpenAIRE

    Iwao, Shinsuke

    2008-01-01

    In this article we study holomorphic integrals on tropical plane curves in view of ultradiscretization. We prove that the lattice integrals over tropical curves can be obtained as a certain limit of complex integrals over Riemannian surfaces.

  4. Elliptical Modons On The Beta-plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizner, Z.; Khvoles, R.; Berson, D.

    Conventional modons are stationary localized solutions to the equation of the quasi- geostrophic PV conservation. The contour separating the interior area, where the streamlines are closed, from the exterior area (open streamlines) is circular, the depen- dences of PV vs. streamfunction (SF) in the interior and exterior regions being linear (but different) in such modons. We consider barotropic modons on the beta-plane, in which the separating contour differs from a circle. While the exterior solution is given analytically, the interior solution is found using a variant of the Newton-Kantorovich procedure. It is shown that any deviation of the modon form from a circle causes nonlinearity of the internal PV vs. SF dependence. Special emphasis has been placed on elliptical modons. The difference of the elliptical modons on the f-plane (Boyd and Ma, 1990) from those on the beta-plane is discussed, and the 'dispersion relationships' of the beta-plane modons are analyzed.

  5. Attitude analysis in Flatland: The plane truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, Malcolm D.

    1993-01-01

    Many results in attitude analysis are still meaningful when the attitude is restricted to rotations about a single axis. Such a picture corresponds to attitude analysis in the Euclidean plane. The present report formalizes the representation of attitude in the plane and applies it to some well-known problems. In particular, we study the connection of the 'additive' and 'multiplicative' formulations of the differential corrector for the quaternion in its two-dimensional setting.

  6. The Zwicky Transient Facility Galactic Plane Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Thomas; Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) Project Team

    2018-01-01

    The Zwicky Transient Faciility (ZTF) is a new survey camera mounted on the 1.2m Oschin Schmidt Telescope on Mount Palomar. The camera has a 47 square degree field of view and is expected to start public survey observations in early 2018. The public surveys are undertaken with support provided by the NSF MSIP program. One of the two public surveys is a twice nightly scan of the central Galactic Plane visible from Mount Palomar, one scan in r-band and one in g-band. Publicly accessible data from the survey will be one of two types: (1) prompt alerts of variable activity of Galactic Plane sources using image difference source identification, and (2) photometric light curves of Galactic Plane sources extracted from calibrated images. Data will be made accessible through the Caltech Image Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC). The ZTF Galactic Plane Survey, combined with Gaia and PanSTARRS data, will be an exciting new resource for time domain astronomy observations of Galactic sources.We will describe the details of the ZTF Galactic Plane survey, including estimated coverage of the plane and light curve sampling. We will also describe plans for public access to the data, as well as comment on some of the important science that will be possible using the survey data.

  7. Effect of occlusal plane on smile attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batwa, Waeil; Hunt, Nigel P; Petrie, Aviva; Gill, Daljit

    2012-03-01

    To determine the influence of the occlusal plane angle on smile attractiveness as perceived by a group of adult orthodontic patients and dentists. The first stage utilized a laboratory approach to record changes in vertical tooth position at different occlusal plane angles using a maxillary model mounted on an articulator. In the second stage, photographic manipulation was undertaken, using data from stage 1, to produce a computerized prediction of the appearance of the smile at differing occlusal plane angles (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 degrees). Finally, the five developed photographs were assessed by participants. Alterations in the occlusal plane angle did affect relative smile attractiveness for both patients (n  =  66) and dentists (n  =  66). For patients, the 10 degree smile was rated better than the 0 and 20 degree smiles (P occlusal plane angle does affect relative smile attractiveness. However, patients were more tolerant of these changes than dentists. This suggests that large changes in the occlusal plane angle would affect relative smile attractiveness, and small changes are unlikely to affect smile attractiveness.

  8. Prosthetic management of hemimandibulectomy patient with guiding plane and twin occlusion prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koralakunte, Pavankumar R.; Shamnur, Sunitha N.; Iynalli, Rudraprasad V.; Shivmurthy, Shadakshari

    2015-01-01

    Mandibular deviation is multifactorial defect and its severity is based on the extent of osseous and soft tissue involvement, degree of tongue impaired, the loss of sensory and motor innervations, the type of wound closure, the presence of remaining natural teeth and finally the first initiation of prosthetic treatment. We describe a case of prosthetic management of a maxillary partially edentulous patient with hemimandibulectomy who reported after 4 years of postsurgical cancer therapy. A simple maxillary guided hollow inclined plane with twin occlusion acrylic prosthesis was fabricated as a functional training device to correct mandibular deviation, restore maxillomandibular relation and occlusal approximation. The patient was able to functionally achieve good maxillomandibular occlusal approximation with guidance therapy combined with physiotherapy in 2 weeks. A 6 months follow-up revealed patient satisfactory appreciation by understanding the limitations of overall prosthetic rehabilitation. PMID:26283850

  9. Prosthetic management of hemimandibulectomy patient with guiding plane and twin occlusion prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koralakunte, Pavankumar R; Shamnur, Sunitha N; Iynalli, Rudraprasad V; Shivmurthy, Shadakshari

    2015-01-01

    Mandibular deviation is multifactorial defect and its severity is based on the extent of osseous and soft tissue involvement, degree of tongue impaired, the loss of sensory and motor innervations, the type of wound closure, the presence of remaining natural teeth and finally the first initiation of prosthetic treatment. We describe a case of prosthetic management of a maxillary partially edentulous patient with hemimandibulectomy who reported after 4 years of postsurgical cancer therapy. A simple maxillary guided hollow inclined plane with twin occlusion acrylic prosthesis was fabricated as a functional training device to correct mandibular deviation, restore maxillomandibular relation and occlusal approximation. The patient was able to functionally achieve good maxillomandibular occlusal approximation with guidance therapy combined with physiotherapy in 2 weeks. A 6 months follow-up revealed patient satisfactory appreciation by understanding the limitations of overall prosthetic rehabilitation.

  10. Finite element computation of multi-physical micropolar transport phenomena from an inclined moving plate in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamshuddin, MD.; Anwar Bég, O.; Sunder Ram, M.; Kadir, A.

    2018-02-01

    Non-Newtonian flows arise in numerous industrial transport processes including materials fabrication systems. Micropolar theory offers an excellent mechanism for exploring the fluid dynamics of new non-Newtonian materials which possess internal microstructure. Magnetic fields may also be used for controlling electrically-conducting polymeric flows. To explore numerical simulation of transport in rheological materials processing, in the current paper, a finite element computational solution is presented for magnetohydrodynamic, incompressible, dissipative, radiative and chemically-reacting micropolar fluid flow, heat and mass transfer adjacent to an inclined porous plate embedded in a saturated homogenous porous medium. Heat generation/absorption effects are included. Rosseland's diffusion approximation is used to describe the radiative heat flux in the energy equation. A Darcy model is employed to simulate drag effects in the porous medium. The governing transport equations are rendered into non-dimensional form under the assumption of low Reynolds number and also low magnetic Reynolds number. Using a Galerkin formulation with a weighted residual scheme, finite element solutions are presented to the boundary value problem. The influence of plate inclination, Eringen coupling number, radiation-conduction number, heat absorption/generation parameter, chemical reaction parameter, plate moving velocity parameter, magnetic parameter, thermal Grashof number, species (solutal) Grashof number, permeability parameter, Eckert number on linear velocity, micro-rotation, temperature and concentration profiles. Furthermore, the influence of selected thermo-physical parameters on friction factor, surface heat transfer and mass transfer rate is also tabulated. The finite element solutions are verified with solutions from several limiting cases in the literature. Interesting features in the flow are identified and interpreted.

  11. Large In-Plane and Vertical Piezoelectricity in Janus Transition Metal Dichalchogenides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Liang; Lou, Jun; Shenoy, Vivek B

    2017-08-22

    Piezoelectricity in 2D van der Waals materials has received considerable interest because of potential applications in nanoscale energy harvesting, sensors, and actuators. However, in all the systems studied to date, strain and electric polarization are confined to the basal plane, limiting the operation of piezoelectric devices. In this paper, based on ab initio calculations, we report a 2D materials system, namely, the recently synthesized Janus MXY (M = Mo or W, X/Y = S, Se, or Te) monolayer and multilayer structures, with large out-of-plane piezoelectric polarization. For MXY monolayers, both strong in-plane and much weaker out-of-plane piezoelectric polarizations can be induced by a uniaxial strain in the basal plane. For multilayer MXY, we obtain a very strong out-of-plane piezoelectric polarization when strained transverse to the basal plane, regardless of the stacking sequence. The out-of-plane piezoelectric coefficient d 33 is found to be strongest in multilayer MoSTe (5.7-13.5 pm/V depending on the stacking sequence), which is larger than that of the commonly used 3D piezoelectric material AlN (d 33 = 5.6 pm/V); d 33 in other multilayer MXY structures are a bit smaller, but still comparable. Our study reveals the potential for utilizing piezoelectric 2D materials and their van der Waals multilayers in device applications.

  12. The Relationship between Mg ii Broad Emission and Quasar Inclination Angle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildy, Conor; Czerny, Bozena, E-mail: wildy@cft.edu.pl [Center for Theoretical Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland)

    2017-11-14

    Several observed spectral properties of quasars are believed to be influenced by quasar orientation. In this investigation we examine the effect of orientation on the Mg ii line located at 2,798 Å in a sample of 36 radio-loud quasars, with orientation angles having been obtained in a previous study using radio observations. We find no significant relationship between orientation angle and either Mg ii line full-width at half-maximum or equivalent width. The lack of correlation with inclination angle contradicts previous studies which also use radio data as a proxy for inclination angle and suggests the Mg ii emission region does not occupy a disk-like geometry. The lack of correlation with Mg ii equivalent width, however, is reported in at least one previous study. Although the significance is not very strong (86%), there is a possible negative relationship between inclination angle and Fe ii strength which, if true, could explain the Fe ii anti-correlation with [O iii] strength associated with Eigenvector 1. Interestingly, there are objects having almost edge-on inclinations while still exhibiting broad lines. This could be explained by a torus which is either clumpy (allowing sight lines to the central engine) or mis-aligned with the accretion disk.

  13. Complex network analysis in inclined oil–water two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong-Ke, Gao; Ning-De, Jin

    2009-01-01

    Complex networks have established themselves in recent years as being particularly suitable and flexible for representing and modelling many complex natural and artificial systems. Oil–water two-phase flow is one of the most complex systems. In this paper, we use complex networks to study the inclined oil–water two-phase flow. Two different complex network construction methods are proposed to build two types of networks, i.e. the flow pattern complex network (FPCN) and fluid dynamic complex network (FDCN). Through detecting the community structure of FPCN by the community-detection algorithm based on K-means clustering, useful and interesting results are found which can be used for identifying three inclined oil–water flow patterns. To investigate the dynamic characteristics of the inclined oil–water two-phase flow, we construct 48 FDCNs under different flow conditions, and find that the power-law exponent and the network information entropy, which are sensitive to the flow pattern transition, can both characterize the nonlinear dynamics of the inclined oil–water two-phase flow. In this paper, from a new perspective, we not only introduce a complex network theory into the study of the oil–water two-phase flow but also indicate that the complex network may be a powerful tool for exploring nonlinear time series in practice. (general)

  14. On the influence of gravity on the static state of an inclined tensioned string

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Horssen, W.T.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the static state of an inclined stretched string due to gravity is considered. The string is stretched between two fixed supports which are situated at two different levels. It is assumed that the tension in the string is suffiently large such that the sag of the string due to gravity

  15. The Relationship between Mg ii Broad Emission and Quasar Inclination Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor Wildy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Several observed spectral properties of quasars are believed to be influenced by quasar orientation. In this investigation we examine the effect of orientation on the Mg ii line located at 2,798 Å in a sample of 36 radio-loud quasars, with orientation angles having been obtained in a previous study using radio observations. We find no significant relationship between orientation angle and either Mg ii line full-width at half-maximum or equivalent width. The lack of correlation with inclination angle contradicts previous studies which also use radio data as a proxy for inclination angle and suggests the Mg ii emission region does not occupy a disk-like geometry. The lack of correlation with Mg ii equivalent width, however, is reported in at least one previous study. Although the significance is not very strong (86%, there is a possible negative relationship between inclination angle and Fe ii strength which, if true, could explain the Fe ii anti-correlation with [O iii] strength associated with Eigenvector 1. Interestingly, there are objects having almost edge-on inclinations while still exhibiting broad lines. This could be explained by a torus which is either clumpy (allowing sight lines to the central engine or mis-aligned with the accretion disk.

  16. Demographic Factors, Personality and Entrepreneurial Inclination: A Study among Indian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Richa

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of demographic, social and personal dispositional factors on determining the entrepreneurial inclination. Specifically, the author examined the role of gender, age, stream of study, family business background and six psychological traits of locus of control, tolerance for…

  17. Constraining the Relative Inclinations of the Planets B and C of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... We investigate on the relative inclination of the planets B and C orbiting the pulsar PSR B1257+12. First, we show that the third Kepler's law does represent an adequate model for the orbital periods of the planets, because other Newtonian and Einsteinian corrections are orders of magnitude smaller than ...

  18. Effect of seat surface inclination on postural control during reaching in preterm children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna; van der Heide, Jolanda C.; Fock, Johanna M.; Stremmelaar, Elisabeth; van Eykern, Leo A.; Otten, Bert

    Background and Purpose Because it is debatable whether seat surface inclination improves motor function in children with cerebral palsy (CP), the effect of seat surface tilting on postural control and quality of reaching was studied. Subjects The subjects were 58 children with CP aged 2 to 11 years

  19. The effects of porosity and angle of inclination on the deflection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of porosity and angle of inclination on the deflection of fluid flow in porous media. ... a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link above.

  20. Deformation of two welded elastic half-spaces due to a long inclined ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Department of Mathematics, University of Delhi South Campus, New Delhi 110 021, India. ∗e-mail: ... Airy stress function for a tensile line source in two welded half-spaces are first obtained. These expressions ... computing the displacement and stress fields around a long inclined tensile fault near an internal boundary. 1.