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Sample records for inclined double crystal

  1. Sagittal crystal focusing of undulator radiation with high heat load inclined crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ice, G.E.; Sparks, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    Sagittal focusing of undulator radiation is shown to be compatible with the proposed inclined double-crystal monochromator geometry for heat load reduction. The focusing aberrations are found to be negligible for typical undulator-beam divergences over a range of magnifications from 1:2 to 6:1 and energies from 3 to 40 keV. The inclined geometry reduces the required signal sagittal curvature of the focusing crystal compared to focusing with conventional symmetric crystals; hence, focusing is possible at higher X-ray energies and with less anticlastic bending. In addition, anticlastic stiffening ribs project a smaller footprint to the beam so that the achievable focal spot size is potentially better than with conventional symmetrically cut crystals. 16 refs

  2. Brilliance and flux reduction in imperfect inclined crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.K.; Blasdell, R.C.; Fernandez, P.B.; Macrander, A.T.; Mills, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    The inclined crystal geometry has been suggested as a method of reducing the surface absorbed power density of high-heat-load monochromators for third-generation synchrotron radiation sources. Computer simulations have shown that if the crystals are perfectly aligned and have no strains then the diffraction properties of a pair of inclined crystals are very similar to a pair of conventional flat crystals with only subtle effects differentiating the two configurations. However, if the crystals are strained, these subtle differences in the behavior of inclined crystals can result in large beam divergences causing brilliance and flux losses. This manuscript elaborates on these issues and estimates potential brilliance and flux losses from strained inclined crystals at the APS

  3. Self-filtering extremely inclined x-ray crystal monochromator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrdá, Jaromíra; Hrdý, Jaromír

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 6 (2011), 1169-1172 ISSN 0021-8898 R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI1/412 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : synchrotron radiation monochromator * x-ray crystal monochromator * inclined monochromator * inclined diffraction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 5.152, year: 2011

  4. Frequency doubling crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Francis; Velsko, Stephan P.

    1989-01-01

    A systematic approach to the production of frequency conversion crystals is described in which a chiral molecule has attached to it a "harmonic generating unit" which contributes to the noncentrosymmetry of the molecule. Certain preferred embodiments of such harmonic generating units include carboxylate, guanadyly and imidazolyl units. Certain preferred crystals include L-arginine fluoride, deuterated L-arginine fluoride, L-arginine chloride monohydrate, L-arginine acetate, dithallium tartrate, ammonium N-acetyl valine, N-acetyl tyrosine and N-acetyl hydroxyproline. Chemical modifications of the chiral molecule, such as deuteration, halogenation and controlled counterion substitution are available to adapt the dispersive properties of a crystal in a particular wavelength region.

  5. Frequency Doubling Broadband Light in Multiple Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alford, William J.; Smith, Arlee V.

    2000-01-01

    The authors compare frequency doubling of broadband light in a single nonlinear crystal with doubling in five crystals with intercrystal temporal walk off compensation, and with doubling in five crystals adjusted for offset phase matching frequencies. Using a plane-wave, dispersive numerical model of frequency doubling they study the bandwidth of the second harmonic and the conversion efficiency as functions of crystal length and fundamental irradiance. For low irradiance the offset phase matching arrangement has lower efficiency than a single crystal of the same total length but gives a broader second harmonic bandwidth. The walk off compensated arrangement gives both higher conversion efficiency and broader bandwidth than a single crystal. At high irradiance, both multicrystal arrangements improve on the single crystal efficiency while maintaining broad bandwidth

  6. Double Dirac cones in phononic crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yan

    2014-07-07

    A double Dirac cone is realized at the center of the Brillouin zone of a two-dimensional phononic crystal (PC) consisting of a triangular array of core-shell-structure cylinders in water. The double Dirac cone is induced by the accidental degeneracy of two double-degenerate Bloch states. Using a perturbation method, we demonstrate that the double Dirac cone is composed of two identical and overlapping Dirac cones whose linear slopes can also be accurately predicted from the method. Because the double Dirac cone occurs at a relatively low frequency, a slab of the PC can be mapped onto a slab of zero refractive index material by using a standard retrieval method. Total transmission without phase change and energy tunneling at the double Dirac point frequency are unambiguously demonstrated by two examples. Potential applications can be expected in diverse fields such as acoustic wave manipulations and energy flow control.

  7. Development of a Double Crystal Monochromator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupp, Tom; Blank, Basil; Deyhim, Alex; Benson, Curtis; Robinson, Ian; Fuoss, Paul

    2004-01-01

    A high-precision water-cooled, small offset, double crystal monochromator has been developed for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) UNICAT Sector 34 beamline. The design incorporates the supports and gravity feed water cooling of two diamond or silicon crystals correctly positioned about a common rotation axis so that the incident and diffracted beam do not walk off the edges of the crystals within the energy range 6-15KeV (30 deg. < q<11. 6 deg.). In the 34ID implementation, the first crystal sees unfocussed pink beam from an undulator. The second crystal has a ±5 deg. motorized tilt motion around an axis parallel to its face and around the beam direction. In this paper preliminary measurement data obtained from Advanced Photon Source and the detail of the instrument design are presented

  8. Crystal heating on the JUMBO double crystal monochromator at SSRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowen, M.; Waldhauer, A.; Pianetta, P.

    1986-01-01

    Heating by intense synchrotron radiation causes the lattice of the first crystal in the JUMBO double crystal monochromator at SSRL to expand. Because the two crystals no longer have the same lattice spacing, they diffract X-rays of the same wavelength at different angles. This causes shifts in energy calibration and beam movement at the sample with change in photon energy or as the current in the storage ring decays. A simple thermal model that predicts the change in wavelength and angle of the monochromatic beam is described. These shifts are proportional to I sin theta tan theta, where I is the SPEAR ring current and theta is the angle of the beam incident on the first crystal. Heating experiments were conducted with Ge(111), quartz(10anti 10), and InSb(111) crystals. Bragg angle shifts of up to 0.25 0 were measured with high precision encoders mounted directly on the crystal goniometers. Photon energy calibration shifts of up to 3.5 eV (at 1700 eV) were measured. Preliminary results show good agreement with the model for Ge and quartz crystals, but not for InSb crystals. Further study is needed to refine the model for Ge and quartz crystals and to determine a better one for InSb. (orig.)

  9. Second crystal cooling on cryogenically cooled undulator and wiggler double crystal monochromators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, G. S.

    1998-01-01

    Simple methods for the cooling of the second crystals of cryogenically cooled undulator and wiggler double crystal monochromators are described. Copper braids between the first and second crystals are used to cool the second crystals of the double crystal monochromators. The method has proved successful for an undulator monochromator and we describe a design for a wiggler monochromator

  10. Performances of packed bed double pass solar air heater with different inclinations and transverse wire mesh with different intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugantharaj Gnanadurai Sam Stanley

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar air heating is a technology in which the solar energy from the sun is captured by an absorbing medium and used to heat the air flowing through the heater. In this study, thermal performance of a double pass solar air heater has been investigated experimentally at different conditions. The experiments were conducted with different inclinations of the collector, with and without wire mesh vertically fixed at the second pass in transverse direction and with different mass flow rates. The effect of air mass flow rate, wire mesh pitch and collector inclination on temperature rise and thermal efficiency have been studied. Results show that efficiency increases with mass flow rate. For the same mass flow rate, the thermal efficiency increases with the decrease in the wire mesh pitch. The maximum daily average efficiency of air heater was 79.8% at 0.025 kg/s mass flow rate, 10 cm wire mesh gap and 9º collector inclination facing south. The highest collector efficiency was observed in solar air heaters with 10 cm wire mesh gap.

  11. Frequency doubling perimetry using a liquid crystal display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spry, P G; Gibbs, M L; Johnson, C A; Howard, D L

    2001-03-01

    To compare frequency doubling contrast thresholds using a new liquid crystal window display with those obtained with the commercial video-based Frequency Doubling Technology perimeter. One eye of 49 glaucoma patients and one eye of 49 normal controls were tested with the liquid crystal window and Frequency Doubling Technology systems. Both displays employed identical stimulus conditions and test strategies, although the dynamic range of the liquid crystal window-based display was approximately 30% smaller than that of the Frequency Doubling Technology system. Measurements were repeated using the video-based Frequency Doubling Technology perimeter in a subset of 21 eyes. Relationships between and within displays were assessed using a chance-corrected agreement measure (quadratic weighted kappa) and paired measurement differences. Variability was quantified using standard deviation from the mean paired measurement difference. Over the restricted operating range of the liquid crystal display system, between-display and within-video display variability was 2.3 dB and 3.2 dB, respectively, between-display agreement was 0.66, and within-display agreement (test-retest for Frequency Doubling Technology) was 0.65. Levels of agreement and variability between the two frequency doubling displays were of similar magnitude to repeated (test-retest) Frequency Doubling Technology measures, suggesting that contrast threshold measurements made using the two displays may be used interchangeably. However, the operating range of the current liquid crystal window-based display is smaller.

  12. Realisation of a novel crystal bender for a fast double crystal monochromator

    CERN Document Server

    Zaeper, R; Wollmann, R; Luetzenkirchen-Hecht, D; Frahm, R

    2001-01-01

    A novel crystal bender for an X-ray undulator beamline as part of a fast double crystal monochromator development for full EXAFS energy range was characterized. Rocking curves of the monochromator crystal system were recorded under different heat loads and bending forces of the indirectly cooled first Si(1 1 1) crystal. The monochromator development implements new piezo-driven tilt tables with wide angular range to adjust the crystals' Bragg angles and a high pressure actuated bender mechanism for the first crystal.

  13. Analysis of crystallization risk in double effect absorption refrigeration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garousi Farshi, L.; Seyed Mahmoudi, S.M.; Rosen, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Absorption refrigeration systems are an alternative to vapor compression ones in cooling and refrigeration applications. In comparison with single effect absorption units, double effect systems have improved performance. Also, they are more available commercially than the other multi effect absorption cycles. An important challenge in the operation of such systems is the possibility of crystallization within them. This is especially true in developing air-cooled absorption systems, which are attractive because cooling tower and associated installation and maintenance issues can be avoided. Therefore, distinguishing the working conditions that may cause crystallization can be useful in the design and control of these systems. In this paper a computational model has been developed to study and compare the effects of operating parameters on crystallization phenomena in three classes of double effect lithium bromide-water absorption refrigeration systems (series, parallel and reverse parallel) with identical refrigeration capacities. It is shown that the range of operating conditions without crystallization risks in the parallel and the reverse parallel configurations is wider than those of the series flow system. - Highlights: → We study crystallization of double effect absorption refrigeration systems. → We consider series, parallel and reverse parallel cycles. → We study the effect of operating conditions on crystallization. → We choose optimum distribution ratio for parallel and reverse parallel systems. → Crystallization possibility is low in parallel and reverse parallel cycles.

  14. A method of deciding ubiety and dimensions of crystals in double-crystal monochromator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Jing; Cao Chongzhen; Gao Xueguan; Ma Peisun

    2005-01-01

    The principle of the T-shaped exit fixed mechanism of the exit beam and entrance one in the double-crystal monochromator is introduced, and requirements of deciding the ubiety and dimensions of two crystals are analyzed. According to these requirements, a method of deciding the ubiety and dimensions of two crystals based on the T-shaped exit fixed mechanism is put forward. The method can not only satisfy the working requirements of double-crystal monochromator, but also optimize the length of two crystals; moreover, it can eliminate the position error when fine adjusting the second crystal. The advantage of the method is testified by giving an example in the end. (authors)

  15. A Double-Crystal Monochromator for Neutron Stress Diffractometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Em, V.; Balagurov, A. M.; Glazkov, V. P.; Karpov, I. D.; Mikula, Pavol; Miron, N. F.; Somenkov, V. A.; Sumin, V. V.; Šaroun, Jan; Shushunov, M. N.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 4 (2017), s. 526-532 ISSN 0020-4412 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : neutron diffraction * double-crystal * monochromator Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 0.437, year: 2016

  16. Simulation on monochromators of double focusing perfect crystal and vertical focusing mosaic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yanzhou; Sun Guang'ai; Huang Chaoqiang; Chen Bo

    2010-01-01

    In order to satisfy both high flux and high resolution of residual stress neutron diffractometer, the monochromator was simulated using Monte Carlo simulation code SIMRES. A series of factors,including the diffraction geometries (symmetric diffraction, asymmetric diffraction and fully asymmetric diffraction), focusing conditions (vertical and horizontal focusing curvatures) and crystal types (perfect crystal and mosaic crystal), were considered in the simulation to study, taking the figure of merit (FoM) as a comparison measure, the influences of flux on resolution of the diffractometer. The results show that use of symmetric diffraction and perfect crystal double focusing could achieve the best performance. (authors)

  17. Double stage crystallization of bulk Ge20Te80 glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthasarathy, G.; Bandyopadhyay, A.K.; Gopal, E.S.R.; Subbanna, G.N.

    1984-01-01

    The growing interest of the semiconducting glasses is partly because of their interesting electrical and optical properties. These properties are usually connected with their crystallization. In many glasses, the glass-supercooled liquid transition precedes crystallization. The glass transition temperature (Tsub(g)) is found to exhibit multistage processes for a few systems. In this communication, we report the observation of a double Tsub(g) effect in bulk Ge 20 Te 80 glass and also explain the structural changes taking place in the two stages. (author)

  18. Double stratified radiative Jeffery magneto nanofluid flow along an inclined stretched cylinder with chemical reaction and slip condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramzan, M.; Gul, Hina; Dong Chung, Jae

    2017-11-01

    A mathematical model is designed to deliberate the flow of an MHD Jeffery nanofluid past a vertically inclined stretched cylinder near a stagnation point. The flow analysis is performed in attendance of thermal radiation, mixed convection and chemical reaction. Influence of thermal and solutal stratification with slip boundary condition is also considered. Apposite transformations are engaged to convert the nonlinear partial differential equations to differential equations with high nonlinearity. Convergent series solutions of the problem are established via the renowned Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM). Graphical illustrations are plotted to depict the effects of prominent arising parameters against all involved distributions. Numerically erected tables of important physical parameters like Skin friction, Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are also give. Comparative studies (with a previously examined work) are also included to endorse our results. It is noticed that the thermal stratification parameter has diminishing effect on temperature distribution. Moreover, the velocity field is a snowballing and declining function of curvature and slip parameters respectively.

  19. Double-diffusive natural convection in inclined porous cavities with various aspect ratios and temperature-dependent heat source or sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamkha, Ali J.; Al-Mudhaf, Ali

    2008-04-01

    Laminar double-diffusive natural convective flow of a binary fluid mixture in inclined square and rectangular cavities filled with a uniform porous medium in the presence of temperature-difference dependent heat generation (source) or absorption (sink) is considered. Transverse gradients of heat and mass are applied on two opposing walls of the cavity while the other two walls are kept adiabatic and impermeable to mass transfer. The problem is put in terms of the stream function-vorticity formulation. A numerical solution based on the finite-difference methodology is obtained for relatively high Lewis numbers. Representative results illustrating the effects of the inclination angle of the cavity, buoyancy ratio, Darcy number, heat generation or absorption coefficient and the cavity aspect ratio on the contour maps of the streamline, temperature, and concentration as well as the profiles of velocity, temperature and concentration at mid-section of the cavity are reported. In addition, numerical results for the average Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are presented for various parametric conditions and discussed.

  20. Inclined planes

    CERN Document Server

    Rivera, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    From moving ramps to playground slides, inclined planes are at work all over in our world today. Learn all about them in five easy-to-read chapters. Vibrant, full-color photos, bolded glossary words, and a key stats section let readers zoom in even deeper. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Abdo Zoom is a division of ABDO.

  1. Heat transfer and entropy generation study of non-Darcy double-diffusive natural convection in inclined porous enclosures with different source configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Double-diffusive natural convection of 2-phase flow in a porous cavity is studied. • Results are presented for different Darcy, Rayleigh and Lewis numbers. • Effects of inclination angle of enclosure on heat and mass transfer are studied. • Effects of thermal and solutal source configurations on Nu and Sh are investigated. • The entropy generation study is conducted to find the optimal source configuration. - Abstract: In the present study, steady double-diffusive natural convection of two-phase flow through a square enclosure filled with a fluid-saturated porous medium, in presence of the internal thermal and solutal source is investigated numerically. Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer model is used to describe the fluid flow in porous media. This research aims to obtain a deep understanding about details of physical processes involved in such flows, using both the first and the second law analysis for different internal source(s) configurations. To this end, an in-house finite volume numerical solver is developed and validated against available data in literatures. Results are presented in terms of streamlines, isotherms and concentration contours for different values of Darcy, Rayleigh and Lewis numbers. First the effect of inclination angle of the cavity on heat and mass transfer characteristics of flows is investigated in presence of an internal source with the square and rectangular shape. Next, twelve different internal source configurations with distinctive shapes, locations and arrangements are studied and their effects on Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are investigated. Finally an entropy generation analysis is conducted to identify the best internal source configuration from the viewpoint of the second law of thermodynamics.

  2. Accidental degeneracy of double Dirac cones in a phononic crystal

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Ze-Guo

    2014-04-09

    Artificial honeycomb lattices with Dirac cone dispersion provide a macroscopic platform to study the massless Dirac quasiparticles and their novel geometric phases. In this paper, a quadruple-degenerate state is achieved at the center of the Brillouin zone in a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice phononic crystal, which is a result of accidental degeneracy of two double-degenerate states. In the vicinity of the quadruple-degenerate state, the dispersion relation is linear. Such quadruple degeneracy is analyzed by rigorous representation theory of groups. Using method, a reduced Hamiltonian is obtained to describe the linear Dirac dispersion relations of this quadruple-degenerate state, which is well consistent with the simulation results. Near such accidental degeneracy, we observe some unique properties in wave propagating, such as defect-insensitive propagating character and the Talbot effect.

  3. A comparative study of nanofluids flow yields by an inclined cylindrical surface in a double stratified medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ur Rehman, Khalil; Malik, M. Y.; Makinde, O. D.; Malik, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we have considered both Newtonian and non-Newtonian nanofluids stagnation point flow towards an inclined cylindrical surface. The flow field is manifested with physical effects, namely thermal radiation, mixed convection, chemical reaction, temperature and concentration stratification, heat generation/absorption, magnetic field. The reduced system of ODEs is obtained by transforming flow narrating PDEs with the aid of appropriate transformation. A computational algorithm is executed to trace out the solution of an initial value problem. To be more specific, the effects of involved pertinent flow parameters are discussed for both λ = 0 (Newtonian fluid) and λ = 0.5 (non-Newtonian fluid). The non-Newtonian fluid reflects considerable variations towards flow parameters as compared to Newtonian fluid. Further, the compatibility of endpoint conditions is validated by providing stream lines pattern towards the velocities ratio parameter. In addition, the influence of Brownian motion and thermophoresis parameters are reported on mass and heat transfer rates by way of both straight line and parabolic curve fitting schemes. It is concluded that the heat transfer rate normal to the cylindrical surface is a decreasing function of both thermophoresis and Brownian motion parameters while the mass transfer rate admits inciting trends towards the Brownian motion parameter.

  4. Design and performance of two new double crystal monochromators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holly, D. J.; Mason, W. P.; Middleton, F. H.; Sailor, T.; Smith, R. E.

    1997-01-01

    The University of Wisconsin-Madison Physical Sciences Laboratory (PSL) has designed and built two new types of double crystal monochromator (DCM): the Compact DCM and the Broomstick DCM. The Compact DCM has a single rotational stage and features a frame footprint only 0.74 m by 0.84 m, with a distance of only 0.35 m from beam centerline to the back of the instrument. It features full frontal access to the crystals without the need for a track system. The instrument is UHV-compatible by virtue of its all-metal construction and features motorized in-vacuum adjustments using bellows-sealed drive motors. The Broomstick DCM uses a patented mechanism which combines a cotangent generator with a pair of unique half-angle mechanisms. An external linear drive is the only input required to scan the monochromator; fine angular adjustments are made via PZT or manually. We present the final design of both DCMs and results from their performance tests

  5. Crystal agglomeration of europium oxalate in reaction crystallization using double-jet semi-batch reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Woo-Sik; Kim, Woon-Soo; Kim, Kwang-Seok; Kim, Joon-Soo; Ward, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    The particle agglomeration of europium oxalate was investigated in a double-jet semi-batch reactor over a wide range of operating variables, including the agitation speed, reactant feed rate, and reactant concentration. The size of the agglomerates was directly dictated by the particle collision and supersaturation promoting agglomeration and the fluid shear force inhibiting agglomeration. Thus, with a longer feeding time and higher feed concentration for the reaction crystallization, the mean particle size increased, while the corresponding total particle population decreased due to the enhanced chance of particle agglomeration, resulting from a longer residence time and higher supersaturation in the reactor. Agitation was found to exhibit a rather complicated influence on particle agglomeration. Although both particle collision and turbulent fluid shear were promoted by an increase in the mixing intensity, the crystal agglomeration of europium oxalate was maximized at around 500 rpm of agitation speed due to an optimized balance between particle aggregation and breakage

  6. Characterization of cryogenically cooled silicon crystals, for the double-crystal monochromator on BL11XU at SPring-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozawa, Kazukiyo; Kiriyama, Koji; Mitsui, Takaya; Shiwaku, Hideaki; Harami, Taikan

    2004-03-01

    Liquid-N 2 -cooled Si crystals have replaced water-cooled diamond crystals for the double-crystal monochromator on the JAERI beamline, BL11XU at SPring-8. To use the whole energy range from 6 to 70 keV, we developed the multi-crystal switching system, which can switch various crystals by a horizontal translation (X) stage perpendicular to the beam axis, and adopted the dual symmetric Si geometry, Si(111)/Si(311). The crystals are put side by side together with an indium sheet of 0.1 or 0.2 mm in thickness as a thermal conductor. The off-line experiment was performed to characterize the degree of the crystal strain, which may be introduced from the way of assembling in the crystal holder or upside-down posturing particularly for the second crystal of double-crystal monochromator. With MoKα 1 radiation from the x-ray generator, rocking curves from the dual symmetric silicon geometry, Si(111)/Si(311), for the second crystal were measured by the double-crystal diffractometer of parallel setting for the precise measurement of the crystal strain. Each of the observed FWHM was almost constant and identical to the calculated FWHM wherever an x-ray impinges on the crystal surface. These crystals were installed in the undulator beamline, BL11XU with cryogenically cooled condition, and tested for the performance by measuring the reflected intensity and the width of rocking curves. Highly improved results, in comparison with those in the water-cooled diamond case, were obtained. (author)

  7. A fine adjustment mechanism of the second crystal in a double-crystal monochromator with a 3-PS parallel manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Chongzhen; Gao, X.; Ma, P.; Yu, H.; Wang, F.; Huang, Y.; Liu, P.

    2005-01-01

    A novel fine adjustment mechanism of the second crystal in a double-crystal monochromator is put forward, which is based on a 3-PS parallel manipulator and the magnetic force. Not only is the principle of fine adjusting the pitch angle and the roll angle analyzed, but also optimization of the structure parameters of the permanent magnet, a key part of the fine adjustment mechanism. The fine adjustment mechanism with the 3-PS parallel manipulator has been applied successfully in the double-crystal monochromator of 4W1B beam line in the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF)

  8. Design and performance of the ALS double-crystal monochromator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, G.; Ryce, S.; Perera, R.C.C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    A new {open_quotes}Cowan type{close_quotes} double-crystal monochromator, based on the boomerang design used at NSLS beamline X-24A, has been developed for beamline 9.3.1 at the ALS, a windowless UHV beamline covering the 1-6 keV photon-energy range. Beamline 9.3.1 is designed to simultaneously achieve the goals of high energy resolution, high flux, and high brightness at the sample. The mechanical design has been simplified, and recent developments in technology have been included. Measured mechanical precision of the monochromator shows significant improvement over existing designs. In tests with x-rays at NSLS beamline X-23 A2, maximum deviations in the intensity of monochromatic light were just 7% during scans of several hundred eV in the vicinity of the Cr K edge (6 keV) with the monochromator operating without intensity feedback. Such precision is essential because of the high brightness of the ALS radiation and the overall length of beamline 9.3.1 (26 m).

  9. Active phase double crystal monochromator for JET (diagnostic system KS1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andelfinger, C.; Fink, J.; Fussmann, G.; Krause, H.; Roehr, H.; Schilling, H.B.; Schumacher, U.; Becker, P.; Siegert, H.; Abel, P.; Keul, J.

    1984-03-01

    The determination of the impurity concentrations in JET plasmas by absolute radiation measurements in a wide spectral range can be done with a double crystal monochromator device in parallel mode, which is able to operate during all experimental phases of JET. The report describes the engineering design and tests for a double crystal monochromator that fulfills the conditions of parallel orientation of the two crystals during fast wavelength scan, of shielding against neutrons and gamma rays by its folded optical pathway and of sufficient spectral resolution for line profile measurements. (orig.)

  10. One-dimensional magnetophotonic crystals with magnetooptical double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berzhansky, V. N.; Shaposhnikov, A. N.; Prokopov, A. R.; Karavainikov, A. V.; Mikhailova, T. V.; Lukienko, I. N.; Kharchenko, Yu. N.; Golub, V. O.; Salyuk, O. Yu.; Belotelov, V. I.

    2016-01-01

    One-dimensional magnetophotonic microcavity crystals with nongarnet dielectric mirrors are created and investigated. The defect layers in the magnetophotonic crystals are represented by two bismuth-substituted yttrium iron garnet Bi:YIG layers with various bismuth contents in order to achieve a high magnetooptical response of the crystals. The parameters of the magnetophotonic crystal layers are optimized by numerical solution of the Maxwell equations by the transfer matrix method to achieve high values of Faraday rotation angle Θ F and magnetooptical Q factor. The calculated and experimental data agree well with each other. The maximum values of Θ F =–20.6°, Q = 8.1° at a gain t = 16 are obtained for magnetophotonic crystals with m = 7 pairs of layers in Bragg mirrors, and the parameters obtained for crystals with m = 4 and t = 8.5 are Θ F =–12.5° and Q = 14.3°. It is shown that, together with all-garnet and multimicrocavities magnetophotonic crystals, such structures have high magnetooptical characteristics.

  11. One-dimensional magnetophotonic crystals with magnetooptical double layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berzhansky, V. N., E-mail: v.n.berzhansky@gmail.com; Shaposhnikov, A. N.; Prokopov, A. R.; Karavainikov, A. V.; Mikhailova, T. V. [V.I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University (Russian Federation); Lukienko, I. N.; Kharchenko, Yu. N., E-mail: kharcenko@ilt.kharkov.ua [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering (Ukraine); Golub, V. O., E-mail: v-o-golub@yahoo.com; Salyuk, O. Yu. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute of Magnetism (Ukraine); Belotelov, V. I., E-mail: belotelov@physics.msu.ru [Russian Quantum Center (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    One-dimensional magnetophotonic microcavity crystals with nongarnet dielectric mirrors are created and investigated. The defect layers in the magnetophotonic crystals are represented by two bismuth-substituted yttrium iron garnet Bi:YIG layers with various bismuth contents in order to achieve a high magnetooptical response of the crystals. The parameters of the magnetophotonic crystal layers are optimized by numerical solution of the Maxwell equations by the transfer matrix method to achieve high values of Faraday rotation angle Θ{sub F} and magnetooptical Q factor. The calculated and experimental data agree well with each other. The maximum values of Θ{sub F} =–20.6°, Q = 8.1° at a gain t = 16 are obtained for magnetophotonic crystals with m = 7 pairs of layers in Bragg mirrors, and the parameters obtained for crystals with m = 4 and t = 8.5 are Θ{sub F} =–12.5° and Q = 14.3°. It is shown that, together with all-garnet and multimicrocavities magnetophotonic crystals, such structures have high magnetooptical characteristics.

  12. Single crystal growth and nonlinear optical properties of Nd3+ doped STGS crystal for self-frequency-doubling application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feifei; Wang, Lijuan; Wang, Xinle; Cheng, Xiufeng; Yu, Fapeng; Wang, Zhengping; Zhao, Xian

    2017-11-01

    The self-frequency-doubling crystal is an important kind of multi-functional crystal materials. In this work, Nd3+ doped Sr3TaGa3Si2O14 (Nd:STGS) single crystals were successfully grown by using Czochralski pulling method, in addition, the nonlinear and laser-frequency-doubling properties of Nd:STGS crystals were studied. The continuous-wave laser at 1064 nm was demonstrated along different physical axes, where the maximum output power was obtained to be 295 mW for the Z-cut samples, much higher than the Y-cut (242 mW) and X-cut (217 mW) samples. Based on the measured refractive indexes, the phase matching directions were discussed and determined for type I (42.5°, 30°) and type II (69.5°, 0°) crystal cuts. As expected, self-frequency-doubling green laser at 529 nm was achieved with output powers being around 16 mW and 12 mW for type I and type II configurations, respectively.

  13. Application prospects of cadmium-containing crystals based on tungstates and double tungstates

    CERN Document Server

    Nagornaya, L; Apanasenko, A; Tupitsyna, I; Chernikov, V; Vostretsov, V

    2002-01-01

    Tungstate and double tungstate crystals of high scintillation efficiency and detectors based on them are applied widely in the medical imaging and radiation monitoring because of their high sensitivity to the ionizing radiation, small radiation length, high radiation hardness, low afterglow level. In this work a possibility to broaden the application field of CWO crystals have been investigated by improvement of their spectrometric quality and decreasing of their afterglow level. CWO crystals with improved characteristics have been obtained (resolution for sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs <8%, afterglow <0.02% after 20 ms). A possibility is considered to use these crystals for spectrometry of thermal and resonance neutrons, which is possible due to the presence of nuclei with large cross-section for these neutrons in the crystal lattice. Compounds of a new type based on Cd, La-containing double tungstates doped with rare earth elements have been synthesized, and their luminescent characteristics have been studied. ...

  14. Double Charged Surface Layers in Lead Halide Perovskite Crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Sarmah, Smritakshi P.

    2017-02-01

    Understanding defect chemistry, particularly ion migration, and its significant effect on the surface’s optical and electronic properties is one of the major challenges impeding the development of hybrid perovskite-based devices. Here, using both experimental and theoretical approaches, we demonstrated that the surface layers of the perovskite crystals may acquire a high concentration of positively charged vacancies with the complementary negatively charged halide ions pushed to the surface. This charge separation near the surface generates an electric field that can induce an increase of optical band gap in the surface layers relative to the bulk. We found that the charge separation, electric field, and the amplitude of shift in the bandgap strongly depend on the halides and organic moieties of perovskite crystals. Our findings reveal the peculiarity of surface effects that are currently limiting the applications of perovskite crystals and more importantly explain their origins, thus enabling viable surface passivation strategies to remediate them.

  15. Diffraction of neutrons in crystals macroscopic double slits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, A.

    2000-06-01

    Diffraction experiments with neutrons at slits in free space have been measured with very high accuracy and can be found in many text books. The experiments in this thesis demonstrate that diffraction still takes place when the ratio between the dimensions of the slits and the wavelength of the particle is very large. In our experiment neutrons are diffracted at macroscopic objects and these diffraction effects will be amplified in a silicon crystal. The following effect is used : Similar to electrons in solid state materials, the interaction of the neutron with a periodic crystal potential can be described by an effective mass. In contrast to the case of the electrons, however, the crystal potential is very small in comparison to the kinetic energy for neutrons. Thus the effective neutron mass can become almost six orders of magnitude smaller than the rest mass of the free neutron. Therefore the characteristic length, equivalent to the de Broglie wavelength in free space, inside the crystal is the Pendelloesung length which is in our case larger by a factor of 2x10 5 . Due to this fact a deflection by small forces can already be observed on a distance of some centimeters. Thus diffraction of neutrons with wavelengths of the order of a few angstroms at slits in the millimeter range can be shown. We remark that our intensity was of the order of 4 neutrons per minute which clearly indicates single-neutron interference. (author)

  16. Double minimum creep of single crystal Ni-base superalloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    WU, X.; Wollgramm, P.; Somsen, C.; Dlouhý, Antonín; Kostka, A.; Eggeler, G.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 112, JUN (2016), s. 242-260 ISSN 1359-6454 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22834S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Single crystal Ni-base superalloys * Primary creep * Transmission electron microscopy * Dislocations * Stacking fault s Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 5.301, year: 2016

  17. Tunable double-channel filter based on two-dimensional ferroelectric photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Ping; Ding, Chengyuan; Hu, Xiaoyong; Gong, Qihuang

    2007-01-01

    A tunable double-channel filter is presented, which is based on a two-dimensional nonlinear ferroelectric photonic crystal made of cerium doped barium titanate. The filtering properties of the photonic crystal filter can be tuned by adjusting the defect structure or by a pump light. The influences of the structure disorders caused by the perturbations in the radius or the position of air holes on the filtering properties are also analyzed

  18. Tunable double-channel filter based on two-dimensional ferroelectric photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Ping [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ding, Chengyuan [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Hu, Xiaoyong [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)]. E-mail: xiaoyonghu@pku.edu.cn; Gong, Qihuang [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)]. E-mail: qhgong@pku.edu.cn

    2007-04-02

    A tunable double-channel filter is presented, which is based on a two-dimensional nonlinear ferroelectric photonic crystal made of cerium doped barium titanate. The filtering properties of the photonic crystal filter can be tuned by adjusting the defect structure or by a pump light. The influences of the structure disorders caused by the perturbations in the radius or the position of air holes on the filtering properties are also analyzed.

  19. Double Dirac cone in two-dimensional phononic crystals beyond circular cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hongqing; Liu, Tingting; Jiao, Junrui; Xia, Baizhan; Yu, Dejie

    2017-04-01

    A double Dirac cone plays a significant role in the design of zero-refractive-index metamaterials without phase variation and topological insulators with pseudospin states. We present a study on the formation of a double Dirac cone in two-dimensional phononic crystals consisting of either hexagonal or triangular columns in air. We arranged hexagonal and triangular columns separately in a honeycomb lattice to explore the influence of phononic crystal symmetry on the formation of the double Dirac cone. The results show that phononic crystals forming a honeycomb lattice with C6v or C6 symmetry induce an accidental degeneracy, but C3v and C3 cannot. We also demonstrate that by varying the filling ratio of the hexagonal columns, a topological phase transformation induced by energy band inversion with dipolar and quadrupolar states occurs near the double Dirac cone. Transmission properties for acoustic tunneling and waveform shaping are confirmed in two numerical simulation examples. A discussion is given on the formation of the double Dirac cone in different phononic crystal symmetries in a honeycomb lattice. The conclusions suggest a new route for designing topological and zero-refractive-index acoustic devices.

  20. Double bent crystal dispersive arrangement for high resolution diffractometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikula, Pavol; Vrána, Miroslav; Šaroun, Jan; Em, V.; Seong, B. S.; Woo, W.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 340, 012014 (2012), s. 1-6 ISSN 1742-6588. [5th European Conference on Neutron Scattering. Praha, 17.07.2011-21.07.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/10/0654; GA AV ČR KJB100480901 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 226507 - NMI3 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : neutron diffraction * double bent Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics , Colliders

  1. Measurement & Minimization of Mount Induced Strain on Double Crystal Monochromator Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, J.; Alcock, S. G.

    2013-03-01

    Opto-mechanical mounts can cause significant distortions to monochromator crystals and mirrors if not designed or implemented carefully. A slope measuring profiler, the Diamond-NOM [1], was used to measure the change in tangential slope as a function of crystal clamping configuration and load. A three point mount was found to exhibit the lowest surface distortion (Diamond Light Source.

  2. The cone phase of liquid crystals: Triangular lattice of double-tilt ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 277–283. The cone phase of liquid crystals: Triangular lattice of double-tilt cylinders. YASHODHAN HATWALNE and N V MADHUSUDANA. Raman Research Institute, C. V. ..... [19] D R Nelson, in Observation, prediction and simulation of phase transitions in complex fluids edited by M Baus, L F Rull and J-P ...

  3. Obtaining tabular silver bromide crystals using double-jet method in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyonizy, A.; Nowak, P. [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze St., Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2010-11-15

    Water-gelatine suspensions containing tabular crystals of silver bromide were obtained using the modified double-jet method, in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide and an excess of bromide ions, used to increase silver bromide solubility. The size and morphology of crystals obtained depend mostly on the constant concentration of complexing agents in the dispersive solution, during nucleation and crystal growth. The influence of excessive bromide ions concentration and volumetric concentration of dimethyl sulfoxide in the crystallising mixture on the formation of tabular - triangular or hexagonal thin plates - of high aspect ratio has been analysed. During experiment, optimal ranges of dimethyl sulfoxide and excessive bromide ions concentrations for obtaining interesting forms of flat silver bromide crystals were determined. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Impact of the initial streamwise inclination of a double jet emitted within a cool crossflow on its temperature field and pollutants dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhouane, A.; Mahjoub Said, Nejla; Mhiri, H. [Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir, Unite de Thermique et Thermodynamique des Procedes Industriels, Monastir (Tunisia); Palec, G. le; Bournot, P. [IUSTI, UMR 6595, Technopole de Chateau-Gombert, Marseille (France)

    2009-04-15

    An experimental study and a numerical modeling are carried out simultaneously on a twin inclined jets' configuration issuing into a cooler crossflow. The main purpose of this study is to track the overall evolution of the jets among the surrounding flow and then determine the thermal and mass transfer features that characterize the resulting flowfield. The experimental data are depicted by means of a particle image velocimetry technique; whereas the numerical three-dimensional model is simulated through the resolution of the different governing Navier-Stokes' equations by means of the finite volume method. Two different closure models were tested: the standard k-{epsilon} model and the Reynolds stress model (RSM) second order model. The introduction of the latter in such a configuration brings some valuable improvement since it allows the detection of the slightest variations within the domain and then describes the least occurring mechanisms. The confrontation of the differently processed numerical results with the experimentally tracked data comforted our opinion since it proved the better efficiency of the RSM model for the description of the handled flow; that's why we adopted it for the rest of the paper. Once the validation obtained, we proceeded to the evaluation of the influence of the initial streamwise inclination of the emitted jets on the engendered thermal field and on the pollutants' dispersion. For the matter, we tested the following angles: 30 , 45 , 60 and 90 . After that, we represented the temperature variation along different directions in order to detail its behavior in all of them and at different levels. This characterization is highly recommended since it may promote the efficiency of several applications (mainly the cooling applications). We also evaluated the influence of this same parameter; the initial inclination; on the pollutants' dispersion due to the high and alarming importance of the problem on the

  5. Doubled heterogeneous crystal nucleation in sediments of hard sphere binary-mass mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwen, Hartmut; Allahyarov, Elshad

    2011-10-07

    Crystallization during the sedimentation process of a binary colloidal hard spheres mixture is explored by Brownian dynamics computer simulations. The two species are different in buoyant mass but have the same interaction diameter. Starting from a completely mixed system in a finite container, gravity is suddenly turned on, and the crystallization process in the sample is monitored. If the Peclet numbers of the two species are both not too large, crystalline layers are formed at the bottom of the cell. The composition of lighter particles in the sedimented crystal is non-monotonic in the altitude: it is first increasing, then decreasing, and then increasing again. If one Peclet number is large and the other is small, we observe the occurrence of a doubled heterogeneous crystal nucleation process. First, crystalline layers are formed at the bottom container wall which are separated from an amorphous sediment. At the amorphous-fluid interface, a secondary crystal nucleation of layers is identified. This doubled heterogeneous nucleation can be verified in real-space experiments on colloidal mixtures. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  6. Mapping of Lattice Strain in 4H-SiC Crystals by Synchrotron Double-Crystal X-ray Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianqiu; Yang, Yu; Raghothamachar, Balaji; Dudley, Michael; Stoupin, Stanislav

    2018-02-01

    The presence of lattice strain in n-doped 4H-SiC substrate crystals grown by a physical vapor transport method can strongly influence the performance of related power devices that are fabricated on them. Information on the level and the variation of lattice strain in these wafer crystals is thus important. In this study, a non-destructive method is developed based on synchrotron double-crystal x-ray topography to map lattice strains in 4H-SiC wafers. Measurements are made on two 4H-SiC substrate crystals—one is an unprocessed commercial wafer while the other was subject to a post-growth high-temperature heat treatment. Maps of different strain components are generated from the equi-misorientation contour maps recorded using synchrotron monochromatic radiation. The technique is demonstrated to be a powerful tool in estimating strain fields in 4H-SiC crystals. Analysis of the strain maps also shows that the normal strain components vary much more significantly than do the shear/rotation components, indicating that lattice dilation/compression rather than lattice tilt is the major type of deformation caused by both the incorporation of nitrogen dopants and the nucleation of basal plane dislocations.

  7. Splice of photonic crystal fibres by use of double phase-conjugate mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Yusuke; Okamoto, Atsushi; Takayama, Yoshihisa; Hayano, Yutaka

    2007-05-01

    We present a novel splicing method for photonic crystal fibres (PCFs) with a double phase-conjugate mirror (DPCM). The DPCM is an optical device with photorefractive crystal (PRC) which generates phase-conjugate beams easily. In this report, we experimentally measure the splice losses of the DPCM for transverse PCF offset. We numerically estimate the splice losses in the case that butt coupled PCFs without DPCM. Comparing the experimental and numerical values of the splice loss of PCFs, we discuss the tolerance of the DPCM for the PCF displacement. Also, we discuss the causes of loss inside the DPCM module.

  8. The Milano-Gran Sasso double beta decay experiment: toward a 20-crystal array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessandrello, A.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Fiorini, E.; Giuliani, A.; Nucciotti, A.; Pavan, M.; Pessina, G.; Previtali, E.; Zanotti, L.

    1996-01-01

    TeO 2 thermal detectors are being used by the Milano group to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 130 Te. An upper limit for neutrinoless decay half life of 2.1 x 10 22 yr at 90% CL obtained with a 334 g TeO 2 detector has been previously reported. To improve the sensitivity of the experiment an array of twenty 340 g TeO 2 crystals will be realised in the next future. As a first step toward the realisation of that experiment a 4 crystal detector has been tested in the Gran Sasso refrigerator. Detector performances, data acquisition and analysis are discussed. (orig.)

  9. Radiation-shielded double crystal X-ray monochromator for JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnsley, R.; Morsi, H.W.; Rupprecht, G.; Kaellne, E.

    1989-01-01

    A double crystal X-ray monochromator for absolute wavelength and intensity measurements with very effective shielding of its detector against neutrons and hard X-rays was brought into operation at JET. Fast wavelength scans were taken of impurity line radiation in the wavelength region from about 0.1 nm to 2.3 nm, and monochromatic as well as spectral line scans, for different operational modes of JET. (author) 5 refs., 4 figs

  10. Investigation of self-frequency doubling crystals, yttrium calcium oxyborate (YCOB), doped with neodymium or ytterbium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qing

    1999-09-01

    There is a need for low cost red, green, and blue (RGB) lasers for a number of commercial applications such as high-resolution laser printing, full color laser display. While semiconductor lasers still have both availability (green and blue) and beam quality (red) problems, nonlinear frequency conversion of diode-pumped solid state lasers are good alternatives. Among them, self- frequency doubling is an attractive approach because of its simpler design and lower cost. Unfortunately, few known crystals possess self-frequency doubling property. A newly discovered yttrium calcium oxyborate (YCOB) can fill in the role because it has adequate lasing and nonlinear frequency conversion efficiency. More importantly, YCOB crystal melts congruently so that high quality, large size single crystals can be grown using conventional Czochralski melt pulling technique. The thermal mechanical properties, linear and nonlinear optical properties of YCOB, laser properties of Nd:YCOB and Yb:YCOB crystals were investigated. Based on the calculated second harmonic phase matching angles, Nd:YCOB laser rods were fabricated. Self-frequency doubled green emission with 62 mW output power and red emission with 16 mW output power were successfully demonstrated using diode-pumping. It is the first time to achieve the continuous wave (cw) red lasing in Nd doped rare-earth calcium oxyborates. Rare-earth ions doping in YCOB crystal can not only achieve lasing, but also affect the physical and chemical properties of the crystal. The stability field of YCOB is reduced in proportion to both the ionic size differences from yttrium and doping concentrations of the rare-earth ions. The doping also changes the linear and nonlinear optical properties of the material. For example, the second harmonic conversion efficiency of 20% Yb doped YCOB was enhanced by more than 15% compared to undoped YCOB. The absorption cutoff edge of 20% Yb:YCOB was red- shift by more than 60 nm. Similar effects were observed in

  11. A medium resolution double crystal based small-angle neutron scattering at Trombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazumder, S.; Sen, D.; Saravanan, T.; Vijayaraghavan, P.R.

    2000-10-01

    A double crystal based moderate resolution small-angle neutron scattering instrument has been built and commissioned at the guide tube laboratory of Dhruva reactor, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, India. The instrument consists of a non-dispersive (1, -1) setting of 111 reflections of silicon single crystals with sample between the two crystals. The used neutron wavelength is 0.312 nm. The analyser crystal rotates with smallest step size of 0.0012 deg. At 65 MW of reactor power, the peak count rate of the blank rocking curve is about 55 counts per second at the detector position and the signal to noise ratio is 450 for a typical experiment with sintered alumina. Experiments with sintered alumina specimens reveal that the accessible range of wave vector transfer q is 0.003-0.173 nm -1 . A typical measurement time is about three days. The instrument is calibrated with respect to new high resolution ultra small-angle neutron scattering instrument S18 at the Institute Laue-Langevin in Grenhole, France. (author)

  12. Double ferromagnetism in single-crystal Gd-Y-Lu alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, T.; Oka, M.; Legvold, S.; Beaudry, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    Magnetization, electrical resistivity, specific-heat and thermal-expansion measurements have been made on Gd-Y-Lu single crystals. Low isofield magnetization data for the a-axis sample of Gd 75 Y/sub 17.5/ Lu/sub 7.5/ exhibit two different Curie-Weiss regimes, which suggests double ferromagnetism. Electrical resistivity, specific-heat, and thermal-expansion data show two anomalies at the transition temperatures. The anomaly at 231.5 K shows a lambda-type second-order phase transition and the anomaly at 223 K shows a sharp spike first-order phase transition

  13. Vehicle with inclinable caterpillars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carra, O.; Delevallee, A.

    1991-01-01

    Vehicle has a body with propulsion assemblies that drive caterpillar tracks. When a propulsion unit inclines about its articulation axis it is aided by an advance movement of the caterpillar track in the opposite direction of rotation [fr

  14. A triple axis double crystal multiple reflection camera for ultra small angle X-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambard, Jacques; Lesieur, Pierre; Zemb, Thomas

    1992-06-01

    To extend the domain of small angle X-ray scattering requires multiple reflection crystals to collimate the beam. A double crystal, triple axis X-ray camera using multiple reflection channel cut crystals is described. Procedures for measuring the desmeared scattering cross-section on absolute scale are described as well as the measurement from several typical samples : fibrils of collagen, 0.3 μm diameter silica spheres, 0.16 μm diameter interacting latex spheres, porous lignite coal, liquid crystals in a surfactant-water system, colloidal crystal of 0.32 μm diameter silica spheres. L'extension du domaine de diffusion des rayons-X vers les petits angles demande l'emploi de cristaux à réflexions multiples pour collimater le faisceau. Nous décrivons une caméra à rayons-X à trois axes où les réflexions multiples sont réalisées dans deux cristaux à gorge. Nous donnons ensuite les procédures de déconvolution pour obtenir la section efficace de diffusion en échelle absolue, ainsi que les résultats des mesures effectuées avec plusieurs échantillons typiques : fibres de collagène, sphères de silice de 0,3 μm de diamètre, sphères de latex de 0,16 μm de diamètre en interaction, charbon lignite poreux, cristaux liquides formés dans un système eau-tensioactif, solution colloïdale de sphères de silice de 0,32 μm de diamètre.

  15. An all-solid-state electrochemical double-layer capacitor based on a plastic crystal electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali eaabouimrane

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A plastic crystal, solid electrolyte was prepared by mixing tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate salt, (C4H94NPF6, (10 molar % with succinonitrile, SCN, (N C−CH2−CH2−C N, [SCN-10%TBA-PF6]. The resultant waxy material shows a plastic crystalline phase that extend from -36 °C up to its melting at 23 °C. It shows a high ionic conductivity reaching 4 × 10−5 S/cm in the plastic crystal phase (15 °C and ~ 3 × 10−3 S/cm in the molten state (25 °C. These properties along with the high electrochemical stability rendered the use of this material as an electrolyte in an electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC. The EDLC was assembled and its performance was tested by cyclic voltammetry, AC impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic charge-discharge methods. Specific capacitance values in the range of 4-7 F/g. (of electrode active material were obtained in the plastic crystal phase at 15 °C, that although compare well with those reported for some polymer electrolytes, can be still enhanced with further development of the device and its components, and only demonstrate their great potential use for capacitors as a new application.

  16. A medium resolution double crystal based small-angle neutron scattering instrument at Trombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazumder, S.; Sen, D.; Saravanan, T.; Vijayaraghavan, P.R.

    2001-01-01

    A double crystal-based moderate resolution small-angle neutron scattering instrument has been built and commissioned at the guide laboratory of Dhruva reactor, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, India. The instrument consists of a non-dispersive (1,-1) setting of 111 reflections of silicon single crystals with the sample between the two crystals. The neutron wavelength used is 0.312 nm. At 65 MW of reactor power, the peak count rate of the blank rocking curve is about 55 counts per second at the detector position and the ratio of integrated signal to integrated noise is ∼450 for a typical experiment with sintered aluminia. The accessible range of wave vector transfer q is found to be 0.003-0.173 nm -1 , which corresponds to a range of resolvable real-space dimension of 2000-40 nm, for these specimens. The instrument is calibrated with respect to the high resolution ultra small-angle neutron scattering instrument S18 at the Institute Laue-Langevin in Grenoble, France. (author)

  17. Crystal structure and magnetic properties of double perovskite Mn2FeSbO6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyutyunnik, A.P.; Bazuev, G.V.; Kuznetsov, M.V.; Zainulin, Yu.G.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Projection along the cubic perovskite axes [0 0 1] of the double perovskite Mn 2 FeSbO 6 . Highlights: → Mn 2 FeSbO 6 is prepared from Mn 2 O 3 , Fe 2 O 3 and Sb 2 O 3 at 6 GPa and 1000 o C. → According to XPS measurements, manganese is present as Mn 2+ , the iron - as Fe 3+ . → This compound has the smallest unit cell among double perovskites. → It was suppose that Mn 2 FeSbO 6 exhibited antiferromagnetism below 19.5 K. -- Abstract: The double perovskite Mn 2 FeSbO 6 has been synthesized under pressure 6 GPa and temperature 1000 o C. The crystal structure refinement of Mn 2 FeSbO 6 was carried out with the GSAS program suite using X-ray diffraction data. XRD pattern of Mn 2 FeSbO 6 was indexed with a monoclinic unit cell (space group P2 1 /n) with parameters: a = 5.2431(3) A, b = 5.3935(3) A, c = 7.6358(5) A, β = 89.693(2) o , V = 215.927 A 3 , Z = 2. It found that Fe and Sb atoms are completely ordered in 2d and 2c positions of double perovskite structure respectively. According to XPS measurements, manganese in this compound is present as Mn 2+ , whiles the iron - as Fe 3+ . Magnetization measurements revealed the presence about 3 mass% of ferromagnetic impurity in the sample. Dependence of AC susceptibility χ'' from temperature showed that magnetic properties compound are determined probably by transformation in antiferromagnetic state below 19.5 K.

  18. Inclined nanoimprinting lithography for 3D nanopatterning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhan; Bucknall, David G; Allen, Mark G

    2011-01-01

    We report a non-conventional shear-force-driven nanofabrication approach, inclined nanoimprint lithography (INIL), for producing 3D nanostructures of varying heights on planar substrates in a single imprinting step. Such 3D nanostructures are fabricated by exploiting polymer anisotropic dewetting where the degree of anisotropy can be controlled by the magnitude of the inclination angle. The feature size is reduced from micron scale of the template to a resultant nanoscale pattern. The underlying INIL mechanism is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The results indicate that the shear force generated at a non-zero inclination angle induced by the INIL apparatus essentially leads to asymmetry in the polymer flow direction ultimately resulting in 3D nanopatterns with different heights. INIL removes the requirements in conventional nanolithography of either utilizing 3D templates or using multiple lithographic steps. This technique enables various 3D nanoscale devices including angle-resolved photonic and plasmonic crystals to be fabricated.

  19. Double gyroid photonic crystal: synthesis and mid-infrared photonic characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Siying; Zhang, Runyu; Khabiboulline, Emil; Barim, Vitoria; Chen, Hongjie; Hon, Philip; Garcia, Juan; Sweatlock, Luke; Braun, Paul; Atwater, Harry

    Gyroids are triply symmetric and have surfaces containing no straight lines. Single gyroid (SG) photonic crystals have a large band gap, while double gyroids (DG) with P-breaking symmetry possess Weyl points and topologically non-trivial surface states. These topologically protected states give rise to backscattering immune unidirectional transport. We have synthesized and characterized the first mid-IR gyroid photonic crystals, including both SGs and DGs with Weyl points. Polymer gyroid scaffold was written by DLW, followed by ALD of Al2O3, polymer removal and conformally coating of a-Si. The resulting DGs have Weyl points at 8 μ m and k between 0.3-0.5 π/a. Characterization of SG and DG have been performed by angle resolved mid-IR spectroscopy. The photonic bandstructure is constructed from angle resolved reflectance and transmittance spectra, all the way close to the light line. Constructed bandstructures from SGs exhibit a photonic bandgap. For DGs the bandstructures reveal defect photonic states emerging inside the bandgap. Strategies to observe protected surface states in DGs will be discussed.

  20. Photo-aligned blend films of azobenzene-containing polyimides with and without side-chains for inducing inclined alignment of liquid crystal molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Kiyoaki; Sakamoto, Kenji

    2011-08-01

    We have succeeded in controlling the pretilt angle of liquid crystal (LC) molecules over the whole range of 0 to 90° by using photo-aligned blend films of two azobenzene-containing polyimides (Azo-PIs) with and without side-chains. The Azo-PIs were synthesized from pyromellitic dianhydride and a mixture of 4,4'-diaminoazobenzene and 4-(4'-propylbi(cyclohexan)-4-yl)phenyl 3,5-diaminobenzoate (PBCP-DABA). PBCP-DABA is a diamine to introduce a side-chain structure into the polyimide. Defect-free uniform LC alignment was obtained in the pretilt angle (θp) ranges of θp ≤ 11° and θp ≥ 78°. Previously, we reported that the pretilt angle can be controlled using pure photo-aligned films of Azo-PIs with different molar fractions of PBCP-DABA. For the pure photo-aligned films, the defect-free pretilt angle ranges were θp < 5° and θp ≥ 85°. These results suggest that the azimuthal anchoring strength of the blend Azo-PI film is stronger than that of the pure films of Azo-PIs with side-chains, at least for the pretilt angle range from 5 to 11°. We found that the defect-free pretilt angle range can be extended by using the blend Azo-PI films instead of the pure Azo-PI films.

  1. Impact of molecular flexibility on double polymorphism, solid solutions and chiral discrimination during crystallization of diprophylline enantiomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandel, Clément; Amharar, Youness; Rollinger, Judith M; Griesser, Ulrich J; Cartigny, Yohann; Petit, Samuel; Coquerel, Gérard

    2013-10-07

    The polymorphic behavior of racemic and enantiopure diprophylline (DPL), a chiral derivative of theophylline marketed as a racemic solid, has been investigated by combining differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, hot-stage microscopy and single-crystal X-ray experiments. The pure enantiomers were obtained by a chemical synthesis route, and additionally an enantioselective crystallization procedure was developed. The binary phase diagram between the DPL enantiomers was constructed and revealed a double polymorphism (i.e., polymorphism both of the racemic mixture and of the pure enantiomer). The study of the various equilibria in this highly unusual phase diagram revealed a complex situation since mixtures of DPL enantiomers can crystallize either as a stable racemic compound, a metastable conglomerate, or two distinct metastable solid solutions. Crystal structure analysis revealed that the DPL molecules adopt different conformations in the crystal forms suggesting that the conformational degrees of freedom of the substituent that carries the only two H-bond donor groups might be related to the versatile crystallization behavior of DPL. The control of these equilibria and the use of a suitable solvent allowed the design of an efficient protocol for the preparative resolution of racemic DPL via preferential crystallization. Therefore, the resolution of DPL enantiomers despite the existence of a racemic compound stable at any temperature demonstrates that the detection of a stable conglomerate is not mandatory for the implementation of preferential crystallization.

  2. Crystallization of the avian reovirus double-stranded RNA-binding and core protein σA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermo-Parrado, X. Lois; Guardado-Calvo, Pablo [Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Sur, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Llamas-Saiz, Antonio L. [Unidad de Difracción de Rayos X, Laboratorio Integral de Dinámica y Estructura de Biomoléculas José R. Carracido, Edificio CACTUS, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Sur, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Fox, Gavin C. [Spanish CRG Beamline BM16, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Vazquez-Iglesias, Lorena; Martínez-Costas, José; Benavente, Javier [Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Sur, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Raaij, Mark J. van, E-mail: vanraaij@usc.es [Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Sur, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Unidad de Difracción de Rayos X, Laboratorio Integral de Dinámica y Estructura de Biomoléculas José R. Carracido, Edificio CACTUS, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Sur, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2007-05-01

    The avian reovirus double-stranded RNA-binding and core protein σA has been crystallized in space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 103.2, b = 129.9, c = 144.0 Å, α = 93.8, β = 105.1, γ = 98.2°. A complete data set has been collected to 2.3 Å resolution and analyzed. The avian reovirus protein σA plays a dual role: it is a structural protein forming part of the transcriptionally active core, but it has also been implicated in the resistance of the virus to interferon by strongly binding double-stranded RNA and thus inhibiting the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase. The σA protein has been crystallized from solutions containing ammonium sulfate at pH values around 6. Crystals belonging to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 103.2, b = 129.9, c = 144.0 Å, α = 93.8, β = 105.1, γ = 98.2° were grown and a complete data set has been collected to 2.3 Å resolution. The self-rotation function suggests that σA may form symmetric arrangements in the crystals.

  3. Crystallization of the avian reovirus double-stranded RNA-binding and core protein σA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermo-Parrado, X. Lois; Guardado-Calvo, Pablo; Llamas-Saiz, Antonio L.; Fox, Gavin C.; Vazquez-Iglesias, Lorena; Martínez-Costas, José; Benavente, Javier; Raaij, Mark J. van

    2007-01-01

    The avian reovirus double-stranded RNA-binding and core protein σA has been crystallized in space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 103.2, b = 129.9, c = 144.0 Å, α = 93.8, β = 105.1, γ = 98.2°. A complete data set has been collected to 2.3 Å resolution and analyzed. The avian reovirus protein σA plays a dual role: it is a structural protein forming part of the transcriptionally active core, but it has also been implicated in the resistance of the virus to interferon by strongly binding double-stranded RNA and thus inhibiting the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase. The σA protein has been crystallized from solutions containing ammonium sulfate at pH values around 6. Crystals belonging to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 103.2, b = 129.9, c = 144.0 Å, α = 93.8, β = 105.1, γ = 98.2° were grown and a complete data set has been collected to 2.3 Å resolution. The self-rotation function suggests that σA may form symmetric arrangements in the crystals

  4. The importance of proper crystal-chemical and geometrical reasoning demonstrated using layered single and double hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    The importance and utility of proper crystal-chemical and geometrical reasoning in structural studies is demonstrated through the consideration of layered single and double hydroxides. New yet fundamental information is provided and it is evident that the crystal chemistry of the double hydroxide phases is much more straightforward than is apparent from the literature. Atomistic modelling techniques and Rietveld refinement of X-ray powder diffraction data are widely used but often result in crystal structures that are not realistic, presumably because the authors neglect to check the crystal-chemical plausibility of their structure. The purpose of this paper is to reinforce the importance and utility of proper crystal-chemical and geometrical reasoning in structural studies. It is achieved by using such reasoning to generate new yet fundamental information about layered double hydroxides (LDH), a large, much-studied family of compounds. LDH phases are derived from layered single hydroxides by the substitution of a fraction (x) of the divalent cations by trivalent. Equations are derived that enable calculation of x from the a parameter of the unit cell and vice versa, which can be expected to be of widespread utility as a sanity test for extant and future structure determinations and computer simulation studies. The phase at x = 0 is shown to be an α form of divalent metal hydroxide rather than the β polymorph. Crystal-chemically sensible model structures are provided for β-Zn(OH) 2 and Ni- and Mg-based carbonate LDH phases that have any trivalent cation and any value of x, including x = 0 [i.e. for α-M(OH) 2 ·mH 2 O phases

  5. Double crystal monochromator controlled by integrated computing on BL07A in New SUBARU, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okui, Masato, E-mail: okui@kohzu.co.jp [Kohzu Precision Co., Ltd., 2-6-15, Kurigi, Asao-ku, Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa 215-8521 (Japan); Laboratory of Advanced Science and Technology for Industry, University of Hyogo (Japan); Yato, Naoki; Watanabe, Akinobu; Lin, Baiming; Murayama, Norio [Kohzu Precision Co., Ltd., 2-6-15, Kurigi, Asao-ku, Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa 215-8521 (Japan); Fukushima, Sei, E-mail: FUKUSHIMA.Sei@nims.go.jp [Laboratory of Advanced Science and Technology for Industry, University of Hyogo (Japan); National Institute for Material Sciences (Japan); Kanda, Kazuhiro [Laboratory of Advanced Science and Technology for Industry, University of Hyogo (Japan)

    2016-07-27

    The BL07A beamline in New SUBARU, University of Hyogo, has been used for many studies of new materials. A new double crystal monochromator controlled by integrated computing was designed and installed in the beamline in 2014. In this report we will discuss the unique features of this new monochromator, MKZ-7NS. This monochromator was not designed exclusively for use in BL07A; on the contrary, it was designed to be installed at low cost in various beamlines to facilitate the industrial applications of medium-scale synchrotron radiation facilities. Thus, the design of the monochromator utilized common packages that can satisfy the wide variety of specifications required at different synchrotron radiation facilities. This monochromator can be easily optimized for any beamline due to the fact that a few control parameters can be suitably customized. The beam offset can be fixed precisely even if one of the two slave axes is omitted. This design reduces the convolution of mechanical errors. Moreover, the monochromator’s control mechanism is very compact, making it possible to reduce the size of the vacuum chamber can be made smaller.

  6. Anomalous Fluorescence Enhancement from Double Heterostructure 3D Colloidal Photonic Crystals--A Multifunctional Fluorescence-Based Sensor Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Ehsan; Li, Xiang; Kim, Tak H; Gan, Zongsong; Cole, Ivan S; Zhao, Dongyuan; Kielpinski, Dave; Gu, Min; Li, Qin

    2015-09-24

    Augmenting fluorescence intensity is of vital importance to the development of chemical and biochemical sensing, imaging and miniature light sources. Here we report an unprecedented fluorescence enhancement with a novel architecture of multilayer three-dimensional colloidal photonic crystals self-assembled from polystyrene spheres. The new technique uses a double heterostructure, which comprises a top and a bottom layer with a periodicity overlapping the excitation wavelength (E) of the emitters, and a middle layer with a periodicity matching the fluorescence wavelength (F) and a thickness that supports constructive interference for the excitation wavelength. This E-F-E double heterostructure displays direction-dependent light trapping for both excitation and fluorescence, coupling the modes of photonic crystal with multiple-beam interference. The E-F-E double heterostructure renders an additional 5-fold enhancement to the extraordinary FL amplification of Rhodamine B in monolithic E CPhCs, and 4.3-fold acceleration of emission dynamics. Such a self-assembled double heterostructure CPhCs may find significant applications in illumination, laser, chemical/biochemical sensing, and solar energy harvesting. We further demonstrate the multi-functionality of the E-F-E double heterostructure CPhCs in Hg (II) sensing.

  7. Evaporation of inclined water droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Hwang, In Gyu; Weon, Byung Mook

    2017-01-01

    When a drop is placed on a flat substrate tilted at an inclined angle, it can be deformed by gravity and its initial contact angle divides into front and rear contact angles by inclination. Here we study on evaporation dynamics of a pure water droplet on a flat solid substrate by controlling substrate inclination and measuring mass and volume changes of an evaporating droplet with time. We find that complete evaporation time of an inclined droplet becomes longer as gravitational influence by inclination becomes stronger. The gravity itself does not change the evaporation dynamics directly, whereas the gravity-induced droplet deformation increases the difference between front and rear angles, which quickens the onset of depinning and consequently reduces the contact radius. This result makes the evaporation rate of an inclined droplet to be slow. This finding would be important to improve understanding on evaporation dynamics of inclined droplets. PMID:28205642

  8. Bidispersive-inclined convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulone, Giuseppe; Straughan, Brian

    2016-01-01

    A model is presented for thermal convection in an inclined layer of porous material when the medium has a bidispersive structure. Thus, there are the usual macropores which are full of a fluid, but there are also a system of micropores full of the same fluid. The model we employ is a modification of the one proposed by Nield & Kuznetsov (2006 Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 49, 3068–3074. (doi:10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2006.02.008)), although we consider a single temperature field only. PMID:27616934

  9. Photorefractive splicing device with double phase conjugate mirror using Sn2P2S6:Sb crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakayama, Yuta; Okamoto, Atsushi; Shimayabu, Kohei; Kojima, Yasunori; Grabar, Alexander A.

    2009-02-01

    We develop a splicing device for photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) based on a double phase conjugate mirror (DPCM) using a novel photorefractive (PR) Sn2P2S6:Sb 1.5% crystal. This PR splicer has many attractive characteristics including modal field compensation and the automatic reconfiguration of the optical path. Utilizing a DPCM as the splicer, our device can adapt to misalignments automatically since the incident beams continuously rewrite an index grating which formed in the crystal. By the implementation of the Sn2P2S6:Sb crystal, the response time for the characteristic of dynamic reconfiguration is improved several-hundred-fold compared with conventional materials, e.g. BaTiO3. We demonstrate that the high angular tolerance is provided using the DPCM with the Sn2P2S6:Sb crystal. When the misalignment of the incident angle is from -7° to 8°, the increment of coupling loss is less than 0.6dB. This is several-ten-fold compared with the fusion splicing. We reveal the dependence of the coupling loss on the position of the incident beams and also the dependence of the energy flow on the propagation distance for the first time with the two-dimensional finite-difference beampropagation method. Using our numerical simulation tool, we can visually investigate the beam propagation property considering the influence of the fanning effect in the Sn2P2S6 crystals.

  10. Design, Build & Test of a Double Crystal Monochromator for Beamlines I09 & I23 at the Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, J.; Lee, T.; Alcock, S.; Patel, H.

    2013-03-01

    A high stability Double Crystal Monochromator has been developed at The Diamond Light Source for beamlines I09 and I23. The design specification was a cryogenic, fixed exit, energy scanning monochromator, operating over an energy range of 2.1 - 25 keV using a Si(111) crystal set. The novel design concepts are the direct drive, air bearing Bragg axis, low strain crystal mounts and the cooling scheme. The instrument exhibited superb stability and repeatability on the B16 Test Beamline. A 20 keV Si(555), 1.4 μrad rocking curve was demonstrated. The DCM showed good stability without any evidence of vibration or Bragg angle nonlinearity.

  11. Crystal structure of (Al,V)4(P4O12)3, archetype of double cubic ring tetraphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakubovich, O. V.; Biralo, G. V.; Dimitrova, O. V.

    2012-01-01

    The crystal structure of the (Al,V) 4 (P 4 O 12 ) 3 solid solution, obtained in the single-crystal form by hydrothermal synthesis in the Al(OH) 3 -VO 2 -NaCl-H 3 PO 4 -H 2 O system, has been solved by X-ray diffraction analysis (Xcalibur-S-CCD diffractometer, R = 0.0257): a = 13.7477(2) Å, sp. gr. I 4 bar 3d, Z = 4, and ρ calcd = 2.736 g/cm 3 . It is shown that the crystal structure of the parent cubic Al 4 (P 4 O 12 ) 3 modification can formally be considered an archetype for the formation of double isosymmetric tetraphosphates on its basis.

  12. Effect of lipid head groups on double-layered two-dimensional crystals formed by aquaporin-0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hite, Richard Kevin; Chiu, Po-Lin; Schuller, Jan Michael; Walz, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporin-0 (AQP0) is a lens-specific water channel that also forms membrane junctions. Reconstitution of AQP0 with dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and E. coli polar lipids (EPL) yielded well-ordered, double-layered two-dimensional (2D) crystals that allowed electron crystallographic structure determination of the AQP0-mediated membrane junction. The interacting tetramers in the two crystalline layers are exactly in register, resulting in crystals with p422 symmetry. The high-resolution density maps also allowed modeling of the annular lipids surrounding the tetramers. Comparison of the DMPC and EPL bilayers suggested that the lipid head groups do not play an important role in the interaction of annular lipids with AQP0. We now reconstituted AQP0 with the anionic lipid dimyristoyl phosphatidylglycerol (DMPG), which yielded a mixture of 2D crystals with different symmetries. The different crystal symmetries result from shifts between the two crystalline layers, suggesting that the negatively charged PG head group destabilizes the interaction between the extracellular AQP0 surfaces. Reconstitution of AQP0 with dimyristoyl phosphatidylserine (DMPS), another anionic lipid, yielded crystals that had the usual p422 symmetry, but the crystals showed a pH-dependent tendency to stack through their cytoplasmic surfaces. Finally, AQP0 failed to reconstitute into membranes that were composed of more than 40% dimyristoyl phosphatidic acid (DMPA). Hence, although DMPG, DMPS, and DMPA are all negatively charged lipids, they have very different effects on AQP0 2D crystals, illustrating the importance of the specific lipid head group chemistry beyond its mere charge.

  13. Effect of Lipid Head Groups on Double-Layered Two-Dimensional Crystals Formed by Aquaporin-0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hite, Richard Kevin; Chiu, Po-Lin; Schuller, Jan Michael; Walz, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporin-0 (AQP0) is a lens-specific water channel that also forms membrane junctions. Reconstitution of AQP0 with dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and E. coli polar lipids (EPL) yielded well-ordered, double-layered two-dimensional (2D) crystals that allowed electron crystallographic structure determination of the AQP0-mediated membrane junction. The interacting tetramers in the two crystalline layers are exactly in register, resulting in crystals with p422 symmetry. The high-resolution density maps also allowed modeling of the annular lipids surrounding the tetramers. Comparison of the DMPC and EPL bilayers suggested that the lipid head groups do not play an important role in the interaction of annular lipids with AQP0. We now reconstituted AQP0 with the anionic lipid dimyristoyl phosphatidylglycerol (DMPG), which yielded a mixture of 2D crystals with different symmetries. The different crystal symmetries result from shifts between the two crystalline layers, suggesting that the negatively charged PG head group destabilizes the interaction between the extracellular AQP0 surfaces. Reconstitution of AQP0 with dimyristoyl phosphatidylserine (DMPS), another anionic lipid, yielded crystals that had the usual p422 symmetry, but the crystals showed a pH-dependent tendency to stack through their cytoplasmic surfaces. Finally, AQP0 failed to reconstitute into membranes that were composed of more than 40% dimyristoyl phosphatidic acid (DMPA). Hence, although DMPG, DMPS, and DMPA are all negatively charged lipids, they have very different effects on AQP0 2D crystals, illustrating the importance of the specific lipid head group chemistry beyond its mere charge. PMID:25635393

  14. A unique growth mechanism of donut-shaped Mg–Al layered double hydroxides crystals revealed by AFM and STEM–EDX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budhysutanto, W.N.; Van Den Bruele, F.J.; Rossenaar, B.D.; Van Agterveld, D.; Van Enckevort, W.J.P.; Kramer, H.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Donut-like crystals of Mg–Al layered double hydroxides (LDH) are synthesized using a hydrothermal method with microwave heating. This morphology provides enlargement of the specific surface area of the {h k 0} faces, needed for adsorption application. The growth mechanism for donut-shaped crystals

  15. Dynamical theoretical model of the high-resolution double-crystal x-ray diffractometry of imperfect single crystals with microdefects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molodkin, V. B.; Olikhovskii, S. I.; Kislovskii, E. N.; Vladimirova, T. P.; Skakunova, E. S.; Seredenko, R. F.; Sheludchenko, B. V.

    2008-01-01

    The dynamical diffraction model has been developed for the quantitative description of rocking curves (RCs) measured in the Bragg diffraction geometry from single crystals containing homogeneously distributed microdefects of several types and with arbitrary sizes. The analytical expressions for coherent and diffuse RC components, which take self-consistently multiple-scattering effects into account and depend explicitly on microdefect characteristics (radius, concentration, strength, etc.), have been derived with taking into account the instrumental factors. The developed model has been applied to determine the characteristics of oxygen precipitates and dislocation loops in silicon crystals grown by Czochralsky and float-zone methods using RCs measured by the high-resolution double-crystal x-ray diffractometer. It has been shown, particularly, that completely dynamical consideration of Huang as well as Stockes-Wilson diffuse scattering (DS) in both diffuse RC component and coefficient of extinction of coherent RC component due to DS, together with taking asymmetry and thermal DS effects into account, provides the possibility to distinguish contributions into RC from defects of different types, which have equal or commensurable effective radii

  16. Fractal Surfaces of Molecular Crystals Mimicking Lotus Leaf with Phototunable Double Roughness Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Ryo; Hyodo, Kengo; Sawaguchi, Haruna; Yamamoto, Yoshiaki; Nonomura, Yoshimune; Mayama, Hiroyuki; Yokojima, Satoshi; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Uchida, Kingo

    2016-08-17

    Double roughness structure, the origin of the lotus effect of natural lotus leaf, was successfully reproduced on a diarylethene microcrystalline surface. Static superwater-repellency and dynamic water-drop-bouncing were observed on the surface, in the manner of natural lotus leaves. Double roughness structure was essential for water-drop-bouncing. This ability was not observed on a single roughness microcrystalline surface showing the lotus effect of the same diarylethene derivative. The double roughness structure was reversibly controlled by alternating irradiation with UV and visible light.

  17. Effect of Pre-Fatigue on the Monotonic Deformation Behavior of a Coplanar Double-Slip-Oriented Cu Single Crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Wu Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The [ 2 ¯ 33 ] coplanar double-slip-oriented Cu single crystals were pre-fatigued up to a saturation stage and then uniaxially tensioned or compressed to fracture. The results show that for the specimen pre-fatigued at a plastic strain amplitude γpl of 9.2 × 10−4, which is located within the quasi-plateau of the cyclic stress-strain (CSS curve, its tensile strength and elongation are coincidently improved, showing an obvious strengthening effect by low-cycle fatigue (LCF training. However, for the crystal specimens pre-fatigued at a γpl lower or higher than the quasi-plateau region, due to a low pre-cyclic hardening or the pre-induction of fatigue damage, no marked strengthening effect by LCF training occurs, and even a weakening effect by LCF damage takes place instead. In contrast, the effect of pre-fatigue deformation on the uniaxial compressive behavior is not so significant, since the compressive deformation is in a stress state more beneficial to the ongoing plastic deformation and it is insensitive to the damage induced by pre-cycling. Based on the observations and comparisons of deformation features and dislocation structures in the uniaxially deformed [ 2 ¯ 33 ] crystal specimens which have been pre-fatigued at different γpl, the micro-mechanisms for the effect of pre-fatigue on the static mechanical behavior are discussed.

  18. Uplift Capacity of Inclined Underreamed Piles Subjected to Vertical Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Akilur; Sengupta, Siddhartha

    2017-12-01

    Many offshore structures are subjected to overturning moments due to wind load, wave pressure, and ship impacts. Inclined (batter) piles are used to support such structures, and to carry the horizontal and vertical loads resulted from the overturning moments. Though studies have been done with inclined piles having no underream bulb, little information is available in the literature about estimating the uplift capacity of inclined underreamed piles. In the present study laboratory experiments have been done with vertically loaded model piles having no underream as well as with one and two underreams. The piles were positioned at angle of inclination of θ = 0°, 10°, 20°, 30° (with vertical); and placed in locally available sand under vertical uplift load. Three different pile stem diameters (D = 20, 25, and 35 mm) were used. The corresponding pile length to stem diameter (l/D) ratio were 18, 14, and 10 respectively. Experiments had been conducted with two relative different densities (45 and 70%) of sand. The failure uplift loads were obtained in each case. It had been found that for inclined piles increase in number of underream bulbs from 0 to 2 was quite effective in resisting uplift loads corresponding to piles having l/D equals to 10. The percentage decreases in uplift capacity corresponding to increase in inclination angle were more pronounced for piles with double underreams.

  19. An 17O nuclear quadrupole double resonance study of several crystal hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, P.; Rabbani, S. R.

    1987-05-01

    Using the technique of double resonance with coupled multiplets (DRCM), 17O double resonance signals were detected in natural abundance from the H 2O molecule in the hydrates BeSO 4 · 4H 2O, AlCl 3 · 6H 2O, CH 3COOLi · 2H 2O, LiClO 4 · 3H 2O, Sr(OH) 2 · H 2O, Ba(OH) 2 · 8H 2O, LiBr · 2H 2O and MgSO 4 · 7H 2O. Using the DRCM technique approximate values for the HOH bond angle and the OH bond length were determined from the dipolar structure present on the 17O double resonance signals. A Townes and Dailey analysis was used to examine the small differences in the 17O quadrupole coupling constants and asymmetry parameters between these samples.

  20. Transmission spectrum of a double quantum-dot-nanocavity system in photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Jun; Jin Shiqi; Gong Shangqing; Qian Yong; Feng Xunli

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the optical transmission properties of a combined system which consists of two quantum-dot-nanocavity subsystems indirectly coupled to a waveguide in a planar photonic crystal. A Mollow-like triplet and the growth of sidebands are found, reflecting intrinsic optical responses in the complex microstructure

  1. CW frequency doubling of 1029 nm radiation using single pass bulk and waveguide PPLN crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chiodo, N.; Du Burck, F.; Hrabina, Jan; Candela, Y.; Wallerand, J. P.; Acef, O.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 311, 15 January (2013), s. 239-244 ISSN 0030-4018 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP102/11/P820 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : IR laser * second harmonic generation * waveguide and bulk crystals * periodically poled lithium niobate * 1029 nm wavelength Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.542, year: 2013

  2. Double-crystalline PLLA-b-PVDF-b-PLLA triblock copolymers : preparation and crystallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, Vincent S. D.; Alberda van Ekenstein, Gerhard; Meereboer, Niels. L.; Hofman, Anton H.; ten Brinke, Gerrit; Loos, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Double-crystalline poly(L-lactide)-block-poly(vinylidene fluoride)-block-poly(L-lactide) (PLLA-b-PVDF-b-PLLA) triblock copolymers were successfully synthesized through ring opening polymerization of L-lactide and benzoyl peroxide initiated polymerization of vinylidene fluoride, followed by

  3. High-pressure synthesis, crystal structure and magnetic properties of double perovskite oxide Ba2CuOsO6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Hai L.; Arai, Masao; Matsushita, Yoshitaka; Tsujimoto, Yoshihiro; Yuan, Yahua; Sathish, Clastin I.; He, Jianfeng; Tanaka, Masahiko; Yamaura, Kazunari

    2014-01-01

    A new compositional double perovskite oxide Ba 2 CuOsO 6 was synthesized under high-pressure (6 GPa) and high-temperature (1500 °C) conditions. The polycrystalline Ba 2 CuOsO 6 was characterized by synchrotron X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and magnetic susceptibility, isothermal magnetization, and specific heat measurements. The oxide crystallizes in a double-perovskite structure with an I4/m space group, in which Os(VI) and Cu(II) are ordered in the perovskite B-site. Ba 2 CuOsO 6 is electrically insulating with an activation energy of 0.813(2) eV and shows antiferromagnetic-like characteristics at temperatures of ∼55 K and ∼70 K. The results of the first-principle calculation suggested that the spin–orbit interaction of Os(VI) plays a substantial role in the insulating state. The Jahn–Teller distortion of CuO 6 octahedra influences the magnetic characteristics with regard to possible two-dimensional magnetic correlations. - Graphical abstract: A new compositional double perovskite oxide Ba 2 CuOsO 6 synthesized by a high-pressure (6 GPa) and high-temperature (1500 °C) method. - Highlights: • A new compositional double perovskite oxide Ba 2 CuOsO 6 was synthesized. • Ba 2 CuOsO 6 is electrically insulating and antiferromagnetic below ∼70 K. • The Jahn–Teller distortion of CuO 6 has relevance to possible magnetic anisotropy

  4. The cone phase of liquid crystals: Triangular lattice of double-tilt ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The cone phase of liquid crystals. [4] P G de Gennes, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 21, 49 (1973). [5] J-H Chen and T C Lubensky, Phys. Rev. A14, 1202 (1976). [6] S A Brazovskii, Zh. Esp. Teor. Fiz. 68, 175; Sov. Phys. JETP 41, 85 (1975). [7] J Swift, Phys. Rev. A14, 2274 (1976). [8] S Witanachi, J Huang and J T Ho, Phys. Rev. Lett.

  5. 100 mW of blue light at 405 nm from intracavity doubling of CW Ti:Sapphire laser utilising BiBO-crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Morten; Mortensen, Jesper Liltorp; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2006-01-01

    100 mW of coherent blue light with a wavelength of 405 nm was generated utilising a BiB3O6 (BiBO) nonlinear crystal to frequency double a Ti:Sapphire laser. Phase match curves as well as sensitivity to angular misalignment was calculated. The BiBO crystal was found to be excellent...... for this application. Temperature dependance was uncritical for this crystal, while power stability was good. The pump-to-blue optical conversion efficiency was approximately 2%. Unfortunately catastrophic coating damage was observed...

  6. Luminescence of Er3+ doped double lead halide crystals under X-ray, UV, VIS and IR excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serazetdinov, A. R.; Smirnov, A. A.; Pustovarov, V. A.; Isaenko, L. I.

    2017-09-01

    Er3+ doped double lead halide crystals incorporate a number of properties making them interesting for practical use in light conducting materials. X-ray excited luminescence (XRL) spectra, photoluminescence (PL) spectra in region of 1.5-3.5 eV, photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectra (2.75-5 eV) and anti-stokes luminescence (ASL) spectra were measured at room temperature in KPb2Cl5 (KPC) and RbPb2Br5 (RPB) matrices doped with Er3+ (1%) ions and in KPC doped with Er3++ Yb3+ ions(1:3 ratio concentration). Intraconfigurational f→f transitions are observed in Er3+ ions in most of the cases. The concrete spectrum form is strongly dependent on the excitation energy. Under 980 nm excitation upper Er3+ levels are excited, showing upconversional processes. In case of 313 nm (UV) and 365 nm (VIS) excitation self trapped exciton luminescence was detected in RPB crystal. Additional Yb3+ doping ions strongly increase quantum yield under 980 nm excitation and this doping cause insignificant influence on quantum yield under VIS or UV excitation.

  7. Polymer-Stabilized Micropixelated Liquid Crystals with Tunable Optical Properties Fabricated by Double Templating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Yuji; Ueda, Motoshi; Le, Khoa V; Amano, Reo; Sakane, Shin; Fujii, Shuji; Araoka, Fumito; Orihara, Hiroshi

    2017-10-01

    Self-organized nano- and microstructures of soft materials are attracting considerable attention because most of them are stimuli-responsive due to their soft nature. In this regard, topological defects in liquid crystals (LCs) are promising not only for self-assembling colloids and molecules but also for electro-optical applications such as optical vortex generation. However, there are currently few bottom-up methods for patterning a large number of defects periodically over a large area. It would be highly desirable to develop more effective techniques for high-throughput and low-cost fabrication. Here, a micropixelated LC structure consisting of a square array of topological defects is stabilized by photopolymerization. A polymer network is formed on the structure of a self-organized template of a nematic liquid crystal (NLC), and this in turn imprints other nonpolymerizable NLC molecules, which maintains their responses to electric field and temperature. Photocuring of specific local regions is used to create a designable template for the reproducible self-organization of defects. Moreover, a highly diluted polymer network (≈0.1 wt% monomer) exhibits instant on-off switching of the patterns. Beyond the mere stabilization of patterns, these results demonstrate that the incorporation of self-organized NLC patterns offers some unique and unconventional applications for anisotropic polymer networks. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Studies of Double-Layer Effects at Single-Crystal Gold Electrodes. 3. Reduction Kinetics of Fluoropentaamminecobalt(III) Cation in Aqueous Solutions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hromadová, Magdaléna; Fawcett, W. R.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 108, - (2004), s. 3277-3282 ISSN 1089-5647 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP203/02/P082 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : double - layer * single crystal * reduction kinetics Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.679, year: 2003

  9. crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi; Huang, Yisheng; Zhang, Lizhen; Lin, Zhoubin; Sun, Shijia; Wang, Guofu

    2014-07-01

    A Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal with dimensions of ϕ 17 × 30 mm3 was grown by the Czochralski method. The thermal expansion coefficients of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal are 1.32 × 10-5 K-1 along c-axis and 1.23 × 10-5 K-1 along a-axis, respectively. The spectroscopic characteristics of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal were investigated. The Judd-Ofelt theory was applied to calculate the spectral parameters. The absorption cross sections at 805 nm are 2.17 × 10-20 cm2 with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 15 nm for π-polarization, and 2.29 × 10-20 cm2 with a FWHM of 14 nm for σ-polarization. The emission cross sections are 3.19 × 10-20 cm2 for σ-polarization and 2.67 × 10-20 cm2 for π-polarization at 1,064 nm. The fluorescence quantum efficiency is 67 %. The quasi-cw laser of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal was performed. The maximum output power is 80 mW. The slope efficiency is 7.12 %. The results suggest Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal as a promising laser crystal fit for laser diode pumping.

  10. Sagittal x-ray beam deviation at asymmetric inclined diffractors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korytár, D.; Hrdý, Jaromír; Artemiev, Nikolai; Ferrari, C.; Freund, A.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2001), s. 1136-1139 ISSN 0909-0495 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OK 305; GA MPO PZ-CH/22 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : x-ray optics * Si(111) W/grooved crystals * inclined diffraction * out-of-diffraction-plane beams * sagittal focusing Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.519, year: 2001

  11. Two-dimensional photonic-crystal-based double switch-divider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, Victor; Martins, Leno

    2016-05-01

    We propose and investigate a new multifunctional component, consisting of a T-junction of three waveguides in 2D photonic crystal with a square lattice. One waveguide is the input port, while the other two serve as output ports. This component can fulfil three functions: First, it can switch OFF the two output ports; second, our component can be used as a 3 dB divider of the input power; and third, it can switch ON any one of the two output ports. Changing the regime is achieved by a DC magnetic field that magnetizes a cylindrical ferrite resonator placed in the T-junction. We present an analysis of the scattering matrices of the component and calculated frequency characteristics in the low terahertz region. In the frequency band of about 1 GHz with a central frequency of f=98.46  GHz, the device has the following parameters: isolation of the output ports from the input port in the first regime is better than -30  dB, division of the input signal is about (-3.8±1.0)  dB in the second regime, and isolation in the regime switch ON, where any one of the two output ports is higher than -15  dB and the insertion loss is lower than -2.0  dB.

  12. Comparative study of optical properties of the one-dimensional multilayer Period-Doubling and Thue-Morse quasi-periodic photonic crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Bouazzi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The last decades have witnessed the growing interest in the use of photonic crystal as a new material that can be used to control electromagnetic wave. Actually, not only the periodic structures but also the quasi-periodic systems have become significant structures of photonic crystals. This work deals with optical properties of dielectric Thue-Morse multilayer and Period-Doubling multilayer. We use the so-called Transfer Matrix Method (TMM to determine the transmission spectra of the structures. Based on the representation of the transmittance spectra in the visible range a comparative analysis depending on the iteration number, number of layers and incidence angle is presented.

  13. Single-crystal C60 needle/CuPc nanoparticle double floating-gate for low-voltage organic transistors based non-volatile memory devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsuan-Chun; Lu, Chien; Liu, Cheng-Liang; Chen, Wen-Chang

    2015-01-07

    Low-voltage organic field-effect transistor memory devices exhibiting a wide memory window, low power consumption, acceptable retention, endurance properties, and tunable memory performance are fabricated. The performance is achieved by employing single-crystal C60 needles and copper phthalocyanine nanoparticles to produce an ambipolar (hole/electron) trapping effect in a double floating-gate architecture. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Design, Build and Test of a Double Crystal Monochromator for Beamlines I09 and I23 at the Diamond Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J; Lee, T; Alcock, S; Patel, H

    2013-01-01

    A high stability Double Crystal Monochromator has been developed at The Diamond Light Source for beamlines I09 and I23. The design specification was a cryogenic, fixed exit, energy scanning monochromator, operating over an energy range of 2.1 – 25 keV using a Si(111) crystal set. The novel design concepts are the direct drive, air bearing Bragg axis, low strain crystal mounts and the cooling scheme. The instrument exhibited superb stability and repeatability on the B16 Test Beamline. A 20 keV Si(555), 1.4 μrad rocking curve was demonstrated. The DCM showed good stability without any evidence of vibration or Bragg angle nonlinearity.

  15. A compact low cost “master–slave” double crystal monochromator for x-ray cameras calibration of the Laser MégaJoule Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, S., E-mail: sebastien.hubert@cea.fr; Prévot, V.

    2014-12-21

    The Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA-CESTA, France) built a specific double crystal monochromator (DCM) to perform calibration of x-ray cameras (CCD, streak and gated cameras) by means of a multiple anode diode type x-ray source for the MégaJoule Laser Facility. This DCM, based on pantograph geometry, was specifically modeled to respond to relevant engineering constraints and requirements. The major benefits are mechanical drive of the second crystal on the first one, through a single drive motor, as well as compactness of the entire device. Designed for flat beryl or Ge crystals, this DCM covers the 0.9–10 keV range of our High Energy X-ray Source. In this paper we present the mechanical design of the DCM, its features quantitatively measured and its calibration to finally provide monochromatized spectra displaying spectral purities better than 98%.

  16. Nonlinear Localization due to a Double Negative Defect Layer in a One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Containing Single Negative Material Layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Munazza Zulfiqar; Abdullah, Tariq

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the effects of introducing a defect layer in a one-dimensional photonic crystal containing single negative material layers on the transmission properties. The width of the defect layer is taken to be the same or smaller than the period of the structure. Different cases of the defect layer being linear or nonlinear and double positive or double negative are discussed. It is found that only a nonlinear double negative layer gives rises to a localized mode within the zero-φ eff gap in this kind of structure. It is also shown that the important characteristics of the nonlinear defect mode such as its frequency, its FWHM and the threshold of the associated bistability can be controlled by changing the widths of the defect layer and the host layers

  17. Crystal and magnetic structure of the double perovskite Sr2CoUO6: a neutron diffraction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinacca, R; Viola, M C; Pedregosa, J C; Muñoz, A; Alonso, J A; Martínez, J L; Carbonio, R E

    2005-02-07

    Sr2CoUO6 double perovskite has been prepared as a polycrystalline powder by solid-state reaction, in air. This material has been studied by X-ray, neutron powder diffraction (NPD) and magnetic measurements. At room temperature, the crystal structure is monoclinic, space group P2(1)/n, Z= 2, with a= 5.7916(2), b= 5.8034(2), c= 8.1790(3) A, beta= 90.1455(6)degrees. The perovskite lattice consists of a completely ordered array of CoO6 and UO6 octahedra, which exhibit an average tilting angle phi= 11.4 degrees. Magnetic and neutron diffraction measurements indicate an antiferromagnetic ordering below TN = 10 K. The low-temperature magnetic structure was determined by NPD, selected among the possible magnetic solutions compatible with the P2(1)/n space group, according with the group theory representation. The propagation vector is k= 0. A canted antiferromagnetic structure is observed below TN = 10 K, which remains stable down to 3 K, with an ordered magnetic moment of 2.44(7)mu(B) for Co2+ cations. The magnetic moment calculated from the Curie-Weiss law at high temperatures (5.22 mu(B)/f.u.) indicates that the orbital contribution is unquenched at high temperatures, which is consistent with high-spin Co2+((4)T(1g) ground state) in a quasi-regular octahedral environment. Magnetic and structural features are consistent with an electronic configuration Co2+[3d(7)]-U6+[Rn].

  18. Expansion of lower-frequency locally resonant band gaps using a double-sided stubbed composite phononic crystals plate with composite stubs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Suobin; Chen, Tianning [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Wang, Xiaopeng, E-mail: xpwang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Li, Yinggang [Key Laboratory of High Performance Ship Technology of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, 430070 (China); Chen, Weihua [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2016-06-03

    We studied the expansion of locally resonant complete band gaps in two-dimensional phononic crystals (PCs) using a double-sided stubbed composite PC plate with composite stubs. Results show that the introduction of the proposed structure gives rise to a significant expansion of the relative bandwidth by a factor of 1.5 and decreases the opening location of the first complete band gap by a factor of 3 compared to the classic double-sided stubbed PC plate with composite stubs. Furthermore, more band gaps appear in the lower-frequency range (0.006). These phenomena can be attributed to the strong coupling between the “analogous rigid mode” of the stub and the anti-symmetric Lamb modes of the plate. The “analogous rigid mode” of the stub is produced by strengthening the localized resonance effect of the composite plates through the double-sided stubs, and is further strengthened through the introduction of composite stubs. The “analogous rigid mode” of the stubs expands the out-of-plane band gap, which overlaps with in-plane band gap in the lower-frequency range. As a result, the complete band gap is expanded and more complete band gaps appear. - Highlights: • Expansion of lower-frequency locally resonant BGs using novel composite phononic crystals plates. • The proposed structure expands the relative bandwidth 1.5 times compared to classic doubled-sided stubbed PC plates. • The opening location of the first complete BG decreases 3 times compared to the classic doubled-sided stubbed PC plates. • The concept “analogous rigid mode” is put forward to explain the expansion of lower-frequency BGs.

  19. Single Crystal Growth of Multiferroic Double Perovskites: Yb2CoMnO6 and Lu2CoMnO6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwan Young Choi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on the growth of multiferroic Yb2CoMnO6 and Lu2CoMnO6 single crystals which were synthesized by the flux method with Bi2O3. Yb2CoMnO6 and Lu2CoMnO6 crystallize in a double-perovskite structure with a monoclinic P21/n space group. Bulk magnetization measurements of both specimens revealed strong magnetic anisotropy and metamagnetic transitions. We observed a dielectric anomaly perpendicular to the c axis. The strongly coupled magnetic and dielectric states resulted in the variation of both the dielectric constant and the magnetization by applying magnetic fields, offering an efficient approach to accomplish intrinsically coupled functionality in multiferroics.

  20. Neutron diffraction studies of a double-crystal ( plus n,-m) setting containing a fully asymmetric diffraction geometry of a bent perfect crystal with output beam expansion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikula, Pavol; Vrána, Miroslav; Pilch, Jan; Seong, B. S.; Woo, W.; Em, V.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 47, APR (2014), s. 599-605 ISSN 0021-8898 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010011; GA ČR GB14-36566G; GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : neutron diffraction * diffractometer * silicon crystal Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.720, year: 2014

  1. Effects of an inclined walking surface and balance abilities on spatiotemporal gait parameters of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Richard A; Pinto-Zipp, Genevieve; Simpkins, Susan; Clark, MaryAnn

    2013-01-01

    To date, few studies have investigated how walking patterns on inclines change in healthy older adults. The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of an inclined walking surface and balance abilities on various spatiotemporal gait parameters of healthy older adults. Seventy-eight self-reported independent community ambulators (mean age, 77.8 years; SD, 4.8) participated in this study. After completing the Berg Balance Scale and Dynamic Gait Index (DGI), all participants were asked to walk on the GaitRite on level and inclined surfaces (10° slope). Dependent t tests were used to determine statistical significance between level and inclined surfaces for cadence, step length, velocity, and gait stability ratio (GSR). GSR is a measure of the degree of adaptation an individual makes to increase stability during gait derived from a ratio of cadence/velocity. A 2 2 analysis of variance was performed to determine differences in means among the higher-risk participants (as determined by the Berg Balance Scale and Dynamic Gait Index) comparing their level and incline walking patterns. The level of significance was set at P 0.05. During incline walking a significant decrease occurred in mean step length, 63.1(8.8) cm, P 0.001, mean cadence, 111.6 (8.9) step/min, P 0.01 and mean normalized velocity, 1.4 (0.23), P 0.001. However, mean GSR increased on inclines, 1.62 (0.22) steps/m, P 0.004. Main effects were evident for both walking surface and fall risk for all gait parameters tested. Healthy older adults adopt a more stable gait pattern on inclines decreasing velocity and spending more time in the double support despite the increased physiological demands to perform this task. Clear changes were evident between level and incline surfaces regardless of fall risk as defined by 2 different objective balance measures [corrected].

  2. Inclined nanoimprinting lithography-based 3D nanofabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhan; Bucknall, David G.; Allen, Mark G.

    2011-06-01

    We report a 'top-down' 3D nanofabrication approach combining non-conventional inclined nanoimprint lithography (INIL) with reactive ion etching (RIE), contact molding and 3D metal nanotransfer printing (nTP). This integration of processes enables the production and conformal transfer of 3D polymer nanostructures of varying heights to a variety of other materials including a silicon-based substrate, a silicone stamp and a metal gold (Au) thin film. The process demonstrates the potential of reduced fabrication cost and complexity compared to existing methods. Various 3D nanostructures in technologically useful materials have been fabricated, including symmetric and asymmetric nanolines, nanocircles and nanosquares. Such 3D nanostructures have potential applications such as angle-resolved photonic crystals, plasmonic crystals and biomimicking anisotropic surfaces. This integrated INIL-based strategy shows great promise for 3D nanofabrication in the fields of photonics, plasmonics and surface tribology.

  3. Biochar pyrolyzed from MgAl-layered double hydroxides pre-coated ramie biomass (Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaud.): Characterization and application for crystal violet removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiao-Fei; Liu, Yun-Guo; Gu, Yan-Ling; Liu, Shao-Bo; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Cai, Xiaoxi; Hu, Xin-Jiang; Wang, Hui; Liu, Si-Mian; Jiang, Lu-Hua

    2016-12-15

    A novel biochar/MgAl-layered double hydroxides composite (CB-LDH) was prepared for the removal of crystal violet from aqueous solution by pyrolyzing MgAl-LDH pre-coated ramie stem (Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaud.). Pyrolysis played dual role for both converting biomass into biochar and calcining MgAl-LDH during the pyrolysis process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and zeta potential analysis were used to characterize the CB-LDH. The results of characterization suggested that the calcined LDH was successfully synthesized and coated on biochar. The resulted CB-LDH had higher total pore volume and more functional groups than the pristine biochar. Adsorption experimental data fitted well with the pseudo-second order kinetics model and the Freundlich isotherm model. The rate-controlled step was controlled by film-diffusion initially and then followed by intra-particle diffusion. Thermodynamic analysis showed that the adsorption of crystal violet was a spontaneous and endothermic process. The higher pH and temperature of the solution enhanced the adsorption performance. CB-LDH could also have excellent ability for the removal of crystal violet from the actual industrial wastewater and groundwater with high ionic strength. LDH adsorption, electrostatic attraction, pore-filling, π-π interaction and hydrogen bond might be the main mechanisms for crystal violet adsorption on CB-LDH. The results of this study indicated that CB-LDH is a sustainable and green adsorbent with high performance for crystal violet contaminated wastewater treatment and groundwater remediation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Neutron diffraction studies of a double-crystal ( plus n,-m) setting containing a fully asymmetric diffraction geometry (FAD) of a bent perfect crystal (BPC)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikula, Pavol; Vrána, Miroslav; Šaroun, Jan; Em, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 32, Supl-1 (2017), s. 13-18 ISSN 0885-7156 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC16-08803J; GA MŠk LM2015048 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : neutron diffraction * monochromator * bent perfect crystal Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 0.674, year: 2016

  5. Mitigation of Traffic-Induced Ground Vibration by Inclined Wave Barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Augustesen, Anders Hust

    2009-01-01

    Double sheet pile walls can be used as wave barriers in order to mitigate ground vibrations from railways. The present analysis concerns the efficiency of such barriers, especially with regard to the influence of the barrier inclination and the backfill between the walls. Thus, the screening...

  6. Dynamically reconfigurable characteristics of a double phase conjugate mirror using Sn2P2S6 crystals and their application to optical inter-satellite communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimaki, Kaori; Okamoto, Atsushi; Shibukawa, Atsushi; Takabayashi, Masanori; Tomita, Akihisa; Takayama, Yoshihisa

    2014-05-01

    A double phase conjugate mirror (DPCM), created by two mutually incoherent beams entering photorefractive nonlinear materials, can generate a phase conjugate beam whose reflectivity may be greater than 100%. Even though the conditions of the incident beams are changed, the DPCM can be dynamically reconfigured by using a Sn2P2S6 crystal with a high response speed. These features of the DPCM are advantageous, particularly in an optical inter-satellite communication system. In particular, use of the phase conjugate beam from the DPCM offers wavefront compensation and amplification in satellite communication. In addition, the dynamically reconfigurable DPCM using a Sn2P2S6 crystal relaxes the acquisition accuracy of the signal beam in the system. In this study, the temporal and spatial operating characteristics of the DPCM using a Sn2P2S6 crystal were first clarified. Next, an inter-satellite system based on the DPCM was proposed, and it was demonstrated that our system significantly improves the tolerance of the acquisition accuracy and tracking time.

  7. Coloration dependence in the thermoluminescence properties of the double doped NaCl single crystals under gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Mejorada, G.; Gelover-Santiago, A.L.; Frias, D.

    2006-01-01

    In this work the behaviour of calcium manganese doped NaCl single crystals under gamma irradiation is reported. Various single crystals of NaCl doped with Ca and Mn have been irradiated at different doses with ionising radiation. The production of defects has been correlated to the increase in the intensity of the thermo luminescent glow curve as a function of doses. The glow curves intensity as a function of doses shows the potential use of these materials as dosimeters. Optical properties of such crystals after irradiation with gamma rays have also been studied; results have shown their potentiality as a good detector and optical store memory devices. Since the creations of colour centres by photons with energy less than the band gap energy has been detected also in ns 2 -ion doped alkali halides. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Tandem analyzer crystals system doubles counting rate for Bonse Hart ultra-small-angle neutron-scattering spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Koizumi, Satoshi; Motokawa, Ryuhei; Kumada, Takayuki; Aizawa, Kazuya; Hashimoto, Takeji

    2006-11-01

    A new tandem analyzer crystals system was introduced on Bonse-Hart ultra-small-angle neutron-scattering spectrometer at research reactor JRR-3, Tokai, Japan. Conventional Bonse-Hart setup consumes a considerable time to measure a scattering profile of whole q range (2×10 -4 nm -1neutrons from the sample and having different q are measured step by step. To overcome this difficulty two analyzer channel-cut silicon perfect crystals were settled in tandem and each of them diffracted the scattering of different q. In consequence, a simultaneous detection at two different q positions was realized and the measurement time was reduced to half.

  9. An inclined plane system with microcontroller to determine limb motor function of laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ming-Wen; Young, Ming-Shing; Lin, Mao-Tsun

    2008-02-15

    This study describes a high-accuracy inclined plane test system for quantitative measurement of the limb motor function of laboratory rats. The system is built around a microcontroller and uses a stepping motor to drive a ball screw, which changes the angle of the inclined plane. Any of the seven inclination speeds can be selected by the user. Two infrared (IR) LED/detector pairs function as interrupt sensors for objective determination of the moment that the rat loses its grip on the textured flooring of the starting area and slips down the plane. Inclination angle at the moment of IR interrupt (i.e. rat slip) is recorded. A liquid crystal display module shows the inclination speed and the inclination angle. The system can function as a stand alone device but a RS232 port allows connection to a personal computer (PC), so data can be sent directly to hard disk for storage and analysis. Experiments can be controlled by a local keypad or by the connected PC. Advantages of the presented system include easy operation, high accuracy, non-dependence on human observation for determination of slip angle, stand-alone capability, low cost and easy modification of the controlling software for different types of experiments. A fully functional prototype of the system is described. The prototype was used experimentally by a hospital group testing traumatic brain injury experiments, and some of their results are presented for system verification. It is found that the system is stable, accurate and easily used by investigators.

  10. Experimental studies of dispersive double reflections excited in cylindrically bent perfect-crystal slabs at a constant neutron wavelength

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikula, Pavol; Vrána, Miroslav; Šaroun, Jan; Davydov, Vadim; Em, V.; Seong, B. S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2012), s. 98-105 ISSN 0021-8898 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/10/0654 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : RESIDUAL STRAIN-STRESS INSTRUMENT * MULTIPLE BRAGG-REFLECTIONS * SINGLE-CRYSTAL Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.343, year: 2012

  11. The effect of speleothem surface slope on the remanent magnetic inclination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte, J. M.; Font, E.; Veiga-Pires, C.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.; Ghaleb, B.

    2017-06-01

    Speleothems are of interest for high-resolution reconstruction of the Earth's magnetic field. However, little is known about the influence of speleothem morphologies on their natural remanent magnetization (NRM) record. Here we report on a high-resolution paleomagnetic study of a dome-shaped speleothem of middle Holocene age from southern Portugal, with special attention to the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and anisotropy of anhysteretic remanent magnetization (AARM). To assess the potential influence of the slope of the speleothem surface on the recorded remanent magnetization, we compare magnetic directions and AMS and AARM fabrics from subhorizontal to gradually subvertical calcite growth layers collected in a transversal cross section of the speleothem. A linear correlation is observed between magnetic inclinations, calcite laminae slope, and AARM k1 inclination. The AMS fabric is mostly controlled by calcite crystals, with direction of the minimum axes (k3) perpendicular to laminae growth. Magnetic inclinations recorded in inclined and vertical calcite growth layers are underestimated when compared to a global paleosecular variation (PSV) model. After extrapolating magnetic inclinations to the horizontal, the corrected data better fit the PSV model but are still lower than the predicted magnetic inclinations, suggesting that inclination shallowing affects the entire speleothem. We suggest that speleothem morphology exerts a critical role on the magnetic inclination recording, which is controlled by the Earth's magnetic field but also influenced by particle rolling along the sloping surfaces. These observations open new avenues for reconstructing high-resolution paleomagnetic secular variation records from speleothems and provide new insights into their NRM acquisition mechanisms.

  12. Possibilities and limitations of synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction with double crystal and double multilayer monochromators for microscopic speciation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Nolf, Wout [Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610, Antwerpen (Wilrijk) (Belgium)], E-mail: wout.denolf@ua.ac.be; Jaroszewicz, Jakub [Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610, Antwerpen (Wilrijk) (Belgium); Terzano, Roberto [Dipartimento di Biologia e Chimica Agro-forestale ed Ambientale, Via Amendola 165/A, I-70126, University of Bari, Bari (Italy); Lind, Ole Christian; Salbu, Brit [Isotope Laboratory, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, PO Box 5003, N-1432 As (Norway); Vekemans, Bart [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S12, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Janssens, Koen [Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610, Antwerpen (Wilrijk) (Belgium); Falkenberg, Gerald [HASYLAB at DESY, Beamline L, Notkestraat 85, D-22603, Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    The performance of a combined microbeam X-ray fluorescence/X-ray powder diffraction (XRF/XRPD) measurement station at Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor (HASYLAB) Beamline L is discussed in comparison to that at European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) ID18F/ID22. The angular resolution in the X-ray diffractograms is documented when different combinations of X-ray source, optics and X-ray diffraction detectors are employed. Typical angular resolution values in the range 0.3-0.5 deg. are obtained at the bending magnet source when a 'pink' beam form of excitation is employed. A similar setup at European Synchrotron Radiation Facility beamlines ID18F and ID22 allows to reach angular resolution values of 0.1-0.15 deg. In order to document the possibilities and limitations for speciation of metals in environmental materials by means of Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor Beamline L X-ray fluorescence/X-ray powder diffraction setup, two case studies are discussed, one involved in the identification of the crystal phases in which heavy metals such as chromium, iron, barium and lead are present in polluted soils of an industrial site (Val Basento, Italy) and another involved in the speciation of uranium in depleted uranium particles (Ceja Mountains, Kosovo). In the former case, the angular resolution is sufficient to allow identification of most crystalline phases present while in the latter case, it is necessary to dispose of an angular resolution of ca. 0.2 deg. to distinguish between different forms of oxidized uranium.

  13. Tandem analyzer crystals system doubles counting rate for Bonse-Hart ultra-small-angle neutron-scattering spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Koizumi, Satoshi; Motokawa, Ryuhei; Kumada, Takayuki; Aizawa, Kazuya; Hashimoto, Takeji

    2006-01-01

    A new tandem analyzer crystals system was introduced on Bonse-Hart ultra-small-angle neutron-scattering spectrometer at research reactor JRR-3, Tokai, Japan. Conventional Bonse-Hart setup consumes a considerable time to measure a scattering profile of whole q range (2x10 -4 nm -1 -2 nm -1 , where q denotes magnitude of scattering vector) due to the step scan system, in which the scattered neutrons from the sample and having different q are measured step by step. To overcome this difficulty two analyzer channel-cut silicon perfect crystals were settled in tandem and each of them diffracted the scattering of different q. In consequence, a simultaneous detection at two different q positions was realized and the measurement time was reduced to half

  14. A study of electronic and optical properties of NaBi(WO4)2: A disordered double tungstate crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, Mohit; Singh, S.G.; Sangeeta; Prasad, R.; Auluck, S.; Singh, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    Electronic band structure, total and partial density of states and optical properties of NaBi(WO 4 ) 2 (NBW) crystal have been calculated using the first principles full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. The electronic structure thus obtained shows a strong hybridization of W d and O p orbitals giving rise to relatively broad bands which are similar to other scheelite tungstates. Structural parameters obtained from Rietveld refinement of X-ray powder diffraction pattern recorded for high quality NBW crystal were further optimized by WIEN2K. Calculations using the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) show that this material exhibits an indirect band gap of 3.2±0.1 eV. The value of band gap, refractive index and birefringence obtained from first principle calculations are found to be in reasonable agreement with our experimental data.

  15. Locomotor Behavior of Chickens Anticipating Incline Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal LeBlanc

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Keel bone damage (KBD is prevalent in hens raised for egg production, and ramps between different tiers in aviaries have potential to reduce the frequency of falls resulting in KBD. Effective use of ramps requires modulation of locomotion in anticipation of the incline. Inadequate adaptive locomotion may be one explanation why domestic layer hens (Gallus gallus domesticus exhibit high rates of KBD. To improve understanding of the capacity of hens to modulate their locomotion in anticipation of climbing, we measured the effects of incline angle upon the mechanics of the preparatory step before ascending a ramp. Because the energetic challenge of climbing increases with slope, we predicted that as angle of incline increased, birds during foot contact with the ground before starting to climb would increase their peak force and duration of contact and reduce variation in center of pressure (COP under their foot. We tested 20 female domestic chickens on ramp inclines at slopes of +0°, +40°, and +70° when birds were 17, 21, 26, 31, and 36 weeks of age. There were significantly higher vertical peak ground reaction forces in preparation at the steepest slope, and ground contact time increased significantly with each increase in ramp angle. Effects upon variation in COP were not apparent; likewise, effects of limb length, age, body mass were not significant. Our results reveal that domestic chickens are capable of modulating their locomotion in response to incline angle.

  16. Spontaneous emission spectrum from a V-type three-level atom in a double-band photonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Han Zhuang; Tang Sing Hai; Dong Po; He Jun

    2002-01-01

    The spontaneous emission spectrum from a V-type three-level atom embedded in a double-band photonic band gap (PBG) material has been investigated for the first time. Most interestingly it is shown that there is not only a black dark line, but also a narrow spontaneous line near the edges of the double photonic band. The positions of the dark line and narrow spontaneous line are near the transition from an empty upper level to a lower level. The lines stem from destructive and constructive quantum interferences, which induce population transfer between the two upper levels, in the PBG reservoirs. The effects of system parameters on the interference have been discussed in detail

  17. Neutron monochromator based on dispersive double-reflections excited in a cylindrically bent-perfect-crystal (BPC) slab

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikula, Pavol; Vrána, Miroslav; Lott, D.; Wagner, V.

    385/386, 2 (2006), s. 1274-1276 ISSN 0921-4526. [International Conference on Neutron Scattering /8./. Sydney, 27.11.2005-2.12.2005] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC P7.003; GA ČR GA202/06/0601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : neutron diffraction * double reflections Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.872, year: 2006

  18. Crystal structure and magnetic properties of the double perovskite (Sr2-xCax)FeMoO6 (0≤x≤1.0)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, R.S.; Chan, T.S.; Hu, S.F.; Lin, J.G.; Huang, C.Y.

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated the crystal structure and magnetic properties of the new series of ordered double perovskite oxides (Sr 2-x Ca x )FeMoO 6 (0≤x≤1.0). A monotonous decrease of the lattice constants (a and c) has been found with increasing x. Such an effect may also give rise to a distorted structure with Fe-O-Mo angle changing from 180 deg. for x=0 to 162 deg. for x=1.0. The magnetization increases from x=0 to 0.5 and then slightly decreases from x=0.5 to 1.0. Such complex magnetic behavior is strongly correlated to the chemical size effect (corresponding to the internal pressure) in the title compounds

  19. Study of the crystal structure of double ammonium hafnium sulfate of the (NH4)4Hf(SO4)4x4H2O composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalyj, V.P.; Sheka, I.A.; Fedoryako, L.I.; Fomenko, V.V.

    1978-01-01

    Two new double compounds of (NH 4 ) 2 Hf(SO 4 ) 3 x2H 2 O and (NH 4 ) 4 Hf(SO 4 ) 4 x4H 2 O have been studied. The second compound which forms needle transparent crystals of monoclinic singony, has been studied by the X-ray analysis. The unit cell parametres are as follows: a = 18.12(3), b = 14.89(3), c = 7.25(3) A, γ = 95.5 deg (5), spatial group P 2 /b, N=4. The first structure may be described as an islet structure. Besides basic valent bonds, it contains numerous intermolecular contacts and hydrogen bonds formed by water molecules and ammonium ions

  20. Crystal structure, electronic and magnetic properties of double perovskite Ba{sub 2}FeWO{sub 6}: A combined experimental–theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musa Saad, H.-E., E-mail: musa.1964@gmail.com [Department of Physics, College of Science, Qassim University, P.O. 4466, Buraidah 51452 (Saudi Arabia); Rammeh, N. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Matériaux Minéraux et leurs Applications, Centre National de Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux, B. P. 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2016-01-15

    Double perovskite oxide Ba{sub 2}FeWO{sub 6} has been synthesized in polycrystalline form by the solid-state ceramic method at 950 °C. Structural characterization was performed by using the X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and neutron powder diffraction (NPD) followed by Rietveld analysis of these patterns. The crystal structure of Ba{sub 2}FeWO{sub 6} is cubic; space group Fm-3m with lattice parameter of a=8.1351 Å. Also, a density functional theory (DFT) study of the crystal structure, electronic and magnetic properties of Ba{sub 2}FeWO{sub 6} has been carried out using full potential linear muffin-tin orbital (FP-LMTO). We showed that the obtained symmetry lattice parameter agree well with the experimental results. The influence of Fe element on the magnetic and electronic properties of double perovskite oxide Ba{sub 2}FeWO{sub 6} is analyzed. Band structure calculations for cubic Ba{sub 2}FeWO{sub 6} predict an energy-gap in both spin-up and spin-down. The semiconductor antiferromagnetic (AFM) phase is stabilized by the hybridization of nonmagnetic W{sup 6+} (5d°) site positioned in between the magnetic Fe{sup 2+} (3d{sup 6}) sites through the O{sup 2−} anions in a long range O–Fe–O–W–O arrangement. {sup 57}Fe Mössbaur spectrum and DFT calculations suggest that the AFM behavior arises since the mixed valence Fe{sup 2+}–Fe{sup 3+} effect introduces in Fe{sup 2+}–O{sup 2–}–W{sup 6+} anticoupling.

  1. Breakwaters with Vertical and Inclined Concrete Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans Falk

    Following the PIANC PTC II working group on Analyses of Rubble Mound Breakwaters it was, in 1991, decided to form Working Group (WG) n° 28 on "Breakwaters with vertical and inclined concrete walls" The scope of the work was to achieve a better understanding of the overall safety aspects in the de......Following the PIANC PTC II working group on Analyses of Rubble Mound Breakwaters it was, in 1991, decided to form Working Group (WG) n° 28 on "Breakwaters with vertical and inclined concrete walls" The scope of the work was to achieve a better understanding of the overall safety aspects...

  2. The Crystal Structure and Magnetic Behavior of Quinary Osmate and Ruthenate Double Perovskites LaABB'O6(A = Ca, Sr; B = Co, Ni; B' = Ru, Os).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Ryan; McGuire, Michael A; Yan, Jiaqiang; Woodward, Patrick M

    2018-02-23

    Six LaABB'O 6 (A = Ca, Sr; B = Co, Ni; B' = Ru, Os) double perovskites were synthesized, several for the first time, and their crystal structures and magnetic behavior were characterized with neutron powder diffraction and direct-current and alternating-current magnetometry. All six compounds crystallize with P2 1 /n space group symmetry, resulting from a - a - c + octahedral tilting and complete rock salt ordering of transition-metal ions. Despite the electronic configurations of the transition-metal ions, either d 8 -d 3 or d 7 -d 3 , not one of the six compounds shows ferromagnetism as predicted by the Goodenough-Kanamori rules. LaSrNiOsO 6 , LaSrNiRuO 6 , and LaCaNiRuO 6 display long-range antiferromagnetic order, while LaCaNiOsO 6 , LaCaCoOsO 6 , and LaSrCoOsO 6 exhibit spin-glass behavior. These compounds are compared to the previously studied LaCaCoRuO 6 and LaSrCoRuO 6 , both of which order antiferromagnetically. The observed variations in magnetic properties can be attributed largely to the response of competing superexchange pathways due to changes in B-O-B' bond angles, differences in the radial extent of the 4d (B' = Ru) and 5d (B' = Os) orbitals, and filling of the t 2g orbitals of the 3d ion.

  3. Synthesis, characterization, single crystal X-ray determination, fluorescence and electrochemical studies of new dinuclear nickel(II) and oxovanadium(IV) complexes containing double Schiff base ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaatian, Bita; Ozbakzaei, Zahra; Notash, Behrouz; Rezvani, S Ahmad

    2015-04-05

    A series of new bimetallic complexes of nickel(II) and vanadium(IV) have been synthesized by the reaction of the new double bidentate Schiff base ligands with nickel acetate and vanadyl acetylacetonate in 1:1 M ratio. In nickel and also vanadyl complexes the ligands were coordinated to the metals via the imine N and enolic O atoms. The complexes have been found to possess 1:1 metals to ligands stoichiometry and the molar conductance data revealed that the metal complexes were non-electrolytes. The nickel and vanadyl complexes exhibited distorted square planar and square pyramidal coordination geometries, respectively. The emission spectra of the ligands and their complexes were studied in methanol. Electrochemical properties of the ligands and their metal complexes were also investigated in DMSO solvent at 150 mV s(-1) scan rate. The ligands and metal complexes showed both quasi-reversible and irreversible processes at this scan rate. The Schiff bases and their complexes have been characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, UV/Vis spectroscopies, elemental analysis and conductometry. The crystal structure of the nickel complex has been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Crystal chemistry of M{sup II}M′{sup IV}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} double monophosphates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bregiroux, Damien, E-mail: damien.bregiroux@upmc.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, Collège de France, Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Paris, 11 place Marcelin Berthelot, 75005 Paris (France); Popa, Karin [“Al.I. Cuza” University, Department of Chemistry, 11-Carol I Blvd., 700506 Iasi (Romania); Wallez, Gilles [Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris (IRCP), CNRS – Chimie ParisTech – Paris Sciences et Lettres PSL UMR8247, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06 (France)

    2015-10-15

    M{sup II}M′{sup IV}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} compounds have been extensively studied for several decades for their potential applications in the field of several domains such as matrices for actinides conditioning, phosphors etc. In this paper, the relationships between composition and crystal structure of these compounds are established. A review of the various processes used for the synthesis of these compounds is also proposed, as well as their most reported properties. M{sup II}M′{sup IV}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} structures stem from two different archetypes: the cheralite and the yavapaiite structures, with some exceptions that are also described in this article. The ratio of the cations radii appears to be the most relevant parameter. The high ratio between the ionic radii of the divalent and tetravalent cations in yavapaiite derivates results in the ordering of these cations into well-differentiated polyhedra whereas cheralite is the only non-ordered structure encountered for M{sup II}M′{sup IV}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} compounds. - Graphical abstract: In this paper, the relationships between composition and crystal structure of M{sup II}M′{sup IV}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} compounds are established. A review of the various processes used for the synthesis of these compounds is also proposed, as well as their most reported properties. - Highlights: • Crystal structure–composition relationships of MIIM′IV(PO4)2 compounds. • Review of the various processes used for the synthesis of these compounds. • Their most reported properties are described and discussed.

  5. Ferromagnetic interactions in new double end-on-azide-bridged dinuclear Ni(II) complex: Synthesis, crystal structures, magnetic and photoluminescence properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donmez, Adem; Oylumluoglu, Gorkem; Coban, M. Burak; Kocak, Cagdas; Aygun, Muhittin; Kara, Hulya

    2017-12-01

    A new double end-on azide-bridged dinuclear nickel(II) Schiff base complex, [Ni2(μ1,1-N3)2(HL)2(MeOH)2], [HL = 2-[(2-hydroxypropylimino)methyl)-3,5-chlorophenol] has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, UV and IR spectroscopy, single crystal X-ray diffraction, magnetic and photoluminescence study. The asymmetric unit contains half of the dinuclear unit. The Ni(HL) units in each dinuclear molecule are connected to each other by two bridging end-on azide ligands. In the crystalline architecture of the Ni(II) complex, intermolecular Osbnd H⋯N hydrogen bonds link the molecules which form one-dimensional structure. Additionally, low temperature magnetic measurements indicate a dominant intradimer ferromagnetic interactions in double end-on azide-bridged dinuclear Ni(II) complex. Room temperature solid state photoluminescence measurements of Ni(II) complex show strong green emission band at λmax = 508 nm while its free ligand H2L shows broad yellow emission band at λmax = 594 nm. The luminescent performances making Ni(II) complex may be good candidates for potential luminescence materials.

  6. Single crystal fibers growth of double lithium, lanthanium molybdate and adjustment of a micro-pulling down furnace for high vacuum setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Fernando Rodrigues da

    2013-01-01

    In this work we investigated crystal growth procedures aiming the development of single crystal fiber (SCF) for laser applications. For quality optimization in the fabrication of fluorides SCF a new growth chamber for a micro-pulling down furnace (μ-PD) was constructed targeting the fibers fabrication with strict atmosphere control (high vacuum, gas flux and static atmospheres). Simultaneously, the SCF growth process of rare earth double molybdates was studied. The growth of pure and Nd 3+ -doped SCF of LiLa(MoO 4 ) 2 (LLM) was studied in the range of 0,5 - 10mol% doping. The designed furnace growth chamber with controlled atmosphere was successfully constructed and tested under different conditions. Specially, it was tested with the growth of LiF SFC under CF 4 atmosphere showing the expected results. Transparent and homogeneous SCF of Nd:LLM were grown. In the pure fibers was observed facets formation, however, these defects were minimized after tuning of the growth parameters and additionally with the fibers doping. X-ray analysis showed the crystallization of a single phase (space group I4 1 /a); the optical coherence tomography showed the presence of scattering centers only in regions were some growth stability occurred due to the manual process control. The measured Nd 3+ distribution showed uniform incorporation, indicative of a segregation coefficient close to unity in LLM. The potential laser gain of the system was determined using a numerical solution of the rate equations system for the 805nm, CW pumping regime, showing the maximum laser emission gain at 1.064 μm for a Nd 3+ -doping of 5mol%. (author)

  7. Numerical study of heat and mass transfer optimization in a 3D inclined solar distiller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghachem Kaouther

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study of the 3-D double-diffusive natural convection in an inclined solar distiller was established. The flow is considered laminar and caused by the interaction of thermal energy and the chemical species diffusions. The governing equations of the problem, are formulated using vector potential-vorticity formalism in its 3-D form, then solved by the finite volumes method. The Rayleigh number is fixed at Ra = 105 and effects of the buoyancy ratio and inclination are studied for opposed temperature and concentration gradients. The main purpose of the study is to find the optimum inclination angle of the distiller which promotes the maximum mass and heat transfer.

  8. Internally cooled V-shape inclined monochromator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oberta, Peter; Áč, V.; Hrdý, Jaromír

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 15, - (2008), 8-11 ISSN 0909-0495 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100716 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 1/4134/07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : inclined monochromator * heat load * internal cooling Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.333, year: 2008

  9. A matter of chance, environment and inclination

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lawrence

    Why did I opt for science subjects in school, and choose a career in science? Perhaps the best answer would be. 'Chance, Environment and Inclination'. Here I am, considered to be a professional woman scien- tist, working towards understanding the biology of the malaria parasite and the challenges put up by the same.

  10. Inclined test of nacelle wind lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courtney, Michael

    A nacelle wind lidar, placed at ground level, is tested by inclining the laser beams to bisect a measurement mast at a known distance and height. The horizontal wind speed reported by the lidar is compared to a reference cup anemometer mounted on the mast at the comparison height....

  11. Vehicle with inclinable caterpillar propulsion units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clar, G.

    1991-01-01

    This vehicle usable in hostile environment such nuclear industry has four propulsion units with a caterpillar track and two integrated motors: one for advancing the caterpillar track and the other for inclining the propulsion unit when overcoming obstacles. Each propulsion unit is easily replaceable because there are no mechanical parts in the body of the vehicle [fr

  12. Measurement of the energy distribution of parametric X-ray radiation from a double-crystal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Akira; Hayakawa, Yasushi; Kidokoro, Akio; Sato, Isamu; Tanaka, Toshinari; Hayakawa, Ken; Kobayashi, Kouji; Ohshima, Hisashi

    2006-01-01

    A parametric X-ray radiation (PXR) generator system was developed at the Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Applications (LEBRA) at Nihon University; this PXR generator system is a tunable wavelength and quasi-monochromatic X-ray source constructed as one of the advanced applications of the LEBRA 125-MeV electron linear accelerator. The PXR beam which has characteristic of energy distribution. The theoretical values of energy distribution obtained at the output port were calculated to be approximately 300 eV and 2 keV at the central X-ray energies of 7 keV and 20 keV, respectively. In order to investigate the energy distribution, several measurements of the X-ray energy were carried out. The X-ray absorption of known materials and that of thin aluminum has been evaluated based on analyses of images taken using an imaging plate. The X-ray energy was deduced base on the identification of the absorption edges, and the energy distribution was estimated based on measurements using aluminum step method. In addition, an X-ray diffraction method using a perfect silicon crystal was employed, and spectra were measured using a solid state detector (SSD). The results of these experiments agreed with the calculated results. In particular, the well-defined absorption edges in the X-ray images and the typical rocking curves obtained by the measurement of the X-ray diffraction indicated that the distribution has a high-energy resolution

  13. Crystal structures of double vanadates Ca9R(VO4)7. 1. R = La, Pr and Eu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belik, A.A.; Morozov, V.A.; Lazoryak, B.I.; Khasanov, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    Crystalline structures of Ca 9 R(VO 4 ) 7 (R = La(1), Pr(2), Eu(3)) were studied by means of the complete profile analysis. The compounds crystallize in trigonal syngony (sp.gr. R3c, Z=6) with the following parameters of the elementary cells: 1 - a=10.8987(5), c = 38.147(1) A, V = 3924.1(3) A; 2 - a 10.8808(7), c = 38.135(1) A, V = 3910.0(3) A; 3 - a = 10.8651(1), c 38.089(1) A, V = 3894.0(3) A 3 . The rare-earth element cations together with calcium population density of the rare-earth element cations in the positions changes regularly depending on their radius. In some compounds starting from La up to Eu the population density of the rare-earth element cations in M(3) position decreases, while that in M(1) and M(2) position - increases

  14. Design and realization of one-dimensional double hetero-structure photonic crystals for infrared-radar stealth-compatible materials applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhixun; Cheng, Yongzhi; Nie, Yan; Wang, Xian; Gong, Rongzhou

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a new type one-dimensional (1D) double hetero-structure composite photonic crystal (CPC) for infrared-radar stealth-compatible materials applications was proposed and studied numerically and experimentally. First, based on transfer matrix method of thin-film optical theory, the propagation characteristics of the proposed structure comprising a stack of different alternating micrometer-thick layers of germanium and zinc sulfide were investigated numerically. Calculation results exhibit that this 1D single hetero-structure PC could achieve a flat high reflectivity gradually with increasing the number of the alternating media layers in a single broadband range. Then, based on principles of distributed Bragg reflector micro-cavity, a 1D double hetero-structure CPC comprising four PCs with thickness of 0.797 μm, 0.592 μm, 1.480 μm, and 2.114 μm, respectively, was proposed. Calculation results exhibit that this CPC could achieve a high reflectance of greater than 0.99 in the wavelength ranges of 3–5 μm and 8–14 μm and agreed well with experiment. Further experiments exhibit that the infrared emissivity of the proposed CPC is as low as 0.073 and 0.042 in the wavelength ranges of 3–5 μm and 8–12 μm, respectively. In addition, the proposed CPC can be used to construct infrared-radar stealth-compatible materials due to its high transmittance in radar wave band

  15. Design and realization of one-dimensional double hetero-structure photonic crystals for infrared-radar stealth-compatible materials applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhixun; Cheng, Yongzhi, E-mail: cyz0715@126.com; Nie, Yan; Wang, Xian; Gong, Rongzhou, E-mail: rzhgong@mail.hust.edu.cn [School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-08-07

    In this paper, a new type one-dimensional (1D) double hetero-structure composite photonic crystal (CPC) for infrared-radar stealth-compatible materials applications was proposed and studied numerically and experimentally. First, based on transfer matrix method of thin-film optical theory, the propagation characteristics of the proposed structure comprising a stack of different alternating micrometer-thick layers of germanium and zinc sulfide were investigated numerically. Calculation results exhibit that this 1D single hetero-structure PC could achieve a flat high reflectivity gradually with increasing the number of the alternating media layers in a single broadband range. Then, based on principles of distributed Bragg reflector micro-cavity, a 1D double hetero-structure CPC comprising four PCs with thickness of 0.797 μm, 0.592 μm, 1.480 μm, and 2.114 μm, respectively, was proposed. Calculation results exhibit that this CPC could achieve a high reflectance of greater than 0.99 in the wavelength ranges of 3–5 μm and 8–14 μm and agreed well with experiment. Further experiments exhibit that the infrared emissivity of the proposed CPC is as low as 0.073 and 0.042 in the wavelength ranges of 3–5 μm and 8–12 μm, respectively. In addition, the proposed CPC can be used to construct infrared-radar stealth-compatible materials due to its high transmittance in radar wave band.

  16. Granular flow down a flexible inclined plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonar Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Discrete and continuous systems are commonly studied individually, but seldom together. Indeed, granular flows are typically studied through flows over a rigid base. Here, we investigate the behaviour of granular flows over an inclined, flexible base. The flexible base is modeled as a rigid platform mounted on springs and has one degree of freedom. The base vibrations are introduced by the flow. We simulate such flows through a discrete element method and compare with experiments. We find that a flexible base increased the upper limit of the inclination up to which a steady flow is possible by at least 3 degrees. This stabilized zone may have important implications in applications such as conveyor belts and chutes.

  17. Granular flow down a flexible inclined plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonar, Prasad; Sharma, Ishan; Singh, Jayant

    2017-06-01

    Discrete and continuous systems are commonly studied individually, but seldom together. Indeed, granular flows are typically studied through flows over a rigid base. Here, we investigate the behaviour of granular flows over an inclined, flexible base. The flexible base is modeled as a rigid platform mounted on springs and has one degree of freedom. The base vibrations are introduced by the flow. We simulate such flows through a discrete element method and compare with experiments. We find that a flexible base increased the upper limit of the inclination up to which a steady flow is possible by at least 3 degrees. This stabilized zone may have important implications in applications such as conveyor belts and chutes.

  18. Stress field of a dislocating inclined fault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, F.; Wang, T.

    1980-02-01

    Analytical expressions are derived for the stress field caused by a rectangular dislocating fault of an arbitrary dip in a semi-infinite elastic medium for the case of unequal Lame constants. The results of computations for the stress fields on the ground surface of an inclined strike-slip and an inclined dip-slip fault are represented by contour maps. The effects of Poisson Ratio of the medium, the dip angle, upper and lower boundaries of the faults on the stress field at surface have been discussed. As an application, the contour maps for shear stress and hydrostatic stress of near fields of the Tonghai (1970), Haicheng (1975) and Tangshan (1976) earthquakes have been calculated and compared with the spatial distributions of strong aftershocks of these earthquakes. It is found that most of the strong aftershocks are distributed in the regions of tensional stress, where the hydrostatic stress is positive.

  19. Stress field of a dislocating inclined fault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, F.; Wang, T.

    1980-02-01

    In this paper, analytical expressions of the stress field given rise by a rectangular dislocating fault of an arbitrary dip in a semi-infinite elastic medium for the case of unequal Lame constants are derived. The results of computations for the stress fields on the ground surface of an inclined strike-slip and an inclined dip-slip fault are represented by contour maps. The effects of the Poisson Ratio of the medium, the dip angle, upper and lower boundaries of the faults on the stress field at the surface have been discussed. As an application, the contour maps for shear stress and hydrostatic stress of near fields of the Tonghai (1970), Haicheng, (1975) and Tangshan (1976) earthquakes have been calculated and compared with the spatial distributions of strong aftershocks of these earthquakes. It is found that most of the strong aftershocks are distributed in the regions of tensional stress where the hydrostatic stress is positive.

  20. Bubble streams rising beneath an inclined surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, James; Brasz, Frederik; Kim, Dayoung; Menesses, Mark; Belden, Jesse

    2017-11-01

    Bubbles released beneath a submerged inclined surface can tumble along the wall as they rise, dragging the surrounding fluid with them. This effect has recently regained attention as a method to mitigate biofouling in marine environment, such as a ship hull. It appears that the efficacy of this approach may be related to the velocity of the rising bubbles and the extent that they spread laterally as they rise. Yet, it is unclear how bubble stream rise velocity and lateral migration depend on bubble size, flow rate, and inclination angle. Here we perform systematic experiments to quantify these relationships for both individual bubble trajectories and ensemble average statistics. Research supported by the Office of Naval Research under Grant Number award N00014-16-1-3000.

  1. HIGH-INCLINATION ASTEROID FAMILIES V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the high-inclination asteroid families of Gil-Hutton (2006). A data set of 3652 high-inclination numbered asteroids was analyzed to search for...

  2. Incisor inclination and perceived tooth colour changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciucchi, Philip; Kiliaridis, Stavros

    2017-10-01

    Social attractiveness is influenced by a variety of different smile-related factors. We evaluated whether the degree of upper central incisor proclination can result in tooth colour change. Forty young adult subjects (20-25 years) in good health with a complete sound dentition were selected. The subjects were seated in standardized light conditions with an above-directed light source. Their natural head position was stated as 0 degrees. To mimic the range of possible anterior torque movements they were asked to tilt their heads upward +15 degrees (upward tilting) and downward -15 degrees (downward tilting). Frontal macro photographs, parallel to the Frankfort plane of the patient's natural head position were taken at the three head angulations (+15, 0, and -15 degrees ). Photographs were analysed for colour differences at the centre of the incisor clinical crowns with a CIE L*a*b* colour model based software. A paired t-test was used to test for significance between each value for each inclination. Differences were found between the CIE L*a*b* colour values for: upward tilting, downward tilting, and -15 to +15 degrees (total tilting) except for b* values for downward tilting. As the inclination of the subject's head changed downward, the upper incisors were retroclined and the CIE L*a*b* values indicated a darker and less green but redder colour component. As the inclination of the subject's head changed upwards the upper incisors were proclined and the L*a*b* values indicated a lighter and less green and yellow but redder and bluer colour component. Proclination of upper incisors caused lighter tooth colour parameters compared to retroclined incisors and colour changes. Orthodontic change of upper incisor inclination may induce alterations on how tooth colour is perceived.

  3. Tooth Wear Inclination in Great Ape Molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Sadler, Jordan; Fiorenza, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Primate dietary diversity is reflected in their dental morphology, with differences in size and shape of teeth. In particular, the tooth wear angle can provide insight into a species' ability to break down certain foods. To examine dietary and masticatory information, digitized polygon models of dental casts provide a basis for quantitative analysis of wear associated with tooth attrition. In this study, we analyze and compare the wear patterns of Pongo pygmaeus, Gorilla gorillagorilla and Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii lower molars, focusing on the degree of inclination of specific wear facets. The variation in wear angles appears to be indicative of jaw movements and the specific stresses imposed on food during mastication, reflecting thus the ecology of these species. Orangutans exhibit flatter wear angles, more typical of a diet consisting of hard and brittle foods, while gorillas show a wear pattern with a high degree of inclination, reflecting thus their more leafy diet. Chimpanzees, on the other hand, show intermediate inclinations, a pattern that could be related to their highly variable diet. This method is demonstrated to be a powerful tool for better understanding the relationship between food, mastication and tooth wear processes in living primates, and can be potentially used to reconstruct the diet of fossil species. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. A jumping cylinder in an incline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Raul W.; Hernandez, Jorge; Marquina, Vivianne

    2012-02-01

    The problem of a cylinder of mass m and radius r, with its center of mass out of the cylinder axis, rolling in an incline that makes an angle α respect to the horizontal is analyzed. The equation of motion is solved to obtain the site where the cylinder loses contact with the incline (jumps). Several simplifications are made: the analyzed system consists of an homogeneous disc with a one dimensional straight line of mass parallel to the disc axis at a distance d Styrofoam cylinder of radius r = 10.0 ± 0.05 cm, high h = 5.55 ± 0.05 cm and a mass m1 = 24.45 ± 0.05 g, to which a 9.50 ± 0.01 mm diameter and 5.10 ± 0.001 cm long brass road of mass m2 = 30.75 ± 0.05 g was imbibed parallel to the disc axis at a distance of 5.40 ± 0.05 cm from it. Then the disc rolls on a 3.20 m long wooden ramp inclined at 30 and 45 respect to the horizontal. To determine the jumping site, the movements were recorded with a high-speed video camera (Casio EX ZR100) at 400 frames per second. The experimental results agree well with the theoretical predictions.

  5. Precession of a Spinning Ball Rolling down an Inclined Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2015-01-01

    A routine problem in an introductory physics course considers a rectangular block at rest on a plane inclined at angle a to the horizontal. In order for the block not to slide down the incline, the coefficient of sliding friction, µ, must be at least tan a. The situation is similar for the case of a ball rolling down an inclined plane. In order…

  6. Investigation of the magnetic properties in double perovskite R2CoMnO6 single crystals (R  =  rare earth: La to Lu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M K; Moon, J Y; Choi, H Y; Oh, S H; Lee, N; Choi, Y J

    2015-10-28

    We have successfully synthesized the series of the double-perovskite R2CoMnO6 (R  =  rare earth: La to Lu) single crystals and have investigated their magnetic properties. The ferromagnetic order of Co(2+)/Mn(4+) spins emerges mainly along the c axis. Upon decreasing the size of rare earth ion, the magnetic transition temperature decreases linearly from 204 K for La2CoMnO6 to 48 K for Lu2CoMnO6, along with the enhancement of monoclinic distortion. The temperature and magnetic-field dependences of magnetization reveal the various magnetic characteristics such as the metamagnetic transition in R  =  Eu, the isotropic nature of rare earth moment in R  =  Gd, and the reversal of magnetic anisotropy in R  =  Tb and Dy. Our results offer comprehensive information for understanding the roles of mixed-valent magnetic ions and rare earth magnetic moments on the magnetic properties.

  7. Pool Boiling CHF in Inclined Narrow Annuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Myeong Gie

    2010-01-01

    Pool boiling heat transfer has been studied extensively since it is frequently encountered in various heat transfer equipment. Recently, it has been widely investigated in nuclear power plants for application to the advanced light water reactors designs. Through the review on the published results it can be concluded that knowledge on the combined effects of the surface orientation and a confined space on pool boiling heat transfer is of great practical importance and also of great academic interest. Fujita et al. investigated pool boiling heat transfer, from boiling inception to the critical heat flux (CHF, q' CHF ), in a confined narrow space between heated and unheated parallel rectangular plates. They identified that both the confined space and the surface orientation changed heat transfer much. Kim and Suh changed the surface orientation angles of a downward heating rectangular channel having a narrow gap from the downward-facing position (180 .deg.) to the vertical position (90 .deg.). They observed that the CHF generally decreased as the inclination angle (θ ) increased. Yao and Chang studied pool boiling heat transfer in a confined heat transfer for vertical narrow annuli with closed bottoms. They observed that when the gap size ( s ) of the annulus was decreased the effect of space confinement to boiling heat transfer increased. The CHF was occurred at much lower value for the confined space comparing to the unconfined pool boiling. Pool boiling heat transfer in narrow horizontal annular crevices was studied by Hung and Yao. They concluded that the CHF decreased with decreasing gap size of the annuli and described the importance of the thin film evaporation to explain the lower CHF of narrow crevices. The effect of the inclination angle on the CHF on countercurrent boiling in an inclined uniformly heated tube with closed bottoms was also studied by Liu et al. They concluded that the CHF reduced with the inclination angle decrease. A study was carried out

  8. Impact of slope inclination on salt accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachshon, Uri

    2017-04-01

    Field measurements indicated on high variability in salt accumulation along natural and cultivated slopes, even for relatively homogeneous soil conditions. It was hypothesised that slope inclination has an impact on the location of salt accumulation along the slope. A set of laboratory experiments and numerical models were used to explore the impact of slope inclination on salt accumulation. It was shown, experimentally, that for conditions of saline water source at the lower boundary of the slope - salt accumulates in low concentrations and homogeneously along the entire slope, for moderate slopes. However, as inclination increases high salt concentrations were observed at the upper parts of the slope, leaving the lower parts of the slope relatively free of salt. The traditional flow and transport models did not predict the experimental observations as they indicated also for the moderate slopes on salt accumulation in the elevated parts of the slope, away of the saline water source. Consequently - a conceptual model was raised to explain the laboratory observations. It was suggested that the interactions between slope angle, evaporation rates, hydraulic conductivity of the medium and distribution of wetness along the slope affect the saline water flow path through the medium. This lead to preferential flow path close to the soil-atmosphere interface for the steep slopes, which leads to constant wash of the salts from the evaporation front upward towards the slope upper parts, whereas for the moderate slopes, flow path is below the soil-atmosphere interface, therefore salt that accumulates at the evaporation front is not being transported upward. Understanding of salt dynamics along slopes is important for agricultural and natural environments, as well as for civil engineering purposes. Better understanding of the salt transport processes along slopes will improve our ability to minimize and to cope with soil salinization processes. The laboratory experiments and

  9. Inclined solar chimney for power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panse, S.V., E-mail: sudhirpanse@yahoo.com [Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019 (India); Jadhav, A.S.; Gudekar, A.S. [Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019 (India); Joshi, J.B. [Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Trombay, Mumbai 400 094 (India)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} Solar energy harnessing using inclined face of high mountains as solar chimney. {yields} Solar chimneys with structural stability, ease of construction and lower cost. {yields} Mathematical model developed, using complete (mechanical and thermal) energy balance. {yields} Can harness wind power also, as wind velocities at mountain top add to power output. {yields} Air temperature and velocity increase, as air rises in inclined chimney. - Abstract: The present concept of solar chimney is a tall vertical chimney constructed at the center of a large area, which is the collector. This creates questions about stability and economic viability of the chimney and also demands elaborate engineering techniques for constructing a tall chimney. We suggest geometry of 'Inclined Solar Chimney' (ISC), which is constructed along the face of a high rising mountain, on which maximum solar insolation is incident throughout the year. The chimney and the collector get merged here. This makes the structure stable, cost effective and easy for construction. A mathematical model has been developed considering the total energy balance. It predicts the temperature and velocity and kinetic power of the emerging air draft for some chosen values of other parameters. The model also shows the proportion in which absorbed solar energy is divided into different forms, and hence predicts the dependence of kinetic of emerging air draft upon dimensions of the chimney and properties of materials used. Further, it is shown that external winds enhance the kinetic power of the emerging air. Thus ISC can also harness the wind energy, available at the top of the mountain.

  10. Effect of inclined ribs on heat transfer coefficient in stationary square channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natthaporn Kaewchoothong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to study the effect of rib arrangement on the distributions of the local heat transfer coefficient in a stationary channel. In this study, the ribs with square cross section were used to place on two side walls for study. The rib height-to-hydraulic diameter ratio (e/D h and the rib pitch-to-height (p/e ratio were fixed at 0.133 and 10, respectively. Three different types of rib arrangement for inclined ribs, V-shaped ribs and inverted V-shaped ribs were investigated. The rib angle of attack (α was varied from 30° to 90° for inclined ribs and 45° and 60° for both V-shaped and inverted V-shaped ribs, and compared at constant Reynolds number Re =30000. Thermal Liquid Crystal sheet was applied for evaluating the heat transfer distributions. The results showed that the average Nusselt number on surface with rib inclined angle at 60°, 45°, and 60° V-shaped ribs was improved up to about 20%, 25% and 30% higher than case of angle 90° and the rib inclined angle at 60° V-shaped ribs provided the highest Nusselt number covering largest area when compared to the other cases.

  11. Synthesis, Single Crystal Growth, and Properties of Cobalt Deficient Double Perovskite EuBaCo2−xO6−δ (x = 0–0.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Telegin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The cobalt deficient double perovskites EuBaCo2−xO6−δ with x=0–0.1 were obtained both as powders and as single crystal. Formation of cobalt vacancies in their crystal lattice was shown to be accompanied by the formation of oxygen ones. Chemical lattice strain caused by this cooperative disordering of cobalt and oxygen sublattices was found to be isotropic contrary to that caused by the formation of oxygen vacancies only. Cobalt deficiency was also shown to lead to lowering overall conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of EuBaCo2−xO6−δ double perovskites as a result of simultaneous decrease of charge carriers’ concentration and their mobility as well as number of sites available for electrons and holes transfer. Strong anisotropy of the overall conductivity of the single crystal double perovskites EuBaCo2−xO6−δ was found and explained on the basis of preferential location of oxygen vacancies in the rare-earth-oxygen- (REO- planes.

  12. Effect of Composition Asymmetry on the Phase Separation and Crystallization in Double Crystalline Binary Polymer Blends: A Dynamic Monte Carlo Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasmahapatra, Ashok Kumar

    2017-06-15

    Polymer blends offer an exciting material for various potential applications due to their tunable properties by varying constituting components and their relative composition. Our simulation results unravel an intrinsic relationship between crystallization behavior and composition asymmetry. We report simulation results for nonisothermal and isothermal crystallization with weak and strong segregation strength to elucidate the composition dependent crystallization behavior. With increasing composition of low melting B-polymer, macrophase separation temperature changes nonmonotonically, which is attributed to the nonmonotonic change in diffusivity of both polymers. In weak segregation strength, however, at high enough composition of B-polymer, A-polymer yields relatively thicker crystals, which is attributed to the dilution effect exhibited by B-polymer. When B-polymer composition is high enough, it acts like a "solvent" while A-polymer crystallizes. Under this situation, A-polymer segments become more mobile and less facile to crystallize. As a result, A-polymer crystallizes at a relatively low temperature with the formation of thicker crystals. At strong segregation strength, the dilution effect is accompanied by the strong A-B repulsive interaction, which is reflected in a nonmonotonic trend of the mean square radius of gyration with the increasing composition of the B-polymer. Isothermal crystallization also reveals a strong nonmonotonic relationship between composition and crystallization behavior. Two-step, compared to one-step, isothermal crystallization yields better crystals for both polymers.

  13. Dense, layered, inclined flows of spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, James T.; Larcher, Michele

    2017-12-01

    We consider dense, inclined flows of spheres in which the particles translate in layers, whose existence may be promoted by the presence of a rigid base and/or sidewalls. We imagine that in such flows a sphere of a layer is forced up the back of a sphere of the layer below, lifting a column of spheres above it, and then falls down the front of the lower sphere, until it bumps against the preceding sphere of the lower layer. We calculate the forces and rate of momentum transfer associated with this process of rub, lift, fall, and bump and determine a relation between the ratio of shear stress to normal stress and the rate of strain that may be integrated to obtain the velocity profile. The fall of a sphere and that of the column above it results in a linear increase in the magnitude of the velocity fluctuations with distance from the base of the flow. We compare the predictions of the model with measured profiles of velocity and granular temperature in several different dense, inclined flows.

  14. On liquid films on an inclined plate

    KAUST Repository

    BENILOV, E. S.

    2010-08-18

    This paper examines two related problems from liquid-film theory. Firstly, a steady-state flow of a liquid film down a pre-wetted plate is considered, in which there is a precursor film in front of the main film. Assuming the former to be thin, a full asymptotic description of the problem is developed and simple analytical estimates for the extent and depth of the precursor film\\'s influence on the main film are provided. Secondly, the so-called drag-out problem is considered, where an inclined plate is withdrawn from a pool of liquid. Using a combination of numerical and asymptotic means, the parameter range where the classical Landau-Levich-Wilson solution is not unique is determined. © 2010 Cambridge University Press.

  15. Granular flow over inclined channels with constrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunuguntla, Deepak; Weinhart, Thomas; Thornton, Anthony; Bokhove, Onno

    2013-04-01

    Study of granular flows down inclined channels is essential in understanding the dynamics of natural grain flows like landslides and snow avalanches. As a stepping stone, dry granular flow over an inclined channel with a localised constriction is investigated using both continuum methods and particle simulations. Initially, depth-averaged equations of motion (Savage & Hutter 1989) containing an unknown friction law are considered. The shallow-layer model for granular flows is closed with a friction law obtained from particle simulations of steady flows (Weinhart et al. 2012) undertaken in the open source package Mercury DPM (Mercury 2010). The closed two-dimensional (2D) shallow-layer model is then width-averaged to obtain a novel one-dimensional (1D) model which is an extension of the one for water flows through contraction (Akers & Bokhove 2008). Different flow states are predicted by this novel one-dimensional theory. Flow regimes with distinct flow states are determined as a function of upstream channel Froude number, F, and channel width ratio, Bc. The latter being the ratio of the channel exit width and upstream channel width. Existence of multiple steady states is predicted in a certain regime of F - Bc parameter plane which is in agreement with experiments previously undertaken by (Akers & Bokhove 2008) and for granular flows (Vreman et al. 2007). Furthermore, the 1D model is verified by solving the 2D shallow granular equations using an open source discontinuous Galerkin finite element package hpGEM (Pesch et al. 2007). For supercritical flows i.e. F > 1 the 1D asymptotics holds although the two-dimensional oblique granular jumps largely vary across the converging channel. This computationally efficient closed 1D model is validated by comparing it to the computationally more expensiveaa three-dimensional particle simulations. Finally, we aim to present a quasi-steady particle simulation of inclined flow through two rectangular blocks separated by a gap

  16. Inclined Buildings – Some Reasons and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijanka, Małgorzata; Kowalska, Magdalena

    2017-10-01

    To straighten a leaning building is never easy. There are no standard solutions. On the other hand, there are several, usually historical, leaning structures which have not been rectified, mostly because in the current shape they are a touristic attraction - the best example being the famous Leaning Tower of Pisa. This does not mean however that inclination of load bearing walls can be ignored. Even though in some cases the problem can be treated in terms of serviceability limit states (the deformation is only decreasing the comfort of ‘normal use’ of the building), in the other – it may be a signal of the forthcoming structural failure. The situation must always be treated individually – if the problem concerns a residential building, then cracks on the walls, not-opening doors or tilted ceilings, which often coincide with the leaning of the external walls, are always the reason of worry and such a building needs to be straightened. The reasons of the problem lie usually in uneven settlement of the ground, which in turn, may be caused by various problems, such as the presence of too soft, too weak, unconsolidated or expansive soils under the building, varying groundwater table, mining activity etc. Solving of the problem by just straightening the building is often not enough. To prevent further deformations a detailed analysis of the possible causes is necessary. Sometimes it may be helpful to review similar cases. The paper contains a general overview of selected inclined buildings: starting with the well-known historical examples and ending with individual houses from the Region of Silesia. Since the problem of instability mostly affects structures with critical height to width ratio, tall and narrow structures (towers) are dominating in the work. The aim of the study was to describe the reasons of the problems and present solutions that have been successfully applied and can be also useful to engineers and designers to prevent similar situations.

  17. Impinging Water Droplets on Inclined Glass Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armijo, Kenneth Miguel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lance, Blake [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ho, Clifford K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Multiphase computational models and tests of falling water droplets on inclined glass surfaces were developed to investigate the physics of impingement and potential of these droplets to self-clean glass surfaces for photovoltaic modules and heliostats. A multiphase volume-of-fluid model was developed in ANSYS Fluent to simulate the impinging droplets. The simulations considered different droplet sizes (1 mm and 3 mm), tilt angles (0°, 10°, and 45°), droplet velocities (1 m/s and 3 m/s), and wetting characteristics (wetting=47° contact angle and non-wetting = 93° contact angle). Results showed that the spread factor (maximum droplet diameter during impact divided by the initial droplet diameter) decreased with increasing inclination angle due to the reduced normal force on the surface. The hydrophilic surface yielded greater spread factors than the hydrophobic surface in all cases. With regard to impact forces, the greater surface tilt angles yielded lower normal forces, but higher shear forces. Experiments showed that the experimentally observed spread factor (maximum droplet diameter during impact divided by the initial droplet diameter) was significantly larger than the simulated spread factor. Observed spread factors were on the order of 5 - 6 for droplet velocities of ~3 m/s, whereas the simulated spread factors were on the order of 2. Droplets were observed to be mobile following impact only for the cases with 45° tilt angle, which matched the simulations. An interesting phenomenon that was observed was that shortly after being released from the nozzle, the water droplet oscillated (like a trampoline) due to the "snapback" caused by the surface tension of the water droplet being released from the nozzle. This oscillation impacted the velocity immediately after the release. Future work should evaluate the impact of parameters such as tilt angle and surface wettability on the impact of particle/soiling uptake and removal to investigate ways that

  18. Psychosocial Determinants of Romantic Inclination Among Indian Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Barani Ganth

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted with the aim of understanding the psychosocial determinants of romantic inclination among youth in India. We involved 779 student participants from a large central university in south India in the age range of 18-24 years. The participants filled measures on romantic inclination, personality, attachment style, interpersonal attraction, and social influence on romantic relationship in addition to a questionnaire on demographic information and relationship history. Analysis of the data revealed that males showed higher level of romantic inclination than females. Those who had current/past involvement in a romantic relationship (Lovers showed higher levels of romantic inclination than those who had never involved in a romantic relationship (Non-lovers. Parents’ type of marriage (Love/arranged, close fiends’ involvement in romantic relationship too had a discriminatory role in romantic inclination. Romantic inclination was significantly related to personality factors, attachment style, media and peer influences on romantic relationships and interpersonal attraction. Extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, media influence, peer influence, secure attachment and physical attraction emerged as significant predictors of romantic inclination in a regression model. Structural Equations Modeling (SEM indicated that personality, attachment style and interpersonal attraction had a significant influence on romantic inclination mediated by both media and peer influences. Romantic inclination in turn significantly predicted romantic relationship status.

  19. Impact of flow inclination on downwind turbine loads and power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, C.; Chokani, N.; Abhari, R. S.; Hashimoto, T.; Watanabe, M.; Sano, T.; Saeki, M.

    2016-09-01

    Wind turbines frequently operate under situations of pronounced flow inclinations, such as in complex terrain. In the present work the performance and rotor thrust of downwind and upwind turbines in upward and downward flow inclinations are experimentally investigated. In an upward flow inclination of +13°, downwind turbines are shown to have a 29% larger power output than a corresponding upwind turbine, whereas the relative increase in rotor thrust is only 9%. Furthermore, it is also shown that the performance of downwind turbines is less sensitive to changes in the flow inclination, as the upstream nacelle on downwind turbines beneficially redirects and accelerates the flow around the nacelle into the rotor plane.

  20. The Gothic arch (needle point) tracing and condylar inclination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Gheriani, A S; Winstanley, R B

    1987-11-01

    The records of 11 patients referred for treatment of TMJ disorders were used to compare condylar inclination found by drawing a tangent and by using a mathematic technique. Needle point tracing angles were also measured for the same patients and were compared with the condylar inclination. It can be concluded that (1) the mathematic technique outlined records a more accurate condylar angulation, and (2) there is a great variation in condylar inclination values between patients and between left and right sides of the same patient, and (3) there is no direct relationship between condylar inclination and the needle point tracing angle.

  1. Simulation of Canopy Leaf Inclination Angle in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-cui ZHANG

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A leaf inclination angle distribution model, which is applicable to simulate leaf inclination angle distribution in six heights of layered canopy at different growth stages, was established by component factors affecting plant type in rice. The accuracy of the simulation results was validated by measured values from a field experiment. The coefficient of determination (R2 and the root mean square error (RMSE between the simulated and measured values were 0.9472 and 3.93%, respectively. The simulation results showed that the distribution of leaf inclination angles differed among the three plant types. The leaf inclination angles were larger in the compact variety Liangyoupeijiu with erect leaves than in the loose variety Shanyou 63 with droopy leaves and the intermediate variety Liangyou Y06. The leaf inclination angles were distributed in the lower range in Shanyou 63, which matched up with field measurements. The distribution of leaf inclination angles in the same variety changed throughout the seven growth stages. The leaf inclination angles enlarged gradually from transplanting to booting. During the post-booting period, the leaf inclination angle increased in Shanyou 63 and Liangyou Y06, but changed little in Liangyoupeijiu. At every growth stage of each variety, canopy leaf inclination angle distribution on the six heights of canopy layers was variable. As canopy height increased, the layered leaf area index (LAI decreased in all the three plant types. However, while the leaf inclination angles showed little change in Liangyoupeijiu, they became larger in Shanyou 63 but smaller in Liangyou Y06. The simulation results used in the constructed model were very similar to the actual measurement values. The model provides a method for estimating canopy leaf inclination angle distribution in rice production.

  2. Entrepreneurial inclinations of women from rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković-Savić Olivera S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurial inclinations of women from rural areas are shaped by the lack of business ideas and economic capital, which, in addition to financial resources, includes cultural capital in the form of knowledge and skills. The paper presents a part of a broader study on the social position of women from the rural areas of northern Kosovo and Metohija, conducted in 2013. The research was predominantly focused on entrepreneurial inclinations of rural women, and the findings suggest that private enterprise in the studied population is undeveloped as a result of two dominant reasons. The first reason is the situation which is unfavorable in terms of politics and security, and therefore, not conducive to investment security, together with the specificity in the form of complex administrative business conditions requiring compliance to parallel and mutually incompatible standards (of the Republic of Serbia and of the UNMIK administration. The second important reason for the lack of entrepreneurial initiatives is the lack of ownership of property and the means of production, since banks do not give loans without guarantees in the form of ownership of the mortgage, while other forms of financial incentives are unavailable. The respondents attended programs for acquiring new knowledge and skills only in a small number of cases, while showing the greatest susceptibility to education in traditional skills, such as training in agriculture and handicrafts, which are not the skills in line with the needs of the labor market. As the most important reasons that -prevent them from having their own business, the respondents -mentioned: the lack of ideas and the lack of financial resources. In this regard, they would find incentives in the form of grants most helpful to start their own business. The absence of funds and gender inequality form the basis for the lack of ownership of property and means of production. In addition to the shortage of financial

  3. Shallow bias in Mediterranean paleomagnetic directions caused by inclination error

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijgsman, W.; Tauxe, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    A variety of paleomagnetic data from the Mediterranean region show a strong bias toward shallow inclinations. This pattern of shallow inclinations has been interpreted to be the result of (1) major northward terrane displacement, (2) large nondipole components in the Earth’s magnetic field, and

  4. Analysis of deformation due to inclined load in generalized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present investigation deals with study of deformation in homogeneous, isotropic thermodiffusion elastic half-space as a result of inclined load. The inclined load is assumed to be a linear combination of normal load and tangential load. The integral transform technique is used to solve the problem. As an application of ...

  5. 46 CFR 58.01-40 - Machinery, angles of inclination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery, angles of inclination. 58.01-40 Section 58.01-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-40 Machinery, angles of inclination. (a) Propulsion machinery and all auxiliary...

  6. A jig for measuring incisor inclination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, N; Spary, D J; Rock, W P

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was to design and construct a jig for measuring the inclination of the upper incisors to the maxillary plane and of the lower incisors to the mandibular plane. After several prototypes had been tested, the required properties for a successful jig were identified and a simple inexpensive device was produced. Measurements obtained when using the jig on 51 subjects were compared with cephalometric values by means of regression analysis. This revealed that measurements obtained using the jig against the upper and then the lower incisor crowns could be converted to cephalometric incisor angulations with 96 per cent accuracy to 10 degrees, by adding 23 and 3 degrees, respectively. The jig was accurate to 5 degrees on 69 per cent of occasions for the upper teeth. The 5 degrees accuracy with the lower incisors was only 27 per cent, although over a 6 degree range it improved to 78 per cent. For upper and lower tooth measurements combined, the jig was accurate to within 6 degrees on 75 per cent of occasions.

  7. Inclined asymmetric librations in exterior resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyatzis, G.; Tsiganis, K.; Antoniadou, K. I.

    2018-04-01

    Librational motion in Celestial Mechanics is generally associated with the existence of stable resonant configurations and signified by the existence of stable periodic solutions and oscillation of critical (resonant) angles. When such an oscillation takes place around a value different than 0 or π , the libration is called asymmetric. In the context of the planar circular restricted three-body problem, asymmetric librations have been identified for the exterior mean motion resonances (MMRs) 1:2, 1:3, etc., as well as for co-orbital motion (1:1). In exterior MMRs the massless body is the outer one. In this paper, we study asymmetric librations in the three-dimensional space. We employ the computational approach of Markellos (Mon Not R Astron Soc 184:273-281, https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/184.2.273, 1978) and compute families of asymmetric periodic orbits and their stability. Stable asymmetric periodic orbits are surrounded in phase space by domains of initial conditions which correspond to stable evolution and librating resonant angles. Our computations were focused on the spatial circular restricted three-body model of the Sun-Neptune-TNO system (TNO = trans-Neptunian object). We compare our results with numerical integrations of observed TNOs, which reveal that some of them perform 1:2 resonant, inclined asymmetric librations. For the stable 1:2 TNO librators, we find that their libration seems to be related to the vertically stable planar asymmetric orbits of our model, rather than the three-dimensional ones found in the present study.

  8. Development of locomotion over inclined surfaces in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, C; Tobalske, B; Bowley, S; Harlander-Matauschek, A

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate locomotor strategies during development in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus); we were motivated, in part, by current efforts to improve the design of housing systems for laying hens which aim to reduce injury and over-exertion. Using four strains of laying hens (Lohmann Brown, Lohmann LSL lite, Dekalb White and Hyline Brown) throughout this longitudinal study, we investigated their locomotor style and climbing capacity in relation to the degree (0 to 70°) of incline, age (2 to 36 weeks) and the surface substrate (sandpaper or wire grid). Chicks and adult fowl performed only walking behavior to climb inclines ⩽40° and performed a combination of wing-assisted incline running (WAIR) or aerial ascent on steeper inclines. Fewer birds used their wings to aid their hind limbs when climbing 50° inclines on wire grid surface compared with sandpaper. The steepness of angle achieved during WAIR and the tendency to fly instead of using WAIR increased with increasing age and experience. White-feathered strains performed more wing-associated locomotor behavior compared with brown-feathered strains. A subset of birds was never able to climb incline angles >40° even when using WAIR. Therefore, we suggest that inclines of up to 40° should be provided for hens in three-dimensional housing systems, which are easily negotiated (without wing use) by chicks and adult fowl.

  9. Natural Circulation Characteristics of a Symmetric Loop under Inclined Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingtuan Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural circulation is an important process for primary loops of some marine integrated reactors. The reactor works under inclined conditions when severe accidents happen to the ship. In this paper, to investigate the characteristics of natural circulation, experiments were conducted in a symmetric loop under the inclined angle of 0~45°. A CFD model was also set up to predict the behaviors of the loop beyond the experimental scope. Total circulation flow rate decreases with the increase of inclined angle. Meanwhile one circulation is depressed while the other is enhanced, and accordingly the disparity between the branch circulations arises and increases with the increase of inclined angle. Circulation only takes place in one branch circuit at large inclined angle. Also based on the CFD model, the influences of flow resistance distribution and loop configuration on natural circulation are predicted. The numerical results show that to design the loop with the configuration of big altitude difference and small width, it is favorable to reduce the influence of inclination; however too small loop width will cause severe reduction of circulation ability at large angle inclination.

  10. Hydrothermal crystal growth and structure determination of double hydroxides LiSb(OH)₆, BaSn(OH)₆, and SrSn(OH)₆.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoguchi, Hiroshi; Bhuvanesh, Nattamai S P; Kim, Young-Il; Ohara, Satoshi; Woodward, Patrick M

    2014-10-06

    Colorless single crystals of LiSb(OH)6, SrSn(OH)6, and BaSn(OH)6, which are useful as precursors for the synthesis of LiSbO3, SrSnO3, and BaSnO3, were synthesized by a low-temperature hydrothermal method using a Teflon-lined autoclave at 380 K. The crystal structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction measurements. LiSb(OH)6 crystallizes in the trigonal space group P3̅1m with a = 5.3812(3)A, c = 9.8195(7)A, V = 246.25(3)A(3), Z = 2. In this layered structure, [Li2Sb(OH)6](+) and [Sb(OH)6](-) layers are alternately stacked along the c-direction. The [Li2Sb(OH)6](+) layer can be regarded as a cation-ordered CdCl2 layer. The [Sb(OH)6)](-) layer is built up from isolated [Sb(OH)6](-) octahedra, which are linked to each other via hydrogen bonding within the layer. BaSn(OH)6 and SrSn(OH)6 crystallize with monoclinic P21/n space group symmetry. The monoclinic structure possesses a CsCl-type packing of Ba(2+)/Sr(2+) cations and [Sn(OH)6](2-) anions. The [Sn(OH)6](2-) polyhedra are connected to each other through hydrogen bonding to form a three-dimensional framework. The factors that favor these hitherto unknown crystal structures are discussed using a structure map that compares various M(OH)3 and M'M″(OH)6 compounds.

  11. Aqua/Aura Spring 2017 Inclination Adjust Maneuver Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Thomas; Stezelberger, Shane

    2017-01-01

    This will be presented at the International Earth Science Constellation Mission Operations Working Group meeting June 13-15, 2017 to discuss the AquaAura Spring 2017 Inclination Adjust Maneuver series.

  12. Systems of pillarless working of adjacent, sloped and inclined seams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batmanov, Yu.K.; Bakhtin, A.F.; Bulavka, E.I.

    1979-01-01

    An analysis is made (advantages and disadvantages) of existing and recommended (pillarless) systems of working adjacent, sloped, and inclined seams. The economic benefits, area and extent of those systems are indicated. 8 references, 4 figures.

  13. Psychosocial Determinants of Romantic Inclination Among Indian Youth

    OpenAIRE

    D. Barani Ganth; S. Kadhiravan

    2017-01-01

    The present study was conducted with the aim of understanding the psychosocial determinants of romantic inclination among youth in India. We involved 779 student participants from a large central university in south India in the age range of 18-24 years. The participants filled measures on romantic inclination, personality, attachment style, interpersonal attraction, and social influence on romantic relationship in addition to a questionnaire on demographic information and relationship histor...

  14. Trunk muscle activity with different sitting postures and pelvic inclination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masahiro; Kaneoka, Koji; Wada, Yusuke; Matsui, Yasushi; Miyakawa, Shumpei

    2014-01-01

    Sitting posture may often place large burden on trunk muscles, while trunk muscle activities in the sitting posture have not been well clarified. In this study, a difference in trunk muscle activity between two kinds of sitting postures was evaluated, focusing on low back pain induced by posture holding. An experiment was conducted on the subjects sitting on a stable-seat and on an unstable-seat, with the pelvis inclined forward, backward, rightward, and leftward. With the pelvis inclined forward, rightward and leftward, muscle activities were significantly increased in a stable-seat sitting posture. In contrast, no significant increase in muscle activity was observed with the pelvis inclined in every direction in an unstable-seat sitting posture. With the pelvis inclined in the stable-seat sitting posture, muscle activities were imbalanced, while with the pelvis inclined in the unstable-seat sitting posture, muscle activities were not imbalanced. Thus, it is suggested that with the pelvis inclined to the maximum extent in the stable-seat sitting posture, low back pain may be induced by imbalanced muscle activities.

  15. Inclination evolution of protoplanetary discs around eccentric binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanazzi, J. J.; Lai, Dong

    2018-01-01

    It is usually thought that viscous torque works to align a circumbinary disc with the binary's orbital plane. However, recent numerical simulations suggest that the disc may evolve to a configuration perpendicular to the binary orbit ('polar alignment) if the binary is eccentric and the initial disc-binary inclination is sufficiently large. We carry out a theoretical study on the long-term evolution of inclined discs around eccentric binaries, calculating the disc warp profile and dissipative torque acting on the disc. For discs with aspect ratio H/r larger than the viscosity parameter α, bending wave propagation effectively makes the disc precess as a quasi-rigid body, while viscosity acts on the disc warp and twist to drive secular evolution of the disc-binary inclination. We derive a simple analytic criterion (in terms of the binary eccentricity and initial disc orientation) for the disc to evolve towards polar alignment with the eccentric binary. When the disc has a non-negligible angular momentum compared to the binary, the final 'polar alignment' inclination angle is reduced from 90°. For typical protoplanetary disc parameters, the time-scale of the inclination evolution is shorter than the disc lifetime, suggesting that highly inclined discs and planets may exist orbiting eccentric binaries.

  16. Thermo-economic performance of inclined solar water distillation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agboola Phillips O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the thermo-economic performance of different configurations of inclined solar water desalination for parameters such as daily production, efficiency, system cost and distilled water production cost. The four different configurations considered for this study are as follows; 1. Inclined solar water distillation with bare absorber plate (IISWD with daily production of 5.46 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency of 48.3%. 2. Inclined solar water distillation with wick on absorber plate (IISWDW with daily production of 6.41kg/m2 day and daily efficiency 50.3%. 3. Inclined solar water distillation with wire mesh on absorber plate (IISWDWM with daily production n of 3.03 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency 32.6%. 4. Inclined solar water distillation with bare absorber plate (ISWD. (Control System with daily production of 3.25 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency of 40.1%. The systems potable water cost price ranges from 0.03 $/L for IISWDW to 0.06$/L for IISWDWM System. All the systems are economically and technically feasible as a solar distillation system for potable water in Northern Cyprus. The price of potable water from water vendors/hawkers ranges from 0.11-0.16 $/L. It is more economically viable to have the rooftop inclined solar water desalination system than procuring potable water from vendors.`

  17. TRANSIT TIMING VARIATIONS FOR INCLINED AND RETROGRADE EXOPLANETARY SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, Matthew J.; Ford, Eric B.; Veras, Dimitri

    2010-01-01

    We perform numerical calculations of the expected transit timing variations (TTVs) induced on a hot-Jupiter by an Earth-mass perturber. Motivated by the recent discoveries of retrograde transiting planets, we concentrate on an investigation of the effect of varying relative planetary inclinations, up to and including completely retrograde systems. We find that planets in low-order (e.g., 2:1) mean-motion resonances (MMRs) retain approximately constant TTV amplitudes for 0 deg. 170 deg. Systems in higher order MMRs (e.g., 5:1) increase in TTV amplitude as inclinations increase toward 45 deg., becoming approximately constant for 45 deg. 135 deg. Planets away from resonance slowly decrease in TTV amplitude as inclinations increase from 0 deg. to 180 deg., whereas planets adjacent to resonances can exhibit a huge range of variability in TTV amplitude as a function of both eccentricity and inclination. For highly retrograde systems (135 deg. < i ≤ 180 deg.), TTV signals will be undetectable across almost the entirety of parameter space, with the exceptions occurring when the perturber has high eccentricity or is very close to an MMR. This high inclination decrease in TTV amplitude (on and away from resonance) is important for the analysis of the known retrograde and multi-planet transiting systems, as inclination effects need to be considered if TTVs are to be used to exclude the presence of any putative planetary companions: absence of evidence is not evidence of absence.

  18. Beam tests of proton-irradiated PbWO$_4$ crystals and evaluation of double-sided read-out technique for mitigation of radiation damage effects

    CERN Document Server

    Lucchini, Marco Toliman

    2016-01-01

    The harsh radiation environment in which detectors will have to operate during the High Luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC) represents a crucial challenge for many calorimeter technologies. In the CMS forward calorimeters, ionizing doses and hadron fluences will reach up to 300 kGy (at a dose rate of 30 Gy/h) and $2\\times10^{14}$ cm$^{-2}$, respectively, at the pseudorapidity region of $\\lvert \\eta\\rvert=2.6$. To evaluate the evolution of the CMS ECAL performance in such conditions, a set of PbWO$_4$ crystals, exposed to 24 GeV protons up to integrated fluences between $2.1\\times10^{13}$ cm$^{-2}$ and $1.3\\times10^{14}$ cm$^{-2}$, has been studied in beam tests. A degradation of the energy resolution and a non-linear response to electron showers are observed in damaged crystals. Direct measurements of the light output from the crystals show the amplitude decreasing and pulse becoming faster as the fluence increases. The evolution of the performance of the PbWO$_4$ crystals has been well understood and parame...

  19. High-pressure synthesis, crystal structures, and magnetic properties of 5d double-perovskite oxides Ca2MgOsO6 and Sr2MgOsO6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yahua; Feng, Hai L; Ghimire, Madhav Prasad; Matsushita, Yoshitaka; Tsujimoto, Yoshihiro; He, Jianfeng; Tanaka, Masahiko; Katsuya, Yoshio; Yamaura, Kazunari

    2015-04-06

    Double-perovskite oxides Ca2MgOsO6 and Sr2MgOsO6 have been synthesized under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions (6 GPa and 1500 °C). Their crystal structures and magnetic properties were studied by a synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiment and by magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, isothermal magnetization, and electrical resistivity measurements. Ca2MgOsO6 and Sr2MgOsO6 crystallized in monoclinic (P21/n) and tetragonal (I4/m) double-perovskite structures, respectively; the degree of order of the Os and Mg arrangement was 96% or higher. Although Ca2MgOsO6 and Sr2MgOsO6 are isoelectric, a magnetic-glass transition was observed for Ca2MgOsO6 at 19 K, while Sr2MgOsO6 showed an antiferromagnetic transition at 110 K. The antiferromagnetic-transition temperature is the highest in the family. A first-principles density functional approach revealed that Ca2MgOsO6 and Sr2MgOsO6 are likely to be antiferromagnetic Mott insulators in which the band gaps open, with Coulomb correlations of ∼1.8-3.0 eV. These compounds offer a better opportunity for the clarification of the basis of 5d magnetic sublattices, with regard to the possible use of perovskite-related oxides in multifunctional devices. The double-perovskite oxides Ca2MgOsO6 and Sr2MgOsO6 are likely to be Mott insulators with a magnetic-glass (MG) transition at ∼19 K and an antiferromagnetic (AFM) transition at ∼110 K, respectively. This AFM transition temperature is the highest among double-perovskite oxides containing single magnetic sublattices. Thus, these compounds offer valuable opportunities for studying the magnetic nature of 5d perovskite-related oxides, with regard to their possible use in multifunctional devices.

  20. Evaluation of performance of veterinary in-clinic hematology analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishniw, Mark; Pion, Paul D

    2016-12-01

    A previous study provided information regarding the quality of in-clinic veterinary biochemistry testing. However, no similar studies for in-clinic veterinary hematology testing have been conducted. The objective of this study was to assess the quality of hematology testing in veterinary in-clinic laboratories using results obtained from testing 3 levels of canine EDTA blood samples. Clinicians prepared blood samples to achieve measurand concentrations within, below, and above their RIs and evaluated the samples in triplicate using their in-clinic analyzers. Quality was assessed by comparison of calculated total error with quality requirements, determination of sigma metrics, use of a quality goal index, and agreement between in-clinic and reference laboratory instruments. Suitability for statistical quality control was determined using adaptations from the computerized program, EZRules3. Evaluation of 10 veterinary in-clinic hematology analyzers showed that these instruments often fail to meet quality requirements. At least 60% of analyzers reasonably determined RBC, WBC, HCT, and HGB, when assessed by most quality goal criteria; platelets were less reliably measured, with 80% deemed suitable for low platelet counts, but only 30% for high platelet counts, and automated differential leukocyte counts were generally considered unsuitable for clinical use with fewer than 40% of analyzers meeting the least stringent quality goal requirements. Fewer than 50% of analyzers were able to meet requirements for statistical quality control for any measurand. These findings reflect the current status of in-clinic hematology analyzer performance and provide a basis for future evaluations of the quality of veterinary laboratory testing. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  1. Structural equation modeling for alteration of occlusal plane inclination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeta, Yuko; Ogawa, Takumi; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Ando, Eriko; Hirabayashi, Rio; Ikawa, Tomoko

    2015-07-01

    Occlusal plane inclination is important to maintain a normal opening closing/biting function. However, there can be several causes that lead to alterations of the occlusal plane. The purpose of this study was to observe variations of occlusal plane inclination in adult patients, and to uncover the factors affecting changes in occlusal plane inclination with aging. Subjects were 143 patients. A cephalometric image was taken of these patients. In this study, our inquiry points were age, 3 variables on intra-oral findings, and 7 variables on cephalometric analysis. To evaluate the possible causes that affect occlusal plane inclination, factor analysis was carried out, and each component was treated as factors, which were then statistically applied to a structural equation model. Statistical analysis was carried out through the SPSS 20.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, USA). In all patients, Camper-occlusal plane angle (COA) ranged from -25.7 to -4.9° (Mean±SD: -6.4±5.36). In the 60 patients who had no missing teeth, COA ranged from -11.6 to -4.9° (Mean±SD: -3.3±3.31). From the results of the structural analysis, it was suggested that the occlusal plane changes to counter-clockwise (on the right lateral cephalograms) with aging. In this study, variations of occlusal plane inclination in adult patients were observed, and the factors affecting changes in occlusal plane inclination with aging were investigated via factor analysis. From our results, it was suggested that the mandibular morphology change and loss of teeth with aging influence occlusal plane inclination. Copyright © 2015 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Microphase separated structures in the solid and molten states of double-crystal graft copolymers of polyethylene and poly(ethylene oxide)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark, P.R.; Murthy, N.S.; Weigand, S.; Breitenkamp, K.; Kade, M.; Emrick, T. (Vermont); (NWU); (UMASS, Amherst)

    2008-08-26

    Transitions from one microphase separated structure in the solid state to a different one in the molten state in polyethylene-graft-poly(ethylene oxide) copolymers, PE-g-PEO, were investigated by variable temperature X-ray scattering measurements and thermal analyses. Small-angle X-ray scattering patterns from polymers with PEO grafts with 25, 50 and 100 ethylene oxide (EO) units show that the polymer passes through three distinct structures at {approx}10 nm length scales with increase in temperature (T): lamellar structures of PE and PEO at T < T{sub m}{sup PEO}, PE lamellae surrounded by molten PEO at T{sub m}{sup PEO} < T < T{sub m}{sup PE}, and microphase separated structures at T > T{sub m}{sup PE} when both PE and PEO are molten (T{sub m} refers to the melting temperature). These phase transformations also occur during cooling but with hysteresis. Crystalline phases of PEO side chains and PE main chains could be identified in the wide-angle X-ray diffraction profiles indicating that the PE backbone and PEO grafts crystallize into separate domains, especially with longer grafted chains (50 and 100 units). At EO segment lengths >50, PEO shows the expected increase in melting and crystallization temperatures with the increase in the grafted chain length. PE does not affect T{sub m}{sup PEO} but does decrease the onset of crystallization upon cooling. PEO grafts result in fractionation of PE, decrease the melting point of PE and increase the undercooling for the onset of crystallization of PE.

  3. Electron spin resonance and E.N.D.O.R. double resonance study of free radicals produced by gamma irradiation of imidazole single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamotte, B.

    1970-01-01

    Gamma irradiation of imidazole single crystals at 300 deg. K gives two radicals. Identification and detailed studies of their electronic and geometric structure have been made by ESR and ENDOR techniques. A study of the hydrogen bonded protons hyperfine tensor is made and let us conclude to the inexistence of movement and tunneling of these protons. The principal low temperature radical, produced by gamma irradiation at 77 deg. K has been also studied by ESR and a model has been proposed. (author) [fr

  4. On the La.sub.2-x./sub.Sr.sub.x./sub.CoRuO.sub.6./sub. double perovskites: crystal structure, magnetic properties and transport

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomeš, P.; Hejtmánek, Jiří; Knížek, Karel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 4 (2008), s. 486-490 ISSN 1293-2558 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0051 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : double perovskite La 2-x Sr x CoRuO 6 * magnetic interactions * charge carrier transport Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.742, year: 2008

  5. Instability timescale for the inclination instability in the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zderic, Alexander; Madigan, Ann-Marie; Fleisig, Jacob

    2018-04-01

    The gravitational influence of small bodies is often neglected in the study of solar system dynamics. However, this is not always an appropriate assumption. For example, mutual secular torques between low mass particles on eccentric orbits can result in a self-gravity instability (`inclination instability'; Madigan & McCourt 2016). During the instability, inclinations increase exponentially, eccentricities decrease (detachment), and orbits cluster in argument of perihelion. In the solar system, the orbits of the most distant objects show all three of these characteristics (high inclination: Volk & Malhotra (2017), detachment: Delsanti & Jewitt (2006), and argument of perihelion clustering: Trujillo & Sheppard (2014)). The inclination instability is a natural explanation for these phenomena.Unfortunately, full N-body simulations of the solar system are unfeasible (N ≈ O(1012)), and the behavior of the instability depends on N, prohibiting the direct application of lower N simulations. Here we present the instability timescale's functional dependence on N, allowing us to extrapolate our simulation results to that appropriate for the solar system. We show that ~5 MEarth of small icy bodies in the Sedna region is sufficient for the inclination instability to occur in the outer solar system.

  6. Influence of occlusal plane inclination and mandibular deviation on esthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corte, Cristiane Cherobini Dalla; Silveira, Bruno Lopes da; Marquezan, Mariana

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the degree of perception of occlusal plane inclination and mandibular deviation in facial esthetics, assessed by laypeople, dentists and orthodontists. A woman with 5.88° of inclination and 5.54 mm of mandibular deviation was selected and, based on her original photograph, four new images were created correcting the deviations and creating more symmetric faces and smiles. Examiners assessed the images by means of a questionnaire. Their opinions were compared by qualitative and quantitative analyses. A total of 45 laypeople, 27 dentists and 31 orthodontists filled out the questionnaires. All groups were able to perceive the asymmetry; however, orthodontists were more sensitive, identifying asymmetries as from 4.32° of occlusal plane inclination and 4.155 mm of mandibular deviation (pocclusal plane inclination and 5.54 mm of mandibular deviation (pOcclusal plane inclination and mandibular deviation were perceived by all groups, but orthodontists presented higher perception of deviations.

  7. Droplet Depinning on Inclined Surfaces at High Reynolds Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Edward; Singh, Natasha; Lee, Sungyon

    2017-11-01

    Contact angle hysteresis enables a sessile liquid drop to adhere to a solid surface when the surface is inclined, the drop is exposed to gas-phase flow, or the drop is exposed to both forcing modalities. Previous work by Schmucker and White (2012.DFD.M4.6) identified critical depinning Weber numbers for water drops subject to gravity- and wind-dominated forcing. This work extends the Schmucker and White data and finds the critical depinning Weber number obeys a two-slope linear model. Under pure wind forcing at Reynolds numbers above 1500 and with zero surface inclination, Wecrit = 8.0 . For non-zero inclinations, α, Wecrit decreases proportionally to A Bo sinα where A is the drop aspect ratio and Bo is its Bond number. The same relationship holds for α behavior. Supported by the National Science Foundation through Grant CBET-1605947.

  8. Natural Frequencies and Mode Shapes of Statically Deformed Inclined Risers

    KAUST Repository

    Alfosail, Feras

    2016-10-15

    We investigate numerically the linear vibrations of inclined risers using the Galerkin approach. The riser is modeled as an Euler-Bernoulli beam accounting for the nonlinear mid-plane stretching and self-weight. After solving for the initial deflection of the riser due to self-weight, we use a Galerkin expansion employing 15 axially loaded beam mode shapes to solve the eigenvalue problem of the riser around the static equilibrium configuration. This yields the riser natural frequencies and corresponding exact mode shapes for various values of inclination angles and tension. The obtained results are validated against a boundary-layer analytical solution and are found to be in good agreement. This constitutes a basis to study the nonlinear forced vibrations of inclined risers.

  9. Soret and Dufour effects on free convective heat and solute transfer in fluid saturated inclined porous cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Shekar Balla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present problem addresses double diffusive free convection in an inclined square cavity filled with fluid saturated porous medium under the influence of Soret and Dufour effects. The inclined cavity makes an angle with the horizontal plane. At the two horizontal walls of the cavity the heat and solute transverse gradients are applied and lateral walls of the cavity are being regarded insulated and impermeable. Using the appropriate dimensionless quantities, the governing equations with boundary conditions are transformed to non-dimensional form. The governing partial differential equations are solved by Finite element method of Galerkin weighted residual scheme. Numerical results are obtained for different values of the Rayleigh number, Lewis number, buoyancy ratio, Soret Number and Dufour number. The overall investigation of variation of streamlines, isotherms, iso-concentration, Nusselt number and Sherwood numbers are presented graphically. To examine the accuracy, the present results are compared with the available results.

  10. Two-dimensional carbon crystals. Electrical transport in single- and double-layer graphene; Zweidimensionale Kohlenstoffkristalle. Elektrischer Transport in Einzel- und Doppellagen-Graphen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Hennrik

    2012-02-03

    In his work atomically thin layers of carbon, socalled graphene, are investigated. These systems exhibit outstanding electronic properties which are analysed using magnetotransport measurements. For this purpose, different types of samples are prepared, analysed and discussed. In addition to conventional single layer and single crystal bilayer systems, folded flakes with twisted planes are examined. Since monolayer graphene is a two dimensional crystal in which every atom sits at the surface, it is very sensitive to any type of perturbation. Three different cases are investigated: Firstly, dopants are removed from the surface and the change in transport properties is monitored. Secondly, the regime of small carrier concentrations is used to observe field induced recharging of inhomogeneities. Thirdly, an atomic force microscope is used to alter the graphene itself in a defined region. The implications of this modification are again investigated using magnetotransport measurements. The influence of one layer on another one is studied in decoupled two layer samples. A folded sample with separatly contacted layers is used to show transport through the folded region. For jointly contacted layers parallel transport measurements are performed to analyse screening effects of an applied electric field and substrate influence. The interaction of the two layers is shown by a significant reduction of the Fermivelocity.

  11. Psychopathic Inclination Among Incarcerated Youth of Hazara Division Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sher Dil

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Present study aimed at evaluating the psychopathic inclination among youth and finding the gender differences in psychopathy. An indigenously developed Psychopathy scale (Urdu has been used in this study. Alpha reliability of the scale was .90. The study was conducted on 100 males (50 criminals and 50 non-criminals and 100 females (26 criminals and 74 non-criminals using a convenient sampling technique from three districts of Hazara division: Haripur, Abbottabad, and Mansehra. Results confirmed that there is significant difference in psychopathic inclination of males and females; criminals differed significantly from the non-criminals. The study also paves way for further investigation in the field in Pakistan.

  12. Entrepreneurial Inclination Among Business Students: A Malaysian Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yet-Mee Lim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship has been the fundamental topics of discussion among the politicians, economists, and academics. Business creation is especially critical in developing countries to stimulate economic growth. The present study attempts to examine entrepreneurial inclination among students who are a potential source of entrepreneurs. The fi ndings of the present research study indicate that majority of our business students are not entrepreneurial-inclined. They do not seem to possess strong entrepreneurial characteristics and entrepreneurial skills, and they are not keen in starting a new business. The roles of higher institutes of education and the government in promoting entrepreneurship are discussed.

  13. Fluorescence intensity dependence on the propagation plane inclination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.E.; Rubio, Marcelo; Sanchez, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation of the primary and secondary X-ray fluorescent emission from an homogeneous and infinite thickness sample, irradiated under different inclination of the propagation plane, is carried out. An agreement with the predictions based on Sherman equations depending on the inclination angle α was found. The invariance of the primary fluorescence with respect to α and the decrease until evanescence of the secondary fluorescence for a α → π/2 are confirmed. A discussion about the physical basis of this dependence is carried out. Similar results are expected for tertiary fluorescence. (Author) [es

  14. Mixed convection in inclined lid driven cavity by Lattice Boltzmann Method and heat flux boundary condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Orazio, A; Karimipour, A; Nezhad, A H; Shirani, E

    2014-01-01

    Laminar mixed convective heat transfer in two-dimensional rectangular inclined driven cavity is studied numerically by means of a double population thermal Lattice Boltzmann method. Through the top moving lid the heat flux enters the cavity whereas it leaves the system through the bottom wall; side walls are adiabatic. The counter-slip internal energy density boundary condition, able to simulate an imposed non zero heat flux at the wall, is applied, in order to demonstrate that it can be effectively used to simulate heat transfer phenomena also in case of moving walls. Results are analyzed over a range of the Richardson numbers and tilting angles of the enclosure, encompassing the dominating forced convection, mixed convection, and dominating natural convection flow regimes. As expected, heat transfer rate increases as increases the inclination angle, but this effect is significant for higher Richardson numbers, when buoyancy forces dominate the problem; for horizontal cavity, average Nusselt number decreases with the increase of Richardson number because of the stratified field configuration

  15. Influence of the B-site cation nature on crystal structure and magnetic properties of Ca2BMoO6 (B = Cr, La, Sm double perovskite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorodea Ioana A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Double perovskite-type oxide Ca2BMoO6 materials, where B = Cr, La and Sm, were prepared by the sol-gel auto-combustion method for the first time. The role of different B-site cations on their synthesis, structures, and magnetic properties was investigated. The synthesis progress was followed by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the samples’ structure was investigated by X-ray diffraction. The increase of the ionic radii B leads to the decrease of the t-value which reflects the structural distortion from the ideal cubic perovskite. Magnetization measurements were made with a SQUID magnetometer. All compounds are ferimagnetic and magnetic properties are indirectly influenced by the distortion degree of the lattice and disorder on the B/B’ positions

  16. X-ray Crystal Structure of Arsenite-Inhibited Xanthine Oxidase:[mu]-Sulfido,[mu]-Oxo Double Bridge between Molybdenum and Arsenic in the Active Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Hongnan; Hall, James; Hille, Russ (UCR)

    2012-10-23

    Xanthine oxidoreductase is a molybdenum-containing enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation reaction of sp{sup 2}-hybridized carbon centers of a variety of substrates, including purines, aldehydes, and other heterocyclic compounds. The complex of arsenite-inhibited xanthine oxidase has been characterized previously by UV-vis, electron paramagnetic resonance, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and the catalytically essential sulfido ligand of the square-pyrimidal molybdenum center has been suggested to be involved in arsenite binding through either a {mu}-sulfido,{mu}-oxo double bridge or a single {mu}-sulfido bridge. However, this is contrary to the crystallographically observed single {mu}-oxo bridge between molybdenum and arsenic in the desulfo form of aldehyde oxidoreductase from Desulfovibrio gigas (an enzyme closely related to xanthine oxidase), whose molybdenum center has an oxo ligand replacing the catalytically essential sulfur, as seen in the functional form of xanthine oxidase. Here we use X-ray crystallography to characterize the molybdenum center of arsenite-inhibited xanthine oxidase and solve the structures of the oxidized and reduced inhibition complexes at 1.82 and 2.11 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. We observe {mu}-sulfido,{mu}-oxo double bridges between molybdenum and arsenic in the active sites of both complexes. Arsenic is four-coordinate with a distorted trigonal-pyramidal geometry in the oxidized complex and three-coordinate with a distorted trigonal-planar geometry in the reduced complex. The doubly bridged binding mode is in agreement with previous XAS data indicating that the catalytically essential sulfur is also essential for the high affinity of reduced xanthine oxidoreductase for arsenite.

  17. Aqua/Aura Inclination Adjust Maneuver Series Spring 2018 Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenholme, Elena; Boone, Spencer

    2017-01-01

    This will be presented at the International Earth Science Constellation Mission Operations Working Group meeting on December 6-8, 2017 to discuss the Aqua/Aura Spring 2018 Inclination Adjust Maneuver series planning. Presentation has been reviewed and approved by Eric Moyer, ESMO (Earth Science Mission Operations) Deputy Project Manager.

  18. MEASUREMENTS OF DUST EXTINCTION IN HIGHLY INCLINED SPIRAL GALAXIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JANSEN, RA; KNAPEN, JH; BECKMAN, JE; PELETIER, RF; HES, R

    1994-01-01

    We study the extinction properties of dust in the well-defined dust lanes of four highly inclined galaxies, using U-, B-, V-, R- and I-band CCD and J- and K'-band near-infrared array images. For three of these galaxies, we could use the symmetry of the underlying light profile to obtain absolute

  19. Motion on an Inclined Plane and the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendrill, Ann-Marie; Ekström, Peter; Hansson, Lena; Mars, Patrik; Ouattara, Lassana; Ryan, Ulrika

    2014-01-01

    Friction is an important phenomenon in everyday life. All children are familiar with playground slides, which may thus be a good starting point for investigating friction. Motion on an inclined plane is a standard physics example. This paper presents an investigation of friction by a group of 11-year olds. How did they plan their investigations?…

  20. Evidences of inclined transpression at the contact between ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 125; Issue 5. Evidences of inclined ... a right lateral strike-slip component. As a whole, it is suggested that Udayagiri group is thrusted over Vinjamuru group along a westerly dipping thrust plane with a right lateral strike-slip motion and simultaneous E–W contraction.

  1. Inclined Planes and Motion Detectors: A Study of Acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Dyanne M.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students work in cooperative groups and roll balls down inclined planes, collect data with the help of an electronic motion detector, and represent data with a graphing calculator to explore concepts such as mass, gravity, velocity, and acceleration. (Contains 12 references.) (Author/ASK)

  2. The effect of circular bridge piers with different inclination angles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    c Indian Academy of Sciences. The effect of circular bridge piers with different inclination angles toward downstream on scour. MOHAMMAD VAGHEFI1,∗, MASOUD GHODSIAN2 and. SAEID SALIMI3. 1Department of Civil Engineering, Persian Gulf University, Shahid Mahini Street, P.O. Box: 75169-13817,. Bushehr, Iran.

  3. The inter-relationships between angle of inclination, height and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the dependence of number of sprouted teak (Tectona grandis Linn. F) stumps on the height above root collar and angle of inclination of planted teak stumps. The studies were aim-ed at developing suitable methods of converting teak seedlings into stumps and planting practices to ...

  4. Reconstruction of Galileo Galilei's Experiment: The Inclined Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straulino, S.

    2008-01-01

    In the "Third Day" of the "Discourses and Mathematical Demonstrations Concerning Two New Sciences" Galileo Galilei describes the famous experiment of the inclined plane and uses it to bring an experimental confirmation to the laws of uniformly accelerated motion. We describe a reconstruction of the experiment and how the results can be used for…

  5. Optimization of PV array inclination in India using ANN estimator ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana; Volume 40; Issue 5. Optimization of PV array inclination in India using ANN estimator: Method comparison study ... Although different non-linear, empirical models have been proposed by different researchers in India, they have too many constraints and needs complex and rigorous computational ...

  6. A layered model for inclined pipe flow of settling slurry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoušek, Václav; Krupička, Jan; Kesely, Mikoláš

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 333, June (2018), s. 317-326 ISSN 0032-5910 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-14271S Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : inclined pipe * settling slurry * pressure drop * flow stratification * laboratory loop Impact factor: 2.942, year: 2016

  7. Evidences of inclined transpression at the contact between ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    zone may show different structures or dominance of certain type of structures, depending on whether that part is dominated by strike-slip, dip slip or compression. The present study finds evidences of inclined transpression at the contact between. Udayagiri and Vinjamuru group of NSB, which is the main focus of this paper.

  8. Crystal structure of Δ(185-243)ApoA-I suggests a mechanistic framework for the protein adaptation to the changing lipid load in good cholesterol: from flatland to sphereland via double belt, belt buckle, double hairpin and trefoil/tetrafoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursky, Olga

    2013-01-09

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) is the major protein of plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDLs), macromolecular assemblies of proteins and lipids that remove cell cholesterol and protect against atherosclerosis. HDL heterogeneity, large size (7.7-12 nm), and ability to exchange proteins have prevented high-resolution structural analysis. Low-resolution studies showed that two apoA-I molecules form an antiparallel α-helical "double belt" around an HDL particle. The atomic-resolution structure of the C-terminal truncated lipid-free Δ(185-243)apoA-I, determined recently by Mei and Atkinson, provides unprecedented new insights into HDL structure-function. It allows us to propose a molecular mechanism for the adaptation of the full-length protein to increasing lipid load during cholesterol transport. ApoA-I conformations on small, midsize, and large HDLs are proposed based on the tandem α-helical repeats and the crystal structure of Δ(185-243)apoA-I and are validated by comparison with extensive biophysical data reported by many groups. In our models, the central half of the double belt ("constant" segment 66-184) is structurally conserved while the N- and C-terminal half ("variable" segments 1-65 and 185-243) rearranges upon HDL growth. This includes incremental unhinging of the N-terminal bundle around two flexible regions containing G39 and G65 to elongate the belt, along with concerted swing motion of the double belt around G65-P66 and G185-G186 hinges that are aligned on various-size particles, to confer two-dimensional surface curvature to spherical HDLs. The proposed conformational ensemble integrates and improves several existing HDL models. It helps provide a structural framework necessary to understand functional interactions with over 60 other HDL-associated proteins and, ultimately, improve the cardioprotective function of HDL. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Crystal Structure of Δ(185–243)apoA-I Suggests a Mechanistic Framework for the Protein Adaptation to the Changing Lipid Load in Good Cholesterol: From Flatland to Sphereland via Double Belt, Belt-Buckle, Double Hairpin and Trefoil/Tetrafoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursky, Olga

    2012-01-01

    ApoA-I is the major protein of plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDL), macromolecular assemblies of proteins and lipids that remove cell cholesterol and protect against atherosclerosis. HDL heterogeneity, large size (7.7–12 nm) and ability to exchange proteins have prevented high-resolution structural analysis. Low-resolution studies showed that two apoA-I molecules form an antiparallel α-helical “double belt” around an HDL particle. Atomic-resolution structure of the C-terminal truncated lipid-free Δ(185–243)apoA-I, determined recently by Mei and Atkinson, provides unprecedented new insights into HDL structure-function. It allows us to propose a molecular mechanism for the adaptation of the full-length protein to increasing lipid load during cholesterol transport. ApoA-I conformations on the small, mid-size and large HDL are proposed based on the tandem α-helical repeats and the crystal structure of Δ(185–243)apoA-I, and are validated by comparison with extensive biophysical data reported by many groups. In our models, the central half of the double belt (“constant” segment 66–184) is structurally conserved while the N- and C-terminal half (“variable” segments 1–65 and 185–243) re-arranges upon HDL growth. This includes incremental unhinging of the N-terminal bundle around two flexible regions containing G39 and G65 to elongate the belt, along with concerted swing motion of the double belt around G65-P66 and G185–G186 hinges that are aligned on various-size particles, to confer 2D surface curvature to spherical HDL. The proposed conformational ensemble integrates and improves several existing HDL models. It helps provide a structural framework necessary to understand functional interactions with over 60 other HDL-associated proteins and, ultimately, improve cardioprotective function of HDL. PMID:23041415

  10. Crystal Structure of Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-associated Csn2 Protein Revealed Ca[superscript 2+]-dependent Double-stranded DNA Binding Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Ki Hyun; Kurinov, Igor; Ke, Ailong (Cornell); (NWU)

    2012-05-22

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and their associated protein genes (cas genes) are widespread in bacteria and archaea. They form a line of RNA-based immunity to eradicate invading bacteriophages and malicious plasmids. A key molecular event during this process is the acquisition of new spacers into the CRISPR loci to guide the selective degradation of the matching foreign genetic elements. Csn2 is a Nmeni subtype-specific cas gene required for new spacer acquisition. Here we characterize the Enterococcus faecalis Csn2 protein as a double-stranded (ds-) DNA-binding protein and report its 2.7 {angstrom} tetrameric ring structure. The inner circle of the Csn2 tetrameric ring is {approx}26 {angstrom} wide and populated with conserved lysine residues poised for nonspecific interactions with ds-DNA. Each Csn2 protomer contains an {alpha}/{beta} domain and an {alpha}-helical domain; significant hinge motion was observed between these two domains. Ca{sup 2+} was located at strategic positions in the oligomerization interface. We further showed that removal of Ca{sup 2+} ions altered the oligomerization state of Csn2, which in turn severely decreased its affinity for ds-DNA. In summary, our results provided the first insight into the function of the Csn2 protein in CRISPR adaptation by revealing that it is a ds-DNA-binding protein functioning at the quaternary structure level and regulated by Ca{sup 2+} ions.

  11. Crystal structure of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated Csn2 protein revealed Ca2+-dependent double-stranded DNA binding activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ki Hyun; Kurinov, Igor; Ke, Ailong

    2011-09-02

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and their associated protein genes (cas genes) are widespread in bacteria and archaea. They form a line of RNA-based immunity to eradicate invading bacteriophages and malicious plasmids. A key molecular event during this process is the acquisition of new spacers into the CRISPR loci to guide the selective degradation of the matching foreign genetic elements. Csn2 is a Nmeni subtype-specific cas gene required for new spacer acquisition. Here we characterize the Enterococcus faecalis Csn2 protein as a double-stranded (ds-) DNA-binding protein and report its 2.7 Å tetrameric ring structure. The inner circle of the Csn2 tetrameric ring is ∼26 Å wide and populated with conserved lysine residues poised for nonspecific interactions with ds-DNA. Each Csn2 protomer contains an α/β domain and an α-helical domain; significant hinge motion was observed between these two domains. Ca(2+) was located at strategic positions in the oligomerization interface. We further showed that removal of Ca(2+) ions altered the oligomerization state of Csn2, which in turn severely decreased its affinity for ds-DNA. In summary, our results provided the first insight into the function of the Csn2 protein in CRISPR adaptation by revealing that it is a ds-DNA-binding protein functioning at the quaternary structure level and regulated by Ca(2+) ions.

  12. Crystal structure and surface characteristics of Sr-doped GdBaCo2O6−δ double perovskites: oxygen evolution reaction and conductivity

    KAUST Repository

    Pramana, Stevin S.

    2017-12-04

    A cheap and direct solution towards engineering better catalysts through identification of novel materials is required for a sustainable energy system. Perovskite oxides have emerged as potential candidates to replace the less economically attractive Pt and IrO2 water splitting catalysts. In this work, excellent electrical conductivity (980 S cm−1) was found for the double perovskite of composition GdBa0.6Sr0.4Co2O6−δ which is consistent with a better oxygen evolution reaction activity with the onset polarisation of 1.51 V with respect to a reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE). GdBa1−xSrxCo2O6−δ with increasing Sr content was found to crystallise in the higher symmetry tetragonal P4/mmm space group in comparison with the undoped GdBaCo2O6−δ which is orthorhombic (Pmmm), and yields higher oxygen uptake, accompanied by higher Co oxidation states. This outstanding electrochemical performance is explained by the wider carrier bandwidth, which is a function of Co–O–Co buckling angles and Co–O bond lengths. Furthermore the higher oxygen evolution activity was observed despite the formation of non-lattice oxides (mainly hydroxide species) and enrichment of alkaline earth ions on the surface.

  13. Deontological and utilitarian inclinations in moral decision making: a process dissociation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Paul; Gawronski, Bertram

    2013-02-01

    Dual-process theories of moral judgment suggest that responses to moral dilemmas are guided by two moral principles: the principle of deontology states that the morality of an action depends on the intrinsic nature of the action (e.g., harming others is wrong regardless of its consequences); the principle of utilitarianism implies that the morality of an action is determined by its consequences (e.g., harming others is acceptable if it increases the well-being of a greater number of people). Despite the proposed independence of the moral inclinations reflecting these principles, previous work has relied on operationalizations in which stronger inclinations of one kind imply weaker inclinations of the other kind. The current research applied Jacoby's (1991) process dissociation procedure to independently quantify the strength of deontological and utilitarian inclinations within individuals. Study 1 confirmed the usefulness of process dissociation for capturing individual differences in deontological and utilitarian inclinations, revealing positive correlations of both inclinations to moral identity. Moreover, deontological inclinations were uniquely related to empathic concern, perspective-taking, and religiosity, whereas utilitarian inclinations were uniquely related to need for cognition. Study 2 demonstrated that cognitive load selectively reduced utilitarian inclinations, with deontological inclinations being unaffected. In Study 3, a manipulation designed to enhance empathy increased deontological inclinations, with utilitarian inclinations being unaffected. These findings provide evidence for the independent contributions of deontological and utilitarian inclinations to moral judgments, resolving many theoretical ambiguities implied by previous research. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Spectrum of 100-kyr glacial cycle: orbital inclination, not eccentricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, R A; MacDonald, G J

    1997-08-05

    Spectral analysis of climate data shows a strong narrow peak with period approximately 100 kyr, attributed by the Milankovitch theory to changes in the eccentricity of the earth's orbit. The narrowness of the peak does suggest an astronomical origin; however the shape of the peak is incompatible with both linear and nonlinear models that attribute the cycle to eccentricity or (equivalently) to the envelope of the precession. In contrast, the orbital inclination parameter gives a good match to both the spectrum and bispectrum of the climate data. Extraterrestrial accretion from meteoroids or interplanetary dust is proposed as a mechanism that could link inclination to climate, and experimental tests are described that could prove or disprove this hypothesis.

  15. Entrepreneurial Inclination Among Business Students: A Malaysian Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yet-Mee Lim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Entrepreneurship has been the fundamental topics of discussion among the politicians, economists, and academics. Business creation is especially critical in developing countries to stimulate economic growth. The present study attempts to examine entrepreneurial inclination among students who are a potential source of entrepreneurs. The fi ndings of the present research study indicate that majority of our business students are not entrepreneurial-inclined. They do not seem to possess strong entrepreneurial characteristics and entrepreneurial skills, and they are not keen in starting a new business. The roles of higher institutes of education and the government in promoting entrepreneurship are discussed.

  16. Aqua/Aura Updated Inclination Adjust Maneuver Performance Prediction Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Spencer

    2017-01-01

    This presentation will discuss the updated Inclination Adjust Maneuver (IAM) performance prediction model that was developed for Aqua and Aura following the 2017 IAM series. This updated model uses statistical regression methods to identify potential long-term trends in maneuver parameters, yielding improved predictions when re-planning past maneuvers. The presentation has been reviewed and approved by Eric Moyer, ESMO Deputy Project Manager.

  17. Graphs and matroids weighted in a bounded incline algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ling-Xia; Zhang, Bei

    2014-01-01

    Firstly, for a graph weighted in a bounded incline algebra (or called a dioid), a longest path problem (LPP, for short) is presented, which can be considered the uniform approach to the famous shortest path problem, the widest path problem, and the most reliable path problem. The solutions for LPP and related algorithms are given. Secondly, for a matroid weighted in a linear matroid, the maximum independent set problem is studied.

  18. Drop impact and rebound dynamics on an inclined superhydrophobic surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeong, Yong Han; Burton, James; Loth, Eric; Bayer, Ilker S

    2014-10-14

    Due to its potential in water-repelling applications, the impact and rebound dynamics of a water drop impinging perpendicular to a horizontal superhydrophobic surface have undergone extensive study. However, drops tend to strike a surface at an angle in applications. In such cases, the physics governing the effects of oblique impact are not well studied or understood. Therefore, the objective of this study was to conduct an experiment to investigate the impact and rebound dynamics of a drop at various liquid viscosities, in an isothermal environment, and on a nanocomposite superhydrophobic surface at normal and oblique impact conditions (tilted at 15°, 30°, 45°, and 60°). This study considered drops falling from various heights to create normal impact Weber numbers ranging from 6 to 110. In addition, drop viscosity was varied by decreasing the temperature for water drops and by utilizing water-glycerol mixtures, which have similar surface tension to water but higher viscosities. Results revealed that oblique and normal drop impact behaved similarly (in terms of maximum drop spread as well as rebound dynamics) at low normal Weber numbers. However, at higher Weber numbers, normal and oblique impact results diverged in terms of maximum spread, which could be related to asymmetry and more complex outcomes. These asymmetry effects became more pronounced as the inclination angle increased, to the point where they dominated the drop impact and rebound characteristics when the surface was inclined at 60°. The drop rebound characteristics on inclined surfaces could be classified into eight different outcomes driven primarily by normal Weber number and drop Ohnesorge numbers. However, it was found that these outcomes were also a function of the receding contact angle, whereby reduced receding angles yielded tail-like structures. Nevertheless, the contact times of the drops with the coating were found to be generally independent of surface inclination.

  19. Two Mechanisms of Sensorimotor Set Adaptation to Inclined Stance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Hyun Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Orientation of posture relative to the environment depends on the contributions from the somatosensory, vestibular, and visual systems mixed in varying proportions to produce a sensorimotor set. Here, we probed the sensorimotor set composition using a postural adaptation task in which healthy adults stood on an inclined surface for 3 min. Upon returning to a horizontal surface, participants displayed a range of postural orientations – from an aftereffect that consisted of a large forward postural lean to an upright stance with little or no aftereffect. It has been hypothesized that the post-incline postural change depends on each individual’s sensorimotor set: whether the set was dominated by the somatosensory or vestibular system: Somatosensory dominance would cause the lean aftereffect whereas vestibular dominance should steer stance posture toward upright orientation. We investigated the individuals who displayed somatosensory dominance by manipulating their attention to spatial orientation. We introduced a distraction condition in which subjects concurrently performed a difficult arithmetic subtraction task. This manipulation altered the time course of their post-incline aftereffect. When not distracted, participants returned to upright stance within the 3-min period. However, they continued leaning forward when distracted. These results suggest that the mechanism of sensorimotor set adaptation to inclined stance comprises at least two components. The first component reflects the dominant contribution from the somatosensory system. Since the postural lean was observed among these subjects even when they were not distracted, it suggests that the aftereffect is difficult to overcome. The second component includes a covert attentional component which manifests as the dissipation of the aftereffect and the return of posture to upright orientation.

  20. Determination of angle of inclination for optimum power production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates the performance of the photovoltaic modules at different tilt angle (angle of inclination) from 5º to 90º. The solar panel of 45 Watts capacity was placed on the manual tracker between the hours of 7:00am and 6:15pm on the geographical location of latitude of 40 55' 58” North and longitude of 60 59' 55” ...

  1. The influence of incline walking on joint mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, Mason; Dickin, D Clark; Popp, Jennifer; Wang, Henry

    2014-04-01

    Walking is a popular form of exercise and is associated with many health benefits; however, frontal-plane knee joint loading brought about by a large internal knee-abduction moment and cyclic loading could lead to cartilage degeneration over time. Therefore, knee joint mechanics during an alternative walking exercise needs to be analyzed. The purpose of this study was to examine the lower-extremity joint mechanics in the frontal and sagittal planes during incline walking. Fifteen healthy males walked on a treadmill at five gradients (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) at 1.34m/s, and lower-extremity joint mechanics in the frontal and sagittal planes were quantified. The peak internal knee-abduction moment significantly decreased from the level walking condition at all gradients except 5%. Also, a negative relationship between the internal knee-abduction moment and the treadmill gradient was found to exist in 10% increments (0-10%, 5-15%, and 10-20%). The decrease in the internal knee-abduction moment during incline walking could have positive effects on knee joint health such as potentially reducing cartilage degeneration of the knee joint, reducing pain, and decreasing the rate of development of medial tibiofemoral osteoarthritis. This would be beneficial for a knee surgery patient, obese persons, and older adults who are using incline walking for rehabilitation and exercise protocols. Findings from the current study can provide guidance for the development of rehabilitation and exercise prescriptions incorporating incline walking. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Single- and double energy N{sup +} ion irradiated planar optical waveguides in Er: Tungsten–tellurite oxide glass and sillenite type Bismuth Germanate crystals working up to telecommunications wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bányász, I., E-mail: banyasz@sunserv.kfki.hu [Department of Crystal Physics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Zolnai, Z.; Fried, M.; Lohner, T. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Berneschi, S.; Righini, G.C. [MDF-Lab, “Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, IFAC-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); “Enrico Fermi” Center for Study and Research, Piazza del Viminale 2, 00184 Roma (Italy); Pelli, S.; Nunzi-Conti, G. [MDF-Lab, “Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, IFAC-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2013-07-15

    Ion implantation proved to be a universal technique for producing waveguides in most optical materials. Tellurite glasses are good hosts of rare-earth elements for the development of fibre and integrated optical amplifiers and lasers covering all the main telecommunication bands. Er{sup 3+}-doped tellurite glasses are good candidates for the fabrication of broadband amplifiers in wavelength division multiplexing around 1.55 μm, as they exhibit large stimulated cross sections and broad emission bandwidth. Fabrication of channel waveguides in such a material via N{sup +} ion implantation was reported recently. Sillenite type Bismuth Germanate (BGO) crystals are good nonlinear optical materials. Parameters of waveguide fabrication in both materials via implantation of MeV-energy N{sup +} ions were optimized. First single-energy implantations at 3.5 MeV at various fluences were applied. Waveguide operation up to 1.5 μm was observed in both materials. Then double-energy implantations at a fixed upper energy of 3.5 MeV and lower energies between 2.5 and 3.1 MeV were performed to suppress leaky modes by increasing barrier width. Improvement of waveguide characteristics was found by m-line spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry.

  3. Leaky mode suppression in planar optical waveguides written in Er:TeO{sub 2}–WO{sub 3} glass and CaF{sub 2} crystal via double energy implantation with MeV N{sup +} ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bányász, I., E-mail: banyasz@sunserv.kfki.hu [Department of Crystal Physics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O.B. 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Zolnai, Z.; Fried, M. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O.B. 49, Budapest H-1525 (Hungary); Berneschi, S. [MDF-Lab, “Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, IFAC-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); “Enrico Fermi” Center for Study and Research, Piazza del Viminale 2, 00184 Roma (Italy); Pelli, S.; Nunzi-Conti, G. [MDF-Lab, “Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, IFAC-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2014-05-01

    Ion implantation proved to be an universal technique for producing waveguides in most optical materials. Tellurite glasses are good hosts of rare-earth elements for the development of fibre and integrated optical amplifiers and lasers covering all the main telecommunication bands. Er{sup 3+}-doped tellurite glasses are good candidates for the fabrication of broadband amplifiers in wavelength division multiplexing around 1.55 μm, as they exhibit large stimulated cross sections and broad emission bandwidth. Calcium fluoride is an excellent optical material, due to its perfect optical characteristics from UV wavelengths up to near IR. It has become a promising laser host material (doped with rare earth elements). Ion implantation was also applied to optical waveguide fabrication in CaF{sub 2} and other halide crystals. In the present work first single-energy implantations at 3.5 MeV at various fluences were applied. Waveguide operation up to 1.5 μm was observed in Er:Te glass, and up to 980 nm in CaF{sub 2}. Then double-energy implantations at a fixed upper energy of 3.5 MeV and lower energies between 2.5 and 3.2 MeV were performed to suppress leaky modes by increasing barrier width.

  4. Three-dimensional volumetric display by inclined-plane scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Daisuke; Eto, Takuma; Nishimura, Yasuhiro; Matsushita, Kenji

    2003-05-01

    A volumetric display system based on three-dimensional (3-D) scanning that uses an inclined two-dimensional (2-D) image is described. In the volumetric display system a 2-D display unit is placed obliquely in an imaging system into which a rotating mirror is inserted. When the mirror is rotated, the inclined 2-D image is moved laterally. A locus of the moving image can be observed by persistence of vision as a result of the high-speed rotation of the mirror. Inclined cross-sectional images of an object are displayed on the display unit in accordance with the position of the image plane to observe a 3-D image of the object by persistence of vision. Three-dimensional images formed by this display system satisfy all the criteria for stereoscopic vision. We constructed the volumetric display systems using a galvanometer mirror and a vector-scan display unit. In addition, we constructed a real-time 3-D measurement system based on a light section method. Measured 3-D images can be reconstructed in the 3-D display system in real time.

  5. Inclined Fiber Pullout from a Cementitious Matrix: A Numerical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that fibers improve the performance of cementitious composites by acting as bridging ligaments in cracks. Such bridging behavior is often studied through fiber pullout tests. The relation between the pullout force vs. slip end displacement is characteristic of the fiber-matrix interface. However, such a relation varies significantly with the fiber inclination angle. In the current work, we establish a numerical model to simulate the entire pullout process by explicitly representing the fiber, matrix and the interface for arbitrary fiber orientations. Cohesive elements endorsed with mixed-mode fracture capacities are implemented to represent the bond-slip behavior at the interface. Contact elements with Coulomb’s friction are placed at the interface to simulate frictional contact. The bond-slip behavior is first calibrated through pull-out curves for fibers aligned with the loading direction, then validated against experimental results for steel fibers oriented at 30 ∘ and 60 ∘ . Parametric studies are then performed to explore the influences of both material properties (fiber yield strength, matrix tensile strength, interfacial bond and geometric factors (fiber diameter, embedment length and inclination angle on the overall pullout behavior, in particular on the maximum pullout load. The proposed methodology provides the necessary pull-out curves for a fiber oriented at a given angle for multi-scale models to study fracture in fiber-reinforced cementitious materials. The novelty lies in its capacity to capture the entire pullout process for a fiber with an arbitrary inclination angle.

  6. A piezoelectric gyroscope based on thickness-shear modes of an AlN bimorph with inclined c-axes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jing; Du, Jianke; Wang, Ji; Yang, Jiashi

    2014-07-01

    We propose a new structure for piezoelectric gyroscope application. It consists of a two-layered plate of AlN with inclined c-axes. Through a theoretical analysis, it is shown that when the plate is electrically driven into thickness-shear (TSh) vibration in one direction and is rotating about the plate normal, the rotation causes a TSh vibration in a perpendicular direction with an electrical output which can be used to measure the angular rate of the rotation. Since AlN can be made into thin film devices much smaller than conventional crystal acoustic wave devices, the proposed gyroscope can be made much smaller than existing piezoelectric gyroscopes. The structure can also work with other crystals of class 6mm such as ZnO and polarized ceramics.

  7. Crystals in crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus H.; Schmidt, I.; Carlsson, A.

    2005-01-01

    A major factor governing the performance of catalytically active particles supported on a zeolite carrier is the degree of dispersion. It is shown that the introduction of noncrystallographic mesopores into zeolite single crystals (silicalite-1, ZSM-5) may increase the degree of particle dispersion...... of the zeolite particles, particularly after thermal treatment. When using mesoporous zeolites, the particles were evenly distributed throughout the mesopore system of the zeolitic support, even after calcination, leading to nanocrystals within mesoporous zeolite single crystals....

  8. The Double Star mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The Double Star Programme (DSP was first proposed by China in March, 1997 at the Fragrant Hill Workshop on Space Science, Beijing, organized by the Chinese Academy of Science. It is the first mission in collaboration between China and ESA. The mission is made of two spacecraft to investigate the magnetospheric global processes and their response to the interplanetary disturbances in conjunction with the Cluster mission. The first spacecraft, TC-1 (Tan Ce means "Explorer", was launched on 29 December 2003, and the second one, TC-2, on 25 July 2004 on board two Chinese Long March 2C rockets. TC-1 was injected in an equatorial orbit of 570x79000 km altitude with a 28° inclination and TC-2 in a polar orbit of 560x38000 km altitude. The orbits have been designed to complement the Cluster mission by maximizing the time when both Cluster and Double Star are in the same scientific regions. The two missions allow simultaneous observations of the Earth magnetosphere from six points in space. To facilitate the comparison of data, half of the Double Star payload is made of spare or duplicates of the Cluster instruments; the other half is made of Chinese instruments. The science operations are coordinated by the Chinese DSP Scientific Operations Centre (DSOC in Beijing and the European Payload Operations Service (EPOS at RAL, UK. The spacecraft and ground segment operations are performed by the DSP Operations and Management Centre (DOMC and DSOC in China, using three ground station, in Beijing, Shanghai and Villafranca.

  9. Crystal structures and high-temperature phase-transitions in SrNdMRuO{sub 6} (M=Zn,Co,Mg,Ni) new double perovskites studied by symmetry-mode analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iturbe-Zabalo, E., E-mail: iturbe@ill.fr [Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL), 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Fisika Aplikatua II Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, UPV/EHU, P.O. Box 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Igartua, J.M. [Fisika Aplikatua II Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, UPV/EHU, P.O. Box 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Faik, A. [CICEnergigune, Parque Tecnologico, Albert Einstein 48, 01510 Minano, Alava (Spain); Larranaga, A. [X-Izpien Zerbitzu Orokorra, SGIKer, UPV/EHU, P.O. Box 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Hoelzel, M. [Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II), TUM, 85747 Garching (Germany); Cuello, G.J. [Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL), 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2013-02-15

    Crystal structures of SrNdZnRuO{sub 6}, SrNdCoRuO{sub 6}, SrNdMgRuO{sub 6} and SrNdNiRuO{sub 6} double perovskites have been studied by X-ray, synchrotron radiation and neutron powder diffraction method, at different temperatures, and using the symmetry-mode analysis. All compounds adopt the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}/n at room-temperature, and contain a completely ordered array of the tilted MO{sub 6} and RuO{sub 6} octahedra, whereas Sr/Nd cations are completely disordered. The analysis of the structures in terms of symmetry-adapted modes of the parent phase allows the identification of the modes responsible for the phase-transition. The high-temperature study (300-1250 K) has shown that the compounds present a temperature induced structural phase-transition: P2{sub 1}/n{yields}P4{sub 2}/n{yields}Fm3{sup Macron }m. - Graphical abstract: Representation of the dominant distortion modes of the symmetry mode decomposition of the room-temperature (P2{sub 1}/n), intermediate (P4{sub 2}/n) and cubic (Fm-3m) phase SrNdMRuO{sub 6} (M=Zn,Co,Mg,Ni), with respect to the parent phase Fm-3m. The dominant distortion modes are: in the monoclinic phase-GM{sub 4}{sup +} (blue arrow), X{sub 3}{sup +} (green arrow) and X{sub 5}{sup +} acting on A-site cations (red arrow); in the tetragonal phase-GM{sub 4}{sup +} (pink arrow), X{sub 3}{sup +} (light blue arrow) and X{sub 5}{sup +} acting on A-site cations (brown arrow). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural study of four ruthenate double perovskites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Room-temperature structural determination using symmetry-mode procedure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determination of temperature induced structural phase-transitions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Symmetry adapted-mode analysis.

  10. Crystal face temperature determination means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nason, D.O.; Burger, A.

    1994-11-22

    An optically transparent furnace having a detection apparatus with a pedestal enclosed in an evacuated ampule for growing a crystal thereon is disclosed. Temperature differential is provided by a source heater, a base heater and a cold finger such that material migrates from a polycrystalline source material to grow the crystal. A quartz halogen lamp projects a collimated beam onto the crystal and a reflected beam is analyzed by a double monochromator and photomultiplier detection spectrometer and the detected peak position in the reflected energy spectrum of the reflected beam is interpreted to determine surface temperature of the crystal. 3 figs.

  11. Sex Differences in Incline-Walking among Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall-Scheffler, Cara M

    2015-12-01

    Previous research has shown that people tend to walk around the speed that minimizes energy consumption when traveling a given distance. It has further been shown that men and women have different speeds that minimize energy and that women will choose slower speeds when the activity itself is a high-rate activity (e.g. carrying a load). Here we investigate what men and women will do when given a high rate walking activity, namely walking on an inclined surface. Fourteen people (nine men and five women) walked at four speeds on a level treadmill and four speeds on an inclined treadmill while their metabolic rate, kinematics and core temperature were monitored. Following the data collection, participants were asked to identify their ‘preferred’ walking speed at each of the conditions. Cost of transport (CoT) curves were calculated for each individual, and the delta between the preferred and the ‘optimal’ speeds were calculated. People chose to walk at slightly slower speeds on the level; there was minimal change in the cost to walk at these slower speeds. Women walked at absolutely slower speeds on the incline than men (P=0.06) and had significantly larger speed deltas (P=0.02), thus choosing to walk at slower rate speeds. Women also showed a significant relationship between the rate of activity and core temperature, whereas men did not. This is consistent with other research showing that women choose behavioral strategies to minimize body temperature changes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Flame spread over inclined electrical wires with AC electric fields

    KAUST Repository

    Lim, Seung J.

    2017-07-21

    Flame spread over polyethylene-insulated electrical wires was studied experimentally with applied alternating current (AC) by varying the inclination angle (θ), applied voltage (VAC), and frequency (fAC). For the baseline case with no electric field applied, the flame spread rate and the flame width of downwardly spreading flames (DSFs) decreased from the horizontal case for −20° ≤ θ < 0° and maintained near constant values for −90° ≤ θ < −20°, while the flame spread rate increased appreciably as the inclination angle of upwardly spreading flames (USFs) increased. When an AC electric field was applied, the behavior of flame spread rate in DSFs (USFs) could be classified into two (three) sub-regimes characterized by various functional dependences on VAC, fAC, and θ. In nearly all cases of DSFs, a globular molten polyethylene formed ahead of the spreading flame edge, occasionally dripping onto the ground. In these cases, an effective flame spread rate was defined to represent the burning rate by measuring the mass loss due to dripping. This effective spread rate was independent of AC frequency, while it decreased linearly with voltage and was independent of the inclination angle. In DSFs, when excessively high voltage and frequency were applied, the dripping led to flame extinction during propagation and the extinction frequency correlated well with applied voltage. In USFs, when high voltage and frequency were applied, multiple globular molten PEs formed at several locations, leading to ejections of multiple small flame segments from the main flame, thereby reducing the flame spread rate, which could be attributed to the electrospray phenomenon.

  13. Articulator-related registration and analysis of sagittal condylar inclination

    OpenAIRE

    Čimić, Samir; Kraljević Šimunković, Sonja; Simonić Kocijan, Sunčana; Matijević, Jurica; Dulčić, Nikša; Ćatić, Amir

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study sagittal condylar inclination values within a uniform sample (Angle class I occlusion) using ‘articulator-related registration’ and Camper’s plane as a reference plane. The study was performed on a sample of 58 Angle class I subjects (mean age 25.1, SD 3.1). Measurements were performed with an ultrasonic jaw tracking device with six degrees of freedom. After a paraocclusal tray was fixed in the mouth, each subject had to make three protrusive ...

  14. Mining adjacent inclined coal seams of varying thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batmanov, Yu.K.; Bakhtin, A.F.; Bulavka, E.I.

    1980-01-01

    In the Donbass coal basin a large number of thin coal seams located near other thicker coal seams are left. It is suggested that coal output from the Donbass could be increased by 100% and cost of mining could be lowered by 0.4-1.1 roubles per 1 ton of coal if thinner coal seams were also mined. Mining methods in the Donbass are analyzed from the point of view of reducing the cost of mining and increasing coal production. Recommendations on methods of mining thin inclined coal seams are given. (6 refs.) (In Russian)

  15. Double Trouble

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; Kievit, Robert; Simons, Jan

    1994-01-01

    Double Trouble highlights the career of Dutch scriptwriter and television producer Chiem van Houweninge, well-known for his long-running TV comedy series and as author of episodes for TV detective series. Double Trouble gives Van Houweninge's own views on writing and filming in television prime

  16. Electrically tunable bandpass filter using solid-core photonic crystal fibers filled with multiple liquid crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Lei; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    2010-01-01

    An electrically tunable bandpass filter is designed and fabricated by integrating two solid-core photonic crystal fibers filled with different liquid crystals in a double silicon v-groove assembly. By separately controlling the driving voltage of each liquid-crystal-filled section, both the short...

  17. Liquid Crystals in Decorative and Visual Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makow, David

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * PIGMENT AND STRUCTURAL COLOURS AND THEIR RELEVANCE TO LIQUID CRYSTALS * LIQUID CRYSTAL MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES FOR DECORATIVE AND VISUAL ARTS * Free cholesteric liquid crystals (FCLC's) * Encapsulated liquid crystals (ECLC's) * Nonsteroid Chiral nematics * Polymers with liquid crystalline properties (PLCs) * COLOUR PROPERTIES OF CHOLESTERIC LIQUID CRYSTALS (CLC's) * Molecular structure and the mechanism of colour production * Dependence of perceived colours on the angle of illumination and viewing * Dependence of perceived colours on temperature * Additive colour properties * Methods of doubling the peak reflectance of cholesteric liquid crystals * Colour gamut * Colours of superimposed and pigmented coatings * Colours in transmission * ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS * REFERENCES

  18. Finite element analysis of inclined nozzle-plate junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, K.B.; Seth, V.K.; Krishnan, A.; Ramamurthy, T.S.; Dattaguru, B.; Rao, A.K.

    1979-01-01

    Estimation of stress concentration at nozzle to plate or shell junctions is a significant problem in the stress analysis of nuclear reactors. The topic is a subject matter of extensive investigations and earlier considerable success has been reported on analysis for the cases when the nozzle is perpendicular to the plate or is radial to the shell. Analytical methods for the estimation of stress concentrations for the practical situations when the intersecting nozzle is inclined to the plate or is non-radial to the shell is rather scanty. Specific complications arise in dealing with the junction region when the nozzle with circular cross-section meets the non-circular cut-out on the plate or shell. In this paper a finite element analysis is developed for inclined nozzles and results are presented for nozzle-plate junctions. A method of analysis is developed with a view to achieving simultaneously accuracy of results and simplicity in the choice of elements and their connectivity. The circular nozzle is treated by axisymmetric conical shell elements. The nozzle portion in the region around the junction and the flat plate is dealt with by triangular flat shell elements. Special transition elements are developed for joining the flat shell elements with the axisymmetric elements under non-axisymmetric loading. A substructure method of analysis is adopted which achieves considerable economy in handling the structure and also conveniently combines the different types of elements in the structure. (orig.)

  19. An Experimental Investigation on Inclined Negatively Buoyant Jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed Bashitialshaaer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was performed to investigate the behavior of inclined negatively buoyant jets. Such jets arise when brine is discharged from desalination plants. A turbulent jet with a specific salinity was discharged through a circular nozzle at an angle to the horizontal into a tank with fresh water and the spatial evolution of the jet was recorded. Four different initial jet parameters were changed, namely the nozzle diameter, the initial jet inclination, the jet density and the flow rate. Five geometric quantities describing the jet trajectory that are useful in the design of brine discharge systems were determined. Dimensional analysis demonstrated that the geometric jet quantities studied, if normalized with the jet exit diameter, could be related to the densimetric Froude number. Analysis of the collected data showed that this was the case for a Froude number less than 100, whereas for larger values of the Froude number the scatter in the data increased significantly. As has been observed in some previous investigations, the slope of the best-fit straight line through the data points was a function of the initial jet angle (θ, where the slope increased with θ for the maximum levels (Ym studied, but had a more complex behavior for horizontal distances.

  20. Simplification of rat intubation on inclined metal plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastl, Sigrid; Kotschenreuther, U; Hille, B; Schmidt, J; Gepp, H; Hohenberger, W

    2004-12-01

    Small-animal intubation is often necessary during inhalation anesthesia to allow steady-state conditions for large operations and in vivo experiments in all fields of experimental surgery. In rats, placing an orotracheal tube is technically difficult primarily because of the small size of the subject and the lack of equipment specifically designed for this task. We describe a simple rat intubation technique in which the animal is suspended in dorsal recumbency on an inclined metal plate. The animal, anesthetized with ether, is fixed to a 70 degrees-inclined metal plate in a dorsal position by means of a Mersilene ribbon hooked around the upper incisors. This method of positioning the animal is the most important step in the intubation process and further facilitates the technique already described by other authors. A human otoscope was used as a laryngoscope, intubation was performed using the Seldinger technique, and a 14-gauge intravenous catheter served as an endotracheal tube. This inexpensive technique is quickly learned and can be used in any laboratory. Safe and reliable airway management can thus be achieved, permitting in vivo examinations and operations.

  1. Geosynchronous inclined orbits for high-latitude communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantino, E.; Flores, R. M.; Di Carlo, M.; Di Salvo, A.; Cabot, E.

    2017-11-01

    We present and discuss a solution to the growing demand for satellite telecommunication coverage in the high-latitude geographical regions (beyond 55°N), where the signal from geostationary satellites is limited or unavailable. We focus on the dynamical issues associated to the design, the coverage, the maintenance and the disposal of a set of orbits selected for the purpose. Specifically, we identify a group of highly inclined, moderately eccentric geosynchronous orbits derived from the Tundra orbit (geosynchronous, eccentric and critically inclined). Continuous coverage can be guaranteed by a constellation of three satellites in equally spaced planes and suitably phased. By means of a high-precision model of the terrestrial gravity field and the relevant environmental perturbations, we study the evolution of these orbits. The effects of the different perturbations on the ground track (which is more important for coverage than the orbital elements themselves) are isolated and analyzed. The physical model and the numerical setup are optimized with respect to computing time and accuracy. We show that, in order to maintain the ground track unchanged, the key parameters are the orbital period and the argument of perigee. Furthermore, corrections to the right ascension of the ascending node are needed in order to preserve the relative orientation of the orbital planes. A station-keeping strategy that minimizes propellant consumption is then devised, and comparisons are made between the cost of a solution based on impulsive maneuvers and one with continuous thrust. Finally, the issue of end-of-life disposal is discussed.

  2. Non-dispersive traveling waves in inclined shallow water channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didenkulova, Ira; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2009-01-01

    Existence of traveling waves propagating without internal reflection in inclined water channels of arbitrary slope is demonstrated. It is shown that traveling non-monochromatic waves exist in both linear and nonlinear shallow water theories in the case of a uniformly inclined channel with a parabolic cross-section. The properties of these waves are studied. It is shown that linear traveling waves should have a sign-variable shape. The amplitude of linear traveling waves in a channel satisfies the same Green's law, which is usually derived from the energy flux conservation for smoothly inhomogeneous media. Amplitudes of nonlinear traveling waves deviate from the linear Green's law, and the behavior of positive and negative amplitudes are different. Negative amplitude grows faster than positive amplitude in shallow water. The phase of nonlinear waves (travel time) is described well by the linear WKB approach. It is shown that nonlinear traveling waves of any amplitude always break near the shoreline if the boundary condition of the full absorption is applied.

  3. Dissipative descent: rocking and rolling down an incline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmforth, N. J.; Bush, J. W. M.; Vener, D.; Young, W. R.

    We consider the dynamics of a hollow cylindrical shell that is filled with viscous fluid and another, nested solid cylinder, and allowed to roll down an inclined plane. A mathematical model is compared to simple experiments. Two types of behaviour are observed experimentally: on steeper slopes, the device accelerates; on shallower inclines, the cylinders rock and roll unsteadily downhill, with a speed that is constant on average. The theory also predicts runaway and unsteady rolling motions. For the rolling solutions, however, the inner cylinder cannot be suspended in the fluid by the motion of the outer cylinder, and instead falls inexorably toward the outer cylinder. Whilst only occurs after an infinite time, the system slows progressively as the gap between the cylinders narrows, owing to heightened viscous dissipation. Such a deceleration is not observed in the experiments, suggesting that some mechanism limits the approach to contact. Coating the surface of the inner cylinder with sandpaper of different grades changes the rolling speed, consistent with the notion that surface roughness is responsible for limiting the acceleration.

  4. Breakdown of air pockets in downwardly inclined sewerage pressure mains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbers, C L; Clemens, F H L R

    2006-01-01

    In the Netherlands, wastewater is collected in municipal areas and transported to centralised WWTPs by an extensive system of pressure mains. Over the last decades these pressure mains did not receive much attention in terms of monitoring of performance or maintenance. A recent inventory showed that half of the pressure mains show an increased pressure loss for no directly obvious reason. One of the many causes that account for the reduction of the flow capacity is the occurrence of free gas in the pipeline. During dry weather periods with low flow velocities, gas may accumulate at high points in the system. Once the velocity increases during storm weather flow, the air pockets may be broken down and transported to the end of the system. A research study is started focussing on the description of the gas-water phenomena in wastewater pressure mains with respect to transportation of gas. An experimental facility is constructed for the study of multi-phase flow. This paper describes the preliminary results of experiments on breakdown rates of gas pockets as a function of inclination angle and water flow rate. The results show an increasing breakdown rate with increasing inclination angle.

  5. Improvement in greenhouse solar drying using inclined north wall reflection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethi, V.P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141004, Punjab (India); Arora, Sadhna [Department of Processing and Food Engineering, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141004, Punjab (India)

    2009-09-15

    A conventional greenhouse solar dryer of 6 m{sup 2} x 4 m{sup 2} floor area (east-west orientation) was improved for faster drying using inclined north wall reflection (INWR) under natural as well as forced convection mode. To increase the solar radiation availability onto the product (to be dried) during extreme summer months, a temporary inclined wall covered with aluminized reflector sheet (of 50 {mu}m thickness and reflectance 0.93) was raised inside the greenhouse just in front of the vertical transparent north wall. By doing so, product fully received the reflected beam radiation (which otherwise leaves through the north wall) in addition to the direct total solar radiation available on the horizontal surface during different hours of drying. The increment in total solar radiation input enhanced the drying rate of the product by increasing the inside air and crop temperature of the dryer. Inclination angle of the reflective north wall with vertical ({beta}) was optimized for various selective widths of the tray W (1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3 m) and for different realistic heights of existing vertical north wall (h) at 25 N, 30 N and 35 N latitudes (hot climatic zones). Experimental performance of the improved dryer was tested during the month of May 2008 at Ludhiana (30.56 N) climatic conditions, India by drying bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Linn) slices. Results showed that by using INWR under natural convection mode of drying, greenhouse air and crop temperature increased by 1-6.7 C and 1-4 C, respectively, during different drying hours as compared to, when INWR was not used and saved 13.13% of the total drying time. By using INWR under forced convection mode of drying, greenhouse air and crop temperature increased by 1-4.5 C and 1-3 C, respectively, during different drying hours as compared to, when INWR was not used and saved 16.67% of the total drying time. (author)

  6. Hydraulic shock waves in an inclined chute contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, C.-D.; Chang, C.-J.

    2009-04-01

    A chute contraction is a common structure used in hydraulic engineering for typical reasons such as increase of bottom slope, transition from side channel intakes to tunnel spillways, reduction of chute width due to bridges, transition structures in flood diversion works, among others. One of the significant chute contractions in Taiwan is that used in the Yuanshantzu Flood Diversion Project of Keelung River. The diversion project is designed to divert flood water from upper Keelung River into East Sea with a capasity of 1,310 cubic meters per second for mitigating the flood damage of lower part of Keelung River basin in Northern Taiwan. An inclined chute contraction is used to connect Keelung River and a diversion turnel. The inlet and outlet works of the diversion project is located at Ruifang in the Taipei County of north Taiwan. The diameter of diversion tunnel is 12 meters and the total length of tunnel is 2,484 meters. The diversion project has been completed and successfully executed many times since 2004 to lower the water level of Keelung River in typhoon seasons for avioding flooding problems in the lower part of Keelung River basin. Flow in a chute contraction has complicated flow pattern due to the existence of shock waves in it. A simple and useful calculation procedure for the maximum height and its position of shock waves is essentially needed for the preliminary design stage of a chute contraction. Hydraulic shock waves in an inclined chute contraction were experimentally and numerically investigated in this study with the consideration of the effects of sidewall deflection angle, bottom inclination angle and Froude number of approaching flow. The flow pattern of hydraulic shock waves in a chute contraction was observed. The main issue of designing chute contraction is to estimate the height and position of maximum shock wave for the consideration of freeboards. Achieving this aim, the experimental data are adopted and analyzed for the shock angle

  7. Strength Calculation of Inclined Sections of Reinforced Concrete Elements under Transverse Bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatov, V. B.

    2017-11-01

    The authors propose a design model to determine the strength of inclined sections of bent reinforced concrete elements without shear reinforcement for the action of transverse force taking into account the aggregate interlock forces in the inclined crack. The calculated dependences to find out the components of forces acting in an inclined section are presented. The calculated dependences are obtained from the consideration of equilibrium conditions of the block over the inclined crack. A comparative analysis of the experimental values of the failure loads of the inclined section and the theoretical values obtained for the proposed dependencies and normative calculation methods is performed. It is shown that the proposed design model makes it possible to take into account the effect the longitudinal reinforcement percentage has on the inclined section strength, the element cross section height without the introduction of empirical coefficients which contributes to an increase in the structural safety of design solutions including the safety of high-strength concrete elements.

  8. Unique operations for a highly inclined, elliptical, geosynchronous satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglin, Patrick T.; Briskman, Robert D.

    2004-08-01

    The first space segment devoted to a Digital Audio Radio Service (DARS) for the Continental United States (CONUS) was established when the last satellite of a three satellite constellation (Flight Models FM-1, FM-2 and FM-3) was launched in November 2000. Each satellite is in a highly inclined, elliptical, geosynchronous orbit that is separated by 120° in Right Angle of the Ascending Node (RAAN) from the other two satellites' orbits. This results in an 8 h phasing in ground track between each satellite. These distinct orbits provide superior look angles and signal availability to mobile receivers in the northern third of the United States when compared to geostationary satellites. However, this unique orbital constellation results in some particular performance and operational differences from geostationary orbit satellites. Some of these are: Earth Sensor noise, maneuver implementation and power management. Descriptions and performance improvements of these orbit specific operations are detailed herein.

  9. Friction and drag forces on spheres propagating down inclined planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Yi Hui; Longmire, Ellen

    2017-11-01

    When a submerged sphere propagates along an inclined wall at terminal velocity, it experiences gravity, drag, lift, and friction forces. In the related equations of motion, the drag, lift and friction coefficients are unknown. Experiments are conducted to determine the friction and drag coefficients of the sphere over a range of Reynolds numbers. Through high speed imaging, translational and rotational velocities of spheres propagating along a glass plate are determined in liquids with several viscosities. The onset of sliding motion is identified by computing the dimensionless rotation rate of the sphere. Using drag and lift coefficients for Re friction coefficients are calculated for several materials. The friction coefficients are then employed to estimate the drag coefficient for 350 frictional force over this Re range. Supported by NSF (CBET-1510154).

  10. Simulation of Solar Radiation Incident on Horizontal and Inclined Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Basunia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A computer model was developed to simulate the hourly, daily and monthly average of daily solar radiation on horizontal and inclined surfaces. The measured hourly and daily solar radiation was compared with simulated radiation, and favourable agreement was observed for the measured and predicted values on clear days. The measured and simulated monthly averages of total (diffuse and beam daily solar radiation were compared and a reasonable agreement was observed for a number of stations in Japan. The simulation showed that during the rice harvesting season, September to October, there is a daily average of 14.7 MJ/m2 of solar irradiation on a horizontal surface in Matsuyama, Japan. There is a similar amount of solar radiation on a horizontal surface during the major rice harvesting season, November to December, in Bangladesh. This radiation can be effectively utilized for drying rough rice and other farm crops.

  11. Segregation in inclined flows of binary mixtures of spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larcher Michele

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We outline the equations that govern the evolution of segregation of a binary mixture of spheres in flows down inclines. These equations result from the mass and momentum balances of a kinetic theory for dense flows of inelastic spheres that interact through collisions. The theory employed for segregation is appropriate for particles with relatively small differences in size and mass. The flow of the mixture is assumed to reach a fully developed state much more rapidly than does the concentrations of the two species. We illustrate the predictions of the theory for a mixture of spheres of the same diameter but different masses and for spheres of different diameters but nearly the same mass. We show the evolution of the profiles of the concentration fractions of the two types of spheres and the profiles in the final, steady state. The latter compare favourably with those obtained in discrete-element numerical simulations.

  12. Method and apparatus for logging inclined earth boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youmans, A.H.

    1981-01-01

    An improved technique is provided for comparing the velocity of an elongated well logging instrument traversing an inclined earth borehole with the playout velocity of the well logging cable at the earth's surface to control both the cable hoist drum rotation and the rate of movement of the subsurface instrument and thus insure cable playout is in equilibrium with the logging instrument movement. Method and apparatus are described for detecting any reduction in movement of the logging instrument through the borehole and for reducing the velocity of the logging cable playout in response thereto by reducing drum rotation. Further, when the velocity of cable playout slows to a preselected value, a monitoring circuit generates control signals which actuate a means of power attached to or integral with the logging instrument which, upon initiation, apply a force to move the logging instrument upward or downward within the borehole

  13. Deformation Analysis of Fixed Bearing Inclined Plane Thrust Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Yong--hai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the theory of lubrication,Numerical simulation of the deformation of the thrust bearing of the fixed inclined plane was carried out,by finite element numerical analysis method and using the ANSYS software. The mathematical model of the oil film shape control equations about of the deformation and bearing is established. Analytical result showed that the force caused the tile surface generating concave deformation,and convex deformation increased with the height and the size of the load and bearing;Tile surface temperature generated convex deformation and increased with the height and the size of the temperature of bearing bush;The actual deformation of the tile surface is the superposition of the force and the thermal deformation. This conclusion can provide reference for the design and the application of thrust bearing,to reduce the tile surface,which is not conducive to the carrying capacity of the concave deformation.

  14. Transient flow and heat transfer phenomena in inclined wavy films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serifi, Katerina; Bontozoglou, Vasilis [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Thessaly, 38334, Volos (Greece); Malamataris, Nikolaos A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technological Educational Institution of Western Macedonia, 50100, Kila Kozani (Greece)

    2004-08-01

    A finite-element numerical scheme is used to study rigorously the flow of an inclined liquid film and the heat transfer from the constant-temperature wall. Regular inlet disturbances are predicted to evolve into periodic or solitary waves depending on the frequency of the forcing. At very low disturbance frequencies parasitic crests appear and the regularity of the wave-train is lost. The effect of a solitary wave-train on heat transfer from the wall is studied, and it is predicted that a stationary temperature distribution develops with periodic flux variation that follows the waves. The thinning of the substrate between successive humps combines with the effect of convection at the crest and tail of the solitary humps to produce heat transfer enhancement significantly above the conduction limit. (authors)

  15. Inclined transpression in the Neka Valley, eastern Alborz, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Seyed Tohid; Díaz-Azpiroz, Manuel; Talbot, Christopher J.

    2017-07-01

    Three major nappes in the Neka Valley in the eastern Alborz Mountains of Iran allow the Cimmerian to present convergence following the oblique collision between Iran and the southern margin of Eurasia. This work reports the identification of an inclined transpression zone recognized by field investigations and strain analyses of the geometries of formations and detailed mesoscopic structural analyses of multiple faults, folds and a cleavage. The main structures encountered include refolded recumbent asymmetric fold nappes, highly curved fold hinges, in a transpression zone that dips 37° to the NW between boundaries thrusts striking from N050° to N060°. The β angle (the angle between the zone boundary and direction of horizontal far-field shortening) is about 80°. The north-west and south-east boundaries of this zone coincide with the Haji-abad thrust and the Shah-Kuh thrust, respectively. Fold axes generally trend NE-SW and step to both right and left as a result of strike-slip components of fault displacements. Strain analyses using Fry's method on macroscopic ooids and fusulina deformed into oblate ellipsoids indicate that the natural strain varies between 2.1 and 3.14. The estimated angle between the maximum instantaneous strain axis (ISAmax) and the transpression zone boundary ( θ') is between 6° and 20°. The estimated oblique convergence angle ( α), therefore, ranges between 31° and 43°. The average kinematic vorticity number ( W k ) is 0.6, in a zone of sinistral pure shear-dominated inclined triclinic transpression. These results support the applicability of kinematic models of triclinic transpression to natural brittle-ductile shear zones.

  16. Soil-structure interaction on inclined soil layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massa, G.; De Stefano, R.

    1983-01-01

    The case history presented deals with a Category I building having two-thirds of its base founded on a wedge of hard material. This wedge is underlain by an inclined layer of softer material, which also directly supports the remaining one-third of the foundation. The inclined layer is underlain by a third material, possessing large stiffness and extending to great depth. This case is analyzed with the methodology described below: - Determination of the static soil compliances by discretizing the foundation area into a number of strips and taking the soil profile as horizontally layered under each strip. Lumped parameter soil compliances for the whole foundation are obtained by weighting the contributions to stiffness in proportion to the area of each strip. - Definition of the degree of coupling between modes. The soil compliances defined in the previous step include coupling between the vertical and rocking modes and the horizontal and torsional modes through the positioning of the corresponding soil springs. The degree of coupling is checked through a static finite element analysis. - Frequency correction of the static soil compliances taking into account the inhomogeneity of the foundation conditions. The correction is based on obtaining dynamic stiffness coefficients for extreme configurations of the soil profile. - Assessment of the sliding potential of the structure under earthquake loading, considering eccentricities of the dynamic forces and non-uniform friction resistance over the foundation area, accounting for the frictional capacity of the different bearing materials. It is concluded that the simplified technique can provide accurate soil compliances, coupling and frequency corrections for soil-structure interaction on sloping layers, and an appropriate assessment of the sliding potential. (orig./HP)

  17. Sexual dimorphism and regional variation in human frontal bone inclination measured via digital 3D models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petaros, Anja; Garvin, Heather M; Sholts, Sabrina B; Schlager, Stefan; Wärmländer, Sebastian K T S

    2017-11-01

    The frontal bone is one of the most sexually dimorphic elements of the human skull, due to features such as the glabella, frontal eminences, and frontal inclination. While glabella is frequently evaluated in procedures to estimate sex in unknown human skeletal remains, frontal inclination has received less attention. In this study we present a straightforward, quick, and reproducible method for measuring frontal inclination angles from glabella and supraglabella. Using a sample of 413 human crania from four different populations (U.S. Whites, U.S. Blacks, Portuguese, and Chinese), we test the usefulness of the inclination angles for sex estimation and compare their performance to traditional methods of frontal inclination assessment. Accuracy rates in the range 75-81% were achieved for the U.S. White, U.S. Black, and Portuguese groups. For Chinese the overall accuracy was lower, i.e. 66%. Although some regional variation was observed, a cut-off value of 78.2° for glabellar inclination angles separates female and male crania from all studied populations with good accuracy. As inclination angles measured from glabella captures two sexually dimorphic features (i.e. glabellar prominence and frontal inclination) in a single measure, the observed clear male/female difference is not unexpected. Being continuous variables, inclination angles are suitable for use in statistical methods for sex estimations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Coordinating bracket torque and incisor inclination : Part 3: Validity of bracket torque values in achieving norm inclinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Bernd; Sino, Hiba

    2018-03-19

    To analyze common values of bracket torque (Andrews, Roth, MBT, Ricketts) for their validity in achieving incisor inclinations that are considered normal by different cephalometric standards. Using the equations developed in part 1 (eU1 (BOP) = 90° - BT (U1) - TCA (U1) + α 1 - α 2 and eL1 (BOP) = 90° - BT (L1) - TCA (L1) + β 1 - β 2 ) (abbreviations see part 1) and the mean values (± SD) obtained as statistical measures in parts 1 and 2 of the study (α 1 and β 1 [1.7° ± 0.7°], α 2 [3.6° ± 0.3°], β 2 [3.2° ± 0.4°], TCA (U1) [24.6° ± 3.6°] and TCA (L1) [22.9° ± 4.3°]) expected (= theoretically anticipated) values were calculated for upper and lower incisors (U1 and L1) and compared to targeted (= cephalometric norm) values. For U1, there was no overlapping between the ranges of expected and targeted values, as the lowest targeted value of (58.3°; Ricketts) was higher than the highest expected value (56.5°; Andrews) relative to the bisected occlusal plane (BOP). Thus all of these torque systems will aim for flatter inclinations than prescribed by any of the norm values. Depending on target values, the various bracket systems fell short by 1.8-5.5° (Andrews), 6.8-10.5° (Roth), 11.8-15.5° (MBT), or 16.8-20.5° (Ricketts). For L1, there was good agreement of the MBT system with the Ricketts and Björk target values (Δ0.1° and Δ-0.8°, respectively), and both the Roth and Ricketts systems came close to the Bergen target value (both Δ2.3°). Depending on target values, the ranges of deviation for L1 were 6.3-13.2° for Andrews (Class II prescription), 2.3°-9.2° for Roth, -3.7 to -3.2° for MBT, and 2.3-9.2° for Ricketts. Common values of upper incisor bracket torque do not have acceptable validity in achieving normal incisor inclinations. A careful selection of lower bracket torque may provide satisfactory matching with some of the targeted norm values.

  19. Crystal Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Verner; Lingafelter, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses characteristics of crystal systems, comparing (in table format) crystal systems with lattice types, number of restrictions, nature of the restrictions, and other lattices that can accidently show the same metrical symmetry. (JN)

  20. Virtual Crystallizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Land, T A; Dylla-Spears, R; Thorsness, C B

    2006-08-29

    Large dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals are grown in large crystallizers to provide raw material for the manufacture of optical components for large laser systems. It is a challenge to grow crystal with sufficient mass and geometric properties to allow large optical plates to be cut from them. In addition, KDP has long been the canonical solution crystal for study of growth processes. To assist in the production of the crystals and the understanding of crystal growth phenomena, analysis of growth habits of large KDP crystals has been studied, small scale kinetic experiments have been performed, mass transfer rates in model systems have been measured, and computational-fluid-mechanics tools have been used to develop an engineering model of the crystal growth process. The model has been tested by looking at its ability to simulate the growth of nine KDP boules that all weighed more than 200 kg.

  1. Crystal Engineering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nangia (2002). “Today, research areas under the wide umbrella of crystal engineering include: supramolecular synthesis; nanotechnology; separation science and catalysis; supramolecular materials and devices; polymorphism; cocrystals, crystal structure prediction; drug design and ligand–protein binding.”

  2. EFFECTS OF BUOYANCY RATIO ON CONVECTIVE HEAT AND SOLUTE TRANSFER IN NEWTONIAN FLUID SATURATED INCLINED POROUS CAVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A LATRECHE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes a numerical study of the effects of buoyancy ratio on double-diffusive natural convection in square inclined cavity filled with fluid saturated porous media. Transverse gradients of heat and solute are applied on the two horizontal walls of the cavity, while the other two walls are impermeable and adiabatic. The Darcy model with the Boussinesq approximation is used to solve the governing equations. The flow is driven by a combined buoyancy effect due to both temperature and concentration variations. A finite volume approach has been used to solve the non-dimensional governing equations. The results are presented in streamline, isothermal, iso-concentration, Nusselt and Sherwood contours for different values of the non-dimensional governing parameters.

  3. New inclination changing eclipsing binaries in the Magellanic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juryšek, J.; Zasche, P.; Wolf, M.; Vraštil, J.; Vokrouhlický, D.; Skarka, M.; Liška, J.; Janík, J.; Zejda, M.; Kurfürst, P.; Paunzen, E.

    2018-01-01

    Context. Multiple stellar systems are unique laboratories for astrophysics. Analysis of their orbital dynamics, if well characterized from their observations, may reveal invaluable information about the physical properties of the participating stars. Unfortunately, there are only a few known and well described multiple systems, this is even more so for systems located outside the Milky Way galaxy. A particularly interesting situation occurs when the inner binary in a compact triple system is eclipsing. This is because the stellar interaction, typically resulting in precession of orbital planes, may be observable as a variation of depth of the eclipses on a long timescale. Aims: We aim to present a novel method to determine compact triples using publicly available photometric data from large surveys. Here we apply it to eclipsing binaries (EBs) in Magellanic Clouds from OGLE III database. Our tool consists of identifying the cases where the orbital plane of EB evolves in accord with expectations from the interaction with a third star. Methods: We analyzed light curves (LCs) of 26121 LMC and 6138 SMC EBs with the goal to identify those for which the orbital inclination varies in time. Archival LCs of the selected systems, when complemented by our own observations with Danish 1.54-m telescope, were thoroughly analyzed using the PHOEBE program. This provided physical parameters of components of each system. Time dependence of the EB's inclination was described using the theory of orbital-plane precession. By observing the parameter-dependence of the precession rate, we were able to constrain the third companion mass and its orbital period around EB. Results: We identified 58 candidates of new compact triples in Magellanic Clouds. This is the largest published sample of such systems so far. Eight of them were analyzed thoroughly and physical parameters of inner binary were determined together with an estimation of basic characteristics of the third star. Prior to our

  4. Aerodynamics of wing-assisted incline running in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobalske, Bret W; Dial, Kenneth P

    2007-05-01

    Wing-assisted incline running (WAIR) is a form of locomotion in which a bird flaps its wings to aid its hindlimbs in climbing a slope. WAIR is used for escape in ground birds, and the ontogeny of this behavior in precocial birds has been suggested to represent a model analogous to transitional adaptive states during the evolution of powered avian flight. To begin to reveal the aerodynamics of flap-running, we used digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) and measured air velocity, vorticity, circulation and added mass in the wake of chukar partridge Alectoris chukar as they engaged in WAIR (incline 65-85 degrees; N=7 birds) and ascending flight (85 degrees, N=2). To estimate lift and impulse, we coupled our DPIV data with three-dimensional wing kinematics from a companion study. The ontogeny of lift production was evaluated using three age classes: baby birds incapable of flight [6-8 days post hatching (d.p.h.)] and volant juveniles (25-28 days) and adults (45+ days). All three age classes of birds, including baby birds with partially emerged, symmetrical wing feathers, generated circulation with their wings and exhibited a wake structure that consisted of discrete vortex rings shed once per downstroke. Impulse of the vortex rings during WAIR was directed 45+/-5 degrees relative to horizontal and 21+/-4 degrees relative to the substrate. Absolute values of circulation in vortex cores and induced velocity increased with increasing age. Normalized circulation was similar among all ages in WAIR but 67% greater in adults during flight compared with flap-running. Estimated lift during WAIR was 6.6% of body weight in babies and between 63 and 86% of body weight in juveniles and adults. During flight, average lift was 110% of body weight. Our results reveal for the first time that lift from the wings, rather than wing inertia or profile drag, is primarily responsible for accelerating the body toward the substrate during WAIR, and that partially developed wings, not yet

  5. Synthesis, crystal structure, thermal analysis and dielectric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In both the materials, the crystal structure has been determined by X-ray single crystal analysis at room temperature (293 K). The compound structures consist of K + (or NH 4 + ) cations and double chains of CdCl 6 octahedra sharing one edge extending along b -axis. The mixture of KA + /NH 4 + cations are located ...

  6. Percentiles relative to maxillary permanent canine inclination by age: a radiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandri Bonetti, Giulio; Zanarini, Matteo; Danesi, Margherita; Parenti, Serena Incerti; Gatto, Maria Rosaria

    2009-10-01

    Few studies have investigated developmental norms for maxillary permanent canine eruption. In this observational cross-sectional study, we aimed to provide an age-related description of the percentiles relative to canine inclination in a large sample of nonorthodontic patients. Associations between inclination and sector were also analyzed. Canine inclination and sector location were measured on 1020 panoramic radiographs obtained from subjects of white ancestry aged between 8 and 11 years not seeking orthodontic treatment. The total sample comprised 2037 canines. Canine inclination increases between 8 and 9 years and decreases between 9 and 11 years. The greatest value for each percentile is at 9 years. A linear model should be hypothesized for differences in canine inclination between 2 successive ages in correspondence to each percentile. The proportion of sector 2 canines decreases and that of sector 1 increases with age. In the same age group, the inclination generally decreases as the sector decreases. Percentiles by age show the average canine inclination in a certain population. Further studies are required to verify whether percentiles can be a diagnostic aid for determining normal canine inclination at a given age and for quantifying the risk of canine impaction or adjacent root resorption.

  7. How do the substrate reaction forces acting on a gecko's limbs respond to inclines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhouyi; Dai, Zhendong; Li, Wei; Ji, Aihong; Wang, Wenbao

    2015-02-01

    Locomotion is an essential character of animals, and excellent moving ability results from the delicate sensing of the substrate reaction forces (SRF) acting on body and modulating the behavior to adapt the motion requirement. The inclined substrates present in habitats pose a number of functional challenges to locomotion. In order to effectively overcome these challenges, climbing geckos execute complex and accurate movements that involve both the front and hind limbs. Few studies have examined gecko's SRF on steeper inclines of greater than 90°. To reveal how the SRFs acting on the front and hind limbs respond to angle incline changes, we obtained detailed measurements of the three-dimensional SRFs acting on the individual limbs of the tokay gecko while it climbed on an inclined angle of 0-180°. The fore-aft forces acting on the front and hind limbs show opposite trends on inverted inclines of greater than 120°, indicating propulsion mechanism changes in response to inclines. When the incline angles change, the forces exerted in the normal and fore-aft directions by gecko's front and hind limbs are reassigned to take full advantage of limbs' different roles in overcoming resistance and in propelling locomotion. This also ensures that weight acts in the angle range between the forces generated by the front and hind limbs. The change in the distribution of SRF with a change in the incline angle is directly linked to the favorable trade-off between locomotive maneuverability and stability.

  8. Variation of the Friction Coefficient for a Cylinder Rolling down an Inclined Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zixiang; Xia, Heming; Lan, Yueheng; Xiao, Jinghua

    2018-01-01

    A cylinder rolling down an inclined board is a commonly seen and interesting object to study and it is also easy to experiment with and model. Following what has become a popular practice, we use smartphones to measure the angular acceleration of a cylinder rolling down a plane of different inclining angles. The friction force deviates from the…

  9. The effect of surfactants on upward air-water pipe flow at various inclinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nimwegen, A.T.; Portela, L.; Henkes, R.A.W.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we extend our previous efforts on the effect of surfactants on air-water flow in a vertical pipe by also considering pipe inclinations between 20° (with respect to horizontal) and vertical. For air-water flow, independent of the inclination, there is a regular annular flow at large

  10. Comparison of normal permanent and primary dentition sagittal tooth-crown inclinations of Japanese females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inada, Emi; Saitoh, Issei; Hayasaki, Haruaki; Iwase, Yoko; Kubota, Naoko; Takemoto, Yoshihiko; Yamasaki, Youichi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics of permanent and primary tooth-crown inclinations. Landmark points from cephalograms and dental casts of two groups; 23 women (mean 20.3 +/- 3.3 years) and 11 girls (mean 5.2 +/- 0.1 years) were digitized, and the coordinates were integrated and transformed to a standardized plane. The 3-dimensional crown inclinations were projected on the sagittal plane, and the angles between the tooth vectors and the FH plane were calculated. An independent-group t-test was used to test for group differences of each tooth inclination, and correlation coefficients were generated for the inclination angles among the permanent and primary teeth. Most maxillary tooth-crown inclinations showed significant age-related differences, while only the second premolar and primary second molar differed significantly in the mandible. The maxillary molars were parallel to the corresponding mandibular molars and correlated with each other, but the primary molars were not. Significant correlations were found between inclinations of most permanent teeth, but not the primary teeth. Maxillary tooth-crown inclinations change during growth, but tooth-crown inclinations of the mandibular teeth do not.

  11. Crystal collimator systems for high energy frontier

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2100516; Tikhomirov, Viktor; Lobko, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Crystalline collimators can potentially considerably improve the cleaning performance of the presently used collimator systems using amorphous collimators. A crystal-based collimation scheme which relies on the channeling particle deflection in bent crystals has been proposed and extensively studied both theoretically and experimentally. However, since the efficiency of particle capture into the channeling regime does not exceed ninety percent, this collimation scheme partly suffers from the same leakage problems as the schemes using amorphous collimators. To improve further the cleaning efficiency of the crystal-based collimation system to meet the requirements of the FCC, we suggest here a double crystal-based collimation scheme, to which the second crystal is introduced to enhance the deflection of the particles escaping the capture to the channeling regime in its first crystal. The application of the effect of multiple volume reflection in one bent crystal and of the same in a sequence of crystals is simu...

  12. Space Station Freedom assembly and operation at a 51.6 degree inclination orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troutman, Patrick A.; Brewer, Laura M.; Heck, Michael L.; Kumar, Renjith R.

    1993-01-01

    This study examines the implications of assembling and operating Space Station Freedom at a 51.6 degree inclination orbit utilizing an enhanced lift Space Shuttle. Freedom assembly is currently baselined at a 220 nautical mile high, 28.5 degree inclination orbit. Some of the reasons for increasing the orbital inclination are (1) increased ground coverage for Earth observations, (2) greater accessibility from Russian and other international launch sites, and (3) increased number of Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) landing sites. Previous studies have looked at assembling Freedom at a higher inclination using both medium and heavy lift expendable launch vehicles (such as Shuttle-C and Energia). The study assumes that the shuttle is used exclusively for delivering the station to orbit and that it can gain additional payload capability from design changes such as a lighter external tank that somewhat offsets the performance decrease that occurs when the shuttle is launched to a 51.6 degree inclination orbit.

  13. Efficient light trapping in silicon inclined nanohole arrays for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Can; Tan, Xinyu; Jiang, Lihua; Tu, Yiteng; Ye, Mao; Yi, Yasha

    2018-01-01

    Structural design with high light absorption is the key challenge for thin film solar cells because of its poor absorption. In this paper, the light-trapping performance of silicon inclined nanohole arrays is systematically studied. The finite difference time domain method is used to calculate the optical absorption of different inclination angles in different periods and diameters. The results indicate that the inclined nanoholes with inclination angles between 5° and 45° demonstrate greater light-trapping ability than their counterparts of the vertical nanoholes, and they also show that by choosing the optimal parameters for the inclined nanoholes, a 31.2 mA/cm2 short circuit photocurrent density could be achieved, which is 10.25% higher than the best vertical nanohole system and 105.26% higher than bare silicon with a thickness of 2330 nm. The design principle proposed in this work gives a guideline for choosing reasonable parameters in the application of solar cells.

  14. Experimental Study of Natural Convection Cooling of Vertical Cylinders with Inclined Plate Fins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Bum Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, natural convection from vertical cylinders with inclined plate fins is investigated experimentally for use in cooling electronic equipment. Extensive experimental investigations are performed for various inclination angles, fin numbers, and base temperatures. From the experimental data, a correlation for estimating the Nusselt number is proposed. The correlation is applicable when the Rayleigh number, inclination angle, and fin number are in the ranges 100,000–600,000, 30°–90°, and 9–36, respectively. Using the correlation, a contour map depicting the thermal resistance as a function of the fin number and fin thickness is presented. Finally, the optimal thermal resistances of cylinders with inclined plate fins and conventional radial plate fins are compared. It is found that that the optimal thermal resistance of the cylinder with inclined fins is 30% lower than that of the cylinder with radial plate fins.

  15. Numerical Analysis of Aerodynamic Characteristics of the Finned Surfaces with Cross-inclined Fins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagutin A. E.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of numerical research and analyses air-side hydraulic performance of tube bundles with cross inclined fins. The numerical simulation of the fin-tube heat exchanger was performed using the Comsol Femlab software. The results of modeling show the influence of fin inclination angle and tube pitch on hydraulic characteristics of finned surfaces. A series of numerical tests were carried out for tube bundles with different inclination angles (γ =900, 850, 650, 60, the fin pitch u=4 mm. The results indicate that tube bundles with cross inclined fins can significantly enhance the average integral value of the air flow rate in channel between fins in comparison with conventional straight fins. Aerodynamic processes on both sides of modificated channel between inclined fins were analyzed. The verification procedures for received results of numerical modeling with experimental data were performed.

  16. Stability of film boiling on inclined plates and spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aursand, Eskil; Hammer, Morten; Munkejord, Svend Tollak; Müller, Bernhard; Ytrehus, Tor

    2017-11-01

    In film boiling, a continuous sub-millimeter vapor film forms between a liquid and a heated surface, insulating the two from each other. While quite accurate steady state solutions are readily obtained, the intermediate Reynolds numbers can make transient analysis challenging. The present work is a theoretical study of film boiling instabilities. We study the formation of travelling waves that are a combination of Kelvin-Helmholtz and the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. In particular, we study how the nature of this process depends on the Reynolds number, the Bond number, and the inclination of the submerged heated plate. In addition we extend the analysis to the case of a submerged heated sphere. Modelling of the transient dynamics of such films is important for answering practical questions such as how instabilities affect the overall heat transfer, and whether they can lead to complete film boiling collapse (Leidenfrost point). This work has been financed under the MAROFF program. We acknowledge the Research Council of Norway (244076/O80) and The Gas Technology Centre NTNU-SINTEF (GTS) for support.

  17. Articular Eminence Inclination in Medieval and Contemporary Croatian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranjčić, Josip; Šlaus, Mario; Vodanović, Marin; Peršić, Sanja; Vojvodić, Denis

    2016-12-01

    Articular eminence inclination (AEI) of the temporomandibular joint leads the mandible in its movements. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine AEI values in medieval (MP) and recent (RP) Croatian population. The study was carried out on two groups of specimens: first group with 30 MP human dry skulls, while the other, serving as control group consisted of 137 dry skulls. The AEI was measured on lateral digital skull images as the angle between the best fi t line drawn along the posterior wall of the articular eminence and the Frankfurt horizontal plane. No statistically significant (p>0.05) differences between the left and right side AEI were found between MP skulls and RP skulls. The mean value of MP AEI was 45.5˚, with a range of 20.9˚-64˚. The mean RP AEI value was steeper (61.99˚), with a range of 30˚-94˚. Difference between the mean MP and RP AEI values was statistically significant (pmedieval time, and consequently different masticatory loads and forces.

  18. Evaluation of primary stability of inclined orthodontic mini-implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Mizuki

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the initial stability of mini-implants when placed slanting or perpendicular to the bone surface, and to examine the effects of differences in tractional direction. Titanium mini-implants were inserted into rabbit nasal bones, slanting (60 degrees , 120 degrees ) or perpendicular (90 degrees ) to the bone surface. These implants were then loaded with a force of approximately 2 N, using a NiTi coil spring. The mobilities on the traction and non-traction sides were assessed using the Periotest device immediately after placement and after traction for two weeks. Then, the tissues with the mini-implants were resected, and the contact between the bone and the implant was examined by electron microscopy. There was a tendency for the mobilities of the mini-implants at 60 degrees and 120 degrees to be smaller than those at 90 degrees when measured before and after traction. The bone-implant contact lengths at 60 degrees were significantly longer than those at 90 degrees . There was no significant difference in the bone-implant contact ratio among the different angles. Correlations were evident between implant mobility and contact length or contact ratio. It is concluded that in clinical practice, implants inclined to the bone surface tend to have better primary stability.

  19. Fluorescence intensity dependence on the propagation plane inclination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.E.; Rubio, Marcelo; Sanchez, H. J.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental confirmation of the fluorescence intensity behaviour with the inclination of the propagation plane (α angle) was carried out. A special angular sample-holder was developed and set up on our X-ray spectrometer. This sample-holder allows different positions of irradiation of the sample modifying the α angle until the maximum angle (α Μ ) is reached in the limit situation. In this work, this maximum angle was 86 deg and the incidence and take off angles were both 45 deg. The sample-holder and the collimation system were carefully lined up. The fluorescent spectra of three National Bureau of Standards (NBS) standard samples were taken for sixteen different α angle positions. The theoretical scheme for both enhanced fluorescent lines and nonenhanced fluorescent lines was confirmed, i.e. the invariance of the primary intensity with the α angle and the decline of the enhanced fluorescence intensities under the same conditions. This experimental confirmation agrees with theoretical prediction: the vanishing of the secondary fluorescence in the extreme case α = π/2. (Author) [es

  20. Double ambidexterity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaulio, Matti; Thorén, Kent; Rohrbeck, René

    2017-01-01

    We leverage the business model innovation and ambidexterity literature to investigate a contradictory case, the Swedish-Finnish Telecom operator TeliaSonera. Despite being challenged by three major disruptions, the company not only still exists but also enjoys remarkably good financial performance...... this behaviour as double ambidexterity. We use an in-depth case study to conceptualize double ambidexterity and discuss its impact on the business's survival and enduring success........ Building on extant archival data and interviews, we carefully identify and map 26 organizational responses during 1992–2016. We find that the firm has overcome three critical phases by experimenting and pioneering with portfolios of business models and/or technological innovations. We describe...

  1. Double Chooz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, Christian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    The goal of the Double Chooz reactor neutrino experiment is to search for the neutrino mixing parameter {theta}{sub 13}. Double Chooz will use two identical detectors at 150 m and 1.05 km distance from the reactor cores. The near detector is used to monitor the reactor {nu}-bar {sub e} flux while the second is dedicated to the search for a deviation from the expected (1/distance){sup 2} behavior. This two detector concept will allow a relative normalization systematic error of ca. 0.6 %. The expected sensitivity for sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 13} is then in the range 0.02 - 0.03 after three years of data taking. The antineutrinos will be detected in a liquid scintillator through the capture on protons followed by a gamma cascade, produced by the neutron capture on Gd.

  2. Raphide crystal structure in agave tequilana determined by x-ray originating from synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadokoro, Makoto; Ozawa, Yoshiki; Mitsumi, Minoru; Toriumi, Kohshiro; Ogura, Tetsuya

    2005-01-01

    The first single crystal structure of small natural raphides in an agave plant is completely determined using an intense X-ray originating from a synchrotron radiation. The SEM image shows that the tip of the crystal is approximately hundreds of nanometer in width sharply grow to stick to the tissue of herbivorous vermin. Furthermore, the crystal develops cracks that propagate at an inclination of approximately 45deg towards the direction of crystal growth such that the crystal easily splits into small pieces in the tissue. (author)

  3. Realization of a complementary medium using dielectric photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Fang, Anan; Jia, Ziyuan; Ji, Liyu; Hang, Zhi Hong

    2017-12-01

    By exploiting the scaling invariance of photonic band diagrams, a complementary photonic crystal slab structure is realized by stacking two uniformly scaled double-zero-index dielectric photonic crystal slabs together. The space cancellation effect in complementary photonic crystals is demonstrated in both numerical simulations and microwave experiments. The refractive index dispersion of double-zero-index dielectric photonic crystal is experimentally measured. Using pure dielectrics, our photonic crystal structure will be an ideal platform to explore various intriguing properties related to a complementary medium.

  4. RNA Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Barbara L.; Kundrot, Craig E.

    2003-01-01

    RNA molecules may be crystallized using variations of the methods developed for protein crystallography. As the technology has become available to syntheisize and purify RNA molecules in the quantities and with the quality that is required for crystallography, the field of RNA structure has exploded. The first consideration when crystallizing an RNA is the sequence, which may be varied in a rational way to enhance crystallizability or prevent formation of alternate structures. Once a sequence has been designed, the RNA may be synthesized chemically by solid-state synthesis, or it may be produced enzymatically using RNA polymerase and an appropriate DNA template. Purification of milligram quantities of RNA can be accomplished by HPLC or gel electrophoresis. As with proteins, crystallization of RNA is usually accomplished by vapor diffusion techniques. There are several considerations that are either unique to RNA crystallization or more important for RNA crystallization. Techniques for design, synthesis, purification, and crystallization of RNAs will be reviewed here.

  5. Revealing strong bias in common measures of galaxy properties using new inclination-independent structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devour, Brian M.; Bell, Eric F.

    2017-06-01

    Accurate measurement of galaxy structures is a prerequisite for quantitative investigation of galaxy properties or evolution. Yet, the impact of galaxy inclination and dust on commonly used metrics of galaxy structure is poorly quantified. We use infrared data sets to select inclination-independent samples of disc and flattened elliptical galaxies. These samples show strong variation in Sérsic index, concentration and half-light radii with inclination. We develop novel inclination-independent galaxy structures by collapsing the light distribution in the near-infrared on to the major axis, yielding inclination-independent 'linear' measures of size and concentration. With these new metrics we select a sample of Milky Way analogue galaxies with similar stellar masses, star formation rates, sizes and concentrations. Optical luminosities, light distributions and spectral properties are all found to vary strongly with inclination: When inclining to edge-on, r-band luminosities dim by >1 magnitude, sizes decrease by a factor of 2, 'dust-corrected' estimates of star formation rate drop threefold, metallicities decrease by 0.1 dex and edge-on galaxies are half as likely to be classified as star forming. These systematic effects should be accounted for in analyses of galaxy properties.

  6. Influence of Cusp Inclination and Type of Retention on Fracture Load of Implant-Supported Crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Cibele Oliveira de Melo; Longhini, Diogo; Pereira, Rodrigo de Paula; Arioli, João Neudenir

    2017-01-01

    There are few informations about the influence of cusp inclination on the fracture strength of implant-supported crowns. The study aimed to evaluate the influence of cusp inclination and retention type on fracture load in implant-supported metal-ceramic single crowns. Sixty crowns were made, classified as cemented and screw-retained with screw access hole (SAH) sealed or not. Standard (33°) and reduced (20°) cusp inclinations were tested for each group (n=10). To support crowns of a mandibular second molar, analogs of external hexagon implants 5.0 were used. The fracture load was measured in a universal testing machine EMIC DL2000 (10 kN load cell; 0.5 mm/min). Two-way ANOVA (retention and cusp inclination) followed by post hoc Tukey's honest significant difference test was used for the statistical analyses (a=0.05). Crowns with reduced cusp inclination exhibited significantly higher fracture load (pcrowns with standard cusp inclination. Cemented crowns showed significantly higher fracture load (pcrowns. The interaction among these factors was not significant (p>0.05) for the fracture load. The sealing of SAH did not influence the fracture load of screw-retained crowns (p>0.05). In conclusion, fracture load of implant-supported metal-ceramic crowns was influenced by retention and cusp inclination, and there was no influence of the sealing of SAH.

  7. Influence of dental chair backrest inclination on the registration of the mandibular position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Mariana Freire; Cavalcanti, Bruno das Neves; Claro Neves, Ana Christina; Jóias, Renata Pilli; Rode, Sigmar de Mello

    2015-11-01

    Varying the inclination of the dental chair backrest might alter the distribution of occlusal contact points. The purpose of this study was to identify the influence of backrest inclination on the registration of the mandibular position. Ten participants aged between 18 and 30 years with a complete permanent dentition, uncompromised motor function, no tooth mobility, and no temporomandibular disorders were selected. To register interocclusal contacts, an autopolymerizing methylmethacrylate device was adapted to the maxillary anterior teeth and a composite resin increment was added to the mandibular central incisors. Contacts were registered with the following variations in the inclination of the dental chair backrest: 90 degrees, 120 degrees, and 180 degrees. A standardized digital photograph was made of each mark in each backrest position, and the images were superimposed to measure the distances in registration from 90 to 120 and from 90 to 180 degrees. Data were analyzed with the Student paired t test (α=.05). When the chair was inclined from the 90-degree to the 120-degree position, the mandible was repositioned posteriorly by a mean of 0.67 mm, but the difference was not statistically significant. When the chair was inclined from the 90-degree to the 180-degree position, however, the mandible was repositioned posteriorly by a statistically significant mean of 1.41 mm. Mandibular position is influenced by increasing inclination, and this influence was statistically significant at a 180-degree incline. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Treating domestic sewage by Integrated Inclined-Plate-Membrane bio-reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Li Ming; Wang, Zi; Chen, Lei; Zhong, Min; Dong, Zhan Feng

    2017-12-01

    Membrane fouling shorten the service life of the membrane and increases aeration rate for membrane surface cleaning. Two membrane bio-reactors, one for working and another for comparing, were set up to evaluate the feasibility of alleviating membrane fouling and improving wastewater treatment efficiency by integrating inclined-plate precipitation and membrane separation. The result show that: (1) Inclined-plate in reactor had a good effect on pollutant removal of membrane bioreactor. The main role of inclined-plate is dividing reactor space and accelerating precipitation. (2) Working reactor have better performance in COD, TN and TP removal, which can attribute to that working reactor (integrated inclined-plate-Membrane bioreactor) takes both advantages of membrane separation and biological treatment. When influent COD, TP and TN concentration is 163-248 mg/L, 2.08-2.81 mg/L and 24.38-30.49 mg/L in working reactor, effluent concentration is 27-35 mg/L, 0.53-0.59 mg/L and 11.28-11.56 mg/L, respectively. (3) Membrane fouling was well alleviated in integrated inclined-plate-Membrane bioreactor, and membrane normal service time is significantly longer than that in comparing reactor, which can attribute to accelerating precipitation of inclined-plate. In summary, integrated inclined-plate-Membrane bioreactor is a promising technology to alleviating membrane fouling and improving wastewater treatment efficiency, having good performance and bright future in application.

  9. Generation of inclined protoplanetary discs and misaligned planets through mass accretion - I. Coplanar secondary discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang-Gruess, M.; Kroupa, P.

    2017-10-01

    We study the three-dimensional (3D) evolution of a viscous protoplanetary disc that accretes gas material from a second protoplanetary disc during a close encounter in an embedded star cluster. The aim is to investigate the capability of the mass accretion scenario to generate strongly inclined gaseous discs that could later form misaligned planets. We use smoothed particle hydrodynamics to study mass transfer and disc inclination for passing stars and circumstellar discs with different masses. We explore different orbital configurations to find the parameter space that allows significant disc inclination generation. Thies et al. suggested that significant disc inclination and disc or planetary system shrinkage can generally be produced by the accretion of external gas material with a different angular momentum. We found that this condition can be fulfilled for a large range of gas mass and angular momentum. For all encounters, mass accretion from the secondary disc increases with decreasing mass of the secondary proto-star. Thus, higher disc inclinations can be attained for lower secondary stellar masses. Variations of the secondary disc's orientation relative to the orbital plane can alter the disc evolution significantly. The results taken together show that mass accretion can change the 3D disc orientation significantly resulting in strongly inclined discs. In combination with the gravitational interaction between the two star-disc systems, this scenario is relevant for explaining the formation of highly inclined discs that could later form misaligned planets.

  10. The effect of an inclined landing surface on biomechanical variables during a jumping task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagins, Marshall; Pappas, Evangelos; Kremenic, Ian; Orishimo, Karl F; Rundle, Andrew

    2007-11-01

    Professional dancers sustain a high number of injuries. Epidemiological studies have suggested that performing on inclined "raked" stages increases the likelihood of injury. However, no studies have examined if biomechanical differences exist between inclined and flat surfaces during functional tasks, such as landing from a jump. Such differences may provide a biomechanical rationale for differences in injury risk for raked stages. Eight professional dancers performed drop jumps from a 40cm platform on flat and inclined surfaces while forces, lower extremity kinematics, and electromyographic activity were collected in a controlled laboratory environment. Dancers landed on the laterally inclined surface with significantly higher knee valgus (4 degrees ), peak knee flexion (9 degrees ), and medial-lateral ground reaction force (GRF) (13.4% body weight) compared to the flat condition. The posterior GRF was higher in the anterior inclined condition compared to the flat condition. In the anterior inclined condition, subjects landed with 1.4 degrees higher knee valgus, 4 degrees more plantarflexion at initial contact, and 3 degrees less dorsiflexion at the end of landing. Biomechanical variables that have been suggested to contribute to injury in previous studies are increased in the inclined floor conditions. These findings provide a preliminary biomechanical rationale for differences in injury rates found in observational studies of raked stages.

  11. Comparison of the buccolingual inclination in alveolar bone and tooth using dental CBCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Jin Soo; Kim, Jae Duk

    2008-01-01

    It is important to determine the bucco-lingual inclination of implants on radiographs before the implant surgery. The purpose of this study was to compare the buccolingual inclination in alveolar bone and the tooth with dental cone beam CT and to prepare the standard for the buccolingual inclination of implant. Axial, panoramic, and buccolingually sectioned images of 80 implant cases with stent including straight marker using CB Mercuray TM (Hitachi, Japan) were evaluated. The comparison of the buccolingual inclination of remained alveolar bone with the tooth and the marker on buccolingually sectioned views was performed statistically. The average buccolingual inclination of remained alveolar bone and tooth was 82.8 ± 4.6 .deg. C and 85.8 ± 4.7 .deg. C (p 0.05, r=0.12) at the 2nd premolar area in upper jaw. The average buccolingual inclination of remained alveolar bone and tooth was 81.3 ± 8.3 .deg. C and 87.5 ± 6.3 .deg. C (p>0.05, r=0.85) at the lower 2nd premolar area and 94.3 ± 6.6 .deg. C and 93.3 ± 7.2 .deg. C respectively (p>0.05, r=0.91) at the 1st molar area in lower jaw. The inclinations of markers were very different from those of remained bone at the most of areas except the upper 2nd premolar area (r=0.79). We recommend dental CBCT analysis for determining the buccolingual inclination of dental implant, because of significant difference, in average, between the buccolingual inclination of remained alveolar bone and tooth.

  12. Natural Convection in an Inclined Porous Cavity with Spatial Sidewall Temperature Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Selamat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural convection in an inclined porous square cavity is investigated numerically. The left wall is assumed to have spatial sinusoidal temperature variations about a constant mean value, while the right wall is cooled. The horizontal walls are considered adiabatic. A finite difference method is used to solve numerically the nondimensional governing equations. The effects of the inclination angle of the cavity, the amplitude and wave numbers of the heated sidewall temperature variation on the natural convection in the cavity are studied. The maximum average Nusselt number occurs at different wave number. It also found that the inclination could influence the Nusselt number.

  13. Effect of wall inclination on natural convection in a porous trapezoidal cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, H. T.; Sivasankaran, S.; Siri, Z.

    2014-07-01

    The present study investigates numerically the effect of wall inclination of a trapezoidal cavity on natural convective flow and heat transfer. The cavity is filled with porous medium. Sinusoidal temperature is applied on the inclined wall and the opposite wall is maintained at a constant temperature. The top and bottom walls are adiabatic. The Darcy model is adopted for porous medium. The governing equations are solved using the finite difference method with various values of wall inclination and Rayleigh number. The heat transfer of the square cavity is found to be higher than that of trapezoidal and triangular cavities.

  14. The metabolic cost of walking on an incline in the Peacock (Pavo cristatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Holly; Thavarajah, Nathan; Codd, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Altering speed and moving on a gradient can affect an animal’s posture and gait, which in turn can change the energetic requirements of terrestrial locomotion. Here, the energetic and kinematic effects of locomoting on an incline were investigated in the Indian peacock, Pavo cristatus. The mass-specific metabolic rate of the Indian peacock was elevated on an incline, but this change was not dependent on the angle ascended and the cost of lifting remained similar between the two inclines (+5 a...

  15. Thermal stress analysis and diffraction simulation of a standard and inclined gallium-cooled high-heat-load X-ray monochromator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, C.S.; Macrander, A.T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the methods used to calculate the thermally induced deformations in symmetrically cut, standardly configured and inclined monochromator crystals using finite element analysis. The results of these analyses are compared to recent undulator experiments conducted at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS) using a high-performance, liquid-gallium-cooled silicon crystal. The modeling was carried out for a range of machine currents, and the calculated rocking curve widths were within 10% of the experimental values. The asymmetric shape of the rocking curves at high currents was also predicted. These results lend credibility to our assertion that computer simulations can be used to reliably and accurately predict the performance of high-heat-load X-ray optics for future synchrotron sources. (orig.)

  16. Double functions of porous TiO2 electrodes on CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells: Enhancement of perovskite crystal transformation and prohibition of short circuiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugadoss, Govindhasamy; Mizuta, Gai; Tanaka, Soichiro; Nishino, Hitoshi; Umeyama, Tomokazu; Imahori, Hiroshi; Ito, Seigo

    2014-08-01

    In order to analyze the crystal transformation from hexagonal PbI2 to CH3NH3PbI3 by the sequential (two-step) deposition process, perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 layers were deposited on flat and/or porous TiO2 layers. Although the narrower pores using small nanoparticles prohibited the effective transformation, the porous-TiO2 matrix was able to help the crystal transformation of PbI2 to CH3NH3PbI3 by sequential two-step deposition. The resulting PbI2 crystals in porous TiO2 electrodes did not deteriorate the photovoltaic effects. Moreover, it is confirmed that the porous TiO2 electrode had served the function of prohibiting short circuits between working and counter electrodes in perovskite solar cells.

  17. Double functions of porous TiO2 electrodes on CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells: Enhancement of perovskite crystal transformation and prohibition of short circuiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindhasamy Murugadoss

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the crystal transformation from hexagonal PbI2 to CH3NH3PbI3 by the sequential (two-step deposition process, perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 layers were deposited on flat and/or porous TiO2 layers. Although the narrower pores using small nanoparticles prohibited the effective transformation, the porous-TiO2 matrix was able to help the crystal transformation of PbI2 to CH3NH3PbI3 by sequential two-step deposition. The resulting PbI2 crystals in porous TiO2 electrodes did not deteriorate the photovoltaic effects. Moreover, it is confirmed that the porous TiO2 electrode had served the function of prohibiting short circuits between working and counter electrodes in perovskite solar cells.

  18. Crystallization phenomena in slags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrling, Carl Folke

    2000-09-01

    The crystallization of the mold slag affects both the heat transfer and the lubrication between the mold and the strand in continuous casting of steel. In order for mold slag design to become an engineering science rather than an empirical exercise, a fundamental understanding of the melting and solidification behavior of a slag must be developed. Thus it is necessary to be able to quantify the phenomena that occur under the thermal conditions that are found in the mold of a continuous caster. The double hot thermocouple technique (DHTT) and the Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope used in this study are two novel techniques for investigating melting and solidification phenomena of transparent slags. Results from these techniques are useful in defining the phenomena that occur when the slag film infiltrates between the mold and the shell of the casting. TTT diagrams were obtained for various slags and indicated that the onset of crystallization is a function of cooling rate and slag chemistry. Crystal morphology was found to be dependent upon the experimental temperature and four different morphologies were classified based upon the degree of melt undercooling. Continuous cooling experiments were carried out to develop CCT diagrams and it was found that the amount and appearance of the crystalline fraction greatly depends on the cooling conditions. The DHTT can also be used to mimic the cooling profile encountered by the slag in the mold of a continuous caster. In this differential cooling mode (DCT), it was found that the details of the cooling rate determine the actual response of the slag to a thermal gradient and small changes can lead to significantly different results. Crystal growth rates were measured and found to be in the range between 0.11 mum/s to 11.73 mum/s depending on temperature and slag chemistry. Alumina particles were found to be effective innoculants in oxide melts reducing the incubation time for the onset of crystallization and also extending

  19. Crystal Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 3 NIST Crystal Data (PC database for purchase)   NIST Crystal Data contains chemical, physical, and crystallographic information useful to characterize more than 237,671 inorganic and organic crystalline materials. The data include the standard cell parameters, cell volume, space group number and symbol, calculated density, chemical formula, chemical name, and classification by chemical type.

  20. Inclination shallowing in the Eocene Linzizong sediments from Tibet: correction, possible causes and implications for reconstructing the India-Asia collision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, W.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; Lippert, P.C.; Hinsbergen, D.J.J. van; Hallot, E.

    2013-01-01

    A systematic bias towards low palaeomagnetic inclination recorded in clastic sediments, that is, inclination shallowing, has been recognized and studied for decades. Identification, understanding and correction of this inclination shallowing are critical for palaeogeographic

  1. X-pod: a small footprint multi-legged piezoelectric single-crystal unimorph-based actuator concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Rahul; Lim, Leong-Chew; Gandhi, Prasanna

    2012-06-01

    Multi-legged piezoelectric single-crystal actuators with small footprints using an X-pod approach, namely, the Tripod and Tetrapod, have been conceptualized, each leg being a unimorph driven by Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-(6-7)%PbTiO3 (PZN-(6-7)%PT) single crystals of [110]L × [001]T cut. Both finite-element analysis and experimental investigations are carried out to evaluate the performance of the Tripod and Tetrapod actuators. When operated at 0.57 kV mm-1, both actuators exhibit an axial displacement of nearly 60 µm. Blocking forces of about 10 N and 14 N are observed for the Tripod and the Tetrapod, respectively. The blocking forces are roughly doubled if the perfectly clamped condition is imposed for the legs at the pedestal end while the axial displacement is lowered marginally by 12%. In addition to small footprints, other attractive features of the actuators include greater flexibility to modify the leg geometry and their inclination to suit the application.

  2. On the Efficiency of a Double-Cone Gravitational Motor and Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Barenten Suciu; Akio Miyamura

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, following the study-case of an inclined plane gravitational machine, efficiency of a double-cone gravitational motor and generator is evaluated. Two types of efficiency ratios, called translational efficiency and rotational efficiency, are defined relative to the intended duty of the gravitational machine, which can be either the production of translational kinetic energy, or rotational kinetic energy. One proved that, for pure rolling movement of the double- cone, in the absen...

  3. Beam Shear Design According to Eurocode 2 - Limitations for the Concrete Strut Inclinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagsten, Lars German; Hestbech, Lars; Fisker, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    and are presented. These beams are all designed to fail in shear and the shear reinforcement is designed for different values of the concrete strut inclinations (cot θ varies from 1.5 to 3.4). These tests indicate a clear connection between the values of the concrete strut inclinations and crack width in the SLS......The beam shear design method adopted in Eurocode 2 is based on a lower bound plastic solution. This method is combined with limitations on the concrete strut inclination, θ. These limitations are introduced to ensure acceptable crack width in the SLS. 7 full scale beams have been tested....... In cases where larger crack widths (w > 0.4 mm) can be accepted, larger values of the concrete strut inclinations can be chosen. This will lead to less shear reinforcements. The results are also compared with analytical analysis based on energy methods. At the SLS the beams are expected to be cracked...

  4. Muscular activity of lower limb muscles associated with working on inclined surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ming-Lun; Kincl, Laurel; Lowe, Brian; Succop, Paul; Bhattacharya, Amit

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of visual cues, muscular fatigue, task performance and experience of working on inclined surfaces on activity of postural muscles in the lower limbs associated with maintaining balance on three inclined surfaces - 0°, 14° and 26°. Normalised electromyographic (NEMG) data were collected in 44 professional roofers bilaterally from the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialii anterior and gastrocnemii medial muscle groups. The 50th and 95th percentile NEMG amplitudes were used as EMG variables. Results showed that inclination angle and task performance caused a significant increase in the NEMG amplitudes of all postural muscles. Visual cues were significantly associated with a decrease in the 95th percentile EMG amplitude for the right gastrocnemius medial and tibialis anterior. Fatigue was related to a significant decrease in the NEMG amplitude for the rectus femoris. Experience of working on inclined surfaces did not have a significant effect on the NEMG amplitude.

  5. Incisor inclination determined by the light reflection zone on the tooth's surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezniak, Naphtali; Turgeman, Ronit; Redlich, Meir

    2010-01-01

    Maxillary incisors are the most prominent teeth, and their inclination plays an important role in esthetics. In orthodontics, the inclination of central incisors is usually determined by cephalometric analysis. This publication suggests an adjunctive clinical measure to determine this inclination. The objective of the study was to examine the correlation between the inclinations of maxillary incisors measured on a cephalometric lateral headfilm and the light reflection zone appearing on the buccal surface of the teeth on anterior intraoral photographs. Maxillary incisor inclination, divided into three levels-proclination, normal inclination, and retroclination-of 65 patients was determined by means of cephalometric analysis, using three angular measurements (maxillary incisor to sella-nasion, maxillary incisor to Frankfort horizontal, and maxillary incisor to nasion-point A). The anterior intraoral photographs of the 65 patients were divided into 3 groups according to the reflection zone on the maxillary central incisors as determined from the photographs: incisal, middle, and gingival. The correlation and agreement between the two parameters were evaluated by chi-square and kappa statistics. The light reflection zone on the tooth surface as it appears on intraoral photographs-incisal, middle, or gingival-correlated with statistical significance to the angular inclination of the teeth-proclination, normal inclination, and retroclination, respectively-as determined by means of cephalometric analysis (P light reflection zone viewed on the buccal surface of intraoral photographs. This method might be used as a new screening tool and further as an additional clinical tool for assessing treatment plans in orthodontics and other fields of dentistry.

  6. Natural Convection in an Inclined Porous Cavity with Spatial Sidewall Temperature Variations

    OpenAIRE

    Selamat, M. S.; Roslan, R.; Hashim, I.

    2012-01-01

    The natural convection in an inclined porous square cavity is investigated numerically. The left wall is assumed to have spatial sinusoidal temperature variations about a constant mean value, while the right wall is cooled. The horizontal walls are considered adiabatic. A finite difference method is used to solve numerically the nondimensional governing equations. The effects of the inclination angle of the cavity, the amplitude and wave numbers of the heated sidewall temperature variation o...

  7. Laser-Guided Autonomous Landing of a Quadrotor UAV on an Inclined Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, John A.

    This thesis presents measurement, estimation, and control schemes to aid a quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in landing on a flat, inclined surface without prior knowledge of the surface's inclination. The system uses a single CMOS camera and several inexpensive laser modules for onboard sensing to measure the distance to and orientation of a landing surface. A nonlinear least squares estimation scheme yields the altitude of the quadrotor and the normal vector defining the ground plane. This information is used to design a hybrid landing trajectory composed of a position tracking phase and an attitude tracking phase. A geometric nonlinear control system is used during each phase and ensures that the quadrotor's attitude is aligned to the inclination of the ground surface at touchdown. A quadrotor is developed from the ground up to test the in-flight measurement process and to execute landing trajectories on an inclined surface. Experimental results demonstrate the quadrotor's ability to accurately estimate altitude and ground plane orientation during flight, and numerical simulations of landing trajectories for various surface inclinations are validated by experimental results up to a maximum inclination of thirty degrees.

  8. Development of an Inclined Plate Extractor-Separator for Immiscible Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Zahoor ul Hassan Rizvi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A new inclined plates extractor-separator is developed for operation with immiscible liquids in which extraction and separation is achieved in one unit contrary to mixer settlers. The inclined plates extractor-separator combines turbulent jets for contacting, and an inclined plate for separation of the two phases. The inclined plates extractor-separator does not have any moving part inside the vessel. This feature makes it free from the mechanical problems associated with conventional apparatus. The proposed inclined plates extractor-separator was operated in batch mode under various operating conditions to evaluate its performance on the basis of extraction efficiency. Water (light phase was used as solvent to extract ethyl acetate from a heavy phase pool of tetrachloroethylene and ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate content was analysed using chromatography. A hydrodynamic study was carried out using high speed photography to understand the mechanisms occurring during mass transfer across the two phases. Furthermore, it was found that the proposed inclined plate extractor-separator reduces the overall operating time by 67% and consumes only 13% of the power in comparison to a mixer-settler. A hydraulic power consumption comparison with a mixer settler and a gullwing extractor-separator is also presented.

  9. Interfacial friction factors for air-water co-current stratified flow in inclined channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ki Yong; No, Hee Cheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The interfacial shear stress is experimentally investigated for co-current air-water stratified flow in inclined rectangular channels having a length of 1854mm, width of 120 mm and height of 40mm at almost atmospheric pressure. Experiments are carried out in several inclinations from 0 deg up to 10 deg. The local film thickness and the wave height are measured at three locations, i.e., L/H = 8,23, and 40. According to the inclination angle, the experimental data are categorized into two groups; nearly horizontal data group (0 deg {<=} {theta} {<=} 0.7 deg), and inclined channel data group (0.7 deg {<=} {theta} {<=} 10 deg ). Experimental observations for nearly horizontal data group show that the flow is not fully developed due to the water level gradient and the hydraulic jump within the channel. For the inclined channel data group, a dimensionless wave height, {Delta}h/h, is empirically correlated in terms of Re{sub G} and h/H. A modified root-mean-square wave height is proposed to consider the effects of the interfacial and wave propagation velocities. It is found that an equivalent roughness has a linear relationship with the modified root-mean-square wave height and its relationship is independent of the inclination. 10 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  10. A secular model for efficient exploration of mutually-inclined planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitrick, Russell; Barnes, Rory

    2015-01-01

    Dynamical studies of exoplanets largely assume coplanarity because of the lack of inclination information in many cases. However, the multiplanet system Upsilon Andromedae has orbital planes inclined by 30 degrees, models of planet-planet scattering predict large mutual inclinations, and astrometry missions such as Gaia have the power to reveal the 3 dimensional architecture of planetary systems. As the dynamics of systems with non-planar orbits will be key to understanding origins, and ultimately habitability where applicable, we present a computationally efficient model for the orbital evolution of planetary systems with modest inclinations and eccentricities which are not in a mean motion resonance. Specifically, our model is based on the disturbing function and extends to 4th order in eccentricity and inclination. We present comparisons to N-body models for known systems, such as the Solar System and Upsilon Andromedae, and hypothetical systems with a range of orbital configurations. We describe the eccentricity and inclination conditions under which the model is valid. We further calculate the rotational evolution of planets based on the orbital evolution and the stellar torque and find a wide range of obliquity evolution is possible. As obliquity is a key driver of planetary climate, Earth-like planets in non-planar systems may have climates dominated by their orbital evolution.

  11. Effect of clear aligner therapy on the buccolingual inclination of mandibular canines and the intercanine distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünheid, Thorsten; Gaalaas, Sara; Hamdan, Hani; Larson, Brent E

    2016-01-01

    To compare the changes in buccolinugal inclination of mandibular canines and intercanine distance in patients treated with clear aligners to those treated with preadjusted edgewise appliances. The buccolingual inclination of mandibular canines and the intercanine distance were measured on pre- and posttreatment cone-beam computed tomograms of 30 patients who had been treated with clear aligners and 30 patients who had been treated with fixed preadjusted edgewise appliances. Differences between the aligner and fixed appliance groups and between pre- and posttreatment measurements were tested for statistical significance. In both groups, most of the mandibular canines had positive buccolingual inclinations (ie, their crowns were positioned lateral to their roots) both before and after treatment. While there was no difference between the groups pretreatment, the posttreatment buccolingual inclination was significantly greater in the aligner group. In the fixed appliance group, the canines became more upright with treatment, while the buccolingual inclination did not change significantly in the clear aligner group. The intercanine distance did not differ between the groups either before or after treatment. However, it increased significantly over the course of treatment in the aligner group, whereas it did not change significantly in the fixed appliance group. Orthodontic treatment with clear aligners tends to increase the mandibular intercanine distance with little change in inclination in contrast to treatment with fixed appliances, which leaves the intercanine distance unchanged but leads to more upright mandibular canines.

  12. Effects of occlusal inclination and loading on mandibular bone remodeling: a finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungsiyakull, Chaiy; Rungsiyakull, Pimdeun; Li, Qing; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael

    2011-01-01

    To provide a preliminary understanding of the biomechanics with respect to the effect of cusp inclination and occlusal loading on the mandibular bone remodeling. Three different cusp inclinations (0, 10, and 30 degrees) of a ceramic crown and different occlusal loading locations (central fossa and 1- and 2-mm offsets horizontally) were taken into account to explore the stresses and strains transferred from the crown to the surrounding dental bone through the implant. A strain energy density obtained from two-dimensional plane-strain finite element analysis was used as the mechanical stimulus to drive cancellous and cortical bone remodeling in a buccolingual mandibular section. Different ceramic cusp inclinations had a significant effect on bone remodeling responses in terms of the change in the average peri-implant bone density and overall stability. The remodeling rate was relatively high in the first few months of loading and gradually decreased until reaching its equilibrium. A larger cusp inclination and horizontal offset (eg, 30 degrees and 2-mm offset) led to a higher bone remodeling rate and greater interfacial stress. The dental implant superstructure design (in terms of cusp inclination and loading location) determines the load transmission pattern and thus largely affects bone remodeling activities. Although the design with a lower cusp inclination recommended in previous studies may reduce damage and fracture failure, it could, to a certain extent, compromise bone engagement and long-term stability.

  13. The metabolic cost of walking on an incline in the Peacock (Pavo cristatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Wilkinson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Altering speed and moving on a gradient can affect an animal’s posture and gait, which in turn can change the energetic requirements of terrestrial locomotion. Here, the energetic and kinematic effects of locomoting on an incline were investigated in the Indian peacock, Pavo cristatus. The mass-specific metabolic rate of the Indian peacock was elevated on an incline, but this change was not dependent on the angle ascended and the cost of lifting remained similar between the two inclines (+5 and +7°. Interestingly, the Indian peacock had the highest efficiency when compared to any other previously studied avian biped, despite the presence of a large train. Duty factors were higher for birds moving on an incline, but there was no difference between +5 and +7°. Our results highlight the importance of investigating kinematic responses during energetic studies, as these may enable explanation of what is driving the underlying metabolic differences when moving on inclines. Further investigations are required to elucidate the underlying mechanical processes occurring during incline movement.

  14. The metabolic cost of walking on an incline in the Peacock (Pavo cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Holly; Thavarajah, Nathan; Codd, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Altering speed and moving on a gradient can affect an animal's posture and gait, which in turn can change the energetic requirements of terrestrial locomotion. Here, the energetic and kinematic effects of locomoting on an incline were investigated in the Indian peacock, Pavo cristatus. The mass-specific metabolic rate of the Indian peacock was elevated on an incline, but this change was not dependent on the angle ascended and the cost of lifting remained similar between the two inclines (+5 and +7°). Interestingly, the Indian peacock had the highest efficiency when compared to any other previously studied avian biped, despite the presence of a large train. Duty factors were higher for birds moving on an incline, but there was no difference between +5 and +7°. Our results highlight the importance of investigating kinematic responses during energetic studies, as these may enable explanation of what is driving the underlying metabolic differences when moving on inclines. Further investigations are required to elucidate the underlying mechanical processes occurring during incline movement.

  15. Liquid crystal tunable photonic crystal dye laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buss, Thomas; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Smith, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    We present a dye-doped liquid crystal laser using a photonic crystal cavity. An applied electric field to the liquid crystal provides wavelength tunability. The photonic crystal enhances resonant interaction with the gain medium.......We present a dye-doped liquid crystal laser using a photonic crystal cavity. An applied electric field to the liquid crystal provides wavelength tunability. The photonic crystal enhances resonant interaction with the gain medium....

  16. Investigating the heat transfer on the top side of inclined printed circuit boards during vapour phase soldering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illés, Balázs; Géczy, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Investigating the effect of inclination on heat transfer uniformity and intensity during VPS. • Even moderate inclination has high impact on the condensate layer and on the heat transfer. • Inclination under 1° has negative effect on temperature distribution of the soldered board. • Inclination from 1° to 10° improves heat transfer uniformity of vapour phase soldering. • Inclination can help to reduce soldering failures during vapour phase soldering. - Abstract: In this paper, heat transfer and condensate layer formation was investigated by numerical simulations on the top side of inclined printed circuit boards during vapour phase soldering. The phase change on the inclined surface and the transfer mechanisms in the condensate layer were embedded in a three-dimensional model. Steady-state and saturated vapour conditions were applied as boundary conditions in order to study the pure effect of the inclination. Due to the electronic component and circuit board structures during soldering only moderate inclination angles were studied between 0° and 10°. It was found that a moderate inclination of the printed circuit board has considerable effects on the formation of condensate layer and consequently on heat transfer. Compared to the default horizontal orientation of the board, the thickness differences of the condensate layer can be decreased with an optimised inclination of the printed circuit board. This effect homogenizes heat transfer during the process, enabling improved solder joint quality, with reduced overall soldering failure count.

  17. Inclined head position improves dose distribution during hippocampal-sparing whole brain radiotherapy using VMAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Su; Seo, Suk-Jin; Lee, Jaegi; Kim, Eunji; Choi, Noorie; Seok, Jin-Yong; Hong, Joo Wan; Chung, Jin-Beom; Eom, Keun-Yong; Kim, Jae-Sung; Kim, In Ah

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal-sparing whole brain radiotherapy (HS-WBRT) aims to preserve neurocognitive functions in patients undergoing brain radiotherapy (RT). Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) involves intensity-modulated RT using a coplanar arc. An inclined head position might improve dose distribution during HS-WBRT using VMAT. This study analyzed 8 patients receiving brain RT with inclined head positioning. A comparable set of CT images simulating a non-inclined head position was obtained by rotating the original CT set. HS-WBRT plans of coplanar VMAT for each CT set were generated with a prescribed dose of 30 Gy in 10 fractions. Maximum dose to the hippocampi was limited to 16 Gy; to the optic nerve, optic chiasm, and eyeballs this was confined to less than 37.5 Gy; for the lenses to 8 Gy. Dosimetric parameters of the two different plans of 8 patients were compared with paired t-test. Mean inclined head angle was 11.09 ± 0.73 . The homogeneity (HI) and conformity (CI) indexes demonstrated improved results, with an average 8.4 ± 10.0 % (p = 0.041) and 5.3 ± 3.9 % (p = 0.005) reduction, respectively, in the inclined vs. non-inclined position. The inclined head position had lower hippocampi D min (10.45 ± 0.36 Gy), D max (13.70 ± 0.25 Gy), and D mean (12.01 ± 0.38 Gy) values vs. the non-inclined head position (D min = 12.07 ± 1.07 Gy; D max = 15.70 ± 1.25 Gy; D mean = 13.91 ± 1.01 Gy), with 12.8 ± 8.9 % (p = 0.007), 12.2 ± 6.8 % (p = 0.003), and 13.2 ± 7.2 % (p = 0.002) reductions, respectively. Mean D max for the lenses was 6.34 ± 0.72 Gy and 7.60 ± 0.46 Gy, respectively, with a 16.3 ± 10.8 % reduction in the inclined position (p = 0.004). D max for the optic nerve and D mean for the eyeballs also decreased by 7.0 ± 5.9 % (p = 0.015) and 8.4 ± 7.2 % (p = 0.015), respectively. Inclining the head position to approximately 11 during HS-WBRT using VMAT improved dose distribution in the planning target volume and allowed lower doses to the hippocampi and

  18. Facile synthesis of Graphene Oxide/Double-stranded DNA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    assembled liquid crystals and three-dimensional hydrogels of graphene oxidewith double-stranded DNA by simple mixing in an aqueous buffer media without unwinding double-strandedDNA to single-stranded DNA. The GO/dsDNA hydrogels have ...

  19. Double conoscopic figures in total-internal-reflection prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinova, M. N.; Stroganov, V. I.; Krishtop, V. V.; Alekseeva, L. V.; Pas'ko, P. G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of the features of the formation of double conoscopic figures in total-internal-reflection prisms. The conditions for the existence of double conoscopic figures in the absence of a polarizer and analyzer are explained. An experiment has been done with prisms fabricated from crystals of calcite, potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) and lithium niobate.

  20. Effect of cationic substitution on the double-well hydrogen-bond potential in [K1-x(NH4)x]3H(SO4)2 proton conductors: a single-crystal neutron diffraction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, R R; Chitra, R; Selezneva, E V; Makarova, I P

    2017-10-01

    The structure of the mixed crystal [K 1-x (NH 4 ) x ] 3 H(SO 4 ) 2 as obtained from single-crystal neutron diffraction is compared with the previously reported room-temperature neutron structure of crystalline K 3 H(SO 4 ) 2 . The two structures are very similar, as indicated by the high value of their isostructurality index (94.8%). It was found that the replacement of even a small amount (3%) of K + with NH 4 + has a significant influence on the short strong hydrogen bond connecting the two SO 4 2- ions. Earlier optical measurements had revealed that the kinetics of the superionic transition in the solid solution [K 1-x (NH 4 ) x ] 3 H(SO 4 ) 2 are much faster than in K 3 H(SO 4 ) 2 ; this reported difference in the kinetics of the superionic phase transition in this class of crystal is explained on the basis of the difference in strength of the hydrogen-bond interactions in the two structures.

  1. Doubling Syndemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study investigates health concerns and access to health services for Roma from Romania who live in homelessness in Copenhagen, Denmark. They collect refundable bottles and call themselves “badocari,” which in Romanian refers to “people who work with bottles.” Homeless Roma in Denmark have not previously been studied through ethnographic research. The study stresses the importance of a syndemic approach towards understanding badocari health concerns. Syndemics is understood as co-occurring diseases, which unfold within contexts of social injustice. The case of the badocari is argued to be a case of “doubling syndemics” since the co-occurring diseases are further multiplied and enhanced by an ongoing mobility between dual contexts of precarious livelihoods in Romania and Denmark, respectively. The study complements the approach to syndemics with a perspective on human rights. It sheds light on the limited possibilities that exist for addressing health concerns of the badocari, both in Romania and in Denmark, and argues that the universal human right to health is not realized in the everyday lives of destitute EU migrants such as the badocari. Rather, they experience lack of access to adequate medical treatment and follow-up care, both as citizens of a member state and as co-citizens of the European Union. PMID:29302164

  2. In-Clinic Blood Pressure Prediction of Normal Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Pediatric Hypertension Referrals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Philip K; Ferguson, Michael A; Zachariah, Justin P

    2016-07-01

    Since younger patients have low pretest probability of hypertension and are susceptible to reactive and masked hypertension, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) can be useful. To better target use in referred patients, we sought to define in-clinic systolic blood pressure (SBP) measures that predicted normal ABPM and target end organ damage. Data were collected on consecutive patients referred for high BP undergoing an ambulatory BP monitor from 2010 to 2013 (n = 248, 33.9% female, mean age 15.5 ± 3.6 years). Candidate in-clinic predictors were systolic maximum, minimum, or average BPs obtained by auscultative, oscillometric, or both. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine the prediction of normal ABPM by in-clinic BP predictors. Separate models considered predicting left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) by in-clinic SBP vs. ABPM-defined hypertension. Identified predictor utility was tested with receiver operator characteristic curves. Maximum (OR 0.97 [95% CI 0.94-0.99]; P = .047), minimum (0.96 [0.94-0.99]; P = .002), and average (0.97 [0.95-1.00]; P = .04) in-clinic auscultative SBP predicted normal ABPM. Each had a c-statistic of 0.58. LVH was associated with in-clinic auscultative minimum SBP treated continuously (1.05, [1.01-1.10], P = .01) or dichotomized at the 90th percentile (8.23, [1.48-45.80], P = .02), as well as ABPM-defined hypertension (3.31, [1.23-8.91], P = .02). Both predictors had poor sensitivity and specificity. In youth, normal auscultative in-clinic systolic blood pressure indices weakly predicted normal ambulatory blood pressure and target end organ damage. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Computational stability appraisal of rectangular natural circulation loop: Effect of loop inclination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnani, Mayur; Basu, Dipankar N.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Computational model developed for single-phase rectangular natural circulation loop. • Role of loop inclination to vertical on thermalhydraulic stability is explored. • Inclination has strong stabilizing effect due to lower effective gravitation force. • Increase in tilt angle reduces settling time and highest amplitude of oscillation. • An angle of 15° is suggested for the selected loop geometry. - Abstract: Controlling stability behavior of single-phase natural circulation loops, without significantly affecting its steady-state characteristics, is a topic of wide research interest. Present study explores the role of loop inclination on a particular loop geometry. Accordingly a 3D computational model of a rectangular loop is developed and transient conservation equations are solved to obtain the temporal variation in flow parameters. Starting from the quiescent state, simulations are performed for selected sets of operating conditions and also with a few selected inclination angles. System experiences instability at higher heater powers and also with higher sink temperatures. Inclination is found to have a strong stabilizing influence owing to the reduction in the effective gravitational acceleration and subsequent decline in local buoyancy effects. The settling time and highest amplitude of oscillations substantially reduces for a stable system with a small inclination. Typically-unstable systems can also suppress the oscillations, when subjected to tilting, within a reasonable period of time. It is possible to stabilize the loop within shorter time span by increasing the tilt angle, but at the expense of reduction in steady-state flow rate. Overall a tilt angle of 15° is suggested for the selected geometry. Results from the 3D model is compared with the predictions from an indigenous 1D code. While similar qualitative influence of inclination is observed, the 1D model predicts early appearance of the stability threshold and hence hints

  4. On-line monitoring of the crystallization process: relationship between crystal size and electrical impedance spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yanlin; Yao, Jun; Wang, Mi

    2016-01-01

    On-line monitoring of crystal size in the crystallization process is crucial to many pharmaceutical and fine-chemical industrial applications. In this paper, a novel method is proposed for the on-line monitoring of the cooling crystallization process of L-glutamic acid (LGA) using electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The EIS method can be used to monitor the growth of crystal particles relying on the presence of an electrical double layer on the charged particle surface and the polarization of double layer under the excitation of alternating electrical field. The electrical impedance spectra and crystal size were measured on-line simultaneously by an impedance analyzer and focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM), respectively. The impedance spectra were analyzed using the equivalent circuit model and the equivalent circuit elements in the model can be obtained by fitting the experimental data. Two equivalent circuit elements, including capacitance ( C 2 ) and resistance ( R 2 ) from the dielectric polarization of the LGA solution and crystal particle/solution interface, are in relation with the crystal size. The mathematical relationship between the crystal size and the equivalent circuit elements can be obtained by a non-linear fitting method. The function can be used to predict the change of crystal size during the crystallization process. (paper)

  5. Double inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.; Turner, M.S.

    1986-04-01

    The Zel'dovich spectrum of adiabatic density perturbations is a generic prediction of inflation. There is increasing evidence that when the spectrum is normalized by observational data on small scales, there is not enough power on large scales to account for the observed large-scale structure in the Universe. Decoupling the spectrum on large and small scales could solve this problem. As a means of decoupling the large and small scales we propose double inflation (i.e., two episodes of inflation). In this scenario the spectrum on large scales is determined by the first episode of inflation and those on small scales by a second episode of inflation. We present three models for such a scenario. By nearly saturating the large angular-scale cosmic microwave anisotropy bound, we can easily account for the observed large-scale structure. We take the perturbations on small scales to be very large, deltarho/rho approx. = 0.1 to 0.01, which results in the production of primordial black holes (PBHs), early formation of structure, reionization of the Universe, and a rich array of astrophysical events. The Ω-problem is also addressed by our scenario. Allowing the density perturbations produced by the second episode of inflation to be large also lessens the fine-tuning required in the scalar potential and makes reheating much easier. We briefly speculate on the possibility that the second episode of inflation proceeds through the nucleation of bubbles, which today manifest themselves as empty bubbles whose surfaces are covered with galaxies. 37 refs., 1 fig

  6. ANALYSIS OF INFLUENCE OF DESIGN CHARACTERISTICS OF INCLINED BUCKET ELEVATOR ON THE POWER OF ITS DRIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bohomaz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.One of the main elements of the inclined belt bucket elevators is their drive. To determine the drive power, it is necessary to carry out calculations according to standard methods, which are described in the modern literature. The basic design parameters are the productivity, lifting height, type and properties of the transported material, the angle of inclination. It is necessary to build a parametric dependence of the driving power of the elevator on its design parameters, which takes into account the standard sizes and types of buckets and belts. Methodology. Using the methodology of traction calculation of inclined belt bucket elevator there were built parametric dependences of efforts in specific points of the route of the elevator, as well as the parametric dependences of the drive power of high-speed elevators with deep and shallow buckets on their design parameters and characteristics. Findings. On the basis of constructed parametric dependencies, it was found that the function of changing the value of the elevator’s power from design capacity (at fixed lifting height, type of cargo, belt speed is piecewise constant and monotonically increasing. It was built a graphical representation of elevator drive power on the angle of its inclination within acceptable limits of change. The resulting relationship is non-linear and monotonically decreasing. In general terms the intervals of project performance values, which provide a constant value of drive power of inclined elevator were defined. As an example of the obtained results it was observed the process of dependence construction of the drive power on design capacity and inclination angle of the elevator for transporting the fine coal. Originality. For the first time there were constructed the parametric dependences of drive power of inclined bucket elevator on its design parameters that take into account the standard sizes and types of buckets and belts. Practical value. Using

  7. A comparative computed tomographic evaluation of expression of angulation and inclination in self ligating brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehana Bashir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: An important objective of orthodontic treatment is to obtain the correct angulation and inclination for all the teeth. Very few studies have been conducted so far comparing the expression of angulation and inclination in conventional and self-ligating brackets (SLBs. The present study was designed to evaluate and compare the inclination and angulation in conventional brackets and active and passive SLBs. Materials and Methods: Totally 21 patients who required four 1st premolar extractions were selected and were randomly allotted to three groups: Group 1: Conventional Brackets (3M Unitek MBT (mean age 19.14 ± 2.12 years, Group 2: Passive Brackets (Smart Clip Brackets-3M Unitek MBT (mean age 19.71 ± 1.80 years, Group 3: Active Brackets (Empower Brackets-American Orthodontics MBT (mean age 18.29 ± 2.29 years computed tomographic records were collected before the start of treatment, after leveling and aligning and at 6 months into retraction. Results: The data were evaluated using SPSS version 16.0 using one-way ANOVA and post hoc Bonferroni tests. There was no statistically significant difference in the expression of angulation and inclination in conventional, active, and passive SLB systems. Conclusion: Self-ligating brackets seem to be no better than conventional brackets when it comes to the expression of angulation and inclination.

  8. Critical heat flux during natural convective boiling in inclined tubes submerged in saturated liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhenhua; Yang Ronghua

    2005-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to improve and expand understanding of boiling phenomena and the critical heat flux (CHF) during natural convective boiling in uniformly heated inclined tubes submerged in a pool of saturated liquids under atmospheric pressure. The test conditions were as follows: inter diameters of the test tubes ranged from 0.9 to 8.0 mm; heated lengths ranged from 100 to 400 mm, and inclination angles varied from 30 o to vertical position. The test fluids were water and R-11. The experimental results showed that the CHF decreases with the increasing ratio of the tube length to the tube diameter, and with the reducing of the inclination angle. A semi-theoretical correlation, which originally used for the CHF during natural convective boiling in vertical tubes, was modified to predict the CHF occurs in the inclined tubes. The modified correlation agreed reasonably well with the present experimental data and other CHF data for narrow inclined annular tubes

  9. A Liquid-Surface-Based Three-Axis Inclination Sensor for Measurement of Stage Tilt Motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yuki; Kataoka, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Chen, Yuan-Liu; Chen, Xiuguo; Matsukuma, Hiraku; Gao, Wei

    2018-01-30

    In this paper a new concept of a liquid-surface-based three-axis inclination sensor for evaluation of angular error motion of a precision linear slide, which is often used in the field of precision engineering such as ultra-precision machine tools, coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) and so on, is proposed. In the liquid-surface-based three-axis inclination sensor, a reference float mounting a line scale grating having periodic line grating structures is made to float over a liquid surface, while its three-axis angular motion is measured by using an optical sensor head based on the three-axis laser autocollimation capable of measuring three-axis angular motion of the scale grating. As the first step of research, in this paper, theoretical analysis on the angular motion of the reference float about each axis has been carried out based on simplified kinematic models to evaluate the possibility of realizing the proposed concept of a three-axis inclination sensor. In addition, based on the theoretical analyses results, a prototype three-axis inclination sensor has been designed and developed. Through some basic experiments with the prototype, the possibility of simultaneous three-axis inclination measurement by the proposed concept has been verified.

  10. Investigation of Oriented Magnetic Field Effects on Entropy Generation in an Inclined Channel Filled with Ferrofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elgiz Baskaya

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dispersion of super-paramagnetic nanoparticles in nonmagnetic carrier fluids, known as ferrofluids, offers the advantages of tunable thermo-physical properties and eliminate the need for moving parts to induce flow. This study investigates ferrofluid flow characteristics in an inclined channel under inclined magnetic field and constant pressure gradient. The ferrofluid considered in this work is comprised of Cu particles as the nanoparticles and water as the base fluid. The governing differential equations including viscous dissipation are non-dimensionalised and discretized with Generalized Differential Quadrature Method. The resulting algebraic set of equations are solved via Newton-Raphson Method. The work done here contributes to the literature by searching the effects of magnetic field angle and channel inclination separately on the entropy generation of the ferrofluid filled inclined channel system in order to achieve best design parameter values so called entropy generation minimization is implemented. Furthermore, the effect of magnetic field, inclination angle of the channel and volume fraction of nanoparticles on velocity and temperature profiles are examined and represented by figures to give a thorough understanding of the system behavior.

  11. Study on natural circulation characteristics of an IPWR under inclined and rolling condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Lihui [College of Computer Science and Information Technology, Harbin Normal University, Harbin (China); Wang, Bing [Fundamental Science on Nuclear Safety and Simulation Technology Laboratory, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China); Xia, Genglei, E-mail: xiagenglei@163.com [Fundamental Science on Nuclear Safety and Simulation Technology Laboratory, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China); Peng, Minjun [Fundamental Science on Nuclear Safety and Simulation Technology Laboratory, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • An ocean-based thermal-hydraulic analysis code was developed based on RELAP5 codes. • The inclination condition can reduce the mass flow rate of reactor core. • The system parameters asymmetry increases with the increasing inclination angle. • Flow oscillation of different loops cancel each other due to the symmetrical arrangement of the reactor. • The off-center roll axis location can break the symmetry and enlarge fluctuation amplitude of the core flow rate. - Abstract: An ocean-based thermal-hydraulic system analysis code was developed based on RELAP5/MOD3 code by adding additional force model of ocean condition and control volume coordinate solver model. The natural circulation operation characteristics of integrated pressurized water reactor (IPWR) under ocean conditions were studied and the effects of inclination and rolling motions were analyzed. The results conclude that, the inclination condition can reduce the mass flow rate of reactor core and lead to inconsistent coolant flow rates of the left and right loops, furthermore, it affects the heat transfer of once-through steam generators (OTSGs). In the case of rolling motion, the additional pressure drop of the loop is dominated by tangential force, and flow oscillation of different loops cancel each other due to the symmetrical arrangement of the reactor. The off-center roll axis location, the combination of the inclination and rolling motion, both can break the thermal-hydraulic symmetry among different loops and enlarge fluctuation amplitude of the core flow rate.

  12. Peri-implant strain around mesially inclined two-implant-retained mandibular overdentures with Locator attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsyad, Moustafa A; Eltowery, Salem M; Gebreel, Ashraf A

    2017-12-27

    This study aimed to evaluate the peri-implant strain around mesially inclined implants used to retain mandibular overdentures with Locator resilient attachments. Four mandibular edentulous acrylic resin models received two implants in the canine areas with 0°, 5°, 10°, and 20° mesial inclinations. Overdentures were connected to the implants using Locator attachments. Pink nylon inserts (light retention) were used for all implant inclinations, and red inserts were used for 20° inclination (20°red). Four strain gages were bonded on the mesial (M), distal (D), buccal (B), and lingual (L) surfaces of each implant. Peri-implant strains were measured during bilateral and unilateral loading. The 20° inclination showed the highest strain, followed by 10° and 5°, and both 0° and 20°red presented with the lowest strain. Site D was associated with the highest strain, followed by M, B, and L, which showed the lowest strain values. Unilateral loading and the loading side presented with significantly higher strain values than bilateral loading and the nonloading side, respectively. Hence, in this study, strains around the two-implant-retained overdentures with Locator attachments increased with increases in mesial implant angulation, except when red male inserts were used.

  13. Walking on inclines: how do desert ants monitor slope and step length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidl Tobias

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During long-distance foraging in almost featureless habitats desert ants of the genus Cataglyphis employ path-integrating mechanisms (vector navigation. This navigational strategy requires an egocentric monitoring of the foraging path by incrementally integrating direction, distance, and inclination of the path. Monitoring the latter two parameters involves idiothetic cues and hence is tightly coupled to the ant's locomotor behavior. Results In a kinematic study of desert ant locomotion performed on differently inclined surfaces we aimed at pinpointing the relevant mechanisms of estimating step length and inclination. In a behavioral experiment with ants foraging on slippery surfaces we broke the otherwise tightly coupled relationship between stepping frequency and step length and examined the animals' ability to monitor distances covered even under those adverse conditions. We show that the ants' locomotor system is not influenced by inclined paths. After removing the effect of speed, slope had only marginal influence on kinematic parameters. Conclusion From the obtained data we infer that the previously proposed monitoring of angles of the thorax-coxa joint is not involved in inclinometry. Due to the tiny variations in cycle period, we also argue that an efference copy of the central pattern generator coding the step length in its output frequency will most likely not suffice for estimating step length and complementing the pedometer. Finally we propose that sensing forces acting on the ant's legs could provide the desired neuronal correlate employed in monitoring inclination and step length.

  14. Experimental studies on the flow characteristics in an inclined bend-free OWC device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnil Ravinesh Ram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A bend-free rectangular cross-section OWC device was designed and constructed for studying the effect of inclination on the flow characteristics inside the device. The inclination is meant to reduce reflection of waves and induce higher velocities in the turbine section. Experimental measurements were made in a wave channel where the OWC device was tested. An S-type Pitot tube was used to measure dynamic pressure of air in the turbine section at several inclinations. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV was also done to study the flow of both air and water in the OWC device. In order to focus solely on primary energy capture, no turbine was installed in the OWC device. The dynamic pressure readings were analysed for suction and compression stages. Water volume fluctuations inside the capture chamber were also recorded and compared for different inclinations. The result was an increase in the velocity of air flowing in the capture chamber and hence a rise in the kinetic energy available to the turbine. It was found from experimental studies that as the angle of inclination reduced, the velocity of air in the turbine section increased. The lower angles also caused higher run-up and larger volume of water into the capture chamber.

  15. Single crystal fibers growth of double lithium, lanthanium molybdate and adjustment of a micro-pulling down furnace for high vacuum setup; Crescimento de fibras de molibdato duplo de litio e lantanio e adaptacao de sistema de alto vacuo para micro pulling-down

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fernando Rodrigues da

    2013-07-01

    In this work we investigated crystal growth procedures aiming the development of single crystal fiber (SCF) for laser applications. For quality optimization in the fabrication of fluorides SCF a new growth chamber for a micro-pulling down furnace ({mu}-PD) was constructed targeting the fibers fabrication with strict atmosphere control (high vacuum, gas flux and static atmospheres). Simultaneously, the SCF growth process of rare earth double molybdates was studied. The growth of pure and Nd{sup 3+}-doped SCF of LiLa(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} (LLM) was studied in the range of 0,5 - 10mol% doping. The designed furnace growth chamber with controlled atmosphere was successfully constructed and tested under different conditions. Specially, it was tested with the growth of LiF SFC under CF{sub 4} atmosphere showing the expected results. Transparent and homogeneous SCF of Nd:LLM were grown. In the pure fibers was observed facets formation, however, these defects were minimized after tuning of the growth parameters and additionally with the fibers doping. X-ray analysis showed the crystallization of a single phase (space group I4{sub 1}/a); the optical coherence tomography showed the presence of scattering centers only in regions were some growth stability occurred due to the manual process control. The measured Nd{sup 3+} distribution showed uniform incorporation, indicative of a segregation coefficient close to unity in LLM. The potential laser gain of the system was determined using a numerical solution of the rate equations system for the 805nm, CW pumping regime, showing the maximum laser emission gain at 1.064 {mu}m for a Nd{sup 3+}-doping of 5mol%. (author)

  16. Inclined Jet in Crossflow Interacting with a Vortex Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, K. B. M. Q.; Rigby, D .L.; Heidmann, J. D.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment is conducted on the effectiveness of a vortex generator in preventing liftoff of a jet in crossflow, with possible relevance to film-cooling applications. The jet issues into the boundary layer at an angle of 20 degreees to the freestream. The effect of a triangular ramp-shaped vortex generator is studied while varying its geometry and location. Detailed flowfield properties are obtained for a case in which the height of the vortex generator and the diameter of the orifice are comparable with the approach boundary-layer thickness. The vortex generator produces a streamwise vortex pair with a vorticity magnitude 3 times larger (and of opposite sense) than that found in the jet in crossflow alone. Such a vortex generator appears to be most effective in keeping the jet attached to the wall. The effect of parametric variation is studied mostly from surveys 10 diameters downstream from the orifice. Results over a range of jet-to-freestream momentum flux ratio (1 vortex generator has a significant effect even at the highest J covered in the experiment. When the vortex generator height is halved, there is a liftoff of the jet. On the other hand, when the height is doubled, the jet core is dissipated due to larger turbulence intensity. Varying the location of the vortex generator, over a distance of three diameters from the orifice, is found to have little impact. Rounding off the edges of the vortex generator with the increasing radius of curvature progressively diminishes its effect. However, allowing for a small radius of curvature may be quite tolerable in practice.

  17. Translation effects on vertical Bridgman growth and optical, mechanical and surface analysis of 2-phenylphenol single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadhasivam, S., E-mail: sadha.phy1@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Center for Crystal Growth, SSN College of Engineering, Tamil Nadu, India-603 110 (India); Perumal, Rajesh Narayana

    2016-05-06

    2-phenylphenol optical crystals were grown in cone ampoules using vertical Bridgman technique. Single crystal of 2-phenylphenol with 150 mm length has been grown. The inclination on the conical part of the ampoule reduces the growth defects in the 2-phenylphenol single crystal. The lattice parameters and structure studied using single crystal X-ray diffraction method. 2-phenylphenol single crystal belongs to orthorhombic space group Fdd2. The micro translation rate affects crystal growth of 2-phenylphenol crystal was studied. The translation rate dependent defects present in the crystal were investigated by transmittance, indentation and etching characterizations. The dislocation induced indentation crack lengths variations were studied. Etch pits and striations observed for the selective etchants furnish significant information on growth aspects and degree of defect present in the crystal.

  18. Nucleation and crystal growth in batch crystallizers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to gain knowledge of the mechanism of formation of the crystal size distribution in batch crystallizers in order to give directives for design and operation of batch crystallizers. The crystal size distribution is important for the separation of crystals and mother

  19. Helium crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipson, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    Hexagonal close-packed helium crystals in equilibrium with superfluid have been found to be one of the few systems in which an anisotropic solid comes into true thermodynamic equilibrium with its melt. The discovery of roughening transitions at the liquid-solid interface have shown this system to be ideal for the study of the statistical mechanics of interface structures. We describe the effect of roughening on the shape and growth of macroscopic crystals from both the theoretical and experimental points of view. (author)

  20. Motion of a carrier with a mobile load along a rough inclined plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilchenko, G. G.

    2018-03-01

    The mechanical system consisting of a carrier and a load is considered. The load can move respectively the carrier according to the preset given motion law. The carrier motion from rest caused the load motion is investigated. The carrier can move translationally along rectilinear trajectory along rough inclined plane. The trajectory is the line of the greatest descent. The axis of rectilinear channel along which the load moves is situated in vertical plane containing the carrier trajectory. The Coulomb model is taken to describe the friction forces on sloped plane. Differential equations of motion of carrier with load are obtained. The sufficient condition of the carrier motion without detachment from inclined plane is given. For two special cases of the channel installation angle and the plane inclination angle combination the motion types are described. The computation experiments results are presented: the carrier motions in the special cases are illustrated, the phase portraits for some types of motions are constructed.

  1. HEAT EXCHANGE AND AERODYNAMICS OF THE COMBINED TUBING BUNDLES WITH CROSS INCLINED FINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knyazyuk V. I

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of experimental research and analyses air-side thermal performance of combined tube bundles with cross inclined fins. The empirical correlations for heat transfer and flow friction of tubes with inclined fins at different orientation finned tubes relatively of air flow are presented. The errors of thermal and aerodynamic tests are 3-5% and 9.2%, respectively. The proposed correlations describe an experimental data with a coefficient of determination about 0.979-0.998. The impact of tubes arrangement in a bundle on energy performance of heat exchanger were analyzed using complete and local heat modeling methods at a stationary heat flux. Experimental research indicates that efficiency of inclined fins can be calculated by using the equation for cross rectangular fins with average deviation of ±5 %.

  2. [Reliability study in the measurement of the cusp inclination angle of a chairside digital model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinggang, Liu; Xiaoxian, Chen

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate the reliability of the software Picpick in the measurement of the cusp inclination angle of a digital model. Twenty-one trimmed models were used as experimental objects. The chairside digital impression was then used for the acquisition of 3D digital models, and the software Picpick was employed for the measurement of the cusp inclination of these models. The measurements were repeated three times, and the results were compared with a gold standard, which was a manually measured experimental model cusp angle. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated. The paired t test value of the two measurement methods was 0.91. The ICCs between the two measurement methods and three repeated measurements were greater than 0.9. The digital model achieved a smaller coefficient of variation (9.9%). The software Picpick is reliable in measuring the cusp inclination of a digital model.

  3. Flow behaviour and local concentration of coarse particles-water mixture in inclined pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasak Pavel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Narrow particle size distribution basalt pebbles of mean particle size 11.5 mm conveyed by water in the pipe sections of different inclination were investigated on an experimental pipe loop, consisting of smooth stainless steel pipes of inner diameter D = 100 mm. Mixture flow-behaviour and particles motion along the pipe invert were studied in a pipe viewing section, the concentration distribution in pipe cross-section was studied with the application of a gamma-ray densitometer. The study refers to the effect of mixture velocity, overall concentration, and angle of pipe inclination on chord-averaged concentration profiles and local concentration maps, and flow behaviour of the coarse particle-water mixtures. The study revealed that the coarse particle-water mixtures in the inclined pipe sections were significantly stratified, the solid particles moved principally close to the pipe invert, and for higher and moderate flow velocities particle saltation becomes the dominant mode of particle conveying.

  4. Experimental investigation of coarse particles-water mixture flow in horizontal and inclined pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasák Pavel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of solid concentration and mixture velocity on the flow behaviour, pressure drops, and concentration distribution of coarse particle-water mixtures in horizontal, vertical, and inclined smooth stainless steel pipes of inner diameter D = 100 mm was experimentally investigated. Graded basalt pebbles were used as solid particles. The study revealed that the coarse-grained particle-water mixtures in the horizontal and inclined pipes were significantly stratified. The solid particles moved principally in a layer close to the pipe invert; however for higher and moderate flow velocities, particle saltation became the dominant mode of particle conveyance. Frictional pressure drops in the horizontal pipe were found to be markedly higher than in the vertical pipe, while the frictional pressure drops in the ascending pipe increased with inclination angle up to about 30°.

  5. Measurement of capacity coefficient of inclined liquid phase catalytic exchange column for tritiated water processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamai, Hideki; Konishi, Satoshi; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Okuno, Kenji

    1994-01-01

    Liquid phase catalytic exchange (LPCE) is effective method for enrichment and removal of tritium from tritiated water. Capacity coefficients of operating LPCE column that are essential to evaluate column performance were measured. Experiments were performed with short catalyst packed columns and effect of inclination was studied. Method for evaluation of capacity coefficients was established from measurement of isotope concentration of liquid, vapor, gas phases at the two ends of the column. The capacity coefficients were measured under various superficial gas velocities. Feasibility study of helical columns with roughened inner surface was performed with short inclined columns. The column performance was not strongly affected by the inclination. The result indicates technological feasibility of helical LPCE column, that is expected to have operation stability and reduced height

  6. Aerodynamics of flapping insect wing in inclined stroke plane hovering with ground effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda v, Krishne; Vengadesan, S.

    2014-11-01

    This work presents the time-varying aerodynamic forces and the unsteady flow structures of flapping insect wing in inclined stroke plane hovering with ground effect. Two-dimensional dragonfly model wing is chosen and the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved numerically by using immersed boundary method. The main objective of the present work is to analyze the ground effect on the unsteady forces and vortical structures for the inclined stroke plane motions. We also investigate the influences of kinematics parameters such as Reynolds number (Re), stroke amplitude, wing rotational timing, for various distances between the airfoil and the ground. The effects of aforementioned parameters together with ground effect, on the stroke averaged force coefficients and regimes of force behavior are similar in both normal (horizontal) and inclined stroke plane motions. However, the evolution of the vortex structures which produces the effects are entirely different.

  7. Experimental investigation of turbulent flow in a channel with the backward-facing inclined step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uruba Václav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The work deals with the experimental investigation of turbulent flow in a closed channel with the backward-facing inclined step. Experiments were carried by means of the PIV optical measuring method in the channel of the rectangular cross-section in the inlet part and with inclined steps of the constant height H mm and various inclination angles for a wide range of the Reynolds number. The attention was paid especially to the separation region behind the step and to the relaxation of the shear layer after the reattachment in the outlet part of the channel. The dependence of the length of the separation region on the Reynolds number was obtained for various step angles. Optical measurements were completed by the measurement of static pressure distribution in the inlet and outlet part of the channel to estimate energy losses.

  8. Double hard scattering without double counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Markus; Gaunt, Jonathan R.; Schönwald, Kay

    2017-06-01

    Double parton scattering in proton-proton collisions includes kinematic regions in which two partons inside a proton originate from the perturbative splitting of a single parton. This leads to a double counting problem between single and double hard scattering. We present a solution to this problem, which allows for the definition of double parton distributions as operator matrix elements in a proton, and which can be used at higher orders in perturbation theory. We show how the evaluation of double hard scattering in this framework can provide a rough estimate for the size of the higher-order contributions to single hard scattering that are affected by double counting. In a numeric study, we identify situations in which these higher-order contributions must be explicitly calculated and included if one wants to attain an accuracy at which double hard scattering becomes relevant, and other situations where such contributions may be neglected.

  9. Double hard scattering without double counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Markus [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Gaunt, Jonathan R. [VU Univ. Amsterdam (Netherlands). NIKHEF Theory Group; Schoenwald, Kay [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Double parton scattering in proton-proton collisions includes kinematic regions in which two partons inside a proton originate from the perturbative splitting of a single parton. This leads to a double counting problem between single and double hard scattering. We present a solution to this problem, which allows for the definition of double parton distributions as operator matrix elements in a proton, and which can be used at higher orders in perturbation theory. We show how the evaluation of double hard scattering in this framework can provide a rough estimate for the size of the higher-order contributions to single hard scattering that are affected by double counting. In a numeric study, we identify situations in which these higher-order contributions must be explicitly calculated and included if one wants to attain an accuracy at which double hard scattering becomes relevant, and other situations where such contributions may be neglected.

  10. A waveless two-dimensional flow in a channel against an inclined wall with surface tension effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merzougui, Abdelkrim; Mekias, Hocine; Guechi, Fairouz

    2007-01-01

    Surface tension effect on a two-dimensional channel flow against an inclined wall is considered. The flow is assumed to be steady, irrotational, inviscid and incompressible. The effect of surface tension is taken into account and the effect of gravity is neglected. Numerical solutions are obtained via series truncation procedure. The problem is solved numerically for various values of the Weber number α and for various values of the inclination angle β between the horizontal bottom and the inclined wall

  11. Comparison of the Activity of the Gluteus Medius According to the Angles of Inclination of a Treadmill with Vertical Load

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Da-Eun; Lee, Su-Kyoung; Kim, Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the muscle activity of the gluteus medius according to treadmill inclination during gait with a vertical load on a treadmill. [Methods] Sixteen healthy subjects were recruited for this study. The subjects walked on a treadmill at inclination angles of 0, 5, and 10 degrees. [Results] Muscle activity of the gluteus medius increased at 5° compared to 0° treadmill inclination, though the difference was not significant. On the other hand, gluteus ...

  12. Detecting and correcting for paleomagnetic inclination shallowing of sedimentary rocks: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Xiang eLi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic anisotropy and the elongation/inclination (E-I approaches have been increasingly employed as two important means for detecting and correcting the paleomagnetic inclination shallowing in sedimentary rocks that was first recognized sixty years ago. Both approaches are based on certain assumptions, and thus have advantages and intrinsic limitations in investigating shallow inclinations in sedimentary rocks. The E-I approach is relatively easy to use, but it needs a large dataset to adequately sample paleomagnetic directions due to paleosecular variation of the geomagnetic field. Also, slow sediment accumulation rates and local tectonics could lead to under- or over-corrections using the E-I approach. For the magnetic anisotropy technique, labor-intensive, sophisticated laboratory rock magnetic experiments are required in order to accurately determine both bulk magnetic anisotropy of remanence-carrying grains and magnetic anisotropy of an individual particle, i.e., a factor, of samples. Our review shows that, despite the intensive laboratory work necessary for applying anisotropy-based inclination corrections, it is worth investing the effort. In addition, the joint use of magnetic susceptibility and remanence anisotropy measurements as well as detailed rock magnetic measurements for determining the particle anisotropy a factor have the advantage of retrieving direct evidence of inclination shallowing and correcting for it with high confidence. We caution against use of either of the two approaches without full appreciation of the underlying assumptions and intrinsic limitations of each technique. The use and comparison of both techniques could provide the most robust inclination shallowing correction for sedimentary rocks.

  13. Detecting and correcting for paleomagnetic inclination shallowing of sedimentary rocks: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong-Xiang; Kodama, Kenneth

    2016-02-01

    Magnetic anisotropy and the elongation/inclination (E-I) approaches have been increasingly employed as two important means for detecting and correcting the paleomagnetic inclination shallowing in sedimentary rocks that was first recognized sixty years ago. Both approaches are based on certain assumptions, and thus have advantages and intrinsic limitations in investigating shallow inclinations in sedimentary rocks. The E-I approach is relatively easy to use, but it needs a large dataset to adequately sample paleomagnetic directions due to paleosecular variation of the geomagnetic field. Also, slow sediment accumulation rates and local tectonics could lead to under- or over-corrections using the E-I approach. For the magnetic anisotropy technique, labor-intensive, sophisticated laboratory rock magnetic experiments are required in order to accurately determine both bulk magnetic anisotropy of remanence-carrying grains and magnetic anisotropy of an individual particle, i.e., "a" factor, of samples. Our review shows that, despite the intensive laboratory work necessary for applying anisotropy-based inclination corrections, it is worth investing the effort. In addition, the joint use of magnetic susceptibility and remanence anisotropy measurements as well as detailed rock magnetic measurements for determining the particle anisotropy "a" factor have the advantage of retrieving direct evidence of inclination shallowing and correcting for it with high confidence. We caution against use of either of the two approaches without full appreciation of the underlying assumptions and intrinsic limitations of each technique. The use and comparison of both techniques could provide the most robust inclination shallowing correction for sedimentary rocks.

  14. COMPARISON OF PLANTAR PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION BETWEEN DIFFERENT SPEED AND INCLINE DURING TREADMILL JOGGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Ju Ho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effect of changes in speed and incline slope on plantar pressure distribution of the foot during treadmill jogging. Plantar pressure parameters were measured with the Pedar-X system in twenty healthy girls (mean age of 20.7 years, mean height of 1.60m, and a mean weight of 53.35kg. Because variations in walking speed or slope can significantly change the magnitude of plantar pressure, comparisons of plantar pressure distribution between the two independent protocols during treadmill jogging were considered in this study. First, the subjects ran at the same speed of 2 m·s-1 with different incline slopes of 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%. Second, they ran on the same slope of 0% with different speeds of 1.5 m·s-1, 2.0 m·s-1, and 2.5 m·s-1. The peak pressure of the eight plantar surface areas, apart from the medial forefoot and the hallux, significantly increased (p < 0.05 with an increase of 33% of peak pressure from 1.5 m·s-1 to 2.5 m·s-1 (speed at heel region. In contrast, the peak pressures at the heel, medial fore-foot, toe and hallux decreased significantly (p < 0. 05 with increasing incline slope. At the heel, peak pressure reduced by 27% from 0% to 15% incline, however, pressure at the lateral midfoot region increased as following. Different speeds and incline slopes during jogging were associated with changes in plantar pressures. By systematic investigation of foot kinematics and plantar pressure during jogging with varying incline slope and speed, the results of this study provided further insight into foot biomechanics during jogging

  15. LONG-LIVED CHAOTIC ORBITAL EVOLUTION OF EXOPLANETS IN MEAN MOTION RESONANCES WITH MUTUAL INCLINATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Rory; Deitrick, Russell; Quinn, Thomas R. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 951580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Greenberg, Richard [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 E. University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 86716 (United States); Raymond, Sean N., E-mail: rory@astro.washington.edu [NASA Astrobiology Institute-Virtual Planetary Laboratory Lead Team (United States)

    2015-03-10

    We present N-body simulations of resonant planets with inclined orbits that show chaotically evolving eccentricities and inclinations that can persist for at least 10 Gyr. A wide range of behavior is possible, from fast, low amplitude variations to systems in which eccentricities reach 0.9999 and inclinations 179.°9. While the orbital elements evolve chaotically, at least one resonant argument always librates. We show that the HD 73526, HD 45364, and HD 60532 systems may be in chaotically evolving resonances. Chaotic evolution is apparent in the 2:1, 3:1, and 3:2 resonances, and for planetary masses from lunar- to Jupiter-mass. In some cases, orbital disruption occurs after several gigayears, implying the mechanism is not rigorously stable, just long-lived relative to the main sequence lifetimes of solar-type stars. Planet-planet scattering appears to yield planets in inclined resonances that evolve chaotically in about 0.5% of cases. These results suggest that (1) approximate methods for identifying unstable orbital architectures may have limited applicability, (2) the observed close-in exoplanets may be produced during epochs of high eccentricit induced by inclined resonances, (3) those exoplanets' orbital planes may be misaligned with the host star's spin axis, (4) systems with resonances may be systematically younger than those without, (5) the distribution of period ratios of adjacent planets detected via transit may be skewed due to inclined resonances, and (6) potentially habitable planets may have dramatically different climatic evolution than Earth. The Gaia spacecraft is capable of discovering giant planets in these types of orbits.

  16. Revealing the inclined circumstellar disk in the UX Ori system KK Ophiuchi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreplin, A.; Weigelt, G.; Kraus, S.; Grinin, V.; Hofmann, K.-H.; Kishimoto, M.; Schertl, D.; Tambovtseva, L.; Clausse, J.-M.; Massi, F.; Perraut, K.; Stee, Ph.

    2013-07-01

    We study the inner sub-AU region of the circumstellar environment of the UX Ori type star KK Oph with near-infrared VLTI/AMBER interferometry. We are particularly interested in the inclination of the star-disk system, and we will use this information to test the current standard picture for UX Ori stars. We recorded spectrally dispersed (R˜35) interferograms in the near-infrared H and K bands with the VLTI/AMBER instrument. The derived visibilities, closure phases and the SED of KK Oph were compared with two-dimensional geometric and radiative transfer models (RADMC). We obtained visibilities at four different position angles. Using two-dimensional geometric models, we derive an axis ratio ˜3.0 corresponding to an inclination of ˜70 degree. A fitted inclined ring model leads to a ring radius of 2.8 ± 0.2 mas, corresponding to 0.44 ± 0.03 AU at a distance of 160 pc, which is larger than the dust sublimation radius of ˜0.1 AU predicted for a dust sublimation temperature of 1500 K. Our derived two-dimensional RADMC model consists of a circumstellar disk with an inclination angle of ˜70 degree and an additional dust envelope. The finding of an ˜70 degree inclined disk around KK Oph is consistent with the prediction that UX Ori objects are seen under large inclination angles, and orbiting clouds in the line of sight cause the observed variability. Furthermore, our results suggest that the orbit of the companion KK Oph B and the disk plane are coplanar.

  17. Revealing the inclined circumstellar disk in the UX Orionis system KK Ophiuchi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreplin, A.; Weigelt, G.; Kraus, S.; Grinin, V.; Hofmann, K.-H.; Kishimoto, M.; Schertl, D.; Tambovtseva, L.; Clausse, J.-M.; Massi, F.; Perraut, K.; Stee, Ph.

    2013-03-01

    Aims: We study the inner sub-AU region of the circumstellar environment of the UX Ori-type star KK Oph with near-infrared VLTI/AMBER interferometry. We are particularly interested in the inclination of the star-disk system, and we use this information to test the current standard picture for UX Ori stars. Methods: We recorded spectrally dispersed (R ~ 35) interferograms in the near-infrared H and K bands with the VLTI/AMBER instrument. The derived visibilities, closure phases, and the spectral energy distribution of KK Oph were compared with two-dimensional geometric and radiative transfer models (RADMC). Results: We obtained visibilities at four different position angles. Using two-dimensional geometric models, we derive an axis ratio ~3.0 corresponding to an inclination of ~70°. A fitted inclined ring model leads to a ring radius of 2.8 ± 0.2 mas, corresponding to 0.44 ± 0.03 AU at a distance of 160 pc, which is larger than the dust sublimation radius of ~0.1 AU predicted for a dust sublimation temperature of 1500 K. Our derived two-dimensional RADMC model consists of a circumstellar disk with an inclination angle of ~70° and an additional dust envelope. Conclusions: The finding of an ~70° inclined disk around KK Oph is consistent with the prediction that UX Ori objects are seen under large inclination angles, and orbiting clouds in the line of sight cause the observed variability. Furthermore, our results suggest that the orbit of the companion KK Oph B and the disk plane are coplanar. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at Paranal Observatory under program ID: 083.D-0224(C) and 088.C-0575(A).

  18. Electrically controlled broadband liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber polarimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate a liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber based polarizer integrated in a double silicon v-groove assembly. The polarizer axis can be electrically controlled as well as switched on and off.......We demonstrate a liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber based polarizer integrated in a double silicon v-groove assembly. The polarizer axis can be electrically controlled as well as switched on and off....

  19. The statistical study of Chorus waves using the Double star TC1 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yearby, K.; Aryan, H.; Balikhin, M. A.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Agapitov, O. V.

    2013-12-01

    The Double star satellite was launched on 29 December 2003 into an equatorial elliptical orbit with a perigee of 570km and an apogee of 78970km and an inclination of 28.5°. The satellite operated until 14 October 2007. The Double star TC1 data provides extensive coverage of the inner magnetosphere regions in the range of L shells >1.1L*, and a wide range of latitudes. This study presents a detailed statistical study of the Chorus waves during 4 years of the Double star operation.

  20. Therapeutic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Charles S.

    2014-01-01

    Some readers might not fully know what the difference is between crystallography, and the "new age" practice of dangling crystals around the body to capitalise on their healing energy. The latter is often considered to be superstition, while ironically, the former has actually resulted in real rationally-based healing of human diseases…

  1. Ribbon Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Jakob; Markvorsen, Steen

    2013-01-01

    A repetitive crystal-like pattern is spontaneously formed upon the twisting of straight ribbons. The pattern is akin to a tessellation with isosceles triangles, and it can easily be demonstrated with ribbons cut from an overhead transparency. We give a general description of developable ribbons...

  2. Analysis of three-dimensional interference patterns of an inclined capillary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiding; Xu, Mingfeng; Tian, Wenjing; Xu, Qiwei; Xiao, Jinghua

    2016-08-01

    We study the interference patterns from an inclined capillary tube filled with liquid by using the ray tracing method and interference theory. A beautiful elliptical pattern is found on the screen, with refined fringes embedded in it. Particularly, the fringes on top of the pattern are continuously swallowed to the center with the angle of incidence increasing. In addition, a method is demonstrated to determine the refractive index of the liquid and the wavelength of the incident light by measuring the capillary tilt of every 10-fringe being swallowed, which looks like fringe crossover, with respect to the change of the inclined angle of the capillary.

  3. Model and experimental vizualisation of a bubble interacting with an inclined wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podvin, Berengere; Khoja, Suleman; Attinger, Daniel; Moraga, Francisco

    2006-11-01

    We describe the motion of an air bubble rising through water as it interacts with a wall of variable inclination. The bubble diameter varies about O(1) mm. We use lubrication theory to determine the modification of the bubble interface and compute the hydrodynamic force exerted by the wall. The present work is an extension of Moraga et al's model [Computers and Fluids 2006], which was devised for a horizontal wall. The predictions of the model are checked against experimental visualizations. The influence of the Weber number, Reynolds number and wall inclination is examined

  4. QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF DEPENDENCE OF DRIVE POWER HORIZONTAL-INCLINED BELT CONVEYOR ON ITS INITIAL PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bohomaz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.One of the main elements of band conveyors is a drive. To analyze the effect of design parameters on the drive power it is necessary to carry out the calculations according to standard procedures outlined in the current technical literature. The main design parameters of the band conveyor are: the type of cargo, project performance, the geometric dimensions of sections and track configuration as a whole. The feature of band conveyor calculation as compared to the elevators is the dependence of the band width on its performance, the inclination angle and the type of cargo. In the article for the account of this fact during calculations it is necessary to construct the dependence of the band width on the generalized parameter, which takes into account change in the design parameters. To determine the general pattern of changing the value of band conveyor drive power when varying its design parameters in the article it is necessary to construct the corresponding graphic dependences taking into account the standard sizes and bands parameters. Methodology. We consider the band conveyor with two sections: the inclined and horizontal one. It is conducted a detailed analysis of dependence of the conveyor band width and its drive power on the type of cargo, project performance, geometric dimensions and configuration of the conveyor track, using the appropriate parameter dependences constructed by the authors in previous papers. Findings. For band conveyors of this type there were constructed the graphics dependences of the band width on the parameter characterizing the project performance and the inclination angle of the track section, and on the performance at a fixed angle of inclination. Taking into account the changes in the band width with an increase in the value of project performance the graph dependences of drive power on the productivity and the inclination angle of the inclined section were built. Originality. For the first time there

  5. A Numerical Study on a Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine with Inclined Arms

    OpenAIRE

    Agostino De Marco; Domenico P. Coiro; Domenico Cucco; Fabrizio Nicolosi

    2014-01-01

    This work focuses on a particular type of vertical-axis wind turbine, in which a number of inclined arms with airfoil-shaped cross-sections are mounted to connect the principal blades to their hub. While the majority of the known studies on vertical-axis turbines is devoted to the role of principal blades, in most of the cases without taking into account other parts of the wind turbine, the objective of this work is to investigate the effect of uncommon arm geometries, such as the inclined ar...

  6. Cyclotron resonance in InAs/GaSb heterostructure in inclined magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Greshnov, A A; Vasilev, Yu B; Suchalkin, S D; Meltser, B Y; Ivanov, S V; Kopev, P S

    2002-01-01

    The mechanism of splitting the cyclotron resonance line in the InAs/GaSb heterostructure in the inclined magnetic field is experimentally and theoretically studied. It is shown that the electrons and holes mixing in leads to the anticrossing Landau levels and consequently to the cyclotron resonance line splitting. Splitting in the case of the inclined magnetic field was not observed which is explained by damping the electrons and holes states mixing in on the account of originating the additional barrier for the electrons and holes by availability of the magnetic field longitudinal constituent

  7. Aerodynamic coefficients of stationary dry inclined bridge cables in laminar flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteoni, Giulia; Georgakis, Christos; Ricciardelli, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Stay cables are the most flexible elements of cable-stayed bridges. When exposed to wind loading, they often undergo large amplitude vibrations, thus motivating serious design concerns. In most cases, vibrations are observed in the presence of water rivulets or ice accretions, which lead...... to an effective change in the cable cross section, and its aerodynamic properties. On the other hand, divergent, self-excited vibrations have been observed in the field also for dry, inclined stay cables, in warm temperatures. The need for reliable design guidelines for inclined stay cables has motivated...

  8. Non-destructive automated express method for determining the inclination of chromium-nickel steels IGC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarov, A.A.; Kamenev, Yu.B.; Kuusk, L.V.; Kormin, E.G.; Vasil'ev, A.N.; Sumbaeva, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    Methods of automated control of 18-10-type steel inclination to IGC are developed and a corresponding automated testing complex (ATS) is created. 08Kh18N10T steel samples had two variants of thermal treatment: 1) 1200 deg (5 h), 600 deg (50 h); 2) 1200 deg (5 h). Methods of non-destructive automated control of 18-10-type steel inclination to IGC are developed on the basis of potentiodynamic reactivation (PR) principle. Automated testing complex is developed, which has undergone experimental running and demonstrated a high confidence of results, reliability and easy operation

  9. An analytical model for force prediction in ball nose micro milling of inclined surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2010-01-01

    Ball nose micro milling is a key process for the generation of free form surfaces and inclined surfaces often present in mould inserts for micro replication. This paper presents a new cutting force model for ball nose micro milling that is capable of taking into account the effect of the edge rad...... radius and the effect of the surface topography due to the previous milling passes. The model is completely analytical can be applied to ball end micro milling of slanted surfaces for any value of the surface inclination angle relative to the tool axis....

  10. Formation of Close-in Super-Earths by Giant Impacts: Effects of Initial Eccentricities and Inclinations of Protoplanets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Yuji [Planetary Exploration Research Center, Chiba Institute of Technology, Narashino, Chiba, 275-0016 (Japan); Kokubo, Eiichiro, E-mail: ymatsumoto@cfca.nao.ac.jp [Center for Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan)

    2017-07-01

    Recent observations have revealed the eccentricity and inclination distributions of close-in super-Earths. These distributions have the potential to constrain their formation processes. In the in situ formation scenario, the eccentricities and inclinations of planets are determined by gravitational scattering and collisions between protoplanets on the giant impact stage. We investigate the effect of the initial eccentricities and inclinations of protoplanets on the formation of close-in super-Earths. We perform N -body simulations of protoplanets in gas-free disks, changing the initial eccentricities and inclinations systematically. We find that while the eccentricities of protoplanets are well relaxed through their evolution, the inclinations are not. When the initial inclinations are small, they are not generally pumped up since scattering is less effective and collisions occur immediately after orbital crossing. On the other hand, when the initial inclinations are large, they tend to be kept large since collisional damping is less effective. Not only the resultant inclinations of planets, but also their number, eccentricities, angular momentum deficit, and orbital separations are affected by the initial inclinations of protoplanets.

  11. Microfiber inclination, crystallinity, and water wettability of microfibrous thin-film substrates of Parylene C in relation to the direction of the monomer vapor during fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chindam, Chandraprakash; Wonderling, Nichole M.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Awadelkarim, Osama O.; Orfali, Wasim

    2015-08-01

    We experimentally determined the inclination of microfibers, crystallinity, and the water wettability of columnar microfibrous thin-film substrates (μFTFS) of Parylene C fabricated using a variant of conventional chemical vapor deposition, wherein a collimated vapor of reactive monomers is obliquely directed towards a planar wafer in a low-pressure chamber. The independent variable was the monomer deposition angle χv, which is the angle between the direction of the collimated vapor and the wafer plane. The dependence of the microfiber inclination angle χ on χv can be classified into four χv-regimes of two different types, and is reminiscent of the conversion of continuous rotation into intermittent rotary motion by a gear mechanism. X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments indicate that the columnar μFTFS contain three crystal planes not evident in bulk Parylene-C films, the columnar μFTFS are less crystalline than bulk Parylene-C films, and the crystallinity of the columnar μFTFS reflects the four χv-regimes. Identical resonance frequencies in infrared absorbance spectra revealed that the atomic bonding is the same for all monomer deposition angles. The static hydrophobicity is more pronounced in the morphologically significant plane (MSP) of a columnar μFTFS than in the vertical plane orthogonal to the MSP, but the upper and lower limits of static hydrophobicity are almost isotropic. Both the static hydrophobicity as well as water adhesion can be maximized by a proper choice of χv.

  12. Double freezing of (NH(4))(2)SO(4)/H(2)O droplets below the eutectic point and the crystallization of (NH(4))(2)SO(4) to the ferroelectric phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, A

    2010-09-23

    This paper presents the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results obtained from measurements of single droplets of different subeutectic concentrations (freezing of the droplets takes place below the eutectic temperature of Te ≈ 254.5 K, a phase separation into ice and a residual freeze-concentrated solution occurs. The residual solution is formed by the expulsion of NH4+ and SO42- ions from the ice lattice during the nucleation and growth of ice and may possess the eutectic concentration of 40 wt % (NH4)2SO4. On further cooling, the residual solution freezes to the eutectic solid mixture of ice/(NH4)2SO4 at a temperature that is either above or below the ferroelectric "Curie" temperature of Tc ≈ 223 K. If the freezing of the residual solution takes place below the Tc, then (NH4)2SO4 crystallizes directly into the ferroelectric phase.

  13. Dichroic Liquid Crystal Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadur, Birendra

    * Effect of Thickness * Impact of Order Parameter * Impact of the Host * Impact of Polarizer * Colour Applications * Multiplexing * QUARTER WAVE PLATE DICHROIC DISPLAYS * Operational Principle and Display Configuration11-13 * Electro-Optical Performance * DYE-DOPED TN DISPLAYS * Threshold Characteristic, Contrast Ratio and Switching Speed * PHASE CHANGE EFFECT DICHROIC LCDs * Theoretical Background * Threshold Characteristic and Molecular Orientation * MOLECULAR ORIENTATION DURING FIELD-INDUCED PHASE TRANSITION WITH HOMOGENEOUS WALL ALIGNMENT * MOLECULAR ORIENTATION DURING FIELD-INDUCED PHASE TRANSITION WITH HOMEOTROPIC WALL ALIGNMENT * Contrast Ratio, Transmission, Brightness and Switching Speed3,7,10,198-214 * Memory or Reminiscent Contrast * Electro-optical Performance vs. Temperature * Multiplexing Phase Change Dichroic LCDs * DOUBLE CELL DICHROIC LCDs3,9,14-17,232-234 * Double Cell Nematic Dichroic LCD3,8,9,14,15,233 * Double Cell One Pitch Cholesteric LCD16,17 * Double Cell Phase Change Dichroic LCD214,232 * POSITIVE MODE DICHROIC LCDS3,8,9 * Positive Mode Heilmeier Cells3,8,9,43,77,78,235-238 * USING PLEOCHROIC DYES3,8,9,43,235-238 * USING NEGATIVE DICHROIC DYES3,8,9,63,77,78156 * DUAL FREQUENCY ADDRESSED DICHROIC DISPLAYS75,238 * Positive Mode Dichroic LCDs Using λ/4 Plate * Positive Mode Double Cell Dichroic LCD * Positive Mode Dichroic LCDs Using Special Electrode patterns7,8,239-241 * Positive Mode Phase Change Dichroic LCDs3,8,9,230,243-248 * Dichroic LCDs Using an Admixture of Pleochroic and Negative Dichroic Dyes78,118 * SUPERTWIST DICHROIC EFFECT (SDE) DISPLAYS21-23 * FERROELECTRIC DICHROIC LCDs24-27 * Devices Using A Single Polarizer * Devices Using No Polarizer24-27 * POLYMER DISPERSED DICHROIC LCDs28-30,252-259 * DICHROIC POLYMER LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAYS * Heilmeier Type Displays * Guest-Host Cell Using an Admixture Of L.C. Polymer and Low Molecular Weight Liquid Crysta As Host * Polymeric Ferroelectric Dichroic LCDs * SMECTIC A DICHROIC LCDs * Laser

  14. The Relationship between Mg ii Broad Emission and Quasar Inclination Angle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildy, Conor; Czerny, Bozena, E-mail: wildy@cft.edu.pl [Center for Theoretical Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland)

    2017-11-14

    Several observed spectral properties of quasars are believed to be influenced by quasar orientation. In this investigation we examine the effect of orientation on the Mg ii line located at 2,798 Å in a sample of 36 radio-loud quasars, with orientation angles having been obtained in a previous study using radio observations. We find no significant relationship between orientation angle and either Mg ii line full-width at half-maximum or equivalent width. The lack of correlation with inclination angle contradicts previous studies which also use radio data as a proxy for inclination angle and suggests the Mg ii emission region does not occupy a disk-like geometry. The lack of correlation with Mg ii equivalent width, however, is reported in at least one previous study. Although the significance is not very strong (86%), there is a possible negative relationship between inclination angle and Fe ii strength which, if true, could explain the Fe ii anti-correlation with [O iii] strength associated with Eigenvector 1. Interestingly, there are objects having almost edge-on inclinations while still exhibiting broad lines. This could be explained by a torus which is either clumpy (allowing sight lines to the central engine) or mis-aligned with the accretion disk.

  15. Complex network analysis in inclined oil–water two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong-Ke, Gao; Ning-De, Jin

    2009-01-01

    Complex networks have established themselves in recent years as being particularly suitable and flexible for representing and modelling many complex natural and artificial systems. Oil–water two-phase flow is one of the most complex systems. In this paper, we use complex networks to study the inclined oil–water two-phase flow. Two different complex network construction methods are proposed to build two types of networks, i.e. the flow pattern complex network (FPCN) and fluid dynamic complex network (FDCN). Through detecting the community structure of FPCN by the community-detection algorithm based on K-means clustering, useful and interesting results are found which can be used for identifying three inclined oil–water flow patterns. To investigate the dynamic characteristics of the inclined oil–water two-phase flow, we construct 48 FDCNs under different flow conditions, and find that the power-law exponent and the network information entropy, which are sensitive to the flow pattern transition, can both characterize the nonlinear dynamics of the inclined oil–water two-phase flow. In this paper, from a new perspective, we not only introduce a complex network theory into the study of the oil–water two-phase flow but also indicate that the complex network may be a powerful tool for exploring nonlinear time series in practice. (general)

  16. On the influence of gravity on the static state of an inclined tensioned string

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Horssen, W.T.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the static state of an inclined stretched string due to gravity is considered. The string is stretched between two fixed supports which are situated at two different levels. It is assumed that the tension in the string is suffiently large such that the sag of the string due to gravity

  17. The Relationship between Mg ii Broad Emission and Quasar Inclination Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor Wildy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Several observed spectral properties of quasars are believed to be influenced by quasar orientation. In this investigation we examine the effect of orientation on the Mg ii line located at 2,798 Å in a sample of 36 radio-loud quasars, with orientation angles having been obtained in a previous study using radio observations. We find no significant relationship between orientation angle and either Mg ii line full-width at half-maximum or equivalent width. The lack of correlation with inclination angle contradicts previous studies which also use radio data as a proxy for inclination angle and suggests the Mg ii emission region does not occupy a disk-like geometry. The lack of correlation with Mg ii equivalent width, however, is reported in at least one previous study. Although the significance is not very strong (86%, there is a possible negative relationship between inclination angle and Fe ii strength which, if true, could explain the Fe ii anti-correlation with [O iii] strength associated with Eigenvector 1. Interestingly, there are objects having almost edge-on inclinations while still exhibiting broad lines. This could be explained by a torus which is either clumpy (allowing sight lines to the central engine or mis-aligned with the accretion disk.

  18. Demographic Factors, Personality and Entrepreneurial Inclination: A Study among Indian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Richa

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of demographic, social and personal dispositional factors on determining the entrepreneurial inclination. Specifically, the author examined the role of gender, age, stream of study, family business background and six psychological traits of locus of control, tolerance for…

  19. Constraining the Relative Inclinations of the Planets B and C of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... We investigate on the relative inclination of the planets B and C orbiting the pulsar PSR B1257+12. First, we show that the third Kepler's law does represent an adequate model for the orbital periods of the planets, because other Newtonian and Einsteinian corrections are orders of magnitude smaller than ...

  20. Effect of seat surface inclination on postural control during reaching in preterm children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna; van der Heide, Jolanda C.; Fock, Johanna M.; Stremmelaar, Elisabeth; van Eykern, Leo A.; Otten, Bert

    Background and Purpose Because it is debatable whether seat surface inclination improves motor function in children with cerebral palsy (CP), the effect of seat surface tilting on postural control and quality of reaching was studied. Subjects The subjects were 58 children with CP aged 2 to 11 years

  1. The effects of porosity and angle of inclination on the deflection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of porosity and angle of inclination on the deflection of fluid flow in porous media. ... a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link above.

  2. Deformation of two welded elastic half-spaces due to a long inclined ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Department of Mathematics, University of Delhi South Campus, New Delhi 110 021, India. ∗e-mail: ... Airy stress function for a tensile line source in two welded half-spaces are first obtained. These expressions ... computing the displacement and stress fields around a long inclined tensile fault near an internal boundary. 1.

  3. Reconstruction of inclined air showers detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierre Auger Collaboration, [No Value; Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Samarai, I. Al; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; D\\'\\iaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fuji, T.; Gaior, R.; Garc\\'\\ia, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Islo, K.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agëra, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Mart\\'\\inez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Mas\\'\\ias Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, A. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Newton, D.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodr\\'\\iguez-Fr\\'\\ias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiał kowski, A.; Šm\\'\\ida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Thao, N. T.; Theodoro, V. M.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the method devised to reconstruct inclined cosmic-ray air showers with zenith angles greater than 60° detected with the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The measured signals at the ground level are fitted to muon density distributions predicted with atmospheric cascade

  4. Effect of dual task type on gait and dynamic stability during stair negotiation at different inclinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madehkhaksar, F.; Egges, J.

    Stair gait is a common daily activity with great potential risk for falls. Stairs have varying inclinations and people may perform other tasks concurrently with stair gait. This study investigated dual-task interference in the context of complex gait tasks, such as stair gait at different

  5. EFFECT OF BRIDGE PIERS INCLINATION AND ROUGHNESS ON SCOUR PIT DIMENSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moaed S. Khalil

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a laboratory work was performed to study the effect of bridge piers inclination and surface roughness on scour pit dimensions. Fifty four experiments were conducted using three different sizes and inclinations Pier models fixed in a sandy bed channel. First, the axis of the pier was parallel to the flow, then it was inclined by 30° and finally by 45°. Each model was tested under three different flow discharges for a period not less than two hours and at the end of each experiment the dimensions of the scour pit were measured. The same experiments were repeated after roughening the surface of each pier by fine gravel of 2mm in diameter to increase its roughness.The results of the experiment showed a clear reduction in scour pit dimensions after increasing pier roughness, the percentage of decreases in scour depth was between 2 % and 61%, while the scour length decreased between 2.5% and 22%, and finally the width of scour decreases was between 3% and 19.7%. The results also showed that the inclination of pier's axis produced an increase in scour pit dimensions. Finally, the empirical relationships of the results showed that it's possible to explain the relation between the flow discharge and each of scour pit dimensions by a simple linear equation, where the determination coefficient were more than 0.94 for all relations. 

  6. First Measurements of the Inclined Boron Layer Thermal-Neutron Detector for Reflectometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clonts, Lloyd G [ORNL; Crow, Lowell [ORNL; Van Vuure, Thorwald L [ORNL; Robertson, Lee [ORNL; Riedel, Richard A [ORNL; Richards, John D [ORNL; Cooper, Ronald G [ORNL; Remec, Igor [ORNL; Ankner, John Francis [ORNL; Browning, Jim [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    A prototype detector based on the inclined boron layer principle is introduced. For typical measurement conditions at the Liquids Reflectometer at the Spallation Neutron Source, its count rate capability is shown to be superior to that of the current detector by nearly two orders of magnitude.

  7. The Racing-Game Effect : Why Do Video Racing Games Increase Risk-Taking Inclinations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Morton, Thomas; Kastenmueller, Andreas; Postmes, Tom; Frey, Dieter; Kubitzki, Joerg; Odenwaelder, Joerg; Kastenmüller, A.; Odenwälder, J.

    2009-01-01

    The present studies investigated why video racing games increase players' risk-taking inclinations. Four studies reveal that playing video racing games increases risk taking in a subsequent simulated road traffic situation, as well as risk-promoting cognitions and emotions, blood pressure, sensation

  8. A Study of Static Performance of Fixed Inclined Slider Bearings – A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, the performance of a fixed inclined slider bearing whose surfaces are lubricated by a non Newtonian power law lubricant is investigated numerically. Based on the power law model, the modified Reynolds equation is derived and solved using the finite element method. The effect of flow index on pressure ...

  9. The effects of porosity and angle of inclination on the deflection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -section of soils in deflecting contaminated fluid from septic tank to different directions from the source of water within the same small portion of land. It was observed that angle of inclination does not have a significant effect on the deflection of ...

  10. Constraining the Relative Inclinations of the Planets B and C of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of the orbital inclinations iB and iC independently of the pulsar's mass M. It turns out that coplanarity of the orbits of B and C would imply a violation of the equivalence principle. Adopting a pulsar mass range 1 ≲ M ≲ 3, in solar masses (supported by present-day theoretical and observational bounds for pulsar's masses), ...

  11. Second law analysis of a solar air heater having 60° inclined ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Artificially roughened solar air heaters perform better than the smooth ones under the same operating conditions. However, artificial roughness leads to even more fluid pressure thereby increasing the pumping power. The entropy generation in the duct of solar air heater having 60° inclined discrete rib roughness on one ...

  12. A Numerical Study on a Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine with Inclined Arms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostino De Marco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on a particular type of vertical-axis wind turbine, in which a number of inclined arms with airfoil-shaped cross-sections are mounted to connect the principal blades to their hub. While the majority of the known studies on vertical-axis turbines is devoted to the role of principal blades, in most of the cases without taking into account other parts of the wind turbine, the objective of this work is to investigate the effect of uncommon arm geometries, such as the inclined arms. The inclined arms are known to have a potentially beneficial role in the power extraction from the wind current but, due to the complexity of the phenomena, the investigation on aerodynamics of this type of turbine is often impossible through analytical models, such as blade-element momentum theory. It turns out that adequate studies can only be carried out by wind tunnel experiments or CFD simulations. This work presents a methodical CFD study on how inclined arms can be used on a selected wind turbine configuration to harvest additional power from the wind. The turbine configuration, geometry, and some fundamental definitions are introduced first. Then an in-depth CFD analysis is presented and discussed.

  13. Exact solution of cilia induced flow of a Jeffrey fluid in an inclined tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, K; Shaheen, S; Mann, A B

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the cilia induced flow of MHD Jeffrey fluid through an inclined tube. This study is carried out under the assumptions of long wavelength and low Reynolds number approximations. Exact solutions for the velocity profile, pressure rise, pressure gradient, volume flow rate and stream function are obtained. Effects of pertinent physical parameters on the computational results are presented graphically.

  14. The Effect of Multi-inclined Holes on the Creep Properties of Nickel-Based Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongfan; Wen, Zhixun; Wang, Shaofei; Liu, Chenyu; Yue, Zhufeng

    2017-07-01

    The creep properties of GH3536 nickel-based superalloy plate specimens without/with multi-inclined holes were studied under applied stress 80/90/100 MPa at 850 °, respectively. Interesting finding is focused on the inflection point, that is, both the fraction elongation and creep strain achieve the maximum value under 90 MPa. Further study is carried out by two methods: the finite element analysis (FEA) calculation and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The FEA results show that the dangerous areas appear in the regions near the end of ellipse axis along the inclined angle orientation, which is similar to the actual fracture appearances. What is more, the tiny holes and dimples are the main characters of creep fracture for multi-inclined hole specimens, whereas the creep fracture of specimens without holes is the result of growth and coalescence of voids. In addition, based on creep performance, laser drilling is better than that of the electric spark drilling, which provides a proof that the creep performance of specimens with multi-inclined holes will be better with the improvement of the drilling process.

  15. Is Mandibular Fossa Morphology and Articular Eminence Inclination Associated with Temporomandibular Dysfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paknahad, Maryam; Shahidi, Shoaleh; Akhlaghian, Marzieh; Abolvardi, Masoud

    2016-06-01

    Finding a significant relationship between temporomandibular joint (TMJ) morphology and the incidence of temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD) may help early prediction and prevention of these problems. The purpose of the present study was to determine the morphology of mandibular fossa and the articular eminence inclination in patients with TMD and in control group using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). The CBCT data of bilateral TMJs of 40 patients with TMD and 23 symptom-free cases were evaluated. The articular eminence inclination, as well as the glenoid fossa depth and width of the mandibular fossa were measured. The paired t-test was used to compare these values between two groups. The articular eminence inclination and glenoid fossa width and depth were significantly higher in patients with TMD than in the control group (p < 0.05). The articular eminence inclination was steeper in patients with TMD than in the control group. Glenoid fossa width and depth were higher in patients with TMD than that in the control group. This information may shed light on the relationship between TMJ morphology and the incidence of TMD.

  16. Hairpin packet structure of a turbulent boundary layer in inclined wall-normal/spanwise planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Hwa; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2009-11-01

    Turbulent coherent structures associated with hairpin packet motions have been scrutinized using the instantaneous flow fields obtained from the direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a turbulent boundary layer (TBL). The Reynolds number based on the momentum thickness was varied in the range Reθ=890˜2560. This study focused on the hairpin packet motions in inclined wall-normal/spanwise planes. The hairpin vortex signature associated with the hairpin leg components in the vertical inclined plane consists of a counter-rotating vortex pair, upward and downward motions and a stagnation point induced by the Q2 and Q4 events. These hairpin signatures were observed in the instantaneous flow field, in the two-point correlations and in the conditionally averaged flow fields, respectively. We considered three inclined planes (45^o, 90^o, and 135^o) to investigate the spatial characteristics of the hairpin packet motions in the log and wake regions. The statistical flow fields showed that significantly different flow patterns are induced by the intersections of the three inclined planes with the hairpin packet motions.

  17. Gibberellin mediates the development of gelatinous fibres in the tension wood of inclined Acacia mangium seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, Widyanto Dwi; Nakaba, Satoshi; Yamagishi, Yusuke; Begum, Shahanara; Marsoem, Sri Nugroho; Ko, Jae-Heung; Jin, Hyun-O; Funada, Ryo

    2013-11-01

    Gibberellin stimulates negative gravitropism and the formation of tension wood in tilted Acacia mangium seedlings, while inhibitors of gibberellin synthesis strongly inhibit the return to vertical growth and suppress the formation of tension wood. To characterize the role of gibberellin in tension wood formation and gravitropism, this study investigated the role of gibberellin in the development of gelatinous fibres and in the changes in anatomical characteristics of woody elements in Acacia mangium seedlings exposed to a gravitational stimulus. Gibberellin, paclobutrazol and uniconazole-P were applied to the soil in which seedlings were growing, using distilled water as the control. Three days after the start of treatment, seedlings were inclined at 45 ° to the vertical and samples were harvested 2 months later. The effects of the treatments on wood fibres, vessel elements and ray parenchyma cells were analysed in tension wood in the upper part of inclined stems and in the opposite wood on the lower side of inclined stems. Application of paclobutrazol or uniconazole-P inhibited the increase in the thickness of gelatinous layers and prevented the elongation of gelatinous fibres in the tension wood of inclined stems. By contrast, gibberellin stimulated the elongation of these fibres. Application of gibberellin and inhibitors of gibberellin biosynthesis had only minor effects on the anatomical characteristics of vessel and ray parenchyma cells. The results suggest that gibberellin is important for the development of gelatinous fibres in the tension wood of A. mangium seedlings and therefore in gravitropism.

  18. A Study of Static Performance of Fixed Inclined Slider Bearings – A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    and friction. He compared numerical solutions for the bearing performance metrics with analytical solution using a range of bearing aspect ratios and power law indices. In this paper, we present the effect of power law fluids on the static performance characteristics of inclined slider bearings. Based on the power law model ...

  19. Experimental studies on circular and AR4 elliptic vortex-ring impingement upon inclined surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shengxian; New, Tze How; Chen, Jian

    2014-11-01

    PLIF flow visualisation and TR-PIV measurements were performed on the impingement of circular and AR4 elliptic vortex-rings upon flat surface with different inclination angles at Re = 4000. This is aimed to investigate the effects of nozzle geometry, surface inclination angle and exit-surface separation distance on the vortex-ring impingement behaviour. Separation distance between nozzle exit and flat surface were adjusted for the elliptic vortex-ring so as to examine the flow structures for impingement prior, at and posterior the axis-switching point. Current results on circular vortex-ring show that at low inclination angle, vortex-ring underwent severe stretching during the impingement and vortex-ring core closer to the flat surface was observed to induce secondary vortex-ring and pair with it before its pinch-off. Meanwhile, vortex-ring core further away from the flat surface produced secondary and tertiary vortex-rings before transit into turbulence. At high inclination angles, vortex-ring core closer to the flat surface was quickly entrained by the primary vortex-ring after the impingement. Experiments on elliptic vortex-ring are undergoing at the moment, more findings will be presented in the conference.

  20. Effects of turbulence and flow inclination on the performance of cup anemometers in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, K.H.; Stefantos, N.C.; Schmidt Paulsen, U.

    2001-01-01

    Four commercial and one research cup anemometers were comparatively tested in a complex terrain site to quantify the effects of turbulence and flow inclination on the wind speed measurements. The difference of the mean wind speed reading between the anemometers was as much as 2% for wind directio...

  1. Changes of occlusal plane inclination after orthodontic treatment in different dentoskeletal frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-le; Kau, Chung; Wang, Min

    2014-06-25

    The inclination of the occlusal plane (OP) is related to facial types and experiences physiological growth-related changes. The aims of this research were to determine if there were any differences in the inclination of OP in subjects with three types of skeletal malocclusion and to investigate the characteristics and differences of functional occlusal plane (FOP) compared to bisected occlusal plane (BOP). A sample of 90 Caucasians patients was skeletal-classified into three (n = 30), and pre- and post-treatment cephalograms were digitized. Six linear and 8 angular cephalometric measurements were selected. The changes of OP inclination within each group and the differences among the three groups pre- and post-treatment were compared with paired t test and ANOVA test, respectively. The comparison and correlation between BOP and FOP were analyzed with paired t test and coefficient of correlation, respectively. The BOP angle increased in all of the three groups but only had statistically significant differences in skeletal class II patients in a mean of 1.51° (p stability (p > 0.05) in all three groups. The inclination of FOP was closely related to that of BOP (p stability in orthodontically treated patients with all three skeletal patterns.

  2. Economic Investigation of Different Configurations of Inclined Solar Water Desalination Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Phillips Agboola

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically investigated the performance of four configurations of inclined solar water desalination (ISWD system for parameters such as daily production, efficiency, system cost, and distilled water production cost. The empirical findings show that in terms of daily productivity improved inclined solar water desalination (IISWD performed best with 6.41 kg/m2/day while improved inclined solar water desalination with wire mesh (IISWDWM produced the least with 3.0 kg/m2/day. In terms of cost price of the systems, the control system inclined solar water desalination (ISWD is the cheapest while IISWDWM is the most expensive system. Distilled water cost price ranges from 0.059 TL/kg, for IISWDW, to 0.134 TL/kg, for IISWDWM system. All the systems are economically and technically feasible as a solar desalination system for potable water in northern Cyprus. Potable water from vendors/hawkers ranges from 0.2 to 0.3 TL/kg.

  3. Experimental investigation of coarse particles-water mixture flow in horizontal and inclined pipes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlasák, Pavel; Chára, Zdeněk; Krupička, Jan; Konfršt, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 3 (2014), s. 241-247 ISSN 0042-790X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP105/10/1574 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : hydraulic pipelining * coarse-grained slurry * pressure drops * pipe inclination * concentration distribution Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.486, year: 2014

  4. Articular Eminence Inclination, Height, and Condyle Morphology on Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilhan İlgüy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between articular eminence inclination, height, and thickness of the roof of the glenoid fossa (RGF according to age and gender and to assess condyle morphology including incidental findings of osseous characteristics associated with osteoarthritis (OA of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT. Materials and Methods. CBCT images of 105 patients were evaluated retrospectively. For articular eminence inclination and height, axial views on which the condylar processes were seen with their widest mediolateral extent being used as a reference view for secondary reconstruction. Condyle morphology was categorized both in the sagittal and coronal plane. Results. The mean values of eminence inclination and height of males were higher than those of females (P<0.05. There were significant differences in the RGF thickness in relation to sagittal condyle morphology. Among the group of OA, the mean value of the RGF thickness for “OA-osteophyte” group was the highest (1.59 mm, whereas the lowest RGF values were seen in the “OA-flattening.” Conclusion. The sagittal osteoarthritic changes may have an effect on RGF thickness by mechanical stimulation and changed stress distribution. Gender has a significant effect on eminence height (Eh and inclination.

  5. Rapid prototyping and inclined plane technique in the treatment of maxillofacial malformations in a fox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Elisangela P.; Rahal, Sheila C.; Teixeira, Carlos R.; Silva, Jorge V.L.; Noritomi, Pedro Y.; Villela, Carlos H.S.; Yamashita, Seizo

    2010-01-01

    An approximately 9-month-old fox (Pseudalopex vetulus) was presented with malocclusion and deviation of the lower jaw to the right side. Orthodontic treatment was performed using the inclined plane technique. Virtual 3D models and prototypes of the head were based on computed tomography (CT) image data to assist in diagnosis and treatment. PMID:20514249

  6. Impact of cusp inclinations on dental fractures in cracked tooth syndrome model and relevant risk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Nina; Wang, Penglai; Wu, Cui; Song, Wenting; Wang, Wen; Liu, Zongxiang

    2017-12-01

    We explored the impact of cusp inclinations on dental fractures in cracked tooth syndrome model and formulated corresponding risk scale. Forty maxillary premolars were randomized into four groups for cusp inclination measurements by digital radiovisiography (RVG). For cracked tooth models, buccal and palatal cusp inclinations were achieved by grinding in groups I (59°-50°), II (64°-55°) and III (69°-60°), with group IV as blank control. All groups underwent compression loading test, with fracture levels recorded for statistical analysis. The fracture modes included a majority of crown root fractures and a minority of crown fractures in groups I and II, exclusive crown root fractures in group III, and exclusive crown fractures in group IV. Overall, palatal fractures were predominant versus buccal fractures, with exclusive palatal fractures in group IV, and oblique fractures were overwhelming versus the scanty vertical fractures. Fracture risk classification: grade III was prevalent in groups I and II, grade IV in group III, and grades I and II in group IV only. The fracture risk scores in groups III and IV had significant statistical differences versus groups I and II (P0.05). Cracked teeth are more vulnerable to complex fractures, with increment of cusp inclinations contributable to complex fracture modes, involving deep roots and high risk scores.

  7. Average course approximation of measured subsidence and inclinations of mining area by smooth splines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Orwat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of marking average courses of subsidence measured on the points of measuring line no. 1 of the “Budryk” Hard Coal Mine, set approximately perpendicularly to a face run of four consecutively mined longwalls in coal bed 338/2 have been presented in the article. Smooth splines were used to approximate the average course of measured subsidence after subsequent exploitation stages. The minimising of the sum of the squared differences between the average and forecasted subsidence, using J. Bialek's formula, was used as a selection criterion of parameter values of smoothing an approximating function. The parameter values of this formula have been chosen in order to match forecasted subsidence with measured ones. The average values of inclinations have been calculated on the basis of approximated values of observed subsidence. It has been shown that by doing this the average values of extreme measured inclinations can be obtained in almost the same way as extreme observed inclinations. It is not necessary to divide the whole profile of a subsidence basin into parts. The obtained values of variability coefficients of a random scattering for subsidence and inclinations are smaller than their values which occur in the literature.

  8. Biomimetic walking trajectory generation of humanoid robot on an inclined surface using Fourier series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ill-Woo; Kim, Jung-Yup

    2014-10-01

    This article describes a novel method to generate a biomimetic walking trajectory for a biped humanoid robot on an inclined surface. We assume that the configuration of the inclined surface is known, and we solve the human-like walking trajectory generation problem by obtaining the solution from the desired zero moment point (ZMP) trajectory to the center of gravity (CoG) trajectory. We present an analytic solution for the walking trajectory generation by using Fourier series. From the given ZMP trajectory biomimetically represented by the Fourier series, we focus on how to find the CoG trajectory in an analytical way. A time-segmentation based approach is adopted for generating the trajectories. The trajectory functions need to be continuous between the segments; thus, the solution is found by calculating the coefficients under these connectivity conditions. We derive a general form of the ZMP equation using a simple inverted pendulum model (SIPM), which includes the ZMP and the CoG trajectories in the horizontal and vertical directions to quantify the walking parameters on the inclined surface. The performance of the proposed approach is verified by conducting walking simulations using a full-body dynamic simulator on three different inclined surfaces and comparing them to the authors' previous approach.

  9. Investigation on novel raceway pond with inclined paddle wheels through simulation and microalgae culture experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fanxue; Huang, Jianke; Meng, Chen; Zhu, Fachao; Chen, Jianpei; Li, Yuanguang

    2016-01-01

    The open raceway ponds are nowadays the most used large-scale reactors for microalgae culture. To avoid the stacking of microalgae, the paddle wheels are the most widely used to circulate and mix the culture medium. In this paper, a numerical simulation using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to investigate the hydrodynamic characteristics of open raceway ponds with different types of paddle wheels (the traditional paddle wheels and the novel paddle wheels with specially inclined angle of the blades). The particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to validate the reliability of the CFD model. The CFD simulation results showed that the novel raceway pond with 15° inclined angle of the blades had the best mixing efficiency under the same power consumption. Lastly, the results of microalgae culture experiments showed that the growth rates of Chlorella pyrenoidosa in the novel raceway pond with 15° inclined angle of the blades were higher than those in the traditional reactor. The results of the culture experiments and CFD simulations were identical with each other. Therefore, a novel paddle wheel with 15° inclined angle of the blades was obtained for better microalgae cultivation.

  10. Evaluation of Bearing Capacity of Strip Foundation Subjected to Eccentric Inclined Loads Using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Majeed Ali

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In real conditions of structures, foundations like retaining walls, industrial machines and platforms in offshore areas are commonly subjected to eccentrically inclined loads. This type of loading significantly affects the overall stability of shallow foundations due to exposing the foundation into two components of loads (horizontal and vertical and consequently reduces the bearing capacity Based on a numerical analysis performed using finite element software (Plaxis 3D Foundation, the behavior of model strip foundation rested on dry sand under the effect of eccentric inclined loads with different embedment ratios (D/B ranging from (0-1 has been explored. The results display that, the bearing capacity of strip foundation is noticeably decreased with the increase of inclination angle (α and eccentricity ratio (e/B. As well as, a reduction factor (RF expression was appointed to measure the degree of decreasing in the bearing capacity when the model footing is subjected to eccentric inclined load. It was observed that, the (RF decreases as the embedment ratio increases. Moreover, the test results also exhibit that, the model footing bearing capacity is reduced by about (69% when the load inclination is varied from (0° to 20° and the model footing is on the surface. While, the rate of decreasing in the bearing capacity was found to be (58%, for both cases of footing when they are at embedment ratios of (0.5 and 1.0. Also, a comparative study was carried out between the present results and previous experimental test results under the same conditions (soil properties and boundary condition. A good agreement was obtained between the predicted bearing capacities for the two related studies.

  11. Influence of thread shape and inclination on the biomechanical behaviour of plateau implant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calì, Michele; Zanetti, Elisabetta Maria; Oliveri, Salvatore Massimo; Asero, Riccardo; Ciaramella, Stefano; Martorelli, Massimo; Bignardi, Cristina

    2018-03-01

    To assess the influence of implant thread shape and inclination on the mechanical behaviour of bone-implant systems. The study assesses which factors influence the initial and full osseointegration stages. Point clouds of the original implant were created using a non-contact reverse engineering technique. A 3D tessellated surface was created using Geomagic Studio ® software. From cross-section curves, generated by intersecting the tessellated model and cutting-planes, a 3D parametric CAD model was created using SolidWorks ® 2017. By the permutation of three thread shapes (rectangular, 30° trapezoidal, 45° trapezoidal) and three thread inclinations (0°, 3° or 6°), nine geometric configurations were obtained. Two different osseointegration stages were analysed: the initial osseointegration and a full osseointegration. In total, 18 different FE models were analysed and two load conditions were applied to each model. The mechanical behaviour of the models was analysed by Finite Element (FE) Analysis using ANSYS ® v. 17.0. Static linear analyses were also carried out. ANOVA was used to assess the influence of each factor. Models with a rectangular thread and 6° inclination provided the best results and reduced displacement in the initial osseointegration stages up to 4.58%. This configuration also reduced equivalent VM stress peaks up to 54%. The same effect was confirmed for the full osseointegration stage, where 6° inclination reduced stress peaks by up to 62%. The FE analysis confirmed the beneficial effect of thread inclination, reducing the displacement in immediate post-operative conditions and equivalent VM stress peaks. Thread shape does not significantly influence the mechanical behaviour of bone-implant systems but contributes to reducing stress peaks in the trabecular bone in both the initial and full osseointegration stages. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of inclined star-disk encounter on protoplanetary disk size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandare, Asmita; Breslau, Andreas; Pfalzner, Susanne

    2016-10-01

    Most, if not all, young stars are initially surrounded by protoplanetary disks. Owing to the preferential formation of stars in stellar clusters, the protoplanetary disks around these stars may potentially be affected by the cluster environment. Various works have investigated the influence of stellar fly-bys on disks, although many of them consider only the effects due to parabolic, coplanar encounters often for equal-mass stars, which is only a very special case. We perform numerical simulations to study the fate of protoplanetary disks after the impact of parabolic star-disk encounter for the less investigated case of inclined up to coplanar, retrograde encounters, which is a much more common case. Here, we concentrate on the disk size after such encounters because this limits the size of the potentially forming planetary systems. In addition, with the possibilities that ALMA offers, now a direct comparison to observations is possible. Covering a wide range of periastron distances and mass ratios between the mass of the perturber and central star, we find that despite the prograde, coplanar encounters having the strongest effect on the disk size, inclined and even the least destructive retrograde encounters mostly also have a considerable effect, especially for close periastron passages. Interestingly, we find a nearly linear dependence of the disk size on the orbital inclination for the prograde encounters, but not for the retrograde case. We also determine the final orbital parameters of the particles in the disk such as eccentricities, inclinations, and semi-major axes. Using this information the presented study can be used to describe the fate of disks and also that of planetary systems after inclined encounters.

  13. Compact Planetary Systems Perturbed by an Inclined Companion. II. Stellar Spin-Orbit Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boué, Gwenaël; Fabrycky, Daniel C.

    2014-07-01

    The stellar spin orientation relative to the orbital planes of multiplanet systems is becoming accessible to observations. Here, we analyze and classify different types of spin-orbit evolution in compact multiplanet systems perturbed by an inclined outer companion. Our study is based on classical secular theory, using a vectorial approach developed in a separate paper. When planet-planet perturbations are truncated at the second order in eccentricity and mutual inclination, and the planet-companion perturbations are developed at the quadrupole order, the problem becomes integrable. The motion is composed of a uniform precession of the whole system around the total angular momentum, and in the rotating frame, the evolution is periodic. Here, we focus on the relative motion associated with the oscillations of the inclination between the planet system and the outer orbit and of the obliquities of the star with respect to the two orbital planes. The solution is obtained using a powerful geometric method. With this technique, we identify four different regimes characterized by the nutation amplitude of the stellar spin axis relative to the orbital plane of the planets. In particular, the obliquity of the star reaches its maximum when the system is in the Cassini regime where planets have more angular momentum than the star and where the precession rate of the star is similar to that of the planets induced by the companion. In that case, spin-orbit oscillations exceed twice the inclination between the planets and the companion. Even if the mutual inclination is only ~= 20°, this resonant case can cause the spin-orbit angle to oscillate between perfectly aligned and retrograde values.

  14. Finding the Acceleration and Speed of a Light-Emitting Object on an Inclined Plane with a Smartphone Light Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapucu, Serkan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates how the acceleration and speed of a light-emitting object on an inclined plane may be determined using a smartphone's light sensor. A light-emitting object was released from the top of an inclined plane and its illuminance values were detected by a smartphone's light sensor during its subsequent motion down the plane. Using…

  15. Synthesis, structure refinement and chromate sorption characteristics of an Al-rich bayerite-based layered double hydroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britto, Sylvia, E-mail: sylviabritto11@gmail.com; Kamath, P. Vishnu

    2014-07-01

    “Imbibition” of Zn{sup 2+} ions into the cation vacancies of bayerite–Al(OH){sub 3} and NO{sub 3}{sup −} ions into the interlayer gallery yields an Al-rich layered double hydroxide with Al/Zn ratio ∼3. NO{sub 3}{sup −} ions are intercalated with their molecular planes inclined at an angle to the plane of the metal hydroxide slab and bonded to it by hydrogen bonds. Rietveld refinement of the structure shows that the monoclinic symmetry of the precursor bayerite is preserved in the product, showing that the imbibition is topochemical in nature. The nitrate ion is labile and is quantitatively replaced by CrO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions from solution. The uptake of CrO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions follows a Langmuir adsorption isotherm, thus showing that the hydroxide is a candidate material for green chemistry applications for the removal of CrO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions from waste water. Rietveld refinement of the structure of the hydroxide after CrO{sub 4}{sup 2−} inclusion reveals that the CrO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ion is intercalated with one of its 2-fold axes parallel to the b-crystallographic axis of the crystal, also the principal 2 axis of the monoclinic cell. - Graphical abstract: The structure of the [Zn–Al4-nitrate] LDH viewed along the a-axis. - Highlights: • Synthesis of Al-rich layered double hydroxide with Al/Zn ratio ∼3. • Rietveld refinement indicates that the imbibition of Zn into Al(OH){sub 3} is topochemical in nature. • The uptake of CrO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions follows a Langmuir adsorption isotherm.

  16. Crystal structure and magnetic properties of Ba2 R 2/3TeO6 (R  =  Y, La, Pr, Nd, Sm–Lu) double perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Tai; Cava, Robert J.

    2017-10-01

    A new series of cubic double perovskites Ba{{}2}{{R}2/3} TeO6 (R  =  Y, La, Pr, Nd, Sm–Lu) was synthesized via solid state reaction. The {{R}3+} and \\text{T}{{\\text{e}}6+} ions are ordered on alternating octahedral sites, with the rare earth sites 2/3 occupied to balance the charge. The lattice parameters decrease monotonically from a=8.5533(3)~\\overset{\\circ}{{A}} for Ba2 \\text{L}{{\\text{a}}2/3} TeO6 to a=8.3310(4)~\\overset{\\circ}{{A}} for Ba2 \\text{L}{{\\text{u}}2/3} TeO6. The lattice parameter for R  =  Y is close to that of Ho. Analysis of the resulting bond lengths indicates a structural relaxation around the R ion site. Ba2 \\text{L}{{\\text{a}}2/3} TeO6, Ba2 {{\\text{Y}}2/3} TeO6 and Ba2 \\text{L}{{\\text{u}}2/3} TeO6 show primarily temperature-independent magnetic susceptibility due to the lack of a local rare earth moment. For Ba2 \\text{S}{{\\text{m}}2/3} TeO6 and Ba2 \\text{E}{{\\text{u}}2/3} TeO6, the susceptibilities are influenced by Van Vleck-like contributions from excited state multiplets. For the remaining members, the Curie–Weiss law is followed with low-temperature deviations that can be associated with various degrees of crystalline electric field splitting. No magnetic ordering was observed down to 1.8 K in any of the compounds.

  17. Synthesis of double condensed cesium gallium phosphates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudinova, N.N.; Grunze, I.; Guzeeva, L.S.; Avaliani, M.A.

    1987-09-01

    By crystallization from melts of polyphosphoric acids there are obtained double condensed phosphates of cesium and gallium of the following compositions: Cs/sub 2/GaH/sub 3/(P/sub 2/O/sub 7/)/sub 2/, CsGaHP/sub 3/O/sub 10/, Cs/sub 3/Ga/sub 3/P/sub 12/O/sub 36/. Their x-ray characteristics are given.

  18. The TTT curves of the heterogeneous and homogeneous crystallization of lithium disilicate – A stochastic approach to crystal nucleation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Krüger

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores the temperature and time dependence of heterogeneous crystal nucleation in a lithium disilicate glass using the stochastic approach. In particular a single lithium disilicate sample was repeatedly (284 runs undercooled to 1173 K in a PtRh-crucible and the crystallization onset time during an isothermal hold was detected in each run. The statistical distribution of the times elapsed before crystallization is described by a first order reaction with a heterogeneous crystal nucleation rate of (9.19 ± 0.04 × 10-4 s-1 while individually shaped crystallization exotherms of each run were recorded which indicate growth of a single or only few crystals during crystallization of the entire volume. The data were used together with results of previous stochastic experiments and those of double-stage heat treatments to calculate the crystallization time of a fraction of 10-4 percent for all temperatures between glass transition and melting. The derived TTT diagram shows a double nose of crystallization in the volume at large undercoolings (0.53–0.61 Tm and crystallization at the surface at small undercoolings (0.62–0.92 Tm initiated by homogeneous and heterogeneous crystal nucleation, respectively. The critical cooling rate at the heterogeneous nose is approximately 73 K s-1.

  19. Testing correction for paleomagnetic inclination error in sedimentary rocks: a comparative approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauxe, L.; Kodama, K. P.; Kent, D. V.

    2008-05-01

    Paleomagnetic inclinations in sedimentary formations are frequently suspected of being too shallow. Recognition and correction of shallow bias is therefore critical for paleogeographical reconstructions. The elongation/inclination (E/I) correction method of Tauxe and Kent (2004) relies on the twin assumptions that inclination flattening follows the empirical sedimentary flattening formula and that the distribution of paleomagnetic directions can be predicted from a paleosecular variation (PSV) model. We will test the reliability of the E/I correction method in several ways. First we consider the E/I trends predicted by various PSV models. The Giant Gaussian Process-type paleosecular variation models were all constrained by paleomagnetic data from lava flows of the last five million years. Therefore, to test whether the method can be used in more ancient times, we will compare model predictions of E/I trends with observations from four Large Igneous Provinces since the Jurassic (Yemen, Kerguelen, Faroe Islands, and Deccan basalts). All data are consistent at the 95% level of confidence with the elongation/inclination trends predicted by the paleosecular variation models. Then we will then discuss the geological implications of various applications of the E/I method. In general the E/I corrected data are more consistent with data from contemporaneous lavas, with predictions from the well constrained synthetic apparent polar wander paths, and other geological constraints. Finally, we will compare the E/I corrections with corrections from an entirely different method of inclination correction: the anisotropy of remanence method of Jackson et al. (1991) which relies on measurement of remanence and particle anisotropies of the sediments. In the two cases where a direct comparison can be made, the two methods give corrections that are consistent within error. In summary, it appears that the elongation/inclination method for recognizing and corrected the effects of

  20. Measurement of the buccolingual inclination of teeth: manual technique vs 3-dimensional software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Mahtab; Abdi, Amir Hossein; Farzan, Arash; Mokhtarpour, Faraneh; Baghban, AliReza Akbarzadeh

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we aimed to measure the inclination of teeth on dental casts by a manual technique with the tooth inclination protractor (TIP; MBI, Newport, United Kingdom) and a newly designed 3-dimensional (3D) software program. The correlation of the 2 techniques was evaluated, and the reliability of each technique was assessed separately. This study was conducted on 36 dental casts of normal, well-aligned Class I occlusions; we assessed 432 teeth. All casts had a normal Class I occlusion. After determining the facial axis of the clinical crown and the facial axis points on the dental casts, we measured the inclinations of the incisors and posterior teeth up to the first molars in each dental arch relative to Andrews' occlusal plane and the posterior occlusal plane using the TIP. Moreover, the casts were scanned by a structured-light 3D scanner. The inclination of teeth relative to the occlusal plane was determined using the new software. To assess the reliability, measurements of all teeth from 15 casts were repeated twice by the 2 methods. Intraclass correlation coefficient and Dahlberg's formula were used for calculation of correlation and reliability. Overall, the 2 techniques were not significantly different in the measurements of the inclinations of the teeth in both jaws. The ranges of Dahlberg's formula were 3.1° to 5.8° for the maxilla and 3.3° to 5.9° for the mandible. The overall correlation of the 2 techniques according to the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.91. For calculation of reliability, the intraclass correlation coefficients for the TIP and the 3D method were 0.73 and 0.82, respectively. The TIP and the 3D software showed a high correlation for measurement of the inclinations of maxillary and mandibular teeth relative to the occlusal plane. Also, the reproducibility of the measurements in each method was high. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. International double taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Odarčenko, Michal

    2015-01-01

    1 Summary This thesis deals with the issue of international double taxation of income and capital and methods for its solution. International double taxation is an issue which states began to deal with in the late 19th century. This interest intensified after the First World War when also the League of Nations (predecessor of the United Nations) began to deal with international double taxation. Most attention the phenomenon of double taxation of income and capital with an international elemen...

  2. Double Outlet Right Ventricle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Right Ventricle Menu Topics Topics FAQs Double Outlet Right Ventricle Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a rare form of congenital heart disease. Article Info En español Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a rare form of congenital ...

  3. Photonic time crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lunwu; Xu, Jin; Wang, Chengen; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhao, Yuting; Zeng, Jing; Song, Runxia

    2017-12-07

    When space (time) translation symmetry is spontaneously broken, the space crystal (time crystal) forms; when permittivity and permeability periodically vary with space (time), the photonic crystal (photonic time crystal) forms. We proposed the concept of photonic time crystal and rewritten the Maxwell's equations. Utilizing Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method, we simulated electromagnetic wave propagation in photonic time crystal and photonic space-time crystal, the simulation results show that more intensive scatter fields can obtained in photonic time crystal and photonic space-time crystal.

  4. Crystal distortion of monoclinic hen egg-white lysozyme crystals using X-ray digital topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wako, Kei; Fujii, Daiki; Tsukashima, Shiro; Kishi, Takeharu; Tachibana, Masaru; Kojima, Kenichi

    2014-09-01

    The crystal distortion of monoclinic hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) crystals was observed by the X-ray digital topography. The local rocking curves were obtained by the series of the topographic images. The single, double, triple, and multiple peaks of the local rocking curves were observed. The mapping of the full width of the one tenth maximum (FW10M) of the local rocking curves was obtained. It was found that the magnitude of FW10M depended on the distance of the peak splitting. The distribution of the distortion in the monoclinic HEWL crystals was investigated by the analysis of the local rocking curves.

  5. Oxygen isotope fractionation in double carbonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yong-Fei; Böttcher, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen isotope fractionations in double carbonates of different crystal structures were calculated by the increment method. Synthesis experiments were performed at 60 °C and 100 °C to determine oxygen and carbon isotope fractionations involving PbMg[CO3]2. The calculations suggest that the double carbonates of calcite structure are systematically enriched in (18)O relative to those of aragonite and mixture structures. Internally consistent oxygen isotope fractionation factors are obtained for these minerals with respect to quartz, calcite and water at a temperature range of 0-1200 °C. The calculated fractionation factors for double carbonate-water systems are generally consistent with the data available from laboratory experiments. The experimentally determined fractionation factors for PbMg[CO3]2, BaMg[CO3]2 and CaMg[CO3]2 against H2O not only fall between fractionation factors involving pure carbonate end-members but are also close to the calculated fractionation factors. In contrast, experimentally determined carbon isotope fractionation factors between PbMg[CO3]2 and CO2 are much closer to theoretical predictions for the cerussite-CO2 system than for the magnesite-CO2 system, similar to the fractionation behavior for BaMg[CO3]2. Therefore, the combined theoretical and experimental results provide insights into the effects of crystal structure and exchange kinetics on oxygen isotope partitioning in double carbonates.

  6. Aesthetically Inclined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Mark A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the new Ford Building at Detroit's College for Creative Studies. The building's design is intended to "inspire future artisans" with its open setting incorporating flexible space and natural light. Includes photographs and information on suppliers. (EV)

  7. Oblique Wave-Induced Responses of A VLFS Edged with A Pair of Inclined Perforated Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yong; Ji, Chun-yan; Zhai, Gang-jun; Oleg, Gaidai

    2018-03-01

    This paper is concerned with the hydroelastic responses of a mat-like, rectangular very large floating structure (VLFS) edged with a pair of horizontal/inclined perforated anti-motion plates in the context of the direct coupling method. The updated Lagrangian formulae are applied to establish the equilibrium equations of the VLFS and the total potential formula is employed for fluids in the numerical model including the viscous effect of the perforated plates through the Darcy's law. The hybrid finite element-boundary element (FE-BE) method is implemented to determine the response reduction of VLFS with attached perforated plates under various oblique incident waves. Also, the numerical solutions are validated against a series of experimental tests. The effectiveness of the attached perforated plates in reducing the deflections of the VLFS can be significantly improved by selecting the proper design parameters such as the porous parameter, submergence depth, plate width and inclination angle for the given sea conditions.

  8. Gas-liquid flow splitting in T-junction with inclined lateral arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Le-le; Liu, Shuo; Li, Hua; Zhang, Jian; Wu, Ying-xiang; Xu, Jing-yu

    2018-02-01

    This paper studies the gas-liquid flow splitting in T-junction with inclined lateral arm. The separation mechanism of the T-junction is related to the pressure distribution in the T-junction. It is shown that the separation efficiency strongly depends on the inclination angle, when the angle ranges from 0° to 30°, while not so strongly for angles in the range from 30° to 90° Increasing the number of connecting tubes is helpful for the gas-liquid separation, and under the present test conditions, with four connecting tubes, a good separation performance can be achieved. Accordingly, a multi-tube Y-junction separator with four connecting tubes is designed for the experimental investigation. A good agreement between the simulated and measured data shows that there is an optimal split ratio to achieve the best performance for the multi-tube Y-junction separator.

  9. Role of edge inclination in an optical microdisk resonator for label-free sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, Davide; Ramiro-Manzano, Fernando; Rebollo, Francisco Javier Aparicio; Ghulinyan, Mher; Pucker, Georg; Pavesi, Lorenzo

    2015-02-26

    In this paper, we report on the measurement and modeling of enhanced optical refractometric sensors based on whispering gallery modes. The devices under test are optical microresonators made of silicon nitride on silicon oxide, which differ in their sidewall inclination angle. In our approach, these microresonators are vertically coupled to a buried waveguide with the aim of creating integrated and cost-effective devices. Device modeling shows that the optimization of the device is a delicate balance of the resonance quality factor and evanescent field overlap with the surrounding environment to analyze. By numerical simulations, we show that the microdisk thickness is critical to yield a high figure of merit for the sensor and that edge inclination should be kept as high as possible. We also show that bulk-sensing figures of merit as high as 1600 RIU(-1) (refractive index unit) are feasible.

  10. Reconstruction of inclined air showers detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    collaboration, The Pierre Augur

    2014-08-01

    We describe the method devised to reconstruct inclined cosmic-ray air showers with zenith angles greater than 60° detected with the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The measured signals at the ground level are fitted to muon density distributions predicted with atmospheric cascade models to obtain the relative shower size as an overall normalization parameter. The method is evaluated using simulated showers to test its performance. The energy of the cosmic rays is calibrated using a sub-sample of events reconstructed with both the fluorescence and surface array techniques. The reconstruction method described here provides the basis of complementary analyses including an independent measurement of the energy spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using very inclined events collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  11. Impact of inclined magnetic field on micropolar Casson fluid using Keller box algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Z.; Mehmood, R.; Azhar, Ehtsham; Mehmood, Zaffar

    2017-04-01

    The present study examines the influence of an inclined magnetic field on a micropolar Casson fluid flow over a stretching sheet. Viscous dissipation effects are also taken into consideration. The governing physical problem is presented using the traditional Navier-Stokes theory. By means of the scaling group of transformation, a consequential system of equations is transformed into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations which are then solved using the implicit finite-difference approximation (Keller box method). The working fluid is examined for several sundry parameters graphically and in tabular form. It is observed that with an increase in inclination angle, the velocity profile decreases while temperature enhances. The Eckert number enhances flow velocity and temperature, whereas it decreases shear stress at the wall and heat transfer rate. The rheological fluid parameter contributes to the decline of velocity and temperature for weak as well as strong concentrations of micro elements.

  12. Spectrum of 100-kyr glacial cycle: Orbital inclination, not eccentricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Richard A.; MacDonald, Gordon J.

    1997-01-01

    Spectral analysis of climate data shows a strong narrow peak with period ≈100 kyr, attributed by the Milankovitch theory to changes in the eccentricity of the earth’s orbit. The narrowness of the peak does suggest an astronomical origin; however the shape of the peak is incompatible with both linear and nonlinear models that attribute the cycle to eccentricity or (equivalently) to the envelope of the precession. In contrast, the orbital inclination parameter gives a good match to both the spectrum and bispectrum of the climate data. Extraterrestrial accretion from meteoroids or interplanetary dust is proposed as a mechanism that could link inclination to climate, and experimental tests are described that could prove or disprove this hypothesis. PMID:11607741

  13. Magnetohydrodynamics Carreau nanofluid flow over an inclined convective heated stretching cylinder with Joule heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad Khan

    Full Text Available Current work highlights the computational aspects of MHD Carreau nanofluid flow over an inclined stretching cylinder with convective boundary conditions and Joule heating. The mathematical modeling of physical problem yields nonlinear set of partial differential equations. A suitable scaling group of variables is employed on modeled equations to convert them into non-dimensional form. The integration scheme Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg on the behalf of shooting technique is utilized to solve attained set of equations. The interesting aspects of physical problem (linear momentum, energy and nanoparticles concentration are elaborated under the different parametric conditions through graphical and tabular manners. Additionally, the quantities (local skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt number and local Sherwood number which are responsible to dig out the physical phenomena in the vicinity of stretched surface are computed and delineated by varying controlling flow parameters. Keywords: MHD, Carreau nanofluid, Inclined stretching cylinder, Joule heating, Shooting technique

  14. The Bearing Capacity of Strip Footings in Cohesionless Soil Subject to Eccentric and Inclined Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Sven; Damkilde, Lars; Krabbenhøft, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. The results are reported as graphs showing the bearing capacity as a function of the friction angle, the eccentricity, inclination and the surcharge. The results have been compared with the Eurocode 7 and for smaller eccentricities, except in the case of no surcharge......Lower bound calculations based on the finite element method is used to determine the bearing capacity of a strip foundation subjected to an inclined, eccentric load on cohesionless soil with varying surcharges and with friction angles 25, 30 and 35°. The soil is assumed perfectly plastic following...... and especially for small friction angles and great surcharges the Eurocode values are considerably greater than the LB values....

  15. Effect of magnetic field on Blasius and Sakiadis flow of nanofluids past an inclined plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Anjali Devi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical study on the effect of magnetic field on the classical Blasius and Sakiadis flow of nanofluids over an inclined plate is presented in this paper. The governing partial differential equations are converted into ordinary differential equations using suitable similarity transformations. The transformed boundary layer equations are solved numerically using MATLAB (bvp4c. Two types of nanoparticles are chosen namely copper and alumina in the base fluid of water with the Prandtl number (Pr = 6.2. The effects of the governing physical parameters over the velocity, temperature, skin friction coefficient and reduced Nusselt number for both the Blasius and Sakiadis flows are displayed graphically. The characteristics of physical and engineering interest are discussed in detail. Keywords: Nanofluid, Blasius flow, Sakiadis flow, MHD, Inclined plate, Mixed convection

  16. Computation of coupled surface radiation and natural convection in an inclined form cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amraqui, Samir; Mezrhab, Ahmed; Abid, Cherifa

    2011-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with computation of the radiation-natural convection interactions in an inclined form cavity. The cavity contains two symmetrically identical isothermal blocks and is vented by two opening located in a vertical median axis at the top and the bottom parts of the cavity. Calculations are made by using a finite volume method and an efficient numerical procedure is introduced for calculating the view factors, with shadow effects included. Effects of Rayleigh number Ra and inclination angle φ are investigated for Pr = 0.71 in presence and in absence of the radiation exchange. Results are reported in terms of isotherms, streamlines, local and average Nusselt numbers and mass flow rate. In light of the obtained results, we can conclude that the heat transfer decreases with increasing φ. In addition, the increase of Ra and the taking into account of the radiation exchange produce a considerable increase in the heat transfer.

  17. A comparative numerical study on natural convection in inclined wavy and flat-plate solar collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varol, Yasin [Department of Mechanical Education, Firat University, 23119 Elazig (Turkey); Oztop, Hakan F. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Firat University, 23119 Elazig (Turkey)

    2008-09-15

    The present study deals with the numerical analysis of natural convection heat transfer inside the inclined solar collectors. Two collectors are compared. In the first case, the collector has wavy absorber and in the second case, it has flat absorber. The solution was performed assuming the isothermal boundary conditions of absorbers and covers of collectors. CFDRC commercial software is used to simulate the laminar flow and thermal field. Governing parameters are taken as Rayleigh number (from 1 x 10{sup 6} to 5 x 10{sup 7}), inclination angle (from 20 to 60 ), wave length (from 1.33 to 4) and aspect ratio (from 0 to 4). Results are presented by streamlines, isotherms and local and mean Nusselt numbers. It is observed that flow and thermal fields are affected by the shape of enclosure and heat transfer rate increases in the case of wavy enclosure than that of flat enclosure. (author)

  18. MHD boundary layer flow and heat transfer in an inclined porous square cavity filled with nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Shekar Balla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the magnetohydrodynamic boundary layer flow of a free convection heat transfer in an inclined square cavity filled with nanofluid-saturated porous medium. The effects of different nanoparticles Cu, Al2O3, TiO2 and SiO2 are considered. The top and bottom horizontal walls of cavity are considered adiabatic, while the vertical walls are kept at constant temperatures. The governing partial differential equations are solved by finite element method of Galerkin weighted residual scheme. Numerical results are obtained for different values of the Rayleigh number, angle of inclination, magnetic field and nanofluid volume fraction. The overall investigation of variation of streamlines, isotherms and Nusselt numbers is presented graphically. To examine the accuracy, the present results are compared with the available results.

  19. MHD natural convection in an inclined square porous cavity with a heat conducting solid block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaraj, C.; Sheremet, M. A.

    2017-03-01

    This paper deals with natural convection in an inclined porous cavity with a heat conducting solid body placed at its center under the influence of the applied magnetic field of different orientations. The left and right vertical walls of the cavity are maintained at different temperatures Th and Tc, respectively, while the horizontal walls are adiabatic. The governing coupled partial differential equations were solved using a finite volume method on a uniformly staggered grid system. The effects of the inclination angles of the magnetic field and cavity and the Hartmann number on the flow and thermal fields are investigated in detail. Numerical results are presented in terms of isotherms, streamlines and average Nusselt numbers. In general, the results indicate that the inclusion of the magnetic field reduces the convective heat transfer rate in the cavity. It is also found that an increase in the angle of the applied magnetic field produces a non-linear variation in the average Nusselt numbers.

  20. Simulation on Natural Convection of a Nanofluid along an Isothermal Inclined Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Asish

    2017-08-01

    A numerical algorithm is presented for studying laminar natural convection flow of a nanofluid along an isothermal inclined plate. By means of similarity transformation, the original nonlinear partial differential equations of flow are transformed to a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Subsequently they are reduced to a first order system and integrated using Newton Raphson and adaptive Runge-Kutta methods. The computer codes are developed for this numerical analysis in Matlab environment. Dimensionless velocity, temperature profiles and nanoparticle concentration for various angles of inclination are illustrated graphically. The effects of Prandtl number, Brownian motion parameter and thermophoresis parameter on Nusselt number are also discussed. The results of the present simulation are then compared with previous one available in literature with good agreement.

  1. Microscopic calculation of the sticking force for nanodrops on an inclined surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berim, Gersh O.; Ruckenstein, Eli

    2008-09-01

    A two-dimensional nanodrop on a vertical rough solid surface is examined using a nonlocal density functional theory in the presence of gravity. The roughness is modeled either as a chemical inhomogeneity of the solid or as a result of the decoration with pillars of a smooth homogeneous surface. From the obtained fluid density distribution, the sticking force, which opposes the drop motion along an inclined surface, and the contact angles on the lower and upper leading edges of the drop are calculated. On the basis of these results, it is shown that the macroscopically derived equation for a drop in equilibrium on an inclined surface is also applicable to nanodrops. The liquid-vapor surface tension involved in this equation was calculated for various specific cases, and the values obtained are of the same order of magnitude as those obtained in macroscopic experiments.

  2. Reconstruction of inclined shower coordinates in electromagnetic calorimeters based on lead glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, A.N.; Mochalov, V.V.; Solov'ev, L.F.

    2007-01-01

    A method for reconstructing the coordinates of inclined showers in lead glass electromagnetic calorimeters is described. Such showers are generated by photons with energies of 0.5-4.0 GeV that are incident on the detector at angles of as great as 30 deg. An analytical expression for the description of the actual photon coordinate in the calorimeter versus the coordinates of the shower center of gravity is proposed. Using this expression, it is possible to reconstruct the coordinates of inclined electromagnetic showers over wide ranges of angles and energies. The dependences of the spatial resolution on the photon energy and angle are determined. The longitudinal fluctuations of the shower length and their effect on the spatial resolution of the calorimeter are discussed [ru

  3. Inclinations to Conformity as a Potential Social Limit of Giftedness Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Kočvarová

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of gifted pupils´ conformity, which may form a social barrier to their development during school teaching. The aim of the research is to analyse the inclination to conformity of gifted pupils during the application of differentiated enriching curriculum. The research sample consists of 86 diagnosed gifted pupils from the level of education ISCED2. The research instrument is semantically differentially based on the principle of the tool ATER. The study results suggest non-conformal inclinations of gifted pupils, which are subjectively declared in relation to the five statements describing work on a task during the application of differentiated enriching curriculum in school lessons.

  4. Robotic complex for the development of thick steeply-inclined coal seams and ore deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitenko, M. S.; Malakhov, Yu V.; Neogi, Biswarup; Chakraborty, Pritam; Banerjee, Dipesu

    2017-09-01

    Proposal for the formulation of robotic complexes for steeply inclined coal seams as a basis of the supportive-enclosing walking module and power support with a controlled outlet for mining industry has been represented in this literature. In mining industry, the available resource base reserves and mineral deposits are concentrated deep down the earth crust leading towards a complicated geological condition i.e. abrupt ore bedding and steeply inclined strata with the high gas content and fire hazard of thick coal stratum, heading against an unfavorable and sometimes human labor life risk during subversive mining. Prevailing towards the development of effective robotic complexes based on the means of “unmanned technologies” for extraction of minerals from hard-to-reach deposits and make sure the safety of underground staff during sublevel mining technology.

  5. Flow Over Backward Facing Step with Inclined Wall Solved by Finite Volume and Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louda, Petr; Sváček, Petr; Kozel, Karel; Příhoda, Jaromír

    2010-09-01

    The work deals with numerical solution of 2D incompressible flow over backward facing step. The inclination angles of the upper wall of the channel were chosen as in measurements by Driver and Seegmiller [1]. Two numerical methods are considered. One is finite volume method, the other one is finite element method. Turbulence is modeled using two-equation turbulence models of k-ω type. The influence of outlet boundary condition is discussed and do-nothing-like condition found suitable also for finite volume method. The comparison of both methods is presented for laminar as well as turbulent cases, including experimental results. The differences of the results are studied using one turbulence model and both numerical methods or one method and more turbulence models. It is found that sensitivity of the computation to these circumstances increases for higher inclination angles (diffuser flow).

  6. Studies from Cassini's high-inclination orbits: ion cyclotron wave belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisner, J. S.; Russell, C. T.; Dougherty, M. K.; Persoon, A. M.; Blanco-Cano, X.; Strangeway, R. J.; Cowee, M. M.

    2007-08-01

    Surrounding Saturn is a cloud of neutral water-group molecules. When these particles are ionized and accelerated by Saturn's corotating magnetized plasma, they generate ion cyclotron waves. When the inclination of the Cassini spacecraft's orbits rose to about fifty-five degrees in late 2006, new insights into the behavior of these ion cyclotron waves were obtained as the spacecraft passed through the equatorial plane, revealing latitudinal structure of the wave belt. Centered at the magnetic equator the wave amplitude grows with height in either direction, reaching a maximum at +/- 0.2 Rs and then decreasing until they disappear by +/- 0.3 Rs. Doppler shifts caused by the motion of the spacecraft reveal that these waves propagate primarily away from the equatorial plane. Using these high-inclination orbits, we study the wave growth and damping regions and their propagation characteristics. These properties give insight into the structure and ionization of Saturn's water cloud.

  7. Hydrodynamic and thermal mechanisms of filtration combustion inclinational instability based on non-uniform distribution of initial preheating temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yongfang; Shi, Junrui; Xu, Youning; Ma, Rui

    2018-03-01

    Filtration combustion (FC) is one style of porous media combustion with inert matrix, in which the combustion wave front propagates, only downstream or reciprocally. In this paper, we investigate the FC flame front inclinational instability of lean methane/air mixtures flowing through a packed bed as a combustion wave front perturbation of the initial preheating temperature non-uniformity is assumed. The predicted results show that the growth rate of the flame front inclinational angle is proportional to the magnitude of the initial preheating temperature difference. Additionally, depending on gas inlet gas velocity and equivalence ratio, it is demonstrated that increase of gas inlet gas velocity accelerates the FC wave front deformation, and the inclinational instability evolves faster at lower equivalence ratio. The development of the flame front inclinational angle may be regarded as a two-staged evolution, which includes rapid increase, and approaching maximum value of inclinational angle due to the quasi-steady condition of the combustion system. The hydrodynamic and thermal mechanisms of the FC inclinational instability are analyzed. Consequently, the local propagation velocity of the FC wave front is non-uniform to result in the development of inclinational angle at the first stage of rapid increase.

  8. Double layers in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlqvist, P.

    1982-01-01

    For more than a decade it has been realised that electrostatic double layers are likely to occur in space. The author briefly discusses the theoretical background of such double layers. Most of the paper is devoted to an account of the observational evidence for double layers in the ionosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth. Several different experiments are reviewed including rocket and satellite measurements and ground based observations. It is concluded that the observational evidence for double layers in space is very strong. The experimental results indicate that double layers with widely different properties may exist in space. (Auth.)

  9. Irreversibility analysis for gravity driven non-Newtonian liquid film along an inclined isothermal plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makinde, O.D.

    2005-10-01

    In this paper, the first and second law of thermodynamics are employed in order to study the inherent irreversibility for a gravity driven non-Newtonian Ostwald-de Waele power law liquid film along an inclined isothermal plate. Based on some simplified assumptions, the governing equations are obtained and solved analytically. Expressions for fluid velocity, temperature, volumetric entropy generation numbers, irreversibility distribution ratio and the Bejan number are also determined. (author)

  10. Role of Edge Inclination in an Optical Microdisk Resonator for Label-Free Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Gandolfi, Davide; Ramiro-Manzano, Fernando; Rebollo, Francisco Javier Aparicio; Ghulinyan, Mher; Pucker, Georg; Pavesi, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the measurement and modeling of enhanced optical refractometric sensors based on whispering gallery modes. The devices under test are optical microresonators made of silicon nitride on silicon oxide, which differ in their sidewall inclination angle. In our approach, these microresonators are vertically coupled to a buried waveguide with the aim of creating integrated and cost-effective devices. Device modeling shows that the optimization of the devic...

  11. Comparison of Plantar Pressure Distribution between Different Speed and Incline During Treadmill Jogging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, I-Ju; Hou, Yi-You; Yang, Chich-Haung; Wu, Wen-Lan; Chen, Sheng-Kai; Guo, Lan-Yuen

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of changes in speed and incline slope on plantar pressure distribution of the foot during treadmill jogging. Plantar pressure parameters were measured with the Pedar-X system in twenty healthy girls (mean age of 20.7 years, mean height of 1.60m, and a mean weight of 53.35kg). Because variations in walking speed or slope can significantly change the magnitude of plantar pressure, comparisons of plantar pressure distribution between the two independent protocols during treadmill jogging were considered in this study. First, the subjects ran at the same speed of 2 m·s(-1) with different incline slopes of 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%. Second, they ran on the same slope of 0% with different speeds of 1.5 m·s(-1), 2.0 m·s(-1), and 2.5 m·s(-1). The peak pressure of the eight plantar surface areas, apart from the medial forefoot and the hallux, significantly increased (p jogging were associated with changes in plantar pressures. By systematic investigation of foot kinematics and plantar pressure during jogging with varying incline slope and speed, the results of this study provided further insight into foot biomechanics during jogging. Key pointsThe study aimed to compare the plantar pressure distribution of the foot between different incline and speed during treadmill jogging by using plantar insole measurement system.With the increase of speed, apart from the hallux and medical forefoot, the peak pressure of all regions was raised significantly.As the slope increased, there was reduced peak pressure of the heel, medial forefoot, and hallux and toes.

  12. Influence of Initial Inclined Surface Crack on Estimated Residual Fatigue Lifetime of Railway Axle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Náhlík, Luboš; Pokorný, Pavel; Ševčík, Martin; Hutař, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2016), č. článku 1640007. ISSN 1756-9737. [FDM 2016 - International Conference on Fracture and Damage Mechanics /15./. Alicante, 14.09.2016-16.09.2016] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015069; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : inclined crack * railway axle * residual fatigue lifetime * fatigue crack propagation Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  13. CORRELATION BETWEEN PRONATED FOOT AND PELVIC INCLINATION, FEMORAL ANTEVERSION, QUADRICEPS ANGLE AND TIBIAL TORSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishita Gandhi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: A pronated foot can produce changes in the lower limb kinetic chain. This can affect the gait and increase energy expenditure. However, the relationship between pronated foot and other static alignment factors remains poorly understood. Hence, the objective was to correlate pronated foot with pelvic inclination, femoral anteversion, Q-angle and tibial torsion. Method: An observational study was performed on 60 subjects in the age group of 18-30 years with a BMI of not more than 30. Foot Posture Index was performed on the subjects, and people with a score of +6 or more were selected. Pelvic inclination, femoral anteversion, Q-angle and tibial torsion were measured. Correlation between the Foot Posture Index score and the above four static alignment factors was done using Graph Pad Prism 7 (Pearson’s correlation coefficient and Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Results: There was no significant correlation between Pronated foot and Pelvic inclination (r-value = 0.03309, p-value = 0.8018, Pronated foot and Femoral anteversion (r-value = 0.2185, p-value = 0.0934 Pronated foot and Q-angle (r-value = 0.1801, p-value = 0.1685, Pronated foot and Tibial torsion (r- value = -0.1285, p-value = 0.3277. Conclusion: There is no significant correlation between foot pronation and pelvic inclination, femoral anteversion, Q-angle and tibial torsion. However, the correlation between these factors cannot be completely ignored, and thus, further studies and literature are required to prove the same.

  14. MHD boundary layer flow and heat transfer in an inclined porous square cavity filled with nanofluids

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra Shekar Balla; Naikoti Kishan; Rama S.R. Gorla; B.J. Gireesha

    2017-01-01

    The present paper deals with the magnetohydrodynamic boundary layer flow of a free convection heat transfer in an inclined square cavity filled with nanofluid-saturated porous medium. The effects of different nanoparticles Cu, Al2O3, TiO2 and SiO2 are considered. The top and bottom horizontal walls of cavity are considered adiabatic, while the vertical walls are kept at constant temperatures. The governing partial differential equations are solved by finite element method of Galerkin weighted...

  15. Minimum energy shapes of one-side-pinned static drops on inclined surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thampi, Sumesh P; Govindarajan, Rama

    2011-10-01

    The shape that a liquid drop will assume when resting statically on a solid surface inclined to the horizontal is studied here in two dimensions. Earlier experimental and numerical studies yield multiple solutions primarily because of inherent differences in surface characteristics. On a solid surface capable of sustaining any amount of hysteresis, we obtain the global, and hence unique, minimum energy shape as a function of equilibrium contact angle, drop volume, and plate inclination. It is shown, in the energy minimization procedure, how the potential energy of this system is dependent on the basis chosen to measure it from, and two realistic bases, front-pinned and back-pinned, are chosen for consideration. This is at variance with previous numerical investigations where both ends of the contact line are pinned. It is found that the free end always assumes Young's equilibrium angle. Using this, simple equations that describe the angles and the maximum volume are then derived. The range of parameters where static drops are possible is presented. We introduce a detailed force balance for this problem and study the role of the wall in supporting the drop. We show that a portion of the wall reaction can oppose gravity while the other portion aids it. This determines the maximum drop volume that can be supported at a given plate inclination. This maximum volume is the least for a vertical wall, and is higher for all other wall inclinations. This study can be extended to three-dimensional drops in a straightforward manner and, even without this, lends itself to experimental verification of several of its predictions.

  16. Inclined periodic homoclinic breather and rogue waves for the (1+1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [8], financial markets [9] and other related fields. The first-order .... where p1, p, α, β, b1 and b2 are real constants to be determined. Computing D2 .... β t. ) +γ = 0 with period 2π/p. So this solution is called the inclined periodic homoclinic breather solution. Using eq. (10) and taking b2 = 1, γ = ln(. √ b2) = 0 in u2. So, solution ...

  17. Probing Disk Stratification by Combining X-ray and Disk Inclination Data for Taurus-Auriga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arraki, Kenza S.; Daly, B.; Harding, M.; McCleary, J.; Cox, A. W.; Grady, C. A.; Woodgate, B. E.; Hamaguchi, K.; Wisniewski, J. P.; Brakken-Thal, S.; Hilton, G.; Bonfield, D.; Williger, G. M.

    2010-01-01

    Photoelectric neutral Hydrogen absorption, N(H), is a probe of the gas and dust column towards the star. Kastner et al. (2005) found a correlation between N(H) and proplyd aspect ratio in the Orion nebula cluster. We extend this study to Taurus-Auriga by combining publicly available N(H) data from the XMM-Newton Extended Survey of the Taurus molecular cloud (XEST), with published disk inclination data obtained from HST coronagraphic imagery and mm interferometry. Additional inclinations were derived from jet proper motion and radial velocity data obtained from archival HST imagery and the Apache Point Observatory 3.5m telescope's Goddard Fabry-Perot and DIS long-slit spectrograph. Both N(H) and extinction have linear relations with system inclination, where the extinction has a smaller slope than the N(H) trend. Correlations with system inclination demonstrate that the bulk of both N(H) and extinction arise in the disk rather than in remnant envelopes, nearby molecular cloud material, or foreground material. The deficit in extinction compared with predictions for ISM-like gas to dust ratios is consistent with grain growth and settling toward the disk midplane and stratification in disks occurring by 2 Myr. However, the disks remain gas-rich, indicating that giant planet formation is still feasible. We gratefully acknowledge the support of the NASA Motivating Undergraduates in Science and Technology (MUST) Project and of NASA's APRA program under WBS#399131.02.06.02.32. A grant of Director's Discretionary Time funded observing time at the Apache Point Observatory.

  18. The new Permian-Triassic paleomagnetic pole for the East European Platform corrected for inclination shallowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetisova, A. M.; Veselovskiy, R. V.; Scholze, F.; Balabanov, Yu. P.

    2018-01-01

    The results of detailed paleomagnetic studies in seven Upper Permian and Lower Triassic reference sections of East Europe (Middle Volga and Orenburg region) and Central Germany are presented. For each section, the coefficient of inclination shallowing f (King, 1955) is estimated by the Elongation-Inclination (E-I) method (Tauxe and Kent, 2004) and is found to vary from 0.4 to 0.9. The paleomagnetic directions, corrected for the inclination shallowing, are used to calculate the new Late Permian-Early Triassic paleomagnetic pole for the East European Platform (N = 7, PLat = 52.1°, PLong = 155.8°, A95 = 6.6°). Based on this pole, the geocentric axial dipole hypothesis close to the Paleozoic/Mesozoic boundary is tested by the single plate method. The absence of the statistically significant distinction between the obtained pole and the average Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) paleomagnetic pole of the Siberian Platform and the coeval pole of the North American Platform corrected for the opening of the Atlantic (Shatsillo et al., 2006) is interpreted by us as evidence that 250 Ma the configuration of the magnetic field of the Earth was predominantly dipolar; i.e., the contribution of nondipole components was at most 10% of the main magnetic field. In our opinion, the hypothesis of the nondipolity of the geomagnetic field at the P-Tr boundary, which has been repeatedly discussed in recent decades (Van der Voo and Torsvik, 2001; Bazhenov and Shatsillo, 2010; Veselovskiy and Pavlov, 2006), resulted from disregarding the effect of inclination shallowing in the paleomagnetic determinations from sedimentary rocks of "stable" Europe (the East European platform and West European plate).

  19. The Racing-Game Effect: Why Do Video Racing Games Increase Risk-Taking Inclinations?

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Morton, Thomas; Kastenmüller, Andreas; Postmes, Tom; Frey, Dieter; Kubitzki, Jörg; Odenwälder, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    The present studies investigated why video racing games increase players’ risk-taking inclinations. Four studies reveal that playing video racing games increases risk taking in a subsequent simulated road traffic situation, as well as risk-promoting cognitions and emotions, blood pressure,sensation seeking, and attitudes toward reckless driving. Study 1 ruled out the role of experimental demand in creating such effects. Studies 2 and 3 showed that the effect of playing video racing games on r...

  20. Flow behaviour and local concentration of coarse particles-water mixture in inclined pipes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlasák, Pavel; Chára, Zdeněk; Konfršt, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 2 (2017), s. 183-191 ISSN 0042-790X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP105/10/1574 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : coarse particle mixture * concentration distribution * effect of pipe inclination * gamma-ray radiometry * Hydraulic conveying * mixture flow behaviour Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 1.654, year: 2016

  1. Variation of the mean and median inclinations in the numbered minor planet sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knezevic, Z. (Astronomical Observatory, Belgrade, Yugoslavia)

    1982-01-01

    Variations of the mean and median minor planet inclinations with the increase of the numbered minor planet sample size are investigated. An analysis is presented of the role of real features of the minor planet system and of the selectional effects connected with discoveries and inclusion in the list of numbered objects. Available data are discussed and prediction of the future behaviour of variations attempted.

  2. Conical Double Frequency Emission by Femtosecond Laser Pulses from DKDP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi-Peng, Zhang; Hong-Bing, Jiang; Shan-Chun, Tang; Qi-Huang, Gong

    2009-01-01

    Conical double frequency emission is investigated by femtosecond laser pulses at a wavelength of 800 nm in a DKDP crystal. It is demonstrated that the sum frequency of incident wave and its scattering wave accounts for the conical double frequency emission. The gaps on the conical rings are observed and they are very sensitive to the propagation direction, and thus could be used to detect the small angle deviation of surface direction. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  3. Effect of the inclination of support in cervical and upper limb development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailime Perito Feiber Heck

    Full Text Available Introduction It is expected that a child will acquire control of posture (CP of the head and upper limbs in a gradual, sequential and organized way. However, there is still no consensus regarding the best position to achieve this; the evidence suggests that it is prone. Objective To investigate whether age and inclination of the supporting surface in the prone position influence the alignment of the head and upper limbs of children with typical motor development (TMD and atypical motor development (AMD. Methods The study included 29 children aged between one and three months divided according to the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS into groups with TMD (n = 18 and AMD (n = 11. The children were placed in the prone position with three angles of the support surface (0°, 25° and 45°. Kinematic analysis was conducted to evaluate the alignment angles of the head and upper limbs. Results Children with TMD had higher head alignment. There was no difference in the upper limbs’ alignment between the group with TMD and the group with AMD. In the third month of age compared with the first, increased head alignment and decreased upper limb alignment were found in both groups. The inclination of the supporting surface did not influence the alignment of the head and upper limbs. Conclusions Among the positions evaluated, the prone position without inclination of the supporting surface was more appropriate for weight discharge in the upper limbs, favoring the development of postural control of the child.

  4. Heat removal capability of core-catcher with inclined cooling channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Y.; Tahara, M.; Kurita, T.; Hamazaki, R.; Morooka, S.

    2009-01-01

    A core-catcher is one of the mitigation systems that provide functions of molten corium cooling and stabilization during a severe accident. Toshiba has been developing a compact core-catcher to be placed at the lower drywell floor in the containment vessel for the next generation BWR as well as near term ABWR. This paper presents the evaluation of heat removal capability of the core-catcher with inclined cooling channels, our verification status and plan. The heat removal capability of the core-catcher is analyzed by using the newly developed two-phase flow analysis code which incorporates drift flux parameters for inclined channels and the CHF correlation obtained from SULTAN tests. Effects of geometrical parameters such as the inclination and the gap size of the cooling channel on the heat removal capability are also evaluated. These results show that the core-catcher has sufficient capability to cool the molten corium during a severe accident. Based on the analysis, it has been shown that the core-catcher has an efficient capability of heat removal to cool the molten corium. (author)

  5. Students’ understanding of forces: Force diagrams on horizontal and inclined plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirait, J.; Hamdani; Mursyid, S.

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to analyse students’ difficulties in understanding force diagrams on horizontal surfaces and inclined planes. Physics education students (pre-service physics teachers) of Tanjungpura University, who had completed a Basic Physics course, took a Force concept test which has six questions covering three concepts: an object at rest, an object moving at constant speed, and an object moving at constant acceleration both on a horizontal surface and on an inclined plane. The test is in a multiple-choice format. It examines the ability of students to select appropriate force diagrams depending on the context. The results show that 44% of students have difficulties in solving the test (these students only could solve one or two items out of six items). About 50% of students faced difficulties finding the correct diagram of an object when it has constant speed and acceleration in both contexts. In general, students could only correctly identify 48% of the force diagrams on the test. The most difficult task for the students in terms was identifying the force diagram representing forces exerted on an object on in an inclined plane.

  6. Linear and Nonlinear Gait Features in Older Adults Walking on Inclined Surfaces at Different Speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Marcus Fraga; Rodrigues, Fábio Barbosa; de Sá E Souza, Gustavo Souto; Magnani, Rina Márcia; Lehnen, Georgia Cristina; Andrade, Adriano O

    2017-06-01

    This study evaluated linear and nonlinear gait features in healthy older adults walking on inclined surfaces at different speeds. Thirty-seven active older adults (experimental group) and fifty young adults (control group) walked on a treadmill at 100% and ±20% of their preferred walking speed for 4 min under horizontal (0%), upward (UP) (+8%), and downward (DOWN) (-8%) conditions. Linear gait variability was assessed using the average standard deviation of trunk acceleration between strides (VAR). Gait stability was assessed using the margin of stability (MoS). Nonlinear gait features were assessed by using the maximum Lyapunov exponent, as a measure of local dynamic stability (LDS), and sample entropy (SEn), as a measure of regularity. VAR increased for all conditions, but the interaction effects between treadmill inclination and age, and speed and age were higher for young adults. DOWN conditions showed the lowest stability in the medial-lateral MoS, but not in LDS. LDS was smaller in UP conditions. However, there were no effects of age for either MoS or LDS. The values of SEn decreased almost linearly from the DOWN to the UP conditions, with significant interaction effects of age for anterior-posterior SEn. The overall results supported the hypothesis that inclined surfaces modulate nonlinear gait features and alter linear gait variability, particularly in UP conditions, but there were no significant effects of age for active older adults.

  7. Attachment systems for implant overdenture: influence of implant inclination on retentive and lateral forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tsung-Chieh; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Gonda, Tomoya; Kotecha, Sunny

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate the retentive force and lateral force of an implant with various types of attachments for overdentures in relation to implant inclination. An implant (3.75 × 13 mm) was embedded into an acrylic resin block, simulating the edentulous ridge. Four different attachment systems were used, including: (1) Locator black and blue, (2) a ball attachment, (3) a flat-type magnetic attachment and (4) a self-adjusting magnetic attachment, which has vertical and rotational movement. All of the attachments were under a constant dislodging force with an angle of the implant at 0°, 15°, 30° and 45°, and the experiments were repeated 10 times using a universal testing machine to measure the retentive force. The lateral force to the implant was measured by strain gauges attached on the implant surface. Statistical analysis was performed by multiple comparisons with Bonferroni's correction. Pattachments. The Locator blue and ball attachment maintained the retentive force until a 30° inclination; however, the lateral force increased significantly, especially with the ball attachment. The retentive force of the magnetic attachment was significantly lower at 0°, as well as the lateral force in the self-adjusting magnetic attachment. Within the limitations of this study, we conclude that the retentive force decreases with an increase in implant inclination, whereas the lateral force increases, except for in magnetic attachments. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Modelling and Simulation of Free Floating Pig for Different Pipeline Inclination Angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woldemichael Dereje Engida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a modelling and simulation of free floating pig to determine the flow parameters to avoid pig stalling in pigging operation. A free floating spherical shaped pig was design and equipped with necessary sensors to detect leak along the pipeline. The free floating pig does not have internal or external power supply to navigate through the pipeline. Instead, it is being driven by the flowing medium. In order to avoid stalling of the pig, it is essential to conduct simulation to determine the necessary flow parameters for different inclination angles. Accordingly, a pipeline section with inclination of 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, and 90° were modelled and simulated using ANSYS FLUENT 15.0 with water and oil as working medium. For each case, the minimum velocity required to propel the free floating pig through the inclination were determined. In addition, the trajectory of the free floating pig has been visualized in the simulation.

  9. Three-dimensional unsteady natural convection and entropy generation in an inclined cubical trapezoidal cavity with

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Kadhim Hussein

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerical computation of unsteady laminar three-dimensional natural convection and entropy generation in an inclined cubical trapezoidal air-filled cavity is performed for the first time in this work. The vertical right and left sidewalls of the cavity are maintained at constant cold temperatures. The lower wall is subjected to a constant hot temperature, while the upper one is considered insulated. Computations are performed for Rayleigh numbers varied as 103 ⩽ Ra ⩽ 105, while the trapezoidal cavity inclination angle is varied as 0° ⩽ Φ ⩽ 180°. Prandtl number is considered constant at Pr = 0.71. Second law of thermodynamics is applied to obtain thermodynamic losses inside the cavity due to both heat transfer and fluid friction irreversibilities. The variation of local and average Nusselt numbers is presented and discussed, while, streamlines, isotherms and entropy contours are presented in both two and three-dimensional pattern. The results show that when the Rayleigh number increases, the flow patterns are changed especially in three-dimensional results and the flow circulation increases. Also, the inclination angle effect on the total entropy generation becomes insignificant when the Rayleigh number is low. Moreover, when the Rayleigh number increases the average Nusselt number increases.

  10. Rolling and sliding motion of spheres propagating down inclined planes in still water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Yi Hui; Longmire, Ellen

    2016-11-01

    In modelling the motion of spheres submerged in liquid, gravity, drag, lift, and added mass forces have to be taken into account. For spheres contacting bounding surfaces, friction coefficients due to rolling and sliding increase the complexity of the model. In this study, experiments are conducted to investigate the effects of particle density and diameter on the rolling and sliding motion of spheres. Spherical particles with marked surfaces are released from rest on an inclined glass plate in still water at various inclination angles and allowed to accelerate. A 45° mirror mounted beneath the plate allows simultaneous capture of both longitudinal and spanwise motions of the sphere. Based on sequences obtained by high speed imaging, the translational and rotational velocities are determined. Particle Reynolds numbers at terminal velocity range from 400 to 2500 corresponding with Galileo numbers of 800 to 2800. By comparing the translational and rotational velocities, the occurrence of sliding motion can be identified. The onset of sliding motion is then determined as a function of inclination angle and Galileo number for multiple particle materials. The experimental results are also compared against the existing models from the literature. Supported by NSF (CBET-1510154).

  11. Valuation of coefficient of rolling friction by the inclined plane method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciornei, F. C.; Alaci, S.; Ciogole, V. I.; Ciornei, M. C.

    2017-05-01

    A major objective of tribological researches is characterisation of rolling friction, due to various cases encountered in classical engineering applications, like gear transmissions and cam mechanisms or more recent examples met in bioengineering and biomedical devices. A characteristic of these examples consists in reduced dimensions of the contact zones, theoretically zero, the relative motion occurring between the contact points being either sliding or rolling. A characteristic parameter for the rolling motion is the coefficient of rolling friction. The paper proposes a method for estimation of coefficient of rolling friction by studying the motion of a body of revolution on an inclined plane. Assuming the hypothesis that moment of rolling friction is proportional to the normal reaction force, the law of motion for the body on the inclined plane is found under the premise of pure rolling. It is reached the conclusion that there is an uniformly accelerated motion, and thus for a known plane slope, it is sufficient to find the time during which the body runs a certain distance, starting from motionless situation. To obtain accurate results assumes finding precisely the time of motion. The coefficient of rolling friction was estimated for several slopes of the inclined plane and it is concluded that with increased slope, the values of coefficient of rolling friction increase, fact that suggest that the proportionality between the rolling torque and normal load is valid only for domains of limited variations of normal load.

  12. Heat transfer coefficient in pool boiling for an electrically heated tube at various inclinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmy, A.S.A.; Mariy, A.H.; Mahmoud, S.I.; Ibrahim, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation is carried out study the behaviour of heat transfer in pool boiling from a vertical and inclined heated tube at atmospheric pressure. An imperial correlation joining the different parameters affecting the heat transfer coefficient in pool boiling for an electrically heated tube at various inclinations is developed. Two test sections (zircaloy-4 and stainless steel) of 16 n n outer diameter and 120 nm length are investigated. Four levels of heat flux are used for heating the two lest sections (e.g. 381, 518, 721 and 929 k.watt/n 2). The maximum surface temperature achieved is 146.5 degree c for both materials, and the maximum bulk temperature is 95 degree C. It is found that the average heat transfer coefficient is inversely proportional with heated length l, where it reaches a constant value in the horizontal position. The heat transfer coefficient curves at various inclinations with respect to the heated tube length pass around one point which is defined as limit length

  13. Nonlinear optical crystals a complete survey

    CERN Document Server

    Nikogosyan, David N

    2005-01-01

    Nonlinear optical crystals are widely used in modern optical science and technology for frequency conversion of laser light, i.e. to generate laser radiation at any specific wavelength in visible, UV or IR spectral regions. This unrivalled reference book contains the most complete and up-to-date information on properties of nonlinear optical crystals. It includes: * Database of 63 common and novel nonlinear optical crystals * Periodically-poled and self-frequency-doubling materials * Full description of linear and nonlinear optical properties * Significant amount of crystallophysical, thermophysical, spectroscopic, electro-optic and magneto-optic information * 7 mini-reviews on novel applications, such as deep-UV light generation, terahertz-wave generation, ultrashort laser pulse compression, photonic band-gap crystals, x3 nonlinearity, etc. * More than 1500 different references with full titles It is a vital source of information for scientists and engineers dealing with modern applications of nonlinear opti...

  14. Photonic Crystal Fibers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kristiansen, Rene E

    2005-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking Crystal Fibre A/S as follows: Crystal Fibre will conduct research and development of large mode area, dual clad multi-core Yb-doped photonic crystal fiber...

  15. Liquid Crystal Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Madeline J.

    1983-01-01

    The nature of liquid crystals and several important liquid crystal devices are described. Ideas for practical experiments to illustrate the properties of liquid crystals and their operation in devices are also described. (Author/JN)

  16. Liquid Crystal Inquiries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroum, Renata-Maria

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the properties and classification of liquid crystals. Presents a simple experiment that illustrates the structure of liquid crystals and the differences between the various phases liquid crystals can assume. (JRH)

  17. Why People with More Emotion Regulation Difficulties Made a More Deontological Judgment: The Role of Deontological Inclinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lisong; Li, Zhongquan; Wu, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Ziyuan

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the key role of emotion in moral judgment, and explored the relationship between emotion regulation and moral judgment. The present study investigated the influence of individual differences in emotion regulation difficulties on moral judgment. Study 1 examined whether individuals with high emotion regulation difficulties made a more deontological judgment. Study 2 explored the underlying mechanism using a process-dissociation approach, examining whether deontological inclinations and utilitarian inclinations separately or jointly accounted for the association. The results indicated that individuals with high emotion regulation difficulties rated the utilitarian actions less morally appropriate, and one's deontological inclinations mediated the association between emotion regulation difficulties and moral judgment.

  18. Combined free and forced laminar convection in inclined rectangular channels heated from below and cooled from above

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinsete, V.A.; Bello-Ochende, F.L.

    1981-01-01

    Steady-state numerical results for the solution to the non-linear thermal problem of combined free and forced laminar convection in inclined rectangular channels with constant but unequal surface temperature are presented for an incompressible, viscous fluid whose Prandtl number, Pr = 0.73. Fluid properties are assumed constant, except for density variations with temperature. Maximum values exist for the mean friction factor, Nusselt and Stanton numbers when the inclination to the horizontal lies between 30 0 and 60 0 for a given Archimedes number, Ar. Also, for any given inclination a unique solution exists when Ar = 0,50. (Author) [pt

  19. Influence of the nucleation surface inclination on heat transfers and on the growth dynamics of a steam bubble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthes, M.; Reynard, Ch.; Santini, R.; Tadrist, L.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of the inclination of the nucleation surface on heat and mass transfers and on the growth dynamics of a single steam bubble is experimentally studied. The bubble is created beneath a wall with an imposed heating flux. The evolution of geometrical bubble parameters and of the frequency of emission with respect to the inclination angle are presented. The total heat flux measurements are compared to the evaporation fluxes determined by image processing. Contrary to the evaporation flux, the total flux is conditioned by the inclination and thus is correlated to the frequency of bubbles emission. (J.S.)

  20. A study of the rates of heat transfer and bubble site density for nucleate boiling on an inclined heating surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonamy, S.E.; Symons, J.G.

    1974-08-01

    Nucleate pool boiling of distilled water from an electrically heated surface at atmospheric pressure is studied for varying heating surface inclinations. The constants of the accepted boiling equation phi = K Tsup(B) and the Rohsenow Correlation Coefficient are found to be dependent on surface orientation. Convection cooling is observed to play a major role in pool boiling phenomena and causes large changes in the heat transfer rates for a given excess of temperature of the heated surface. Active nucleation site density is studied and found to be independent of surface inclination. Empirical relations are presented to provide an understanding of the effects of inclination on other boiling parameters. (author)

  1. Velocity and turbulence measurements of oil-water flow in horizontal and slightly inclined pipes using PIV

    OpenAIRE

    Kumara, W.A.S.; Halvorsen, Britt; Melaaen, Morten Christian

    2009-01-01

    Oil-water flows in horizontal and slightly inclined pipes are investigated using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). PIV offers a powerful non-invasive tool to study such flow fields. The experiments are conducted in a 15 m long, 56 mm diameter, inclinable steel pipe using Exxsol D60 oil (viscosity 1.64 mPa s, density 790 kg/m3) and water (viscosity 1.0 mPa s, density 996 kg/m3) as test fluids. The test pipe inclination is changed in the range from 5° upward to 5° downward. The experiments are ...

  2. Kinematic control of aerodynamic forces on an inclined flapping wing with asymmetric strokes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyungmin; Choi, Haecheon

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we conduct an experiment using a one-paired dynamically scaled model of an insect wing, to investigate how asymmetric strokes with different wing kinematic parameters are used to control the aerodynamics of a dragonfly-like inclined flapping wing in still fluid. The kinematic parameters considered are the angles of attack during the mid-downstroke (α md ) and mid-upstroke (α mu ), and the duration (Δτ) and time of initiation (τ p ) of the pitching rotation. The present dragonfly-like inclined flapping wing has the aerodynamic mechanism of unsteady force generation similar to those of other insect wings in a horizontal stroke plane, but the detailed effect of the wing kinematics on the force control is different due to the asymmetric use of the angle of attack during the up- and downstrokes. For example, high α md and low α mu produces larger vertical force with less aerodynamic power, and low α md and high α mu is recommended for horizontal force (thrust) production. The pitching rotation also affects the aerodynamics of a flapping wing, but its dynamic rotational effect is much weaker than the effect from the kinematic change in the angle of attack caused by the pitching rotation. Thus, the influences of the duration and timing of pitching rotation for the present inclined flapping wing are found to be very different from those for a horizontal flapping wing. That is, for the inclined flapping motion, the advanced and delayed rotations produce smaller vertical forces than the symmetric one and the effect of pitching duration is very small. On the other hand, for a specific range of pitching rotation timing, delayed rotation requires less aerodynamic power than the symmetric rotation. As for the horizontal force, delayed rotation with low α md and high α mu is recommended for long-duration flight owing to its high efficiency, and advanced rotation should be employed for hovering flight for nearly zero horizontal force. The present

  3. Kinematic control of aerodynamic forces on an inclined flapping wing with asymmetric strokes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyungmin; Choi, Haecheon

    2012-03-01

    In the present study, we conduct an experiment using a one-paired dynamically scaled model of an insect wing, to investigate how asymmetric strokes with different wing kinematic parameters are used to control the aerodynamics of a dragonfly-like inclined flapping wing in still fluid. The kinematic parameters considered are the angles of attack during the mid-downstroke (α(md)) and mid-upstroke (α(mu)), and the duration (Δτ) and time of initiation (τ(p)) of the pitching rotation. The present dragonfly-like inclined flapping wing has the aerodynamic mechanism of unsteady force generation similar to those of other insect wings in a horizontal stroke plane, but the detailed effect of the wing kinematics on the force control is different due to the asymmetric use of the angle of attack during the up- and downstrokes. For example, high α(md) and low α(mu) produces larger vertical force with less aerodynamic power, and low α(md) and high α(mu) is recommended for horizontal force (thrust) production. The pitching rotation also affects the aerodynamics of a flapping wing, but its dynamic rotational effect is much weaker than the effect from the kinematic change in the angle of attack caused by the pitching rotation. Thus, the influences of the duration and timing of pitching rotation for the present inclined flapping wing are found to be very different from those for a horizontal flapping wing. That is, for the inclined flapping motion, the advanced and delayed rotations produce smaller vertical forces than the symmetric one and the effect of pitching duration is very small. On the other hand, for a specific range of pitching rotation timing, delayed rotation requires less aerodynamic power than the symmetric rotation. As for the horizontal force, delayed rotation with low α(md) and high α(mu) is recommended for long-duration flight owing to its high efficiency, and advanced rotation should be employed for hovering flight for nearly zero horizontal force. The

  4. Parametric Study of Rockbolt Shear Behaviour by Double Shear Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L.; Hagan, P. C.; Saydam, S.; Hebblewhite, B.; Li, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Failure of rockbolts as a result of shear or bending loads can often be found in underground excavations. The response of rock anchorage systems has been studied in shear, both by laboratory tests as well as numerical modelling in this study. A double shear test was developed to examine the shear behaviour of a bolt installed across two joints at different angles. To investigate the influence of various parameters in the double shear test, a numerical model of a fully grouted rockbolt installed in concrete was constructed and analysed using FLAC3D code. A number of parameters were considered including concrete strength, inclination between rockbolt and joints and rockbolt diameter. The numerical model considered three material types (steel, grout and concrete) and three interfaces (concrete-concrete, grout-concrete and grout-rockbolt). The main conclusions drawn from the study were that the level of bolt resistance to shear was influenced by rock strength, inclination angle, and diameter of the rockbolt. The numerical simulation of the bolt/grout interaction and deformational behaviour was found to be in close agreement with earlier experimental test results.

  5. Comparison of the activity of the gluteus medius according to the angles of inclination of a treadmill with vertical load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Da-Eun; Lee, Su-Kyoung; Kim, Kyoung

    2014-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the muscle activity of the gluteus medius according to treadmill inclination during gait with a vertical load on a treadmill. [Methods] Sixteen healthy subjects were recruited for this study. The subjects walked on a treadmill at inclination angles of 0, 5, and 10 degrees. [Results] Muscle activity of the gluteus medius increased at 5° compared to 0° treadmill inclination, though the difference was not significant. On the other hand, gluteus medius muscle activity significantly decreased in treadmill walking at an inclination of 10° compared to 5°. [Conclusion] Selective strengthening exercises using a 5° treadmill angle could be useful for patients experiencing gluteus medius weakness.

  6. LITERATURE SURVEY FOR FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PERSON, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    strain of the crystal. Both the crystal size and the strain in the crystal lattice have a pronounced effect on the growth rate of the individual crystals (Menon 2003). This report is organized into six sections. Section 1 summarizes reports on the design principles for separations by crystallization. Section 2 discusses the fractional crystallization in the NaNO 3 -CH 3 COONa-H 2 O system presented in RPP-18541, ''Test Plan for Tank 241-S-112 Fractional crystallization Study,'' dated 2003. Section 3 summarizes reports on crystallization in the Na 2 CO 3 -Na 2 SO 4 -H 2 O system, which includes the effects of the burkeite double salt (Na 2 CO 3 · 2Na 2 SO 4 ). Section 4 summarizes solubility data for sodium compounds and presents two miscellaneous topics. Section 5 is excerpted from the internet to show applications of thermodynamic calculations. Section 5.1 compares results and calculations for the NaNO 3 -Na 2 SO 4 -H 2 O system, and Section 5.2 shows the use of the calculations to optimize flowsheets. Flowsheets are given for two examples: (1) the production of KNO 3 from NaNO 3 and KCl (including the effects of having Na 2 SO 4 in the initial material) and (2) the production of K 2 SO 4 and NaCl from Na 2 SO 4 and KCl. Section 6 is excerpted from the internet to show some examples of the information available on crystallizers

  7. Visualization of the impact of water drops on a hot surface: effect of drop velocity and surface inclination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celata, Gian Piero; Mariani, Andrea; Zummo, Giuseppe [ENEA, Institute of Thermal-Fluid Dynamics, S. Maria di Galeria (Rome) (Italy); Cumo, Maurizio [Universita di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Rome (Italy)

    2006-08-15

    The behaviour of one drop impinging on a hot surface by varying the surface temperature, the drop velocity and the position of the surface (horizontal and a inclined 45 ) both at a temperature below and above the Leidenfrost temperature has been experimentally evaluated, estimating the temperature at which the drop rebounds. A large influence on the drop velocity has been evidenced. The inclination of the surface decreases the critical value of the temperature above which the surface is not rewetted. (orig.)

  8. The Effects of Boundary Conditions and Friction on the Helical Buckling of Coiled Tubing in an Inclined Wellbore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yinchun; Ai, Zhijiu; Sun, Xu; Fu, Biwei

    2016-01-01

    Analytical buckling models are important for down-hole operations to ensure the structural integrity of the drill string. A literature survey shows that most published analytical buckling models do not address the effects of inclination angle, boundary conditions or friction. The objective of this paper is to study the effects of boundary conditions, friction and angular inclination on the helical buckling of coiled tubing in an inclined wellbore. In this paper, a new theoretical model is established to describe the buckling behavior of coiled tubing. The buckling equations are derived by applying the principles of virtual work and minimum potential energy. The proper solution for the post-buckling configuration is determined based on geometric and natural boundary conditions. The effects of angular inclination and boundary conditions on the helical buckling of coiled tubing are considered. Many significant conclusions are obtained from this study. When the dimensionless length of the coiled tubing is greater than 40, the effects of the boundary conditions can be ignored. The critical load required for helical buckling increases as the angle of inclination and the friction coefficient increase. The post-buckling behavior of coiled tubing in different configurations and for different axial loads is determined using the proposed analytical method. Practical examples are provided that illustrate the influence of the angular inclination on the axial force. The rate of change of the axial force decreases with increasing angular inclination. Moreover, the total axial friction also decreases with an increasing inclination angle. These results will help researchers to better understand helical buckling in coiled tubing. Using this knowledge, measures can be taken to prevent buckling in coiled tubing during down-hole operations.

  9. The Effects of Boundary Conditions and Friction on the Helical Buckling of Coiled Tubing in an Inclined Wellbore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinchun Gong

    Full Text Available Analytical buckling models are important for down-hole operations to ensure the structural integrity of the drill string. A literature survey shows that most published analytical buckling models do not address the effects of inclination angle, boundary conditions or friction. The objective of this paper is to study the effects of boundary conditions, friction and angular inclination on the helical buckling of coiled tubing in an inclined wellbore. In this paper, a new theoretical model is established to describe the buckling behavior of coiled tubing. The buckling equations are derived by applying the principles of virtual work and minimum potential energy. The proper solution for the post-buckling configuration is determined based on geometric and natural boundary conditions. The effects of angular inclination and boundary conditions on the helical buckling of coiled tubing are considered. Many significant conclusions are obtained from this study. When the dimensionless length of the coiled tubing is greater than 40, the effects of the boundary conditions can be ignored. The critical load required for helical buckling increases as the angle of inclination and the friction coefficient increase. The post-buckling behavior of coiled tubing in different configurations and for different axial loads is determined using the proposed analytical method. Practical examples are provided that illustrate the influence of the angular inclination on the axial force. The rate of change of the axial force decreases with increasing angular inclination. Moreover, the total axial friction also decreases with an increasing inclination angle. These results will help researchers to better understand helical buckling in coiled tubing. Using this knowledge, measures can be taken to prevent buckling in coiled tubing during down-hole operations.

  10. Correlation between cuspal inclination and tooth cracked syndrome: a three-dimensional reconstruction measurement and finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yunzhu; Zhou, Xuefeng; Yang, Jianxin

    2013-06-01

    This paper explored the correlation between cuspal inclination and tooth cracked syndrome by measuring and reconstructing the cuspal inclinations of cracked maxillary first molars through three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis (FEA). The cuspal inclinations of 11 maxillary left first molars with cracked tooth syndrome and 22 intact controls were measured by 3D reconstruction. The mean values of each group were used to construct two 3D finite element models of maxillary first molar for comparing stress distribution under the loads of 200N at 0°, 45°, and 90°, respectively, to the tooth axis. There was statistically significant difference in the cuspal inclination between the incompletely fractured group and the intact control group ( P  < 0.001), which was 5.5-6.7 degrees steeper. The model from the mean cuspal inclinations of the incompletely fractured molars showed the maximum tensile stress of 5.83, 10.87, and 25.32 MPa, respectively, in comparison with 5.40, 8.49, and 22.76 MPa for the model of the control group. Besides, the tensile stress was mainly at the center groove and cervical region of the molar model. Steeper cuspal inclinations resulted in an increment in tensile stress that was mainly at the center groove and cervical region of the molar model under equivalent loads. Higher unfavorable tensile stress was generated with the increasing horizontal component load on the cuspal incline. This indicates an effective reduction of cuspal inclination to the compromised teeth for dentists. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. ANISOTROPY-BASED INCLINATION CORRECTION FOR THE MOENAVE FORMATION AND WINGATE SANDSTONE: IMPLICATIONS FOR COLORADO PLATEAU ROTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eMcCall

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The ~ 201 Ma paleopole for North America at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary is observed in two widely different locations; one paleopole is determined from the Mesozoic rift basins in eastern North America and the other from the Colorado Plateau in the southwestern United States. A large discrepancy in paleopole positions from these two localities has been attributed to large amounts of clockwise vertical axis rotation of the Colorado Plateau (>10º combined with inclination shallowing of the paleomagnetism. The sedimentary inclinations of the eastern North American basins have been corrected for shallowing, but the Colorado Plateau inclinations have not. Simple vertical axis rotation of the Colorado Plateau is not enough to bring the two paleopoles into agreement. This study of the Moenave and Wingate Formations was conducted to correct Colorado Plateau inclinations using their high field isothermal remanent anisotropy. The Moenave Formation and laterally equivalent Wingate Sandstone, which span the Triassic-Jurassic boundary, were sampled in southern Utah and northern Arizona. Thermal demagnetization isolated a characteristic remanence carried by hematite from 20 sites. High field (5 T isothermal remanent anisotropy indicated shallowing of the characteristic remanence with an average flattening factor of f=0.69. An inclination-corrected paleopole for the Moenave and Wingate Formations is located at 62.5˚N 69.9˚E (α95=5.5˚ and is shifted northward by 2.9˚ with respect to the uncorrected paleopole. When the inclination corrected paleopole is rotated counterclockwise 9.7º about an Euler pole local to the Colorado Plateau, it is statistically indistinguishable from the inclination-corrected paleopole from the eastern North American rift basins. Rotation of the uncorrected paleopole does not bring it into statistical agreement with rift basin paleopole, therefore an inclination shallowing correction is necessary to support rotation of the

  12. The light output of BGO crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Zhufang; Ma Wengan; Lin Zhirong; Wang Zhaomin; Xu Zhizong; Fan Yangmei

    1987-01-01

    The dependence of light output on the surface treatment of BGO crystals has been tested. The results of experiments and Monte Carlo calculation indicate that for a tapered BGO crystal the best way to improve the uniformity and the energy resolution and to obtain higher light output is roughing the surface coupled to photomultiplier tube. The authors also observed that different wrapping method can effect its uniformity and resolutoin. Monte Carlo calculation indicates that the higher one of the 'double peaks' is the photoelectron peak of γ rays

  13. Solvent minimization induces preferential orientation and crystal clustering in serial micro-crystallography on micro-meshes, in situ plates and on a movable crystal conveyor belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Alexei S., E-mail: soares@bnl.gov [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Mullen, Jeffrey D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403-1274 (United States); Parekh, Ruchi M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Suffolk County Community College, Selden, NY 11784 (United States); McCarthy, Grace S.; Roessler, Christian G.; Jackimowicz, Rick; Skinner, John M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Orville, Allen M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Allaire, Marc [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Sweet, Robert M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2014-10-09

    Strategies are described for optimizing the signal-to-noise of diffraction data, and for combining data from multiple crystals. One challenge that must be overcome is the non-random orientation of crystals with respect to one another and with respect to the surface that supports them. X-ray diffraction data were obtained at the National Synchrotron Light Source from insulin and lysozyme crystals that were densely deposited on three types of surfaces suitable for serial micro-crystallography: MiTeGen MicroMeshes™, Greiner Bio-One Ltd in situ micro-plates, and a moving kapton crystal conveyor belt that is used to deliver crystals directly into the X-ray beam. 6° wedges of data were taken from ∼100 crystals mounted on each material, and these individual data sets were merged to form nine complete data sets (six from insulin crystals and three from lysozyme crystals). Insulin crystals have a parallelepiped habit with an extended flat face that preferentially aligned with the mounting surfaces, impacting the data collection strategy and the design of the serial crystallography apparatus. Lysozyme crystals had a cuboidal habit and showed no preferential orientation. Preferential orientation occluded regions of reciprocal space when the X-ray beam was incident normal to the data-collection medium surface, requiring a second pass of data collection with the apparatus inclined away from the orthogonal. In addition, crystals measuring less than 20 µm were observed to clump together into clusters of crystals. Clustering required that the X-ray beam be adjusted to match the crystal size to prevent overlapping diffraction patterns. No additional problems were encountered with the serial crystallography strategy of combining small randomly oriented wedges of data from a large number of specimens. High-quality data able to support a realistic molecular replacement solution were readily obtained from both crystal types using all three serial crystallography strategies.

  14. Studi Numerik Pengaruh Baffle Inclination Pada Alat Penukar Kalor Tipe U – Tube Terhadap Aliran Fluida Dan Perpindahan Panas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Hidayatullah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Alat penukar kalor sangat berpengaruh dalam industri terhadap keberhasilan keseluruhan rangkaian proses, karena kegagalan operasi alat ini baik akibat kegagalan mekanikal maupun opersional dapat menyebabkan berhentinya operasi unit. Penelitian terhadap desain heat exchanger masih terus dilakukan untuk mencari kinerja dari heat exchanger yang paling optimal, baik pada bagian baffle cut dan baffles inclination maupun susunan dari tube dengan menggunakan heat exchanger ukuran kecil sebagai model. Berdasarkan pada permasalahan di atas, maka dilakukan penelitian terhadap kinerja heat exchanger tipe U-tube dengan memvariasikan baffle inclination. Penelitian ini dilakukan secara numerik dengan variasi baffle inclination sebesar 0o, 10o, 20o dan variasi laju aliran massa sebesar 0,5 kg/s, 1kg/s, dan 2 kg/s. Tube yang digunakan adalah tipe U-tube yang disusun secara persegi. Model viskous yang digunakan adalah turbulensi model yaitu k-ε standar, dimana fluida yang digunakan adalah air pada boundary condition. Hasil analisa numerik menunjukkan adanya pengaruh baffle inclination pada alat penukar kalor tipe U – tube terhadap aliran fluida dan perpindahan panas. Peningkatan laju aliran massa dapat meningkatkan pressure drop secara cepat, alat penukar kalor shell and tube tipe U – tube dengan baffle inclination 20o memiliki unjuk kerja yang terbaik dibandingkan dengan baffle inclination 0o dan 10o.

  15. Influence of angle of inclination on power of solar module; Taiyo denchi module no keisha kakudo to shutsuryoku tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsumi, K.; Nishitani, M. [Dai Ichi University, College of Technology, Kagoshima (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Experiment/study were conducted on the influence of angle of inclination on output of solar modules. In the experiment, changing the angle of inclination of the photovoltaic module installed on the top of school building to 0, 30, 60 and 90 degC, the global radiation on an inclined surface was measured by pyranometer equipped with the module, and at the same time output characteristics were measured by I-V curve tracer. In the I-V curve tracer, voltage, current, and output capability diagram are illustrated automatically changing bias voltage to get the maximum output. The global radiation on an inclined surface and the maximum output indicated an almost proportional relation and were expressed in a recursion method. Moreover, measurement of the global radiation is usually conducted using the amount of global radiation on a horizontal surface, and the global radiation on an inclined surface is calculated as a sum of the direct solar radiation amount and the sky solar radiation amount after determining a penetration rate by the relational equation. By calculating the global radiation on an inclined surface, it becomes possible to calculate the maximum output of photovoltaic modules by this recursion method. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Binary colloidal crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christova-Zdravkova, C.G.

    2005-01-01

    Binary crystals are crystals composed of two types of particles having different properties like size, mass density, charge etc. In this thesis several new approaches to make binary crystals of colloidal particles that differ in size, material and charge are reported We found a variety of crystal

  17. Double layer effects in the electroreduction of transition metal ions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fawcett, W. R.; Hromadová, Magdaléna

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 4 (2008), s. 347-351 ISSN 1432-8488 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB400400603; GA MŠk LC510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : sphere electrode reactions * crystal gold electrodes * diffuse double - layer Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.597, year: 2008

  18. Computational parametric study of a Richtmyer-Meshkov instability for an inclined interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Jacob A; Greenough, Jeffrey A; Ranjan, Devesh

    2011-08-01

    A computational study of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability for an inclined interface is presented. The study covers experiments to be performed in the Texas A&M University inclined shock tube facility. Incident shock wave Mach numbers from 1.2 to 2.5, inclination angles from 30° to 60°, and gas pair Atwood numbers of ∼0.67 and ∼0.95 are used in this parametric study containing 15 unique combinations of these parameters. Qualitative results are examined through a time series of density plots for multiple combinations of these parameters, and the qualitative effects of each of the parameters are discussed. Pressure, density, and vorticity fields are presented in animations available online to supplement the discussion of the qualitative results. These density plots show the evolution of two main regions in the flow field: a mixing region containing driver and test gas that is dominated by large vortical structures, and a more homogeneous region of unmixed fluid which can separate away from the mixing region in some cases. The interface mixing width is determined for various combinations of the parameters listed at the beginning of the Abstract. A scaling method for the mixing width is proposed using the interface geometry and wave velocities calculated using one-dimensional gas dynamic equations. This model uses the transmitted wave velocity for the characteristic velocity and an initial offset time based on the travel time of strong reflected waves. It is compared to an adapted Richtmyer impulsive model scaling and shown to scale the initial mixing width growth rate more effectively for fixed Atwood number.

  19. Quasi-Rayleigh waves in transversely isotropic half-space with inclined axis of symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanovskaya, T.B.; Savina, L.S.

    2003-09-01

    A method for determination of characteristics of quasi-Rayleigh (qR) wave in a transversely isotropic homogeneous half-space with inclined axis of symmetry is outlined. The solution is obtained as a superposition of qP, qSV and qSH waves, and surface wave velocity is determined from the boundary conditions at the free surface and at infinity, as in the case of Rayleigh wave in isotropic half-space. Though the theory is simple enough, a numerical procedure for the calculation of surface wave velocity presents some difficulties. The difficulty is conditioned by necessity to calculate complex roots of a non-linear equation, which in turn contains functions determined as roots of nonlinear equations with complex coefficients. Numerical analysis shows that roots of the equation corresponding to the boundary conditions do not exist in the whole domain of azimuths and inclinations of the symmetry axis. The domain of existence of qR wave depends on the ratio of the elastic parameters: for some strongly anisotropic models the wave cannot exist at all. For some angles of inclination qR wave velocities deviate from those calculated on the basis of the perturbation method valid for weak anisotropy, though they have the same tendency of variation with azimuth. The phase of qR wave varies with depth unlike Rayleigh wave in isotropic half-space. Unlike Rayleigh wave in isotropic half-space, qR wave has three components - vertical, radial and transverse. Particle motion in horizontal plane is elliptic. Direction of the major axis of the ellipsis coincide with the direction of propagation only in azimuths 0 deg. (180 deg.) and 90 deg. (270 deg.). (author)

  20. Continuous inclination record of the geomagnetic field from a Brazilian stalagmite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaqueto, P.; Trindade, R. I.; Hartmann, G. A.; Feinberg, J. M.; Novello, V. F.; Cruz, F. W.

    2013-12-01

    It is known that South America contributes with less than ~3% of the global database and some of these data (obtained decades ago) do not obey minimum quality criteria, such as standard deviations and age controls. In this sense, continuous full-vector records (direction and intensity) provide important high-resolution data on the spatial and temporal behavior of Earth's magnetic field of utmost importance to describe the evolution of major field features, such as the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA). Here, we present results of magnetic inclination determined from a stalagmite collected in Pau d'Alho cave located at 14.8° S, 56.4° W (Mato Grosso, Brazil), where no previous geomagnetic record was available. The sample is a 23-cm-long stalagmite which grew continuously during most of the last 1400 years. The chronology based on high-quality U-Th dating ranges from 500 AD to 1900 AD and reveals a nearly constant growth rate of ~150 μm/yr. Remanence measurements of the stalagmite were performed continuously using a SQUID magnetometer with a spatial resolution of 0.5 cm. Magnetic values for each measured point were deconvolved using the singular value decomposition (SVD) method. Hysteresis and low-temperature magnetization analyses indicate a very homogeneous magnetic mineralogy with the presence of tiny concentrations of pure magnetite in the SD-PSD state. After stepwise alternating field demagnetization, inclination data show maximum angular deviation (MAD) for most samples below 5° (with anomalous MAD of up to 15° for the 1660 AD to 1690 AD period). In general, our magnetic inclination data are consistent with those predicted by geomagnetic field models, and will provide a firm observational anchor for future modeling efforts. In this way, continuous magnetic measurements on speleothems can provide important, high-quality information about the short term behavior of the geomagnetic field.