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Sample records for inclination change maximizes

  1. Incisor inclination and perceived tooth colour changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciucchi, Philip; Kiliaridis, Stavros

    2017-10-01

    Social attractiveness is influenced by a variety of different smile-related factors. We evaluated whether the degree of upper central incisor proclination can result in tooth colour change. Forty young adult subjects (20-25 years) in good health with a complete sound dentition were selected. The subjects were seated in standardized light conditions with an above-directed light source. Their natural head position was stated as 0 degrees. To mimic the range of possible anterior torque movements they were asked to tilt their heads upward +15 degrees (upward tilting) and downward -15 degrees (downward tilting). Frontal macro photographs, parallel to the Frankfort plane of the patient's natural head position were taken at the three head angulations (+15, 0, and -15 degrees ). Photographs were analysed for colour differences at the centre of the incisor clinical crowns with a CIE L*a*b* colour model based software. A paired t-test was used to test for significance between each value for each inclination. Differences were found between the CIE L*a*b* colour values for: upward tilting, downward tilting, and -15 to +15 degrees (total tilting) except for b* values for downward tilting. As the inclination of the subject's head changed downward, the upper incisors were retroclined and the CIE L*a*b* values indicated a darker and less green but redder colour component. As the inclination of the subject's head changed upwards the upper incisors were proclined and the L*a*b* values indicated a lighter and less green and yellow but redder and bluer colour component. Proclination of upper incisors caused lighter tooth colour parameters compared to retroclined incisors and colour changes. Orthodontic change of upper incisor inclination may induce alterations on how tooth colour is perceived.

  2. New inclination changing eclipsing binaries in the Magellanic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juryšek, J.; Zasche, P.; Wolf, M.; Vraštil, J.; Vokrouhlický, D.; Skarka, M.; Liška, J.; Janík, J.; Zejda, M.; Kurfürst, P.; Paunzen, E.

    2018-01-01

    Context. Multiple stellar systems are unique laboratories for astrophysics. Analysis of their orbital dynamics, if well characterized from their observations, may reveal invaluable information about the physical properties of the participating stars. Unfortunately, there are only a few known and well described multiple systems, this is even more so for systems located outside the Milky Way galaxy. A particularly interesting situation occurs when the inner binary in a compact triple system is eclipsing. This is because the stellar interaction, typically resulting in precession of orbital planes, may be observable as a variation of depth of the eclipses on a long timescale. Aims: We aim to present a novel method to determine compact triples using publicly available photometric data from large surveys. Here we apply it to eclipsing binaries (EBs) in Magellanic Clouds from OGLE III database. Our tool consists of identifying the cases where the orbital plane of EB evolves in accord with expectations from the interaction with a third star. Methods: We analyzed light curves (LCs) of 26121 LMC and 6138 SMC EBs with the goal to identify those for which the orbital inclination varies in time. Archival LCs of the selected systems, when complemented by our own observations with Danish 1.54-m telescope, were thoroughly analyzed using the PHOEBE program. This provided physical parameters of components of each system. Time dependence of the EB's inclination was described using the theory of orbital-plane precession. By observing the parameter-dependence of the precession rate, we were able to constrain the third companion mass and its orbital period around EB. Results: We identified 58 candidates of new compact triples in Magellanic Clouds. This is the largest published sample of such systems so far. Eight of them were analyzed thoroughly and physical parameters of inner binary were determined together with an estimation of basic characteristics of the third star. Prior to our

  3. Changes of maximal muscle torque and maximal power output of lower extremities in male judoists during training

    OpenAIRE

    Buśko, Krzysztof; Nowak, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of the study was to follow changes of the maximal muscle torque and maximal power output of lower extremities in male judoists during pre-competition training (PCT). The original hypothesis assumed that different training loads would cause changes of the maximal muscle torque and maximal power output of legs in male judoists during pre-competition training, but not changes of the topography of the maximal muscle torque in all muscle groups. Basic procedures. The study sample ...

  4. Biochemical changes in relation to a maximal exercise test in patients with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, J; Bülow, P M; Mehlsen, J

    1994-01-01

    Patients with fibromyalgia often complain of fatigue and pain during exercise and of worsening of pain days after exercise. The aim of the study described here was to determine if abnormal changes in potassium or lactate could be observed during an exercise test in fibromyalgia. Whether an abnormal...... incline in plasma creatine kinase or myoglobin could be observed days after the test was studied also. Fifteen female fibromyalgia patients and 15 age- and sex-matched controls performed a stepwise incremental maximal bicycle-ergometer test. Blood samples were collected from a catheter in a cubital vein....... The changes in heart rate, potassium levels, and haematocrit during the exercise test were similar in the two groups. The maximal obtained lactate concentration was 4.2 mmol l-1 (3.5-5.6) in the patients as compared to 4.9 mmol l-1 (3.9-5.9) in the controls (NS). The estimated anaerobic threshold of 2 mmol l...

  5. Changes of occlusal plane inclination after orthodontic treatment in different dentoskeletal frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-le; Kau, Chung; Wang, Min

    2014-06-25

    The inclination of the occlusal plane (OP) is related to facial types and experiences physiological growth-related changes. The aims of this research were to determine if there were any differences in the inclination of OP in subjects with three types of skeletal malocclusion and to investigate the characteristics and differences of functional occlusal plane (FOP) compared to bisected occlusal plane (BOP). A sample of 90 Caucasians patients was skeletal-classified into three (n = 30), and pre- and post-treatment cephalograms were digitized. Six linear and 8 angular cephalometric measurements were selected. The changes of OP inclination within each group and the differences among the three groups pre- and post-treatment were compared with paired t test and ANOVA test, respectively. The comparison and correlation between BOP and FOP were analyzed with paired t test and coefficient of correlation, respectively. The BOP angle increased in all of the three groups but only had statistically significant differences in skeletal class II patients in a mean of 1.51° (p stability (p > 0.05) in all three groups. The inclination of FOP was closely related to that of BOP (p stability in orthodontically treated patients with all three skeletal patterns.

  6. Effect of incisor inclination changes on cephalometric points a and b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, S.; Shaikh, A.; Fida, M.

    2015-01-01

    The position of cephalometric points A and B are liable to be affected by alveolar remodelling caused by orthodontic tooth movement during incisor retraction. This study was conducted to evaluate the change in positions of cephalometric points A and B in sagittal and vertical dimensions due to change in incisor inclinations. Methods: Total sample of 31 subjects were recruited into the study. The inclusion criteria were extraction of premolars in upper and lower arches, completion of growth and orthodontic treatment. The exclusion criteria were patients with craniofacial anomalies and history of orthodontic treatment. By superimposition of pre and post treatment tracings, various linear and angular parameters were measured. Various tests and multiple linear regression analysis were performed to determine changes in outcome variables. Statistically significant p-value was <0.05. Results:One-sample t-test showed that change in position of only point A was statistically significant which was 1.61mm (p<0.01) in sagittal direction and 1.49mm (p<0.01) in vertical direction. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that if we retrocline upper incisor by 100, the point A will move superiorly by 0.6mm. Conclusions: Total change in the position of point A is in a downward and forward direction. Total Change in upper incisors inclinations causes change in position of point A only in vertical direction. (author)

  7. Biochemical changes in relation to a maximal exercise test in patients with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, J; Bülow, P M; Mehlsen, J

    1994-01-01

    Patients with fibromyalgia often complain of fatigue and pain during exercise and of worsening of pain days after exercise. The aim of the study described here was to determine if abnormal changes in potassium or lactate could be observed during an exercise test in fibromyalgia. Whether an abnormal...... incline in plasma creatine kinase or myoglobin could be observed days after the test was studied also. Fifteen female fibromyalgia patients and 15 age- and sex-matched controls performed a stepwise incremental maximal bicycle-ergometer test. Blood samples were collected from a catheter in a cubital vein......-1 was reached at a heart rate of 124 min-1 in the patients with fibromyalgia as compared to 140 min-1 in the controls (P = 0.02). In relation to workload, the patients scored higher on a Borg scale for perceived exertion during exercise, but if the Borg score was related to lactate no significant...

  8. Changing inclination of earth satellites using the gravity of the moon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla de Souza Torres

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the problem of the orbital control of an Earth's satellite using the gravity of the Moon. The main objective is to study a technique to decrease the fuel consumption of a plane change maneuver to be performed in a satellite that is in orbit around the Earth. The main idea of this approach is to send the satellite to the Moon using a single-impulsive maneuver, use the gravity field of the Moon to make the desired plane change of the trajectory, and then return the satellite to its nominal semimajor axis and eccentricity using a bi-impulsive Hohmann-type maneuver. The satellite is assumed to start in a Keplerian orbit in the plane of the lunar orbit around the Earth and the goal is to put it in a similar orbit that differs from the initial orbit only by the inclination. A description of the close-approach maneuver is made in the three-dimensional space. Analytical equations based on the patched conics approach are used to calculate the variation in velocity, angular momentum, energy, and inclination of the satellite. Then, several simulations are made to evaluate the savings involved. The time required by those transfers is also calculated and shown.

  9. Multi-lane Changing Model with Coupling Driving Intention and Inclination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Considering the impact of drivers’ psychology and behaviour, a multi-lane changing model coupling driving intention and inclination is proposed by introducing two quantitative indices of intention: strength of lane changing and risk factor. According to the psychological and behavioural characteristics of aggressive drivers and conservative drivers, the safety conditions for lane changing are designed respectively. The numerical simulations show that the proposed model is suitable for describing the traffic flow with frequent lane changing, which is more consistent with the driving behaviour of drivers in China. Compared with symmetric two-lane cellular automata (STCA model, the proposed model can improve the average speed of vehicles by 1.04% under different traffic demands when aggressive drivers are in a higher proportion (the threshold of risk factor is 0.4. When the risk factor increases, the average speed shows the polarization phenomenon with the average speed slowing down in big traffic demand. The proposed model can reflect the relationship among density, flow, and speed, and the risk factor has a significant impact on density and flow.

  10. Changes of occlusal plane inclination after orthodontic treatment with four premolars extraction in dento-alveolar bimaxillary protrusion cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NR Yuliawati Zenab

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find out whether there were changes in occlusal plane inclination after fixed orthodontic treatment of bimaxillary protrusion cases where extraction of four first premolars was needed using the standard Edgewise appliances. The sample was fourteen orthodontic patients, aged above sixteen years old, no sexual discrimination, treated with fixed appliances at Orthodontic Specialist Clinic Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran. The method was a pre-post design which compared occlusal plane inclination obtained from tracings of lateral cephalograms before and after orthodontic treatment. The results were calculated with the paired t-test analysis. The study revealed that there were no significant changes in occlusal plane inclination after the orthodontic treatment.

  11. Inclined planes

    CERN Document Server

    Rivera, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    From moving ramps to playground slides, inclined planes are at work all over in our world today. Learn all about them in five easy-to-read chapters. Vibrant, full-color photos, bolded glossary words, and a key stats section let readers zoom in even deeper. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Abdo Zoom is a division of ABDO.

  12. Evaporation of inclined water droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Hwang, In Gyu; Weon, Byung Mook

    2017-01-01

    When a drop is placed on a flat substrate tilted at an inclined angle, it can be deformed by gravity and its initial contact angle divides into front and rear contact angles by inclination. Here we study on evaporation dynamics of a pure water droplet on a flat solid substrate by controlling substrate inclination and measuring mass and volume changes of an evaporating droplet with time. We find that complete evaporation time of an inclined droplet becomes longer as gravitational influence by inclination becomes stronger. The gravity itself does not change the evaporation dynamics directly, whereas the gravity-induced droplet deformation increases the difference between front and rear angles, which quickens the onset of depinning and consequently reduces the contact radius. This result makes the evaporation rate of an inclined droplet to be slow. This finding would be important to improve understanding on evaporation dynamics of inclined droplets. PMID:28205642

  13. Comparison of changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle on during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Halim; Jung, Sangwoo; Joo, Sunghee; Song, Changho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. [Subjects] Thirty healthy adults participated in this study (15 men and 15 women). [Methods] All participants performed a bridge exercise and abdominal curl-up during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. Pelvic floor mobility...

  14. Maximal force and tremor changes across the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenan, Matthew S; Hackney, Anthony C; Griffin, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Sex hormones have profound effects on the nervous system in vitro and in vivo. The present study examines the effect of the menstrual cycle on maximal isometric force (MVC) and tremor during an endurance task. Nine eumenorrheic females participated in five study visits across their menstrual cycle. In each menstrual phase, an MVC and an endurance task to failure were performed. Tremor across the endurance task was quantified as the coefficient of variation in force and was assessed in absolute time and relative percent time to task failure. MVC decreases 23% from ovulation to the mid luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. In absolute time, the mid luteal phase has the highest initial tremor, though the early follicular phase has substantially higher tremor than other phases after 150 s of task performance. In relative time, the mid luteal phase has the highest level of tremor throughout the endurance task. Both MVC and tremor during an endurance task are modified by the menstrual cycle. Performance of tasks and sports which require high force and steadiness to exhaustion may be decreased in the mid luteal phase compared to other menstrual phases.

  15. Dynamic cerebral autoregulation changes during sub-maximal handgrip maneuver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo C Nogueira

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: We investigated the effect of handgrip (HG maneuver on time-varying estimates of dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA using the autoregressive moving average technique. METHODS: Twelve healthy subjects were recruited to perform HG maneuver during 3 minutes with 30% of maximum contraction force. Cerebral blood flow velocity, end-tidal CO₂ pressure (PETCO₂, and noninvasive arterial blood pressure (ABP were continuously recorded during baseline, HG and recovery. Critical closing pressure (CrCP, resistance area-product (RAP, and time-varying autoregulation index (ARI were obtained. RESULTS: PETCO₂ did not show significant changes during HG maneuver. Whilst ABP increased continuously during the maneuver, to 27% above its baseline value, CBFV raised to a plateau approximately 15% above baseline. This was sustained by a parallel increase in RAP, suggestive of myogenic vasoconstriction, and a reduction in CrCP that could be associated with metabolic vasodilation. The time-varying ARI index dropped at the beginning and end of the maneuver (p<0.005, which could be related to corresponding alert reactions or to different time constants of the myogenic, metabolic and/or neurogenic mechanisms. CONCLUSION: Changes in dynamic CA during HG suggest a complex interplay of regulatory mechanisms during static exercise that should be considered when assessing the determinants of cerebral blood flow and metabolism.

  16. Maximizing and customer loyalty: Are maximizers less loyal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Lai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite their efforts to choose the best of all available solutions, maximizers seem to be more inclined than satisficers to regret their choices and to experience post-decisional dissonance. Maximizers may therefore be expected to change their decisions more frequently and hence exhibit lower customer loyalty to providers of products and services compared to satisficers. Findings from the study reported here (N = 1978 support this prediction. Maximizers reported significantly higher intentions to switch to another service provider (television provider than satisficers. Maximizers' intentions to switch appear to be intensified and mediated by higher proneness to regret, increased desire to discuss relevant choices with others, higher levels of perceived knowledge of alternatives, and higher ego involvement in the end product, compared to satisficers. Opportunities for future research are suggested.

  17. Changing Images of the Inclined Plane: A Case Study of a Revolution in American Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    Between 1880 and 1920 the way science was taught in American High Schools changed dramatically. The old "lecture/demonstration" method, where information was presented to essentially passive students, was replaced by the "laboratory" method, where students performed their own experiments in specially constructed student laboratories. National…

  18. Evaluation of Electromyographic Frequency Domain Changes during a Three-Minute Maximal Effort Cycling Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Wang, David H. Fukuda, Jeffrey R. Stout, Edward H. Robinson, Amelia A. Miramonti, Maren S. Fragala, Jay R. Hoffman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the time course of EMG frequency changes during a three-minute maximal effort cycling test (3MT session and to examine which parameter between mean (MNF and median (MDF frequency is more suitable for evaluation of changes in neuromuscular function throughout a 3MT. Eighteen recreationally-active men volunteered to participate in this study. Maximum voluntary contraction (MVC was measured using a dynamometer to determine maximal EMG frequency of the vastus lateralis (VL of the kicking leg during isometric knee extension. A maximal oxygen consumption test (VO2peak on a cycle ergometer was performed to establish the appropriate load profile for the 3MT which was completed after a period of at least 48 hours. MNF, MDF and power output (PO values were measured at 10-second epochs throughout the duration of the 3MT. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to compare the changes in EMG frequency, relative to maximal values from the MVC, and change in PO during the testing procedure. MNF, Root Mean Square (RMS, and PO significantly decreased during the 3MT, while MDF did not change significantly. Statistically, EMG frequency and PO decreased at first and remained constant in response to the 3MT, which may be reflective of differing patterns of muscle fiber type fatigue throughout the testing session. Due to decreased variability, changes in neuromuscular function during this protocol may be better evaluated using MNF than MDF.

  19. Comparison of changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle on during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Halim; Jung, Sangwoo; Joo, Sunghee; Song, Changho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. [Subjects] Thirty healthy adults participated in this study (15 men and 15 women). [Methods] All participants performed a bridge exercise and abdominal curl-up during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. Pelvic floor mobility was evaluated as the distance from the bladder base using ultrasound. [Results] According to exercise method, bridge exercise and abdominal curl-ups led to significantly different pelvic floor mobility. The pelvic floor muscle was elevated during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver and descended during maximal expiration. Finally, pelvic floor muscle mobility was greater during abdominal curl-up than during the bridge exercise. [Conclusion] According to these results, the abdominal drawing-in maneuver induced pelvic floor muscle contraction, and pelvic floor muscle contraction was greater during the abdominal curl-up than during the bridge exercise. PMID:27065532

  20. Comparison of changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle on during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Halim; Jung, Sangwoo; Joo, Sunghee; Song, Changho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. [Subjects] Thirty healthy adults participated in this study (15 men and 15 women). [Methods] All participants performed a bridge exercise and abdominal curl-up during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. Pelvic floor mobility was evaluated as the distance from the bladder base using ultrasound. [Results] According to exercise method, bridge exercise and abdominal curl-ups led to significantly different pelvic floor mobility. The pelvic floor muscle was elevated during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver and descended during maximal expiration. Finally, pelvic floor muscle mobility was greater during abdominal curl-up than during the bridge exercise. [Conclusion] According to these results, the abdominal drawing-in maneuver induced pelvic floor muscle contraction, and pelvic floor muscle contraction was greater during the abdominal curl-up than during the bridge exercise.

  1. Kinematic and Electromyographic Activity Changes during Back Squat with Submaximal and Maximal Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan U. Yavuz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the possible kinematic and muscular activity changes with maximal loading during squat maneuver. Fourteen healthy male individuals, who were experienced at performing squats, participated in this study. Each subject performed squats with 80%, 90%, and 100% of the previously established 1 repetition maximum (1RM. Electromyographic (EMG activities were measured for the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, rectus femoris, semitendinosus, biceps femoris, gluteus maximus, and erector spinae by using an 8-channel dual-mode portable EMG and physiological signal data acquisition system (Myomonitor IV, Delsys Inc., Boston, MA, USA. Kinematical data were analyzed by using saSuite 2D kinematical analysis program. Data were analyzed with repeated measures analysis of variance (p<0.05. Overall muscle activities increased with increasing loads, but significant increases were seen only for vastus medialis and gluteus maximus during 90% and 100% of 1RM compared to 80% while there was no significant difference between 90% and 100% for any muscle. The movement pattern in the hip joint changed with an increase in forward lean during maximal loading. Results may suggest that maximal loading during squat may not be necessary for focusing on knee extensor improvement and may increase the lumbar injury risk.

  2. Time-Course of Neuromuscular Changes during and after Maximal Eccentric Contractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doguet, Valentin; Jubeau, Marc; Dorel, Sylvain; Couturier, Antoine; Lacourpaille, Lilian; Guével, Arnaud; Guilhem, Gaël

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the relationship between the magnitude of muscle damage and both central and peripheral modulations during and after eccentric contractions of plantar flexors. Eleven participants performed 10 sets of 30 maximal eccentric contractions of the plantar flexors at 45°·s−1. Maximal voluntary torque, evoked torque (peripheral component) and voluntary activation (central component) were assessed before, during, immediately after (POST) and 48 h after (48 h) the eccentric exercise. Voluntary eccentric torque progressively decreased (up to −36%) concomitantly to a significant alteration of evoked torque (up to −34%) and voluntary activation (up to −13%) during the exercise. Voluntary isometric torque (−48 ± 7%), evoked torque (−41 ± 14%) and voluntary activation (−13 ± 11%) decreased at POST, but only voluntary isometric torque (−19 ± 6%) and evoked torque (−10 ± 18%) remained depressed at 48 h. Neither changes in voluntary activation nor evoked torque during the exercise were related to the magnitude of muscle damage markers, but the evoked torque decrement at 48 h was significantly correlated with the changes in voluntary activation (r = −0.71) and evoked torque (r = 0.77) at POST. Our findings show that neuromuscular responses observed during eccentric contractions were not associated with muscle damage. Conversely, central and peripheral impairments observed immediately after the exercise reflect the long-lasting reduction in force-generating capacity. PMID:27148075

  3. Tracking Changes in Maximal Oxygen Consumption with the Heart Rate Index in Female Collegiate Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esco Michael R.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine if the HRindex Method (VO2max = [6 x HRindex - 5] x 3.5, where HRindex = HRmax/HRrest was accurate for tracking changes in VO2max following 8-weeks of endurance training among collegiate female soccer players. Predicted VO2max via the HRindex Method and observed VO2max from a maximal exercise test on a treadmill were determined for a group of female soccer athletes (n = 15 before and following an 8-week endurance training protocol. The predicted (pVO2max and observed (aVO2max values were compared at baseline and within 1-week post-training. Change values (i.e., the difference between pre to post for each variable were also determined and compared. There was a significant difference between aVO2max before (43.2 ± 2.8 ml.kg.min-1 and following (46.2 ± 2.1 ml.kg.min-1 the 8-week training program (p < 0.05. However, pVO2max did not significantly change following training (pre = 43.4 ± 4.6 ml.kg.min-1, post = 42.9 ± 4.1 ml.kg.min-1, p = 0.53. Furthermore, the correlation between the change in aVO2max and the change in pVO2max was trivial and non-significant (r = 0.30, p = 0.28. The HRindex Method does not appear to be suitable for predicting changes in VO2max following 8-weeks of endurance training in female collegiate soccer players

  4. Vehicle with inclinable caterpillars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carra, O.; Delevallee, A.

    1991-01-01

    Vehicle has a body with propulsion assemblies that drive caterpillar tracks. When a propulsion unit inclines about its articulation axis it is aided by an advance movement of the caterpillar track in the opposite direction of rotation [fr

  5. Tracking changes in maximal oxygen consumption with the heart rate index in female collegiate soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esco, Michael R; Snarr, Ronald L; Flatt, Andrew; Leatherwood, Matthew; Whittaker, Adam

    2014-09-29

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the HRindex Method (VO2max = [6 x HRindex - 5] x 3.5, where HRindex = HRmax/HRrest) was accurate for tracking changes in VO2max following 8-weeks of endurance training among collegiate female soccer players. Predicted VO2max via the HRindex Method and observed VO2max from a maximal exercise test on a treadmill were determined for a group of female soccer athletes (n = 15) before and following an 8-week endurance training protocol. The predicted (pVO2max) and observed (aVO2max) values were compared at baseline and within 1-week post-training. Change values (i.e., the difference between pre to post) for each variable were also determined and compared. There was a significant difference between aVO2max before (43.2 ± 2.8 ml·kg·min(-1)) and following (46.2 ± 2.1 ml·kg·min(-1)) the 8-week training program (p soccer players.

  6. Sustained maximal voluntary contraction produces independent changes in human motor axons and the muscle they innervate.

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    David A Milder

    Full Text Available The repetitive discharges required to produce a sustained muscle contraction results in activity-dependent hyperpolarization of the motor axons and a reduction in the force-generating capacity of the muscle. We investigated the relationship between these changes in the adductor pollicis muscle and the motor axons of its ulnar nerve supply, and the reproducibility of these changes. Ten subjects performed a 1-min maximal voluntary contraction. Activity-dependent changes in axonal excitability were measured using threshold tracking with electrical stimulation at the wrist; changes in the muscle were assessed as evoked and voluntary electromyography (EMG and isometric force. Separate components of axonal excitability and muscle properties were tested at 5 min intervals after the sustained contraction in 5 separate sessions. The current threshold required to produce the target muscle action potential increased immediately after the contraction by 14.8% (p<0.05, reflecting decreased axonal excitability secondary to hyperpolarization. This was not correlated with the decline in amplitude of muscle force or evoked EMG. A late reversal in threshold current after the initial recovery from hyperpolarization peaked at -5.9% at ∼35 min (p<0.05. This pattern was mirrored by other indices of axonal excitability revealing a previously unreported depolarization of motor axons in the late recovery period. Measures of axonal excitability were relatively stable at rest but less so after sustained activity. The coefficient of variation (CoV for threshold current increase was higher after activity (CoV 0.54, p<0.05 whereas changes in voluntary (CoV 0.12 and evoked twitch (CoV 0.15 force were relatively stable. These results demonstrate that activity-dependent changes in motor axon excitability are unlikely to contribute to concomitant changes in the muscle after sustained activity in healthy people. The variability in axonal excitability after sustained activity

  7. Acute Changes in Creatine Kinase Serum Levels in Adults Submitted a Static Stretching and Maximal Strength Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Bara Filho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Strength and flexibility are common components of a training program and their maximal values are obtained through specific tests. However, little information about the damage effect of these training procedures in a skeletal muscle is known. Objective: To verify a serum CK changes 24 h after a sub maximal stretching routine and after the static flexibility and maximal strength tests. Methods: the sample was composed by 14 subjects (man and women, 28 ± 6 yr. physical education students. The volunteers were divided in a control group (CG and experimental group (EG that was submitted in a stretching routine (EG-ST, in a maximal flexibility static test (EG-FLEX and in 1-RM test (EG-1-RM, with one week interval among tests. The anthropometrics characteristics were obtained by digital scale with stadiometer (Filizola, São Paulo, Brasil, 2002. The blood samples were obtained using the IFCC method with reference values 26-155 U/L. The De Lorme and Watkins technique was used to access maximal maximal strength through bench press and leg press. The maximal flexibility test consisted in three 20 seconds sets until the point of maximal discomfort. The stretching was done in normal movement amplitude during 6 secons. Results: The basal and post 24 h CK values in CG and EG (ST; Flex and 1 RM were respectively 195,0 ± 129,5 vs. 202,1 ± 124,2; 213,3 ± 133,2 vs. 174,7 ± 115,8; 213,3 ± 133,2 vs. 226,6 ± 126,7 e 213,3 ± 133,2 vs. 275,9 ± 157,2. It was only observed a significant difference (p = 0,02 in the pre and post values inGE-1RM. Conclusion: only maximal strength dynamic exercise was capable to cause skeletal muscle damage.

  8. Collaborative decision-analytic framework to maximize resilience of tidal marshes to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Karen M.; Mattsson, Brady J.; Takekawa, John Y.; Cummings, Jonathan; Crouse, Debby; Block, Giselle; Bloom, Valary; Gerhart, Matt; Goldbeck, Steve; Huning, Beth; Sloop, Christina; Stewart, Mendel; Taylor, Karen; Valoppi, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Decision makers that are responsible for stewardship of natural resources face many challenges, which are complicated by uncertainty about impacts from climate change, expanding human development, and intensifying land uses. A systematic process for evaluating the social and ecological risks, trade-offs, and cobenefits associated with future changes is critical to maximize resilience and conserve ecosystem services. This is particularly true in coastal areas where human populations and landscape conversion are increasing, and where intensifying storms and sea-level rise pose unprecedented threats to coastal ecosystems. We applied collaborative decision analysis with a diverse team of stakeholders who preserve, manage, or restore tidal marshes across the San Francisco Bay estuary, California, USA, as a case study. Specifically, we followed a structured decision-making approach, and we using expert judgment developed alternative management strategies to increase the capacity and adaptability to manage tidal marsh resilience while considering uncertainties through 2050. Because sea-level rise projections are relatively confident to 2050, we focused on uncertainties regarding intensity and frequency of storms and funding. Elicitation methods allowed us to make predictions in the absence of fully compatible models and to assess short- and long-term trade-offs. Specifically we addressed two questions. (1) Can collaborative decision analysis lead to consensus among a diverse set of decision makers responsible for environmental stewardship and faced with uncertainties about climate change, funding, and stakeholder values? (2) What is an optimal strategy for the conservation of tidal marshes, and what strategy is robust to the aforementioned uncertainties? We found that when taking this approach, consensus was reached among the stakeholders about the best management strategies to maintain tidal marsh integrity. A Bayesian decision network revealed that a strategy

  9. Collaborative decision-analytic framework to maximize resilience of tidal marshes to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M. Thorne

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Decision makers that are responsible for stewardship of natural resources face many challenges, which are complicated by uncertainty about impacts from climate change, expanding human development, and intensifying land uses. A systematic process for evaluating the social and ecological risks, trade-offs, and cobenefits associated with future changes is critical to maximize resilience and conserve ecosystem services. This is particularly true in coastal areas where human populations and landscape conversion are increasing, and where intensifying storms and sea-level rise pose unprecedented threats to coastal ecosystems. We applied collaborative decision analysis with a diverse team of stakeholders who preserve, manage, or restore tidal marshes across the San Francisco Bay estuary, California, USA, as a case study. Specifically, we followed a structured decision-making approach, and we using expert judgment developed alternative management strategies to increase the capacity and adaptability to manage tidal marsh resilience while considering uncertainties through 2050. Because sea-level rise projections are relatively confident to 2050, we focused on uncertainties regarding intensity and frequency of storms and funding. Elicitation methods allowed us to make predictions in the absence of fully compatible models and to assess short- and long-term trade-offs. Specifically we addressed two questions. (1 Can collaborative decision analysis lead to consensus among a diverse set of decision makers responsible for environmental stewardship and faced with uncertainties about climate change, funding, and stakeholder values? (2 What is an optimal strategy for the conservation of tidal marshes, and what strategy is robust to the aforementioned uncertainties? We found that when taking this approach, consensus was reached among the stakeholders about the best management strategies to maintain tidal marsh integrity. A Bayesian decision network revealed that a

  10. Change in the mesiodistal axial inclination of the maxillary lateral teeth during the mixed dentition stage: Morphometric analysis of panoramic radiographs from two cases of mild crowding with a high canine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morio Masunaga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of the mesiodistal axial inclination of the maxillary lateral teeth relative to the functional occlusal plane (FOP on panoramic radiographs in patients with Angle Class I maxillary anterior crowding with high canines during the mixed dentition stage. Materials and Methods: Panoramic radiographs were used to measure the mesiodistal axial inclination of the teeth before orthodontic treatment in Cases 1 and 2. The long axes of the teeth were determined according to the previous study by Ursi et al. Finally, the angles between the long axes of teeth and the FOP were measured. Results: The first premolar and canine showed mesial tipping in the alveolar bone during eruption. The crown of the second premolar was located close to the apex of the first molar and showed excessive mesial inclination relative to the long axis of the second deciduous molar. Before orthodontic treatment, considerable autonomous changes in the mesiodistal inclination were found in the canine and the second premolar in the maxillary alveolar bone during eruption. With respect to the first molar, the mesiodistal inclination was invariable, or the angle was almost 90° without any significant change during the observation period. Conclusions: Based on the results of this study, two new findings are described. Autonomous changes in the inclination of the mesiodistal maxillary teeth were observed during exfoliation, particularly in the canine and second premolars. In addition, the eruption of the maxillary lateral teeth influenced the neighboring teeth, whereas the first molar maintained an environmentally defined position.

  11. Assessment of the dentoskeletal changes following the use of twin-block functional appliance and inclined anterior bite plan in the patients with class II malocclusion div 1 in 11-14 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahyar Geramy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Cl II malocclusion is one of the most common abnormalities in human societies and using a simple, affordable and accessible treatment that can be provided by general practitioners or specialists, to prevent future malocclusion complications is vital. Cl II malocclusion treatment using functional appliances such as twin block and anterior inclined bite plan have less cost, side effects and complications compared to fixed orthodontic or orthosurgery. Until now, the dentoskeletal changes resulting from the application of twin block and anterior inclined bite plan in patients with Class II malocclusion has not been evaluated. The objective of the present study was to assess the dentoskeletal changes following the use of twin-block functional appliance and inclined anterior bite plan in the patients with class II malocclusion div 1 during mixed dentition. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective cohort trial, 60 patients with the definitive diagnosis of Class II div. 1 malocclusion having ANB>2 and FMA angel between 20 and 30 and without any previous treatment or syndrome who were treated with twin-block or inclined anterior bite plan appliance were selected and their lateral cephalometries were traced before and after treatment. Selected distance and angular landmarks were measured on the cephalograms with the good reliability (ICC=0.953 and the changes occurred in the landmarks were statistically analyzed using Student t test. Results: Due to the increased mandibular growth, most of the landmarks experienced significant changes following the treatment with twin-block and inclined bite plan (P0.05, however, SNA (P=0.04, overjet (P=0.007 and wits appraisal (P=0.004 changed differently after using the appliances. Conclusion: Despite with most similarities of both twin-block and anterior inclined bite plan to correct class II div. 1 malocclusion, Due to the advantages of anterior inclined bite plan such as less size, good

  12. Bidispersive-inclined convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulone, Giuseppe; Straughan, Brian

    2016-01-01

    A model is presented for thermal convection in an inclined layer of porous material when the medium has a bidispersive structure. Thus, there are the usual macropores which are full of a fluid, but there are also a system of micropores full of the same fluid. The model we employ is a modification of the one proposed by Nield & Kuznetsov (2006 Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 49, 3068–3074. (doi:10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2006.02.008)), although we consider a single temperature field only. PMID:27616934

  13. Impact of flow inclination on downwind turbine loads and power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, C.; Chokani, N.; Abhari, R. S.; Hashimoto, T.; Watanabe, M.; Sano, T.; Saeki, M.

    2016-09-01

    Wind turbines frequently operate under situations of pronounced flow inclinations, such as in complex terrain. In the present work the performance and rotor thrust of downwind and upwind turbines in upward and downward flow inclinations are experimentally investigated. In an upward flow inclination of +13°, downwind turbines are shown to have a 29% larger power output than a corresponding upwind turbine, whereas the relative increase in rotor thrust is only 9%. Furthermore, it is also shown that the performance of downwind turbines is less sensitive to changes in the flow inclination, as the upstream nacelle on downwind turbines beneficially redirects and accelerates the flow around the nacelle into the rotor plane.

  14. Maximal ? -regularity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Neerven, J.M.A.M.; Veraar, M.C.; Weis, L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we prove maximal regularity estimates in “square function spaces” which are commonly used in harmonic analysis, spectral theory, and stochastic analysis. In particular, they lead to a new class of maximal regularity results for both deterministic and stochastic equations in L p

  15. Reduction of the A-Frame Angle of Incline does not Change the Maximum Carpal Joint Extension Angle in Agility Dogs Entering the A-Frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelgrein, Carla; Glyde, Mark R; Hosgood, Giselle; Dempsey, Alasdair R; Wickham, Sarah

    2018-02-01

     This article aims to investigate the effect of a decrease in the A-frame angle of incline on the highest carpal extension angle in agility dogs.  Kinematic gait analysis (two-dimensional) measuring carpal extension was performed on 40 dogs entering the A-frame at 3 angles of incline: 40° (standard), 35° and 30°. The highest carpal extension angle from three trials at each incline was examined for a significant effect of A-frame angle with height, body weight and velocity included as covariates.  There was no significant effect of A-frame angle on the highest carpal joint extension angle for the first or second limb. The adjusted mean carpal extension angle for the first limb at 40° was 64° [95% confidence interval (CI), 60-68), at 35° was 61° (95% CI, 57-65) and at 30° was 62° (95% CI, 59-65). The raw mean carpal extension angle for all dogs across all A-frame angles for the first limb was 62° (95% CI, 60-64) and the second limb was 61° (95% CI, 59-63).  Decreasing the A-frame angle of incline from 40° to 30° did not result in reduced carpal extension angles. The failure to find a difference and the narrow CI of the carpal angles may indicate that the physiologic limits of carpal extension were reached at all A-frame angles. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  16. Sex-based effects on immune changes induced by a maximal incremental exercise test in well-trained swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, José P; Monteiro, Cristina P; Matias, Catarina N; Alves, Francisco; Pessoa, Pedro; Reis, Joana; Martins, Fátima; Seixas, Teresa; Laires, Maria J

    2014-09-01

    Studies examining the immune response to acute intensive swimming have shown increased leukocytosis and lymphocyte populations. However, studies concerning mucosal immunity and sex differences remain controversial. The objective of the study was to examine sex differences on the immune response to maximal incremental swimming exercise in well trained swimmers. Participants (11 females, controlled for menstrual cycle phase effects; 10 males) performed a maximal incremental 7x200 m front crawl set. Fingertip capillary blood samples were obtained after each 200 m swim for lactate assessment. Venous blood and saliva samples were collected before and 5 minutes after the swimming test to determine total numbers of leukocytes, lymphocytes and subpopulations, and serum and salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels. IgA secretion rate was calculated. Menstrual cycle phase did not influence the immune response to exercise. As for sex differences, exercise induced an increase in leukocytes, total lymphocytes, CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+), and CD16(+)/56(+) in males. In females, only leukocytosis, of a lower magnitude than was observed in males, occurred. CD19(+) increased and CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio decreased in both groups following exercise whilst IgA, SIgA concentrations, and srIgA did not change. Both males and females finished the incremental exercise very close to the targeted race velocity, attaining peak blood lactate concentrations of 14.6±2.25 and 10.4±1.99 mmol.L(-1), respectively. The effect of a maximal incremental swimming task on immunity is sex dependent and more noticeable in men. Males, as a consequence of higher levels of immunosurveillance may therefore be at a lower risk of infection than females. Key PointsMaximal exercise induces an immune response.This study investigated the influence of sex over the leukocytes subpopulations and mucosal immune responses to maximal swimming.Male swimmers showed a stronger increase of T helper, T cytotoxic and NK lymphocytes than

  17. Dietary protein to maximize resistance training: a review and examination of protein spread and change theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, John D; Dixon, Brian M

    2012-09-08

    An appreciable volume of human clinical data supports increased dietary protein for greater gains from resistance training, but not all findings are in agreement. We recently proposed "protein spread theory" and "protein change theory" in an effort to explain discrepancies in the response to increased dietary protein in weight management interventions. The present review aimed to extend "protein spread theory" and "protein change theory" to studies examining the effects of protein on resistance training induced muscle and strength gains. Protein spread theory proposed that there must have been a sufficient spread or % difference in g/kg/day protein intake between groups during a protein intervention to see muscle and strength differences. Protein change theory postulated that for the higher protein group, there must be a sufficient change from baseline g/kg/day protein intake to during study g/kg/day protein intake to see muscle and strength benefits. Seventeen studies met inclusion criteria. In studies where a higher protein intervention was deemed successful there was, on average, a 66.1% g/kg/day between group intake spread versus a 10.2% g/kg/day spread in studies where a higher protein diet was no more effective than control. The average change in habitual protein intake in studies showing higher protein to be more effective than control was +59.5% compared to +6.5% when additional protein was no more effective than control. The magnitudes of difference between the mean spreads and changes of the present review are similar to our previous review on these theories in a weight management context. Providing sufficient deviation from habitual intake appears to be an important factor in determining the success of additional protein in enhancing muscle and strength gains from resistance training. An increase in dietary protein favorably effects muscle and strength during resistance training.

  18. Study and modeling of changes in volumetric efficiency of helix conveyors at different rotational speeds and inclination angels by ANFIS and statistical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zareei

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Spiral conveyors effectively carry solid masses as free or partly free flow of materials. They create good throughput and they are the perfect solution to solve the problems of transport, due to their simple structure, high efficiency and low maintenance costs. This study aims to investigate the performance characteristics of conveyors as function of auger diameter, rotational speed and handling inclination angle. The performance characteristic was investigated according to volumetric efficiency. In another words, the purpose of this study was obtaining a suitable model for volumetric efficiency changes of steep auger to transfer agricultural products. Three different diameters of auger, five levels of rotational speed and three slope angles were used to investigate the effects of changes in these parameters on volumetric efficiency of auger. The used method is novel in this area and the results show that performance by ANFIS models is much better than common statistical models. Materials and Methods The experiments were conducted in Department of Mechanical Engineering of Agricultural Machinery in Urmia University. In this study, SAYOS cultivar of wheat was used. This cultivar of wheat had hard seeds and the humidity was 12% (based on wet. Before testing, all foreign material was separated from the wheat such as stone, dust, plant residues and green seeds. Bulk density of wheat was 790 kg m-3. The auger shaft of the spiral conveyor was received its rotational force through belt and electric motor and its rotation leading to transfer the product to the output. In this study, three conveyors at diameters of 13, 17.5, and 22.5 cm, five levels of rotational speed at 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 rpm and three handling angles of 10, 20, and 30º were tested. Adaptive Nero-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS is the combination of fuzzy systems and artificial neural network, so it has both benefits. This system is useful to solve the complex non

  19. Simulation of Canopy Leaf Inclination Angle in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-cui ZHANG

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A leaf inclination angle distribution model, which is applicable to simulate leaf inclination angle distribution in six heights of layered canopy at different growth stages, was established by component factors affecting plant type in rice. The accuracy of the simulation results was validated by measured values from a field experiment. The coefficient of determination (R2 and the root mean square error (RMSE between the simulated and measured values were 0.9472 and 3.93%, respectively. The simulation results showed that the distribution of leaf inclination angles differed among the three plant types. The leaf inclination angles were larger in the compact variety Liangyoupeijiu with erect leaves than in the loose variety Shanyou 63 with droopy leaves and the intermediate variety Liangyou Y06. The leaf inclination angles were distributed in the lower range in Shanyou 63, which matched up with field measurements. The distribution of leaf inclination angles in the same variety changed throughout the seven growth stages. The leaf inclination angles enlarged gradually from transplanting to booting. During the post-booting period, the leaf inclination angle increased in Shanyou 63 and Liangyou Y06, but changed little in Liangyoupeijiu. At every growth stage of each variety, canopy leaf inclination angle distribution on the six heights of canopy layers was variable. As canopy height increased, the layered leaf area index (LAI decreased in all the three plant types. However, while the leaf inclination angles showed little change in Liangyoupeijiu, they became larger in Shanyou 63 but smaller in Liangyou Y06. The simulation results used in the constructed model were very similar to the actual measurement values. The model provides a method for estimating canopy leaf inclination angle distribution in rice production.

  20. Toward Collective Impact for Climate Resilience: Maximizing Climate Change Education for Preparedness, Adaptation, and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledley, T. S.; Niepold, F., III; McCaffrey, M.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing the capacity of society to make informed climate decisions based on scientific evidence is imperative. While a wide range of education programs and communication efforts to improve understanding and facilitate responsible effective decision-making have been developed in recent years, these efforts have been largely disconnected. The interdisciplinary and trans-disciplinary nature of the problems and potential responses to climate change requires a broad range of expertise and a strategy that overcomes the inherent limitations of isolated programs and efforts. To extend the reach and impact of climate change education and engagement efforts, it is necessary to have a coordination that results in greater collective impact. The Collective Impact model, as described by Kania & Kramer (2011), requires five elements: 1) a common agenda; 2) shared measurement systems; 3) mutually reinforcing activities; 4) continuous communication; and 5) a well-funded backbone support organization. The CLEAN Network has facilitated a series of discussions at six professional meetings from late 2012 through spring 2014 to begin to develop and define the elements of collective impact on climate change education and engagement. These discussions have focused on getting input from the community on a common agenda and what a backbone support organization could do to help extend their reach and impact and enable a longer-term sustainability. These discussions will continue at future meetings, with the focus shifting to developing a common agenda and shared metrics. In this presentation we will summarize the outcomes of these discussions thus far, especially with respect to what activities a backbone support organization might provide to help increase the collective impact of climate change education effort and invite others to join the development of public-private partnership to improve the nations climate literacy. The cumulative input into this evolving discussion on collective

  1. Entropy maximization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is shown that (i) every probability density is the unique maximizer of relative entropy in an appropriate class and (ii) in the class of all pdf that satisfy ∫ f h i d = i for i = 1 , 2 , … , … k the maximizer of entropy is an f 0 that is proportional to exp ⁡ ( ∑ c i h i ) for some choice of c i . An extension of this to a continuum of ...

  2. Maximal balleans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga I. Protasova

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A ballean is a set X endowed with some family of subsets of X which are called the balls. We postulate the properties of the family of balls in such a way that the balleans with the appropriate morphisms can be considered as the asymptotic counterparts of the uniform topological spaces. The purpose of the paper is to find and study the asymptotic counterparts for maximal topological spaces and maximal topological groups.

  3. Entropy Maximization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is shown that (i) every probability density is the unique maximizer of relative entropy in an appropriate class and (ii) in the class of all pdf that satisfy ∫ f h i d = i for i = 1 , 2 , … , … k the maximizer of entropy is an f 0 that is proportional to exp ⁡ ( ∑ c i h i ) for some choice of c i . An extension of this to a continuum of ...

  4. Entropy maximization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. It is shown that (i) every probability density is the unique maximizer of relative entropy in an appropriate class and (ii) in the class of all pdf f that satisfy. ∫ fhi dμ = λi for i = 1, 2,...,...k the maximizer of entropy is an f0 that is pro- portional to exp(. ∑ ci hi ) for some choice of ci . An extension of this to a continuum of.

  5. Do Dietary Changes Increase the Propensity of Food Riots? An Exploratory Study of Changing Consumption Patterns and the Inclination to Engage in Food-Related Protests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander F. Legwegoh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Following widespread food riots in 2008, many people argued that high food prices cause political instability and civil unrest in the form of food riots. However, subsequent research has demonstrated that political, cultural, and economic factors confound the impact of price in determining whether a food riot occurs. This paper contributes to this growing body of literature by exploring: (1 the relationship between household demographic characteristics and reported intent to riot due to future food price rises; and (2 the relationships between people’s diets and their reported intent to riot due to future food price rises. We hypothesize that local context, including demographic factors and dietary patterns, combine to predispose some groups of people to riot when food prices rise. This hypothesis is tested using household surveys (N = 300 and three focus groups discussions (N = 65 carried out in three cities in the Central African nation of Cameroon that experienced widespread food riots in 2008. Results show that some 70% of the respondents would riot if food prices went up. Also, in the event of food price rises: (1 households in Cameroon’s major cities are more likely to riot than the citizens of smaller cities; (2 Households with relatively higher educational level, high incomes, are less likely to riot. Finally, the relationship between dietary patterns and propensity to riot is not straightforward as changes in consumption of different food groups influence propensity to riot in different ways. Overall, this paper demonstrates that preemptive strategies designed to avoid future food riots in Cameroon must take into consideration these spatial, demographic, and dietary factors.

  6. TRAINING-INDUCED CHANGES IN THE TOPOGRAPHY OF MUSCLE TORQUES AND MAXIMAL MUSCLE TORQUES IN BASKETBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Buśko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to detect changes in the maximal muscle torques in male basketball players during a two-year training cycle. We verified the hypothesis that different workloads applied during the preparation and competition periods would result in changes in the maximal muscle torques of the athletes (increase during the former and decrease or no change during the latter period accompanied by no alteration of the percent muscle topography of all the muscle groups tested. The examinations were conducted on nine senior male basketball players from the Polish national team. Estimations of the muscle torques in static conditions were performed at the end of the preparation (measurements I and III and competition (measurements II and IV periods of a two-year training cycle. Eleven muscle groups were studied including flexors and extensors of the trunk and flexors and extensors of the shoulder, the elbow, the hip, the knee, and the ankle. Muscle torques of the shoulder and the elbow insignificantly decreased except for the muscle torque of the flexors of the shoulder. Muscle torques of the flexors and extensors of the trunk as well as of the flexors and extensors of the hip, the knee, and the ankle increased between measurements I and III and between measurements I and IV with the only exception being the muscle torque of the flexors of the knee (which significantly decreased by 7.4% In the case of the flexors and extensors of the trunk and the flexors and extensors of the hip, the changes appeared to be significant. The sum of the muscle torques of the upper limbs markedly decreased between the preparation (measurement I and competition (measurement IV periods. The sum of the muscle torques of the trunk and the lower limbs and the sum of the muscle torques of the eleven muscle groups significantly increased between measurements I and IV. Percent muscle topography significantly decreased for the flexors and extensors of the shoulder and the

  7. Long-term effects of maximally intensive statin therapy on changes in coronary atheroma composition: insights from SATURN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Rishi; Libby, Peter; Nissen, Steven E; Wolski, Kathy; Ballantyne, Christie M; Barter, Phillip J; Chapman, M John; Erbel, Raimund; Raichlen, Joel S; Uno, Kiyoko; Kataoka, Yu; Tuzcu, E Murat; Nicholls, Stephen J

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of long-term maximally intensive statin therapy on indices of coronary atheroma composition in a randomized trial, and how these changes relate to modifications of serum lipoproteins and systemic inflammation. The Study of coronary Atheroma by inTravascular Ultrasound: the effect of Rosuvastatin vs. atorvastatiN (SATURN) employed serial intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) measures of coronary atheroma in patients treated with rosuvastatin 40 mg or atorvastatin 80 mg daily for 24 months. Seventy-one patients underwent serial assessment of indices of plaque composition by spectral analysis of the radiofrequency IVUS signal. Changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C; -52 (-72, -33) mg/dL, P < 0.001], C-reactive protein [CRP -0.2 (-1, 0.1) mg/L, P = 0.01], and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C; +2.8 (-0.3, 7.8) mg/dL, P < 0.001] were associated with regression of percent atheroma volume (PAV: -1.6 ± 3.6%, P < 0.001). A reduction in estimated fibro-fatty tissue volume accompanied atheroma regression (P < 0.001), while dense calcium tissue volume increased (P = 0.002). There were no changes in fibrous or necrotic core tissue volumes. Volumetric changes in necrotic core tissue correlated with on-treatment HDL-C (r = -0.27, P = 0.03) and CRP (r = 0.25, P = 0.03) levels. A per-lesion analysis showed a reduction in the number of pathological intimal thickening lesions (defined by ≥3 consecutive IVUS frames containing PAV of ≥40%, predominantly fibro-fatty plaque, with <10% confluent necrotic core and <10% confluent dense calcium) at follow-up (67 vs. 38, P = 0.001). Fibroatheromas and fibrotic lesions remained static in number. Changes in indices of atheroma composition accompany regression of coronary atheroma with maximally intensive statin therapy, and associate with anti-inflammatory effects of statins. NCT000620542.

  8. Na+-K+-ATPase in rat skeletal muscle: muscle fiber-specific differences in exercise-induced changes in ion affinity and maximal activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    It is unclear whether muscle activity reduces or increases Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase maximal in vitro activity in rat skeletal muscle, and it is not known whether muscle activity changes the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase ion affinity. The present study uses quantification of ATP hydrolysis to characterize muscle fiber...... membranes of glycolytic muscle, which abolished the fiber-type difference in Na(+) affinity. K(m) for K(+) (in the presence of Na(+)) was not influenced by running. Running only increased the maximal in vitro activity (V(max)) in total membranes from soleus, whereas V(max) remained constant in the three...... other muscles tested. In conclusion, muscle activity induces fiber type-specific changes both in Na(+) affinity and maximal in vitro activity of the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. The underlying mechanisms may involve translocation of subunits and increased association between PLM units and the alphabeta complex...

  9. Change in maximal fat oxidation in response to different regimes of periodized high-intensity interval training (HIIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd A; Edmunds, Ross M; Clark, Amy; Gallant, Rachael; King, Leesa; Ordille, Gina M; Heath, Brendyn; Montell, Matthew; Bandong, Jason

    2017-04-01

    Increased capacity for fat oxidation (FatOx) is demonstrated in response to chronic endurance training as well as high-intensity interval training (HIIT). This study examined changes in maximal fat oxidation (MFO) in response to 20 sessions of periodized HIIT in an attempt to identify if various regimes of HIIT similarly augment capacity for FatOx. Thirty-nine habitually active men and women (mean age and VO 2 max = 22.5 ± 4.4 year and 40.0 ± 5.6 mL/kg/min) completed training and 32 men and women with similar physical activity and fitness level served as non-exercising controls (CON). Training consisted of ten sessions of progressive low-volume HIIT on the cycle ergometer after which participants completed an additional ten sessions of sprint interval training (SIT), high-volume HIIT, or periodized HIIT, whose assignment was randomized. Before and throughout training, MFO, FatOx, and carbohydrate oxidation (CHOOx) were assessed during progressive cycling to exhaustion. Compared to CON, there was no effect of HIIT on MFO (p = 0.11). Small increases (p = 0.03) in FatOx were evident in response to HIIT leading to an additional 4.3 g of fat oxidized, although this value may not be clinically meaningful. Our results refute the widely reported increases in capacity for FatOx demonstrated with HIIT, which is likely due to marked day-to-day variability in determinations of MFO and exercise fat oxidation as well as the heterogeneity of our sample.

  10. Pool Boiling CHF in Inclined Narrow Annuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Myeong Gie

    2010-01-01

    Pool boiling heat transfer has been studied extensively since it is frequently encountered in various heat transfer equipment. Recently, it has been widely investigated in nuclear power plants for application to the advanced light water reactors designs. Through the review on the published results it can be concluded that knowledge on the combined effects of the surface orientation and a confined space on pool boiling heat transfer is of great practical importance and also of great academic interest. Fujita et al. investigated pool boiling heat transfer, from boiling inception to the critical heat flux (CHF, q' CHF ), in a confined narrow space between heated and unheated parallel rectangular plates. They identified that both the confined space and the surface orientation changed heat transfer much. Kim and Suh changed the surface orientation angles of a downward heating rectangular channel having a narrow gap from the downward-facing position (180 .deg.) to the vertical position (90 .deg.). They observed that the CHF generally decreased as the inclination angle (θ ) increased. Yao and Chang studied pool boiling heat transfer in a confined heat transfer for vertical narrow annuli with closed bottoms. They observed that when the gap size ( s ) of the annulus was decreased the effect of space confinement to boiling heat transfer increased. The CHF was occurred at much lower value for the confined space comparing to the unconfined pool boiling. Pool boiling heat transfer in narrow horizontal annular crevices was studied by Hung and Yao. They concluded that the CHF decreased with decreasing gap size of the annuli and described the importance of the thin film evaporation to explain the lower CHF of narrow crevices. The effect of the inclination angle on the CHF on countercurrent boiling in an inclined uniformly heated tube with closed bottoms was also studied by Liu et al. They concluded that the CHF reduced with the inclination angle decrease. A study was carried out

  11. Impinging Water Droplets on Inclined Glass Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armijo, Kenneth Miguel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lance, Blake [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ho, Clifford K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Multiphase computational models and tests of falling water droplets on inclined glass surfaces were developed to investigate the physics of impingement and potential of these droplets to self-clean glass surfaces for photovoltaic modules and heliostats. A multiphase volume-of-fluid model was developed in ANSYS Fluent to simulate the impinging droplets. The simulations considered different droplet sizes (1 mm and 3 mm), tilt angles (0°, 10°, and 45°), droplet velocities (1 m/s and 3 m/s), and wetting characteristics (wetting=47° contact angle and non-wetting = 93° contact angle). Results showed that the spread factor (maximum droplet diameter during impact divided by the initial droplet diameter) decreased with increasing inclination angle due to the reduced normal force on the surface. The hydrophilic surface yielded greater spread factors than the hydrophobic surface in all cases. With regard to impact forces, the greater surface tilt angles yielded lower normal forces, but higher shear forces. Experiments showed that the experimentally observed spread factor (maximum droplet diameter during impact divided by the initial droplet diameter) was significantly larger than the simulated spread factor. Observed spread factors were on the order of 5 - 6 for droplet velocities of ~3 m/s, whereas the simulated spread factors were on the order of 2. Droplets were observed to be mobile following impact only for the cases with 45° tilt angle, which matched the simulations. An interesting phenomenon that was observed was that shortly after being released from the nozzle, the water droplet oscillated (like a trampoline) due to the "snapback" caused by the surface tension of the water droplet being released from the nozzle. This oscillation impacted the velocity immediately after the release. Future work should evaluate the impact of parameters such as tilt angle and surface wettability on the impact of particle/soiling uptake and removal to investigate ways that

  12. Structural equation modeling for alteration of occlusal plane inclination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeta, Yuko; Ogawa, Takumi; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Ando, Eriko; Hirabayashi, Rio; Ikawa, Tomoko

    2015-07-01

    Occlusal plane inclination is important to maintain a normal opening closing/biting function. However, there can be several causes that lead to alterations of the occlusal plane. The purpose of this study was to observe variations of occlusal plane inclination in adult patients, and to uncover the factors affecting changes in occlusal plane inclination with aging. Subjects were 143 patients. A cephalometric image was taken of these patients. In this study, our inquiry points were age, 3 variables on intra-oral findings, and 7 variables on cephalometric analysis. To evaluate the possible causes that affect occlusal plane inclination, factor analysis was carried out, and each component was treated as factors, which were then statistically applied to a structural equation model. Statistical analysis was carried out through the SPSS 20.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, USA). In all patients, Camper-occlusal plane angle (COA) ranged from -25.7 to -4.9° (Mean±SD: -6.4±5.36). In the 60 patients who had no missing teeth, COA ranged from -11.6 to -4.9° (Mean±SD: -3.3±3.31). From the results of the structural analysis, it was suggested that the occlusal plane changes to counter-clockwise (on the right lateral cephalograms) with aging. In this study, variations of occlusal plane inclination in adult patients were observed, and the factors affecting changes in occlusal plane inclination with aging were investigated via factor analysis. From our results, it was suggested that the mandibular morphology change and loss of teeth with aging influence occlusal plane inclination. Copyright © 2015 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Changes in Peak Airflow Measurement During Maximal Cough After Vocal Fold Augmentation in Patients With Glottic Insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Gregory R; Achlatis, Efstratios; Teng, Stephanie; Fang, Yixin; Persky, Michael; Branski, Ryan C; Amin, Milan R

    2017-11-01

    Compromised cough effectiveness is correlated with dysphagia and aspiration. Glottic insufficiency likely yields decreased cough strength and effectiveness. Although vocal fold augmentation favorably affects voice and likely improves cough strength, few data exist to support this hypothesis. To assess whether vocal fold augmentation improves peak airflow measurements during maximal-effort cough following augmentation. This case series study was conducted in a tertiary, academic laryngology clinic. Participants included 14 consecutive individuals with glottic insufficiency due to vocal fold paralysis, which was diagnosed via videostrobolaryngoscopy as a component of routine clinical examination. All participants who chose to proceed with augmentation were considered for the study whether office-based or operative augmentation was planned. Postaugmentation data were collected only at the first follow-up visit, which was targeted for 14 days after augmentation but varied on the basis of participant availability. Data were collected from June 5, 2014, to October 1, 2015. Data analysis took place between October 2, 2015, and March 3, 2017. Peak airflow during maximal volitional cough was quantified before and after vocal fold augmentation. Participants performed maximal coughs, and peak expiratory flow during the maximal cough was captured according to American Thoracic Society guidelines. Among the 14 participants (7 men and 7 women), the mean (SD) age was 62 (18) years. Three types of injectable material were used for vocal fold augmentation: carboxymethylcellulose in 5 patients, hyaluronic acid in 5, and calcium hydroxylapatite in 4. Following augmentation, cough strength increased in 11 participants and decreased cough strength was observed in 3. Peak airflow measurements during maximal cough varied from a decrease of 40 L/min to an increase of 150 L/min following augmentation. When preaugmentation and postaugmentation peak airflow measurements were compared, the

  14. How do the substrate reaction forces acting on a gecko's limbs respond to inclines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhouyi; Dai, Zhendong; Li, Wei; Ji, Aihong; Wang, Wenbao

    2015-02-01

    Locomotion is an essential character of animals, and excellent moving ability results from the delicate sensing of the substrate reaction forces (SRF) acting on body and modulating the behavior to adapt the motion requirement. The inclined substrates present in habitats pose a number of functional challenges to locomotion. In order to effectively overcome these challenges, climbing geckos execute complex and accurate movements that involve both the front and hind limbs. Few studies have examined gecko's SRF on steeper inclines of greater than 90°. To reveal how the SRFs acting on the front and hind limbs respond to angle incline changes, we obtained detailed measurements of the three-dimensional SRFs acting on the individual limbs of the tokay gecko while it climbed on an inclined angle of 0-180°. The fore-aft forces acting on the front and hind limbs show opposite trends on inverted inclines of greater than 120°, indicating propulsion mechanism changes in response to inclines. When the incline angles change, the forces exerted in the normal and fore-aft directions by gecko's front and hind limbs are reassigned to take full advantage of limbs' different roles in overcoming resistance and in propelling locomotion. This also ensures that weight acts in the angle range between the forces generated by the front and hind limbs. The change in the distribution of SRF with a change in the incline angle is directly linked to the favorable trade-off between locomotive maneuverability and stability.

  15. High intensity interval training in a real world setting: a randomized controlled feasibility study in overweight inactive adults, measuring change in maximal oxygen uptake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Lunt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In research clinic settings, overweight adults undertaking HIIT (high intensity interval training improve their fitness as effectively as those undertaking conventional walking programs but can do so within a shorter time spent exercising. We undertook a randomized controlled feasibility (pilot study aimed at extending HIIT into a real world setting by recruiting overweight/obese, inactive adults into a group based activity program, held in a community park. METHODS: Participants were allocated into one of three groups. The two interventions, aerobic interval training and maximal volitional interval training, were compared with an active control group undertaking walking based exercise. Supervised group sessions (36 per intervention were held outdoors. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using VO2max (maximal oxygen uptake, results expressed in ml/min/kg, before and after the 12 week interventions. RESULTS: On ITT (intention to treat analyses, baseline (N = 49 and exit (N = 39 [Formula: see text]O2 was 25.3±4.5 and 25.3±3.9, respectively. Participant allocation and baseline/exit VO2max by group was as follows: Aerobic interval training N =  16, 24.2±4.8/25.6±4.8; maximal volitional interval training N = 16, 25.0±2.8/25.2±3.4; walking N = 17, 26.5±5.3/25.2±3.6. The post intervention change in VO2max was +1.01 in the aerobic interval training, -0.06 in the maximal volitional interval training and -1.03 in the walking subgroups. The aerobic interval training subgroup increased VO2max compared to walking (p = 0.03. The actual (observed, rather than prescribed time spent exercising (minutes per week, ITT analysis was 74 for aerobic interval training, 45 for maximal volitional interval training and 116 for walking (p =  0.001. On descriptive analysis, the walking subgroup had the fewest adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to earlier studies, the improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness in a

  16. Guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1985-01-01

    Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline...... with 30% (v/v) ethanol or saline, respectively. Relative viscosity was used as one measure of physical properties of the emulsion. Higher degrees of sensitization (but not rates) were obtained at the 48 h challenge reading with the oil/propylene glycol and oil/saline + ethanol emulsions compared...

  17. High-phosphorus diet maximizes and low-dose calcitriol attenuates skeletal muscle changes in long-term uremic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Luz M; López, Ignacio; Peralta-Ramírez, Alan; Pineda, Carmen; Chamizo, Verónica E; Rodríguez, Mariano; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolástico; Rivero, José-Luis L

    2016-05-01

    Although disorders of mineral metabolism and skeletal muscle are common in chronic kidney disease (CKD), their potential relationship remains unexplored. Elevations in plasma phosphate, parathyroid hormone, and fibroblastic growth factor 23 together with decreased calcitriol levels are common features of CKD. High-phosphate intake is a major contributor to progression of CKD. This study was primarily aimed to determine the influence of high-phosphate intake on muscle and to investigate whether calcitriol supplementation counteracts negative skeletal muscle changes associated with long-term uremia. Proportions and metabolic and morphological features of myosin-based muscle fiber types were assessed in the slow-twitch soleus and the fast-twitch tibialis cranialis muscles of uremic rats (5/6 nephrectomy, Nx) and compared with sham-operated (So) controls. Three groups of Nx rats received either a standard diet (0.6% phosphorus, Nx-Sd), or a high-phosphorus diet (0.9% phosphorus, Nx-Pho), or a high-phosphorus diet plus calcitriol (10 ng/kg 3 day/wk ip, Nx-Pho + Cal) for 12 wk. Two groups of So rats received either a standard diet or a high-phosphorus diet (So-Pho) over the same period. A multivariate analysis encompassing all fiber-type characteristics indicated that Nx-Pho + Cal rats displayed skeletal muscle phenotypes intermediate between Nx-Pho and So-Pho rats and that uremia-induced skeletal muscle changes were of greater magnitude in Nx-Pho than in Nx-Sd rats. In uremic rats, treatment with calcitriol preserved fiber-type composition, cross-sectional size, myonuclear domain size, oxidative capacity, and capillarity of muscle fibers. These data demonstrate that a high-phosphorus diet potentiates and low-dose calcitriol attenuates adverse skeletal muscle changes in long-term uremic rats. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Measuring specific, rather than generalized, cognitive deficits and maximizing between-group effect size in studies of cognition and cognitive change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Steven M

    2008-07-01

    While cognitive impairment in schizophrenia is easy to demonstrate, it has been much more difficult to measure a specific cognitive process unconfounded by the influence of other cognitive processes and noncognitive factors (eg, sedation, low motivation) that affect test scores. With the recent interest in the identification of neurophysiology-linked cognitive probes for clinical trials, the issue of isolating specific cognitive processes has taken on increased importance. Recent advances in research design and psychometric theory regarding cognition research in schizophrenia demonstrate the importance of (1) maximizing between-group differences via reduction of measurement error during both test development and subsequent research and (2) the development and use of process-specific tasks in which theory-driven performance indices are derived across multiple conditions. Use of these 2 strategies can significantly advance both our understanding of schizophrenia and measurement sensitivity for clinical trials. Novel data-analytic strategies for analyzing change across multiple conditions and/or multiple time points also allow for increased reliability and greater measurement sensitivity than traditional strategies. Following discussion of these issues, trade-offs inherent to attempts to address psychometric issues in schizophrenia research are reviewed. Finally, additional considerations for maximizing sensitivity and real-world significance in clinical trials are discussed.

  19. Investigating the heat transfer on the top side of inclined printed circuit boards during vapour phase soldering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illés, Balázs; Géczy, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Investigating the effect of inclination on heat transfer uniformity and intensity during VPS. • Even moderate inclination has high impact on the condensate layer and on the heat transfer. • Inclination under 1° has negative effect on temperature distribution of the soldered board. • Inclination from 1° to 10° improves heat transfer uniformity of vapour phase soldering. • Inclination can help to reduce soldering failures during vapour phase soldering. - Abstract: In this paper, heat transfer and condensate layer formation was investigated by numerical simulations on the top side of inclined printed circuit boards during vapour phase soldering. The phase change on the inclined surface and the transfer mechanisms in the condensate layer were embedded in a three-dimensional model. Steady-state and saturated vapour conditions were applied as boundary conditions in order to study the pure effect of the inclination. Due to the electronic component and circuit board structures during soldering only moderate inclination angles were studied between 0° and 10°. It was found that a moderate inclination of the printed circuit board has considerable effects on the formation of condensate layer and consequently on heat transfer. Compared to the default horizontal orientation of the board, the thickness differences of the condensate layer can be decreased with an optimised inclination of the printed circuit board. This effect homogenizes heat transfer during the process, enabling improved solder joint quality, with reduced overall soldering failure count.

  20. Space Station Freedom assembly and operation at a 51.6 degree inclination orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troutman, Patrick A.; Brewer, Laura M.; Heck, Michael L.; Kumar, Renjith R.

    1993-01-01

    This study examines the implications of assembling and operating Space Station Freedom at a 51.6 degree inclination orbit utilizing an enhanced lift Space Shuttle. Freedom assembly is currently baselined at a 220 nautical mile high, 28.5 degree inclination orbit. Some of the reasons for increasing the orbital inclination are (1) increased ground coverage for Earth observations, (2) greater accessibility from Russian and other international launch sites, and (3) increased number of Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) landing sites. Previous studies have looked at assembling Freedom at a higher inclination using both medium and heavy lift expendable launch vehicles (such as Shuttle-C and Energia). The study assumes that the shuttle is used exclusively for delivering the station to orbit and that it can gain additional payload capability from design changes such as a lighter external tank that somewhat offsets the performance decrease that occurs when the shuttle is launched to a 51.6 degree inclination orbit.

  1. Comparison of normal permanent and primary dentition sagittal tooth-crown inclinations of Japanese females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inada, Emi; Saitoh, Issei; Hayasaki, Haruaki; Iwase, Yoko; Kubota, Naoko; Takemoto, Yoshihiko; Yamasaki, Youichi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics of permanent and primary tooth-crown inclinations. Landmark points from cephalograms and dental casts of two groups; 23 women (mean 20.3 +/- 3.3 years) and 11 girls (mean 5.2 +/- 0.1 years) were digitized, and the coordinates were integrated and transformed to a standardized plane. The 3-dimensional crown inclinations were projected on the sagittal plane, and the angles between the tooth vectors and the FH plane were calculated. An independent-group t-test was used to test for group differences of each tooth inclination, and correlation coefficients were generated for the inclination angles among the permanent and primary teeth. Most maxillary tooth-crown inclinations showed significant age-related differences, while only the second premolar and primary second molar differed significantly in the mandible. The maxillary molars were parallel to the corresponding mandibular molars and correlated with each other, but the primary molars were not. Significant correlations were found between inclinations of most permanent teeth, but not the primary teeth. Maxillary tooth-crown inclinations change during growth, but tooth-crown inclinations of the mandibular teeth do not.

  2. The metabolic cost of walking on an incline in the Peacock (Pavo cristatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Holly; Thavarajah, Nathan; Codd, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Altering speed and moving on a gradient can affect an animal’s posture and gait, which in turn can change the energetic requirements of terrestrial locomotion. Here, the energetic and kinematic effects of locomoting on an incline were investigated in the Indian peacock, Pavo cristatus. The mass-specific metabolic rate of the Indian peacock was elevated on an incline, but this change was not dependent on the angle ascended and the cost of lifting remained similar between the two inclines (+5 a...

  3. Entrepreneurial inclinations of women from rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković-Savić Olivera S.

    2014-01-01

    resources, knowledge and skills, entrepreneurial inclinations of rural women from northern Kosovo and Metohija are inhibited by: the limited freedom of movement of goods and services, the lack of access to financial institutions aimed at developing small and medium-sized enterprises, and the uncertainty of investing in areas with a high investment risk. The unstable political circumstances create a series of obstacles, -specific and incompatible procedures for the registration and operation of enterprises within the laws of the Republic of Serbia and the UNMIK administration being one of them. In addition to structural changes, it is necessary to work on increasing the social capital of rural women by nurturing the culture of association and organization. In addition to investments in social skills, it is very important to expand education programs for rural population with alternative educational programs related to labor market needs (courses in foreign languages, art, computer science, etc.. Finally, it is necessary to help maintaining authentic cultural activities that would bring entertainment and incite a desire to participate in community life.

  4. Maximally incompatible quantum observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinosaari, Teiko, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Schultz, Jussi, E-mail: jussi.schultz@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Toigo, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.toigo@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Ziman, Mario, E-mail: ziman@savba.sk [RCQI, Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 84511 Bratislava (Slovakia); Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Botanická 68a, 60200 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2014-05-01

    The existence of maximally incompatible quantum observables in the sense of a minimal joint measurability region is investigated. Employing the universal quantum cloning device it is argued that only infinite dimensional quantum systems can accommodate maximal incompatibility. It is then shown that two of the most common pairs of complementary observables (position and momentum; number and phase) are maximally incompatible.

  5. Profit maximization mitigates competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierker, Egbert; Grodal, Birgit

    1996-01-01

    We consider oligopolistic markets in which the notion of shareholders' utility is well-defined and compare the Bertrand-Nash equilibria in case of utility maximization with those under the usual profit maximization hypothesis. Our main result states that profit maximization leads to less price...

  6. Locomotor Behavior of Chickens Anticipating Incline Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal LeBlanc

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Keel bone damage (KBD is prevalent in hens raised for egg production, and ramps between different tiers in aviaries have potential to reduce the frequency of falls resulting in KBD. Effective use of ramps requires modulation of locomotion in anticipation of the incline. Inadequate adaptive locomotion may be one explanation why domestic layer hens (Gallus gallus domesticus exhibit high rates of KBD. To improve understanding of the capacity of hens to modulate their locomotion in anticipation of climbing, we measured the effects of incline angle upon the mechanics of the preparatory step before ascending a ramp. Because the energetic challenge of climbing increases with slope, we predicted that as angle of incline increased, birds during foot contact with the ground before starting to climb would increase their peak force and duration of contact and reduce variation in center of pressure (COP under their foot. We tested 20 female domestic chickens on ramp inclines at slopes of +0°, +40°, and +70° when birds were 17, 21, 26, 31, and 36 weeks of age. There were significantly higher vertical peak ground reaction forces in preparation at the steepest slope, and ground contact time increased significantly with each increase in ramp angle. Effects upon variation in COP were not apparent; likewise, effects of limb length, age, body mass were not significant. Our results reveal that domestic chickens are capable of modulating their locomotion in response to incline angle.

  7. Spectrum of 100-kyr glacial cycle: orbital inclination, not eccentricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, R A; MacDonald, G J

    1997-08-05

    Spectral analysis of climate data shows a strong narrow peak with period approximately 100 kyr, attributed by the Milankovitch theory to changes in the eccentricity of the earth's orbit. The narrowness of the peak does suggest an astronomical origin; however the shape of the peak is incompatible with both linear and nonlinear models that attribute the cycle to eccentricity or (equivalently) to the envelope of the precession. In contrast, the orbital inclination parameter gives a good match to both the spectrum and bispectrum of the climate data. Extraterrestrial accretion from meteoroids or interplanetary dust is proposed as a mechanism that could link inclination to climate, and experimental tests are described that could prove or disprove this hypothesis.

  8. Effects of an inclined walking surface and balance abilities on spatiotemporal gait parameters of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Richard A; Pinto-Zipp, Genevieve; Simpkins, Susan; Clark, MaryAnn

    2013-01-01

    To date, few studies have investigated how walking patterns on inclines change in healthy older adults. The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of an inclined walking surface and balance abilities on various spatiotemporal gait parameters of healthy older adults. Seventy-eight self-reported independent community ambulators (mean age, 77.8 years; SD, 4.8) participated in this study. After completing the Berg Balance Scale and Dynamic Gait Index (DGI), all participants were asked to walk on the GaitRite on level and inclined surfaces (10° slope). Dependent t tests were used to determine statistical significance between level and inclined surfaces for cadence, step length, velocity, and gait stability ratio (GSR). GSR is a measure of the degree of adaptation an individual makes to increase stability during gait derived from a ratio of cadence/velocity. A 2 2 analysis of variance was performed to determine differences in means among the higher-risk participants (as determined by the Berg Balance Scale and Dynamic Gait Index) comparing their level and incline walking patterns. The level of significance was set at P 0.05. During incline walking a significant decrease occurred in mean step length, 63.1(8.8) cm, P 0.001, mean cadence, 111.6 (8.9) step/min, P 0.01 and mean normalized velocity, 1.4 (0.23), P 0.001. However, mean GSR increased on inclines, 1.62 (0.22) steps/m, P 0.004. Main effects were evident for both walking surface and fall risk for all gait parameters tested. Healthy older adults adopt a more stable gait pattern on inclines decreasing velocity and spending more time in the double support despite the increased physiological demands to perform this task. Clear changes were evident between level and incline surfaces regardless of fall risk as defined by 2 different objective balance measures [corrected].

  9. Magnitude and time course of changes in maximal oxygen uptake in response to distinct regimens of chronic interval training in sedentary women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd A; Schubert, Matthew M; Palumbo, Elyse; Stirling, Douglas; McMillan, David W; Cooper, Christina; Godinez, Jackie; Martinez, Donovan; Gallant, Rachael

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to compare changes in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in response to two regimens of chronic interval training. Twenty healthy sedentary women (mean ± SD age and VO2max = 23.0 ± 5.7 years and 30.1 ± 4.4 mL kg(-1) min(-1), respectively) were randomized to complete 12 weeks of one of two interval training regimes, while an additional seven women served as controls. Training was performed 3 days week(-1) on a cycle ergometer and consisted of 6-10 bouts of 1 min duration at lower (60-80 % W max = LO, n = 10) or more intense (80-90 % W max = HI, n = 10) workloads separated by a brief recovery. Every 3 weeks, measures of VO2max and W max were repeated to assign new training intensities. Changes in blood pressure and body composition were also examined. Data revealed significant (p 0.05) between groups. Approximately 60 % of the increase in VO2max in HI was observed in the initial 3 weeks, compared to only 20 % in LO. No change (p > 0.05) in body weight or body composition was revealed in response to training. Results demonstrate that a relatively prolonged regimen of moderate or more intense interval training induces similar improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness, although HI induced greater increases in VO2max early on in training than LO. Completion of more intense interval training may be an effective means to expedite increases in VO2max soon after initiation of exercise training.

  10. Inclined nanoimprinting lithography for 3D nanopatterning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhan; Bucknall, David G; Allen, Mark G

    2011-01-01

    We report a non-conventional shear-force-driven nanofabrication approach, inclined nanoimprint lithography (INIL), for producing 3D nanostructures of varying heights on planar substrates in a single imprinting step. Such 3D nanostructures are fabricated by exploiting polymer anisotropic dewetting where the degree of anisotropy can be controlled by the magnitude of the inclination angle. The feature size is reduced from micron scale of the template to a resultant nanoscale pattern. The underlying INIL mechanism is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The results indicate that the shear force generated at a non-zero inclination angle induced by the INIL apparatus essentially leads to asymmetry in the polymer flow direction ultimately resulting in 3D nanopatterns with different heights. INIL removes the requirements in conventional nanolithography of either utilizing 3D templates or using multiple lithographic steps. This technique enables various 3D nanoscale devices including angle-resolved photonic and plasmonic crystals to be fabricated.

  11. The maximal acceleration group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, H.E.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of the maximal proper acceleration relative to the vacuum, a line element and differential geometry of eight-dimensional phase space are constructed. The maximal acceleration group is defined as the mathematical transformation group under which the eight dimensional line element is invariant. In the classical limit of vanishing Planck's constant, the maximal acceleration group and geometry reduce to those of general relativity

  12. Generation of inclined protoplanetary discs and misaligned planets through mass accretion - I. Coplanar secondary discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang-Gruess, M.; Kroupa, P.

    2017-10-01

    We study the three-dimensional (3D) evolution of a viscous protoplanetary disc that accretes gas material from a second protoplanetary disc during a close encounter in an embedded star cluster. The aim is to investigate the capability of the mass accretion scenario to generate strongly inclined gaseous discs that could later form misaligned planets. We use smoothed particle hydrodynamics to study mass transfer and disc inclination for passing stars and circumstellar discs with different masses. We explore different orbital configurations to find the parameter space that allows significant disc inclination generation. Thies et al. suggested that significant disc inclination and disc or planetary system shrinkage can generally be produced by the accretion of external gas material with a different angular momentum. We found that this condition can be fulfilled for a large range of gas mass and angular momentum. For all encounters, mass accretion from the secondary disc increases with decreasing mass of the secondary proto-star. Thus, higher disc inclinations can be attained for lower secondary stellar masses. Variations of the secondary disc's orientation relative to the orbital plane can alter the disc evolution significantly. The results taken together show that mass accretion can change the 3D disc orientation significantly resulting in strongly inclined discs. In combination with the gravitational interaction between the two star-disc systems, this scenario is relevant for explaining the formation of highly inclined discs that could later form misaligned planets.

  13. Breakwaters with Vertical and Inclined Concrete Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans Falk

    Following the PIANC PTC II working group on Analyses of Rubble Mound Breakwaters it was, in 1991, decided to form Working Group (WG) n° 28 on "Breakwaters with vertical and inclined concrete walls" The scope of the work was to achieve a better understanding of the overall safety aspects in the de......Following the PIANC PTC II working group on Analyses of Rubble Mound Breakwaters it was, in 1991, decided to form Working Group (WG) n° 28 on "Breakwaters with vertical and inclined concrete walls" The scope of the work was to achieve a better understanding of the overall safety aspects...

  14. The age related slow and fast contributions to the overall changes in tibialis anterior contractile features disclosed by maximal single twitch scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orizio, Claudio; Cogliati, Marta; Bissolotti, Luciano; Diemont, Bertrand; Gobbo, Massimiliano; Celichowski, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This work aimed to verify if maximal electrically evoked single twitch (STmax) scan discloses the relative functional weight of fast and slow small bundles of fibres (SBF) in determining the contractile features of tibialis anterior (TA) with ageing. SBFs were recruited by TA main motor point stimulation through 60 increasing levels of stimulation (LS): 20 stimuli at 2Hz for each LS. The lowest and highest LS provided the least ST and STmax, respectively. The scanned STmax was decomposed into individual SBF STs. They were identified when twitches from adjacent LS were significantly different and then subtracted from each other. Nine young (Y) and eleven old (O) subjects were investigated. Contraction time (CT) and STarea/STpeak (A/PT) were calculated per each SBF ST. 143 and 155 SBF STs were obtained in Y and O, respectively. Y: CT and A/PT range: 45-105ms and 67-183mNs/mN, respectively. Literature data set TA fast fibres at 34% so, from the arrays of CT and A/PT, 65ms and 100mNs/mN were identified as the upper limit for SBF fast ST classification. O: no SBF ST could be classified as fast. STmax scan reveals age-related changes in the relative contribution of fast and slow SBFs to the overall muscle mechanics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of clear aligner therapy on the buccolingual inclination of mandibular canines and the intercanine distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünheid, Thorsten; Gaalaas, Sara; Hamdan, Hani; Larson, Brent E

    2016-01-01

    To compare the changes in buccolinugal inclination of mandibular canines and intercanine distance in patients treated with clear aligners to those treated with preadjusted edgewise appliances. The buccolingual inclination of mandibular canines and the intercanine distance were measured on pre- and posttreatment cone-beam computed tomograms of 30 patients who had been treated with clear aligners and 30 patients who had been treated with fixed preadjusted edgewise appliances. Differences between the aligner and fixed appliance groups and between pre- and posttreatment measurements were tested for statistical significance. In both groups, most of the mandibular canines had positive buccolingual inclinations (ie, their crowns were positioned lateral to their roots) both before and after treatment. While there was no difference between the groups pretreatment, the posttreatment buccolingual inclination was significantly greater in the aligner group. In the fixed appliance group, the canines became more upright with treatment, while the buccolingual inclination did not change significantly in the clear aligner group. The intercanine distance did not differ between the groups either before or after treatment. However, it increased significantly over the course of treatment in the aligner group, whereas it did not change significantly in the fixed appliance group. Orthodontic treatment with clear aligners tends to increase the mandibular intercanine distance with little change in inclination in contrast to treatment with fixed appliances, which leaves the intercanine distance unchanged but leads to more upright mandibular canines.

  16. Two Mechanisms of Sensorimotor Set Adaptation to Inclined Stance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Hyun Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Orientation of posture relative to the environment depends on the contributions from the somatosensory, vestibular, and visual systems mixed in varying proportions to produce a sensorimotor set. Here, we probed the sensorimotor set composition using a postural adaptation task in which healthy adults stood on an inclined surface for 3 min. Upon returning to a horizontal surface, participants displayed a range of postural orientations – from an aftereffect that consisted of a large forward postural lean to an upright stance with little or no aftereffect. It has been hypothesized that the post-incline postural change depends on each individual’s sensorimotor set: whether the set was dominated by the somatosensory or vestibular system: Somatosensory dominance would cause the lean aftereffect whereas vestibular dominance should steer stance posture toward upright orientation. We investigated the individuals who displayed somatosensory dominance by manipulating their attention to spatial orientation. We introduced a distraction condition in which subjects concurrently performed a difficult arithmetic subtraction task. This manipulation altered the time course of their post-incline aftereffect. When not distracted, participants returned to upright stance within the 3-min period. However, they continued leaning forward when distracted. These results suggest that the mechanism of sensorimotor set adaptation to inclined stance comprises at least two components. The first component reflects the dominant contribution from the somatosensory system. Since the postural lean was observed among these subjects even when they were not distracted, it suggests that the aftereffect is difficult to overcome. The second component includes a covert attentional component which manifests as the dissipation of the aftereffect and the return of posture to upright orientation.

  17. Internally cooled V-shape inclined monochromator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oberta, Peter; Áč, V.; Hrdý, Jaromír

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 15, - (2008), 8-11 ISSN 0909-0495 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100716 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 1/4134/07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : inclined monochromator * heat load * internal cooling Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.333, year: 2008

  18. A matter of chance, environment and inclination

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lawrence

    Why did I opt for science subjects in school, and choose a career in science? Perhaps the best answer would be. 'Chance, Environment and Inclination'. Here I am, considered to be a professional woman scien- tist, working towards understanding the biology of the malaria parasite and the challenges put up by the same.

  19. Inclined test of nacelle wind lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courtney, Michael

    A nacelle wind lidar, placed at ground level, is tested by inclining the laser beams to bisect a measurement mast at a known distance and height. The horizontal wind speed reported by the lidar is compared to a reference cup anemometer mounted on the mast at the comparison height....

  20. Vehicle with inclinable caterpillar propulsion units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clar, G.

    1991-01-01

    This vehicle usable in hostile environment such nuclear industry has four propulsion units with a caterpillar track and two integrated motors: one for advancing the caterpillar track and the other for inclining the propulsion unit when overcoming obstacles. Each propulsion unit is easily replaceable because there are no mechanical parts in the body of the vehicle [fr

  1. Maximizers versus satisficers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Parker

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007. Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al. (2002, we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decisions, more avoidance of decision making, and greater tendency to experience regret. Contrary to predictions, self-reported maximizers were more likely to report spontaneous decision making. However, the relationship between self-reported maximizing and worse life outcomes is largely unaffected by controls for measures of other decision-making styles, decision-making competence, and demographic variables.

  2. Formation of Close-in Super-Earths by Giant Impacts: Effects of Initial Eccentricities and Inclinations of Protoplanets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Yuji [Planetary Exploration Research Center, Chiba Institute of Technology, Narashino, Chiba, 275-0016 (Japan); Kokubo, Eiichiro, E-mail: ymatsumoto@cfca.nao.ac.jp [Center for Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan)

    2017-07-01

    Recent observations have revealed the eccentricity and inclination distributions of close-in super-Earths. These distributions have the potential to constrain their formation processes. In the in situ formation scenario, the eccentricities and inclinations of planets are determined by gravitational scattering and collisions between protoplanets on the giant impact stage. We investigate the effect of the initial eccentricities and inclinations of protoplanets on the formation of close-in super-Earths. We perform N -body simulations of protoplanets in gas-free disks, changing the initial eccentricities and inclinations systematically. We find that while the eccentricities of protoplanets are well relaxed through their evolution, the inclinations are not. When the initial inclinations are small, they are not generally pumped up since scattering is less effective and collisions occur immediately after orbital crossing. On the other hand, when the initial inclinations are large, they tend to be kept large since collisional damping is less effective. Not only the resultant inclinations of planets, but also their number, eccentricities, angular momentum deficit, and orbital separations are affected by the initial inclinations of protoplanets.

  3. The metabolic cost of walking on an incline in the Peacock (Pavo cristatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Wilkinson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Altering speed and moving on a gradient can affect an animal’s posture and gait, which in turn can change the energetic requirements of terrestrial locomotion. Here, the energetic and kinematic effects of locomoting on an incline were investigated in the Indian peacock, Pavo cristatus. The mass-specific metabolic rate of the Indian peacock was elevated on an incline, but this change was not dependent on the angle ascended and the cost of lifting remained similar between the two inclines (+5 and +7°. Interestingly, the Indian peacock had the highest efficiency when compared to any other previously studied avian biped, despite the presence of a large train. Duty factors were higher for birds moving on an incline, but there was no difference between +5 and +7°. Our results highlight the importance of investigating kinematic responses during energetic studies, as these may enable explanation of what is driving the underlying metabolic differences when moving on inclines. Further investigations are required to elucidate the underlying mechanical processes occurring during incline movement.

  4. The metabolic cost of walking on an incline in the Peacock (Pavo cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Holly; Thavarajah, Nathan; Codd, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Altering speed and moving on a gradient can affect an animal's posture and gait, which in turn can change the energetic requirements of terrestrial locomotion. Here, the energetic and kinematic effects of locomoting on an incline were investigated in the Indian peacock, Pavo cristatus. The mass-specific metabolic rate of the Indian peacock was elevated on an incline, but this change was not dependent on the angle ascended and the cost of lifting remained similar between the two inclines (+5 and +7°). Interestingly, the Indian peacock had the highest efficiency when compared to any other previously studied avian biped, despite the presence of a large train. Duty factors were higher for birds moving on an incline, but there was no difference between +5 and +7°. Our results highlight the importance of investigating kinematic responses during energetic studies, as these may enable explanation of what is driving the underlying metabolic differences when moving on inclines. Further investigations are required to elucidate the underlying mechanical processes occurring during incline movement.

  5. Is CP violation maximal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronau, M.

    1984-01-01

    Two ambiguities are noted in the definition of the concept of maximal CP violation. The phase convention ambiguity is overcome by introducing a CP violating phase in the quark mixing matrix U which is invariant under rephasing transformations. The second ambiguity, related to the parametrization of U, is resolved by finding a single empirically viable definition of maximal CP violation when assuming that U does not single out one generation. Considerable improvement in the calculation of nonleptonic weak amplitudes is required to test the conjecture of maximal CP violation. 21 references

  6. Spin and Maximal Acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Papini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We study the spin current tensor of a Dirac particle at accelerations close to the upper limit introduced by Caianiello. Continual interchange between particle spin and angular momentum is possible only when the acceleration is time-dependent. This represents a stringent limit on the effect that maximal acceleration may have on spin physics in astrophysical applications. We also investigate some dynamical consequences of maximal acceleration.

  7. Granular flow down a flexible inclined plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonar Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Discrete and continuous systems are commonly studied individually, but seldom together. Indeed, granular flows are typically studied through flows over a rigid base. Here, we investigate the behaviour of granular flows over an inclined, flexible base. The flexible base is modeled as a rigid platform mounted on springs and has one degree of freedom. The base vibrations are introduced by the flow. We simulate such flows through a discrete element method and compare with experiments. We find that a flexible base increased the upper limit of the inclination up to which a steady flow is possible by at least 3 degrees. This stabilized zone may have important implications in applications such as conveyor belts and chutes.

  8. Granular flow down a flexible inclined plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonar, Prasad; Sharma, Ishan; Singh, Jayant

    2017-06-01

    Discrete and continuous systems are commonly studied individually, but seldom together. Indeed, granular flows are typically studied through flows over a rigid base. Here, we investigate the behaviour of granular flows over an inclined, flexible base. The flexible base is modeled as a rigid platform mounted on springs and has one degree of freedom. The base vibrations are introduced by the flow. We simulate such flows through a discrete element method and compare with experiments. We find that a flexible base increased the upper limit of the inclination up to which a steady flow is possible by at least 3 degrees. This stabilized zone may have important implications in applications such as conveyor belts and chutes.

  9. Stress field of a dislocating inclined fault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, F.; Wang, T.

    1980-02-01

    Analytical expressions are derived for the stress field caused by a rectangular dislocating fault of an arbitrary dip in a semi-infinite elastic medium for the case of unequal Lame constants. The results of computations for the stress fields on the ground surface of an inclined strike-slip and an inclined dip-slip fault are represented by contour maps. The effects of Poisson Ratio of the medium, the dip angle, upper and lower boundaries of the faults on the stress field at surface have been discussed. As an application, the contour maps for shear stress and hydrostatic stress of near fields of the Tonghai (1970), Haicheng (1975) and Tangshan (1976) earthquakes have been calculated and compared with the spatial distributions of strong aftershocks of these earthquakes. It is found that most of the strong aftershocks are distributed in the regions of tensional stress, where the hydrostatic stress is positive.

  10. Stress field of a dislocating inclined fault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, F.; Wang, T.

    1980-02-01

    In this paper, analytical expressions of the stress field given rise by a rectangular dislocating fault of an arbitrary dip in a semi-infinite elastic medium for the case of unequal Lame constants are derived. The results of computations for the stress fields on the ground surface of an inclined strike-slip and an inclined dip-slip fault are represented by contour maps. The effects of the Poisson Ratio of the medium, the dip angle, upper and lower boundaries of the faults on the stress field at the surface have been discussed. As an application, the contour maps for shear stress and hydrostatic stress of near fields of the Tonghai (1970), Haicheng, (1975) and Tangshan (1976) earthquakes have been calculated and compared with the spatial distributions of strong aftershocks of these earthquakes. It is found that most of the strong aftershocks are distributed in the regions of tensional stress where the hydrostatic stress is positive.

  11. Bubble streams rising beneath an inclined surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, James; Brasz, Frederik; Kim, Dayoung; Menesses, Mark; Belden, Jesse

    2017-11-01

    Bubbles released beneath a submerged inclined surface can tumble along the wall as they rise, dragging the surrounding fluid with them. This effect has recently regained attention as a method to mitigate biofouling in marine environment, such as a ship hull. It appears that the efficacy of this approach may be related to the velocity of the rising bubbles and the extent that they spread laterally as they rise. Yet, it is unclear how bubble stream rise velocity and lateral migration depend on bubble size, flow rate, and inclination angle. Here we perform systematic experiments to quantify these relationships for both individual bubble trajectories and ensemble average statistics. Research supported by the Office of Naval Research under Grant Number award N00014-16-1-3000.

  12. HIGH-INCLINATION ASTEROID FAMILIES V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the high-inclination asteroid families of Gil-Hutton (2006). A data set of 3652 high-inclination numbered asteroids was analyzed to search for...

  13. Does mental exertion alter maximal muscle activation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vianney eRozand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mental exertion is known to impair endurance performance, but its effects on neuromuscular function remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental exertion reduces torque and muscle activation during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. Ten subjects performed in a randomized order three separate mental exertion conditions lasting 27 minutes each: i high mental exertion (incongruent Stroop task, ii moderate mental exertion (congruent Stroop task, iii low mental exertion (watching a movie. In each condition, mental exertion was combined with ten intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensor muscles (one maximal voluntary contraction every 3 minutes. Neuromuscular function was assessed using electrical nerve stimulation. Maximal voluntary torque, maximal muscle activation and other neuromuscular parameters were similar across mental exertion conditions and did not change over time. These findings suggest that mental exertion does not affect neuromuscular function during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors.

  14. Tooth Wear Inclination in Great Ape Molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Sadler, Jordan; Fiorenza, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Primate dietary diversity is reflected in their dental morphology, with differences in size and shape of teeth. In particular, the tooth wear angle can provide insight into a species' ability to break down certain foods. To examine dietary and masticatory information, digitized polygon models of dental casts provide a basis for quantitative analysis of wear associated with tooth attrition. In this study, we analyze and compare the wear patterns of Pongo pygmaeus, Gorilla gorillagorilla and Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii lower molars, focusing on the degree of inclination of specific wear facets. The variation in wear angles appears to be indicative of jaw movements and the specific stresses imposed on food during mastication, reflecting thus the ecology of these species. Orangutans exhibit flatter wear angles, more typical of a diet consisting of hard and brittle foods, while gorillas show a wear pattern with a high degree of inclination, reflecting thus their more leafy diet. Chimpanzees, on the other hand, show intermediate inclinations, a pattern that could be related to their highly variable diet. This method is demonstrated to be a powerful tool for better understanding the relationship between food, mastication and tooth wear processes in living primates, and can be potentially used to reconstruct the diet of fossil species. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. A jumping cylinder in an incline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Raul W.; Hernandez, Jorge; Marquina, Vivianne

    2012-02-01

    The problem of a cylinder of mass m and radius r, with its center of mass out of the cylinder axis, rolling in an incline that makes an angle α respect to the horizontal is analyzed. The equation of motion is solved to obtain the site where the cylinder loses contact with the incline (jumps). Several simplifications are made: the analyzed system consists of an homogeneous disc with a one dimensional straight line of mass parallel to the disc axis at a distance d Styrofoam cylinder of radius r = 10.0 ± 0.05 cm, high h = 5.55 ± 0.05 cm and a mass m1 = 24.45 ± 0.05 g, to which a 9.50 ± 0.01 mm diameter and 5.10 ± 0.001 cm long brass road of mass m2 = 30.75 ± 0.05 g was imbibed parallel to the disc axis at a distance of 5.40 ± 0.05 cm from it. Then the disc rolls on a 3.20 m long wooden ramp inclined at 30 and 45 respect to the horizontal. To determine the jumping site, the movements were recorded with a high-speed video camera (Casio EX ZR100) at 400 frames per second. The experimental results agree well with the theoretical predictions.

  16. An inclined plane system with microcontroller to determine limb motor function of laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ming-Wen; Young, Ming-Shing; Lin, Mao-Tsun

    2008-02-15

    This study describes a high-accuracy inclined plane test system for quantitative measurement of the limb motor function of laboratory rats. The system is built around a microcontroller and uses a stepping motor to drive a ball screw, which changes the angle of the inclined plane. Any of the seven inclination speeds can be selected by the user. Two infrared (IR) LED/detector pairs function as interrupt sensors for objective determination of the moment that the rat loses its grip on the textured flooring of the starting area and slips down the plane. Inclination angle at the moment of IR interrupt (i.e. rat slip) is recorded. A liquid crystal display module shows the inclination speed and the inclination angle. The system can function as a stand alone device but a RS232 port allows connection to a personal computer (PC), so data can be sent directly to hard disk for storage and analysis. Experiments can be controlled by a local keypad or by the connected PC. Advantages of the presented system include easy operation, high accuracy, non-dependence on human observation for determination of slip angle, stand-alone capability, low cost and easy modification of the controlling software for different types of experiments. A fully functional prototype of the system is described. The prototype was used experimentally by a hospital group testing traumatic brain injury experiments, and some of their results are presented for system verification. It is found that the system is stable, accurate and easily used by investigators.

  17. Effects of occlusal inclination and loading on mandibular bone remodeling: a finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungsiyakull, Chaiy; Rungsiyakull, Pimdeun; Li, Qing; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael

    2011-01-01

    To provide a preliminary understanding of the biomechanics with respect to the effect of cusp inclination and occlusal loading on the mandibular bone remodeling. Three different cusp inclinations (0, 10, and 30 degrees) of a ceramic crown and different occlusal loading locations (central fossa and 1- and 2-mm offsets horizontally) were taken into account to explore the stresses and strains transferred from the crown to the surrounding dental bone through the implant. A strain energy density obtained from two-dimensional plane-strain finite element analysis was used as the mechanical stimulus to drive cancellous and cortical bone remodeling in a buccolingual mandibular section. Different ceramic cusp inclinations had a significant effect on bone remodeling responses in terms of the change in the average peri-implant bone density and overall stability. The remodeling rate was relatively high in the first few months of loading and gradually decreased until reaching its equilibrium. A larger cusp inclination and horizontal offset (eg, 30 degrees and 2-mm offset) led to a higher bone remodeling rate and greater interfacial stress. The dental implant superstructure design (in terms of cusp inclination and loading location) determines the load transmission pattern and thus largely affects bone remodeling activities. Although the design with a lower cusp inclination recommended in previous studies may reduce damage and fracture failure, it could, to a certain extent, compromise bone engagement and long-term stability.

  18. Sex Differences in Incline-Walking among Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall-Scheffler, Cara M

    2015-12-01

    Previous research has shown that people tend to walk around the speed that minimizes energy consumption when traveling a given distance. It has further been shown that men and women have different speeds that minimize energy and that women will choose slower speeds when the activity itself is a high-rate activity (e.g. carrying a load). Here we investigate what men and women will do when given a high rate walking activity, namely walking on an inclined surface. Fourteen people (nine men and five women) walked at four speeds on a level treadmill and four speeds on an inclined treadmill while their metabolic rate, kinematics and core temperature were monitored. Following the data collection, participants were asked to identify their ‘preferred’ walking speed at each of the conditions. Cost of transport (CoT) curves were calculated for each individual, and the delta between the preferred and the ‘optimal’ speeds were calculated. People chose to walk at slightly slower speeds on the level; there was minimal change in the cost to walk at these slower speeds. Women walked at absolutely slower speeds on the incline than men (P=0.06) and had significantly larger speed deltas (P=0.02), thus choosing to walk at slower rate speeds. Women also showed a significant relationship between the rate of activity and core temperature, whereas men did not. This is consistent with other research showing that women choose behavioral strategies to minimize body temperature changes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Precession of a Spinning Ball Rolling down an Inclined Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2015-01-01

    A routine problem in an introductory physics course considers a rectangular block at rest on a plane inclined at angle a to the horizontal. In order for the block not to slide down the incline, the coefficient of sliding friction, µ, must be at least tan a. The situation is similar for the case of a ball rolling down an inclined plane. In order…

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION: JOINT (NSF-EPA) VERIFICATION STATEMENT AND REPORT: BROME AGRI SALES, LTD., MAXIMIZER SEPARATOR, MODEL MAX 1016 - 03/01/WQPC-SWP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verification testing of the Brome Agri Sales Ltd. Maximizer Separator, Model MAX 1016 (Maximizer) was conducted at the Lake Wheeler Road Field Laboratory Swine Educational Unit in Raleigh, North Carolina. The Maximizer is an inclined screen solids separator that can be used to s...

  1. CHANGES IN MAXIMAL STRENGTH AND BODY COMPOSITION AFTER DIFFERENT METHODS OF DEVELOPING MUSCLE STRENGTH AND SUPPLEMENTATION WITH CREATINE, L-CARNITINE AND HMB

    OpenAIRE

    M Kruszewski

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of bodybuilding training combined with administration of L-carnitine, weightlifting training combined with administration of creatine, and isometric training combined with administration of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) on maximal strength and body composition of athletes. The studies were conducted on groups of beginners practising bodybuilding training (n=63) and isometric training (n=69) as well as on a group of advanced powerlifter...

  2. Impact of slope inclination on salt accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachshon, Uri

    2017-04-01

    Field measurements indicated on high variability in salt accumulation along natural and cultivated slopes, even for relatively homogeneous soil conditions. It was hypothesised that slope inclination has an impact on the location of salt accumulation along the slope. A set of laboratory experiments and numerical models were used to explore the impact of slope inclination on salt accumulation. It was shown, experimentally, that for conditions of saline water source at the lower boundary of the slope - salt accumulates in low concentrations and homogeneously along the entire slope, for moderate slopes. However, as inclination increases high salt concentrations were observed at the upper parts of the slope, leaving the lower parts of the slope relatively free of salt. The traditional flow and transport models did not predict the experimental observations as they indicated also for the moderate slopes on salt accumulation in the elevated parts of the slope, away of the saline water source. Consequently - a conceptual model was raised to explain the laboratory observations. It was suggested that the interactions between slope angle, evaporation rates, hydraulic conductivity of the medium and distribution of wetness along the slope affect the saline water flow path through the medium. This lead to preferential flow path close to the soil-atmosphere interface for the steep slopes, which leads to constant wash of the salts from the evaporation front upward towards the slope upper parts, whereas for the moderate slopes, flow path is below the soil-atmosphere interface, therefore salt that accumulates at the evaporation front is not being transported upward. Understanding of salt dynamics along slopes is important for agricultural and natural environments, as well as for civil engineering purposes. Better understanding of the salt transport processes along slopes will improve our ability to minimize and to cope with soil salinization processes. The laboratory experiments and

  3. Inclined solar chimney for power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panse, S.V., E-mail: sudhirpanse@yahoo.com [Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019 (India); Jadhav, A.S.; Gudekar, A.S. [Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019 (India); Joshi, J.B. [Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Trombay, Mumbai 400 094 (India)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} Solar energy harnessing using inclined face of high mountains as solar chimney. {yields} Solar chimneys with structural stability, ease of construction and lower cost. {yields} Mathematical model developed, using complete (mechanical and thermal) energy balance. {yields} Can harness wind power also, as wind velocities at mountain top add to power output. {yields} Air temperature and velocity increase, as air rises in inclined chimney. - Abstract: The present concept of solar chimney is a tall vertical chimney constructed at the center of a large area, which is the collector. This creates questions about stability and economic viability of the chimney and also demands elaborate engineering techniques for constructing a tall chimney. We suggest geometry of 'Inclined Solar Chimney' (ISC), which is constructed along the face of a high rising mountain, on which maximum solar insolation is incident throughout the year. The chimney and the collector get merged here. This makes the structure stable, cost effective and easy for construction. A mathematical model has been developed considering the total energy balance. It predicts the temperature and velocity and kinetic power of the emerging air draft for some chosen values of other parameters. The model also shows the proportion in which absorbed solar energy is divided into different forms, and hence predicts the dependence of kinetic of emerging air draft upon dimensions of the chimney and properties of materials used. Further, it is shown that external winds enhance the kinetic power of the emerging air. Thus ISC can also harness the wind energy, available at the top of the mountain.

  4. An Experimental Investigation on Inclined Negatively Buoyant Jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed Bashitialshaaer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was performed to investigate the behavior of inclined negatively buoyant jets. Such jets arise when brine is discharged from desalination plants. A turbulent jet with a specific salinity was discharged through a circular nozzle at an angle to the horizontal into a tank with fresh water and the spatial evolution of the jet was recorded. Four different initial jet parameters were changed, namely the nozzle diameter, the initial jet inclination, the jet density and the flow rate. Five geometric quantities describing the jet trajectory that are useful in the design of brine discharge systems were determined. Dimensional analysis demonstrated that the geometric jet quantities studied, if normalized with the jet exit diameter, could be related to the densimetric Froude number. Analysis of the collected data showed that this was the case for a Froude number less than 100, whereas for larger values of the Froude number the scatter in the data increased significantly. As has been observed in some previous investigations, the slope of the best-fit straight line through the data points was a function of the initial jet angle (θ, where the slope increased with θ for the maximum levels (Ym studied, but had a more complex behavior for horizontal distances.

  5. Dissipative descent: rocking and rolling down an incline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmforth, N. J.; Bush, J. W. M.; Vener, D.; Young, W. R.

    We consider the dynamics of a hollow cylindrical shell that is filled with viscous fluid and another, nested solid cylinder, and allowed to roll down an inclined plane. A mathematical model is compared to simple experiments. Two types of behaviour are observed experimentally: on steeper slopes, the device accelerates; on shallower inclines, the cylinders rock and roll unsteadily downhill, with a speed that is constant on average. The theory also predicts runaway and unsteady rolling motions. For the rolling solutions, however, the inner cylinder cannot be suspended in the fluid by the motion of the outer cylinder, and instead falls inexorably toward the outer cylinder. Whilst only occurs after an infinite time, the system slows progressively as the gap between the cylinders narrows, owing to heightened viscous dissipation. Such a deceleration is not observed in the experiments, suggesting that some mechanism limits the approach to contact. Coating the surface of the inner cylinder with sandpaper of different grades changes the rolling speed, consistent with the notion that surface roughness is responsible for limiting the acceleration.

  6. Dense, layered, inclined flows of spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, James T.; Larcher, Michele

    2017-12-01

    We consider dense, inclined flows of spheres in which the particles translate in layers, whose existence may be promoted by the presence of a rigid base and/or sidewalls. We imagine that in such flows a sphere of a layer is forced up the back of a sphere of the layer below, lifting a column of spheres above it, and then falls down the front of the lower sphere, until it bumps against the preceding sphere of the lower layer. We calculate the forces and rate of momentum transfer associated with this process of rub, lift, fall, and bump and determine a relation between the ratio of shear stress to normal stress and the rate of strain that may be integrated to obtain the velocity profile. The fall of a sphere and that of the column above it results in a linear increase in the magnitude of the velocity fluctuations with distance from the base of the flow. We compare the predictions of the model with measured profiles of velocity and granular temperature in several different dense, inclined flows.

  7. CHANGES IN MAXIMAL STRENGTH AND BODY COMPOSITION AFTER DIFFERENT METHODS OF DEVELOPING MUSCLE STRENGTH AND SUPPLEMENTATION WITH CREATINE, L-CARNITINE AND HMB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kruszewski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of bodybuilding training combined with administration of L-carnitine, weightlifting training combined with administration of creatine, and isometric training combined with administration of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB on maximal strength and body composition of athletes. The studies were conducted on groups of beginners practising bodybuilding training (n=63 and isometric training (n=69 as well as on a group of advanced powerlifters (n=50 practising weightlifting training. The obtained results indicate that the most desirable and beneficial supportive effect in strength sports was exhibited by HMB. No significant differences in body composition of subjects practising bodybuilding training were detected between those who were given L-carnitine and those who received placebo, an observation confirming controversies over the capacity of the former to reduce fat content. However, significant differences in maximal strength were demonstrated between the examined groups of athletes. Significant differences in the examined parameters were also detected within the group of advanced powerlifters practising weightlifting between those who were supplemented with creatine and those who were given placebo. Thus, the use of creatine in the development of physical capacity in advanced athletes may be advisable.

  8. Adaptive changes in chlorophyll content and photosynthetic features to low light in Physocarpus amurensis Maxim and Physocarpus opulifolius “Diabolo”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihui Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the differences in leaf pigment content and the photosynthetic characteristics under natural and low light intensities between the Chinese native Physocarpus amurensis Maxim and the imported Physocarpus opulifolius “Diabolo” from North America. We aim to discuss the responses and the adaptive mechanism of these two cultivars of Physocarpus to a low light environment. The results show that the specific leaf area (SLA and the chlorophyll content were significantly increased in the leaves of both Physocarpus cultivars in response to a low light intensity, and the SLA and chlorophyll content were higher in the leaves of low light-treated P. opulifolius “Diabolo” compared with the leaves of low light-treated P. amurensis Maxim. Moreover, the content of anthocyanin was markedly reduced in the leaves of P. opulifolius “Diabolo” under low light intensity, which allowed for a greater capacity of photon capture under the low light condition. Under natural light, the photosynthetic carbon assimilation capacity was greater in the leaves of P. amurensis Maxim compared with the leaves of P. opulifolius “Diabolo” that were rich with anthocyanin. However, in response to low light, AQY, Pmax, LCP and LSP decreased to a lesser extent in the leaves of P. opulifolius “Diabolo” compared with the leaves of P. amurensis Maxim. These results suggest that P. opulifolius “Diabolo” exhibits a greater ability in adaption to low light, and it is probably related to the relatively higher chlorophyll content and the smaller SLA in the leaves of P. opulifolius “Diabolo.” In addition, the low light intensity resulted in a reduced photochemical activity of photosystem (PS II in the leaves of both Physocarpus, as evidenced by increased values of the relative variable fluorescence at point J and point I on the OJIP curve. This result suggests that the electron acceptor in PS II was the major responsive site to the

  9. ANALYSIS OF INFLUENCE OF DESIGN CHARACTERISTICS OF INCLINED BUCKET ELEVATOR ON THE POWER OF ITS DRIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bohomaz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.One of the main elements of the inclined belt bucket elevators is their drive. To determine the drive power, it is necessary to carry out calculations according to standard methods, which are described in the modern literature. The basic design parameters are the productivity, lifting height, type and properties of the transported material, the angle of inclination. It is necessary to build a parametric dependence of the driving power of the elevator on its design parameters, which takes into account the standard sizes and types of buckets and belts. Methodology. Using the methodology of traction calculation of inclined belt bucket elevator there were built parametric dependences of efforts in specific points of the route of the elevator, as well as the parametric dependences of the drive power of high-speed elevators with deep and shallow buckets on their design parameters and characteristics. Findings. On the basis of constructed parametric dependencies, it was found that the function of changing the value of the elevator’s power from design capacity (at fixed lifting height, type of cargo, belt speed is piecewise constant and monotonically increasing. It was built a graphical representation of elevator drive power on the angle of its inclination within acceptable limits of change. The resulting relationship is non-linear and monotonically decreasing. In general terms the intervals of project performance values, which provide a constant value of drive power of inclined elevator were defined. As an example of the obtained results it was observed the process of dependence construction of the drive power on design capacity and inclination angle of the elevator for transporting the fine coal. Originality. For the first time there were constructed the parametric dependences of drive power of inclined bucket elevator on its design parameters that take into account the standard sizes and types of buckets and belts. Practical value. Using

  10. A study of the rates of heat transfer and bubble site density for nucleate boiling on an inclined heating surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonamy, S.E.; Symons, J.G.

    1974-08-01

    Nucleate pool boiling of distilled water from an electrically heated surface at atmospheric pressure is studied for varying heating surface inclinations. The constants of the accepted boiling equation phi = K Tsup(B) and the Rohsenow Correlation Coefficient are found to be dependent on surface orientation. Convection cooling is observed to play a major role in pool boiling phenomena and causes large changes in the heat transfer rates for a given excess of temperature of the heated surface. Active nucleation site density is studied and found to be independent of surface inclination. Empirical relations are presented to provide an understanding of the effects of inclination on other boiling parameters. (author)

  11. Velocity and turbulence measurements of oil-water flow in horizontal and slightly inclined pipes using PIV

    OpenAIRE

    Kumara, W.A.S.; Halvorsen, Britt; Melaaen, Morten Christian

    2009-01-01

    Oil-water flows in horizontal and slightly inclined pipes are investigated using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). PIV offers a powerful non-invasive tool to study such flow fields. The experiments are conducted in a 15 m long, 56 mm diameter, inclinable steel pipe using Exxsol D60 oil (viscosity 1.64 mPa s, density 790 kg/m3) and water (viscosity 1.0 mPa s, density 996 kg/m3) as test fluids. The test pipe inclination is changed in the range from 5° upward to 5° downward. The experiments are ...

  12. COMPARISON OF PLANTAR PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION BETWEEN DIFFERENT SPEED AND INCLINE DURING TREADMILL JOGGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Ju Ho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effect of changes in speed and incline slope on plantar pressure distribution of the foot during treadmill jogging. Plantar pressure parameters were measured with the Pedar-X system in twenty healthy girls (mean age of 20.7 years, mean height of 1.60m, and a mean weight of 53.35kg. Because variations in walking speed or slope can significantly change the magnitude of plantar pressure, comparisons of plantar pressure distribution between the two independent protocols during treadmill jogging were considered in this study. First, the subjects ran at the same speed of 2 m·s-1 with different incline slopes of 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%. Second, they ran on the same slope of 0% with different speeds of 1.5 m·s-1, 2.0 m·s-1, and 2.5 m·s-1. The peak pressure of the eight plantar surface areas, apart from the medial forefoot and the hallux, significantly increased (p < 0.05 with an increase of 33% of peak pressure from 1.5 m·s-1 to 2.5 m·s-1 (speed at heel region. In contrast, the peak pressures at the heel, medial fore-foot, toe and hallux decreased significantly (p < 0. 05 with increasing incline slope. At the heel, peak pressure reduced by 27% from 0% to 15% incline, however, pressure at the lateral midfoot region increased as following. Different speeds and incline slopes during jogging were associated with changes in plantar pressures. By systematic investigation of foot kinematics and plantar pressure during jogging with varying incline slope and speed, the results of this study provided further insight into foot biomechanics during jogging

  13. Analysis of three-dimensional interference patterns of an inclined capillary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiding; Xu, Mingfeng; Tian, Wenjing; Xu, Qiwei; Xiao, Jinghua

    2016-08-01

    We study the interference patterns from an inclined capillary tube filled with liquid by using the ray tracing method and interference theory. A beautiful elliptical pattern is found on the screen, with refined fringes embedded in it. Particularly, the fringes on top of the pattern are continuously swallowed to the center with the angle of incidence increasing. In addition, a method is demonstrated to determine the refractive index of the liquid and the wavelength of the incident light by measuring the capillary tilt of every 10-fringe being swallowed, which looks like fringe crossover, with respect to the change of the inclined angle of the capillary.

  14. QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF DEPENDENCE OF DRIVE POWER HORIZONTAL-INCLINED BELT CONVEYOR ON ITS INITIAL PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bohomaz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.One of the main elements of band conveyors is a drive. To analyze the effect of design parameters on the drive power it is necessary to carry out the calculations according to standard procedures outlined in the current technical literature. The main design parameters of the band conveyor are: the type of cargo, project performance, the geometric dimensions of sections and track configuration as a whole. The feature of band conveyor calculation as compared to the elevators is the dependence of the band width on its performance, the inclination angle and the type of cargo. In the article for the account of this fact during calculations it is necessary to construct the dependence of the band width on the generalized parameter, which takes into account change in the design parameters. To determine the general pattern of changing the value of band conveyor drive power when varying its design parameters in the article it is necessary to construct the corresponding graphic dependences taking into account the standard sizes and bands parameters. Methodology. We consider the band conveyor with two sections: the inclined and horizontal one. It is conducted a detailed analysis of dependence of the conveyor band width and its drive power on the type of cargo, project performance, geometric dimensions and configuration of the conveyor track, using the appropriate parameter dependences constructed by the authors in previous papers. Findings. For band conveyors of this type there were constructed the graphics dependences of the band width on the parameter characterizing the project performance and the inclination angle of the track section, and on the performance at a fixed angle of inclination. Taking into account the changes in the band width with an increase in the value of project performance the graph dependences of drive power on the productivity and the inclination angle of the inclined section were built. Originality. For the first time there

  15. Aerodynamic coefficients of stationary dry inclined bridge cables in laminar flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteoni, Giulia; Georgakis, Christos; Ricciardelli, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Stay cables are the most flexible elements of cable-stayed bridges. When exposed to wind loading, they often undergo large amplitude vibrations, thus motivating serious design concerns. In most cases, vibrations are observed in the presence of water rivulets or ice accretions, which lead...... to an effective change in the cable cross section, and its aerodynamic properties. On the other hand, divergent, self-excited vibrations have been observed in the field also for dry, inclined stay cables, in warm temperatures. The need for reliable design guidelines for inclined stay cables has motivated...

  16. On liquid films on an inclined plate

    KAUST Repository

    BENILOV, E. S.

    2010-08-18

    This paper examines two related problems from liquid-film theory. Firstly, a steady-state flow of a liquid film down a pre-wetted plate is considered, in which there is a precursor film in front of the main film. Assuming the former to be thin, a full asymptotic description of the problem is developed and simple analytical estimates for the extent and depth of the precursor film\\'s influence on the main film are provided. Secondly, the so-called drag-out problem is considered, where an inclined plate is withdrawn from a pool of liquid. Using a combination of numerical and asymptotic means, the parameter range where the classical Landau-Levich-Wilson solution is not unique is determined. © 2010 Cambridge University Press.

  17. Granular flow over inclined channels with constrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunuguntla, Deepak; Weinhart, Thomas; Thornton, Anthony; Bokhove, Onno

    2013-04-01

    Study of granular flows down inclined channels is essential in understanding the dynamics of natural grain flows like landslides and snow avalanches. As a stepping stone, dry granular flow over an inclined channel with a localised constriction is investigated using both continuum methods and particle simulations. Initially, depth-averaged equations of motion (Savage & Hutter 1989) containing an unknown friction law are considered. The shallow-layer model for granular flows is closed with a friction law obtained from particle simulations of steady flows (Weinhart et al. 2012) undertaken in the open source package Mercury DPM (Mercury 2010). The closed two-dimensional (2D) shallow-layer model is then width-averaged to obtain a novel one-dimensional (1D) model which is an extension of the one for water flows through contraction (Akers & Bokhove 2008). Different flow states are predicted by this novel one-dimensional theory. Flow regimes with distinct flow states are determined as a function of upstream channel Froude number, F, and channel width ratio, Bc. The latter being the ratio of the channel exit width and upstream channel width. Existence of multiple steady states is predicted in a certain regime of F - Bc parameter plane which is in agreement with experiments previously undertaken by (Akers & Bokhove 2008) and for granular flows (Vreman et al. 2007). Furthermore, the 1D model is verified by solving the 2D shallow granular equations using an open source discontinuous Galerkin finite element package hpGEM (Pesch et al. 2007). For supercritical flows i.e. F > 1 the 1D asymptotics holds although the two-dimensional oblique granular jumps largely vary across the converging channel. This computationally efficient closed 1D model is validated by comparing it to the computationally more expensiveaa three-dimensional particle simulations. Finally, we aim to present a quasi-steady particle simulation of inclined flow through two rectangular blocks separated by a gap

  18. Inclined Buildings – Some Reasons and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijanka, Małgorzata; Kowalska, Magdalena

    2017-10-01

    To straighten a leaning building is never easy. There are no standard solutions. On the other hand, there are several, usually historical, leaning structures which have not been rectified, mostly because in the current shape they are a touristic attraction - the best example being the famous Leaning Tower of Pisa. This does not mean however that inclination of load bearing walls can be ignored. Even though in some cases the problem can be treated in terms of serviceability limit states (the deformation is only decreasing the comfort of ‘normal use’ of the building), in the other – it may be a signal of the forthcoming structural failure. The situation must always be treated individually – if the problem concerns a residential building, then cracks on the walls, not-opening doors or tilted ceilings, which often coincide with the leaning of the external walls, are always the reason of worry and such a building needs to be straightened. The reasons of the problem lie usually in uneven settlement of the ground, which in turn, may be caused by various problems, such as the presence of too soft, too weak, unconsolidated or expansive soils under the building, varying groundwater table, mining activity etc. Solving of the problem by just straightening the building is often not enough. To prevent further deformations a detailed analysis of the possible causes is necessary. Sometimes it may be helpful to review similar cases. The paper contains a general overview of selected inclined buildings: starting with the well-known historical examples and ending with individual houses from the Region of Silesia. Since the problem of instability mostly affects structures with critical height to width ratio, tall and narrow structures (towers) are dominating in the work. The aim of the study was to describe the reasons of the problems and present solutions that have been successfully applied and can be also useful to engineers and designers to prevent similar situations.

  19. Psychosocial Determinants of Romantic Inclination Among Indian Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Barani Ganth

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted with the aim of understanding the psychosocial determinants of romantic inclination among youth in India. We involved 779 student participants from a large central university in south India in the age range of 18-24 years. The participants filled measures on romantic inclination, personality, attachment style, interpersonal attraction, and social influence on romantic relationship in addition to a questionnaire on demographic information and relationship history. Analysis of the data revealed that males showed higher level of romantic inclination than females. Those who had current/past involvement in a romantic relationship (Lovers showed higher levels of romantic inclination than those who had never involved in a romantic relationship (Non-lovers. Parents’ type of marriage (Love/arranged, close fiends’ involvement in romantic relationship too had a discriminatory role in romantic inclination. Romantic inclination was significantly related to personality factors, attachment style, media and peer influences on romantic relationships and interpersonal attraction. Extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, media influence, peer influence, secure attachment and physical attraction emerged as significant predictors of romantic inclination in a regression model. Structural Equations Modeling (SEM indicated that personality, attachment style and interpersonal attraction had a significant influence on romantic inclination mediated by both media and peer influences. Romantic inclination in turn significantly predicted romantic relationship status.

  20. The Gothic arch (needle point) tracing and condylar inclination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Gheriani, A S; Winstanley, R B

    1987-11-01

    The records of 11 patients referred for treatment of TMJ disorders were used to compare condylar inclination found by drawing a tangent and by using a mathematic technique. Needle point tracing angles were also measured for the same patients and were compared with the condylar inclination. It can be concluded that (1) the mathematic technique outlined records a more accurate condylar angulation, and (2) there is a great variation in condylar inclination values between patients and between left and right sides of the same patient, and (3) there is no direct relationship between condylar inclination and the needle point tracing angle.

  1. Social group utility maximization

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Xiaowen; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Junshan

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief explains how to leverage mobile users' social relationships to improve the interactions of mobile devices in mobile networks. It develops a social group utility maximization (SGUM) framework that captures diverse social ties of mobile users and diverse physical coupling of mobile devices. Key topics include random access control, power control, spectrum access, and location privacy.This brief also investigates SGUM-based power control game and random access control game, for which it establishes the socially-aware Nash equilibrium (SNE). It then examines the critical SGUM-b

  2. Self-filtering extremely inclined x-ray crystal monochromator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrdá, Jaromíra; Hrdý, Jaromír

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 6 (2011), 1169-1172 ISSN 0021-8898 R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI1/412 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : synchrotron radiation monochromator * x-ray crystal monochromator * inclined monochromator * inclined diffraction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 5.152, year: 2011

  3. Shallow bias in Mediterranean paleomagnetic directions caused by inclination error

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijgsman, W.; Tauxe, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    A variety of paleomagnetic data from the Mediterranean region show a strong bias toward shallow inclinations. This pattern of shallow inclinations has been interpreted to be the result of (1) major northward terrane displacement, (2) large nondipole components in the Earth’s magnetic field, and

  4. Analysis of deformation due to inclined load in generalized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present investigation deals with study of deformation in homogeneous, isotropic thermodiffusion elastic half-space as a result of inclined load. The inclined load is assumed to be a linear combination of normal load and tangential load. The integral transform technique is used to solve the problem. As an application of ...

  5. 46 CFR 58.01-40 - Machinery, angles of inclination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery, angles of inclination. 58.01-40 Section 58.01-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-40 Machinery, angles of inclination. (a) Propulsion machinery and all auxiliary...

  6. A jig for measuring incisor inclination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, N; Spary, D J; Rock, W P

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was to design and construct a jig for measuring the inclination of the upper incisors to the maxillary plane and of the lower incisors to the mandibular plane. After several prototypes had been tested, the required properties for a successful jig were identified and a simple inexpensive device was produced. Measurements obtained when using the jig on 51 subjects were compared with cephalometric values by means of regression analysis. This revealed that measurements obtained using the jig against the upper and then the lower incisor crowns could be converted to cephalometric incisor angulations with 96 per cent accuracy to 10 degrees, by adding 23 and 3 degrees, respectively. The jig was accurate to 5 degrees on 69 per cent of occasions for the upper teeth. The 5 degrees accuracy with the lower incisors was only 27 per cent, although over a 6 degree range it improved to 78 per cent. For upper and lower tooth measurements combined, the jig was accurate to within 6 degrees on 75 per cent of occasions.

  7. Influence of angle of inclination on power of solar module; Taiyo denchi module no keisha kakudo to shutsuryoku tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsumi, K.; Nishitani, M. [Dai Ichi University, College of Technology, Kagoshima (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Experiment/study were conducted on the influence of angle of inclination on output of solar modules. In the experiment, changing the angle of inclination of the photovoltaic module installed on the top of school building to 0, 30, 60 and 90 degC, the global radiation on an inclined surface was measured by pyranometer equipped with the module, and at the same time output characteristics were measured by I-V curve tracer. In the I-V curve tracer, voltage, current, and output capability diagram are illustrated automatically changing bias voltage to get the maximum output. The global radiation on an inclined surface and the maximum output indicated an almost proportional relation and were expressed in a recursion method. Moreover, measurement of the global radiation is usually conducted using the amount of global radiation on a horizontal surface, and the global radiation on an inclined surface is calculated as a sum of the direct solar radiation amount and the sky solar radiation amount after determining a penetration rate by the relational equation. By calculating the global radiation on an inclined surface, it becomes possible to calculate the maximum output of photovoltaic modules by this recursion method. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Articular Eminence Inclination, Height, and Condyle Morphology on Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilhan İlgüy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between articular eminence inclination, height, and thickness of the roof of the glenoid fossa (RGF according to age and gender and to assess condyle morphology including incidental findings of osseous characteristics associated with osteoarthritis (OA of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT. Materials and Methods. CBCT images of 105 patients were evaluated retrospectively. For articular eminence inclination and height, axial views on which the condylar processes were seen with their widest mediolateral extent being used as a reference view for secondary reconstruction. Condyle morphology was categorized both in the sagittal and coronal plane. Results. The mean values of eminence inclination and height of males were higher than those of females (P<0.05. There were significant differences in the RGF thickness in relation to sagittal condyle morphology. Among the group of OA, the mean value of the RGF thickness for “OA-osteophyte” group was the highest (1.59 mm, whereas the lowest RGF values were seen in the “OA-flattening.” Conclusion. The sagittal osteoarthritic changes may have an effect on RGF thickness by mechanical stimulation and changed stress distribution. Gender has a significant effect on eminence height (Eh and inclination.

  9. MAXIMS VIOLATIONS IN LITERARY WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Hanum Sari Pertiwi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was qualitative research action that focuses to find out the flouting of Gricean maxims and the functions of the flouting in the tales which are included in collection of children literature entitled My Giant Treasury of Stories and Rhymes. The objective of the study is generally to identify the violation of maxims of quantity, quality, relevance, and manner in the data sources and also to analyze the use of the flouting in the tales which are included in the book. Qualitative design using categorizing strategies, specifically coding strategy, was applied. Thus, the researcher as the instrument in this investigation was selecting the tales, reading them, and gathering every item which reflects the violation of Gricean maxims based on some conditions of flouting maxims. On the basis of the data analysis, it was found that the some utterances in the tales, both narration and conversation, flouting the four maxims of conversation, namely maxim of quality, maxim of quantity, maxim of relevance, and maxim of manner. The researcher has also found that the flouting of maxims has one basic function that is to encourage the readers’ imagination toward the tales. This one basic function is developed by six others functions: (1 generating specific situation, (2 developing the plot, (3 enlivening the characters’ utterance, (4 implicating message, (5 indirectly characterizing characters, and (6 creating ambiguous setting. Keywords: children literature, tales, flouting maxims

  10. Developing maximal neuromuscular power: Part 1--biological basis of maximal power production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormie, Prue; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U

    2011-01-01

    This series of reviews focuses on the most important neuromuscular function in many sport performances, the ability to generate maximal muscular power. Part 1 focuses on the factors that affect maximal power production, while part 2, which will follow in a forthcoming edition of Sports Medicine, explores the practical application of these findings by reviewing the scientific literature relevant to the development of training programmes that most effectively enhance maximal power production. The ability of the neuromuscular system to generate maximal power is affected by a range of interrelated factors. Maximal muscular power is defined and limited by the force-velocity relationship and affected by the length-tension relationship. The ability to generate maximal power is influenced by the type of muscle action involved and, in particular, the time available to develop force, storage and utilization of elastic energy, interactions of contractile and elastic elements, potentiation of contractile and elastic filaments as well as stretch reflexes. Furthermore, maximal power production is influenced by morphological factors including fibre type contribution to whole muscle area, muscle architectural features and tendon properties as well as neural factors including motor unit recruitment, firing frequency, synchronization and inter-muscular coordination. In addition, acute changes in the muscle environment (i.e. alterations resulting from fatigue, changes in hormone milieu and muscle temperature) impact the ability to generate maximal power. Resistance training has been shown to impact each of these neuromuscular factors in quite specific ways. Therefore, an understanding of the biological basis of maximal power production is essential for developing training programmes that effectively enhance maximal power production in the human.

  11. Inclined asymmetric librations in exterior resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyatzis, G.; Tsiganis, K.; Antoniadou, K. I.

    2018-04-01

    Librational motion in Celestial Mechanics is generally associated with the existence of stable resonant configurations and signified by the existence of stable periodic solutions and oscillation of critical (resonant) angles. When such an oscillation takes place around a value different than 0 or π , the libration is called asymmetric. In the context of the planar circular restricted three-body problem, asymmetric librations have been identified for the exterior mean motion resonances (MMRs) 1:2, 1:3, etc., as well as for co-orbital motion (1:1). In exterior MMRs the massless body is the outer one. In this paper, we study asymmetric librations in the three-dimensional space. We employ the computational approach of Markellos (Mon Not R Astron Soc 184:273-281, https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/184.2.273, 1978) and compute families of asymmetric periodic orbits and their stability. Stable asymmetric periodic orbits are surrounded in phase space by domains of initial conditions which correspond to stable evolution and librating resonant angles. Our computations were focused on the spatial circular restricted three-body model of the Sun-Neptune-TNO system (TNO = trans-Neptunian object). We compare our results with numerical integrations of observed TNOs, which reveal that some of them perform 1:2 resonant, inclined asymmetric librations. For the stable 1:2 TNO librators, we find that their libration seems to be related to the vertically stable planar asymmetric orbits of our model, rather than the three-dimensional ones found in the present study.

  12. Development of locomotion over inclined surfaces in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, C; Tobalske, B; Bowley, S; Harlander-Matauschek, A

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate locomotor strategies during development in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus); we were motivated, in part, by current efforts to improve the design of housing systems for laying hens which aim to reduce injury and over-exertion. Using four strains of laying hens (Lohmann Brown, Lohmann LSL lite, Dekalb White and Hyline Brown) throughout this longitudinal study, we investigated their locomotor style and climbing capacity in relation to the degree (0 to 70°) of incline, age (2 to 36 weeks) and the surface substrate (sandpaper or wire grid). Chicks and adult fowl performed only walking behavior to climb inclines ⩽40° and performed a combination of wing-assisted incline running (WAIR) or aerial ascent on steeper inclines. Fewer birds used their wings to aid their hind limbs when climbing 50° inclines on wire grid surface compared with sandpaper. The steepness of angle achieved during WAIR and the tendency to fly instead of using WAIR increased with increasing age and experience. White-feathered strains performed more wing-associated locomotor behavior compared with brown-feathered strains. A subset of birds was never able to climb incline angles >40° even when using WAIR. Therefore, we suggest that inclines of up to 40° should be provided for hens in three-dimensional housing systems, which are easily negotiated (without wing use) by chicks and adult fowl.

  13. Natural Circulation Characteristics of a Symmetric Loop under Inclined Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingtuan Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural circulation is an important process for primary loops of some marine integrated reactors. The reactor works under inclined conditions when severe accidents happen to the ship. In this paper, to investigate the characteristics of natural circulation, experiments were conducted in a symmetric loop under the inclined angle of 0~45°. A CFD model was also set up to predict the behaviors of the loop beyond the experimental scope. Total circulation flow rate decreases with the increase of inclined angle. Meanwhile one circulation is depressed while the other is enhanced, and accordingly the disparity between the branch circulations arises and increases with the increase of inclined angle. Circulation only takes place in one branch circuit at large inclined angle. Also based on the CFD model, the influences of flow resistance distribution and loop configuration on natural circulation are predicted. The numerical results show that to design the loop with the configuration of big altitude difference and small width, it is favorable to reduce the influence of inclination; however too small loop width will cause severe reduction of circulation ability at large angle inclination.

  14. The Effects of Boundary Conditions and Friction on the Helical Buckling of Coiled Tubing in an Inclined Wellbore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yinchun; Ai, Zhijiu; Sun, Xu; Fu, Biwei

    2016-01-01

    Analytical buckling models are important for down-hole operations to ensure the structural integrity of the drill string. A literature survey shows that most published analytical buckling models do not address the effects of inclination angle, boundary conditions or friction. The objective of this paper is to study the effects of boundary conditions, friction and angular inclination on the helical buckling of coiled tubing in an inclined wellbore. In this paper, a new theoretical model is established to describe the buckling behavior of coiled tubing. The buckling equations are derived by applying the principles of virtual work and minimum potential energy. The proper solution for the post-buckling configuration is determined based on geometric and natural boundary conditions. The effects of angular inclination and boundary conditions on the helical buckling of coiled tubing are considered. Many significant conclusions are obtained from this study. When the dimensionless length of the coiled tubing is greater than 40, the effects of the boundary conditions can be ignored. The critical load required for helical buckling increases as the angle of inclination and the friction coefficient increase. The post-buckling behavior of coiled tubing in different configurations and for different axial loads is determined using the proposed analytical method. Practical examples are provided that illustrate the influence of the angular inclination on the axial force. The rate of change of the axial force decreases with increasing angular inclination. Moreover, the total axial friction also decreases with an increasing inclination angle. These results will help researchers to better understand helical buckling in coiled tubing. Using this knowledge, measures can be taken to prevent buckling in coiled tubing during down-hole operations.

  15. The Effects of Boundary Conditions and Friction on the Helical Buckling of Coiled Tubing in an Inclined Wellbore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinchun Gong

    Full Text Available Analytical buckling models are important for down-hole operations to ensure the structural integrity of the drill string. A literature survey shows that most published analytical buckling models do not address the effects of inclination angle, boundary conditions or friction. The objective of this paper is to study the effects of boundary conditions, friction and angular inclination on the helical buckling of coiled tubing in an inclined wellbore. In this paper, a new theoretical model is established to describe the buckling behavior of coiled tubing. The buckling equations are derived by applying the principles of virtual work and minimum potential energy. The proper solution for the post-buckling configuration is determined based on geometric and natural boundary conditions. The effects of angular inclination and boundary conditions on the helical buckling of coiled tubing are considered. Many significant conclusions are obtained from this study. When the dimensionless length of the coiled tubing is greater than 40, the effects of the boundary conditions can be ignored. The critical load required for helical buckling increases as the angle of inclination and the friction coefficient increase. The post-buckling behavior of coiled tubing in different configurations and for different axial loads is determined using the proposed analytical method. Practical examples are provided that illustrate the influence of the angular inclination on the axial force. The rate of change of the axial force decreases with increasing angular inclination. Moreover, the total axial friction also decreases with an increasing inclination angle. These results will help researchers to better understand helical buckling in coiled tubing. Using this knowledge, measures can be taken to prevent buckling in coiled tubing during down-hole operations.

  16. Gibberellin mediates the development of gelatinous fibres in the tension wood of inclined Acacia mangium seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, Widyanto Dwi; Nakaba, Satoshi; Yamagishi, Yusuke; Begum, Shahanara; Marsoem, Sri Nugroho; Ko, Jae-Heung; Jin, Hyun-O; Funada, Ryo

    2013-11-01

    Gibberellin stimulates negative gravitropism and the formation of tension wood in tilted Acacia mangium seedlings, while inhibitors of gibberellin synthesis strongly inhibit the return to vertical growth and suppress the formation of tension wood. To characterize the role of gibberellin in tension wood formation and gravitropism, this study investigated the role of gibberellin in the development of gelatinous fibres and in the changes in anatomical characteristics of woody elements in Acacia mangium seedlings exposed to a gravitational stimulus. Gibberellin, paclobutrazol and uniconazole-P were applied to the soil in which seedlings were growing, using distilled water as the control. Three days after the start of treatment, seedlings were inclined at 45 ° to the vertical and samples were harvested 2 months later. The effects of the treatments on wood fibres, vessel elements and ray parenchyma cells were analysed in tension wood in the upper part of inclined stems and in the opposite wood on the lower side of inclined stems. Application of paclobutrazol or uniconazole-P inhibited the increase in the thickness of gelatinous layers and prevented the elongation of gelatinous fibres in the tension wood of inclined stems. By contrast, gibberellin stimulated the elongation of these fibres. Application of gibberellin and inhibitors of gibberellin biosynthesis had only minor effects on the anatomical characteristics of vessel and ray parenchyma cells. The results suggest that gibberellin is important for the development of gelatinous fibres in the tension wood of A. mangium seedlings and therefore in gravitropism.

  17. Enhancing performance during inclined loaded walking with a powered ankle-foot exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galle, Samuel; Malcolm, Philippe; Derave, Wim; De Clercq, Dirk

    2014-11-01

    A simple ankle-foot exoskeleton that assists plantarflexion during push-off can reduce the metabolic power during walking. This suggests that walking performance during a maximal incremental exercise could be improved with an exoskeleton if the exoskeleton is still efficient during maximal exercise intensities. Therefore, we quantified the walking performance during a maximal incremental exercise test with a powered and unpowered exoskeleton: uphill walking with progressively higher weights. Nine female subjects performed two incremental exercise tests with an exoskeleton: 1 day with (powered condition) and another day without (unpowered condition) plantarflexion assistance. Subjects walked on an inclined treadmill (15%) at 5 km h(-1) and 5% of body weight was added every 3 min until exhaustion. At volitional termination no significant differences were found between the powered and unpowered condition for blood lactate concentration (respectively, 7.93 ± 2.49; 8.14 ± 2.24 mmol L(-1)), heart rate (respectively, 190.00 ± 6.50; 191.78 ± 6.50 bpm), Borg score (respectively, 18.57 ± 0.79; 18.93 ± 0.73) and VO₂ peak (respectively, 40.55 ± 2.78; 40.55 ± 3.05 ml min(-1) kg(-1)). Thus, subjects were able to reach the same (near) maximal effort in both conditions. However, subjects continued the exercise test longer in the powered condition and carried 7.07 ± 3.34 kg more weight because of the assistance of the exoskeleton. Our results show that plantarflexion assistance during push-off can increase walking performance during a maximal exercise test as subjects were able to carry more weight. This emphasizes the importance of acting on the ankle joint in assistive devices and the potential of simple ankle-foot exoskeletons for reducing metabolic power and increasing weight carrying capability, even during maximal intensities.

  18. Maximally Symmetric Composite Higgs Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csáki, Csaba; Ma, Teng; Shu, Jing

    2017-09-29

    Maximal symmetry is a novel tool for composite pseudo Goldstone boson Higgs models: it is a remnant of an enhanced global symmetry of the composite fermion sector involving a twisting with the Higgs field. Maximal symmetry has far-reaching consequences: it ensures that the Higgs potential is finite and fully calculable, and also minimizes the tuning. We present a detailed analysis of the maximally symmetric SO(5)/SO(4) model and comment on its observational consequences.

  19. ESTIMATION OF TOTAL SOLAR RADIATION INCIDENT ON AN INCLINED SURFACE OF A SOUTH-FACING GREENHOUSE ROOF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RONOH E.K.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Solar radiation is the driving force for the surface energy balance in buildings such as greenhouses. Greenhouses are generally tilted towards the sun in order to maximize the solar irradiance on the surfaces. Precise computation of the solar radiation received on these surfaces assumes an important role in the energy simulation. It is practical to calculate the total solar irradiance on inclined surfaces based on the solar global and diffuse radiation intensities on horizontal surfaces. This study focused on estimating the total solar radiation incident on inclined greenhouse roof surfaces. In this work, a south-facing thermal box inclined at 26.5° from the horizontal was used for solar radiation measurements. Additionally, recorded solar radiation data were retrieved for the study location and used to develop an empirical correlation. The conversion factors for the beam, the diffuse and the reflected solar radiation components were essential in the prediction of the total solar radiation incident on the tilted surface. The measured solar radiation data were then compared with the simulated data. The model performance was assessed using both graphical and statistical methods. Overall, locally calibrated data led to a satisfactory improvement in estimation of the total solar radiation on an inclined surface.

  20. Maximizing entropy over Markov processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2014-01-01

    computation reduces to finding a model of a specification with highest entropy. Entropy maximization for probabilistic process specifications has not been studied before, even though it is well known in Bayesian inference for discrete distributions. We give a characterization of global entropy of a process...... as a reward function, a polynomial algorithm to verify the existence of a system maximizing entropy among those respecting a specification, a procedure for the maximization of reward functions over Interval Markov Chains and its application to synthesize an implementation maximizing entropy. We show how...

  1. Maximizing Entropy over Markov Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2013-01-01

    computation reduces to finding a model of a specification with highest entropy. Entropy maximization for probabilistic process specifications has not been studied before, even though it is well known in Bayesian inference for discrete distributions. We give a characterization of global entropy of a process...... as a reward function, a polynomial algorithm to verify the existence of an system maximizing entropy among those respecting a specification, a procedure for the maximization of reward functions over Interval Markov Chains and its application to synthesize an implementation maximizing entropy. We show how...

  2. Principles of maximally classical and maximally realistic quantum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Principles of maximally classical and maximally realistic quantum mechanics. S M ROY. Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005, India. Abstract. Recently Auberson, Mahoux, Roy and Singh have proved a long standing conjecture of Roy and Singh: In 2N-dimensional phase space, ...

  3. Aqua/Aura Spring 2017 Inclination Adjust Maneuver Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Thomas; Stezelberger, Shane

    2017-01-01

    This will be presented at the International Earth Science Constellation Mission Operations Working Group meeting June 13-15, 2017 to discuss the AquaAura Spring 2017 Inclination Adjust Maneuver series.

  4. Brilliance and flux reduction in imperfect inclined crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.K.; Blasdell, R.C.; Fernandez, P.B.; Macrander, A.T.; Mills, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    The inclined crystal geometry has been suggested as a method of reducing the surface absorbed power density of high-heat-load monochromators for third-generation synchrotron radiation sources. Computer simulations have shown that if the crystals are perfectly aligned and have no strains then the diffraction properties of a pair of inclined crystals are very similar to a pair of conventional flat crystals with only subtle effects differentiating the two configurations. However, if the crystals are strained, these subtle differences in the behavior of inclined crystals can result in large beam divergences causing brilliance and flux losses. This manuscript elaborates on these issues and estimates potential brilliance and flux losses from strained inclined crystals at the APS

  5. Systems of pillarless working of adjacent, sloped and inclined seams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batmanov, Yu.K.; Bakhtin, A.F.; Bulavka, E.I.

    1979-01-01

    An analysis is made (advantages and disadvantages) of existing and recommended (pillarless) systems of working adjacent, sloped, and inclined seams. The economic benefits, area and extent of those systems are indicated. 8 references, 4 figures.

  6. Psychosocial Determinants of Romantic Inclination Among Indian Youth

    OpenAIRE

    D. Barani Ganth; S. Kadhiravan

    2017-01-01

    The present study was conducted with the aim of understanding the psychosocial determinants of romantic inclination among youth in India. We involved 779 student participants from a large central university in south India in the age range of 18-24 years. The participants filled measures on romantic inclination, personality, attachment style, interpersonal attraction, and social influence on romantic relationship in addition to a questionnaire on demographic information and relationship histor...

  7. Maximizing your teaching moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Continue to listen well and read the patient's verbal and non-verbal signals. Break through barriers. These may include feelings ... Duffy FD. Counseling for behavior change. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 14. Falvo ...

  8. Uplift Capacity of Inclined Underreamed Piles Subjected to Vertical Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Akilur; Sengupta, Siddhartha

    2017-12-01

    Many offshore structures are subjected to overturning moments due to wind load, wave pressure, and ship impacts. Inclined (batter) piles are used to support such structures, and to carry the horizontal and vertical loads resulted from the overturning moments. Though studies have been done with inclined piles having no underream bulb, little information is available in the literature about estimating the uplift capacity of inclined underreamed piles. In the present study laboratory experiments have been done with vertically loaded model piles having no underream as well as with one and two underreams. The piles were positioned at angle of inclination of θ = 0°, 10°, 20°, 30° (with vertical); and placed in locally available sand under vertical uplift load. Three different pile stem diameters (D = 20, 25, and 35 mm) were used. The corresponding pile length to stem diameter (l/D) ratio were 18, 14, and 10 respectively. Experiments had been conducted with two relative different densities (45 and 70%) of sand. The failure uplift loads were obtained in each case. It had been found that for inclined piles increase in number of underream bulbs from 0 to 2 was quite effective in resisting uplift loads corresponding to piles having l/D equals to 10. The percentage decreases in uplift capacity corresponding to increase in inclination angle were more pronounced for piles with double underreams.

  9. Trunk muscle activity with different sitting postures and pelvic inclination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masahiro; Kaneoka, Koji; Wada, Yusuke; Matsui, Yasushi; Miyakawa, Shumpei

    2014-01-01

    Sitting posture may often place large burden on trunk muscles, while trunk muscle activities in the sitting posture have not been well clarified. In this study, a difference in trunk muscle activity between two kinds of sitting postures was evaluated, focusing on low back pain induced by posture holding. An experiment was conducted on the subjects sitting on a stable-seat and on an unstable-seat, with the pelvis inclined forward, backward, rightward, and leftward. With the pelvis inclined forward, rightward and leftward, muscle activities were significantly increased in a stable-seat sitting posture. In contrast, no significant increase in muscle activity was observed with the pelvis inclined in every direction in an unstable-seat sitting posture. With the pelvis inclined in the stable-seat sitting posture, muscle activities were imbalanced, while with the pelvis inclined in the unstable-seat sitting posture, muscle activities were not imbalanced. Thus, it is suggested that with the pelvis inclined to the maximum extent in the stable-seat sitting posture, low back pain may be induced by imbalanced muscle activities.

  10. Inclination evolution of protoplanetary discs around eccentric binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanazzi, J. J.; Lai, Dong

    2018-01-01

    It is usually thought that viscous torque works to align a circumbinary disc with the binary's orbital plane. However, recent numerical simulations suggest that the disc may evolve to a configuration perpendicular to the binary orbit ('polar alignment) if the binary is eccentric and the initial disc-binary inclination is sufficiently large. We carry out a theoretical study on the long-term evolution of inclined discs around eccentric binaries, calculating the disc warp profile and dissipative torque acting on the disc. For discs with aspect ratio H/r larger than the viscosity parameter α, bending wave propagation effectively makes the disc precess as a quasi-rigid body, while viscosity acts on the disc warp and twist to drive secular evolution of the disc-binary inclination. We derive a simple analytic criterion (in terms of the binary eccentricity and initial disc orientation) for the disc to evolve towards polar alignment with the eccentric binary. When the disc has a non-negligible angular momentum compared to the binary, the final 'polar alignment' inclination angle is reduced from 90°. For typical protoplanetary disc parameters, the time-scale of the inclination evolution is shorter than the disc lifetime, suggesting that highly inclined discs and planets may exist orbiting eccentric binaries.

  11. Thermo-economic performance of inclined solar water distillation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agboola Phillips O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the thermo-economic performance of different configurations of inclined solar water desalination for parameters such as daily production, efficiency, system cost and distilled water production cost. The four different configurations considered for this study are as follows; 1. Inclined solar water distillation with bare absorber plate (IISWD with daily production of 5.46 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency of 48.3%. 2. Inclined solar water distillation with wick on absorber plate (IISWDW with daily production of 6.41kg/m2 day and daily efficiency 50.3%. 3. Inclined solar water distillation with wire mesh on absorber plate (IISWDWM with daily production n of 3.03 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency 32.6%. 4. Inclined solar water distillation with bare absorber plate (ISWD. (Control System with daily production of 3.25 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency of 40.1%. The systems potable water cost price ranges from 0.03 $/L for IISWDW to 0.06$/L for IISWDWM System. All the systems are economically and technically feasible as a solar distillation system for potable water in Northern Cyprus. The price of potable water from water vendors/hawkers ranges from 0.11-0.16 $/L. It is more economically viable to have the rooftop inclined solar water desalination system than procuring potable water from vendors.`

  12. TRANSIT TIMING VARIATIONS FOR INCLINED AND RETROGRADE EXOPLANETARY SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, Matthew J.; Ford, Eric B.; Veras, Dimitri

    2010-01-01

    We perform numerical calculations of the expected transit timing variations (TTVs) induced on a hot-Jupiter by an Earth-mass perturber. Motivated by the recent discoveries of retrograde transiting planets, we concentrate on an investigation of the effect of varying relative planetary inclinations, up to and including completely retrograde systems. We find that planets in low-order (e.g., 2:1) mean-motion resonances (MMRs) retain approximately constant TTV amplitudes for 0 deg. 170 deg. Systems in higher order MMRs (e.g., 5:1) increase in TTV amplitude as inclinations increase toward 45 deg., becoming approximately constant for 45 deg. 135 deg. Planets away from resonance slowly decrease in TTV amplitude as inclinations increase from 0 deg. to 180 deg., whereas planets adjacent to resonances can exhibit a huge range of variability in TTV amplitude as a function of both eccentricity and inclination. For highly retrograde systems (135 deg. < i ≤ 180 deg.), TTV signals will be undetectable across almost the entirety of parameter space, with the exceptions occurring when the perturber has high eccentricity or is very close to an MMR. This high inclination decrease in TTV amplitude (on and away from resonance) is important for the analysis of the known retrograde and multi-planet transiting systems, as inclination effects need to be considered if TTVs are to be used to exclude the presence of any putative planetary companions: absence of evidence is not evidence of absence.

  13. Towards New Renewable Energy Policies in Urban Areas: the Re-Definition of Optimum Inclination of Photovoltaic Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Weissenbacher

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The optimum inclination and orientation of fixed photovoltaic (PV panels has long been defined in terms of maximizing the annual electricity yield per capacity installed according to the hemisphere and latitude where the PV system is located. Such optimum setup would thus also maximize the output per system cost, but it would not maximize the output per unit of available area, and it would not necessarily optimize the contribution of photovoltaic electricity vis-à-vis overall electricity demand patterns. This study seeks to draw the attention of policy-makers to the fact that incentivizing lower-than-optimum PV panel tilt angles can be an inexpensive strategy to substantially increase the renewable electricity yield in a given area. It also discusses how such strategy can be incorporated into an overall supply/demand grid management and renewable energy integration plan.

  14. Evaluation of performance of veterinary in-clinic hematology analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishniw, Mark; Pion, Paul D

    2016-12-01

    A previous study provided information regarding the quality of in-clinic veterinary biochemistry testing. However, no similar studies for in-clinic veterinary hematology testing have been conducted. The objective of this study was to assess the quality of hematology testing in veterinary in-clinic laboratories using results obtained from testing 3 levels of canine EDTA blood samples. Clinicians prepared blood samples to achieve measurand concentrations within, below, and above their RIs and evaluated the samples in triplicate using their in-clinic analyzers. Quality was assessed by comparison of calculated total error with quality requirements, determination of sigma metrics, use of a quality goal index, and agreement between in-clinic and reference laboratory instruments. Suitability for statistical quality control was determined using adaptations from the computerized program, EZRules3. Evaluation of 10 veterinary in-clinic hematology analyzers showed that these instruments often fail to meet quality requirements. At least 60% of analyzers reasonably determined RBC, WBC, HCT, and HGB, when assessed by most quality goal criteria; platelets were less reliably measured, with 80% deemed suitable for low platelet counts, but only 30% for high platelet counts, and automated differential leukocyte counts were generally considered unsuitable for clinical use with fewer than 40% of analyzers meeting the least stringent quality goal requirements. Fewer than 50% of analyzers were able to meet requirements for statistical quality control for any measurand. These findings reflect the current status of in-clinic hematology analyzer performance and provide a basis for future evaluations of the quality of veterinary laboratory testing. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  15. A maximal atmospheric mixing from a maximal CP violating phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masina, Isabella [Centro Studi e Ricerche ' E. Fermi' , Via Panisperna 89/A, Rome (Italy) and INFN, Sezione di Roma, P.le A. Moro 2, Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: isabella.masina@roma1.infn.it

    2006-02-02

    We point out an elegant mechanism to predict a maximal atmospheric angle, which is based on a maximal CP violating phase difference between second and third lepton families in the flavour symmetry basis. In this framework, a discussion of the general formulas for {theta}{sub 12}, vertical bar U{sub e3} vertical bar, {delta} and their possible correlations in some limiting cases is provided. We also present an explicit realisation in terms of an SO(3) flavour symmetry model.

  16. Comparison of Plantar Pressure Distribution between Different Speed and Incline During Treadmill Jogging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, I-Ju; Hou, Yi-You; Yang, Chich-Haung; Wu, Wen-Lan; Chen, Sheng-Kai; Guo, Lan-Yuen

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of changes in speed and incline slope on plantar pressure distribution of the foot during treadmill jogging. Plantar pressure parameters were measured with the Pedar-X system in twenty healthy girls (mean age of 20.7 years, mean height of 1.60m, and a mean weight of 53.35kg). Because variations in walking speed or slope can significantly change the magnitude of plantar pressure, comparisons of plantar pressure distribution between the two independent protocols during treadmill jogging were considered in this study. First, the subjects ran at the same speed of 2 m·s(-1) with different incline slopes of 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%. Second, they ran on the same slope of 0% with different speeds of 1.5 m·s(-1), 2.0 m·s(-1), and 2.5 m·s(-1). The peak pressure of the eight plantar surface areas, apart from the medial forefoot and the hallux, significantly increased (p jogging were associated with changes in plantar pressures. By systematic investigation of foot kinematics and plantar pressure during jogging with varying incline slope and speed, the results of this study provided further insight into foot biomechanics during jogging. Key pointsThe study aimed to compare the plantar pressure distribution of the foot between different incline and speed during treadmill jogging by using plantar insole measurement system.With the increase of speed, apart from the hallux and medical forefoot, the peak pressure of all regions was raised significantly.As the slope increased, there was reduced peak pressure of the heel, medial forefoot, and hallux and toes.

  17. Optical performance of inclined south-north single-axis tracked solar panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhimin; Liu, Xinyue; Tang, Runsheng

    2010-01-01

    To investigate optical performance of the inclined south-north single-axis (ISN-axis, in short) tracked solar panels, a mathematical procedure to estimate the annual collectible radiation on fixed and tracked panels was suggested based on solar geometry and monthly horizontal radiation. For solar panels tracking about ISN-axis, the yearly optimal tilt-angle of ISN-axis for maximizing annual solar gain was about 3 o deviating from the site latitude in most of China except in areas with poor solar resources, and the maximum annual collectible radiation on ISN-axis tracked panels was about 97-98% of that on dual-axis tracked panels; whereas for ISN-axis tracked panels with the tilt-angle of ISN-axis being adjusted four times in a year at three fixed tilt-angles, the annual collectible radiation was almost close to that on dual-axis tracked panels, the optimum date of tilt-angle adjustment of ISN-axis was 23 days from the equinoxes, and the optimum tilt-angle adjustment value for each adjustment was about 22 o . Compared to fixed south-facing solar panels inclined at an optimal tilt-angle, the increase in the annual solar gain due to using ISN-axis sun tracking was above 30% in the areas with abundant solar resources and less than 20% in the areas with poor solar resources.

  18. Direct vessel inclined injection system for reduction of emergency core coolant direct bypass in advanced reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sang H.; Lee, Jong G.; Suh, Kune Y.

    2006-01-01

    Multidimensional thermal hydraulics in the APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor 1400 MWe) downcomer during a large-break loss-of-coolant accident (LBLOCA) plays a pivotal role in determining the capability of the safety injection system. APR1400 adopts the direct vessel injection (DVI) method for more effective core penetration of the emergency core cooling (ECC) water than the cold leg injection (CLI) method in the OPR1000 (Optimized Power Reactor 1000 MWe). The DVI method turned out to be prone to occasionally lack in efficacious delivery of ECC to the reactor core during the reflood phase of a LBLOCA, however. This study intends to demonstrate a direct vessel inclined injection (DVII) method, one of various ideas with which to maximize the ECC core penetration and to minimize the direct bypass through the break during the reflood phase of a LBLOCA. The 1/7 scaled down THETA (Transient Hydrodynamics Engineering Test Apparatus) tests show that a vertical inclined nozzle angle of the DVII system increases the downward momentum of the injected ECC water by reducing the degree of impingement on the reactor downcomer, whereby lessening the extent of the direct bypass through the break. The proposed method may be combined with other innovative measures with which to ensure an enough thermal margin in the core during the course of a LBLOCA in APR1400

  19. Instability timescale for the inclination instability in the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zderic, Alexander; Madigan, Ann-Marie; Fleisig, Jacob

    2018-04-01

    The gravitational influence of small bodies is often neglected in the study of solar system dynamics. However, this is not always an appropriate assumption. For example, mutual secular torques between low mass particles on eccentric orbits can result in a self-gravity instability (`inclination instability'; Madigan & McCourt 2016). During the instability, inclinations increase exponentially, eccentricities decrease (detachment), and orbits cluster in argument of perihelion. In the solar system, the orbits of the most distant objects show all three of these characteristics (high inclination: Volk & Malhotra (2017), detachment: Delsanti & Jewitt (2006), and argument of perihelion clustering: Trujillo & Sheppard (2014)). The inclination instability is a natural explanation for these phenomena.Unfortunately, full N-body simulations of the solar system are unfeasible (N ≈ O(1012)), and the behavior of the instability depends on N, prohibiting the direct application of lower N simulations. Here we present the instability timescale's functional dependence on N, allowing us to extrapolate our simulation results to that appropriate for the solar system. We show that ~5 MEarth of small icy bodies in the Sedna region is sufficient for the inclination instability to occur in the outer solar system.

  20. Influence of occlusal plane inclination and mandibular deviation on esthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corte, Cristiane Cherobini Dalla; Silveira, Bruno Lopes da; Marquezan, Mariana

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the degree of perception of occlusal plane inclination and mandibular deviation in facial esthetics, assessed by laypeople, dentists and orthodontists. A woman with 5.88° of inclination and 5.54 mm of mandibular deviation was selected and, based on her original photograph, four new images were created correcting the deviations and creating more symmetric faces and smiles. Examiners assessed the images by means of a questionnaire. Their opinions were compared by qualitative and quantitative analyses. A total of 45 laypeople, 27 dentists and 31 orthodontists filled out the questionnaires. All groups were able to perceive the asymmetry; however, orthodontists were more sensitive, identifying asymmetries as from 4.32° of occlusal plane inclination and 4.155 mm of mandibular deviation (pocclusal plane inclination and 5.54 mm of mandibular deviation (pOcclusal plane inclination and mandibular deviation were perceived by all groups, but orthodontists presented higher perception of deviations.

  1. Spectrum of 100-kyr glacial cycle: Orbital inclination, not eccentricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Richard A.; MacDonald, Gordon J.

    1997-01-01

    Spectral analysis of climate data shows a strong narrow peak with period ≈100 kyr, attributed by the Milankovitch theory to changes in the eccentricity of the earth’s orbit. The narrowness of the peak does suggest an astronomical origin; however the shape of the peak is incompatible with both linear and nonlinear models that attribute the cycle to eccentricity or (equivalently) to the envelope of the precession. In contrast, the orbital inclination parameter gives a good match to both the spectrum and bispectrum of the climate data. Extraterrestrial accretion from meteoroids or interplanetary dust is proposed as a mechanism that could link inclination to climate, and experimental tests are described that could prove or disprove this hypothesis. PMID:11607741

  2. Inclined Weight-Loaded Walking at Different Speeds: Pelvis-Shoulder Coordination, Trunk Movements and Cost of Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Rodrigo Gomes da; Gomeñuka, Natalia Andrea; Oliveira, Henrique Bianchi de; Peyré-Tartaruga, Leonardo Alexandre

    2018-01-01

    Although studied at level surface, the trunk kinematics and pelvis-shoulder coordination of incline walking are unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the speed effects on pelvis-shoulder coordination and trunk movement and the cost of transport (C) during unloaded and loaded (25% of body mass) 15% incline walking. We collected 3-dimensional kinematic and oxygen consumption data from 10 physically active young men. The movements were analyzed in the sagittal plane (inclination and range of trunk motion) and the transverse plane (range of shoulder and pelvic girdle motion and phase difference). The rotational amplitude of the shoulder girdle decreased with load at all speeds, and it was lower at the highest speeds. The rotational amplitude of the pelvic girdle did not change with the different speeds. The phase difference was greater at optimal speed (3 km.hr -1 , at the lowest C) in the loaded and the unloaded conditions. The trunk inclination was greater with load and increased with speed, whereas the range of trunk motion was lower in the loaded condition and decreased with increasing speed. In conclusion, the load decreased the range of girdles and trunk motion, and the pelvis-shoulder coordination seemed to be critical for the incline walking performance.

  3. Droplet Depinning on Inclined Surfaces at High Reynolds Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Edward; Singh, Natasha; Lee, Sungyon

    2017-11-01

    Contact angle hysteresis enables a sessile liquid drop to adhere to a solid surface when the surface is inclined, the drop is exposed to gas-phase flow, or the drop is exposed to both forcing modalities. Previous work by Schmucker and White (2012.DFD.M4.6) identified critical depinning Weber numbers for water drops subject to gravity- and wind-dominated forcing. This work extends the Schmucker and White data and finds the critical depinning Weber number obeys a two-slope linear model. Under pure wind forcing at Reynolds numbers above 1500 and with zero surface inclination, Wecrit = 8.0 . For non-zero inclinations, α, Wecrit decreases proportionally to A Bo sinα where A is the drop aspect ratio and Bo is its Bond number. The same relationship holds for α behavior. Supported by the National Science Foundation through Grant CBET-1605947.

  4. Natural Frequencies and Mode Shapes of Statically Deformed Inclined Risers

    KAUST Repository

    Alfosail, Feras

    2016-10-15

    We investigate numerically the linear vibrations of inclined risers using the Galerkin approach. The riser is modeled as an Euler-Bernoulli beam accounting for the nonlinear mid-plane stretching and self-weight. After solving for the initial deflection of the riser due to self-weight, we use a Galerkin expansion employing 15 axially loaded beam mode shapes to solve the eigenvalue problem of the riser around the static equilibrium configuration. This yields the riser natural frequencies and corresponding exact mode shapes for various values of inclination angles and tension. The obtained results are validated against a boundary-layer analytical solution and are found to be in good agreement. This constitutes a basis to study the nonlinear forced vibrations of inclined risers.

  5. Pace's Maxims for Homegrown Library Projects. Coming Full Circle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Andrew K.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses six maxims by which to run library automation. The following maxims are discussed: (1) Solve only known problems; (2) Avoid changing data to fix display problems; (3) Aut viam inveniam aut faciam; (4) If you cannot make it yourself, buy something; (5) Kill the alligator closest to the boat; and (6) Just because yours is…

  6. The Effect of Inclination Angle on Critical Heat Flux in a Locally Heated Liquid Film Moving Under the Action of Gas Flow in a Mini-Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkachenko Egor M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intensively evaporating liquid films moving under the action of the cocurrent gas flow in a microchannel are promising for the use in modern cooling systems of semiconductor devices with high local heat release. This work has studied the dependence of the critical heat flux on the inclination angle of the channel. It has been found that the inclination angle in the plane parallel to the flow has no significant effect on the critical heat flux. Whereas the inclination angle in the plane perpendicular to the flow, on the contrary, significantly changes the value of the critical heat flux. However, for a given flow rate of fluid there is a threshold gas velocity at which the critical heat flux does not differ from the case of zero inclination of the channel. Thus, it can be concluded that the cooling system based on shear-driven liquid films can be potentially used when direction of the gravity changes.

  7. Psychopathic Inclination Among Incarcerated Youth of Hazara Division Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sher Dil

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Present study aimed at evaluating the psychopathic inclination among youth and finding the gender differences in psychopathy. An indigenously developed Psychopathy scale (Urdu has been used in this study. Alpha reliability of the scale was .90. The study was conducted on 100 males (50 criminals and 50 non-criminals and 100 females (26 criminals and 74 non-criminals using a convenient sampling technique from three districts of Hazara division: Haripur, Abbottabad, and Mansehra. Results confirmed that there is significant difference in psychopathic inclination of males and females; criminals differed significantly from the non-criminals. The study also paves way for further investigation in the field in Pakistan.

  8. Entrepreneurial Inclination Among Business Students: A Malaysian Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yet-Mee Lim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship has been the fundamental topics of discussion among the politicians, economists, and academics. Business creation is especially critical in developing countries to stimulate economic growth. The present study attempts to examine entrepreneurial inclination among students who are a potential source of entrepreneurs. The fi ndings of the present research study indicate that majority of our business students are not entrepreneurial-inclined. They do not seem to possess strong entrepreneurial characteristics and entrepreneurial skills, and they are not keen in starting a new business. The roles of higher institutes of education and the government in promoting entrepreneurship are discussed.

  9. Fluorescence intensity dependence on the propagation plane inclination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.E.; Rubio, Marcelo; Sanchez, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation of the primary and secondary X-ray fluorescent emission from an homogeneous and infinite thickness sample, irradiated under different inclination of the propagation plane, is carried out. An agreement with the predictions based on Sherman equations depending on the inclination angle α was found. The invariance of the primary fluorescence with respect to α and the decrease until evanescence of the secondary fluorescence for a α → π/2 are confirmed. A discussion about the physical basis of this dependence is carried out. Similar results are expected for tertiary fluorescence. (Author) [es

  10. Maximization

    OpenAIRE

    A. Garmroodi Asil; A. Shahsavand; Sh. Mirzaei

    2017-01-01

    Over 60% of Iranian natural gases are contaminated with hydrogen sulfide or other sulfur compounds. Khangiran refinery which receives around 50 MMSCMD sour gas with 3.35 mol% H2S as its GTU feed, produces around 45% of Iranian sulfur production. Three of the four existing sulfur recovery units (SRU’s) are initially installed more than 3 decades ago. Such relatively old Claus units with no tail gas clean up facility have usually sulfur recovery efficiencies as low as 90%, due to the low H2S co...

  11. Maximization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Garmroodi Asil

    2017-09-01

    To further reduce the sulfur dioxide emission of the entire refining process, two scenarios of acid gas or air preheats are investigated when either of them is used simultaneously with the third enrichment scheme. The maximum overall sulfur recovery efficiency and highest combustion chamber temperature is slightly higher for acid gas preheats but air preheat is more favorable because it is more benign. To the best of our knowledge, optimization of the entire GTU + enrichment section and SRU processes has not been addressed previously.

  12. Three-dimensional unsteady natural convection and entropy generation in an inclined cubical trapezoidal cavity with

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Kadhim Hussein

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerical computation of unsteady laminar three-dimensional natural convection and entropy generation in an inclined cubical trapezoidal air-filled cavity is performed for the first time in this work. The vertical right and left sidewalls of the cavity are maintained at constant cold temperatures. The lower wall is subjected to a constant hot temperature, while the upper one is considered insulated. Computations are performed for Rayleigh numbers varied as 103 ⩽ Ra ⩽ 105, while the trapezoidal cavity inclination angle is varied as 0° ⩽ Φ ⩽ 180°. Prandtl number is considered constant at Pr = 0.71. Second law of thermodynamics is applied to obtain thermodynamic losses inside the cavity due to both heat transfer and fluid friction irreversibilities. The variation of local and average Nusselt numbers is presented and discussed, while, streamlines, isotherms and entropy contours are presented in both two and three-dimensional pattern. The results show that when the Rayleigh number increases, the flow patterns are changed especially in three-dimensional results and the flow circulation increases. Also, the inclination angle effect on the total entropy generation becomes insignificant when the Rayleigh number is low. Moreover, when the Rayleigh number increases the average Nusselt number increases.

  13. CORRELATION BETWEEN PRONATED FOOT AND PELVIC INCLINATION, FEMORAL ANTEVERSION, QUADRICEPS ANGLE AND TIBIAL TORSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishita Gandhi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: A pronated foot can produce changes in the lower limb kinetic chain. This can affect the gait and increase energy expenditure. However, the relationship between pronated foot and other static alignment factors remains poorly understood. Hence, the objective was to correlate pronated foot with pelvic inclination, femoral anteversion, Q-angle and tibial torsion. Method: An observational study was performed on 60 subjects in the age group of 18-30 years with a BMI of not more than 30. Foot Posture Index was performed on the subjects, and people with a score of +6 or more were selected. Pelvic inclination, femoral anteversion, Q-angle and tibial torsion were measured. Correlation between the Foot Posture Index score and the above four static alignment factors was done using Graph Pad Prism 7 (Pearson’s correlation coefficient and Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Results: There was no significant correlation between Pronated foot and Pelvic inclination (r-value = 0.03309, p-value = 0.8018, Pronated foot and Femoral anteversion (r-value = 0.2185, p-value = 0.0934 Pronated foot and Q-angle (r-value = 0.1801, p-value = 0.1685, Pronated foot and Tibial torsion (r- value = -0.1285, p-value = 0.3277. Conclusion: There is no significant correlation between foot pronation and pelvic inclination, femoral anteversion, Q-angle and tibial torsion. However, the correlation between these factors cannot be completely ignored, and thus, further studies and literature are required to prove the same.

  14. Principles of maximally classical and maximally realistic quantum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    so different from the classical trajectories that they are sometimes called surrealistic [4]!. The answer to the first problem above is in the construction of maximally realistic quan- tum mechanics [5,6] which treats position and momentum symmetrically. We present in this paper the answer to the second problem in the form of a ...

  15. Principles of maximally classical and maximally realistic quantum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recently Auberson, Mahoux, Roy and Singh have proved a long standing conjecture of Roy and Singh: In 2-dimensional phase space, a maximally realistic quantum mechanics can have quantum probabilities of no more than + 1 complete commuting cets (CCS) of observables coexisting as marginals of one positive ...

  16. Principles of maximally classical and maximally realistic quantum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recently Auberson, Mahoux, Roy and Singh have proved a long standing conjecture of Roy and Singh: In 2-dimensional phase space, a maximally realistic quantum mechanics can have quantum probabilities of no more than + 1 complete commuting cets (CCS) of observables coexisting as marginals of one positive ...

  17. Aqua/Aura Inclination Adjust Maneuver Series Spring 2018 Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenholme, Elena; Boone, Spencer

    2017-01-01

    This will be presented at the International Earth Science Constellation Mission Operations Working Group meeting on December 6-8, 2017 to discuss the Aqua/Aura Spring 2018 Inclination Adjust Maneuver series planning. Presentation has been reviewed and approved by Eric Moyer, ESMO (Earth Science Mission Operations) Deputy Project Manager.

  18. MEASUREMENTS OF DUST EXTINCTION IN HIGHLY INCLINED SPIRAL GALAXIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JANSEN, RA; KNAPEN, JH; BECKMAN, JE; PELETIER, RF; HES, R

    1994-01-01

    We study the extinction properties of dust in the well-defined dust lanes of four highly inclined galaxies, using U-, B-, V-, R- and I-band CCD and J- and K'-band near-infrared array images. For three of these galaxies, we could use the symmetry of the underlying light profile to obtain absolute

  19. Motion on an Inclined Plane and the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendrill, Ann-Marie; Ekström, Peter; Hansson, Lena; Mars, Patrik; Ouattara, Lassana; Ryan, Ulrika

    2014-01-01

    Friction is an important phenomenon in everyday life. All children are familiar with playground slides, which may thus be a good starting point for investigating friction. Motion on an inclined plane is a standard physics example. This paper presents an investigation of friction by a group of 11-year olds. How did they plan their investigations?…

  20. Evidences of inclined transpression at the contact between ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 125; Issue 5. Evidences of inclined ... a right lateral strike-slip component. As a whole, it is suggested that Udayagiri group is thrusted over Vinjamuru group along a westerly dipping thrust plane with a right lateral strike-slip motion and simultaneous E–W contraction.

  1. Inclined Planes and Motion Detectors: A Study of Acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Dyanne M.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students work in cooperative groups and roll balls down inclined planes, collect data with the help of an electronic motion detector, and represent data with a graphing calculator to explore concepts such as mass, gravity, velocity, and acceleration. (Contains 12 references.) (Author/ASK)

  2. The effect of circular bridge piers with different inclination angles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    c Indian Academy of Sciences. The effect of circular bridge piers with different inclination angles toward downstream on scour. MOHAMMAD VAGHEFI1,∗, MASOUD GHODSIAN2 and. SAEID SALIMI3. 1Department of Civil Engineering, Persian Gulf University, Shahid Mahini Street, P.O. Box: 75169-13817,. Bushehr, Iran.

  3. The inter-relationships between angle of inclination, height and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the dependence of number of sprouted teak (Tectona grandis Linn. F) stumps on the height above root collar and angle of inclination of planted teak stumps. The studies were aim-ed at developing suitable methods of converting teak seedlings into stumps and planting practices to ...

  4. Reconstruction of Galileo Galilei's Experiment: The Inclined Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straulino, S.

    2008-01-01

    In the "Third Day" of the "Discourses and Mathematical Demonstrations Concerning Two New Sciences" Galileo Galilei describes the famous experiment of the inclined plane and uses it to bring an experimental confirmation to the laws of uniformly accelerated motion. We describe a reconstruction of the experiment and how the results can be used for…

  5. Optimization of PV array inclination in India using ANN estimator ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana; Volume 40; Issue 5. Optimization of PV array inclination in India using ANN estimator: Method comparison study ... Although different non-linear, empirical models have been proposed by different researchers in India, they have too many constraints and needs complex and rigorous computational ...

  6. A layered model for inclined pipe flow of settling slurry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoušek, Václav; Krupička, Jan; Kesely, Mikoláš

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 333, June (2018), s. 317-326 ISSN 0032-5910 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-14271S Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : inclined pipe * settling slurry * pressure drop * flow stratification * laboratory loop Impact factor: 2.942, year: 2016

  7. Evidences of inclined transpression at the contact between ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    zone may show different structures or dominance of certain type of structures, depending on whether that part is dominated by strike-slip, dip slip or compression. The present study finds evidences of inclined transpression at the contact between. Udayagiri and Vinjamuru group of NSB, which is the main focus of this paper.

  8. Finding Maximal Quasiperiodicities in Strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Pedersen, Christian N. S.

    2000-01-01

    of length n in time O(n log n) and space O(n). Our algorithm uses the suffix tree as the fundamental data structure combined with efficient methods for merging and performing multiple searches in search trees. Besides finding all maximal quasiperiodic substrings, our algorithm also marks the nodes...... in the suffix tree that have a superprimitive path-label....

  9. Impact on perceived root resorption based on the amount of incisal inclination as determined from conventional panoramic radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieu, Long Dao; Normando, David; Toogood, Roger; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2015-10-01

    Our objective was to measure the impact on perceived root resorption based on the amount of anteroposterior incisal inclination as determined in vitro from conventional panoramic radiography. A rapid prototyping model was created to mimic different maxillary and mandibular incisal anteroposterior inclinations. Two titanium beads were placed on the incisors at the apical and incisal edges. Panoramic radiographs were obtained, with the incisors changing relative inclination by 10° increments. The length was measured from the midpoint of the bead on the incisal edge to the midpoint of the bead on the apical edge. By using a length of wire of known size, this value was compared in all images to correct for image magnification. Changes to mandibular incisor anteroposterior inclinations, as either a theoretical proclination or retroclination, resulted in an increase of "apparent" root resorption on a panoramic radiograph. When the maxillary incisors were significantly and severely retroclined, they appeared larger than expected. When the maxillary incisors were mildly retroclined, the length was roughly similar to the theoretical model. When the maxillary incisors were mildly proclined, they appeared shorter than expected. The foreshortening or forelengthening of incisor root lengths because of incisor inclination vs root resorption cannot be reliably evaluated from panoramic images. The proposed theoretical model helps to understand the direction of the changes produced by the magnification factor. More severe scenarios where either the maxillary or the mandibular teeth are outside the focal trough have not been fully evaluated. The clinical impact of these changes is likely to be questionable. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Kinematic control of aerodynamic forces on an inclined flapping wing with asymmetric strokes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyungmin; Choi, Haecheon

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we conduct an experiment using a one-paired dynamically scaled model of an insect wing, to investigate how asymmetric strokes with different wing kinematic parameters are used to control the aerodynamics of a dragonfly-like inclined flapping wing in still fluid. The kinematic parameters considered are the angles of attack during the mid-downstroke (α md ) and mid-upstroke (α mu ), and the duration (Δτ) and time of initiation (τ p ) of the pitching rotation. The present dragonfly-like inclined flapping wing has the aerodynamic mechanism of unsteady force generation similar to those of other insect wings in a horizontal stroke plane, but the detailed effect of the wing kinematics on the force control is different due to the asymmetric use of the angle of attack during the up- and downstrokes. For example, high α md and low α mu produces larger vertical force with less aerodynamic power, and low α md and high α mu is recommended for horizontal force (thrust) production. The pitching rotation also affects the aerodynamics of a flapping wing, but its dynamic rotational effect is much weaker than the effect from the kinematic change in the angle of attack caused by the pitching rotation. Thus, the influences of the duration and timing of pitching rotation for the present inclined flapping wing are found to be very different from those for a horizontal flapping wing. That is, for the inclined flapping motion, the advanced and delayed rotations produce smaller vertical forces than the symmetric one and the effect of pitching duration is very small. On the other hand, for a specific range of pitching rotation timing, delayed rotation requires less aerodynamic power than the symmetric rotation. As for the horizontal force, delayed rotation with low α md and high α mu is recommended for long-duration flight owing to its high efficiency, and advanced rotation should be employed for hovering flight for nearly zero horizontal force. The present

  11. Kinematic control of aerodynamic forces on an inclined flapping wing with asymmetric strokes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyungmin; Choi, Haecheon

    2012-03-01

    In the present study, we conduct an experiment using a one-paired dynamically scaled model of an insect wing, to investigate how asymmetric strokes with different wing kinematic parameters are used to control the aerodynamics of a dragonfly-like inclined flapping wing in still fluid. The kinematic parameters considered are the angles of attack during the mid-downstroke (α(md)) and mid-upstroke (α(mu)), and the duration (Δτ) and time of initiation (τ(p)) of the pitching rotation. The present dragonfly-like inclined flapping wing has the aerodynamic mechanism of unsteady force generation similar to those of other insect wings in a horizontal stroke plane, but the detailed effect of the wing kinematics on the force control is different due to the asymmetric use of the angle of attack during the up- and downstrokes. For example, high α(md) and low α(mu) produces larger vertical force with less aerodynamic power, and low α(md) and high α(mu) is recommended for horizontal force (thrust) production. The pitching rotation also affects the aerodynamics of a flapping wing, but its dynamic rotational effect is much weaker than the effect from the kinematic change in the angle of attack caused by the pitching rotation. Thus, the influences of the duration and timing of pitching rotation for the present inclined flapping wing are found to be very different from those for a horizontal flapping wing. That is, for the inclined flapping motion, the advanced and delayed rotations produce smaller vertical forces than the symmetric one and the effect of pitching duration is very small. On the other hand, for a specific range of pitching rotation timing, delayed rotation requires less aerodynamic power than the symmetric rotation. As for the horizontal force, delayed rotation with low α(md) and high α(mu) is recommended for long-duration flight owing to its high efficiency, and advanced rotation should be employed for hovering flight for nearly zero horizontal force. The

  12. Deontological and utilitarian inclinations in moral decision making: a process dissociation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Paul; Gawronski, Bertram

    2013-02-01

    Dual-process theories of moral judgment suggest that responses to moral dilemmas are guided by two moral principles: the principle of deontology states that the morality of an action depends on the intrinsic nature of the action (e.g., harming others is wrong regardless of its consequences); the principle of utilitarianism implies that the morality of an action is determined by its consequences (e.g., harming others is acceptable if it increases the well-being of a greater number of people). Despite the proposed independence of the moral inclinations reflecting these principles, previous work has relied on operationalizations in which stronger inclinations of one kind imply weaker inclinations of the other kind. The current research applied Jacoby's (1991) process dissociation procedure to independently quantify the strength of deontological and utilitarian inclinations within individuals. Study 1 confirmed the usefulness of process dissociation for capturing individual differences in deontological and utilitarian inclinations, revealing positive correlations of both inclinations to moral identity. Moreover, deontological inclinations were uniquely related to empathic concern, perspective-taking, and religiosity, whereas utilitarian inclinations were uniquely related to need for cognition. Study 2 demonstrated that cognitive load selectively reduced utilitarian inclinations, with deontological inclinations being unaffected. In Study 3, a manipulation designed to enhance empathy increased deontological inclinations, with utilitarian inclinations being unaffected. These findings provide evidence for the independent contributions of deontological and utilitarian inclinations to moral judgments, resolving many theoretical ambiguities implied by previous research. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Entrepreneurial Inclination Among Business Students: A Malaysian Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yet-Mee Lim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Entrepreneurship has been the fundamental topics of discussion among the politicians, economists, and academics. Business creation is especially critical in developing countries to stimulate economic growth. The present study attempts to examine entrepreneurial inclination among students who are a potential source of entrepreneurs. The fi ndings of the present research study indicate that majority of our business students are not entrepreneurial-inclined. They do not seem to possess strong entrepreneurial characteristics and entrepreneurial skills, and they are not keen in starting a new business. The roles of higher institutes of education and the government in promoting entrepreneurship are discussed.

  14. Maximization, learning, and economic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erev, Ido; Roth, Alvin E

    2014-07-22

    The rationality assumption that underlies mainstream economic theory has proved to be a useful approximation, despite the fact that systematic violations to its predictions can be found. That is, the assumption of rational behavior is useful in understanding the ways in which many successful economic institutions function, although it is also true that actual human behavior falls systematically short of perfect rationality. We consider a possible explanation of this apparent inconsistency, suggesting that mechanisms that rest on the rationality assumption are likely to be successful when they create an environment in which the behavior they try to facilitate leads to the best payoff for all agents on average, and most of the time. Review of basic learning research suggests that, under these conditions, people quickly learn to maximize expected return. This review also shows that there are many situations in which experience does not increase maximization. In many cases, experience leads people to underweight rare events. In addition, the current paper suggests that it is convenient to distinguish between two behavioral approaches to improve economic analyses. The first, and more conventional approach among behavioral economists and psychologists interested in judgment and decision making, highlights violations of the rational model and proposes descriptive models that capture these violations. The second approach studies human learning to clarify the conditions under which people quickly learn to maximize expected return. The current review highlights one set of conditions of this type and shows how the understanding of these conditions can facilitate market design.

  15. Evaluation of different models to estimate the global solar radiation on inclined surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demain, C.; Journée, M.; Bertrand, C.

    2012-04-01

    Global and diffuse solar radiation intensities are, in general, measured on horizontal surfaces, whereas stationary solar conversion systems (both flat plate solar collector and solar photovoltaic) are mounted on inclined surface to maximize the amount of solar radiation incident on the collector surface. Consequently, the solar radiation incident measured on a tilted surface has to be determined by converting solar radiation from horizontal surface to tilted surface of interest. This study evaluates the performance of 14 models transposing 10 minutes, hourly and daily diffuse solar irradiation from horizontal to inclined surface. Solar radiation data from 8 months (April to November 2011) which include diverse atmospheric conditions and solar altitudes, measured on the roof of the radiation tower of the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium in Uccle (Longitude 4.35°, Latitude 50.79°) were used for validation purposes. The individual model performance is assessed by an inter-comparison between the calculated and measured solar global radiation on the south-oriented surface tilted at 50.79° using statistical methods. The relative performance of the different models under different sky conditions has been studied. Comparison of the statistical errors between the different radiation models in function of the clearness index shows that some models perform better under one type of sky condition. Putting together different models acting under different sky conditions can lead to a diminution of the statistical error between global measured solar radiation and global estimated solar radiation. As models described in this paper have been developed for hourly data inputs, statistical error indexes are minimum for hourly data and increase for 10 minutes and one day frequency data.

  16. Aqua/Aura Updated Inclination Adjust Maneuver Performance Prediction Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Spencer

    2017-01-01

    This presentation will discuss the updated Inclination Adjust Maneuver (IAM) performance prediction model that was developed for Aqua and Aura following the 2017 IAM series. This updated model uses statistical regression methods to identify potential long-term trends in maneuver parameters, yielding improved predictions when re-planning past maneuvers. The presentation has been reviewed and approved by Eric Moyer, ESMO Deputy Project Manager.

  17. Graphs and matroids weighted in a bounded incline algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ling-Xia; Zhang, Bei

    2014-01-01

    Firstly, for a graph weighted in a bounded incline algebra (or called a dioid), a longest path problem (LPP, for short) is presented, which can be considered the uniform approach to the famous shortest path problem, the widest path problem, and the most reliable path problem. The solutions for LPP and related algorithms are given. Secondly, for a matroid weighted in a linear matroid, the maximum independent set problem is studied.

  18. Drop impact and rebound dynamics on an inclined superhydrophobic surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeong, Yong Han; Burton, James; Loth, Eric; Bayer, Ilker S

    2014-10-14

    Due to its potential in water-repelling applications, the impact and rebound dynamics of a water drop impinging perpendicular to a horizontal superhydrophobic surface have undergone extensive study. However, drops tend to strike a surface at an angle in applications. In such cases, the physics governing the effects of oblique impact are not well studied or understood. Therefore, the objective of this study was to conduct an experiment to investigate the impact and rebound dynamics of a drop at various liquid viscosities, in an isothermal environment, and on a nanocomposite superhydrophobic surface at normal and oblique impact conditions (tilted at 15°, 30°, 45°, and 60°). This study considered drops falling from various heights to create normal impact Weber numbers ranging from 6 to 110. In addition, drop viscosity was varied by decreasing the temperature for water drops and by utilizing water-glycerol mixtures, which have similar surface tension to water but higher viscosities. Results revealed that oblique and normal drop impact behaved similarly (in terms of maximum drop spread as well as rebound dynamics) at low normal Weber numbers. However, at higher Weber numbers, normal and oblique impact results diverged in terms of maximum spread, which could be related to asymmetry and more complex outcomes. These asymmetry effects became more pronounced as the inclination angle increased, to the point where they dominated the drop impact and rebound characteristics when the surface was inclined at 60°. The drop rebound characteristics on inclined surfaces could be classified into eight different outcomes driven primarily by normal Weber number and drop Ohnesorge numbers. However, it was found that these outcomes were also a function of the receding contact angle, whereby reduced receding angles yielded tail-like structures. Nevertheless, the contact times of the drops with the coating were found to be generally independent of surface inclination.

  19. Determination of angle of inclination for optimum power production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates the performance of the photovoltaic modules at different tilt angle (angle of inclination) from 5º to 90º. The solar panel of 45 Watts capacity was placed on the manual tracker between the hours of 7:00am and 6:15pm on the geographical location of latitude of 40 55' 58” North and longitude of 60 59' 55” ...

  20. Sagittal x-ray beam deviation at asymmetric inclined diffractors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korytár, D.; Hrdý, Jaromír; Artemiev, Nikolai; Ferrari, C.; Freund, A.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2001), s. 1136-1139 ISSN 0909-0495 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OK 305; GA MPO PZ-CH/22 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : x-ray optics * Si(111) W/grooved crystals * inclined diffraction * out-of-diffraction-plane beams * sagittal focusing Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.519, year: 2001

  1. The influence of incline walking on joint mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, Mason; Dickin, D Clark; Popp, Jennifer; Wang, Henry

    2014-04-01

    Walking is a popular form of exercise and is associated with many health benefits; however, frontal-plane knee joint loading brought about by a large internal knee-abduction moment and cyclic loading could lead to cartilage degeneration over time. Therefore, knee joint mechanics during an alternative walking exercise needs to be analyzed. The purpose of this study was to examine the lower-extremity joint mechanics in the frontal and sagittal planes during incline walking. Fifteen healthy males walked on a treadmill at five gradients (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) at 1.34m/s, and lower-extremity joint mechanics in the frontal and sagittal planes were quantified. The peak internal knee-abduction moment significantly decreased from the level walking condition at all gradients except 5%. Also, a negative relationship between the internal knee-abduction moment and the treadmill gradient was found to exist in 10% increments (0-10%, 5-15%, and 10-20%). The decrease in the internal knee-abduction moment during incline walking could have positive effects on knee joint health such as potentially reducing cartilage degeneration of the knee joint, reducing pain, and decreasing the rate of development of medial tibiofemoral osteoarthritis. This would be beneficial for a knee surgery patient, obese persons, and older adults who are using incline walking for rehabilitation and exercise protocols. Findings from the current study can provide guidance for the development of rehabilitation and exercise prescriptions incorporating incline walking. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Three-dimensional volumetric display by inclined-plane scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Daisuke; Eto, Takuma; Nishimura, Yasuhiro; Matsushita, Kenji

    2003-05-01

    A volumetric display system based on three-dimensional (3-D) scanning that uses an inclined two-dimensional (2-D) image is described. In the volumetric display system a 2-D display unit is placed obliquely in an imaging system into which a rotating mirror is inserted. When the mirror is rotated, the inclined 2-D image is moved laterally. A locus of the moving image can be observed by persistence of vision as a result of the high-speed rotation of the mirror. Inclined cross-sectional images of an object are displayed on the display unit in accordance with the position of the image plane to observe a 3-D image of the object by persistence of vision. Three-dimensional images formed by this display system satisfy all the criteria for stereoscopic vision. We constructed the volumetric display systems using a galvanometer mirror and a vector-scan display unit. In addition, we constructed a real-time 3-D measurement system based on a light section method. Measured 3-D images can be reconstructed in the 3-D display system in real time.

  3. Inclined Fiber Pullout from a Cementitious Matrix: A Numerical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that fibers improve the performance of cementitious composites by acting as bridging ligaments in cracks. Such bridging behavior is often studied through fiber pullout tests. The relation between the pullout force vs. slip end displacement is characteristic of the fiber-matrix interface. However, such a relation varies significantly with the fiber inclination angle. In the current work, we establish a numerical model to simulate the entire pullout process by explicitly representing the fiber, matrix and the interface for arbitrary fiber orientations. Cohesive elements endorsed with mixed-mode fracture capacities are implemented to represent the bond-slip behavior at the interface. Contact elements with Coulomb’s friction are placed at the interface to simulate frictional contact. The bond-slip behavior is first calibrated through pull-out curves for fibers aligned with the loading direction, then validated against experimental results for steel fibers oriented at 30 ∘ and 60 ∘ . Parametric studies are then performed to explore the influences of both material properties (fiber yield strength, matrix tensile strength, interfacial bond and geometric factors (fiber diameter, embedment length and inclination angle on the overall pullout behavior, in particular on the maximum pullout load. The proposed methodology provides the necessary pull-out curves for a fiber oriented at a given angle for multi-scale models to study fracture in fiber-reinforced cementitious materials. The novelty lies in its capacity to capture the entire pullout process for a fiber with an arbitrary inclination angle.

  4. FLOUTING MAXIMS IN INDONESIA LAWAK KLUB CONVERSATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmawati Sukmaningrum

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the types of maxims flouted in the conversation in famous comedy show, Indonesia Lawak Club. Likewise, it also tries to reveal the speakers‘ intention of flouting the maxim in the conversation during the show. The writers use descriptive qualitative method in conducting this research. The data is taken from the dialogue of Indonesia Lawak club and then analyzed based on Grice‘s cooperative principles. The researchers read the dialogue‘s transcripts, identify the maxims, and interpret the data to find the speakers‘ intention for flouting the maxims in the communication. The results show that there are four types of maxims flouted in the dialogue. Those are maxim of quality (23%, maxim of quantity (11%, maxim of manner (31%, and maxim of relevance (35. Flouting the maxims in the conversations is intended to make the speakers feel uncomfortable with the conversation, show arrogances, show disagreement or agreement, and ridicule other speakers.

  5. The effect of anterior inclined plane treatment on the dentoskeletal of Class II division 1 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emami Meibodi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of Class II malocclusions are due to underdeveloped mandible with increased overjet and overbite. Lack of incisal contact results in the extrusion of the upper and lower anterior dentoalveolar complex, which helps to lock the mandible and prevent its normal growth and development, and this abnormality is exaggerated by soft tissue imbalance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the skeletal and dental changes in patients treated with anterior inclined plane appliance in growing patients with moderate Class II Division 1 having deep overbite. In this study, 25 patients, including 15 girls and 10 boys, with a mean age of 9 ±1.2 years were selected; all of them presented with moderate Class II deep bite with increased overjet and normal or horizontal growth pattern. Pre- and post-treatment X-rays and photos for an average of 8 months were taken. The statistical assessment of the data suggested that there were no significant changes in the vertical skeletal parameters. The mandibular incisors were protruded, whereas the maxillary incisors were retruded. Overbite and overjet were also reduced. There was significant increase in the mandibular length. The results revealed that in mixed dentition patients, the inclined plane corrected Class II discrepancies mostly through dentoskeletal changes.

  6. Maximal abelian sets of roots

    CERN Document Server

    Lawther, R

    2018-01-01

    In this work the author lets \\Phi be an irreducible root system, with Coxeter group W. He considers subsets of \\Phi which are abelian, meaning that no two roots in the set have sum in \\Phi \\cup \\{ 0 \\}. He classifies all maximal abelian sets (i.e., abelian sets properly contained in no other) up to the action of W: for each W-orbit of maximal abelian sets we provide an explicit representative X, identify the (setwise) stabilizer W_X of X in W, and decompose X into W_X-orbits. Abelian sets of roots are closely related to abelian unipotent subgroups of simple algebraic groups, and thus to abelian p-subgroups of finite groups of Lie type over fields of characteristic p. Parts of the work presented here have been used to confirm the p-rank of E_8(p^n), and (somewhat unexpectedly) to obtain for the first time the 2-ranks of the Monster and Baby Monster sporadic groups, together with the double cover of the latter. Root systems of classical type are dealt with quickly here; the vast majority of the present work con...

  7. Maximal Abelian sets of roots

    CERN Document Server

    Lawther, R

    2018-01-01

    In this work the author lets \\Phi be an irreducible root system, with Coxeter group W. He considers subsets of \\Phi which are abelian, meaning that no two roots in the set have sum in \\Phi \\cup \\{ 0 \\}. He classifies all maximal abelian sets (i.e., abelian sets properly contained in no other) up to the action of W: for each W-orbit of maximal abelian sets we provide an explicit representative X, identify the (setwise) stabilizer W_X of X in W, and decompose X into W_X-orbits. Abelian sets of roots are closely related to abelian unipotent subgroups of simple algebraic groups, and thus to abelian p-subgroups of finite groups of Lie type over fields of characteristic p. Parts of the work presented here have been used to confirm the p-rank of E_8(p^n), and (somewhat unexpectedly) to obtain for the first time the 2-ranks of the Monster and Baby Monster sporadic groups, together with the double cover of the latter. Root systems of classical type are dealt with quickly here; the vast majority of the present work con...

  8. Flame spread over inclined electrical wires with AC electric fields

    KAUST Repository

    Lim, Seung J.

    2017-07-21

    Flame spread over polyethylene-insulated electrical wires was studied experimentally with applied alternating current (AC) by varying the inclination angle (θ), applied voltage (VAC), and frequency (fAC). For the baseline case with no electric field applied, the flame spread rate and the flame width of downwardly spreading flames (DSFs) decreased from the horizontal case for −20° ≤ θ < 0° and maintained near constant values for −90° ≤ θ < −20°, while the flame spread rate increased appreciably as the inclination angle of upwardly spreading flames (USFs) increased. When an AC electric field was applied, the behavior of flame spread rate in DSFs (USFs) could be classified into two (three) sub-regimes characterized by various functional dependences on VAC, fAC, and θ. In nearly all cases of DSFs, a globular molten polyethylene formed ahead of the spreading flame edge, occasionally dripping onto the ground. In these cases, an effective flame spread rate was defined to represent the burning rate by measuring the mass loss due to dripping. This effective spread rate was independent of AC frequency, while it decreased linearly with voltage and was independent of the inclination angle. In DSFs, when excessively high voltage and frequency were applied, the dripping led to flame extinction during propagation and the extinction frequency correlated well with applied voltage. In USFs, when high voltage and frequency were applied, multiple globular molten PEs formed at several locations, leading to ejections of multiple small flame segments from the main flame, thereby reducing the flame spread rate, which could be attributed to the electrospray phenomenon.

  9. Articulator-related registration and analysis of sagittal condylar inclination

    OpenAIRE

    Čimić, Samir; Kraljević Šimunković, Sonja; Simonić Kocijan, Sunčana; Matijević, Jurica; Dulčić, Nikša; Ćatić, Amir

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study sagittal condylar inclination values within a uniform sample (Angle class I occlusion) using ‘articulator-related registration’ and Camper’s plane as a reference plane. The study was performed on a sample of 58 Angle class I subjects (mean age 25.1, SD 3.1). Measurements were performed with an ultrasonic jaw tracking device with six degrees of freedom. After a paraocclusal tray was fixed in the mouth, each subject had to make three protrusive ...

  10. Mining adjacent inclined coal seams of varying thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batmanov, Yu.K.; Bakhtin, A.F.; Bulavka, E.I.

    1980-01-01

    In the Donbass coal basin a large number of thin coal seams located near other thicker coal seams are left. It is suggested that coal output from the Donbass could be increased by 100% and cost of mining could be lowered by 0.4-1.1 roubles per 1 ton of coal if thinner coal seams were also mined. Mining methods in the Donbass are analyzed from the point of view of reducing the cost of mining and increasing coal production. Recommendations on methods of mining thin inclined coal seams are given. (6 refs.) (In Russian)

  11. The maximal D = 4 supergravities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wit, Bernard de [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Postbus 80.195, NL-3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Samtleben, Henning [Laboratoire de Physique, ENS Lyon, 46 allee d' Italie, F-69364 Lyon CEDEX 07 (France); Trigiante, Mario [Dept. of Physics, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Turin (Italy)

    2007-06-15

    All maximal supergravities in four space-time dimensions are presented. The ungauged Lagrangians can be encoded in an E{sub 7(7)}-Sp(56; R)/GL(28) matrix associated with the freedom of performing electric/magnetic duality transformations. The gauging is defined in terms of an embedding tensor {theta} which encodes the subgroup of E{sub 7(7)} that is realized as a local invariance. This embedding tensor may imply the presence of magnetic charges which require corresponding dual gauge fields. The latter can be incorporated by using a recently proposed formulation that involves tensor gauge fields in the adjoint representation of E{sub 7(7)}. In this formulation the results take a universal form irrespective of the electric/magnetic duality basis. We present the general class of supersymmetric and gauge invariant Lagrangians and discuss a number of applications.

  12. Maximizing benefits from resource development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjelbred, B.

    2002-01-01

    The main objectives of Norwegian petroleum policy are to maximize the value creation for the country, develop a national oil and gas industry, and to be at the environmental forefront of long term resource management and coexistence with other industries. The paper presents a graph depicting production and net export of crude oil for countries around the world for 2002. Norway produced 3.41 mill b/d and exported 3.22 mill b/d. Norwegian petroleum policy measures include effective regulation and government ownership, research and technology development, and internationalisation. Research and development has been in five priority areas, including enhanced recovery, environmental protection, deep water recovery, small fields, and the gas value chain. The benefits of internationalisation includes capitalizing on Norwegian competency, exploiting emerging markets and the assurance of long-term value creation and employment. 5 figs

  13. VIOLATION OF CONVERSATION MAXIM ON TV ADVERTISEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desak Putu Eka Pratiwi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Maxim is a principle that must be obeyed by all participants textually and interpersonally in order to have a smooth communication process. Conversation maxim is divided into four namely maxim of quality, maxim of quantity, maxim of relevance, and maxim of manner of speaking. Violation of the maxim may occur in a conversation in which the information the speaker has is not delivered well to his speaking partner. Violation of the maxim in a conversation will result in an awkward impression. The example of violation is the given information that is redundant, untrue, irrelevant, or convoluted. Advertisers often deliberately violate the maxim to create unique and controversial advertisements. This study aims to examine the violation of maxims in conversations of TV ads. The source of data in this research is food advertisements aired on TV media. Documentation and observation methods are applied to obtain qualitative data. The theory used in this study is a maxim theory proposed by Grice (1975. The results of the data analysis are presented with informal method. The results of this study show an interesting fact that the violation of maxim in a conversation found in the advertisement exactly makes the advertisements very attractive and have a high value.

  14. Maximization techniques for oilfield development profits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, I.

    1999-01-01

    In 1981 Nind provided a quantitative procedure for estimating the optimum number of development wells to emplace on an oilfield to maximize profit. Nind's treatment assumed that there was a steady selling price, that all wells were placed in production simultaneously, and that each well's production profile was identical and a simple exponential decline with time. This paper lifts these restrictions to allow for price fluctuations, variable with time emplacement of wells, and production rates that are more in line with actual production records than is a simple exponential decline curve. As a consequence, it is possible to design production rate strategies, correlated with price fluctuations, so as to maximize the present-day worth of a field. For price fluctuations that occur on a time-scale rapid compared to inflation rates it is appropriate to have production rates correlate directly with such price fluctuations. The same strategy does not apply for price fluctuations occurring on a time-scale long compared to inflation rates where, for small amplitudes in the price fluctuations, it is best to sell as much product as early as possible to overcome inflation factors, while for large amplitude fluctuations the best strategy is to sell product as early as possible but to do so mainly on price upswings. Examples are provided to show how these generalizations of Nind's (1981) formula change the complexion of oilfield development optimization. (author)

  15. Finite element analysis of inclined nozzle-plate junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, K.B.; Seth, V.K.; Krishnan, A.; Ramamurthy, T.S.; Dattaguru, B.; Rao, A.K.

    1979-01-01

    Estimation of stress concentration at nozzle to plate or shell junctions is a significant problem in the stress analysis of nuclear reactors. The topic is a subject matter of extensive investigations and earlier considerable success has been reported on analysis for the cases when the nozzle is perpendicular to the plate or is radial to the shell. Analytical methods for the estimation of stress concentrations for the practical situations when the intersecting nozzle is inclined to the plate or is non-radial to the shell is rather scanty. Specific complications arise in dealing with the junction region when the nozzle with circular cross-section meets the non-circular cut-out on the plate or shell. In this paper a finite element analysis is developed for inclined nozzles and results are presented for nozzle-plate junctions. A method of analysis is developed with a view to achieving simultaneously accuracy of results and simplicity in the choice of elements and their connectivity. The circular nozzle is treated by axisymmetric conical shell elements. The nozzle portion in the region around the junction and the flat plate is dealt with by triangular flat shell elements. Special transition elements are developed for joining the flat shell elements with the axisymmetric elements under non-axisymmetric loading. A substructure method of analysis is adopted which achieves considerable economy in handling the structure and also conveniently combines the different types of elements in the structure. (orig.)

  16. Simplification of rat intubation on inclined metal plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastl, Sigrid; Kotschenreuther, U; Hille, B; Schmidt, J; Gepp, H; Hohenberger, W

    2004-12-01

    Small-animal intubation is often necessary during inhalation anesthesia to allow steady-state conditions for large operations and in vivo experiments in all fields of experimental surgery. In rats, placing an orotracheal tube is technically difficult primarily because of the small size of the subject and the lack of equipment specifically designed for this task. We describe a simple rat intubation technique in which the animal is suspended in dorsal recumbency on an inclined metal plate. The animal, anesthetized with ether, is fixed to a 70 degrees-inclined metal plate in a dorsal position by means of a Mersilene ribbon hooked around the upper incisors. This method of positioning the animal is the most important step in the intubation process and further facilitates the technique already described by other authors. A human otoscope was used as a laryngoscope, intubation was performed using the Seldinger technique, and a 14-gauge intravenous catheter served as an endotracheal tube. This inexpensive technique is quickly learned and can be used in any laboratory. Safe and reliable airway management can thus be achieved, permitting in vivo examinations and operations.

  17. Geosynchronous inclined orbits for high-latitude communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantino, E.; Flores, R. M.; Di Carlo, M.; Di Salvo, A.; Cabot, E.

    2017-11-01

    We present and discuss a solution to the growing demand for satellite telecommunication coverage in the high-latitude geographical regions (beyond 55°N), where the signal from geostationary satellites is limited or unavailable. We focus on the dynamical issues associated to the design, the coverage, the maintenance and the disposal of a set of orbits selected for the purpose. Specifically, we identify a group of highly inclined, moderately eccentric geosynchronous orbits derived from the Tundra orbit (geosynchronous, eccentric and critically inclined). Continuous coverage can be guaranteed by a constellation of three satellites in equally spaced planes and suitably phased. By means of a high-precision model of the terrestrial gravity field and the relevant environmental perturbations, we study the evolution of these orbits. The effects of the different perturbations on the ground track (which is more important for coverage than the orbital elements themselves) are isolated and analyzed. The physical model and the numerical setup are optimized with respect to computing time and accuracy. We show that, in order to maintain the ground track unchanged, the key parameters are the orbital period and the argument of perigee. Furthermore, corrections to the right ascension of the ascending node are needed in order to preserve the relative orientation of the orbital planes. A station-keeping strategy that minimizes propellant consumption is then devised, and comparisons are made between the cost of a solution based on impulsive maneuvers and one with continuous thrust. Finally, the issue of end-of-life disposal is discussed.

  18. Non-dispersive traveling waves in inclined shallow water channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didenkulova, Ira; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2009-01-01

    Existence of traveling waves propagating without internal reflection in inclined water channels of arbitrary slope is demonstrated. It is shown that traveling non-monochromatic waves exist in both linear and nonlinear shallow water theories in the case of a uniformly inclined channel with a parabolic cross-section. The properties of these waves are studied. It is shown that linear traveling waves should have a sign-variable shape. The amplitude of linear traveling waves in a channel satisfies the same Green's law, which is usually derived from the energy flux conservation for smoothly inhomogeneous media. Amplitudes of nonlinear traveling waves deviate from the linear Green's law, and the behavior of positive and negative amplitudes are different. Negative amplitude grows faster than positive amplitude in shallow water. The phase of nonlinear waves (travel time) is described well by the linear WKB approach. It is shown that nonlinear traveling waves of any amplitude always break near the shoreline if the boundary condition of the full absorption is applied.

  19. Breakdown of air pockets in downwardly inclined sewerage pressure mains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbers, C L; Clemens, F H L R

    2006-01-01

    In the Netherlands, wastewater is collected in municipal areas and transported to centralised WWTPs by an extensive system of pressure mains. Over the last decades these pressure mains did not receive much attention in terms of monitoring of performance or maintenance. A recent inventory showed that half of the pressure mains show an increased pressure loss for no directly obvious reason. One of the many causes that account for the reduction of the flow capacity is the occurrence of free gas in the pipeline. During dry weather periods with low flow velocities, gas may accumulate at high points in the system. Once the velocity increases during storm weather flow, the air pockets may be broken down and transported to the end of the system. A research study is started focussing on the description of the gas-water phenomena in wastewater pressure mains with respect to transportation of gas. An experimental facility is constructed for the study of multi-phase flow. This paper describes the preliminary results of experiments on breakdown rates of gas pockets as a function of inclination angle and water flow rate. The results show an increasing breakdown rate with increasing inclination angle.

  20. Muscle glycogen metabolism changes in rats fed early postnatal a fructose-rich diet after maternal protein malnutrition: effects of acute physical exercise at the maximal lactate steady-state intensity

    OpenAIRE

    Cambri, Lucieli Teresa [UNESP; Ribeiro, Carla [UNESP; Botezelli, Jose Diego [UNESP; Ghezzi, Ana Carolina [UNESP; Mello, Maria Alice Rostom de [UNESP

    2014-01-01

    Background: The objective was to evaluate the muscle glucose metabolism in rats fed a fructose-rich diet after fetal protein malnutrition, at rest and after acute physical exercise at maximal lactate steady-state intensity.Methods: The male offspring born of mothers fed on a balanced or low-protein diet were split in four groups until 60 days: Balanced (B): balanced diet during the whole period; Balanced/Fructose (BF): balanced diet in utero and fructose-rich diet after birth; Low protein/Bal...

  1. Three-dimensional morphologies of inclined equiaxed dendrites growing under forced convection by phase-field-lattice Boltzmann method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakane, Shinji; Takaki, Tomohiro; Ohno, Munekazu; Shibuta, Yasushi; Shimokawabe, Takashi; Aoki, Takayuki

    2018-02-01

    Three-dimensional growth morphologies of equiaxed dendrites growing under forced convection, with their preferred growth direction inclined from the flow direction, were investigated by performing large-scale phase-field lattice Boltzmann simulations on a graphical-processing-unit supercomputer. The tip velocities of the dendrite arms with their preferred growth directions inclined toward the upstream and downstream directions increased and decreased, respectively, as a result of forced convection. In addition, the tip velocities decreased monotonically as the angle between the preferred growth direction and the upstream direction increased. Here, the degree of acceleration of the upstream tips was larger than the degree of deceleration of the downstream tips. The angles between the actual tip growth directions and the preferred growth direction of the dendrite arms exhibited a characteristic change with two local maxima and two local minima.

  2. Modelling of subcritical free-surface flow over an inclined backward-facing step in a water channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šulc Jan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with the experimental and numerical modelling of subcritical turbulent flow in an open channel with an inclined backward-facing step. The step with the inclination angle α = 20° was placed in the water channel of the cross-section 200×200 mm. Experiments were carried out by means of the PIV and LDA measuring techniques. Numerical simulations were executed by means of the commercial software ANSYS CFX 12.0. Numerical results obtained for twoequation models and EARSM turbulence model completed by transport equations for turbulent energy and specific dissipation rate were compared with experimental data. The modelling was concentrated particularly on the development of the flow separation and on the corresponding changes of free surface.

  3. A Maximally Supersymmetric Kondo Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Sarah; Kachru, Shamit; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2012-02-17

    We study the maximally supersymmetric Kondo model obtained by adding a fermionic impurity to N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. While the original Kondo problem describes a defect interacting with a free Fermi liquid of itinerant electrons, here the ambient theory is an interacting CFT, and this introduces qualitatively new features into the system. The model arises in string theory by considering the intersection of a stack of M D5-branes with a stack of N D3-branes, at a point in the D3 worldvolume. We analyze the theory holographically, and propose a dictionary between the Kondo problem and antisymmetric Wilson loops in N = 4 SYM. We perform an explicit calculation of the D5 fluctuations in the D3 geometry and determine the spectrum of defect operators. This establishes the stability of the Kondo fixed point together with its basic thermodynamic properties. Known supergravity solutions for Wilson loops allow us to go beyond the probe approximation: the D5s disappear and are replaced by three-form flux piercing a new topologically non-trivial S3 in the corrected geometry. This describes the Kondo model in terms of a geometric transition. A dual matrix model reflects the basic properties of the corrected gravity solution in its eigenvalue distribution.

  4. Maximizing the optical network capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayvel, Polina; Maher, Robert; Xu, Tianhua; Liga, Gabriele; Shevchenko, Nikita A; Lavery, Domaniç; Alvarado, Alex; Killey, Robert I

    2016-03-06

    Most of the digital data transmitted are carried by optical fibres, forming the great part of the national and international communication infrastructure. The information-carrying capacity of these networks has increased vastly over the past decades through the introduction of wavelength division multiplexing, advanced modulation formats, digital signal processing and improved optical fibre and amplifier technology. These developments sparked the communication revolution and the growth of the Internet, and have created an illusion of infinite capacity being available. But as the volume of data continues to increase, is there a limit to the capacity of an optical fibre communication channel? The optical fibre channel is nonlinear, and the intensity-dependent Kerr nonlinearity limit has been suggested as a fundamental limit to optical fibre capacity. Current research is focused on whether this is the case, and on linear and nonlinear techniques, both optical and electronic, to understand, unlock and maximize the capacity of optical communications in the nonlinear regime. This paper describes some of them and discusses future prospects for success in the quest for capacity. © 2016 The Authors.

  5. Improvement in greenhouse solar drying using inclined north wall reflection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethi, V.P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141004, Punjab (India); Arora, Sadhna [Department of Processing and Food Engineering, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141004, Punjab (India)

    2009-09-15

    A conventional greenhouse solar dryer of 6 m{sup 2} x 4 m{sup 2} floor area (east-west orientation) was improved for faster drying using inclined north wall reflection (INWR) under natural as well as forced convection mode. To increase the solar radiation availability onto the product (to be dried) during extreme summer months, a temporary inclined wall covered with aluminized reflector sheet (of 50 {mu}m thickness and reflectance 0.93) was raised inside the greenhouse just in front of the vertical transparent north wall. By doing so, product fully received the reflected beam radiation (which otherwise leaves through the north wall) in addition to the direct total solar radiation available on the horizontal surface during different hours of drying. The increment in total solar radiation input enhanced the drying rate of the product by increasing the inside air and crop temperature of the dryer. Inclination angle of the reflective north wall with vertical ({beta}) was optimized for various selective widths of the tray W (1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3 m) and for different realistic heights of existing vertical north wall (h) at 25 N, 30 N and 35 N latitudes (hot climatic zones). Experimental performance of the improved dryer was tested during the month of May 2008 at Ludhiana (30.56 N) climatic conditions, India by drying bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Linn) slices. Results showed that by using INWR under natural convection mode of drying, greenhouse air and crop temperature increased by 1-6.7 C and 1-4 C, respectively, during different drying hours as compared to, when INWR was not used and saved 13.13% of the total drying time. By using INWR under forced convection mode of drying, greenhouse air and crop temperature increased by 1-4.5 C and 1-3 C, respectively, during different drying hours as compared to, when INWR was not used and saved 16.67% of the total drying time. (author)

  6. Hydraulic shock waves in an inclined chute contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, C.-D.; Chang, C.-J.

    2009-04-01

    A chute contraction is a common structure used in hydraulic engineering for typical reasons such as increase of bottom slope, transition from side channel intakes to tunnel spillways, reduction of chute width due to bridges, transition structures in flood diversion works, among others. One of the significant chute contractions in Taiwan is that used in the Yuanshantzu Flood Diversion Project of Keelung River. The diversion project is designed to divert flood water from upper Keelung River into East Sea with a capasity of 1,310 cubic meters per second for mitigating the flood damage of lower part of Keelung River basin in Northern Taiwan. An inclined chute contraction is used to connect Keelung River and a diversion turnel. The inlet and outlet works of the diversion project is located at Ruifang in the Taipei County of north Taiwan. The diameter of diversion tunnel is 12 meters and the total length of tunnel is 2,484 meters. The diversion project has been completed and successfully executed many times since 2004 to lower the water level of Keelung River in typhoon seasons for avioding flooding problems in the lower part of Keelung River basin. Flow in a chute contraction has complicated flow pattern due to the existence of shock waves in it. A simple and useful calculation procedure for the maximum height and its position of shock waves is essentially needed for the preliminary design stage of a chute contraction. Hydraulic shock waves in an inclined chute contraction were experimentally and numerically investigated in this study with the consideration of the effects of sidewall deflection angle, bottom inclination angle and Froude number of approaching flow. The flow pattern of hydraulic shock waves in a chute contraction was observed. The main issue of designing chute contraction is to estimate the height and position of maximum shock wave for the consideration of freeboards. Achieving this aim, the experimental data are adopted and analyzed for the shock angle

  7. Muscle glycogen metabolism changes in rats fed early postnatal a fructose-rich diet after maternal protein malnutrition: effects of acute physical exercise at the maximal lactate steady-state intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambri, Lucieli T; Ribeiro, Carla; Botezelli, José D; Ghezzi, Ana C; Mello, Maria Ar

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the muscle glucose metabolism in rats fed a fructose-rich diet after fetal protein malnutrition, at rest and after acute physical exercise at maximal lactate steady-state intensity. The male offspring born of mothers fed on a balanced or low-protein diet were split in four groups until 60 days: Balanced (B): balanced diet during the whole period; Balanced/Fructose (BF): balanced diet in utero and fructose-rich diet after birth; Low protein/Balanced (LB): low-protein diet in utero and balanced diet after birth; Low protein/Fructose (LF): low protein diet in utero and fructose-rich diet after birth. Acute physical exercise reduced the muscle glycogen concentrations in all groups, although the LF group showed higher concentrations at rest. There was no difference among the groups in the glucose uptake and oxidation rates in the isolated soleus muscle neither at rest nor after acute exercise. However, glycogen synthesis was higher in the LF muscle than in the others at rest. Acute physical exercise increased glycogen synthesis in all groups, and the LF group showed the highest values. The fructose-rich diet administered in rats after fetal protein malnutrition alters muscle glycogen concentrations and glycogen synthesis in the rest and after acute exercise at maximal lactate steady-state intensity.

  8. Strength Calculation of Inclined Sections of Reinforced Concrete Elements under Transverse Bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatov, V. B.

    2017-11-01

    The authors propose a design model to determine the strength of inclined sections of bent reinforced concrete elements without shear reinforcement for the action of transverse force taking into account the aggregate interlock forces in the inclined crack. The calculated dependences to find out the components of forces acting in an inclined section are presented. The calculated dependences are obtained from the consideration of equilibrium conditions of the block over the inclined crack. A comparative analysis of the experimental values of the failure loads of the inclined section and the theoretical values obtained for the proposed dependencies and normative calculation methods is performed. It is shown that the proposed design model makes it possible to take into account the effect the longitudinal reinforcement percentage has on the inclined section strength, the element cross section height without the introduction of empirical coefficients which contributes to an increase in the structural safety of design solutions including the safety of high-strength concrete elements.

  9. Unique operations for a highly inclined, elliptical, geosynchronous satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglin, Patrick T.; Briskman, Robert D.

    2004-08-01

    The first space segment devoted to a Digital Audio Radio Service (DARS) for the Continental United States (CONUS) was established when the last satellite of a three satellite constellation (Flight Models FM-1, FM-2 and FM-3) was launched in November 2000. Each satellite is in a highly inclined, elliptical, geosynchronous orbit that is separated by 120° in Right Angle of the Ascending Node (RAAN) from the other two satellites' orbits. This results in an 8 h phasing in ground track between each satellite. These distinct orbits provide superior look angles and signal availability to mobile receivers in the northern third of the United States when compared to geostationary satellites. However, this unique orbital constellation results in some particular performance and operational differences from geostationary orbit satellites. Some of these are: Earth Sensor noise, maneuver implementation and power management. Descriptions and performance improvements of these orbit specific operations are detailed herein.

  10. Friction and drag forces on spheres propagating down inclined planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Yi Hui; Longmire, Ellen

    2017-11-01

    When a submerged sphere propagates along an inclined wall at terminal velocity, it experiences gravity, drag, lift, and friction forces. In the related equations of motion, the drag, lift and friction coefficients are unknown. Experiments are conducted to determine the friction and drag coefficients of the sphere over a range of Reynolds numbers. Through high speed imaging, translational and rotational velocities of spheres propagating along a glass plate are determined in liquids with several viscosities. The onset of sliding motion is identified by computing the dimensionless rotation rate of the sphere. Using drag and lift coefficients for Re friction coefficients are calculated for several materials. The friction coefficients are then employed to estimate the drag coefficient for 350 frictional force over this Re range. Supported by NSF (CBET-1510154).

  11. Simulation of Solar Radiation Incident on Horizontal and Inclined Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Basunia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A computer model was developed to simulate the hourly, daily and monthly average of daily solar radiation on horizontal and inclined surfaces. The measured hourly and daily solar radiation was compared with simulated radiation, and favourable agreement was observed for the measured and predicted values on clear days. The measured and simulated monthly averages of total (diffuse and beam daily solar radiation were compared and a reasonable agreement was observed for a number of stations in Japan. The simulation showed that during the rice harvesting season, September to October, there is a daily average of 14.7 MJ/m2 of solar irradiation on a horizontal surface in Matsuyama, Japan. There is a similar amount of solar radiation on a horizontal surface during the major rice harvesting season, November to December, in Bangladesh. This radiation can be effectively utilized for drying rough rice and other farm crops.

  12. Inclined nanoimprinting lithography-based 3D nanofabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhan; Bucknall, David G.; Allen, Mark G.

    2011-06-01

    We report a 'top-down' 3D nanofabrication approach combining non-conventional inclined nanoimprint lithography (INIL) with reactive ion etching (RIE), contact molding and 3D metal nanotransfer printing (nTP). This integration of processes enables the production and conformal transfer of 3D polymer nanostructures of varying heights to a variety of other materials including a silicon-based substrate, a silicone stamp and a metal gold (Au) thin film. The process demonstrates the potential of reduced fabrication cost and complexity compared to existing methods. Various 3D nanostructures in technologically useful materials have been fabricated, including symmetric and asymmetric nanolines, nanocircles and nanosquares. Such 3D nanostructures have potential applications such as angle-resolved photonic crystals, plasmonic crystals and biomimicking anisotropic surfaces. This integrated INIL-based strategy shows great promise for 3D nanofabrication in the fields of photonics, plasmonics and surface tribology.

  13. Segregation in inclined flows of binary mixtures of spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larcher Michele

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We outline the equations that govern the evolution of segregation of a binary mixture of spheres in flows down inclines. These equations result from the mass and momentum balances of a kinetic theory for dense flows of inelastic spheres that interact through collisions. The theory employed for segregation is appropriate for particles with relatively small differences in size and mass. The flow of the mixture is assumed to reach a fully developed state much more rapidly than does the concentrations of the two species. We illustrate the predictions of the theory for a mixture of spheres of the same diameter but different masses and for spheres of different diameters but nearly the same mass. We show the evolution of the profiles of the concentration fractions of the two types of spheres and the profiles in the final, steady state. The latter compare favourably with those obtained in discrete-element numerical simulations.

  14. Method and apparatus for logging inclined earth boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youmans, A.H.

    1981-01-01

    An improved technique is provided for comparing the velocity of an elongated well logging instrument traversing an inclined earth borehole with the playout velocity of the well logging cable at the earth's surface to control both the cable hoist drum rotation and the rate of movement of the subsurface instrument and thus insure cable playout is in equilibrium with the logging instrument movement. Method and apparatus are described for detecting any reduction in movement of the logging instrument through the borehole and for reducing the velocity of the logging cable playout in response thereto by reducing drum rotation. Further, when the velocity of cable playout slows to a preselected value, a monitoring circuit generates control signals which actuate a means of power attached to or integral with the logging instrument which, upon initiation, apply a force to move the logging instrument upward or downward within the borehole

  15. Deformation Analysis of Fixed Bearing Inclined Plane Thrust Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Yong--hai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the theory of lubrication,Numerical simulation of the deformation of the thrust bearing of the fixed inclined plane was carried out,by finite element numerical analysis method and using the ANSYS software. The mathematical model of the oil film shape control equations about of the deformation and bearing is established. Analytical result showed that the force caused the tile surface generating concave deformation,and convex deformation increased with the height and the size of the load and bearing;Tile surface temperature generated convex deformation and increased with the height and the size of the temperature of bearing bush;The actual deformation of the tile surface is the superposition of the force and the thermal deformation. This conclusion can provide reference for the design and the application of thrust bearing,to reduce the tile surface,which is not conducive to the carrying capacity of the concave deformation.

  16. Transient flow and heat transfer phenomena in inclined wavy films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serifi, Katerina; Bontozoglou, Vasilis [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Thessaly, 38334, Volos (Greece); Malamataris, Nikolaos A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technological Educational Institution of Western Macedonia, 50100, Kila Kozani (Greece)

    2004-08-01

    A finite-element numerical scheme is used to study rigorously the flow of an inclined liquid film and the heat transfer from the constant-temperature wall. Regular inlet disturbances are predicted to evolve into periodic or solitary waves depending on the frequency of the forcing. At very low disturbance frequencies parasitic crests appear and the regularity of the wave-train is lost. The effect of a solitary wave-train on heat transfer from the wall is studied, and it is predicted that a stationary temperature distribution develops with periodic flux variation that follows the waves. The thinning of the substrate between successive humps combines with the effect of convection at the crest and tail of the solitary humps to produce heat transfer enhancement significantly above the conduction limit. (authors)

  17. Inclined transpression in the Neka Valley, eastern Alborz, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Seyed Tohid; Díaz-Azpiroz, Manuel; Talbot, Christopher J.

    2017-07-01

    Three major nappes in the Neka Valley in the eastern Alborz Mountains of Iran allow the Cimmerian to present convergence following the oblique collision between Iran and the southern margin of Eurasia. This work reports the identification of an inclined transpression zone recognized by field investigations and strain analyses of the geometries of formations and detailed mesoscopic structural analyses of multiple faults, folds and a cleavage. The main structures encountered include refolded recumbent asymmetric fold nappes, highly curved fold hinges, in a transpression zone that dips 37° to the NW between boundaries thrusts striking from N050° to N060°. The β angle (the angle between the zone boundary and direction of horizontal far-field shortening) is about 80°. The north-west and south-east boundaries of this zone coincide with the Haji-abad thrust and the Shah-Kuh thrust, respectively. Fold axes generally trend NE-SW and step to both right and left as a result of strike-slip components of fault displacements. Strain analyses using Fry's method on macroscopic ooids and fusulina deformed into oblate ellipsoids indicate that the natural strain varies between 2.1 and 3.14. The estimated angle between the maximum instantaneous strain axis (ISAmax) and the transpression zone boundary ( θ') is between 6° and 20°. The estimated oblique convergence angle ( α), therefore, ranges between 31° and 43°. The average kinematic vorticity number ( W k ) is 0.6, in a zone of sinistral pure shear-dominated inclined triclinic transpression. These results support the applicability of kinematic models of triclinic transpression to natural brittle-ductile shear zones.

  18. Soil-structure interaction on inclined soil layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massa, G.; De Stefano, R.

    1983-01-01

    The case history presented deals with a Category I building having two-thirds of its base founded on a wedge of hard material. This wedge is underlain by an inclined layer of softer material, which also directly supports the remaining one-third of the foundation. The inclined layer is underlain by a third material, possessing large stiffness and extending to great depth. This case is analyzed with the methodology described below: - Determination of the static soil compliances by discretizing the foundation area into a number of strips and taking the soil profile as horizontally layered under each strip. Lumped parameter soil compliances for the whole foundation are obtained by weighting the contributions to stiffness in proportion to the area of each strip. - Definition of the degree of coupling between modes. The soil compliances defined in the previous step include coupling between the vertical and rocking modes and the horizontal and torsional modes through the positioning of the corresponding soil springs. The degree of coupling is checked through a static finite element analysis. - Frequency correction of the static soil compliances taking into account the inhomogeneity of the foundation conditions. The correction is based on obtaining dynamic stiffness coefficients for extreme configurations of the soil profile. - Assessment of the sliding potential of the structure under earthquake loading, considering eccentricities of the dynamic forces and non-uniform friction resistance over the foundation area, accounting for the frictional capacity of the different bearing materials. It is concluded that the simplified technique can provide accurate soil compliances, coupling and frequency corrections for soil-structure interaction on sloping layers, and an appropriate assessment of the sliding potential. (orig./HP)

  19. Sexual dimorphism and regional variation in human frontal bone inclination measured via digital 3D models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petaros, Anja; Garvin, Heather M; Sholts, Sabrina B; Schlager, Stefan; Wärmländer, Sebastian K T S

    2017-11-01

    The frontal bone is one of the most sexually dimorphic elements of the human skull, due to features such as the glabella, frontal eminences, and frontal inclination. While glabella is frequently evaluated in procedures to estimate sex in unknown human skeletal remains, frontal inclination has received less attention. In this study we present a straightforward, quick, and reproducible method for measuring frontal inclination angles from glabella and supraglabella. Using a sample of 413 human crania from four different populations (U.S. Whites, U.S. Blacks, Portuguese, and Chinese), we test the usefulness of the inclination angles for sex estimation and compare their performance to traditional methods of frontal inclination assessment. Accuracy rates in the range 75-81% were achieved for the U.S. White, U.S. Black, and Portuguese groups. For Chinese the overall accuracy was lower, i.e. 66%. Although some regional variation was observed, a cut-off value of 78.2° for glabellar inclination angles separates female and male crania from all studied populations with good accuracy. As inclination angles measured from glabella captures two sexually dimorphic features (i.e. glabellar prominence and frontal inclination) in a single measure, the observed clear male/female difference is not unexpected. Being continuous variables, inclination angles are suitable for use in statistical methods for sex estimations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Coordinating bracket torque and incisor inclination : Part 3: Validity of bracket torque values in achieving norm inclinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Bernd; Sino, Hiba

    2018-03-19

    To analyze common values of bracket torque (Andrews, Roth, MBT, Ricketts) for their validity in achieving incisor inclinations that are considered normal by different cephalometric standards. Using the equations developed in part 1 (eU1 (BOP) = 90° - BT (U1) - TCA (U1) + α 1 - α 2 and eL1 (BOP) = 90° - BT (L1) - TCA (L1) + β 1 - β 2 ) (abbreviations see part 1) and the mean values (± SD) obtained as statistical measures in parts 1 and 2 of the study (α 1 and β 1 [1.7° ± 0.7°], α 2 [3.6° ± 0.3°], β 2 [3.2° ± 0.4°], TCA (U1) [24.6° ± 3.6°] and TCA (L1) [22.9° ± 4.3°]) expected (= theoretically anticipated) values were calculated for upper and lower incisors (U1 and L1) and compared to targeted (= cephalometric norm) values. For U1, there was no overlapping between the ranges of expected and targeted values, as the lowest targeted value of (58.3°; Ricketts) was higher than the highest expected value (56.5°; Andrews) relative to the bisected occlusal plane (BOP). Thus all of these torque systems will aim for flatter inclinations than prescribed by any of the norm values. Depending on target values, the various bracket systems fell short by 1.8-5.5° (Andrews), 6.8-10.5° (Roth), 11.8-15.5° (MBT), or 16.8-20.5° (Ricketts). For L1, there was good agreement of the MBT system with the Ricketts and Björk target values (Δ0.1° and Δ-0.8°, respectively), and both the Roth and Ricketts systems came close to the Bergen target value (both Δ2.3°). Depending on target values, the ranges of deviation for L1 were 6.3-13.2° for Andrews (Class II prescription), 2.3°-9.2° for Roth, -3.7 to -3.2° for MBT, and 2.3-9.2° for Ricketts. Common values of upper incisor bracket torque do not have acceptable validity in achieving normal incisor inclinations. A careful selection of lower bracket torque may provide satisfactory matching with some of the targeted norm values.

  1. Exploring the Strategic Inclinations of Japanese Environmental NPOs in Post-Fukushima Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Heuer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Following Sine and David’s research on the potential of environmental jolts shifting the status quo in U.S. energy policy, we focus on the potential for environmental non-profit organizations in Japan to shift the status quo through institutional entrepreneurial efforts following the environmental jolt from the Fukushima nuclear power catastrophe. We evaluate the institutionalization of energy policy in Japan both pre- and post-Fukushima as the context for examining the potential for change in Japan’s energy policy. We utilize mixed qualitative and quantitative research methods to evaluate the attitudes and strategic inclinations of privately funded Japanese environmental non-profit organizations. Following Dreiling and Wolf’s model of material–organizational dependencies versus ideological motivations of non-profit organizations, we develop a typology to identify which, if any, segments of environmental Japanese non-profit organizations might pursue institutional entrepreneurial (Levy and Scully opportunities in support of renewable energy policy.

  2. Linearized transfer between inclined circular orbits using low-thrust blow down propulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kechichian, J. A.; White, L. K.

    1983-01-01

    Noncoplanar transfers between neighboring circular orbits are presented for spacecraft using their own low-thrust blow down propulsion system. It is assumed that the out-of-plane angle between the decaying thrust vector and the current orbit plane remains constant for each extended burn. Switching conditions are derived for the cutoff and relight of the propulsion system in order to carry out a given transfer with inclination change. Furthermore the location where the thrust acceleration is initially applied with respect to the line of nodes of the two orbits is uniquely determined. Finally an analytic derivation of the linearized coplanar motion for stationkeeping and terminal rendezvous studies is also presented and a scheme for deriving the second order correction shown.

  3. Mine water pollution studies in Chapha Incline, Umaria Coalfield, Eastern Madhya Pradesh, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathak, V.; Banerjee, A.K. [Hari Singh Gour University, Sagar (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1992-06-01

    Mining effects physical and chemical changes in the mine environment resulting in water pollution. Based on the geological distribution the coal mines in the state of Madhya Pradesh, the Coalfield can be categorised into three basins Northern, Southern and Satpura. The Northern belt lies along the Sone Valley whilst the Southern one lies within Mahanadi Valley and the Satpura basin lies south of the alluvial tract. Mine water pollution study reported in this paper is concerned with Chapha Incline, Umaria Coalfield in Eastern Madhya Pradesh. The water analysis was carried out on representative samples obtained from the site on pre-Monsoon and post-monsoon seasons, and reference samples were obtained from the area in the vicinity of the site of investigation. The samples were analysed in the laboratory for determining water quality parameters including trace element detection and microbial analyses. The chemical analysis results of mine water are presented in the form of Durov diagrams. 10 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Influence of inclined Lorentz forces on boundary layer flow of Casson fluid over an impermeable stretching sheet with heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdul Hakeem, A.K., E-mail: abdulhakeem6@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Sri Ramakrishna Mission Vidyalaya, College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore 641 020 (India); Renuka, P. [Department of Mathematics, Erode Sengunthar Engineering college, Erode 638 057 (India); Vishnu Ganesh, N.; Kalaivanan, R. [Department of Mathematics, Sri Ramakrishna Mission Vidyalaya, College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore 641 020 (India); Ganga, B. [Department of Mathematics, Providence College for Women, Coonoor 643 104 (India)

    2016-03-01

    The inclined magnetic field effect on the boundary layer flow of a Casson model non-Newtonian fluid over a stretching sheet in the existence of thermal radiation and velocity slip boundary condition is investigated for both prescribed surface temperature and power law of surface heat flux cases. It is assumed that the magnetic field is applied with an aligned angle which varied from 0° to 90°. Both analytical and numerical solutions are obtained for the transformed non-dimensional ODE's using confluent hypergeometric function and fourth order Runge–Kutta method with shooting technique respectively. The combined effects of inclined magnetic field with other pertinent parameters such as Casson parameter, velocity slip parameter, radiation parameter and Prandtl number on velocity profile, temperature profile, local skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt number and non-dimensional wall temperature are discussed through graphs. It is found that the aligned angle plays a vital role in controlling the magnetic field strength on the Casson fluid flow region and the increasing values of aligned angle of the magnetic field lead to decrease the skin friction coefficient and the Nusselt number and increase the non-dimensional wall temperature. - Highlights: • Casson fluid flow in the presence of inclined magnetic field is investigated for the first time. • Aligned angle controls the magnetic field strength on the boundary layer flow region. • The direction of Lorentz force changes according to aligned angle. • An excellent agreement is observed between present analytical and numerical results.

  5. The Effect of Leading-Edge Sweep and Surface Inclination on the Hypersonic Flow Field Over a Blunt Flat Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creager, Marcus O.

    1959-01-01

    An investigation of the effects of variation of leading-edge sweep and surface inclination on the flow over blunt flat plates was conducted at Mach numbers of 4 and 5.7 at free-stream Reynolds numbers per inch of 6,600 and 20,000, respectively. Surface pressures were measured on a flat plate blunted by a semicylindrical leading edge over a range of sweep angles from 0 deg to 60 deg and a range of surface inclinations from -10 deg to +10 deg. The surface pressures were predicted within an average error of +/- 8 percent by a combination of blast-wave and boundary-layer theory extended herein to include effects of sweep and surface inclination. This combination applied equally well to similar data of other investigations. The local Reynolds number per inch was found to be lower than the free-stream Reynolds number per inch. The reduction in local Reynolds number was mitigated by increasing the sweep of the leading edge. Boundary-layer thickness and shock-wave shape were changed little by the sweep of the leading edge.

  6. Inclusive Fitness Maximization:An Axiomatic Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Okasha, Samir; Weymark, John; Bossert, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Kin selection theorists argue that evolution in social contexts will lead organisms to behave as if maximizing their inclusive, as opposed to personal, fitness. The inclusive fitness concept allows biologists to treat organisms as akin to rational agents seeking to maximize a utility function. Here we develop this idea and place it on a firm footing by employing a standard decision-theoretic methodology. We show how the principle of inclusive fitness maximization and a related principle of qu...

  7. Frictional characteristics of erythrocytes on coated glass plates subject to inclined centrifugal forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandori, Takashi; Hayase, Toshiyuki; Inoue, Kousuke; Funamoto, Kenichi; Takeno, Takanori; Ohta, Makoto; Takeda, Motohiro; Shirai, Atsushi

    2008-10-01

    In recent years a diamond-like carbon (DLC) film and a 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) polymer have attracted attention as coating materials for implantable artificial organs or devices. When these materials are coated on vascular devices, compatibility to blood is an important problem. The present paper focuses on friction characteristics of erythrocytes to these coating materials in a medium. With an inclined centrifuge microscope developed by the authors, observation was made for erythrocytes moving on flat glass plates with and without coating in a medium of plasma or saline under the effect of inclined centrifugal force. Friction characteristics of erythrocytes with respect to these coating materials were then measured and compared to each other to characterize DLC and MPC as coating materials. The friction characteristics of erythrocytes in plasma using the DLC-coated and noncoated glass plates are similar, changing approximately proportional to the 0.5th power of the cell velocity. The cells stick to these plates in saline as well, implying the influence of plasma protein. The results using the MPC-coated plate in plasma are similar to those of the other plates for large cell velocities, but deviate from the other results with decreased cell velocity. The results change nearly proportional to the 0.75th power of the cell velocity in the range of small velocities. The results for the MPC-coated plate in saline are similar to that in plasma but somewhat smaller, implying that the friction characteristics for the MPC-coated plate are essentially independent of plasma protein.

  8. Influence of patient head positioning on measured axial tooth inclination in panoramic radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Timothy C; Suri, Lokesh; Stark, Paul

    2009-06-01

    Panoramic radiographs are routinely used to assess the mesiodistal axial inclination of teeth (MDAI) in orthodontic treatment. These radiographs are sensitive to minor deviations from standard head position that result in image distortions. The aim of this study is to measure and quantify the changes in MDAI on panoramic radiograph resulting from changes in patient head position. The testing devise was a human skull with guide wires placed on the facial surface of the teeth and alveolar process along the long axis of each tooth. Panoramic radiographs were captured digitally with the orientation of the skull in Frankfurt horizontal plane parallel to the floor and with 1 degrees , 2 degrees , 5 degrees , 7 degrees , and 10 degrees both superior and inferior rotations. The mesiodistal tooth angulations were determined using MIPAC software (DentalEye and LEAD Technologies, Inc. 2005). The more distal the position of the tooth in the arch the greater the change in MDAI with a change in vertical head position. A maximum change of approximately 10 degrees was observed in MDAI of both the maxillary and mandibular molars with a corresponding superior head tilt of 10 degrees. The Mandibular anteriors displayed significant inconsistencies in MDAI with both superior and inferior head tilt. A superior head tilt produced a greater change in mesiodistal angulation than did an inferior head tilt. Accurately taken panoramic radiographs can serve as a convenient tool for evaluating the MDAI before, during and after orthodontic treatment. Additional radiographs are recommended for the mandibular anteriors.

  9. The Effect of the Angle of Inclination on the Efficiency in a Medium-Temperature Flat Plate Solar Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Montoya-Marquez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this experimental work, the effects of the inclination angle β and the (Ti − Ta/G on the efficiency and the UL-value were investigated on a medium-temperature flat plate solar collector. The experiments were based on steady-state energy balance, by heat flow calorimetry at indoor conditions and considering the standard American National Standard Institute/American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ANSI/ASHRAE 93-2010. The solar radiation was emulated by the Joule effect using a proportional integral derivative (PID control considering two conditions of the absorber temperature, Case 1: (To − Ti > 0, and Case 2: (To − Ti = 0. The inclination angles were 0°–90° and the (Ti − Ta/G were 0.044–0.083 m2·°C/W and 0.124–0.235 for Case 1 and Case 2, respectively. The variations of β and (Ti − Ta/G cause efficiency changes up to 0.37–0.45 (21.6% and 0.31–0.45 (45.0%, respectively, for Case 1. Also, the UL(β reached changes up to 10.1–12.0 W/m2·°C (19.2% and 8.4–12.0 W/m2·°C (41.7%, respectively, for Case 1. The most significant changes of UL(β/UL(90° vs. β were 8.0% at the horizontal position for Case 1, while for Case 2, the maximum change was 1.8% only. Therefore, the changes of the inclination angle cause significant variations of the convective flow patterns within the collector, which leads to considerable variation of the collector efficiency and its UL value.

  10. Gap processing for adaptive maximal poisson-disk sampling

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming

    2013-10-17

    In this article, we study the generation of maximal Poisson-disk sets with varying radii. First, we present a geometric analysis of gaps in such disk sets. This analysis is the basis for maximal and adaptive sampling in Euclidean space and on manifolds. Second, we propose efficient algorithms and data structures to detect gaps and update gaps when disks are inserted, deleted, moved, or when their radii are changed.We build on the concepts of regular triangulations and the power diagram. Third, we show how our analysis contributes to the state-of-the-art in surface remeshing. © 2013 ACM.

  11. Lateral dynamic flight stability of a model hoverfly in normal and inclined stroke-plane hovering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Na; Sun, Mao

    2014-01-01

    Many insects hover with their wings beating in a horizontal plane (‘normal hovering’), while some insects, e.g., hoverflies and dragonflies, hover with inclined stroke-planes. Here, we investigate the lateral dynamic flight stability of a hovering model hoverfly. The aerodynamic derivatives are computed using the method of computational fluid dynamics, and the equations of motion are solved by the techniques of eigenvalue and eigenvector analysis. The following is shown: The flight of the insect is unstable at normal hovering (stroke-plane angle equals 0) and the instability becomes weaker as the stroke-plane angle increases; the flight becomes stable at a relatively large stroke-plane angle (larger than about 24°). As previously shown, the instability at normal hovering is due to a positive roll-moment/side-velocity derivative produced by the ‘changing-LEV-axial-velocity’ effect. When the stroke-plane angle increases, the wings bend toward the back of the body, and the ‘changing-LEV-axial-velocity’ effect decreases; in addition, another effect, called the ‘changing-relative-velocity’ effect (the ‘lateral wind’, which is due to the side motion of the insect, changes the relative velocity of its wings), becomes increasingly stronger. This causes the roll-moment/side-velocity derivative to first decrease and then become negative, resulting in the above change in stability as a function of the stroke-plane angle. (paper)

  12. Transaction cost analysis of in-clinic versus telehealth consultations for chronic pain: preliminary evidence for rapid and affordable access to interdisciplinary collaborative consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Brian R; Whittington, Jan; Towle, Cara; Tauben, David J; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara; Cahana, Alex; Doorenbos, Ardith Z

    2015-06-01

    With ever increasing mandates to reduce costs and increase the quality of pain management, health care institutions are faced with the challenge of adopting innovative technologies and shifting workflows to provide value-based care. Transaction cost economic analysis can provide comparative evaluation of the consequences of these changes in the delivery of care. The aim of this study was to establish proof-of-concept using transaction cost analysis to examine chronic pain management in-clinic and through telehealth. Participating health care providers were asked to identify and describe two comparable completed transactions for patients with chronic pain: one consultation between patient and specialist in-clinic and the other a telehealth presentation of a patient's case by the primary care provider to a team of pain medicine specialists. Each provider completed two on-site interviews. Focus was on the time, value of time, and labor costs per transaction. Number of steps, time, and costs for providers and patients were identified. Forty-six discrete steps were taken for the in-clinic transaction, and 27 steps were taken for the telehealth transaction. Although similar in costs per patient ($332.89 in-clinic vs. $376.48 telehealth), the costs accrued over 153 business days in-clinic and 4 business days for telehealth. Time elapsed between referral and completion of initial consultation was 72 days in-clinic, 4 days for telehealth. U.S. health care is moving toward the use of more technologies and practices, and the information provided by transaction cost analyses of care delivery for pain management will be important to determine actual cost savings and benefits. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Value maximizing maintenance policies under general repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marais, Karen B.

    2013-01-01

    One class of maintenance optimization problems considers the notion of general repair maintenance policies where systems are repaired or replaced on failure. In each case the optimality is based on minimizing the total maintenance cost of the system. These cost-centric optimizations ignore the value dimension of maintenance and can lead to maintenance strategies that do not maximize system value. This paper applies these ideas to the general repair optimization problem using a semi-Markov decision process, discounted cash flow techniques, and dynamic programming to identify the value-optimal actions for any given time and system condition. The impact of several parameters on maintenance strategy, such as operating cost and revenue, system failure characteristics, repair and replacement costs, and the planning time horizon, is explored. This approach provides a quantitative basis on which to base maintenance strategy decisions that contribute to system value. These decisions are different from those suggested by traditional cost-based approaches. The results show (1) how the optimal action for a given time and condition changes as replacement and repair costs change, and identifies the point at which these costs become too high for profitable system operation; (2) that for shorter planning horizons it is better to repair, since there is no time to reap the benefits of increased operating profit and reliability; (3) how the value-optimal maintenance policy is affected by the system's failure characteristics, and hence whether it is worthwhile to invest in higher reliability; and (4) the impact of the repair level on the optimal maintenance policy. -- Highlights: •Provides a quantitative basis for maintenance strategy decisions that contribute to system value. •Shows how the optimal action for a given condition changes as replacement and repair costs change. •Shows how the optimal policy is affected by the system's failure characteristics. •Shows when it is

  14. Aerodynamics of wing-assisted incline running in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobalske, Bret W; Dial, Kenneth P

    2007-05-01

    Wing-assisted incline running (WAIR) is a form of locomotion in which a bird flaps its wings to aid its hindlimbs in climbing a slope. WAIR is used for escape in ground birds, and the ontogeny of this behavior in precocial birds has been suggested to represent a model analogous to transitional adaptive states during the evolution of powered avian flight. To begin to reveal the aerodynamics of flap-running, we used digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) and measured air velocity, vorticity, circulation and added mass in the wake of chukar partridge Alectoris chukar as they engaged in WAIR (incline 65-85 degrees; N=7 birds) and ascending flight (85 degrees, N=2). To estimate lift and impulse, we coupled our DPIV data with three-dimensional wing kinematics from a companion study. The ontogeny of lift production was evaluated using three age classes: baby birds incapable of flight [6-8 days post hatching (d.p.h.)] and volant juveniles (25-28 days) and adults (45+ days). All three age classes of birds, including baby birds with partially emerged, symmetrical wing feathers, generated circulation with their wings and exhibited a wake structure that consisted of discrete vortex rings shed once per downstroke. Impulse of the vortex rings during WAIR was directed 45+/-5 degrees relative to horizontal and 21+/-4 degrees relative to the substrate. Absolute values of circulation in vortex cores and induced velocity increased with increasing age. Normalized circulation was similar among all ages in WAIR but 67% greater in adults during flight compared with flap-running. Estimated lift during WAIR was 6.6% of body weight in babies and between 63 and 86% of body weight in juveniles and adults. During flight, average lift was 110% of body weight. Our results reveal for the first time that lift from the wings, rather than wing inertia or profile drag, is primarily responsible for accelerating the body toward the substrate during WAIR, and that partially developed wings, not yet

  15. Percentiles relative to maxillary permanent canine inclination by age: a radiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandri Bonetti, Giulio; Zanarini, Matteo; Danesi, Margherita; Parenti, Serena Incerti; Gatto, Maria Rosaria

    2009-10-01

    Few studies have investigated developmental norms for maxillary permanent canine eruption. In this observational cross-sectional study, we aimed to provide an age-related description of the percentiles relative to canine inclination in a large sample of nonorthodontic patients. Associations between inclination and sector were also analyzed. Canine inclination and sector location were measured on 1020 panoramic radiographs obtained from subjects of white ancestry aged between 8 and 11 years not seeking orthodontic treatment. The total sample comprised 2037 canines. Canine inclination increases between 8 and 9 years and decreases between 9 and 11 years. The greatest value for each percentile is at 9 years. A linear model should be hypothesized for differences in canine inclination between 2 successive ages in correspondence to each percentile. The proportion of sector 2 canines decreases and that of sector 1 increases with age. In the same age group, the inclination generally decreases as the sector decreases. Percentiles by age show the average canine inclination in a certain population. Further studies are required to verify whether percentiles can be a diagnostic aid for determining normal canine inclination at a given age and for quantifying the risk of canine impaction or adjacent root resorption.

  16. Variation of the Friction Coefficient for a Cylinder Rolling down an Inclined Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zixiang; Xia, Heming; Lan, Yueheng; Xiao, Jinghua

    2018-01-01

    A cylinder rolling down an inclined board is a commonly seen and interesting object to study and it is also easy to experiment with and model. Following what has become a popular practice, we use smartphones to measure the angular acceleration of a cylinder rolling down a plane of different inclining angles. The friction force deviates from the…

  17. The effect of surfactants on upward air-water pipe flow at various inclinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nimwegen, A.T.; Portela, L.; Henkes, R.A.W.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we extend our previous efforts on the effect of surfactants on air-water flow in a vertical pipe by also considering pipe inclinations between 20° (with respect to horizontal) and vertical. For air-water flow, independent of the inclination, there is a regular annular flow at large

  18. Financial Management Practices, Wealth Maximization Criterion and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the field of financial management, shareholders wealth maximization is often seen as the desirable goal not only from the shareholders perspective but for the society at large; with the firm's primary goal aimed mainly at maximizing the wealth of its shareholders. This study thus aimed at determining the impact of the core ...

  19. Maximally differential ideals in regular local rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    may either be maximally differential under a set of derivations or a set of higher derivations,. i.e, Hasse–Schmidt derivations. We also extend our result (Theorem 4 of [7]) about the structure of a maximally differ- ential ideal in positive characteristic to unequal characteristic case. 2. Results. By a ring we mean a commutative ...

  20. Experimental investigation of thermal conductivity coefficient and heat exchange between fluidized bed and inclined exchange surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Stojanovic

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents experimental research of thermal conductivity coefficients of the siliceous sand bed fluidized by air and an experimental investigation of the particle size influence on the heat transfer coefficient between fluidized bed and inclined exchange surfaces. The measurements were performed for the specific fluidization velocity and sand particle diameters d p=0.3, 0.5, 0.9 mm. The industrial use of fluidized beds has been increasing rapidly in the past 20 years owing to their useful characteristics. One of the outstanding characteristics of a fluidized bed is that it tends to maintain a uniform temperature even with nonuniform heat release. On the basis of experimental research, the influence of the process's operational parameters on the obtained values of the bed's thermal conductivity has been analyzed. The results show direct dependence of thermal conductivity on the intensity of mixing, the degree of fluidization, and the size of particles. In the axial direction, the coefficients that have been treated have values a whole order higher than in the radial direction. Comparison of experimental research results with experimental results of other authors shows good agreement and the same tendency of thermal conductivity change. It is well known in the literature that the value of the heat transfer coefficient is the highest in the horizontal and the smallest in the vertical position of the heat exchange surface. Variation of heat transfer, depending on inclination angle is not examined in detail. The difference between the values of the relative heat transfer coefficient between vertical and horizontal heater position for all particle sizes reduces by approximately 15% with the increase of fluidization rate.

  1. Inclusive fitness maximization: An axiomatic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okasha, Samir; Weymark, John A; Bossert, Walter

    2014-06-07

    Kin selection theorists argue that evolution in social contexts will lead organisms to behave as if maximizing their inclusive, as opposed to personal, fitness. The inclusive fitness concept allows biologists to treat organisms as akin to rational agents seeking to maximize a utility function. Here we develop this idea and place it on a firm footing by employing a standard decision-theoretic methodology. We show how the principle of inclusive fitness maximization and a related principle of quasi-inclusive fitness maximization can be derived from axioms on an individual׳s 'as if preferences' (binary choices) for the case in which phenotypic effects are additive. Our results help integrate evolutionary theory and rational choice theory, help draw out the behavioural implications of inclusive fitness maximization, and point to a possible way in which evolution could lead organisms to implement it. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Maximal Entanglement in High Energy Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Cervera-Lierta, José I. Latorre, Juan Rojo, Luca Rottoli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyze how maximal entanglement is generated at the fundamental level in QED by studying correlations between helicity states in tree-level scattering processes at high energy. We demonstrate that two mechanisms for the generation of maximal entanglement are at work: i $s$-channel processes where the virtual photon carries equal overlaps of the helicities of the final state particles, and ii the indistinguishable superposition between $t$- and $u$-channels. We then study whether requiring maximal entanglement constrains the coupling structure of QED and the weak interactions. In the case of photon-electron interactions unconstrained by gauge symmetry, we show how this requirement allows reproducing QED. For $Z$-mediated weak scattering, the maximal entanglement principle leads to non-trivial predictions for the value of the weak mixing angle $\\theta_W$. Our results are a first step towards understanding the connections between maximal entanglement and the fundamental symmetries of high-energy physics.

  3. Aging and loss decision making: increased risk aversion and decreased use of maximizing information, with correlated rationality and value maximization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnianingsih, Yoanna A; Sim, Sam K Y; Chee, Michael W L; Mullette-Gillman, O'Dhaniel A

    2015-01-01

    We investigated how adult aging specifically alters economic decision-making, focusing on examining alterations in uncertainty preferences (willingness to gamble) and choice strategies (what gamble information influences choices) within both the gains and losses domains. Within each domain, participants chose between certain monetary outcomes and gambles with uncertain outcomes. We examined preferences by quantifying how uncertainty modulates choice behavior as if altering the subjective valuation of gambles. We explored age-related preferences for two types of uncertainty, risk, and ambiguity. Additionally, we explored how aging may alter what information participants utilize to make their choices by comparing the relative utilization of maximizing and satisficing information types through a choice strategy metric. Maximizing information was the ratio of the expected value of the two options, while satisficing information was the probability of winning. We found age-related alterations of economic preferences within the losses domain, but no alterations within the gains domain. Older adults (OA; 61-80 years old) were significantly more uncertainty averse for both risky and ambiguous choices. OA also exhibited choice strategies with decreased use of maximizing information. Within OA, we found a significant correlation between risk preferences and choice strategy. This linkage between preferences and strategy appears to derive from a convergence to risk neutrality driven by greater use of the effortful maximizing strategy. As utility maximization and value maximization intersect at risk neutrality, this result suggests that OA are exhibiting a relationship between enhanced rationality and enhanced value maximization. While there was variability in economic decision-making measures within OA, these individual differences were unrelated to variability within examined measures of cognitive ability. Our results demonstrate that aging alters economic decision-making for

  4. Efficient light trapping in silicon inclined nanohole arrays for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Can; Tan, Xinyu; Jiang, Lihua; Tu, Yiteng; Ye, Mao; Yi, Yasha

    2018-01-01

    Structural design with high light absorption is the key challenge for thin film solar cells because of its poor absorption. In this paper, the light-trapping performance of silicon inclined nanohole arrays is systematically studied. The finite difference time domain method is used to calculate the optical absorption of different inclination angles in different periods and diameters. The results indicate that the inclined nanoholes with inclination angles between 5° and 45° demonstrate greater light-trapping ability than their counterparts of the vertical nanoholes, and they also show that by choosing the optimal parameters for the inclined nanoholes, a 31.2 mA/cm2 short circuit photocurrent density could be achieved, which is 10.25% higher than the best vertical nanohole system and 105.26% higher than bare silicon with a thickness of 2330 nm. The design principle proposed in this work gives a guideline for choosing reasonable parameters in the application of solar cells.

  5. Experimental Study of Natural Convection Cooling of Vertical Cylinders with Inclined Plate Fins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Bum Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, natural convection from vertical cylinders with inclined plate fins is investigated experimentally for use in cooling electronic equipment. Extensive experimental investigations are performed for various inclination angles, fin numbers, and base temperatures. From the experimental data, a correlation for estimating the Nusselt number is proposed. The correlation is applicable when the Rayleigh number, inclination angle, and fin number are in the ranges 100,000–600,000, 30°–90°, and 9–36, respectively. Using the correlation, a contour map depicting the thermal resistance as a function of the fin number and fin thickness is presented. Finally, the optimal thermal resistances of cylinders with inclined plate fins and conventional radial plate fins are compared. It is found that that the optimal thermal resistance of the cylinder with inclined fins is 30% lower than that of the cylinder with radial plate fins.

  6. Numerical Analysis of Aerodynamic Characteristics of the Finned Surfaces with Cross-inclined Fins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagutin A. E.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of numerical research and analyses air-side hydraulic performance of tube bundles with cross inclined fins. The numerical simulation of the fin-tube heat exchanger was performed using the Comsol Femlab software. The results of modeling show the influence of fin inclination angle and tube pitch on hydraulic characteristics of finned surfaces. A series of numerical tests were carried out for tube bundles with different inclination angles (γ =900, 850, 650, 60, the fin pitch u=4 mm. The results indicate that tube bundles with cross inclined fins can significantly enhance the average integral value of the air flow rate in channel between fins in comparison with conventional straight fins. Aerodynamic processes on both sides of modificated channel between inclined fins were analyzed. The verification procedures for received results of numerical modeling with experimental data were performed.

  7. Optical performance of inclined south-north axis three-positions tracked solar panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Hao; Li, Guihua; Tang, Runsheng; Dong, Wenli

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the optical performance of solar panels with a new sun-tracking technique was theoretically investigated based on the proposed mathematical method and monthly horizontal radiation. The mechanism of the investigated sun-tracking is that the attitude angle of solar panels is daily adjusted three times at three fixed positions: eastward, southward, and westward in the morning, noon, and afternoon, respectively, by rotating solar panels about the inclined south-north axis (ISNA-3P sun-tracking). Calculation results showed that, for ISNA-3P tracked solar panels with a yearly fixed tilt-angle of the ISNA, the maximum annual collectible radiation on ISNA-3P tracked solar panels was about 93% of that on a solar panel with 2-axis sun-tracking; whereas for those with the ISNA being yearly adjusted four times at three fixed tilt-angles, it was about 96%. Results also indicated that the attempt to further increase the annual solar gain on ISNA-3P tracked solar panels by seasonally optimizing design of the sun-tracking system for maximizing solar gain in each of four seasons was not efficient, and thus not advisable in practical applications. Optimal parametric designs of such sun-tracking system for maximizing the annual solar gain on solar panels in different cases were also presented. -- Research highlights: → The paper presented a new sun-tracking technique (ISNA-3P) for possible applications in PV generating systems. → Algorithms to estimate daily collectible radiation on the fixed, 2-axis and ISNA-3P tracked solar panels were proposed based on solar geometry and monthly horizontal radiation. → A detailed theoretical study on the optical performance of such tracked solar panels in terms of R 3P-0 and R 3P-2 , the ratios of maximum annual solar gain to that on fixed and 2-axis tracked solar panels; optimal parameters affecting the optical performance of the systems were presented in the different cases. → Results showed that such sun-tracking system

  8. Maximal inequalities for bessel processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graversen SE

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available It is proved that the uniform law of large numbers (over a random parameter set for the -dimensional ( Bessel process started at 0 is valid: for all stopping times for . The rate obtained (on the right-hand side is shown to be the best possible. The following inequality is gained as a consequence: for all stopping times for , where the constant satisfies as . This answers a question raised in [4]. The method of proof relies upon representing the Bessel process as a time changed geometric Brownian motion. The main emphasis of the paper is on the method of proof and on the simplicity of solution.

  9. Stability of film boiling on inclined plates and spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aursand, Eskil; Hammer, Morten; Munkejord, Svend Tollak; Müller, Bernhard; Ytrehus, Tor

    2017-11-01

    In film boiling, a continuous sub-millimeter vapor film forms between a liquid and a heated surface, insulating the two from each other. While quite accurate steady state solutions are readily obtained, the intermediate Reynolds numbers can make transient analysis challenging. The present work is a theoretical study of film boiling instabilities. We study the formation of travelling waves that are a combination of Kelvin-Helmholtz and the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. In particular, we study how the nature of this process depends on the Reynolds number, the Bond number, and the inclination of the submerged heated plate. In addition we extend the analysis to the case of a submerged heated sphere. Modelling of the transient dynamics of such films is important for answering practical questions such as how instabilities affect the overall heat transfer, and whether they can lead to complete film boiling collapse (Leidenfrost point). This work has been financed under the MAROFF program. We acknowledge the Research Council of Norway (244076/O80) and The Gas Technology Centre NTNU-SINTEF (GTS) for support.

  10. Articular Eminence Inclination in Medieval and Contemporary Croatian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranjčić, Josip; Šlaus, Mario; Vodanović, Marin; Peršić, Sanja; Vojvodić, Denis

    2016-12-01

    Articular eminence inclination (AEI) of the temporomandibular joint leads the mandible in its movements. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine AEI values in medieval (MP) and recent (RP) Croatian population. The study was carried out on two groups of specimens: first group with 30 MP human dry skulls, while the other, serving as control group consisted of 137 dry skulls. The AEI was measured on lateral digital skull images as the angle between the best fi t line drawn along the posterior wall of the articular eminence and the Frankfurt horizontal plane. No statistically significant (p>0.05) differences between the left and right side AEI were found between MP skulls and RP skulls. The mean value of MP AEI was 45.5˚, with a range of 20.9˚-64˚. The mean RP AEI value was steeper (61.99˚), with a range of 30˚-94˚. Difference between the mean MP and RP AEI values was statistically significant (pmedieval time, and consequently different masticatory loads and forces.

  11. Evaluation of primary stability of inclined orthodontic mini-implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Mizuki

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the initial stability of mini-implants when placed slanting or perpendicular to the bone surface, and to examine the effects of differences in tractional direction. Titanium mini-implants were inserted into rabbit nasal bones, slanting (60 degrees , 120 degrees ) or perpendicular (90 degrees ) to the bone surface. These implants were then loaded with a force of approximately 2 N, using a NiTi coil spring. The mobilities on the traction and non-traction sides were assessed using the Periotest device immediately after placement and after traction for two weeks. Then, the tissues with the mini-implants were resected, and the contact between the bone and the implant was examined by electron microscopy. There was a tendency for the mobilities of the mini-implants at 60 degrees and 120 degrees to be smaller than those at 90 degrees when measured before and after traction. The bone-implant contact lengths at 60 degrees were significantly longer than those at 90 degrees . There was no significant difference in the bone-implant contact ratio among the different angles. Correlations were evident between implant mobility and contact length or contact ratio. It is concluded that in clinical practice, implants inclined to the bone surface tend to have better primary stability.

  12. Fluorescence intensity dependence on the propagation plane inclination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.E.; Rubio, Marcelo; Sanchez, H. J.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental confirmation of the fluorescence intensity behaviour with the inclination of the propagation plane (α angle) was carried out. A special angular sample-holder was developed and set up on our X-ray spectrometer. This sample-holder allows different positions of irradiation of the sample modifying the α angle until the maximum angle (α Μ ) is reached in the limit situation. In this work, this maximum angle was 86 deg and the incidence and take off angles were both 45 deg. The sample-holder and the collimation system were carefully lined up. The fluorescent spectra of three National Bureau of Standards (NBS) standard samples were taken for sixteen different α angle positions. The theoretical scheme for both enhanced fluorescent lines and nonenhanced fluorescent lines was confirmed, i.e. the invariance of the primary intensity with the α angle and the decline of the enhanced fluorescence intensities under the same conditions. This experimental confirmation agrees with theoretical prediction: the vanishing of the secondary fluorescence in the extreme case α = π/2. (Author) [es

  13. Real-time traffic management to maximize throughput of automated vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    In intelligent transportation systems, most of the research work has focused on lane change assistant : systems. No existing work considers minimizing the disruption of traffic flow by maximizing the number : of lane changes while eliminating the col...

  14. Lower skin temperature decreases maximal cycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Daiki; Okazaki, Kazunobu; Matsumura, Shinya; Suzuki, Takashi; Miyazawa, Taiki; Suzuki, Akina; Takeda, Ryosuke; Hamamoto, Takeshi; Zako, Tetsuo; Kawabata, Takashi; Miyagawa, Toshiaki

    2011-12-01

    It is known that external cooling of body regions involved in exercise, prior to exercise, decreases anaerobic performance. However, there have been no studies reporting the effects of whole body skin surface cooling before exercise on maximal anaerobic capacity. In order to clarify the effects, we compared power output during the Wingate anaerobic test between preconditioning by exposure to temperature 10 degrees C and 25 degrees C. Eight healthy males carried out the Wingate test for 30 seconds, after pre-conditioning for 60 minutes using a perfusion suit with water at a temperature of 10 degrees C or 25 degrees C. We evaluated the peak power (PP) and peak power slope (PS) of the power output. Mean skin temperature (T(sk)) at 60 minutes of pre-conditioning in the 10 degrees C trial was significantly lower than in the 25 degrees C trial (p < 0.05). PP and also PS were significantly lower in the 10 degrees C trial than in the 25 degrees C trial. Changes (Δ) in PP between the 10 degrees C trial and the 25 degrees C trial were strongly correlated with ΔT(sk) and Δ in thigh and leg skin temperature (ΔT(thigh) and ΔT(leg), respectively), whereas ΔPS was strongly correlated with ΔT(sk), but not with ΔT(thigh) and ΔT(leg). Whole body skin surface cooling prior to exercise restricts anaerobic capacity, especially in the initial phase of exercise.

  15. An ethical justification of profit maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    2010-01-01

    In much of the literature on business ethics and corporate social responsibility, it is more or less taken for granted that attempts to maximize profits are inherently unethical. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether an ethical argument can be given in support of profit maximizing...... behaviour. It is argued that some form of consequential ethics must be applied, and that both profit seeking and profit maximization can be defended from a rule-consequential point of view. It is noted, however, that the result does not apply unconditionally, but requires that certain form of profit (and...

  16. Radiography method mprising determination of corrected absorption values for members of sets of mutually inclined beam paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLeMay, C.A.G.

    1978-01-01

    An x-ray apparatus is described for examining a body including a source of a fan of radiation and detectors of the radiation along beams in the fan are transversed in a plane to provide data for a number of sets of parallel beams in the plane. An orbital motion is provided to give data for further sets at different inclinations in the plane. The data can be processed by arrangements using such parallel sets. The orbital motion is continuous but the extent of angular change in one lateral scan is kept small so that lack of parallelism in the parallel sets does not give excessive errors

  17. Energy, complexity and wealth maximization

    CERN Document Server

    Ayres, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This book is about the mechanisms of wealth creation, or what we like to think of as evolutionary “progress”. For the modern economy, natural wealth consists of complex physical structures of condensed (“frozen”) energy – mass - maintained in the earth’s crust far from thermodynamic equilibrium. However, we usually perceive wealth as created when mutation or “invention” – a change agent - introduces something different, and fitter, and usually after some part of the natural wealth of the planet has been exploited in an episode of “creative destruction”. Selection out of the resulting diversity is determined by survival in a competitive environment, whether a planet, a habitat, or a market. While human wealth is associated with money and what it can buy, it is ultimately based on natural wealth, both as materials transformed into useful artifacts, and how those artifacts, activated by energy, can create and transmit useful information. Humans have learned how to transform natural wealth i...

  18. Revealing strong bias in common measures of galaxy properties using new inclination-independent structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devour, Brian M.; Bell, Eric F.

    2017-06-01

    Accurate measurement of galaxy structures is a prerequisite for quantitative investigation of galaxy properties or evolution. Yet, the impact of galaxy inclination and dust on commonly used metrics of galaxy structure is poorly quantified. We use infrared data sets to select inclination-independent samples of disc and flattened elliptical galaxies. These samples show strong variation in Sérsic index, concentration and half-light radii with inclination. We develop novel inclination-independent galaxy structures by collapsing the light distribution in the near-infrared on to the major axis, yielding inclination-independent 'linear' measures of size and concentration. With these new metrics we select a sample of Milky Way analogue galaxies with similar stellar masses, star formation rates, sizes and concentrations. Optical luminosities, light distributions and spectral properties are all found to vary strongly with inclination: When inclining to edge-on, r-band luminosities dim by >1 magnitude, sizes decrease by a factor of 2, 'dust-corrected' estimates of star formation rate drop threefold, metallicities decrease by 0.1 dex and edge-on galaxies are half as likely to be classified as star forming. These systematic effects should be accounted for in analyses of galaxy properties.

  19. Influence of Cusp Inclination and Type of Retention on Fracture Load of Implant-Supported Crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Cibele Oliveira de Melo; Longhini, Diogo; Pereira, Rodrigo de Paula; Arioli, João Neudenir

    2017-01-01

    There are few informations about the influence of cusp inclination on the fracture strength of implant-supported crowns. The study aimed to evaluate the influence of cusp inclination and retention type on fracture load in implant-supported metal-ceramic single crowns. Sixty crowns were made, classified as cemented and screw-retained with screw access hole (SAH) sealed or not. Standard (33°) and reduced (20°) cusp inclinations were tested for each group (n=10). To support crowns of a mandibular second molar, analogs of external hexagon implants 5.0 were used. The fracture load was measured in a universal testing machine EMIC DL2000 (10 kN load cell; 0.5 mm/min). Two-way ANOVA (retention and cusp inclination) followed by post hoc Tukey's honest significant difference test was used for the statistical analyses (a=0.05). Crowns with reduced cusp inclination exhibited significantly higher fracture load (pcrowns with standard cusp inclination. Cemented crowns showed significantly higher fracture load (pcrowns. The interaction among these factors was not significant (p>0.05) for the fracture load. The sealing of SAH did not influence the fracture load of screw-retained crowns (p>0.05). In conclusion, fracture load of implant-supported metal-ceramic crowns was influenced by retention and cusp inclination, and there was no influence of the sealing of SAH.

  20. Influence of dental chair backrest inclination on the registration of the mandibular position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Mariana Freire; Cavalcanti, Bruno das Neves; Claro Neves, Ana Christina; Jóias, Renata Pilli; Rode, Sigmar de Mello

    2015-11-01

    Varying the inclination of the dental chair backrest might alter the distribution of occlusal contact points. The purpose of this study was to identify the influence of backrest inclination on the registration of the mandibular position. Ten participants aged between 18 and 30 years with a complete permanent dentition, uncompromised motor function, no tooth mobility, and no temporomandibular disorders were selected. To register interocclusal contacts, an autopolymerizing methylmethacrylate device was adapted to the maxillary anterior teeth and a composite resin increment was added to the mandibular central incisors. Contacts were registered with the following variations in the inclination of the dental chair backrest: 90 degrees, 120 degrees, and 180 degrees. A standardized digital photograph was made of each mark in each backrest position, and the images were superimposed to measure the distances in registration from 90 to 120 and from 90 to 180 degrees. Data were analyzed with the Student paired t test (α=.05). When the chair was inclined from the 90-degree to the 120-degree position, the mandible was repositioned posteriorly by a mean of 0.67 mm, but the difference was not statistically significant. When the chair was inclined from the 90-degree to the 180-degree position, however, the mandible was repositioned posteriorly by a statistically significant mean of 1.41 mm. Mandibular position is influenced by increasing inclination, and this influence was statistically significant at a 180-degree incline. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Treating domestic sewage by Integrated Inclined-Plate-Membrane bio-reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Li Ming; Wang, Zi; Chen, Lei; Zhong, Min; Dong, Zhan Feng

    2017-12-01

    Membrane fouling shorten the service life of the membrane and increases aeration rate for membrane surface cleaning. Two membrane bio-reactors, one for working and another for comparing, were set up to evaluate the feasibility of alleviating membrane fouling and improving wastewater treatment efficiency by integrating inclined-plate precipitation and membrane separation. The result show that: (1) Inclined-plate in reactor had a good effect on pollutant removal of membrane bioreactor. The main role of inclined-plate is dividing reactor space and accelerating precipitation. (2) Working reactor have better performance in COD, TN and TP removal, which can attribute to that working reactor (integrated inclined-plate-Membrane bioreactor) takes both advantages of membrane separation and biological treatment. When influent COD, TP and TN concentration is 163-248 mg/L, 2.08-2.81 mg/L and 24.38-30.49 mg/L in working reactor, effluent concentration is 27-35 mg/L, 0.53-0.59 mg/L and 11.28-11.56 mg/L, respectively. (3) Membrane fouling was well alleviated in integrated inclined-plate-Membrane bioreactor, and membrane normal service time is significantly longer than that in comparing reactor, which can attribute to accelerating precipitation of inclined-plate. In summary, integrated inclined-plate-Membrane bioreactor is a promising technology to alleviating membrane fouling and improving wastewater treatment efficiency, having good performance and bright future in application.

  2. The effect of an inclined landing surface on biomechanical variables during a jumping task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagins, Marshall; Pappas, Evangelos; Kremenic, Ian; Orishimo, Karl F; Rundle, Andrew

    2007-11-01

    Professional dancers sustain a high number of injuries. Epidemiological studies have suggested that performing on inclined "raked" stages increases the likelihood of injury. However, no studies have examined if biomechanical differences exist between inclined and flat surfaces during functional tasks, such as landing from a jump. Such differences may provide a biomechanical rationale for differences in injury risk for raked stages. Eight professional dancers performed drop jumps from a 40cm platform on flat and inclined surfaces while forces, lower extremity kinematics, and electromyographic activity were collected in a controlled laboratory environment. Dancers landed on the laterally inclined surface with significantly higher knee valgus (4 degrees ), peak knee flexion (9 degrees ), and medial-lateral ground reaction force (GRF) (13.4% body weight) compared to the flat condition. The posterior GRF was higher in the anterior inclined condition compared to the flat condition. In the anterior inclined condition, subjects landed with 1.4 degrees higher knee valgus, 4 degrees more plantarflexion at initial contact, and 3 degrees less dorsiflexion at the end of landing. Biomechanical variables that have been suggested to contribute to injury in previous studies are increased in the inclined floor conditions. These findings provide a preliminary biomechanical rationale for differences in injury rates found in observational studies of raked stages.

  3. Maximal supergravities and the E10 model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinschmidt, Axel; Nicolai, Hermann

    2006-01-01

    The maximal rank hyperbolic Kac-Moody algebra e 10 has been conjectured to play a prominent role in the unification of duality symmetries in string and M theory. We review some recent developments supporting this conjecture

  4. Maximizing Function through Intelligent Robot Actuator Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Maximizing Function through Intelligent Robot Actuator Control Successful missions to Mars and beyond will only be possible with the support of high-performance...

  5. Independent Component Analysis by Entropy Maximization (INFOMAX)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garvey, Jennie H

    2007-01-01

    ... (BSS). The Infomax method separates unknown source signals from a number of signal mixtures by maximizing the entropy of a transformed set of signal mixtures and is accomplished by performing gradient ascent in MATLAB...

  6. Bipartite Bell Inequality and Maximal Violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ming; Fei Shaoming; Li-Jost Xian-Qing

    2011-01-01

    We present new bell inequalities for arbitrary dimensional bipartite quantum systems. The maximal violation of the inequalities is computed. The Bell inequality is capable of detecting quantum entanglement of both pure and mixed quantum states more effectively. (general)

  7. A definition of maximal CP-violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, M.

    1985-01-01

    The unitary matrix of quark flavour mixing is parametrized in a general way, permitting a mathematically natural definition of maximal CP violation. Present data turn out to violate this definition by 2-3 standard deviations. (orig.)

  8. Comparison of the buccolingual inclination in alveolar bone and tooth using dental CBCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Jin Soo; Kim, Jae Duk

    2008-01-01

    It is important to determine the bucco-lingual inclination of implants on radiographs before the implant surgery. The purpose of this study was to compare the buccolingual inclination in alveolar bone and the tooth with dental cone beam CT and to prepare the standard for the buccolingual inclination of implant. Axial, panoramic, and buccolingually sectioned images of 80 implant cases with stent including straight marker using CB Mercuray TM (Hitachi, Japan) were evaluated. The comparison of the buccolingual inclination of remained alveolar bone with the tooth and the marker on buccolingually sectioned views was performed statistically. The average buccolingual inclination of remained alveolar bone and tooth was 82.8 ± 4.6 .deg. C and 85.8 ± 4.7 .deg. C (p 0.05, r=0.12) at the 2nd premolar area in upper jaw. The average buccolingual inclination of remained alveolar bone and tooth was 81.3 ± 8.3 .deg. C and 87.5 ± 6.3 .deg. C (p>0.05, r=0.85) at the lower 2nd premolar area and 94.3 ± 6.6 .deg. C and 93.3 ± 7.2 .deg. C respectively (p>0.05, r=0.91) at the 1st molar area in lower jaw. The inclinations of markers were very different from those of remained bone at the most of areas except the upper 2nd premolar area (r=0.79). We recommend dental CBCT analysis for determining the buccolingual inclination of dental implant, because of significant difference, in average, between the buccolingual inclination of remained alveolar bone and tooth.

  9. Gravimetric sensors operating at 1.1 GHz based on inclined c-axis ZnO grown on textured Al electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rughoobur, Girish; DeMiguel-Ramos, Mario; Escolano, José-Miguel; Iborra, Enrique; Flewitt, Andrew John

    2017-05-02

    Shear mode solidly mounted resonators (SMRs) are fabricated using an inclined c-axis ZnO grown on a rough Al electrode. The roughness of the Al surface is controlled by changing the substrate temperature during the deposition process to promote the growth of inclined ZnO microcrystals. The optimum substrate temperature to obtain homogeneously inclined c-axis grains in ZnO films is achieved by depositing Al at 100 °C with a surface roughness ~9.2 nm, which caused an inclination angle of ~25° of the ZnO c-axis with respect to the surface normal. Shear mode devices with quality-factors at resonance, Q r and effective electromechanical coupling factors, [Formula: see text], as high as 180 and 3.4% are respectively measured. Mass sensitivities, S m of (4.9 ± 0.1) kHz · cm 2 /ng and temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF) of ~-67 ppm/K are obtained using this shear mode. The performance of the devices as viscosity sensors and biosensors is demonstrated by determining the frequency shifts of water-ethanol mixtures and detection of Rabbit immunoglobin G (IgG) whole molecule (H&L) respectively.

  10. To Compare Time-Weighted Graphs to Evaluate the Inclination of the Acetabular Component of Patients Who Had Total Hip Replacement Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leman Tomak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Time-weighted graphs are used to detect small shifts in statistical process control. The aim of this study is to evaluate the inclination of the acetabular component with CUmulative SUM (CUSUM chart, Moving Average (MA chart, and Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA chart. The data were obtained directly from thirty patients who had undergone total hip replacement surgery at Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Medicine. The inclination of the acetabular component of these people, after total hip replacement, was evaluated. CUSUM chart, Moving Average chart, and Exponentially Weighted Moving Average were used to evaluate the quality control process of acetabular component inclination. MINITAB Statistical Software 15.0 was used to generate these control charts. The assessment done with time-weighted charts revealed that the acetabular inclination angles were settled within control limits and the process was under control. It was determined that the change within the control limits had a random pattern. As a result of this study it has been obtained that time-weighted quality control charts which are used mostly in the field of industry can also be used in the field of medicine. It has provided us with a faster visual decision.

  11. To Compare Time-Weighted Graphs to Evaluate the Inclination of the Acetabular Component of Patients Who Had Total Hip Replacement Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomak, Leman; Tomak, Yılmaz

    2015-01-01

    Time-weighted graphs are used to detect small shifts in statistical process control. The aim of this study is to evaluate the inclination of the acetabular component with CUmulative SUM (CUSUM) chart, Moving Average (MA) chart, and Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) chart. The data were obtained directly from thirty patients who had undergone total hip replacement surgery at Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Medicine. The inclination of the acetabular component of these people, after total hip replacement, was evaluated. CUSUM chart, Moving Average chart, and Exponentially Weighted Moving Average were used to evaluate the quality control process of acetabular component inclination. MINITAB Statistical Software 15.0 was used to generate these control charts. The assessment done with time-weighted charts revealed that the acetabular inclination angles were settled within control limits and the process was under control. It was determined that the change within the control limits had a random pattern. As a result of this study it has been obtained that time-weighted quality control charts which are used mostly in the field of industry can also be used in the field of medicine. It has provided us with a faster visual decision. PMID:26413501

  12. Natural Convection in an Inclined Porous Cavity with Spatial Sidewall Temperature Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Selamat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural convection in an inclined porous square cavity is investigated numerically. The left wall is assumed to have spatial sinusoidal temperature variations about a constant mean value, while the right wall is cooled. The horizontal walls are considered adiabatic. A finite difference method is used to solve numerically the nondimensional governing equations. The effects of the inclination angle of the cavity, the amplitude and wave numbers of the heated sidewall temperature variation on the natural convection in the cavity are studied. The maximum average Nusselt number occurs at different wave number. It also found that the inclination could influence the Nusselt number.

  13. Effect of wall inclination on natural convection in a porous trapezoidal cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, H. T.; Sivasankaran, S.; Siri, Z.

    2014-07-01

    The present study investigates numerically the effect of wall inclination of a trapezoidal cavity on natural convective flow and heat transfer. The cavity is filled with porous medium. Sinusoidal temperature is applied on the inclined wall and the opposite wall is maintained at a constant temperature. The top and bottom walls are adiabatic. The Darcy model is adopted for porous medium. The governing equations are solved using the finite difference method with various values of wall inclination and Rayleigh number. The heat transfer of the square cavity is found to be higher than that of trapezoidal and triangular cavities.

  14. Inclination shallowing in the Eocene Linzizong sediments from Tibet: correction, possible causes and implications for reconstructing the India-Asia collision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, W.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; Lippert, P.C.; Hinsbergen, D.J.J. van; Hallot, E.

    2013-01-01

    A systematic bias towards low palaeomagnetic inclination recorded in clastic sediments, that is, inclination shallowing, has been recognized and studied for decades. Identification, understanding and correction of this inclination shallowing are critical for palaeogeographic

  15. Limits to maximal performance in individuals with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopman, M T; Dueck, C; Monroe, M; Philips, W T; Skinner, J S

    1998-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of four conditions that might improve oxygen transport and/or utilization during maximal exercise performance in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Five males with tetraplegia (TP) and four males with paraplegia (PR) performed maximal arm cranking exercise in the following positions: 1) sitting; 2) supine; and 3) sitting with the addition of a) anti-gravity suit (anit-G), b) elastic stockings and abdominal binder, and c) functional electrical stimulation (FES) of the paralysed leg muscles. Peak power output (PO peak), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), peak heart rate (HR peak) and maximal systolic blood pressure were significantly lower in TP compared to PR for all conditions. A significant decrease in HR peak for PR, and a significant increase in VO2peak/kg for TP was seen during the supine compared to sitting condition. Respiratory exchange ratio (R) decreased significantly during the FES compared to the sitting condition in TP. No other changes were observed for any of the other conditions in either group. Improvements in central circulation previously reported during submaximal exercise for these four conditions did not result in a concomitant rise in maximal exercise performance. The results of this study suggest that the limitation in VO2peak for individuals with SCI is located peripherally (small active muscle mass) rather than centrally (heart or lungs).

  16. Interaction of two rivulets on the bottom side of an inclined plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slesareva Ekaterina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow of rivulets and droplets over the bottom side of inclined hydrophobic surface was studied in this work. Interacting of two nearby draining rivulets is investigated. Distilled water was used as the working liquid. The experiments were carried out on the bottom side of a smooth plate with the width of 440 mm and length of 1400 mm. The angle of plate surface deviation from the vertical was 14°. The switching centre consisted of two nozzles with diameter of 0.8 mm. Tubes placed perpendicularly plate surfaces on distance of 10 mm from each other. The experiments were carried out at the flow rates from 0.1 to 1.0 ml/s, and flow rate supported constant. The flow patterns were recorded video with the speed of 1200 fps. It was shown at a constant liquid flow rate at the nozzle exit the direction of and shape of the rivulet depend on maldistribution of the liquid flow rate along the rivulet. It is shown, that the regime of flow rivulet can be changed by interacting with another rivulet. Change regime of flow of rivulet occurs according to the laws defining character of a current of a liquid in rivulet.

  17. Barriers Inhibiting Inquiry-Based Science Teaching and Potential Solutions: Perceptions of Positively Inclined Early Adopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Michael; Danaia, Lena; McKinnon, David H.

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, calls for the adoption of inquiry-based pedagogies in the science classroom have formed a part of the recommendations for large-scale high school science reforms. However, these pedagogies have been problematic to implement at scale. This research explores the perceptions of 34 positively inclined early-adopter teachers in relation to their implementation of inquiry-based pedagogies. The teachers were part of a large-scale Australian high school intervention project based around astronomy. In a series of semi-structured interviews, the teachers identified a number of common barriers that prevented them from implementing inquiry-based approaches. The most important barriers identified include the extreme time restrictions on all scales, the poverty of their common professional development experiences, their lack of good models and definitions for what inquiry-based teaching actually is, and the lack of good resources enabling the capacity for change. Implications for expectations of teachers and their professional learning during educational reform and curriculum change are discussed.

  18. Beam Shear Design According to Eurocode 2 - Limitations for the Concrete Strut Inclinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagsten, Lars German; Hestbech, Lars; Fisker, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    and are presented. These beams are all designed to fail in shear and the shear reinforcement is designed for different values of the concrete strut inclinations (cot θ varies from 1.5 to 3.4). These tests indicate a clear connection between the values of the concrete strut inclinations and crack width in the SLS......The beam shear design method adopted in Eurocode 2 is based on a lower bound plastic solution. This method is combined with limitations on the concrete strut inclination, θ. These limitations are introduced to ensure acceptable crack width in the SLS. 7 full scale beams have been tested....... In cases where larger crack widths (w > 0.4 mm) can be accepted, larger values of the concrete strut inclinations can be chosen. This will lead to less shear reinforcements. The results are also compared with analytical analysis based on energy methods. At the SLS the beams are expected to be cracked...

  19. Muscular activity of lower limb muscles associated with working on inclined surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ming-Lun; Kincl, Laurel; Lowe, Brian; Succop, Paul; Bhattacharya, Amit

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of visual cues, muscular fatigue, task performance and experience of working on inclined surfaces on activity of postural muscles in the lower limbs associated with maintaining balance on three inclined surfaces - 0°, 14° and 26°. Normalised electromyographic (NEMG) data were collected in 44 professional roofers bilaterally from the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialii anterior and gastrocnemii medial muscle groups. The 50th and 95th percentile NEMG amplitudes were used as EMG variables. Results showed that inclination angle and task performance caused a significant increase in the NEMG amplitudes of all postural muscles. Visual cues were significantly associated with a decrease in the 95th percentile EMG amplitude for the right gastrocnemius medial and tibialis anterior. Fatigue was related to a significant decrease in the NEMG amplitude for the rectus femoris. Experience of working on inclined surfaces did not have a significant effect on the NEMG amplitude.

  20. Incisor inclination determined by the light reflection zone on the tooth's surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezniak, Naphtali; Turgeman, Ronit; Redlich, Meir

    2010-01-01

    Maxillary incisors are the most prominent teeth, and their inclination plays an important role in esthetics. In orthodontics, the inclination of central incisors is usually determined by cephalometric analysis. This publication suggests an adjunctive clinical measure to determine this inclination. The objective of the study was to examine the correlation between the inclinations of maxillary incisors measured on a cephalometric lateral headfilm and the light reflection zone appearing on the buccal surface of the teeth on anterior intraoral photographs. Maxillary incisor inclination, divided into three levels-proclination, normal inclination, and retroclination-of 65 patients was determined by means of cephalometric analysis, using three angular measurements (maxillary incisor to sella-nasion, maxillary incisor to Frankfort horizontal, and maxillary incisor to nasion-point A). The anterior intraoral photographs of the 65 patients were divided into 3 groups according to the reflection zone on the maxillary central incisors as determined from the photographs: incisal, middle, and gingival. The correlation and agreement between the two parameters were evaluated by chi-square and kappa statistics. The light reflection zone on the tooth surface as it appears on intraoral photographs-incisal, middle, or gingival-correlated with statistical significance to the angular inclination of the teeth-proclination, normal inclination, and retroclination, respectively-as determined by means of cephalometric analysis (P light reflection zone viewed on the buccal surface of intraoral photographs. This method might be used as a new screening tool and further as an additional clinical tool for assessing treatment plans in orthodontics and other fields of dentistry.

  1. Natural Convection in an Inclined Porous Cavity with Spatial Sidewall Temperature Variations

    OpenAIRE

    Selamat, M. S.; Roslan, R.; Hashim, I.

    2012-01-01

    The natural convection in an inclined porous square cavity is investigated numerically. The left wall is assumed to have spatial sinusoidal temperature variations about a constant mean value, while the right wall is cooled. The horizontal walls are considered adiabatic. A finite difference method is used to solve numerically the nondimensional governing equations. The effects of the inclination angle of the cavity, the amplitude and wave numbers of the heated sidewall temperature variation o...

  2. The effect of speleothem surface slope on the remanent magnetic inclination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte, J. M.; Font, E.; Veiga-Pires, C.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.; Ghaleb, B.

    2017-06-01

    Speleothems are of interest for high-resolution reconstruction of the Earth's magnetic field. However, little is known about the influence of speleothem morphologies on their natural remanent magnetization (NRM) record. Here we report on a high-resolution paleomagnetic study of a dome-shaped speleothem of middle Holocene age from southern Portugal, with special attention to the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and anisotropy of anhysteretic remanent magnetization (AARM). To assess the potential influence of the slope of the speleothem surface on the recorded remanent magnetization, we compare magnetic directions and AMS and AARM fabrics from subhorizontal to gradually subvertical calcite growth layers collected in a transversal cross section of the speleothem. A linear correlation is observed between magnetic inclinations, calcite laminae slope, and AARM k1 inclination. The AMS fabric is mostly controlled by calcite crystals, with direction of the minimum axes (k3) perpendicular to laminae growth. Magnetic inclinations recorded in inclined and vertical calcite growth layers are underestimated when compared to a global paleosecular variation (PSV) model. After extrapolating magnetic inclinations to the horizontal, the corrected data better fit the PSV model but are still lower than the predicted magnetic inclinations, suggesting that inclination shallowing affects the entire speleothem. We suggest that speleothem morphology exerts a critical role on the magnetic inclination recording, which is controlled by the Earth's magnetic field but also influenced by particle rolling along the sloping surfaces. These observations open new avenues for reconstructing high-resolution paleomagnetic secular variation records from speleothems and provide new insights into their NRM acquisition mechanisms.

  3. Resources and energetics determined dinosaur maximal size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, Brian K

    2009-07-21

    Some dinosaurs reached masses that were approximately 8 times those of the largest, ecologically equivalent terrestrial mammals. The factors most responsible for setting the maximal body size of vertebrates are resource quality and quantity, as modified by the mobility of the consumer, and the vertebrate's rate of energy expenditure. If the food intake of the largest herbivorous mammals defines the maximal rate at which plant resources can be consumed in terrestrial environments and if that limit applied to dinosaurs, then the large size of sauropods occurred because they expended energy in the field at rates extrapolated from those of varanid lizards, which are approximately 22% of the rates in mammals and 3.6 times the rates of other lizards of equal size. Of 2 species having the same energy income, the species that uses the most energy for mass-independent maintenance of necessity has a smaller size. The larger mass found in some marine mammals reflects a greater resource abundance in marine environments. The presumptively low energy expenditures of dinosaurs potentially permitted Mesozoic communities to support dinosaur biomasses that were up to 5 times those found in mammalian herbivores in Africa today. The maximal size of predatory theropods was approximately 8 tons, which if it reflected the maximal capacity to consume vertebrates in terrestrial environments, corresponds in predatory mammals to a maximal mass less than a ton, which is what is observed. Some coelurosaurs may have evolved endothermy in association with the evolution of feathered insulation and a small mass.

  4. The Impact of Firefighter Personal Protective Equipment and Treadmill Protocol on Maximal Oxygen Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo-Young; Bakri, Ilham; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Son, Su-Young; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of firefighter personal protective equipment (PPE) on the determination of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) while using two different treadmill protocols: a progressive incline protocol (PIP) and a progressive speed protocol (PSP), with three clothing conditions (Light-light clothing; Boots-PPE with rubber boots; Shoes-PPE with running shoes). Bruce protocol with Light was performed for a reference test. Results showed there was no difference in VO2max between Bruce Light, PIP Light, and PSP Light. However, VO2max was reduced in Boots and Shoes with shortened maximal performance time (7 and 6 min reduced for PIP Boots and Shoes, respectively; 11 and 9 min reduced for PSP Boots and Shoes, respectively), whereas the increasing rate of VO2 in Boots and Shoes during submaximal exercise was greater compared with Light. Wearing firefighter boots compared with wearing running shoes also significantly affected submaximal VO2 but not VO2max. These results suggest that firefighters’ maximal performance determined from a typical VO2max test without wearing PPE may overestimate the actual performance capability of firefighters wearing PPE. PMID:23668854

  5. Graded Maximal Exercise Testing to Assess Mouse Cardio-Metabolic Phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Petrosino

    Full Text Available Functional assessments of cardiovascular fitness (CVF are needed to establish animal models of dysfunction, test the effects of novel therapeutics, and establish the cardio-metabolic phenotype of mice. In humans, the graded maximal exercise test (GXT is a standardized diagnostic for assessing CVF and mortality risk. These tests, which consist of concurrent staged increases in running speed and inclination, provide diagnostic cardio-metabolic parameters, such as, VO2max, anaerobic threshold, and metabolic crossover. Unlike the human-GXT, published mouse treadmill tests have set, not staged, increases in inclination as speed progress until exhaustion (PXT. Additionally, they often lack multiple cardio-metabolic parameters. Here, we developed a mouse-GXT with the intent of improving mouse-exercise testing sensitivity and developing translatable parameters to assess CVF in healthy and dysfunctional mice. The mouse-GXT, like the human-GXT, incorporated staged increases in inclination, speed, and intensity; and, was designed by considering imitations of the PXT and differences between human and mouse physiology. The mouse-GXT and PXTs were both tested in healthy mice (C57BL/6J, FVBN/J to determine their ability to identify cardio-metabolic parameters (anaerobic threshold, VO2max, metabolic crossover observed in human-GXTs. Next, theses assays were tested on established diet-induced (obese-C57BL/6J and genetic (cardiac isoform Casq2-/- models of cardiovascular dysfunction. Results showed that both tests reported VO2max and provided reproducible data about performance. Only the mouse-GXT reproducibly identified anaerobic threshold, metabolic crossover, and detected impaired CVF in dysfunctional models. Our findings demonstrated that the mouse-GXT is a sensitive, non-invasive, and cost-effective method for assessing CVF in mice. This new test can be used as a functional assessment to determine the cardio-metabolic phenotype of various animal models or

  6. Graded Maximal Exercise Testing to Assess Mouse Cardio-Metabolic Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosino, Jennifer M; Heiss, Valerie J; Maurya, Santosh K; Kalyanasundaram, Anuradha; Periasamy, Muthu; LaFountain, Richard A; Wilson, Jacob M; Simonetti, Orlando P; Ziouzenkova, Ouliana

    2016-01-01

    Functional assessments of cardiovascular fitness (CVF) are needed to establish animal models of dysfunction, test the effects of novel therapeutics, and establish the cardio-metabolic phenotype of mice. In humans, the graded maximal exercise test (GXT) is a standardized diagnostic for assessing CVF and mortality risk. These tests, which consist of concurrent staged increases in running speed and inclination, provide diagnostic cardio-metabolic parameters, such as, VO2max, anaerobic threshold, and metabolic crossover. Unlike the human-GXT, published mouse treadmill tests have set, not staged, increases in inclination as speed progress until exhaustion (PXT). Additionally, they often lack multiple cardio-metabolic parameters. Here, we developed a mouse-GXT with the intent of improving mouse-exercise testing sensitivity and developing translatable parameters to assess CVF in healthy and dysfunctional mice. The mouse-GXT, like the human-GXT, incorporated staged increases in inclination, speed, and intensity; and, was designed by considering imitations of the PXT and differences between human and mouse physiology. The mouse-GXT and PXTs were both tested in healthy mice (C57BL/6J, FVBN/J) to determine their ability to identify cardio-metabolic parameters (anaerobic threshold, VO2max, metabolic crossover) observed in human-GXTs. Next, theses assays were tested on established diet-induced (obese-C57BL/6J) and genetic (cardiac isoform Casq2-/-) models of cardiovascular dysfunction. Results showed that both tests reported VO2max and provided reproducible data about performance. Only the mouse-GXT reproducibly identified anaerobic threshold, metabolic crossover, and detected impaired CVF in dysfunctional models. Our findings demonstrated that the mouse-GXT is a sensitive, non-invasive, and cost-effective method for assessing CVF in mice. This new test can be used as a functional assessment to determine the cardio-metabolic phenotype of various animal models or the effects of

  7. Laser-Guided Autonomous Landing of a Quadrotor UAV on an Inclined Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, John A.

    This thesis presents measurement, estimation, and control schemes to aid a quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in landing on a flat, inclined surface without prior knowledge of the surface's inclination. The system uses a single CMOS camera and several inexpensive laser modules for onboard sensing to measure the distance to and orientation of a landing surface. A nonlinear least squares estimation scheme yields the altitude of the quadrotor and the normal vector defining the ground plane. This information is used to design a hybrid landing trajectory composed of a position tracking phase and an attitude tracking phase. A geometric nonlinear control system is used during each phase and ensures that the quadrotor's attitude is aligned to the inclination of the ground surface at touchdown. A quadrotor is developed from the ground up to test the in-flight measurement process and to execute landing trajectories on an inclined surface. Experimental results demonstrate the quadrotor's ability to accurately estimate altitude and ground plane orientation during flight, and numerical simulations of landing trajectories for various surface inclinations are validated by experimental results up to a maximum inclination of thirty degrees.

  8. Development of an Inclined Plate Extractor-Separator for Immiscible Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Zahoor ul Hassan Rizvi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A new inclined plates extractor-separator is developed for operation with immiscible liquids in which extraction and separation is achieved in one unit contrary to mixer settlers. The inclined plates extractor-separator combines turbulent jets for contacting, and an inclined plate for separation of the two phases. The inclined plates extractor-separator does not have any moving part inside the vessel. This feature makes it free from the mechanical problems associated with conventional apparatus. The proposed inclined plates extractor-separator was operated in batch mode under various operating conditions to evaluate its performance on the basis of extraction efficiency. Water (light phase was used as solvent to extract ethyl acetate from a heavy phase pool of tetrachloroethylene and ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate content was analysed using chromatography. A hydrodynamic study was carried out using high speed photography to understand the mechanisms occurring during mass transfer across the two phases. Furthermore, it was found that the proposed inclined plate extractor-separator reduces the overall operating time by 67% and consumes only 13% of the power in comparison to a mixer-settler. A hydraulic power consumption comparison with a mixer settler and a gullwing extractor-separator is also presented.

  9. Interfacial friction factors for air-water co-current stratified flow in inclined channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ki Yong; No, Hee Cheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The interfacial shear stress is experimentally investigated for co-current air-water stratified flow in inclined rectangular channels having a length of 1854mm, width of 120 mm and height of 40mm at almost atmospheric pressure. Experiments are carried out in several inclinations from 0 deg up to 10 deg. The local film thickness and the wave height are measured at three locations, i.e., L/H = 8,23, and 40. According to the inclination angle, the experimental data are categorized into two groups; nearly horizontal data group (0 deg {<=} {theta} {<=} 0.7 deg), and inclined channel data group (0.7 deg {<=} {theta} {<=} 10 deg ). Experimental observations for nearly horizontal data group show that the flow is not fully developed due to the water level gradient and the hydraulic jump within the channel. For the inclined channel data group, a dimensionless wave height, {Delta}h/h, is empirically correlated in terms of Re{sub G} and h/H. A modified root-mean-square wave height is proposed to consider the effects of the interfacial and wave propagation velocities. It is found that an equivalent roughness has a linear relationship with the modified root-mean-square wave height and its relationship is independent of the inclination. 10 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  10. A secular model for efficient exploration of mutually-inclined planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitrick, Russell; Barnes, Rory

    2015-01-01

    Dynamical studies of exoplanets largely assume coplanarity because of the lack of inclination information in many cases. However, the multiplanet system Upsilon Andromedae has orbital planes inclined by 30 degrees, models of planet-planet scattering predict large mutual inclinations, and astrometry missions such as Gaia have the power to reveal the 3 dimensional architecture of planetary systems. As the dynamics of systems with non-planar orbits will be key to understanding origins, and ultimately habitability where applicable, we present a computationally efficient model for the orbital evolution of planetary systems with modest inclinations and eccentricities which are not in a mean motion resonance. Specifically, our model is based on the disturbing function and extends to 4th order in eccentricity and inclination. We present comparisons to N-body models for known systems, such as the Solar System and Upsilon Andromedae, and hypothetical systems with a range of orbital configurations. We describe the eccentricity and inclination conditions under which the model is valid. We further calculate the rotational evolution of planets based on the orbital evolution and the stellar torque and find a wide range of obliquity evolution is possible. As obliquity is a key driver of planetary climate, Earth-like planets in non-planar systems may have climates dominated by their orbital evolution.

  11. An information maximization model of eye movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renninger, Laura Walker; Coughlan, James; Verghese, Preeti; Malik, Jitendra

    2005-01-01

    We propose a sequential information maximization model as a general strategy for programming eye movements. The model reconstructs high-resolution visual information from a sequence of fixations, taking into account the fall-off in resolution from the fovea to the periphery. From this framework we get a simple rule for predicting fixation sequences: after each fixation, fixate next at the location that minimizes uncertainty (maximizes information) about the stimulus. By comparing our model performance to human eye movement data and to predictions from a saliency and random model, we demonstrate that our model is best at predicting fixation locations. Modeling additional biological constraints will improve the prediction of fixation sequences. Our results suggest that information maximization is a useful principle for programming eye movements.

  12. Singularity Structure of Maximally Supersymmetric Scattering Amplitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Cachazo, Freddy

    2014-01-01

    We present evidence that loop amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric (N=4) Yang-Mills theory (SYM) beyond the planar limit share some of the remarkable structures of the planar theory. In particular, we show that through two loops, the four-particle amplitude in full N=4 SYM has only logarithmic ...... singularities and is free of any poles at infinity—properties closely related to uniform transcendentality and the UV finiteness of the theory. We also briefly comment on implications for maximal (N=8) supergravity theory (SUGRA)....

  13. Finding Maximal Pairs with Bounded Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Lyngsø, Rune B.; Pedersen, Christian N. S.

    1999-01-01

    . In this paper we present methods for finding all maximal pairs under various constraints on the gap. In a string of length n we can find all maximal pairs with gap in an upper and lower bounded interval in time O(n log n+z) where z is the number of reported pairs. If the upper bound is removed the time reduces...... to O(n+z). Since a tandem repeat is a pair where the gap is zero, our methods can be seen as a generalization of finding tandem repeats. The running time of our methods equals the running time of well known methods for finding tandem repeats....

  14. Multi-layer film flow down an inclined plane: experimental investigation

    KAUST Repository

    Henry, Daniel

    2014-11-19

    We report the results from an experimental study of the flow of a film down an inclined plane where the film itself is comprised of up to three layers of different liquids. By measuring the total film thickness for a broad range of parameters including flow rates and liquid physical properties, we provide a thorough and systematic test of the single-layer approximation for multi-layer films for Reynolds numbers Re = ρQ/μ≈0.03-60. In addition, we also measure the change in film thickness of individual layers as a function of flow rates for a variety of experimental configurations. With the aid of high-speed particle tracking, we derive the velocity fields and free-surface velocities to compare to the single-layer approximation. Furthermore, we provide experimental evidence of small capillary ridge formations close to the point where two layers merge and compare our experimental parameter range for the occurrence of this phenomenon to those previously reported.

  15. INCLINATION TO VICTIMALITY AND HIGH SCHOOL PUPILS’ VIEW OF A SAFE-TYPE PERSON: PSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Ivanovna Patsakula

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article is dedicated to the urgent subject: formation of healthy, actively creating and socially adapted person in the environment of social and economic changes, and also to the increasing demand in victimology prevention and correction. The authors aim to study the link between a person’s victim behaviour and a young generation’s view of the identity of a safe type. Method and methodology of the work. The research is based on the methods of psychosemantics (association experiment, specialised semantic differential [2], research methodology of inclination to victim behaviour by O.O. Andronikova [1], math statistics: coefficient of range correlation by R.S. Spirman. Results. The article presents the results of investigating a person’s victim behaviour in the connection with the idea of the identity of a safe type. The research of the representatives of a young generation was made, which proved that the teenagers having and the teenagers not having in their behaviour victim characteristics differ in their views of a safe-type person by the emotional component, by the extent of different characteristics and by the contents of associations. The sphere of applying the results. The results can by used in pedagogics, psychology, and law in the context o victimology prevention.

  16. Inclined head position improves dose distribution during hippocampal-sparing whole brain radiotherapy using VMAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Su; Seo, Suk-Jin; Lee, Jaegi; Kim, Eunji; Choi, Noorie; Seok, Jin-Yong; Hong, Joo Wan; Chung, Jin-Beom; Eom, Keun-Yong; Kim, Jae-Sung; Kim, In Ah

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal-sparing whole brain radiotherapy (HS-WBRT) aims to preserve neurocognitive functions in patients undergoing brain radiotherapy (RT). Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) involves intensity-modulated RT using a coplanar arc. An inclined head position might improve dose distribution during HS-WBRT using VMAT. This study analyzed 8 patients receiving brain RT with inclined head positioning. A comparable set of CT images simulating a non-inclined head position was obtained by rotating the original CT set. HS-WBRT plans of coplanar VMAT for each CT set were generated with a prescribed dose of 30 Gy in 10 fractions. Maximum dose to the hippocampi was limited to 16 Gy; to the optic nerve, optic chiasm, and eyeballs this was confined to less than 37.5 Gy; for the lenses to 8 Gy. Dosimetric parameters of the two different plans of 8 patients were compared with paired t-test. Mean inclined head angle was 11.09 ± 0.73 . The homogeneity (HI) and conformity (CI) indexes demonstrated improved results, with an average 8.4 ± 10.0 % (p = 0.041) and 5.3 ± 3.9 % (p = 0.005) reduction, respectively, in the inclined vs. non-inclined position. The inclined head position had lower hippocampi D min (10.45 ± 0.36 Gy), D max (13.70 ± 0.25 Gy), and D mean (12.01 ± 0.38 Gy) values vs. the non-inclined head position (D min = 12.07 ± 1.07 Gy; D max = 15.70 ± 1.25 Gy; D mean = 13.91 ± 1.01 Gy), with 12.8 ± 8.9 % (p = 0.007), 12.2 ± 6.8 % (p = 0.003), and 13.2 ± 7.2 % (p = 0.002) reductions, respectively. Mean D max for the lenses was 6.34 ± 0.72 Gy and 7.60 ± 0.46 Gy, respectively, with a 16.3 ± 10.8 % reduction in the inclined position (p = 0.004). D max for the optic nerve and D mean for the eyeballs also decreased by 7.0 ± 5.9 % (p = 0.015) and 8.4 ± 7.2 % (p = 0.015), respectively. Inclining the head position to approximately 11 during HS-WBRT using VMAT improved dose distribution in the planning target volume and allowed lower doses to the hippocampi and

  17. Maximizing band gaps in plate structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Søren; Sigmund, Ole; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    Band gaps, i.e., frequency ranges in which waves cannot propagate, can be found in elastic structures for which there is a certain periodic modulation of the material properties or structure. In this paper, we maximize the band gap size for bending waves in a Mindlin plate. We analyze an infinite...

  18. Robust Utility Maximization Under Convex Portfolio Constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matoussi, Anis; Mezghani, Hanen; Mnif, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    We study a robust maximization problem from terminal wealth and consumption under a convex constraints on the portfolio. We state the existence and the uniqueness of the consumption–investment strategy by studying the associated quadratic backward stochastic differential equation. We characterize the optimal control by using the duality method and deriving a dynamic maximum principle

  19. Robust Utility Maximization Under Convex Portfolio Constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matoussi, Anis, E-mail: anis.matoussi@univ-lemans.fr [Université du Maine, Risk and Insurance institut of Le Mans Laboratoire Manceau de Mathématiques (France); Mezghani, Hanen, E-mail: hanen.mezghani@lamsin.rnu.tn; Mnif, Mohamed, E-mail: mohamed.mnif@enit.rnu.tn [University of Tunis El Manar, Laboratoire de Modélisation Mathématique et Numérique dans les Sciences de l’Ingénieur, ENIT (Tunisia)

    2015-04-15

    We study a robust maximization problem from terminal wealth and consumption under a convex constraints on the portfolio. We state the existence and the uniqueness of the consumption–investment strategy by studying the associated quadratic backward stochastic differential equation. We characterize the optimal control by using the duality method and deriving a dynamic maximum principle.

  20. Maximizing Resource Utilization in Video Streaming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…

  1. Maximizing scientific knowledge from randomized clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Finn; Atar, Dan; Pitt, Bertram

    2010-01-01

    Trialists have an ethical and financial responsibility to plan and conduct clinical trials in a manner that will maximize the scientific knowledge gained from the trial. However, the amount of scientific information generated by randomized clinical trials in cardiovascular medicine is highly...

  2. Maximizing Learning Potential in the Communicative Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaravadivelu, B.

    1993-01-01

    A classroom observational study is presented to assess whether a macrostrategies framework will help communicative language teaching teachers to maximize learner potential in the classroom. Analysis of two classroom episodes revealed that one episode was evidently more communicative than the other. (seven references) (VWL)

  3. Faculty Salaries and the Maximization of Prestige

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melguizo, Tatiana; Strober, Myra H.

    2007-01-01

    Through the lens of the emerging economic theory of higher education, we look at the relationship between salary and prestige. Starting from the premise that academic institutions seek to maximize prestige, we hypothesize that monetary rewards are higher for faculty activities that confer prestige. We use data from the 1999 National Study of…

  4. Ehrenfest's Lottery--Time and Entropy Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbaugh, Henry S.

    2010-01-01

    Successful teaching of the Second Law of Thermodynamics suffers from limited simple examples linking equilibrium to entropy maximization. I describe a thought experiment connecting entropy to a lottery that mixes marbles amongst a collection of urns. This mixing obeys diffusion-like dynamics. Equilibrium is achieved when the marble distribution is…

  5. A Model of College Tuition Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosshardt, Donald I.; Lichtenstein, Larry; Zaporowski, Mark P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops a series of models for optimal tuition pricing for private colleges and universities. The university is assumed to be a profit maximizing, price discriminating monopolist. The enrollment decision of student's is stochastic in nature. The university offers an effective tuition rate, comprised of stipulated tuition less financial…

  6. Maximal Inequalities for Dependent Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jorgensen, Jorgen

    2016-01-01

    Maximal inequalities play a crucial role in many probabilistic limit theorem; for instance, the law of large numbers, the law of the iterated logarithm, the martingale limit theorem and the central limit theorem. Let X-1, X-2,... be random variables with partial sums S-k = X-1 + ... + X...

  7. Coverage maximization under resource constraints using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-02-07

    Feb 7, 2015 ... Dissemination of information has been one of the prime needs in almost every kind of communication network. The existing algorithms for this service, try to maximize the coverage, i.e., the number of distinct nodes to which a given piece of information could be conveyed under the constraints of time and ...

  8. Turbulent flow in a vessel agitated by side entering inclined blade turbine with different diameter using CFD simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathonah, N. N.; Nurtono, T.; Kusdianto; Winardi, S.

    2018-03-01

    Single phase turbulent flow in a vessel agitated by side entering inclined blade turbine has simulated using CFD. The aim of this work is to identify the hydrodynamic characteristics of a model vessel, which geometrical configuration is adopted at industrial scale. The laboratory scale model vessel is a flat bottomed cylindrical tank agitated by side entering 4-blade inclined blade turbine with impeller rotational speed N=100-400 rpm. The effect of the impeller diameter on fluid flow pattern has been investigated. The fluid flow patterns in a vessel is essentially characterized by the phenomena of macro-instabilities, i.e. the flow patterns change with large scale in space and low frequency. The intensity of fluid flow in the tank increase with the increase of impeller rotational speed from 100, 200, 300, and 400 rpm. It was accompanied by shifting the position of the core of circulation flow away from impeller discharge stream and approached the front of the tank wall. The intensity of fluid flow in the vessel increase with the increase of the impeller diameter from d=3 cm to d=4 cm.

  9. In-Clinic Blood Pressure Prediction of Normal Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Pediatric Hypertension Referrals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Philip K; Ferguson, Michael A; Zachariah, Justin P

    2016-07-01

    Since younger patients have low pretest probability of hypertension and are susceptible to reactive and masked hypertension, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) can be useful. To better target use in referred patients, we sought to define in-clinic systolic blood pressure (SBP) measures that predicted normal ABPM and target end organ damage. Data were collected on consecutive patients referred for high BP undergoing an ambulatory BP monitor from 2010 to 2013 (n = 248, 33.9% female, mean age 15.5 ± 3.6 years). Candidate in-clinic predictors were systolic maximum, minimum, or average BPs obtained by auscultative, oscillometric, or both. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine the prediction of normal ABPM by in-clinic BP predictors. Separate models considered predicting left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) by in-clinic SBP vs. ABPM-defined hypertension. Identified predictor utility was tested with receiver operator characteristic curves. Maximum (OR 0.97 [95% CI 0.94-0.99]; P = .047), minimum (0.96 [0.94-0.99]; P = .002), and average (0.97 [0.95-1.00]; P = .04) in-clinic auscultative SBP predicted normal ABPM. Each had a c-statistic of 0.58. LVH was associated with in-clinic auscultative minimum SBP treated continuously (1.05, [1.01-1.10], P = .01) or dichotomized at the 90th percentile (8.23, [1.48-45.80], P = .02), as well as ABPM-defined hypertension (3.31, [1.23-8.91], P = .02). Both predictors had poor sensitivity and specificity. In youth, normal auscultative in-clinic systolic blood pressure indices weakly predicted normal ambulatory blood pressure and target end organ damage. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Computational stability appraisal of rectangular natural circulation loop: Effect of loop inclination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnani, Mayur; Basu, Dipankar N.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Computational model developed for single-phase rectangular natural circulation loop. • Role of loop inclination to vertical on thermalhydraulic stability is explored. • Inclination has strong stabilizing effect due to lower effective gravitation force. • Increase in tilt angle reduces settling time and highest amplitude of oscillation. • An angle of 15° is suggested for the selected loop geometry. - Abstract: Controlling stability behavior of single-phase natural circulation loops, without significantly affecting its steady-state characteristics, is a topic of wide research interest. Present study explores the role of loop inclination on a particular loop geometry. Accordingly a 3D computational model of a rectangular loop is developed and transient conservation equations are solved to obtain the temporal variation in flow parameters. Starting from the quiescent state, simulations are performed for selected sets of operating conditions and also with a few selected inclination angles. System experiences instability at higher heater powers and also with higher sink temperatures. Inclination is found to have a strong stabilizing influence owing to the reduction in the effective gravitational acceleration and subsequent decline in local buoyancy effects. The settling time and highest amplitude of oscillations substantially reduces for a stable system with a small inclination. Typically-unstable systems can also suppress the oscillations, when subjected to tilting, within a reasonable period of time. It is possible to stabilize the loop within shorter time span by increasing the tilt angle, but at the expense of reduction in steady-state flow rate. Overall a tilt angle of 15° is suggested for the selected geometry. Results from the 3D model is compared with the predictions from an indigenous 1D code. While similar qualitative influence of inclination is observed, the 1D model predicts early appearance of the stability threshold and hence hints

  11. Microfiber inclination, crystallinity, and water wettability of microfibrous thin-film substrates of Parylene C in relation to the direction of the monomer vapor during fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chindam, Chandraprakash; Wonderling, Nichole M.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Awadelkarim, Osama O.; Orfali, Wasim

    2015-08-01

    We experimentally determined the inclination of microfibers, crystallinity, and the water wettability of columnar microfibrous thin-film substrates (μFTFS) of Parylene C fabricated using a variant of conventional chemical vapor deposition, wherein a collimated vapor of reactive monomers is obliquely directed towards a planar wafer in a low-pressure chamber. The independent variable was the monomer deposition angle χv, which is the angle between the direction of the collimated vapor and the wafer plane. The dependence of the microfiber inclination angle χ on χv can be classified into four χv-regimes of two different types, and is reminiscent of the conversion of continuous rotation into intermittent rotary motion by a gear mechanism. X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments indicate that the columnar μFTFS contain three crystal planes not evident in bulk Parylene-C films, the columnar μFTFS are less crystalline than bulk Parylene-C films, and the crystallinity of the columnar μFTFS reflects the four χv-regimes. Identical resonance frequencies in infrared absorbance spectra revealed that the atomic bonding is the same for all monomer deposition angles. The static hydrophobicity is more pronounced in the morphologically significant plane (MSP) of a columnar μFTFS than in the vertical plane orthogonal to the MSP, but the upper and lower limits of static hydrophobicity are almost isotropic. Both the static hydrophobicity as well as water adhesion can be maximized by a proper choice of χv.

  12. A comparative computed tomographic evaluation of expression of angulation and inclination in self ligating brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehana Bashir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: An important objective of orthodontic treatment is to obtain the correct angulation and inclination for all the teeth. Very few studies have been conducted so far comparing the expression of angulation and inclination in conventional and self-ligating brackets (SLBs. The present study was designed to evaluate and compare the inclination and angulation in conventional brackets and active and passive SLBs. Materials and Methods: Totally 21 patients who required four 1st premolar extractions were selected and were randomly allotted to three groups: Group 1: Conventional Brackets (3M Unitek MBT (mean age 19.14 ± 2.12 years, Group 2: Passive Brackets (Smart Clip Brackets-3M Unitek MBT (mean age 19.71 ± 1.80 years, Group 3: Active Brackets (Empower Brackets-American Orthodontics MBT (mean age 18.29 ± 2.29 years computed tomographic records were collected before the start of treatment, after leveling and aligning and at 6 months into retraction. Results: The data were evaluated using SPSS version 16.0 using one-way ANOVA and post hoc Bonferroni tests. There was no statistically significant difference in the expression of angulation and inclination in conventional, active, and passive SLB systems. Conclusion: Self-ligating brackets seem to be no better than conventional brackets when it comes to the expression of angulation and inclination.

  13. Critical heat flux during natural convective boiling in inclined tubes submerged in saturated liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhenhua; Yang Ronghua

    2005-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to improve and expand understanding of boiling phenomena and the critical heat flux (CHF) during natural convective boiling in uniformly heated inclined tubes submerged in a pool of saturated liquids under atmospheric pressure. The test conditions were as follows: inter diameters of the test tubes ranged from 0.9 to 8.0 mm; heated lengths ranged from 100 to 400 mm, and inclination angles varied from 30 o to vertical position. The test fluids were water and R-11. The experimental results showed that the CHF decreases with the increasing ratio of the tube length to the tube diameter, and with the reducing of the inclination angle. A semi-theoretical correlation, which originally used for the CHF during natural convective boiling in vertical tubes, was modified to predict the CHF occurs in the inclined tubes. The modified correlation agreed reasonably well with the present experimental data and other CHF data for narrow inclined annular tubes

  14. A Liquid-Surface-Based Three-Axis Inclination Sensor for Measurement of Stage Tilt Motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yuki; Kataoka, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Chen, Yuan-Liu; Chen, Xiuguo; Matsukuma, Hiraku; Gao, Wei

    2018-01-30

    In this paper a new concept of a liquid-surface-based three-axis inclination sensor for evaluation of angular error motion of a precision linear slide, which is often used in the field of precision engineering such as ultra-precision machine tools, coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) and so on, is proposed. In the liquid-surface-based three-axis inclination sensor, a reference float mounting a line scale grating having periodic line grating structures is made to float over a liquid surface, while its three-axis angular motion is measured by using an optical sensor head based on the three-axis laser autocollimation capable of measuring three-axis angular motion of the scale grating. As the first step of research, in this paper, theoretical analysis on the angular motion of the reference float about each axis has been carried out based on simplified kinematic models to evaluate the possibility of realizing the proposed concept of a three-axis inclination sensor. In addition, based on the theoretical analyses results, a prototype three-axis inclination sensor has been designed and developed. Through some basic experiments with the prototype, the possibility of simultaneous three-axis inclination measurement by the proposed concept has been verified.

  15. Investigation of Oriented Magnetic Field Effects on Entropy Generation in an Inclined Channel Filled with Ferrofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elgiz Baskaya

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dispersion of super-paramagnetic nanoparticles in nonmagnetic carrier fluids, known as ferrofluids, offers the advantages of tunable thermo-physical properties and eliminate the need for moving parts to induce flow. This study investigates ferrofluid flow characteristics in an inclined channel under inclined magnetic field and constant pressure gradient. The ferrofluid considered in this work is comprised of Cu particles as the nanoparticles and water as the base fluid. The governing differential equations including viscous dissipation are non-dimensionalised and discretized with Generalized Differential Quadrature Method. The resulting algebraic set of equations are solved via Newton-Raphson Method. The work done here contributes to the literature by searching the effects of magnetic field angle and channel inclination separately on the entropy generation of the ferrofluid filled inclined channel system in order to achieve best design parameter values so called entropy generation minimization is implemented. Furthermore, the effect of magnetic field, inclination angle of the channel and volume fraction of nanoparticles on velocity and temperature profiles are examined and represented by figures to give a thorough understanding of the system behavior.

  16. Study on natural circulation characteristics of an IPWR under inclined and rolling condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Lihui [College of Computer Science and Information Technology, Harbin Normal University, Harbin (China); Wang, Bing [Fundamental Science on Nuclear Safety and Simulation Technology Laboratory, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China); Xia, Genglei, E-mail: xiagenglei@163.com [Fundamental Science on Nuclear Safety and Simulation Technology Laboratory, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China); Peng, Minjun [Fundamental Science on Nuclear Safety and Simulation Technology Laboratory, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • An ocean-based thermal-hydraulic analysis code was developed based on RELAP5 codes. • The inclination condition can reduce the mass flow rate of reactor core. • The system parameters asymmetry increases with the increasing inclination angle. • Flow oscillation of different loops cancel each other due to the symmetrical arrangement of the reactor. • The off-center roll axis location can break the symmetry and enlarge fluctuation amplitude of the core flow rate. - Abstract: An ocean-based thermal-hydraulic system analysis code was developed based on RELAP5/MOD3 code by adding additional force model of ocean condition and control volume coordinate solver model. The natural circulation operation characteristics of integrated pressurized water reactor (IPWR) under ocean conditions were studied and the effects of inclination and rolling motions were analyzed. The results conclude that, the inclination condition can reduce the mass flow rate of reactor core and lead to inconsistent coolant flow rates of the left and right loops, furthermore, it affects the heat transfer of once-through steam generators (OTSGs). In the case of rolling motion, the additional pressure drop of the loop is dominated by tangential force, and flow oscillation of different loops cancel each other due to the symmetrical arrangement of the reactor. The off-center roll axis location, the combination of the inclination and rolling motion, both can break the thermal-hydraulic symmetry among different loops and enlarge fluctuation amplitude of the core flow rate.

  17. Peri-implant strain around mesially inclined two-implant-retained mandibular overdentures with Locator attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsyad, Moustafa A; Eltowery, Salem M; Gebreel, Ashraf A

    2017-12-27

    This study aimed to evaluate the peri-implant strain around mesially inclined implants used to retain mandibular overdentures with Locator resilient attachments. Four mandibular edentulous acrylic resin models received two implants in the canine areas with 0°, 5°, 10°, and 20° mesial inclinations. Overdentures were connected to the implants using Locator attachments. Pink nylon inserts (light retention) were used for all implant inclinations, and red inserts were used for 20° inclination (20°red). Four strain gages were bonded on the mesial (M), distal (D), buccal (B), and lingual (L) surfaces of each implant. Peri-implant strains were measured during bilateral and unilateral loading. The 20° inclination showed the highest strain, followed by 10° and 5°, and both 0° and 20°red presented with the lowest strain. Site D was associated with the highest strain, followed by M, B, and L, which showed the lowest strain values. Unilateral loading and the loading side presented with significantly higher strain values than bilateral loading and the nonloading side, respectively. Hence, in this study, strains around the two-implant-retained overdentures with Locator attachments increased with increases in mesial implant angulation, except when red male inserts were used.

  18. Walking on inclines: how do desert ants monitor slope and step length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidl Tobias

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During long-distance foraging in almost featureless habitats desert ants of the genus Cataglyphis employ path-integrating mechanisms (vector navigation. This navigational strategy requires an egocentric monitoring of the foraging path by incrementally integrating direction, distance, and inclination of the path. Monitoring the latter two parameters involves idiothetic cues and hence is tightly coupled to the ant's locomotor behavior. Results In a kinematic study of desert ant locomotion performed on differently inclined surfaces we aimed at pinpointing the relevant mechanisms of estimating step length and inclination. In a behavioral experiment with ants foraging on slippery surfaces we broke the otherwise tightly coupled relationship between stepping frequency and step length and examined the animals' ability to monitor distances covered even under those adverse conditions. We show that the ants' locomotor system is not influenced by inclined paths. After removing the effect of speed, slope had only marginal influence on kinematic parameters. Conclusion From the obtained data we infer that the previously proposed monitoring of angles of the thorax-coxa joint is not involved in inclinometry. Due to the tiny variations in cycle period, we also argue that an efference copy of the central pattern generator coding the step length in its output frequency will most likely not suffice for estimating step length and complementing the pedometer. Finally we propose that sensing forces acting on the ant's legs could provide the desired neuronal correlate employed in monitoring inclination and step length.

  19. Experimental studies on the flow characteristics in an inclined bend-free OWC device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnil Ravinesh Ram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A bend-free rectangular cross-section OWC device was designed and constructed for studying the effect of inclination on the flow characteristics inside the device. The inclination is meant to reduce reflection of waves and induce higher velocities in the turbine section. Experimental measurements were made in a wave channel where the OWC device was tested. An S-type Pitot tube was used to measure dynamic pressure of air in the turbine section at several inclinations. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV was also done to study the flow of both air and water in the OWC device. In order to focus solely on primary energy capture, no turbine was installed in the OWC device. The dynamic pressure readings were analysed for suction and compression stages. Water volume fluctuations inside the capture chamber were also recorded and compared for different inclinations. The result was an increase in the velocity of air flowing in the capture chamber and hence a rise in the kinetic energy available to the turbine. It was found from experimental studies that as the angle of inclination reduced, the velocity of air in the turbine section increased. The lower angles also caused higher run-up and larger volume of water into the capture chamber.

  20. Maximal-entropy random walk unifies centrality measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochab, J K

    2012-12-01

    This paper compares a number of centrality measures and several (dis-)similarity matrices with which they can be defined. These matrices, which are used among others in community detection methods, represent quantities connected to enumeration of paths on a graph and to random walks. Relationships between some of these matrices are derived in the paper. These relationships are inherited by the centrality measures. They include measures based on the principal eigenvector of the adjacency matrix, path enumeration, as well as on the stationary state, stochastic matrix, or mean first-passage times of a random walk. As the random walk defining the centrality measure can be arbitrarily chosen, we pay particular attention to the maximal-entropy random walk, which serves as a very distinct alternative to the ordinary (diffusive) random walk used in network analysis. The various importance measures, defined both with the use of ordinary random walk and the maximal-entropy random walk, are compared numerically on a set of benchmark graphs with varying mixing parameter and are grouped with the use of the agglomerative clustering technique. It is shown that centrality measures defined with the two different random walks cluster into two separate groups. In particular, the group of centrality measures defined by the maximal-entropy random walk does not cluster with any other measures on change of graphs' parameters, and members of this group produce mutually closer results than members of the group defined by the ordinary random walk.

  1. Trunk muscle activation during sub-maximal extension efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Michael W

    2010-02-01

    Neuromuscular fatigue of the trunk musculature, particularly lumbar paraspinal and abdominal muscles, is important in when evaluating motor control of the trunk. Activation of agonists and antagonists trunk muscles was hypothesized to change during sub-maximal isometric trunk extension efforts. Thirteen women were positioned in 30 degrees of trunk flexion and performed maximal voluntary isometric contraction in trunk extension against an isokinetic dynamometer. One of two sub-maximal efforts (50% and 70%) was performed to induce neuromuscular fatigue on two different days. Surface electromyography of the lumbar paraspinal (LP), rectus abdominis, and external oblique muscles was recorded during each session. Torque output, median frequency of the power density spectrum, and normalized integrated electromyography were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance to evaluate trends in the data over time. Paraspinal muscles showed signs of fatigue in both conditions (pAbdominal activity did not increase during the 70% condition, but showed a non-significant trend (p=0.07), coinciding with the reduced median frequency of LP muscles. The neuromuscular system modulates its motor control strategy to identify the muscle activation levels necessary to maintain force output. This information is necessary in the evaluation of contributing mechanisms to trunk stability in furthering preventative and rehabilitative treatments.

  2. Resting and maximal heart rates in ectothermic vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillywhite, H B; Zippel, K C; Farrell, A P

    1999-12-01

    Resting and maximal heart rates (HR) in ectothermic vertebrates are generally lower than those in endotherms and vary by more than an order of magnitude interspecifically. Variation of HR transcends phylogeny and is influenced by numerous factors including temperature, activity, gas exchange, intracardiac shunts, pH, posture, and reflexogenic regulation of blood pressure. The characteristic resting HR is rarely the intrinsic rate of the pacemaker, which is primarily modulated by cholinergic inhibition and adrenergic excitation in most species. Neuropeptides also appear to be involved in cardiac regulation, although their role is not well understood. The principal determinants of resting HR include temperature, metabolic rate and hemodynamic requirements. Maximal HRs generally do not exceed 120 b min-1, but notable exceptions include the heterothermic tuna and small reptiles having HRs in excess of 300 b min-1 at higher body temperatures. Temperature affects the intrinsic pacemaker rate as well as the relative influence of adrenergic and cholinergic modulation. It also influences the evolved capability to increase HR, with maximal cardiac responses matched to preferred body temperatures in some species. Additional factors either facilitate or limit the maximal level of HR, including: (1) characteristics of the pacemaker potential; (2) development of sarcoplasmic reticulum as a calcium store in excitation-contraction coupling; (3) low-resistance coupling of myocardial cells; (4) limitations of force development imposed by rate changes; (5) efficacy of sympathetic modulation; and (6) development of coronary circulation to enhance oxygen delivery to myocardium. In evolutionary terms, both hemodynamic and oxygen requirements appear to have been key selection pressures for rapid cardiac rates.

  3. [Chemical constituents of Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Ye; Wu, Hong-Hua; Fu, Ai-Zhen; Zhang, Peng

    2012-07-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim., chromatographic methods such as D101 macroporous resin, silica gel column chromatographic technology, Sephadex LH-20, octadecylsilyl (ODS) column chromatographic technique and preparative HPLC were used and nine compounds were isolated from a 95% (v/v) ethanol extract of the plant. By using spectroscopic techniques including 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 1H-1H COSY, HSQC and HMBC, these compounds were identified as 5-ethoxymethyl-1-carboxyl propyl-1H-pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde (1), 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (2), chrysoeriol (3), 4'-hydroxyscutellarin (4), vanillic acid (5), alpha-spinasterol (6), beta-D-glucopyranosyl-a-spinasterol (7), stigmast-7-en-3beta-ol (8), and adenosine (9), separately. Among them, compound 1 is a new compound, and compounds 3, 4 and 5 are isolated from the genus Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim. for the first time.

  4. Deterministic quantum annealing expectation-maximization algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, Hideyuki; Tsumura, Koji; Sughiyama, Yuki

    2017-11-01

    Maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) is one of the most important methods in machine learning, and the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is often used to obtain maximum likelihood estimates. However, EM heavily depends on initial configurations and fails to find the global optimum. On the other hand, in the field of physics, quantum annealing (QA) was proposed as a novel optimization approach. Motivated by QA, we propose a quantum annealing extension of EM, which we call the deterministic quantum annealing expectation-maximization (DQAEM) algorithm. We also discuss its advantage in terms of the path integral formulation. Furthermore, by employing numerical simulations, we illustrate how DQAEM works in MLE and show that DQAEM moderate the problem of local optima in EM.

  5. Loop Amplitude Diagrams in Manifest, Maximal Supergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Anna

    The issue of finiteness of maximal supergravity has been subject to research for quite some time. Here, we approach that question through an examination of how to describe amplitude diagrams in D = 11 maximal supergravity from a field theory point of view. The strength of the formulation is the presence of manifest supersymmetry through the use of pure spinors. An initial analysis of what the subsequent characteristics turn out to be, partly in lower dimensions through dimensional reduction, gives at hand results that agree with previous work, pointing towards a first divergence for the 7-loop contribution to the 4-point amplitude in four dimensions. The text is mainly based on and may be regarded as an introduction to the main points presented there.

  6. Maximal frustration as an immunological principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, F Vistulo; Mostardinha, P

    2009-03-06

    A fundamental problem in immunology is that of understanding how the immune system selects promptly which cells to kill without harming the body. This problem poses an apparent paradox. Strong reactivity against pathogens seems incompatible with perfect tolerance towards self. We propose a different view on cellular reactivity to overcome this paradox: effector functions should be seen as the outcome of cellular decisions which can be in conflict with other cells' decisions. We argue that if cellular systems are frustrated, then extensive cross-reactivity among the elements in the system can decrease the reactivity of the system as a whole and induce perfect tolerance. Using numerical and mathematical analyses, we discuss two simple models that perform optimal pathogenic detection with no autoimmunity if cells are maximally frustrated. This study strongly suggests that a principle of maximal frustration could be used to build artificial immune systems. It would be interesting to test this principle in the real adaptive immune system.

  7. Dynamical supersymmetry in maximally supersymmetric gauge theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Dmitry V.

    2010-06-01

    Maximally supersymmetric theories can be described by a single scalar superfield in light-cone superspace. When they are also (super)conformally invariant, they are uniquely specified by the form of the dynamical supersymmetry. We present an explicit derivation of the light-cone superspace form of the dynamical supersymmetry in the cases of ten- and four-dimensional super-Yang-Mills, and the three-dimensional Bagger-Lambert-Gustavsson theory, starting from the covariant formulation of these theories.

  8. Definable maximal discrete sets in forcing extensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Törnquist, Asger Dag; Schrittesser, David

    2018-01-01

    Let  be a Σ11 binary relation, and recall that a set A is -discrete if no two elements of A are related by . We show that in the Sacks and Miller forcing extensions of L there is a Δ12 maximal -discrete set. We use this to answer in the negative the main question posed in [5] by showing...

  9. Increasing Efficiency by Maximizing Electrical Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-27

    turbines whose efficiency decreases with system size driving up costs . The cost in $/W for our system is substantially less than other competitive...basis. That forecast of a $100,000 sales price is based on a detailed analysis of anticipated bill of materials costs when manufacturing and...27-07-2016 Cost and Performance Report 04/01/2012 - 07/01/2016 Increasing Efficiency by Maximizing Electrical Output Ted Eveleth, COO, Ener-G-Rotors

  10. Maximal Linear Embedding for Dimensionality Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruiping; Shan, Shiguang; Chen, Xilin; Chen, Jie; Gao, Wen

    2011-09-01

    Over the past few decades, dimensionality reduction has been widely exploited in computer vision and pattern analysis. This paper proposes a simple but effective nonlinear dimensionality reduction algorithm, named Maximal Linear Embedding (MLE). MLE learns a parametric mapping to recover a single global low-dimensional coordinate space and yields an isometric embedding for the manifold. Inspired by geometric intuition, we introduce a reasonable definition of locally linear patch, Maximal Linear Patch (MLP), which seeks to maximize the local neighborhood in which linearity holds. The input data are first decomposed into a collection of local linear models, each depicting an MLP. These local models are then aligned into a global coordinate space, which is achieved by applying MDS to some randomly selected landmarks. The proposed alignment method, called Landmarks-based Global Alignment (LGA), can efficiently produce a closed-form solution with no risk of local optima. It just involves some small-scale eigenvalue problems, while most previous aligning techniques employ time-consuming iterative optimization. Compared with traditional methods such as ISOMAP and LLE, our MLE yields an explicit modeling of the intrinsic variation modes of the observation data. Extensive experiments on both synthetic and real data indicate the effectivity and efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  11. Motion of a carrier with a mobile load along a rough inclined plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilchenko, G. G.

    2018-03-01

    The mechanical system consisting of a carrier and a load is considered. The load can move respectively the carrier according to the preset given motion law. The carrier motion from rest caused the load motion is investigated. The carrier can move translationally along rectilinear trajectory along rough inclined plane. The trajectory is the line of the greatest descent. The axis of rectilinear channel along which the load moves is situated in vertical plane containing the carrier trajectory. The Coulomb model is taken to describe the friction forces on sloped plane. Differential equations of motion of carrier with load are obtained. The sufficient condition of the carrier motion without detachment from inclined plane is given. For two special cases of the channel installation angle and the plane inclination angle combination the motion types are described. The computation experiments results are presented: the carrier motions in the special cases are illustrated, the phase portraits for some types of motions are constructed.

  12. HEAT EXCHANGE AND AERODYNAMICS OF THE COMBINED TUBING BUNDLES WITH CROSS INCLINED FINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knyazyuk V. I

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of experimental research and analyses air-side thermal performance of combined tube bundles with cross inclined fins. The empirical correlations for heat transfer and flow friction of tubes with inclined fins at different orientation finned tubes relatively of air flow are presented. The errors of thermal and aerodynamic tests are 3-5% and 9.2%, respectively. The proposed correlations describe an experimental data with a coefficient of determination about 0.979-0.998. The impact of tubes arrangement in a bundle on energy performance of heat exchanger were analyzed using complete and local heat modeling methods at a stationary heat flux. Experimental research indicates that efficiency of inclined fins can be calculated by using the equation for cross rectangular fins with average deviation of ±5 %.

  13. [Reliability study in the measurement of the cusp inclination angle of a chairside digital model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinggang, Liu; Xiaoxian, Chen

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate the reliability of the software Picpick in the measurement of the cusp inclination angle of a digital model. Twenty-one trimmed models were used as experimental objects. The chairside digital impression was then used for the acquisition of 3D digital models, and the software Picpick was employed for the measurement of the cusp inclination of these models. The measurements were repeated three times, and the results were compared with a gold standard, which was a manually measured experimental model cusp angle. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated. The paired t test value of the two measurement methods was 0.91. The ICCs between the two measurement methods and three repeated measurements were greater than 0.9. The digital model achieved a smaller coefficient of variation (9.9%). The software Picpick is reliable in measuring the cusp inclination of a digital model.

  14. Numerical study of heat and mass transfer optimization in a 3D inclined solar distiller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghachem Kaouther

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study of the 3-D double-diffusive natural convection in an inclined solar distiller was established. The flow is considered laminar and caused by the interaction of thermal energy and the chemical species diffusions. The governing equations of the problem, are formulated using vector potential-vorticity formalism in its 3-D form, then solved by the finite volumes method. The Rayleigh number is fixed at Ra = 105 and effects of the buoyancy ratio and inclination are studied for opposed temperature and concentration gradients. The main purpose of the study is to find the optimum inclination angle of the distiller which promotes the maximum mass and heat transfer.

  15. Flow behaviour and local concentration of coarse particles-water mixture in inclined pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasak Pavel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Narrow particle size distribution basalt pebbles of mean particle size 11.5 mm conveyed by water in the pipe sections of different inclination were investigated on an experimental pipe loop, consisting of smooth stainless steel pipes of inner diameter D = 100 mm. Mixture flow-behaviour and particles motion along the pipe invert were studied in a pipe viewing section, the concentration distribution in pipe cross-section was studied with the application of a gamma-ray densitometer. The study refers to the effect of mixture velocity, overall concentration, and angle of pipe inclination on chord-averaged concentration profiles and local concentration maps, and flow behaviour of the coarse particle-water mixtures. The study revealed that the coarse particle-water mixtures in the inclined pipe sections were significantly stratified, the solid particles moved principally close to the pipe invert, and for higher and moderate flow velocities particle saltation becomes the dominant mode of particle conveying.

  16. Experimental investigation of coarse particles-water mixture flow in horizontal and inclined pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasák Pavel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of solid concentration and mixture velocity on the flow behaviour, pressure drops, and concentration distribution of coarse particle-water mixtures in horizontal, vertical, and inclined smooth stainless steel pipes of inner diameter D = 100 mm was experimentally investigated. Graded basalt pebbles were used as solid particles. The study revealed that the coarse-grained particle-water mixtures in the horizontal and inclined pipes were significantly stratified. The solid particles moved principally in a layer close to the pipe invert; however for higher and moderate flow velocities, particle saltation became the dominant mode of particle conveyance. Frictional pressure drops in the horizontal pipe were found to be markedly higher than in the vertical pipe, while the frictional pressure drops in the ascending pipe increased with inclination angle up to about 30°.

  17. Measurement of capacity coefficient of inclined liquid phase catalytic exchange column for tritiated water processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamai, Hideki; Konishi, Satoshi; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Okuno, Kenji

    1994-01-01

    Liquid phase catalytic exchange (LPCE) is effective method for enrichment and removal of tritium from tritiated water. Capacity coefficients of operating LPCE column that are essential to evaluate column performance were measured. Experiments were performed with short catalyst packed columns and effect of inclination was studied. Method for evaluation of capacity coefficients was established from measurement of isotope concentration of liquid, vapor, gas phases at the two ends of the column. The capacity coefficients were measured under various superficial gas velocities. Feasibility study of helical columns with roughened inner surface was performed with short inclined columns. The column performance was not strongly affected by the inclination. The result indicates technological feasibility of helical LPCE column, that is expected to have operation stability and reduced height

  18. Aerodynamics of flapping insect wing in inclined stroke plane hovering with ground effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda v, Krishne; Vengadesan, S.

    2014-11-01

    This work presents the time-varying aerodynamic forces and the unsteady flow structures of flapping insect wing in inclined stroke plane hovering with ground effect. Two-dimensional dragonfly model wing is chosen and the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved numerically by using immersed boundary method. The main objective of the present work is to analyze the ground effect on the unsteady forces and vortical structures for the inclined stroke plane motions. We also investigate the influences of kinematics parameters such as Reynolds number (Re), stroke amplitude, wing rotational timing, for various distances between the airfoil and the ground. The effects of aforementioned parameters together with ground effect, on the stroke averaged force coefficients and regimes of force behavior are similar in both normal (horizontal) and inclined stroke plane motions. However, the evolution of the vortex structures which produces the effects are entirely different.

  19. Experimental investigation of turbulent flow in a channel with the backward-facing inclined step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uruba Václav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The work deals with the experimental investigation of turbulent flow in a closed channel with the backward-facing inclined step. Experiments were carried by means of the PIV optical measuring method in the channel of the rectangular cross-section in the inlet part and with inclined steps of the constant height H mm and various inclination angles for a wide range of the Reynolds number. The attention was paid especially to the separation region behind the step and to the relaxation of the shear layer after the reattachment in the outlet part of the channel. The dependence of the length of the separation region on the Reynolds number was obtained for various step angles. Optical measurements were completed by the measurement of static pressure distribution in the inlet and outlet part of the channel to estimate energy losses.

  20. The effect of inclined vertical slats on natural convective heat transfer from an isothermal heated vertical plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosthuizen, P.H.; Sun, L.; Naylor, D.

    2002-01-01

    Natural convective heat transfer from a wide heated vertical isothermal plate with adiabatic surfaces above and below the heated surface has been considered. There are a series of equally spaced vertical thin, flat adiabatic surfaces (termed 'slats') near the heated surface, these surfaces being, in general, inclined to the heated surface. The slats are pivoted about their center-point and thus as their angle is changed, the distance of the tip of the slat from the plate changes. The situation considered is an approximate model of a window with a vertical blind, the particular case where the window is hotter than the room air, i.e. where air-conditioning is being used, being considered. The flow has been assumed to be laminar and steady. Fluid properties have been assumed constant except for the density change with temperature that gives rise to the buoyancy forces, this being treated by means of the Biuniqueness type approximation. Although the flow is in general three-dimensional, the flow over each slat is assumed to be the same and attention can therefore be restricted to flow over a single slat by using repeating boundary conditions. The governing equations have been written in dimensionless form and the resulting dimensionless equations have been solved using a commercial finite-element package. The solution has the following parameters: (1) the Rayleigh number (2) the Prandtl number (3) the dimensionless distance of the slat center point (the pivot point) from the surface (4) the dimensionless slat size (5) the dimensionless slat spacing (6) the angle of inclination of the slats. Because of the application that motivated the study, results have only been obtained for a Prandtl number of 0.7. The effect of the other dimensionless variables on the mean dimensionless heat transfer rate from the heated surface has been examined. (author)

  1. The effect of heat generation in inclined slats on the natural convective heat transfer from an isothermal heated vertical plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosthuizen, P.H.; Sun, L.; Naylor, D.

    2003-01-01

    Natural convective heat transfer from a wide heated vertical isothermal plate with adiabatic surfaces above and below the heated surface has been considered. There are a series of equally spaced vertical thin, flat surfaces (termed 'slats') near the heated surface, these surfaces being, in general, inclined to the heated surface. There is, in general, a uniform heat generation in the slats. The slats are pivoted about their centre-point and thus as their angle is changed, the distance of the tip of the slat from the plate changes. The situation considered is an approximate model of a window with a vertical blind, the particular case where the window is hotter than the room air being considered. The heat generation in the slats in this situation is the result of solar radiation passing through the window and falling on and being absorbed by the slats of the blind. The flow has been assumed to be laminar and steady. Fluid properties have been assumed constant except for the density change with temperature that gives rise to the buoyancy forces. The governing equations have been written in dimensionless form and the resulting dimensionless equations have been solved using a commercial finite-element package. The solution has the following parameters: (1) the Rayleigh number (2) the Prandtl number (3) the dimensionless heat generation rate in the slats per unit frontal area (4) the dimensionless distance of the slat center point (the pivot point) from the surface (5) the dimensionless slat size (6) the dimensionless slat spacing (7) the angle of inclination of the slats. Because of the application that motivated the study, results have only been obtained for a Prandtl number of 0.7. The effect of the other dimensionless variables on the mean dimensionless heat transfer rate from the heated vertical surface has been examined. (author)

  2. A waveless two-dimensional flow in a channel against an inclined wall with surface tension effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merzougui, Abdelkrim; Mekias, Hocine; Guechi, Fairouz

    2007-01-01

    Surface tension effect on a two-dimensional channel flow against an inclined wall is considered. The flow is assumed to be steady, irrotational, inviscid and incompressible. The effect of surface tension is taken into account and the effect of gravity is neglected. Numerical solutions are obtained via series truncation procedure. The problem is solved numerically for various values of the Weber number α and for various values of the inclination angle β between the horizontal bottom and the inclined wall

  3. Comparison of the Activity of the Gluteus Medius According to the Angles of Inclination of a Treadmill with Vertical Load

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Da-Eun; Lee, Su-Kyoung; Kim, Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the muscle activity of the gluteus medius according to treadmill inclination during gait with a vertical load on a treadmill. [Methods] Sixteen healthy subjects were recruited for this study. The subjects walked on a treadmill at inclination angles of 0, 5, and 10 degrees. [Results] Muscle activity of the gluteus medius increased at 5° compared to 0° treadmill inclination, though the difference was not significant. On the other hand, gluteus ...

  4. Detecting and correcting for paleomagnetic inclination shallowing of sedimentary rocks: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Xiang eLi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic anisotropy and the elongation/inclination (E-I approaches have been increasingly employed as two important means for detecting and correcting the paleomagnetic inclination shallowing in sedimentary rocks that was first recognized sixty years ago. Both approaches are based on certain assumptions, and thus have advantages and intrinsic limitations in investigating shallow inclinations in sedimentary rocks. The E-I approach is relatively easy to use, but it needs a large dataset to adequately sample paleomagnetic directions due to paleosecular variation of the geomagnetic field. Also, slow sediment accumulation rates and local tectonics could lead to under- or over-corrections using the E-I approach. For the magnetic anisotropy technique, labor-intensive, sophisticated laboratory rock magnetic experiments are required in order to accurately determine both bulk magnetic anisotropy of remanence-carrying grains and magnetic anisotropy of an individual particle, i.e., a factor, of samples. Our review shows that, despite the intensive laboratory work necessary for applying anisotropy-based inclination corrections, it is worth investing the effort. In addition, the joint use of magnetic susceptibility and remanence anisotropy measurements as well as detailed rock magnetic measurements for determining the particle anisotropy a factor have the advantage of retrieving direct evidence of inclination shallowing and correcting for it with high confidence. We caution against use of either of the two approaches without full appreciation of the underlying assumptions and intrinsic limitations of each technique. The use and comparison of both techniques could provide the most robust inclination shallowing correction for sedimentary rocks.

  5. Detecting and correcting for paleomagnetic inclination shallowing of sedimentary rocks: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong-Xiang; Kodama, Kenneth

    2016-02-01

    Magnetic anisotropy and the elongation/inclination (E-I) approaches have been increasingly employed as two important means for detecting and correcting the paleomagnetic inclination shallowing in sedimentary rocks that was first recognized sixty years ago. Both approaches are based on certain assumptions, and thus have advantages and intrinsic limitations in investigating shallow inclinations in sedimentary rocks. The E-I approach is relatively easy to use, but it needs a large dataset to adequately sample paleomagnetic directions due to paleosecular variation of the geomagnetic field. Also, slow sediment accumulation rates and local tectonics could lead to under- or over-corrections using the E-I approach. For the magnetic anisotropy technique, labor-intensive, sophisticated laboratory rock magnetic experiments are required in order to accurately determine both bulk magnetic anisotropy of remanence-carrying grains and magnetic anisotropy of an individual particle, i.e., "a" factor, of samples. Our review shows that, despite the intensive laboratory work necessary for applying anisotropy-based inclination corrections, it is worth investing the effort. In addition, the joint use of magnetic susceptibility and remanence anisotropy measurements as well as detailed rock magnetic measurements for determining the particle anisotropy "a" factor have the advantage of retrieving direct evidence of inclination shallowing and correcting for it with high confidence. We caution against use of either of the two approaches without full appreciation of the underlying assumptions and intrinsic limitations of each technique. The use and comparison of both techniques could provide the most robust inclination shallowing correction for sedimentary rocks.

  6. LONG-LIVED CHAOTIC ORBITAL EVOLUTION OF EXOPLANETS IN MEAN MOTION RESONANCES WITH MUTUAL INCLINATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Rory; Deitrick, Russell; Quinn, Thomas R. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 951580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Greenberg, Richard [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 E. University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 86716 (United States); Raymond, Sean N., E-mail: rory@astro.washington.edu [NASA Astrobiology Institute-Virtual Planetary Laboratory Lead Team (United States)

    2015-03-10

    We present N-body simulations of resonant planets with inclined orbits that show chaotically evolving eccentricities and inclinations that can persist for at least 10 Gyr. A wide range of behavior is possible, from fast, low amplitude variations to systems in which eccentricities reach 0.9999 and inclinations 179.°9. While the orbital elements evolve chaotically, at least one resonant argument always librates. We show that the HD 73526, HD 45364, and HD 60532 systems may be in chaotically evolving resonances. Chaotic evolution is apparent in the 2:1, 3:1, and 3:2 resonances, and for planetary masses from lunar- to Jupiter-mass. In some cases, orbital disruption occurs after several gigayears, implying the mechanism is not rigorously stable, just long-lived relative to the main sequence lifetimes of solar-type stars. Planet-planet scattering appears to yield planets in inclined resonances that evolve chaotically in about 0.5% of cases. These results suggest that (1) approximate methods for identifying unstable orbital architectures may have limited applicability, (2) the observed close-in exoplanets may be produced during epochs of high eccentricit induced by inclined resonances, (3) those exoplanets' orbital planes may be misaligned with the host star's spin axis, (4) systems with resonances may be systematically younger than those without, (5) the distribution of period ratios of adjacent planets detected via transit may be skewed due to inclined resonances, and (6) potentially habitable planets may have dramatically different climatic evolution than Earth. The Gaia spacecraft is capable of discovering giant planets in these types of orbits.

  7. Revealing the inclined circumstellar disk in the UX Ori system KK Ophiuchi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreplin, A.; Weigelt, G.; Kraus, S.; Grinin, V.; Hofmann, K.-H.; Kishimoto, M.; Schertl, D.; Tambovtseva, L.; Clausse, J.-M.; Massi, F.; Perraut, K.; Stee, Ph.

    2013-07-01

    We study the inner sub-AU region of the circumstellar environment of the UX Ori type star KK Oph with near-infrared VLTI/AMBER interferometry. We are particularly interested in the inclination of the star-disk system, and we will use this information to test the current standard picture for UX Ori stars. We recorded spectrally dispersed (R˜35) interferograms in the near-infrared H and K bands with the VLTI/AMBER instrument. The derived visibilities, closure phases and the SED of KK Oph were compared with two-dimensional geometric and radiative transfer models (RADMC). We obtained visibilities at four different position angles. Using two-dimensional geometric models, we derive an axis ratio ˜3.0 corresponding to an inclination of ˜70 degree. A fitted inclined ring model leads to a ring radius of 2.8 ± 0.2 mas, corresponding to 0.44 ± 0.03 AU at a distance of 160 pc, which is larger than the dust sublimation radius of ˜0.1 AU predicted for a dust sublimation temperature of 1500 K. Our derived two-dimensional RADMC model consists of a circumstellar disk with an inclination angle of ˜70 degree and an additional dust envelope. The finding of an ˜70 degree inclined disk around KK Oph is consistent with the prediction that UX Ori objects are seen under large inclination angles, and orbiting clouds in the line of sight cause the observed variability. Furthermore, our results suggest that the orbit of the companion KK Oph B and the disk plane are coplanar.

  8. Revealing the inclined circumstellar disk in the UX Orionis system KK Ophiuchi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreplin, A.; Weigelt, G.; Kraus, S.; Grinin, V.; Hofmann, K.-H.; Kishimoto, M.; Schertl, D.; Tambovtseva, L.; Clausse, J.-M.; Massi, F.; Perraut, K.; Stee, Ph.

    2013-03-01

    Aims: We study the inner sub-AU region of the circumstellar environment of the UX Ori-type star KK Oph with near-infrared VLTI/AMBER interferometry. We are particularly interested in the inclination of the star-disk system, and we use this information to test the current standard picture for UX Ori stars. Methods: We recorded spectrally dispersed (R ~ 35) interferograms in the near-infrared H and K bands with the VLTI/AMBER instrument. The derived visibilities, closure phases, and the spectral energy distribution of KK Oph were compared with two-dimensional geometric and radiative transfer models (RADMC). Results: We obtained visibilities at four different position angles. Using two-dimensional geometric models, we derive an axis ratio ~3.0 corresponding to an inclination of ~70°. A fitted inclined ring model leads to a ring radius of 2.8 ± 0.2 mas, corresponding to 0.44 ± 0.03 AU at a distance of 160 pc, which is larger than the dust sublimation radius of ~0.1 AU predicted for a dust sublimation temperature of 1500 K. Our derived two-dimensional RADMC model consists of a circumstellar disk with an inclination angle of ~70° and an additional dust envelope. Conclusions: The finding of an ~70° inclined disk around KK Oph is consistent with the prediction that UX Ori objects are seen under large inclination angles, and orbiting clouds in the line of sight cause the observed variability. Furthermore, our results suggest that the orbit of the companion KK Oph B and the disk plane are coplanar. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at Paranal Observatory under program ID: 083.D-0224(C) and 088.C-0575(A).

  9. Cardiorespiratory Coordination in Repeated Maximal Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Garcia-Retortillo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Increases in cardiorespiratory coordination (CRC after training with no differences in performance and physiological variables have recently been reported using a principal component analysis approach. However, no research has yet evaluated the short-term effects of exercise on CRC. The aim of this study was to delineate the behavior of CRC under different physiological initial conditions produced by repeated maximal exercises. Fifteen participants performed 2 consecutive graded and maximal cycling tests. Test 1 was performed without any previous exercise, and Test 2 6 min after Test 1. Both tests started at 0 W and the workload was increased by 25 W/min in males and 20 W/min in females, until they were not able to maintain the prescribed cycling frequency of 70 rpm for more than 5 consecutive seconds. A principal component (PC analysis of selected cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory variables (expired fraction of O2, expired fraction of CO2, ventilation, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate was performed to evaluate the CRC defined by the number of PCs in both tests. In order to quantify the degree of coordination, the information entropy was calculated and the eigenvalues of the first PC (PC1 were compared between tests. Although no significant differences were found between the tests with respect to the performed maximal workload (Wmax, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max, or ventilatory threshold (VT, an increase in the number of PCs and/or a decrease of eigenvalues of PC1 (t = 2.95; p = 0.01; d = 1.08 was found in Test 2 compared to Test 1. Moreover, entropy was significantly higher (Z = 2.33; p = 0.02; d = 1.43 in the last test. In conclusion, despite the fact that no significant differences were observed in the conventionally explored maximal performance and physiological variables (Wmax, VO2 max, and VT between tests, a reduction of CRC was observed in Test 2. These results emphasize the interest of CRC

  10. Maximizing Team Performance: The Critical Role of the Nurse Leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manges, Kirstin; Scott-Cawiezell, Jill; Ward, Marcia M

    2017-01-01

    Facilitating team development is challenging, yet critical for ongoing improvement across healthcare settings. The purpose of this exemplary case study is to examine the role of nurse leaders in facilitating the development of a high-performing Change Team in implementing a patient safety initiative (TeamSTEPPs) using the Tuckman Model of Group Development as a guiding framework. The case study is the synthesis of 2.5 years of critical access hospital key informant interviews (n = 50). Critical juncture points related to team development and key nurse leader actions are analyzed, suggesting that nurse leaders are essential to maximize clinical teams' performance. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Model and experimental vizualisation of a bubble interacting with an inclined wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podvin, Berengere; Khoja, Suleman; Attinger, Daniel; Moraga, Francisco

    2006-11-01

    We describe the motion of an air bubble rising through water as it interacts with a wall of variable inclination. The bubble diameter varies about O(1) mm. We use lubrication theory to determine the modification of the bubble interface and compute the hydrodynamic force exerted by the wall. The present work is an extension of Moraga et al's model [Computers and Fluids 2006], which was devised for a horizontal wall. The predictions of the model are checked against experimental visualizations. The influence of the Weber number, Reynolds number and wall inclination is examined

  12. A Numerical Study on a Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine with Inclined Arms

    OpenAIRE

    Agostino De Marco; Domenico P. Coiro; Domenico Cucco; Fabrizio Nicolosi

    2014-01-01

    This work focuses on a particular type of vertical-axis wind turbine, in which a number of inclined arms with airfoil-shaped cross-sections are mounted to connect the principal blades to their hub. While the majority of the known studies on vertical-axis turbines is devoted to the role of principal blades, in most of the cases without taking into account other parts of the wind turbine, the objective of this work is to investigate the effect of uncommon arm geometries, such as the inclined ar...

  13. Cyclotron resonance in InAs/GaSb heterostructure in inclined magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Greshnov, A A; Vasilev, Yu B; Suchalkin, S D; Meltser, B Y; Ivanov, S V; Kopev, P S

    2002-01-01

    The mechanism of splitting the cyclotron resonance line in the InAs/GaSb heterostructure in the inclined magnetic field is experimentally and theoretically studied. It is shown that the electrons and holes mixing in leads to the anticrossing Landau levels and consequently to the cyclotron resonance line splitting. Splitting in the case of the inclined magnetic field was not observed which is explained by damping the electrons and holes states mixing in on the account of originating the additional barrier for the electrons and holes by availability of the magnetic field longitudinal constituent

  14. Non-destructive automated express method for determining the inclination of chromium-nickel steels IGC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarov, A.A.; Kamenev, Yu.B.; Kuusk, L.V.; Kormin, E.G.; Vasil'ev, A.N.; Sumbaeva, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    Methods of automated control of 18-10-type steel inclination to IGC are developed and a corresponding automated testing complex (ATS) is created. 08Kh18N10T steel samples had two variants of thermal treatment: 1) 1200 deg (5 h), 600 deg (50 h); 2) 1200 deg (5 h). Methods of non-destructive automated control of 18-10-type steel inclination to IGC are developed on the basis of potentiodynamic reactivation (PR) principle. Automated testing complex is developed, which has undergone experimental running and demonstrated a high confidence of results, reliability and easy operation

  15. An analytical model for force prediction in ball nose micro milling of inclined surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2010-01-01

    Ball nose micro milling is a key process for the generation of free form surfaces and inclined surfaces often present in mould inserts for micro replication. This paper presents a new cutting force model for ball nose micro milling that is capable of taking into account the effect of the edge rad...... radius and the effect of the surface topography due to the previous milling passes. The model is completely analytical can be applied to ball end micro milling of slanted surfaces for any value of the surface inclination angle relative to the tool axis....

  16. Violation of Conversational Maxims in the Avengers Movie

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Juriati Ownie, David Hamonangan Sihite and

    2015-01-01

    The study deals with the types of maxims violation in The Avengers movie'sscript. The objectives of the study were to discover the types of maxims violation,the most dominant maxim violation, and to explain the implication of the mostdominant maxim violation in The Avengers movie. The source of the data was theconversations in The Avengers movie. The data was the script of The Avengersmovie. There were 55 maxim violations in this research. The descriptivequalitative design was used to analyze...

  17. Stability of hierarchical triples - I. Dependence on inner eccentricity and inclination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylläri, A.; Valtonen, M.; Pasechnik, A.; Mikkola, S.

    2018-05-01

    In simulations it is often important to decide if a given hierarchical triple star system is stable over an extended period of time. We introduce a stability criterion, modified from earlier work, where we use the closest approach ratio Q of the third star to the inner binary centre of mass in their initial osculating orbits. We study by numerical integration the orbits of over 1000 000 triple systems of the fixed masses and outer eccentricities eout, but varying inner eccentricities ein and inclinations i. 12 primary combinations of masses have been tried, representing the range encountered in stellar systems. The definition of the instability is either the escape of one of the bodies, or the exchange of the members between the inner and outer systems. An analytical approximation is derived using the energy change in a single close encounter between the inner and outer systems, assuming that the orbital phases in subsequent encounters occur randomly. The theory provides a fairly good description of the typical Qst, the smallest Q value that allows the system to be stable over N = 10 000 revolutions of the initial outer orbit. The final stability limit formula is Qst = 101/3A[( f g)2/(1 - eout)]1/6, where the coefficient A ˜ 1 should be used in N-body experiments, and A = 2.4 when the absolute long-term stability is required. The functions f (ein, cos i) and g(m1, m2, m3) are derived in the paper. At the limit of ein = i = m3 = 0, f g = 1.

  18. Gain maximization in a probabilistic entanglement protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Lorenzo, Antonio; Esteves de Queiroz, Johnny Hebert

    Entanglement is a resource. We can therefore define gain as a monotonic function of entanglement G (E) . If a pair with entanglement E is produced with probability P, the net gain is N = PG (E) - (1 - P) C , where C is the cost of a failed attempt. We study a protocol where a pair of quantum systems is produced in a maximally entangled state ρm with probability Pm, while it is produced in a partially entangled state ρp with the complementary probability 1 -Pm . We mix a fraction w of the partially entangled pairs with the maximally entangled ones, i.e. we take the state to be ρ = (ρm + wUlocρpUloc+) / (1 + w) , where Uloc is an appropriate unitary local operation designed to maximize the entanglement of ρ. This procedure on one hand reduces the entanglement E, and hence the gain, but on the other hand it increases the probability of success to P =Pm + w (1 -Pm) , therefore the net gain N may increase. There may be hence, a priori, an optimal value for w, the fraction of failed attempts that we mix in. We show that, in the hypothesis of a linear gain G (E) = E , even assuming a vanishing cost C -> 0 , the net gain N is increasing with w, therefore the best strategy is to always mix the partially entangled states. Work supported by CNPq, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, proc. 311288/2014-6, and by FAPEMIG, Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa de Minas Gerais, proc. IC-FAPEMIG2016-0269 and PPM-00607-16.

  19. Using molecular biology to maximize concurrent training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baar, Keith

    2014-11-01

    Very few sports use only endurance or strength. Outside of running long distances on a flat surface and power-lifting, practically all sports require some combination of endurance and strength. Endurance and strength can be developed simultaneously to some degree. However, the development of a high level of endurance seems to prohibit the development or maintenance of muscle mass and strength. This interaction between endurance and strength is called the concurrent training effect. This review specifically defines the concurrent training effect, discusses the potential molecular mechanisms underlying this effect, and proposes strategies to maximize strength and endurance in the high-level athlete.

  20. What currency do bumble bees maximize?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas L Charlton

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In modelling bumble bee foraging, net rate of energetic intake has been suggested as the appropriate currency. The foraging behaviour of honey bees is better predicted by using efficiency, the ratio of energetic gain to expenditure, as the currency. We re-analyse several studies of bumble bee foraging and show that efficiency is as good a currency as net rate in terms of predicting behaviour. We suggest that future studies of the foraging of bumble bees should be designed to distinguish between net rate and efficiency maximizing behaviour in an attempt to discover which is the more appropriate currency.

  1. Maximally entangled mixed states and conditional entropies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batle, J.; Casas, M.; Plastino, A.; Plastino, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    The maximally entangled mixed states of Munro et al. [Phys. Rev. A 64, 030302 (2001)] are shown to exhibit interesting features vis a vis conditional entropic measures. The same happens with the Ishizaka and Hiroshima states [Phys. Rev. A 62, 022310 (2000)], whose entanglement degree cannot be increased by acting on them with logic gates. Special types of entangled states that do not violate classical entropic inequalities are seen to exist in the space of two qubits. Special meaning can be assigned to the Munro et al. special participation ratio of 1.8

  2. Maximizing policy learning in international committees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    , this article demonstrates that valuable lessons can be learned about policy learning, in practice and theoretically, by analysing the cooperation in the OMC committees. Using the Advocacy Coalition Framework as the starting point of analysis, 15 hypotheses on policy learning are tested. Among other things......, it is concluded that in order to maximize policy learning in international committees, empirical data should be made available to committees and provided by sources close to the participants (i.e. the Commission). In addition, the work in the committees should be made prestigious in order to attract well...

  3. Techniques and technologies to maximize mucosal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moons, Leon M G; Gralnek, Ian M; Siersema, Peter D

    2015-04-01

    Performing high-quality colonoscopy is one of the important goals of gastroenterology practices and requires achieving a high level of bowel cleansing, performing good and safe polypectomy, and detecting all polyps present in the colon. This article summarizes currently available techniques and technologies to maximize mucosal visualization. Several maneuvers can be applied during insertion and withdrawal of the colonoscope to optimize mucosal visualization and decrease the number of missed polyps. Newly developed technologies support the endoscopist in the detection of polyps. Each technique is reviewed, with emphasis on the impact on colorectal polyp detection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Maximizing versus satisficing: happiness is a matter of choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Barry; Ward, Andrew; Monterosso, John; Lyubomirsky, Sonja; White, Katherine; Lehman, Darrin R

    2002-11-01

    Can people feel worse off as the options they face increase? The present studies suggest that some people--maximizers--can. Study 1 reported a Maximization Scale, which measures individual differences in desire to maximize. Seven samples revealed negative correlations between maximization and happiness, optimism, self-esteem, and life satisfaction, and positive correlations between maximization and depression, perfectionism, and regret. Study 2 found maximizers less satisfied than nonmaximizers (satisficers) with consumer decisions, and more likely to engage in social comparison. Study 3 found maximizers more adversely affected by upward social comparison. Study 4 found maximizers more sensitive to regret and less satisfied in an ultimatum bargaining game. The interaction between maximizing and choice is discussed in terms of regret, adaptation, and self-blame.

  5. Developing maximal neuromuscular power: part 2 - training considerations for improving maximal power production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormie, Prue; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U

    2011-02-01

    This series of reviews focuses on the most important neuromuscular function in many sport performances: the ability to generate maximal muscular power. Part 1, published in an earlier issue of Sports Medicine, focused on the factors that affect maximal power production while part 2 explores the practical application of these findings by reviewing the scientific literature relevant to the development of training programmes that most effectively enhance maximal power production. The ability to generate maximal power during complex motor skills is of paramount importance to successful athletic performance across many sports. A crucial issue faced by scientists and coaches is the development of effective and efficient training programmes that improve maximal power production in dynamic, multi-joint movements. Such training is referred to as 'power training' for the purposes of this review. Although further research is required in order to gain a deeper understanding of the optimal training techniques for maximizing power in complex, sports-specific movements and the precise mechanisms underlying adaptation, several key conclusions can be drawn from this review. First, a fundamental relationship exists between strength and power, which dictates that an individual cannot possess a high level of power without first being relatively strong. Thus, enhancing and maintaining maximal strength is essential when considering the long-term development of power. Second, consideration of movement pattern, load and velocity specificity is essential when designing power training programmes. Ballistic, plyometric and weightlifting exercises can be used effectively as primary exercises within a power training programme that enhances maximal power. The loads applied to these exercises will depend on the specific requirements of each particular sport and the type of movement being trained. The use of ballistic exercises with loads ranging from 0% to 50% of one-repetition maximum (1RM) and

  6. Simulation of Flow Pattern around Inclined Bridge Group Pier using FLOW-3D Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihesadat Jafari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bridges are certainly one of the most important structures but costly service elements in a transport system. The bridges are very required to access the damaged areas in emergency situations such as floods and earthquakes. Scour around the foundations of bridge piers exposed to the flowing water than can destroy the bridge itself is a subject of major concern. Flow pattern is known as responsible for all changes in stream bed. Any obstacle in the channel can form new flow patterns causing additional shear stress exerted on the bed than the equilibrium condition of the absence of the obstacle. Appropriate shaping of flow pattern and proper selecting of pier geometry and the location of bridge piers can be one of the proper methods in reduction of scour amount which is the main subject of the present study. Materials and Methods: Inclined bridge group pier is a type of bridges with modern geometry based on development in building technology of structures. Many of these bridges have been built all around the world and the 8th bridge built crossing the Karun River in Ahvaz is a sample of the Iranian ones considered in this research. Hydrodynamic behavior of flow is investigated around the inclined bridge group pier settled on foundation using the FLOW-3D numerical model. Inclined bridge group pier investigated in this study, includes two rectangular piers which are 2.5 cm long and 3.5 cm wide and set in an angle of 28 degree on rectangular foundation which is 16 cm long and 10 cm wide and installed in three different foundation levels namely at, above and below the bed levels. The physical model of prototype pier considered in this study was constructed to the scale of 1:190 of the Ahvaz 8th bridge. In order to verify the accuracy of the numerical model, velocity data obtained from image processing technique were used. Results and Discussion: Due to non- linearity and interactions between various phenomena involved, flow pattern

  7. The Relationship between Mg ii Broad Emission and Quasar Inclination Angle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildy, Conor; Czerny, Bozena, E-mail: wildy@cft.edu.pl [Center for Theoretical Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland)

    2017-11-14

    Several observed spectral properties of quasars are believed to be influenced by quasar orientation. In this investigation we examine the effect of orientation on the Mg ii line located at 2,798 Å in a sample of 36 radio-loud quasars, with orientation angles having been obtained in a previous study using radio observations. We find no significant relationship between orientation angle and either Mg ii line full-width at half-maximum or equivalent width. The lack of correlation with inclination angle contradicts previous studies which also use radio data as a proxy for inclination angle and suggests the Mg ii emission region does not occupy a disk-like geometry. The lack of correlation with Mg ii equivalent width, however, is reported in at least one previous study. Although the significance is not very strong (86%), there is a possible negative relationship between inclination angle and Fe ii strength which, if true, could explain the Fe ii anti-correlation with [O iii] strength associated with Eigenvector 1. Interestingly, there are objects having almost edge-on inclinations while still exhibiting broad lines. This could be explained by a torus which is either clumpy (allowing sight lines to the central engine) or mis-aligned with the accretion disk.

  8. Complex network analysis in inclined oil–water two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong-Ke, Gao; Ning-De, Jin

    2009-01-01

    Complex networks have established themselves in recent years as being particularly suitable and flexible for representing and modelling many complex natural and artificial systems. Oil–water two-phase flow is one of the most complex systems. In this paper, we use complex networks to study the inclined oil–water two-phase flow. Two different complex network construction methods are proposed to build two types of networks, i.e. the flow pattern complex network (FPCN) and fluid dynamic complex network (FDCN). Through detecting the community structure of FPCN by the community-detection algorithm based on K-means clustering, useful and interesting results are found which can be used for identifying three inclined oil–water flow patterns. To investigate the dynamic characteristics of the inclined oil–water two-phase flow, we construct 48 FDCNs under different flow conditions, and find that the power-law exponent and the network information entropy, which are sensitive to the flow pattern transition, can both characterize the nonlinear dynamics of the inclined oil–water two-phase flow. In this paper, from a new perspective, we not only introduce a complex network theory into the study of the oil–water two-phase flow but also indicate that the complex network may be a powerful tool for exploring nonlinear time series in practice. (general)

  9. On the influence of gravity on the static state of an inclined tensioned string

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Horssen, W.T.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the static state of an inclined stretched string due to gravity is considered. The string is stretched between two fixed supports which are situated at two different levels. It is assumed that the tension in the string is suffiently large such that the sag of the string due to gravity

  10. The Relationship between Mg ii Broad Emission and Quasar Inclination Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor Wildy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Several observed spectral properties of quasars are believed to be influenced by quasar orientation. In this investigation we examine the effect of orientation on the Mg ii line located at 2,798 Å in a sample of 36 radio-loud quasars, with orientation angles having been obtained in a previous study using radio observations. We find no significant relationship between orientation angle and either Mg ii line full-width at half-maximum or equivalent width. The lack of correlation with inclination angle contradicts previous studies which also use radio data as a proxy for inclination angle and suggests the Mg ii emission region does not occupy a disk-like geometry. The lack of correlation with Mg ii equivalent width, however, is reported in at least one previous study. Although the significance is not very strong (86%, there is a possible negative relationship between inclination angle and Fe ii strength which, if true, could explain the Fe ii anti-correlation with [O iii] strength associated with Eigenvector 1. Interestingly, there are objects having almost edge-on inclinations while still exhibiting broad lines. This could be explained by a torus which is either clumpy (allowing sight lines to the central engine or mis-aligned with the accretion disk.

  11. Demographic Factors, Personality and Entrepreneurial Inclination: A Study among Indian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Richa

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of demographic, social and personal dispositional factors on determining the entrepreneurial inclination. Specifically, the author examined the role of gender, age, stream of study, family business background and six psychological traits of locus of control, tolerance for…

  12. Constraining the Relative Inclinations of the Planets B and C of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... We investigate on the relative inclination of the planets B and C orbiting the pulsar PSR B1257+12. First, we show that the third Kepler's law does represent an adequate model for the orbital periods of the planets, because other Newtonian and Einsteinian corrections are orders of magnitude smaller than ...

  13. Effect of seat surface inclination on postural control during reaching in preterm children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna; van der Heide, Jolanda C.; Fock, Johanna M.; Stremmelaar, Elisabeth; van Eykern, Leo A.; Otten, Bert

    Background and Purpose Because it is debatable whether seat surface inclination improves motor function in children with cerebral palsy (CP), the effect of seat surface tilting on postural control and quality of reaching was studied. Subjects The subjects were 58 children with CP aged 2 to 11 years

  14. The effects of porosity and angle of inclination on the deflection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of porosity and angle of inclination on the deflection of fluid flow in porous media. ... a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link above.

  15. Deformation of two welded elastic half-spaces due to a long inclined ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Department of Mathematics, University of Delhi South Campus, New Delhi 110 021, India. ∗e-mail: ... Airy stress function for a tensile line source in two welded half-spaces are first obtained. These expressions ... computing the displacement and stress fields around a long inclined tensile fault near an internal boundary. 1.

  16. Reconstruction of inclined air showers detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierre Auger Collaboration, [No Value; Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Samarai, I. Al; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; D\\'\\iaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fuji, T.; Gaior, R.; Garc\\'\\ia, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Islo, K.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agëra, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Mart\\'\\inez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Mas\\'\\ias Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, A. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Newton, D.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodr\\'\\iguez-Fr\\'\\ias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiał kowski, A.; Šm\\'\\ida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Thao, N. T.; Theodoro, V. M.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the method devised to reconstruct inclined cosmic-ray air showers with zenith angles greater than 60° detected with the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The measured signals at the ground level are fitted to muon density distributions predicted with atmospheric cascade

  17. Effect of dual task type on gait and dynamic stability during stair negotiation at different inclinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madehkhaksar, F.; Egges, J.

    Stair gait is a common daily activity with great potential risk for falls. Stairs have varying inclinations and people may perform other tasks concurrently with stair gait. This study investigated dual-task interference in the context of complex gait tasks, such as stair gait at different

  18. EFFECT OF BRIDGE PIERS INCLINATION AND ROUGHNESS ON SCOUR PIT DIMENSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moaed S. Khalil

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a laboratory work was performed to study the effect of bridge piers inclination and surface roughness on scour pit dimensions. Fifty four experiments were conducted using three different sizes and inclinations Pier models fixed in a sandy bed channel. First, the axis of the pier was parallel to the flow, then it was inclined by 30° and finally by 45°. Each model was tested under three different flow discharges for a period not less than two hours and at the end of each experiment the dimensions of the scour pit were measured. The same experiments were repeated after roughening the surface of each pier by fine gravel of 2mm in diameter to increase its roughness.The results of the experiment showed a clear reduction in scour pit dimensions after increasing pier roughness, the percentage of decreases in scour depth was between 2 % and 61%, while the scour length decreased between 2.5% and 22%, and finally the width of scour decreases was between 3% and 19.7%. The results also showed that the inclination of pier's axis produced an increase in scour pit dimensions. Finally, the empirical relationships of the results showed that it's possible to explain the relation between the flow discharge and each of scour pit dimensions by a simple linear equation, where the determination coefficient were more than 0.94 for all relations. 

  19. First Measurements of the Inclined Boron Layer Thermal-Neutron Detector for Reflectometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clonts, Lloyd G [ORNL; Crow, Lowell [ORNL; Van Vuure, Thorwald L [ORNL; Robertson, Lee [ORNL; Riedel, Richard A [ORNL; Richards, John D [ORNL; Cooper, Ronald G [ORNL; Remec, Igor [ORNL; Ankner, John Francis [ORNL; Browning, Jim [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    A prototype detector based on the inclined boron layer principle is introduced. For typical measurement conditions at the Liquids Reflectometer at the Spallation Neutron Source, its count rate capability is shown to be superior to that of the current detector by nearly two orders of magnitude.

  20. The Racing-Game Effect : Why Do Video Racing Games Increase Risk-Taking Inclinations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Morton, Thomas; Kastenmueller, Andreas; Postmes, Tom; Frey, Dieter; Kubitzki, Joerg; Odenwaelder, Joerg; Kastenmüller, A.; Odenwälder, J.

    2009-01-01

    The present studies investigated why video racing games increase players' risk-taking inclinations. Four studies reveal that playing video racing games increases risk taking in a subsequent simulated road traffic situation, as well as risk-promoting cognitions and emotions, blood pressure, sensation

  1. A Study of Static Performance of Fixed Inclined Slider Bearings – A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, the performance of a fixed inclined slider bearing whose surfaces are lubricated by a non Newtonian power law lubricant is investigated numerically. Based on the power law model, the modified Reynolds equation is derived and solved using the finite element method. The effect of flow index on pressure ...

  2. The effects of porosity and angle of inclination on the deflection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -section of soils in deflecting contaminated fluid from septic tank to different directions from the source of water within the same small portion of land. It was observed that angle of inclination does not have a significant effect on the deflection of ...

  3. Constraining the Relative Inclinations of the Planets B and C of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of the orbital inclinations iB and iC independently of the pulsar's mass M. It turns out that coplanarity of the orbits of B and C would imply a violation of the equivalence principle. Adopting a pulsar mass range 1 ≲ M ≲ 3, in solar masses (supported by present-day theoretical and observational bounds for pulsar's masses), ...

  4. Second law analysis of a solar air heater having 60° inclined ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Artificially roughened solar air heaters perform better than the smooth ones under the same operating conditions. However, artificial roughness leads to even more fluid pressure thereby increasing the pumping power. The entropy generation in the duct of solar air heater having 60° inclined discrete rib roughness on one ...

  5. A Numerical Study on a Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine with Inclined Arms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostino De Marco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on a particular type of vertical-axis wind turbine, in which a number of inclined arms with airfoil-shaped cross-sections are mounted to connect the principal blades to their hub. While the majority of the known studies on vertical-axis turbines is devoted to the role of principal blades, in most of the cases without taking into account other parts of the wind turbine, the objective of this work is to investigate the effect of uncommon arm geometries, such as the inclined arms. The inclined arms are known to have a potentially beneficial role in the power extraction from the wind current but, due to the complexity of the phenomena, the investigation on aerodynamics of this type of turbine is often impossible through analytical models, such as blade-element momentum theory. It turns out that adequate studies can only be carried out by wind tunnel experiments or CFD simulations. This work presents a methodical CFD study on how inclined arms can be used on a selected wind turbine configuration to harvest additional power from the wind. The turbine configuration, geometry, and some fundamental definitions are introduced first. Then an in-depth CFD analysis is presented and discussed.

  6. Exact solution of cilia induced flow of a Jeffrey fluid in an inclined tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, K; Shaheen, S; Mann, A B

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the cilia induced flow of MHD Jeffrey fluid through an inclined tube. This study is carried out under the assumptions of long wavelength and low Reynolds number approximations. Exact solutions for the velocity profile, pressure rise, pressure gradient, volume flow rate and stream function are obtained. Effects of pertinent physical parameters on the computational results are presented graphically.

  7. Mitigation of Traffic-Induced Ground Vibration by Inclined Wave Barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Augustesen, Anders Hust

    2009-01-01

    Double sheet pile walls can be used as wave barriers in order to mitigate ground vibrations from railways. The present analysis concerns the efficiency of such barriers, especially with regard to the influence of the barrier inclination and the backfill between the walls. Thus, the screening...

  8. The Effect of Multi-inclined Holes on the Creep Properties of Nickel-Based Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongfan; Wen, Zhixun; Wang, Shaofei; Liu, Chenyu; Yue, Zhufeng

    2017-07-01

    The creep properties of GH3536 nickel-based superalloy plate specimens without/with multi-inclined holes were studied under applied stress 80/90/100 MPa at 850 °, respectively. Interesting finding is focused on the inflection point, that is, both the fraction elongation and creep strain achieve the maximum value under 90 MPa. Further study is carried out by two methods: the finite element analysis (FEA) calculation and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The FEA results show that the dangerous areas appear in the regions near the end of ellipse axis along the inclined angle orientation, which is similar to the actual fracture appearances. What is more, the tiny holes and dimples are the main characters of creep fracture for multi-inclined hole specimens, whereas the creep fracture of specimens without holes is the result of growth and coalescence of voids. In addition, based on creep performance, laser drilling is better than that of the electric spark drilling, which provides a proof that the creep performance of specimens with multi-inclined holes will be better with the improvement of the drilling process.

  9. Is Mandibular Fossa Morphology and Articular Eminence Inclination Associated with Temporomandibular Dysfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paknahad, Maryam; Shahidi, Shoaleh; Akhlaghian, Marzieh; Abolvardi, Masoud

    2016-06-01

    Finding a significant relationship between temporomandibular joint (TMJ) morphology and the incidence of temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD) may help early prediction and prevention of these problems. The purpose of the present study was to determine the morphology of mandibular fossa and the articular eminence inclination in patients with TMD and in control group using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). The CBCT data of bilateral TMJs of 40 patients with TMD and 23 symptom-free cases were evaluated. The articular eminence inclination, as well as the glenoid fossa depth and width of the mandibular fossa were measured. The paired t-test was used to compare these values between two groups. The articular eminence inclination and glenoid fossa width and depth were significantly higher in patients with TMD than in the control group (p < 0.05). The articular eminence inclination was steeper in patients with TMD than in the control group. Glenoid fossa width and depth were higher in patients with TMD than that in the control group. This information may shed light on the relationship between TMJ morphology and the incidence of TMD.

  10. Effect of inclined ribs on heat transfer coefficient in stationary square channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natthaporn Kaewchoothong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to study the effect of rib arrangement on the distributions of the local heat transfer coefficient in a stationary channel. In this study, the ribs with square cross section were used to place on two side walls for study. The rib height-to-hydraulic diameter ratio (e/D h and the rib pitch-to-height (p/e ratio were fixed at 0.133 and 10, respectively. Three different types of rib arrangement for inclined ribs, V-shaped ribs and inverted V-shaped ribs were investigated. The rib angle of attack (α was varied from 30° to 90° for inclined ribs and 45° and 60° for both V-shaped and inverted V-shaped ribs, and compared at constant Reynolds number Re =30000. Thermal Liquid Crystal sheet was applied for evaluating the heat transfer distributions. The results showed that the average Nusselt number on surface with rib inclined angle at 60°, 45°, and 60° V-shaped ribs was improved up to about 20%, 25% and 30% higher than case of angle 90° and the rib inclined angle at 60° V-shaped ribs provided the highest Nusselt number covering largest area when compared to the other cases.

  11. Hairpin packet structure of a turbulent boundary layer in inclined wall-normal/spanwise planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Hwa; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2009-11-01

    Turbulent coherent structures associated with hairpin packet motions have been scrutinized using the instantaneous flow fields obtained from the direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a turbulent boundary layer (TBL). The Reynolds number based on the momentum thickness was varied in the range Reθ=890˜2560. This study focused on the hairpin packet motions in inclined wall-normal/spanwise planes. The hairpin vortex signature associated with the hairpin leg components in the vertical inclined plane consists of a counter-rotating vortex pair, upward and downward motions and a stagnation point induced by the Q2 and Q4 events. These hairpin signatures were observed in the instantaneous flow field, in the two-point correlations and in the conditionally averaged flow fields, respectively. We considered three inclined planes (45^o, 90^o, and 135^o) to investigate the spatial characteristics of the hairpin packet motions in the log and wake regions. The statistical flow fields showed that significantly different flow patterns are induced by the intersections of the three inclined planes with the hairpin packet motions.

  12. A Study of Static Performance of Fixed Inclined Slider Bearings – A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    and friction. He compared numerical solutions for the bearing performance metrics with analytical solution using a range of bearing aspect ratios and power law indices. In this paper, we present the effect of power law fluids on the static performance characteristics of inclined slider bearings. Based on the power law model ...

  13. Experimental studies on circular and AR4 elliptic vortex-ring impingement upon inclined surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shengxian; New, Tze How; Chen, Jian

    2014-11-01

    PLIF flow visualisation and TR-PIV measurements were performed on the impingement of circular and AR4 elliptic vortex-rings upon flat surface with different inclination angles at Re = 4000. This is aimed to investigate the effects of nozzle geometry, surface inclination angle and exit-surface separation distance on the vortex-ring impingement behaviour. Separation distance between nozzle exit and flat surface were adjusted for the elliptic vortex-ring so as to examine the flow structures for impingement prior, at and posterior the axis-switching point. Current results on circular vortex-ring show that at low inclination angle, vortex-ring underwent severe stretching during the impingement and vortex-ring core closer to the flat surface was observed to induce secondary vortex-ring and pair with it before its pinch-off. Meanwhile, vortex-ring core further away from the flat surface produced secondary and tertiary vortex-rings before transit into turbulence. At high inclination angles, vortex-ring core closer to the flat surface was quickly entrained by the primary vortex-ring after the impingement. Experiments on elliptic vortex-ring are undergoing at the moment, more findings will be presented in the conference.

  14. Effects of turbulence and flow inclination on the performance of cup anemometers in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, K.H.; Stefantos, N.C.; Schmidt Paulsen, U.

    2001-01-01

    Four commercial and one research cup anemometers were comparatively tested in a complex terrain site to quantify the effects of turbulence and flow inclination on the wind speed measurements. The difference of the mean wind speed reading between the anemometers was as much as 2% for wind directio...

  15. Economic Investigation of Different Configurations of Inclined Solar Water Desalination Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Phillips Agboola

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically investigated the performance of four configurations of inclined solar water desalination (ISWD system for parameters such as daily production, efficiency, system cost, and distilled water production cost. The empirical findings show that in terms of daily productivity improved inclined solar water desalination (IISWD performed best with 6.41 kg/m2/day while improved inclined solar water desalination with wire mesh (IISWDWM produced the least with 3.0 kg/m2/day. In terms of cost price of the systems, the control system inclined solar water desalination (ISWD is the cheapest while IISWDWM is the most expensive system. Distilled water cost price ranges from 0.059 TL/kg, for IISWDW, to 0.134 TL/kg, for IISWDWM system. All the systems are economically and technically feasible as a solar desalination system for potable water in northern Cyprus. Potable water from vendors/hawkers ranges from 0.2 to 0.3 TL/kg.

  16. Experimental investigation of coarse particles-water mixture flow in horizontal and inclined pipes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlasák, Pavel; Chára, Zdeněk; Krupička, Jan; Konfršt, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 3 (2014), s. 241-247 ISSN 0042-790X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP105/10/1574 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : hydraulic pipelining * coarse-grained slurry * pressure drops * pipe inclination * concentration distribution Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.486, year: 2014

  17. Rapid prototyping and inclined plane technique in the treatment of maxillofacial malformations in a fox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Elisangela P.; Rahal, Sheila C.; Teixeira, Carlos R.; Silva, Jorge V.L.; Noritomi, Pedro Y.; Villela, Carlos H.S.; Yamashita, Seizo

    2010-01-01

    An approximately 9-month-old fox (Pseudalopex vetulus) was presented with malocclusion and deviation of the lower jaw to the right side. Orthodontic treatment was performed using the inclined plane technique. Virtual 3D models and prototypes of the head were based on computed tomography (CT) image data to assist in diagnosis and treatment. PMID:20514249

  18. Impact of cusp inclinations on dental fractures in cracked tooth syndrome model and relevant risk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Nina; Wang, Penglai; Wu, Cui; Song, Wenting; Wang, Wen; Liu, Zongxiang

    2017-12-01

    We explored the impact of cusp inclinations on dental fractures in cracked tooth syndrome model and formulated corresponding risk scale. Forty maxillary premolars were randomized into four groups for cusp inclination measurements by digital radiovisiography (RVG). For cracked tooth models, buccal and palatal cusp inclinations were achieved by grinding in groups I (59°-50°), II (64°-55°) and III (69°-60°), with group IV as blank control. All groups underwent compression loading test, with fracture levels recorded for statistical analysis. The fracture modes included a majority of crown root fractures and a minority of crown fractures in groups I and II, exclusive crown root fractures in group III, and exclusive crown fractures in group IV. Overall, palatal fractures were predominant versus buccal fractures, with exclusive palatal fractures in group IV, and oblique fractures were overwhelming versus the scanty vertical fractures. Fracture risk classification: grade III was prevalent in groups I and II, grade IV in group III, and grades I and II in group IV only. The fracture risk scores in groups III and IV had significant statistical differences versus groups I and II (P0.05). Cracked teeth are more vulnerable to complex fractures, with increment of cusp inclinations contributable to complex fracture modes, involving deep roots and high risk scores.

  19. Average course approximation of measured subsidence and inclinations of mining area by smooth splines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Orwat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of marking average courses of subsidence measured on the points of measuring line no. 1 of the “Budryk” Hard Coal Mine, set approximately perpendicularly to a face run of four consecutively mined longwalls in coal bed 338/2 have been presented in the article. Smooth splines were used to approximate the average course of measured subsidence after subsequent exploitation stages. The minimising of the sum of the squared differences between the average and forecasted subsidence, using J. Bialek's formula, was used as a selection criterion of parameter values of smoothing an approximating function. The parameter values of this formula have been chosen in order to match forecasted subsidence with measured ones. The average values of inclinations have been calculated on the basis of approximated values of observed subsidence. It has been shown that by doing this the average values of extreme measured inclinations can be obtained in almost the same way as extreme observed inclinations. It is not necessary to divide the whole profile of a subsidence basin into parts. The obtained values of variability coefficients of a random scattering for subsidence and inclinations are smaller than their values which occur in the literature.

  20. Biomimetic walking trajectory generation of humanoid robot on an inclined surface using Fourier series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ill-Woo; Kim, Jung-Yup

    2014-10-01

    This article describes a novel method to generate a biomimetic walking trajectory for a biped humanoid robot on an inclined surface. We assume that the configuration of the inclined surface is known, and we solve the human-like walking trajectory generation problem by obtaining the solution from the desired zero moment point (ZMP) trajectory to the center of gravity (CoG) trajectory. We present an analytic solution for the walking trajectory generation by using Fourier series. From the given ZMP trajectory biomimetically represented by the Fourier series, we focus on how to find the CoG trajectory in an analytical way. A time-segmentation based approach is adopted for generating the trajectories. The trajectory functions need to be continuous between the segments; thus, the solution is found by calculating the coefficients under these connectivity conditions. We derive a general form of the ZMP equation using a simple inverted pendulum model (SIPM), which includes the ZMP and the CoG trajectories in the horizontal and vertical directions to quantify the walking parameters on the inclined surface. The performance of the proposed approach is verified by conducting walking simulations using a full-body dynamic simulator on three different inclined surfaces and comparing them to the authors' previous approach.

  1. Investigation on novel raceway pond with inclined paddle wheels through simulation and microalgae culture experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fanxue; Huang, Jianke; Meng, Chen; Zhu, Fachao; Chen, Jianpei; Li, Yuanguang

    2016-01-01

    The open raceway ponds are nowadays the most used large-scale reactors for microalgae culture. To avoid the stacking of microalgae, the paddle wheels are the most widely used to circulate and mix the culture medium. In this paper, a numerical simulation using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to investigate the hydrodynamic characteristics of open raceway ponds with different types of paddle wheels (the traditional paddle wheels and the novel paddle wheels with specially inclined angle of the blades). The particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to validate the reliability of the CFD model. The CFD simulation results showed that the novel raceway pond with 15° inclined angle of the blades had the best mixing efficiency under the same power consumption. Lastly, the results of microalgae culture experiments showed that the growth rates of Chlorella pyrenoidosa in the novel raceway pond with 15° inclined angle of the blades were higher than those in the traditional reactor. The results of the culture experiments and CFD simulations were identical with each other. Therefore, a novel paddle wheel with 15° inclined angle of the blades was obtained for better microalgae cultivation.

  2. Maximal liquid bridges between horizontal cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, Herbert E.; Neufeld, Jerome A.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate two-dimensional liquid bridges trapped between pairs of identical horizontal cylinders. The cylinders support forces owing to surface tension and hydrostatic pressure that balance the weight of the liquid. The shape of the liquid bridge is determined by analytically solving the nonlinear Laplace–Young equation. Parameters that maximize the trapping capacity (defined as the cross-sectional area of the liquid bridge) are then determined. The results show that these parameters can be approximated with simple relationships when the radius of the cylinders is small compared with the capillary length. For such small cylinders, liquid bridges with the largest cross-sectional area occur when the centre-to-centre distance between the cylinders is approximately twice the capillary length. The maximum trapping capacity for a pair of cylinders at a given separation is linearly related to the separation when it is small compared with the capillary length. The meniscus slope angle of the largest liquid bridge produced in this regime is also a linear function of the separation. We additionally derive approximate solutions for the profile of a liquid bridge, using the linearized Laplace–Young equation. These solutions analytically verify the above-mentioned relationships obtained for the maximization of the trapping capacity. PMID:27616922

  3. Spiders Tune Glue Viscosity to Maximize Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarpuri, Gaurav; Zhang, Ci; Diaz, Candido; Opell, Brent D; Blackledge, Todd A; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2015-11-24

    Adhesion in humid conditions is a fundamental challenge to both natural and synthetic adhesives. Yet, glue from most spider species becomes stickier as humidity increases. We find the adhesion of spider glue, from five diverse spider species, maximizes at very different humidities that matches their foraging habitats. By using high-speed imaging and spreading power law, we find that the glue viscosity varies over 5 orders of magnitude with humidity for each species, yet the viscosity at maximal adhesion for each species is nearly identical, 10(5)-10(6) cP. Many natural systems take advantage of viscosity to improve functional response, but spider glue's humidity responsiveness is a novel adaptation that makes the glue stickiest in each species' preferred habitat. This tuning is achieved by a combination of proteins and hygroscopic organic salts that determines water uptake in the glue. We therefore anticipate that manipulation of polymer-salts interaction to control viscosity can provide a simple mechanism to design humidity responsive smart adhesives.

  4. Evaluation of Bearing Capacity of Strip Foundation Subjected to Eccentric Inclined Loads Using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Majeed Ali

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In real conditions of structures, foundations like retaining walls, industrial machines and platforms in offshore areas are commonly subjected to eccentrically inclined loads. This type of loading significantly affects the overall stability of shallow foundations due to exposing the foundation into two components of loads (horizontal and vertical and consequently reduces the bearing capacity Based on a numerical analysis performed using finite element software (Plaxis 3D Foundation, the behavior of model strip foundation rested on dry sand under the effect of eccentric inclined loads with different embedment ratios (D/B ranging from (0-1 has been explored. The results display that, the bearing capacity of strip foundation is noticeably decreased with the increase of inclination angle (α and eccentricity ratio (e/B. As well as, a reduction factor (RF expression was appointed to measure the degree of decreasing in the bearing capacity when the model footing is subjected to eccentric inclined load. It was observed that, the (RF decreases as the embedment ratio increases. Moreover, the test results also exhibit that, the model footing bearing capacity is reduced by about (69% when the load inclination is varied from (0° to 20° and the model footing is on the surface. While, the rate of decreasing in the bearing capacity was found to be (58%, for both cases of footing when they are at embedment ratios of (0.5 and 1.0. Also, a comparative study was carried out between the present results and previous experimental test results under the same conditions (soil properties and boundary condition. A good agreement was obtained between the predicted bearing capacities for the two related studies.

  5. Influence of thread shape and inclination on the biomechanical behaviour of plateau implant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calì, Michele; Zanetti, Elisabetta Maria; Oliveri, Salvatore Massimo; Asero, Riccardo; Ciaramella, Stefano; Martorelli, Massimo; Bignardi, Cristina

    2018-03-01

    To assess the influence of implant thread shape and inclination on the mechanical behaviour of bone-implant systems. The study assesses which factors influence the initial and full osseointegration stages. Point clouds of the original implant were created using a non-contact reverse engineering technique. A 3D tessellated surface was created using Geomagic Studio ® software. From cross-section curves, generated by intersecting the tessellated model and cutting-planes, a 3D parametric CAD model was created using SolidWorks ® 2017. By the permutation of three thread shapes (rectangular, 30° trapezoidal, 45° trapezoidal) and three thread inclinations (0°, 3° or 6°), nine geometric configurations were obtained. Two different osseointegration stages were analysed: the initial osseointegration and a full osseointegration. In total, 18 different FE models were analysed and two load conditions were applied to each model. The mechanical behaviour of the models was analysed by Finite Element (FE) Analysis using ANSYS ® v. 17.0. Static linear analyses were also carried out. ANOVA was used to assess the influence of each factor. Models with a rectangular thread and 6° inclination provided the best results and reduced displacement in the initial osseointegration stages up to 4.58%. This configuration also reduced equivalent VM stress peaks up to 54%. The same effect was confirmed for the full osseointegration stage, where 6° inclination reduced stress peaks by up to 62%. The FE analysis confirmed the beneficial effect of thread inclination, reducing the displacement in immediate post-operative conditions and equivalent VM stress peaks. Thread shape does not significantly influence the mechanical behaviour of bone-implant systems but contributes to reducing stress peaks in the trabecular bone in both the initial and full osseointegration stages. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of inclined star-disk encounter on protoplanetary disk size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandare, Asmita; Breslau, Andreas; Pfalzner, Susanne

    2016-10-01

    Most, if not all, young stars are initially surrounded by protoplanetary disks. Owing to the preferential formation of stars in stellar clusters, the protoplanetary disks around these stars may potentially be affected by the cluster environment. Various works have investigated the influence of stellar fly-bys on disks, although many of them consider only the effects due to parabolic, coplanar encounters often for equal-mass stars, which is only a very special case. We perform numerical simulations to study the fate of protoplanetary disks after the impact of parabolic star-disk encounter for the less investigated case of inclined up to coplanar, retrograde encounters, which is a much more common case. Here, we concentrate on the disk size after such encounters because this limits the size of the potentially forming planetary systems. In addition, with the possibilities that ALMA offers, now a direct comparison to observations is possible. Covering a wide range of periastron distances and mass ratios between the mass of the perturber and central star, we find that despite the prograde, coplanar encounters having the strongest effect on the disk size, inclined and even the least destructive retrograde encounters mostly also have a considerable effect, especially for close periastron passages. Interestingly, we find a nearly linear dependence of the disk size on the orbital inclination for the prograde encounters, but not for the retrograde case. We also determine the final orbital parameters of the particles in the disk such as eccentricities, inclinations, and semi-major axes. Using this information the presented study can be used to describe the fate of disks and also that of planetary systems after inclined encounters.

  7. Compact Planetary Systems Perturbed by an Inclined Companion. II. Stellar Spin-Orbit Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boué, Gwenaël; Fabrycky, Daniel C.

    2014-07-01

    The stellar spin orientation relative to the orbital planes of multiplanet systems is becoming accessible to observations. Here, we analyze and classify different types of spin-orbit evolution in compact multiplanet systems perturbed by an inclined outer companion. Our study is based on classical secular theory, using a vectorial approach developed in a separate paper. When planet-planet perturbations are truncated at the second order in eccentricity and mutual inclination, and the planet-companion perturbations are developed at the quadrupole order, the problem becomes integrable. The motion is composed of a uniform precession of the whole system around the total angular momentum, and in the rotating frame, the evolution is periodic. Here, we focus on the relative motion associated with the oscillations of the inclination between the planet system and the outer orbit and of the obliquities of the star with respect to the two orbital planes. The solution is obtained using a powerful geometric method. With this technique, we identify four different regimes characterized by the nutation amplitude of the stellar spin axis relative to the orbital plane of the planets. In particular, the obliquity of the star reaches its maximum when the system is in the Cassini regime where planets have more angular momentum than the star and where the precession rate of the star is similar to that of the planets induced by the companion. In that case, spin-orbit oscillations exceed twice the inclination between the planets and the companion. Even if the mutual inclination is only ~= 20°, this resonant case can cause the spin-orbit angle to oscillate between perfectly aligned and retrograde values.

  8. Dynamic cerebral autoregulation is acutely impaired during maximal apnoea in trained divers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy J Cross

    Full Text Available AIMS: To examine whether dynamic cerebral autoregulation is acutely impaired during maximal voluntary apnoea in trained divers. METHODS: Mean arterial pressure (MAP, cerebral blood flow-velocity (CBFV and end-tidal partial pressures of O2 and CO2 (PETO2 and PETCO2 were measured in eleven trained, male apnoea divers (28 ± 2 yr; 182 ± 2 cm, 76 ± 7 kg during maximal "dry" breath holding. Dynamic cerebral autoregulation was assessed by determining the strength of phase synchronisation between MAP and CBFV during maximal apnoea. RESULTS: The strength of phase synchronisation between MAP and CBFV increased from rest until the end of maximal voluntary apnoea (P<0.05, suggesting that dynamic cerebral autoregulation had weakened by the apnoea breakpoint. The magnitude of impairment in dynamic cerebral autoregulation was strongly, and positively related to the rise in PETCO2 observed during maximal breath holding (R (2 = 0.67, P<0.05. Interestingly, the impairment in dynamic cerebral autoregulation was not related to the fall in PETO2 induced by apnoea (R (2 = 0.01, P = 0.75. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to report that dynamic cerebral autoregulation is acutely impaired in trained divers performing maximal voluntary apnoea. Furthermore, our data suggest that the impaired autoregulatory response is related to the change in PETCO2, but not PETO2, during maximal apnoea in trained divers.

  9. Finding the Acceleration and Speed of a Light-Emitting Object on an Inclined Plane with a Smartphone Light Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapucu, Serkan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates how the acceleration and speed of a light-emitting object on an inclined plane may be determined using a smartphone's light sensor. A light-emitting object was released from the top of an inclined plane and its illuminance values were detected by a smartphone's light sensor during its subsequent motion down the plane. Using…

  10. Maximizing Information from Residential Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddalena, Randy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Li, Na [Berkeley Analytical Associates, Richmond, CA (United States); Hodgson, Alfred [Berkeley Analytical Associates, Richmond, CA (United States); Offermann, Francis [Indoor Environmental Engineering, San Francisco, CA (United States); Singer, Brett [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Continually changing materials used in home construction and finishing can introduce new chemicals or changes in the VOC profile in residential air and the trend towards tighter homes can lead to higher exposure concentrations for many indoor sources. However, the complex mixture of VOCs in residential air makes it difficult to discover emerging contaminants and/or trends in pollutant profiles. The purpose of this study is to prepare a comprehensive library of chemicals found in homes, along with a semi-quantitative approach to maximize the information gained from VOC measurements. We carefully reviewed data from 108 new California homes and identified 238 individual compounds. The majority of the identified VOCs originated indoors. Only 31% were found to have relevant health based exposure guidelines and less than 10% had a chronic reference exposure level (CREL). The finding highlights the importance of extending IAQ studies to include a wider range of VOCs

  11. Maximal mydriasis evaluation in cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Tony

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose the Maximal Mydriasis Test (MMT as a simple and safe means to provide the cataract surgeon with objective and dependable pre-operative information on the idiosyncratic mydriatic response of the pupil. The MMT results of a consecutive series of 165 eyes from 100 adults referred for cataract evaluation are presented to illustrate its practical applications and value. The results of the MMT allows the surgeon to anticipate problem eyes pre-operatively so that he can plan his surgical strategy more appropriately and effectively. Conversely, the surgeon can also appropriately and confidently plan surgical procedures where wide pupillary dilation is important. The MMT has also helped improve our cost-effectiveness by cutting down unnecessary delays in the operating room and enabling better utilisation of restricted costly resources.

  12. MAXIMIZING THE BENEFITS OF ERP SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo André da Conceição Menezes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning systems have been consolidated in companies with different sizes and sectors, allowing their real benefits to be definitively evaluated. In this study, several interactions have been studied in different phases, such as the strategic priorities and strategic planning defined as ERP Strategy; business processes review and the ERP selection in the pre-implementation phase, the project management and ERP adaptation in the implementation phase, as well as the ERP revision and integration efforts in the post-implementation phase. Through rigorous use of case study methodology, this research led to developing and to testing a framework for maximizing the benefits of the ERP systems, and seeks to contribute for the generation of ERP initiatives to optimize their performance.

  13. Distributed-Memory Fast Maximal Independent Set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanewala Appuhamilage, Thejaka Amila J.; Zalewski, Marcin J.; Lumsdaine, Andrew

    2017-09-13

    The Maximal Independent Set (MIS) graph problem arises in many applications such as computer vision, information theory, molecular biology, and process scheduling. The growing scale of MIS problems suggests the use of distributed-memory hardware as a cost-effective approach to providing necessary compute and memory resources. Luby proposed four randomized algorithms to solve the MIS problem. All those algorithms are designed focusing on shared-memory machines and are analyzed using the PRAM model. These algorithms do not have direct efficient distributed-memory implementations. In this paper, we extend two of Luby’s seminal MIS algorithms, “Luby(A)” and “Luby(B),” to distributed-memory execution, and we evaluate their performance. We compare our results with the “Filtered MIS” implementation in the Combinatorial BLAS library for two types of synthetic graph inputs.

  14. Maximizing policy learning in international committees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    , this article demonstrates that valuable lessons can be learned about policy learning, in practice and theoretically, by analysing the cooperation in the OMC committees. Using the Advocacy Coalition Framework as the starting point of analysis, 15 hypotheses on policy learning are tested. Among other things......In the voluminous literature on the European Union's open method of coordination (OMC), no one has hitherto analysed on the basis of scholarly examination the question of what contributes to the learning processes in the OMC committees. On the basis of a questionnaire sent to all participants......, it is concluded that in order to maximize policy learning in international committees, empirical data should be made available to committees and provided by sources close to the participants (i.e. the Commission). In addition, the work in the committees should be made prestigious in order to attract well...

  15. Primordial two-component maximally symmetric inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enqvist, K.; Nanopoulos, D. V.; Quirós, M.; Kounnas, C.

    1985-12-01

    We propose a two-component inflation model, based on maximally symmetric supergravity, where the scales of reheating and the inflation potential at the origin are decoupled. This is possible because of the second-order phase transition from SU(5) to SU(3)×SU(2)×U(1) that takes place when φ≅φcinflation at the global minimum, and leads to a reheating temperature TR≅(1015-1016) GeV. This makes it possible to generate baryon asymmetry in the conventional way without any conflict with experimental data on proton lifetime. The mass of the gravitinos is m3/2≅1012 GeV, thus avoiding the gravitino problem. Monopoles are diluted by residual inflation in the broken phase below the cosmological bounds if φcUSA.

  16. Constrained information maximization by free energy minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Ryotaro

    2011-10-01

    In this paper we introduce free energy-based methods to constrain mutual information maximization, developed to realize competitive learning. The new method is introduced to simplify the computational procedures of mutual information and to improve the fidelity of representation and to stabilize learning. First, the free energy is effective in simplifying the computation procedures of mutual information because we need not directly compute mutual information, which needs heavy computation, but only deals with partition functions. With partition functions, computational complexity is significantly reduced. Second, fidelity to input patterns can be improved because training errors between input patterns and connection weights are implicitly incorporated. This means that mutual information is maximized under the constraint of the errors between input patterns and connection weights. Finally, learning can be stabilized in our approach. One of the problems of the free energy approach is that learning processes should be carefully controlled to keep its stability. The present paper shows that the conventional computational techniques in the field of self-organizing maps are really effective in controlling the processes. In particular, minimum information production learning can be used further to stabilize learning by decreasing information obtained at each learning step as much as possible. Thus, we can expect that our new method can be used to increase mutual information between competitive units and input patterns without decreasing errors between input patterns and connection weights and with stabilized learning processes. We applied the free energy-based models to the well-known Iris problem and a student survey, and succeeded in improving the performance in terms of classification rates. In addition, the minimum information production learning turned out to be effective in stabilizing learning.

  17. Maximal lattice free bodies, test sets and the Frobenius problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Nedergaard; Lauritzen, Niels; Roune, Bjarke Hammersholt

    Maximal lattice free bodies are maximal polytopes without interior integral points. Scarf initiated the study of maximal lattice free bodies relative to the facet normals in a fixed matrix. In this paper we give an efficient algorithm for computing the maximal lattice free bodies of an integral...... method is inspired by the novel algorithm by Einstein, Lichtblau, Strzebonski and Wagon and the Groebner basis approach by Roune....

  18. Maximal saddle solution of a nonlinear elliptic equation involving the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 124; Issue 1. Maximal Saddle ... -Laplacian; maximal saddle solution; monotone iteration methods. ... We prove the existence of a maximal saddle solution of the nonlinear elliptic equation involving the -Laplacian, by using the method of monotone iteration,.

  19. Testing correction for paleomagnetic inclination error in sedimentary rocks: a comparative approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauxe, L.; Kodama, K. P.; Kent, D. V.

    2008-05-01

    Paleomagnetic inclinations in sedimentary formations are frequently suspected of being too shallow. Recognition and correction of shallow bias is therefore critical for paleogeographical reconstructions. The elongation/inclination (E/I) correction method of Tauxe and Kent (2004) relies on the twin assumptions that inclination flattening follows the empirical sedimentary flattening formula and that the distribution of paleomagnetic directions can be predicted from a paleosecular variation (PSV) model. We will test the reliability of the E/I correction method in several ways. First we consider the E/I trends predicted by various PSV models. The Giant Gaussian Process-type paleosecular variation models were all constrained by paleomagnetic data from lava flows of the last five million years. Therefore, to test whether the method can be used in more ancient times, we will compare model predictions of E/I trends with observations from four Large Igneous Provinces since the Jurassic (Yemen, Kerguelen, Faroe Islands, and Deccan basalts). All data are consistent at the 95% level of confidence with the elongation/inclination trends predicted by the paleosecular variation models. Then we will then discuss the geological implications of various applications of the E/I method. In general the E/I corrected data are more consistent with data from contemporaneous lavas, with predictions from the well constrained synthetic apparent polar wander paths, and other geological constraints. Finally, we will compare the E/I corrections with corrections from an entirely different method of inclination correction: the anisotropy of remanence method of Jackson et al. (1991) which relies on measurement of remanence and particle anisotropies of the sediments. In the two cases where a direct comparison can be made, the two methods give corrections that are consistent within error. In summary, it appears that the elongation/inclination method for recognizing and corrected the effects of

  20. Measurement of the buccolingual inclination of teeth: manual technique vs 3-dimensional software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Mahtab; Abdi, Amir Hossein; Farzan, Arash; Mokhtarpour, Faraneh; Baghban, AliReza Akbarzadeh

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we aimed to measure the inclination of teeth on dental casts by a manual technique with the tooth inclination protractor (TIP; MBI, Newport, United Kingdom) and a newly designed 3-dimensional (3D) software program. The correlation of the 2 techniques was evaluated, and the reliability of each technique was assessed separately. This study was conducted on 36 dental casts of normal, well-aligned Class I occlusions; we assessed 432 teeth. All casts had a normal Class I occlusion. After determining the facial axis of the clinical crown and the facial axis points on the dental casts, we measured the inclinations of the incisors and posterior teeth up to the first molars in each dental arch relative to Andrews' occlusal plane and the posterior occlusal plane using the TIP. Moreover, the casts were scanned by a structured-light 3D scanner. The inclination of teeth relative to the occlusal plane was determined using the new software. To assess the reliability, measurements of all teeth from 15 casts were repeated twice by the 2 methods. Intraclass correlation coefficient and Dahlberg's formula were used for calculation of correlation and reliability. Overall, the 2 techniques were not significantly different in the measurements of the inclinations of the teeth in both jaws. The ranges of Dahlberg's formula were 3.1° to 5.8° for the maxilla and 3.3° to 5.9° for the mandible. The overall correlation of the 2 techniques according to the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.91. For calculation of reliability, the intraclass correlation coefficients for the TIP and the 3D method were 0.73 and 0.82, respectively. The TIP and the 3D software showed a high correlation for measurement of the inclinations of maxillary and mandibular teeth relative to the occlusal plane. Also, the reproducibility of the measurements in each method was high. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Aesthetically Inclined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Mark A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the new Ford Building at Detroit's College for Creative Studies. The building's design is intended to "inspire future artisans" with its open setting incorporating flexible space and natural light. Includes photographs and information on suppliers. (EV)

  2. Step-like variations of cosmic rays and their relation to an inclination of the heliospheric current sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svirzhevskaya, A. K.; Svirzhevsky, N. S.; Stozhkov, Yu. I.

    2001-08-01

    The large and fast step-like variations in the GCR intensity are examined during both the descending and recovery phases of the 20-23 solar cycles. The cosmic ray intensity data sets obtained in the stratospheric measurements in Murmansk, Mirny (Antarctica) and Moscow are used. At present the global merged interaction regions (GMIRs) are considered as a natural explanation of step-like intensity decreases. But the GMIRs are not suitable to explain the rapid intensity recovery that was as fast as the step-like decreases, for example in 1962, 1971, and 1991. According to the ULYSSES measurements, the IMF was much more disturbed within the sector zones. It means that the diffusion coefficient is smaller within the sector zone (just as inside the GMIR) than one beyond the sector zones. The changes of the heliospheric current sheet inclination cause the changes in the angular sizes of sector zones and due to that the fast decreases or increases of the GCR intensity. It is also shown that the intensity changes immediately after the step-decreases depend upon the IMF polarity. The cosmic ray intensity after the step-decrease tends to recover at 0>A and continues to decrease slowly at 0

  3. Oblique Wave-Induced Responses of A VLFS Edged with A Pair of Inclined Perforated Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yong; Ji, Chun-yan; Zhai, Gang-jun; Oleg, Gaidai

    2018-03-01

    This paper is concerned with the hydroelastic responses of a mat-like, rectangular very large floating structure (VLFS) edged with a pair of horizontal/inclined perforated anti-motion plates in the context of the direct coupling method. The updated Lagrangian formulae are applied to establish the equilibrium equations of the VLFS and the total potential formula is employed for fluids in the numerical model including the viscous effect of the perforated plates through the Darcy's law. The hybrid finite element-boundary element (FE-BE) method is implemented to determine the response reduction of VLFS with attached perforated plates under various oblique incident waves. Also, the numerical solutions are validated against a series of experimental tests. The effectiveness of the attached perforated plates in reducing the deflections of the VLFS can be significantly improved by selecting the proper design parameters such as the porous parameter, submergence depth, plate width and inclination angle for the given sea conditions.

  4. Gas-liquid flow splitting in T-junction with inclined lateral arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Le-le; Liu, Shuo; Li, Hua; Zhang, Jian; Wu, Ying-xiang; Xu, Jing-yu

    2018-02-01

    This paper studies the gas-liquid flow splitting in T-junction with inclined lateral arm. The separation mechanism of the T-junction is related to the pressure distribution in the T-junction. It is shown that the separation efficiency strongly depends on the inclination angle, when the angle ranges from 0° to 30°, while not so strongly for angles in the range from 30° to 90° Increasing the number of connecting tubes is helpful for the gas-liquid separation, and under the present test conditions, with four connecting tubes, a good separation performance can be achieved. Accordingly, a multi-tube Y-junction separator with four connecting tubes is designed for the experimental investigation. A good agreement between the simulated and measured data shows that there is an optimal split ratio to achieve the best performance for the multi-tube Y-junction separator.

  5. Role of edge inclination in an optical microdisk resonator for label-free sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, Davide; Ramiro-Manzano, Fernando; Rebollo, Francisco Javier Aparicio; Ghulinyan, Mher; Pucker, Georg; Pavesi, Lorenzo

    2015-02-26

    In this paper, we report on the measurement and modeling of enhanced optical refractometric sensors based on whispering gallery modes. The devices under test are optical microresonators made of silicon nitride on silicon oxide, which differ in their sidewall inclination angle. In our approach, these microresonators are vertically coupled to a buried waveguide with the aim of creating integrated and cost-effective devices. Device modeling shows that the optimization of the device is a delicate balance of the resonance quality factor and evanescent field overlap with the surrounding environment to analyze. By numerical simulations, we show that the microdisk thickness is critical to yield a high figure of merit for the sensor and that edge inclination should be kept as high as possible. We also show that bulk-sensing figures of merit as high as 1600 RIU(-1) (refractive index unit) are feasible.

  6. Reconstruction of inclined air showers detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    collaboration, The Pierre Augur

    2014-08-01

    We describe the method devised to reconstruct inclined cosmic-ray air showers with zenith angles greater than 60° detected with the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The measured signals at the ground level are fitted to muon density distributions predicted with atmospheric cascade models to obtain the relative shower size as an overall normalization parameter. The method is evaluated using simulated showers to test its performance. The energy of the cosmic rays is calibrated using a sub-sample of events reconstructed with both the fluorescence and surface array techniques. The reconstruction method described here provides the basis of complementary analyses including an independent measurement of the energy spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using very inclined events collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  7. Impact of inclined magnetic field on micropolar Casson fluid using Keller box algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Z.; Mehmood, R.; Azhar, Ehtsham; Mehmood, Zaffar

    2017-04-01

    The present study examines the influence of an inclined magnetic field on a micropolar Casson fluid flow over a stretching sheet. Viscous dissipation effects are also taken into consideration. The governing physical problem is presented using the traditional Navier-Stokes theory. By means of the scaling group of transformation, a consequential system of equations is transformed into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations which are then solved using the implicit finite-difference approximation (Keller box method). The working fluid is examined for several sundry parameters graphically and in tabular form. It is observed that with an increase in inclination angle, the velocity profile decreases while temperature enhances. The Eckert number enhances flow velocity and temperature, whereas it decreases shear stress at the wall and heat transfer rate. The rheological fluid parameter contributes to the decline of velocity and temperature for weak as well as strong concentrations of micro elements.

  8. Magnetohydrodynamics Carreau nanofluid flow over an inclined convective heated stretching cylinder with Joule heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad Khan

    Full Text Available Current work highlights the computational aspects of MHD Carreau nanofluid flow over an inclined stretching cylinder with convective boundary conditions and Joule heating. The mathematical modeling of physical problem yields nonlinear set of partial differential equations. A suitable scaling group of variables is employed on modeled equations to convert them into non-dimensional form. The integration scheme Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg on the behalf of shooting technique is utilized to solve attained set of equations. The interesting aspects of physical problem (linear momentum, energy and nanoparticles concentration are elaborated under the different parametric conditions through graphical and tabular manners. Additionally, the quantities (local skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt number and local Sherwood number which are responsible to dig out the physical phenomena in the vicinity of stretched surface are computed and delineated by varying controlling flow parameters. Keywords: MHD, Carreau nanofluid, Inclined stretching cylinder, Joule heating, Shooting technique

  9. The Bearing Capacity of Strip Footings in Cohesionless Soil Subject to Eccentric and Inclined Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Sven; Damkilde, Lars; Krabbenhøft, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. The results are reported as graphs showing the bearing capacity as a function of the friction angle, the eccentricity, inclination and the surcharge. The results have been compared with the Eurocode 7 and for smaller eccentricities, except in the case of no surcharge......Lower bound calculations based on the finite element method is used to determine the bearing capacity of a strip foundation subjected to an inclined, eccentric load on cohesionless soil with varying surcharges and with friction angles 25, 30 and 35°. The soil is assumed perfectly plastic following...... and especially for small friction angles and great surcharges the Eurocode values are considerably greater than the LB values....

  10. Effect of magnetic field on Blasius and Sakiadis flow of nanofluids past an inclined plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Anjali Devi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical study on the effect of magnetic field on the classical Blasius and Sakiadis flow of nanofluids over an inclined plate is presented in this paper. The governing partial differential equations are converted into ordinary differential equations using suitable similarity transformations. The transformed boundary layer equations are solved numerically using MATLAB (bvp4c. Two types of nanoparticles are chosen namely copper and alumina in the base fluid of water with the Prandtl number (Pr = 6.2. The effects of the governing physical parameters over the velocity, temperature, skin friction coefficient and reduced Nusselt number for both the Blasius and Sakiadis flows are displayed graphically. The characteristics of physical and engineering interest are discussed in detail. Keywords: Nanofluid, Blasius flow, Sakiadis flow, MHD, Inclined plate, Mixed convection

  11. Computation of coupled surface radiation and natural convection in an inclined form cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amraqui, Samir; Mezrhab, Ahmed; Abid, Cherifa

    2011-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with computation of the radiation-natural convection interactions in an inclined form cavity. The cavity contains two symmetrically identical isothermal blocks and is vented by two opening located in a vertical median axis at the top and the bottom parts of the cavity. Calculations are made by using a finite volume method and an efficient numerical procedure is introduced for calculating the view factors, with shadow effects included. Effects of Rayleigh number Ra and inclination angle φ are investigated for Pr = 0.71 in presence and in absence of the radiation exchange. Results are reported in terms of isotherms, streamlines, local and average Nusselt numbers and mass flow rate. In light of the obtained results, we can conclude that the heat transfer decreases with increasing φ. In addition, the increase of Ra and the taking into account of the radiation exchange produce a considerable increase in the heat transfer.

  12. A comparative numerical study on natural convection in inclined wavy and flat-plate solar collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varol, Yasin [Department of Mechanical Education, Firat University, 23119 Elazig (Turkey); Oztop, Hakan F. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Firat University, 23119 Elazig (Turkey)

    2008-09-15

    The present study deals with the numerical analysis of natural convection heat transfer inside the inclined solar collectors. Two collectors are compared. In the first case, the collector has wavy absorber and in the second case, it has flat absorber. The solution was performed assuming the isothermal boundary conditions of absorbers and covers of collectors. CFDRC commercial software is used to simulate the laminar flow and thermal field. Governing parameters are taken as Rayleigh number (from 1 x 10{sup 6} to 5 x 10{sup 7}), inclination angle (from 20 to 60 ), wave length (from 1.33 to 4) and aspect ratio (from 0 to 4). Results are presented by streamlines, isotherms and local and mean Nusselt numbers. It is observed that flow and thermal fields are affected by the shape of enclosure and heat transfer rate increases in the case of wavy enclosure than that of flat enclosure. (author)

  13. MHD boundary layer flow and heat transfer in an inclined porous square cavity filled with nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Shekar Balla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the magnetohydrodynamic boundary layer flow of a free convection heat transfer in an inclined square cavity filled with nanofluid-saturated porous medium. The effects of different nanoparticles Cu, Al2O3, TiO2 and SiO2 are considered. The top and bottom horizontal walls of cavity are considered adiabatic, while the vertical walls are kept at constant temperatures. The governing partial differential equations are solved by finite element method of Galerkin weighted residual scheme. Numerical results are obtained for different values of the Rayleigh number, angle of inclination, magnetic field and nanofluid volume fraction. The overall investigation of variation of streamlines, isotherms and Nusselt numbers is presented graphically. To examine the accuracy, the present results are compared with the available results.

  14. MHD natural convection in an inclined square porous cavity with a heat conducting solid block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaraj, C.; Sheremet, M. A.

    2017-03-01

    This paper deals with natural convection in an inclined porous cavity with a heat conducting solid body placed at its center under the influence of the applied magnetic field of different orientations. The left and right vertical walls of the cavity are maintained at different temperatures Th and Tc, respectively, while the horizontal walls are adiabatic. The governing coupled partial differential equations were solved using a finite volume method on a uniformly staggered grid system. The effects of the inclination angles of the magnetic field and cavity and the Hartmann number on the flow and thermal fields are investigated in detail. Numerical results are presented in terms of isotherms, streamlines and average Nusselt numbers. In general, the results indicate that the inclusion of the magnetic field reduces the convective heat transfer rate in the cavity. It is also found that an increase in the angle of the applied magnetic field produces a non-linear variation in the average Nusselt numbers.

  15. Simulation on Natural Convection of a Nanofluid along an Isothermal Inclined Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Asish

    2017-08-01

    A numerical algorithm is presented for studying laminar natural convection flow of a nanofluid along an isothermal inclined plate. By means of similarity transformation, the original nonlinear partial differential equations of flow are transformed to a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Subsequently they are reduced to a first order system and integrated using Newton Raphson and adaptive Runge-Kutta methods. The computer codes are developed for this numerical analysis in Matlab environment. Dimensionless velocity, temperature profiles and nanoparticle concentration for various angles of inclination are illustrated graphically. The effects of Prandtl number, Brownian motion parameter and thermophoresis parameter on Nusselt number are also discussed. The results of the present simulation are then compared with previous one available in literature with good agreement.

  16. Microscopic calculation of the sticking force for nanodrops on an inclined surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berim, Gersh O.; Ruckenstein, Eli

    2008-09-01

    A two-dimensional nanodrop on a vertical rough solid surface is examined using a nonlocal density functional theory in the presence of gravity. The roughness is modeled either as a chemical inhomogeneity of the solid or as a result of the decoration with pillars of a smooth homogeneous surface. From the obtained fluid density distribution, the sticking force, which opposes the drop motion along an inclined surface, and the contact angles on the lower and upper leading edges of the drop are calculated. On the basis of these results, it is shown that the macroscopically derived equation for a drop in equilibrium on an inclined surface is also applicable to nanodrops. The liquid-vapor surface tension involved in this equation was calculated for various specific cases, and the values obtained are of the same order of magnitude as those obtained in macroscopic experiments.

  17. Reconstruction of inclined shower coordinates in electromagnetic calorimeters based on lead glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, A.N.; Mochalov, V.V.; Solov'ev, L.F.

    2007-01-01

    A method for reconstructing the coordinates of inclined showers in lead glass electromagnetic calorimeters is described. Such showers are generated by photons with energies of 0.5-4.0 GeV that are incident on the detector at angles of as great as 30 deg. An analytical expression for the description of the actual photon coordinate in the calorimeter versus the coordinates of the shower center of gravity is proposed. Using this expression, it is possible to reconstruct the coordinates of inclined electromagnetic showers over wide ranges of angles and energies. The dependences of the spatial resolution on the photon energy and angle are determined. The longitudinal fluctuations of the shower length and their effect on the spatial resolution of the calorimeter are discussed [ru

  18. Inclinations to Conformity as a Potential Social Limit of Giftedness Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Kočvarová

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of gifted pupils´ conformity, which may form a social barrier to their development during school teaching. The aim of the research is to analyse the inclination to conformity of gifted pupils during the application of differentiated enriching curriculum. The research sample consists of 86 diagnosed gifted pupils from the level of education ISCED2. The research instrument is semantically differentially based on the principle of the tool ATER. The study results suggest non-conformal inclinations of gifted pupils, which are subjectively declared in relation to the five statements describing work on a task during the application of differentiated enriching curriculum in school lessons.

  19. Robotic complex for the development of thick steeply-inclined coal seams and ore deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitenko, M. S.; Malakhov, Yu V.; Neogi, Biswarup; Chakraborty, Pritam; Banerjee, Dipesu

    2017-09-01

    Proposal for the formulation of robotic complexes for steeply inclined coal seams as a basis of the supportive-enclosing walking module and power support with a controlled outlet for mining industry has been represented in this literature. In mining industry, the available resource base reserves and mineral deposits are concentrated deep down the earth crust leading towards a complicated geological condition i.e. abrupt ore bedding and steeply inclined strata with the high gas content and fire hazard of thick coal stratum, heading against an unfavorable and sometimes human labor life risk during subversive mining. Prevailing towards the development of effective robotic complexes based on the means of “unmanned technologies” for extraction of minerals from hard-to-reach deposits and make sure the safety of underground staff during sublevel mining technology.

  20. Flow Over Backward Facing Step with Inclined Wall Solved by Finite Volume and Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louda, Petr; Sváček, Petr; Kozel, Karel; Příhoda, Jaromír

    2010-09-01

    The work deals with numerical solution of 2D incompressible flow over backward facing step. The inclination angles of the upper wall of the channel were chosen as in measurements by Driver and Seegmiller [1]. Two numerical methods are considered. One is finite volume method, the other one is finite element method. Turbulence is modeled using two-equation turbulence models of k-ω type. The influence of outlet boundary condition is discussed and do-nothing-like condition found suitable also for finite volume method. The comparison of both methods is presented for laminar as well as turbulent cases, including experimental results. The differences of the results are studied using one turbulence model and both numerical methods or one method and more turbulence models. It is found that sensitivity of the computation to these circumstances increases for higher inclination angles (diffuser flow).

  1. Studies from Cassini's high-inclination orbits: ion cyclotron wave belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisner, J. S.; Russell, C. T.; Dougherty, M. K.; Persoon, A. M.; Blanco-Cano, X.; Strangeway, R. J.; Cowee, M. M.

    2007-08-01

    Surrounding Saturn is a cloud of neutral water-group molecules. When these particles are ionized and accelerated by Saturn's corotating magnetized plasma, they generate ion cyclotron waves. When the inclination of the Cassini spacecraft's orbits rose to about fifty-five degrees in late 2006, new insights into the behavior of these ion cyclotron waves were obtained as the spacecraft passed through the equatorial plane, revealing latitudinal structure of the wave belt. Centered at the magnetic equator the wave amplitude grows with height in either direction, reaching a maximum at +/- 0.2 Rs and then decreasing until they disappear by +/- 0.3 Rs. Doppler shifts caused by the motion of the spacecraft reveal that these waves propagate primarily away from the equatorial plane. Using these high-inclination orbits, we study the wave growth and damping regions and their propagation characteristics. These properties give insight into the structure and ionization of Saturn's water cloud.

  2. Sagittal crystal focusing of undulator radiation with high heat load inclined crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ice, G.E.; Sparks, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    Sagittal focusing of undulator radiation is shown to be compatible with the proposed inclined double-crystal monochromator geometry for heat load reduction. The focusing aberrations are found to be negligible for typical undulator-beam divergences over a range of magnifications from 1:2 to 6:1 and energies from 3 to 40 keV. The inclined geometry reduces the required signal sagittal curvature of the focusing crystal compared to focusing with conventional symmetric crystals; hence, focusing is possible at higher X-ray energies and with less anticlastic bending. In addition, anticlastic stiffening ribs project a smaller footprint to the beam so that the achievable focal spot size is potentially better than with conventional symmetrically cut crystals. 16 refs

  3. Hydrodynamic and thermal mechanisms of filtration combustion inclinational instability based on non-uniform distribution of initial preheating temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yongfang; Shi, Junrui; Xu, Youning; Ma, Rui

    2018-03-01

    Filtration combustion (FC) is one style of porous media combustion with inert matrix, in which the combustion wave front propagates, only downstream or reciprocally. In this paper, we investigate the FC flame front inclinational instability of lean methane/air mixtures flowing through a packed bed as a combustion wave front perturbation of the initial preheating temperature non-uniformity is assumed. The predicted results show that the growth rate of the flame front inclinational angle is proportional to the magnitude of the initial preheating temperature difference. Additionally, depending on gas inlet gas velocity and equivalence ratio, it is demonstrated that increase of gas inlet gas velocity accelerates the FC wave front deformation, and the inclinational instability evolves faster at lower equivalence ratio. The development of the flame front inclinational angle may be regarded as a two-staged evolution, which includes rapid increase, and approaching maximum value of inclinational angle due to the quasi-steady condition of the combustion system. The hydrodynamic and thermal mechanisms of the FC inclinational instability are analyzed. Consequently, the local propagation velocity of the FC wave front is non-uniform to result in the development of inclinational angle at the first stage of rapid increase.

  4. Irreversibility analysis for gravity driven non-Newtonian liquid film along an inclined isothermal plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makinde, O.D.

    2005-10-01

    In this paper, the first and second law of thermodynamics are employed in order to study the inherent irreversibility for a gravity driven non-Newtonian Ostwald-de Waele power law liquid film along an inclined isothermal plate. Based on some simplified assumptions, the governing equations are obtained and solved analytically. Expressions for fluid velocity, temperature, volumetric entropy generation numbers, irreversibility distribution ratio and the Bejan number are also determined. (author)

  5. Role of Edge Inclination in an Optical Microdisk Resonator for Label-Free Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Gandolfi, Davide; Ramiro-Manzano, Fernando; Rebollo, Francisco Javier Aparicio; Ghulinyan, Mher; Pucker, Georg; Pavesi, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the measurement and modeling of enhanced optical refractometric sensors based on whispering gallery modes. The devices under test are optical microresonators made of silicon nitride on silicon oxide, which differ in their sidewall inclination angle. In our approach, these microresonators are vertically coupled to a buried waveguide with the aim of creating integrated and cost-effective devices. Device modeling shows that the optimization of the devic...

  6. Influence of Initial Inclined Surface Crack on Estimated Residual Fatigue Lifetime of Railway Axle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Náhlík, Luboš; Pokorný, Pavel; Ševčík, Martin; Hutař, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2016), č. článku 1640007. ISSN 1756-9737. [FDM 2016 - International Conference on Fracture and Damage Mechanics /15./. Alicante, 14.09.2016-16.09.2016] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015069; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : inclined crack * railway axle * residual fatigue lifetime * fatigue crack propagation Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  7. MHD boundary layer flow and heat transfer in an inclined porous square cavity filled with nanofluids

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra Shekar Balla; Naikoti Kishan; Rama S.R. Gorla; B.J. Gireesha

    2017-01-01

    The present paper deals with the magnetohydrodynamic boundary layer flow of a free convection heat transfer in an inclined square cavity filled with nanofluid-saturated porous medium. The effects of different nanoparticles Cu, Al2O3, TiO2 and SiO2 are considered. The top and bottom horizontal walls of cavity are considered adiabatic, while the vertical walls are kept at constant temperatures. The governing partial differential equations are solved by finite element method of Galerkin weighted...

  8. Minimum energy shapes of one-side-pinned static drops on inclined surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thampi, Sumesh P; Govindarajan, Rama

    2011-10-01

    The shape that a liquid drop will assume when resting statically on a solid surface inclined to the horizontal is studied here in two dimensions. Earlier experimental and numerical studies yield multiple solutions primarily because of inherent differences in surface characteristics. On a solid surface capable of sustaining any amount of hysteresis, we obtain the global, and hence unique, minimum energy shape as a function of equilibrium contact angle, drop volume, and plate inclination. It is shown, in the energy minimization procedure, how the potential energy of this system is dependent on the basis chosen to measure it from, and two realistic bases, front-pinned and back-pinned, are chosen for consideration. This is at variance with previous numerical investigations where both ends of the contact line are pinned. It is found that the free end always assumes Young's equilibrium angle. Using this, simple equations that describe the angles and the maximum volume are then derived. The range of parameters where static drops are possible is presented. We introduce a detailed force balance for this problem and study the role of the wall in supporting the drop. We show that a portion of the wall reaction can oppose gravity while the other portion aids it. This determines the maximum drop volume that can be supported at a given plate inclination. This maximum volume is the least for a vertical wall, and is higher for all other wall inclinations. This study can be extended to three-dimensional drops in a straightforward manner and, even without this, lends itself to experimental verification of several of its predictions.

  9. Inclined periodic homoclinic breather and rogue waves for the (1+1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [8], financial markets [9] and other related fields. The first-order .... where p1, p, α, β, b1 and b2 are real constants to be determined. Computing D2 .... β t. ) +γ = 0 with period 2π/p. So this solution is called the inclined periodic homoclinic breather solution. Using eq. (10) and taking b2 = 1, γ = ln(. √ b2) = 0 in u2. So, solution ...

  10. Probing Disk Stratification by Combining X-ray and Disk Inclination Data for Taurus-Auriga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arraki, Kenza S.; Daly, B.; Harding, M.; McCleary, J.; Cox, A. W.; Grady, C. A.; Woodgate, B. E.; Hamaguchi, K.; Wisniewski, J. P.; Brakken-Thal, S.; Hilton, G.; Bonfield, D.; Williger, G. M.

    2010-01-01

    Photoelectric neutral Hydrogen absorption, N(H), is a probe of the gas and dust column towards the star. Kastner et al. (2005) found a correlation between N(H) and proplyd aspect ratio in the Orion nebula cluster. We extend this study to Taurus-Auriga by combining publicly available N(H) data from the XMM-Newton Extended Survey of the Taurus molecular cloud (XEST), with published disk inclination data obtained from HST coronagraphic imagery and mm interferometry. Additional inclinations were derived from jet proper motion and radial velocity data obtained from archival HST imagery and the Apache Point Observatory 3.5m telescope's Goddard Fabry-Perot and DIS long-slit spectrograph. Both N(H) and extinction have linear relations with system inclination, where the extinction has a smaller slope than the N(H) trend. Correlations with system inclination demonstrate that the bulk of both N(H) and extinction arise in the disk rather than in remnant envelopes, nearby molecular cloud material, or foreground material. The deficit in extinction compared with predictions for ISM-like gas to dust ratios is consistent with grain growth and settling toward the disk midplane and stratification in disks occurring by 2 Myr. However, the disks remain gas-rich, indicating that giant planet formation is still feasible. We gratefully acknowledge the support of the NASA Motivating Undergraduates in Science and Technology (MUST) Project and of NASA's APRA program under WBS#399131.02.06.02.32. A grant of Director's Discretionary Time funded observing time at the Apache Point Observatory.

  11. The new Permian-Triassic paleomagnetic pole for the East European Platform corrected for inclination shallowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetisova, A. M.; Veselovskiy, R. V.; Scholze, F.; Balabanov, Yu. P.

    2018-01-01

    The results of detailed paleomagnetic studies in seven Upper Permian and Lower Triassic reference sections of East Europe (Middle Volga and Orenburg region) and Central Germany are presented. For each section, the coefficient of inclination shallowing f (King, 1955) is estimated by the Elongation-Inclination (E-I) method (Tauxe and Kent, 2004) and is found to vary from 0.4 to 0.9. The paleomagnetic directions, corrected for the inclination shallowing, are used to calculate the new Late Permian-Early Triassic paleomagnetic pole for the East European Platform (N = 7, PLat = 52.1°, PLong = 155.8°, A95 = 6.6°). Based on this pole, the geocentric axial dipole hypothesis close to the Paleozoic/Mesozoic boundary is tested by the single plate method. The absence of the statistically significant distinction between the obtained pole and the average Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) paleomagnetic pole of the Siberian Platform and the coeval pole of the North American Platform corrected for the opening of the Atlantic (Shatsillo et al., 2006) is interpreted by us as evidence that 250 Ma the configuration of the magnetic field of the Earth was predominantly dipolar; i.e., the contribution of nondipole components was at most 10% of the main magnetic field. In our opinion, the hypothesis of the nondipolity of the geomagnetic field at the P-Tr boundary, which has been repeatedly discussed in recent decades (Van der Voo and Torsvik, 2001; Bazhenov and Shatsillo, 2010; Veselovskiy and Pavlov, 2006), resulted from disregarding the effect of inclination shallowing in the paleomagnetic determinations from sedimentary rocks of "stable" Europe (the East European platform and West European plate).

  12. The Racing-Game Effect: Why Do Video Racing Games Increase Risk-Taking Inclinations?

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Morton, Thomas; Kastenmüller, Andreas; Postmes, Tom; Frey, Dieter; Kubitzki, Jörg; Odenwälder, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    The present studies investigated why video racing games increase players’ risk-taking inclinations. Four studies reveal that playing video racing games increases risk taking in a subsequent simulated road traffic situation, as well as risk-promoting cognitions and emotions, blood pressure,sensation seeking, and attitudes toward reckless driving. Study 1 ruled out the role of experimental demand in creating such effects. Studies 2 and 3 showed that the effect of playing video racing games on r...

  13. Flow behaviour and local concentration of coarse particles-water mixture in inclined pipes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlasák, Pavel; Chára, Zdeněk; Konfršt, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 2 (2017), s. 183-191 ISSN 0042-790X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP105/10/1574 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : coarse particle mixture * concentration distribution * effect of pipe inclination * gamma-ray radiometry * Hydraulic conveying * mixture flow behaviour Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 1.654, year: 2016

  14. Variation of the mean and median inclinations in the numbered minor planet sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knezevic, Z. (Astronomical Observatory, Belgrade, Yugoslavia)

    1982-01-01

    Variations of the mean and median minor planet inclinations with the increase of the numbered minor planet sample size are investigated. An analysis is presented of the role of real features of the minor planet system and of the selectional effects connected with discoveries and inclusion in the list of numbered objects. Available data are discussed and prediction of the future behaviour of variations attempted.

  15. Running speed and maximal oxygen uptake in rats and mice: practical implications for exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høydal, Morten A; Wisløff, Ulrik; Kemi, Ole J; Ellingsen, Oyvind

    2007-12-01

    Valid and reliable experimental models are essential to gain insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of exercise in prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation of lifestyle-related diseases. Studies with large changes, low variation, and reproducible training outcome require individualized training intensity, controlled by direct measurements of maximal oxygen uptake or heart rate. As this approach is expensive and time consuming, we discuss whether maximal treadmill running speed in a gradually increasing ramp protocol might be sufficient to control intensity without losing accuracy. Combined data from six studies of rats and mice from our lab demonstrated a close correlation between running speed and oxygen uptake. This relationship changed towards a steeper linear slope after endurance training, indicating improved work economy, that is, less oxygen was consumed at fixed submaximal running speeds. Maximal oxygen uptake increased 40-70% after high-intensity aerobic interval training in mice and rats. The speed at which oxygen uptake reached a plateau, increased in parallel with the change in maximal oxygen uptake during the training period. Although this suggests that running speed can be used to assess training intensity throughout a training program, the problem is to determine the exact relative intensity related to maximal oxygen uptake from running speed alone. We therefore suggest that directly measured oxygen uptake should be used to assess exercise intensity and optimize endurance training in rats and mice. Running speed may serve as a supplement to ensure this intensity.

  16. Effect of the inclination of support in cervical and upper limb development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailime Perito Feiber Heck

    Full Text Available Introduction It is expected that a child will acquire control of posture (CP of the head and upper limbs in a gradual, sequential and organized way. However, there is still no consensus regarding the best position to achieve this; the evidence suggests that it is prone. Objective To investigate whether age and inclination of the supporting surface in the prone position influence the alignment of the head and upper limbs of children with typical motor development (TMD and atypical motor development (AMD. Methods The study included 29 children aged between one and three months divided according to the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS into groups with TMD (n = 18 and AMD (n = 11. The children were placed in the prone position with three angles of the support surface (0°, 25° and 45°. Kinematic analysis was conducted to evaluate the alignment angles of the head and upper limbs. Results Children with TMD had higher head alignment. There was no difference in the upper limbs’ alignment between the group with TMD and the group with AMD. In the third month of age compared with the first, increased head alignment and decreased upper limb alignment were found in both groups. The inclination of the supporting surface did not influence the alignment of the head and upper limbs. Conclusions Among the positions evaluated, the prone position without inclination of the supporting surface was more appropriate for weight discharge in the upper limbs, favoring the development of postural control of the child.

  17. Heat removal capability of core-catcher with inclined cooling channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Y.; Tahara, M.; Kurita, T.; Hamazaki, R.; Morooka, S.

    2009-01-01

    A core-catcher is one of the mitigation systems that provide functions of molten corium cooling and stabilization during a severe accident. Toshiba has been developing a compact core-catcher to be placed at the lower drywell floor in the containment vessel for the next generation BWR as well as near term ABWR. This paper presents the evaluation of heat removal capability of the core-catcher with inclined cooling channels, our verification status and plan. The heat removal capability of the core-catcher is analyzed by using the newly developed two-phase flow analysis code which incorporates drift flux parameters for inclined channels and the CHF correlation obtained from SULTAN tests. Effects of geometrical parameters such as the inclination and the gap size of the cooling channel on the heat removal capability are also evaluated. These results show that the core-catcher has sufficient capability to cool the molten corium during a severe accident. Based on the analysis, it has been shown that the core-catcher has an efficient capability of heat removal to cool the molten corium. (author)

  18. Students’ understanding of forces: Force diagrams on horizontal and inclined plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirait, J.; Hamdani; Mursyid, S.

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to analyse students’ difficulties in understanding force diagrams on horizontal surfaces and inclined planes. Physics education students (pre-service physics teachers) of Tanjungpura University, who had completed a Basic Physics course, took a Force concept test which has six questions covering three concepts: an object at rest, an object moving at constant speed, and an object moving at constant acceleration both on a horizontal surface and on an inclined plane. The test is in a multiple-choice format. It examines the ability of students to select appropriate force diagrams depending on the context. The results show that 44% of students have difficulties in solving the test (these students only could solve one or two items out of six items). About 50% of students faced difficulties finding the correct diagram of an object when it has constant speed and acceleration in both contexts. In general, students could only correctly identify 48% of the force diagrams on the test. The most difficult task for the students in terms was identifying the force diagram representing forces exerted on an object on in an inclined plane.

  19. Linear and Nonlinear Gait Features in Older Adults Walking on Inclined Surfaces at Different Speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Marcus Fraga; Rodrigues, Fábio Barbosa; de Sá E Souza, Gustavo Souto; Magnani, Rina Márcia; Lehnen, Georgia Cristina; Andrade, Adriano O

    2017-06-01

    This study evaluated linear and nonlinear gait features in healthy older adults walking on inclined surfaces at different speeds. Thirty-seven active older adults (experimental group) and fifty young adults (control group) walked on a treadmill at 100% and ±20% of their preferred walking speed for 4 min under horizontal (0%), upward (UP) (+8%), and downward (DOWN) (-8%) conditions. Linear gait variability was assessed using the average standard deviation of trunk acceleration between strides (VAR). Gait stability was assessed using the margin of stability (MoS). Nonlinear gait features were assessed by using the maximum Lyapunov exponent, as a measure of local dynamic stability (LDS), and sample entropy (SEn), as a measure of regularity. VAR increased for all conditions, but the interaction effects between treadmill inclination and age, and speed and age were higher for young adults. DOWN conditions showed the lowest stability in the medial-lateral MoS, but not in LDS. LDS was smaller in UP conditions. However, there were no effects of age for either MoS or LDS. The values of SEn decreased almost linearly from the DOWN to the UP conditions, with significant interaction effects of age for anterior-posterior SEn. The overall results supported the hypothesis that inclined surfaces modulate nonlinear gait features and alter linear gait variability, particularly in UP conditions, but there were no significant effects of age for active older adults.

  20. Attachment systems for implant overdenture: influence of implant inclination on retentive and lateral forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tsung-Chieh; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Gonda, Tomoya; Kotecha, Sunny

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate the retentive force and lateral force of an implant with various types of attachments for overdentures in relation to implant inclination. An implant (3.75 × 13 mm) was embedded into an acrylic resin block, simulating the edentulous ridge. Four different attachment systems were used, including: (1) Locator black and blue, (2) a ball attachment, (3) a flat-type magnetic attachment and (4) a self-adjusting magnetic attachment, which has vertical and rotational movement. All of the attachments were under a constant dislodging force with an angle of the implant at 0°, 15°, 30° and 45°, and the experiments were repeated 10 times using a universal testing machine to measure the retentive force. The lateral force to the implant was measured by strain gauges attached on the implant surface. Statistical analysis was performed by multiple comparisons with Bonferroni's correction. Pattachments. The Locator blue and ball attachment maintained the retentive force until a 30° inclination; however, the lateral force increased significantly, especially with the ball attachment. The retentive force of the magnetic attachment was significantly lower at 0°, as well as the lateral force in the self-adjusting magnetic attachment. Within the limitations of this study, we conclude that the retentive force decreases with an increase in implant inclination, whereas the lateral force increases, except for in magnetic attachments. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Modelling and Simulation of Free Floating Pig for Different Pipeline Inclination Angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woldemichael Dereje Engida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a modelling and simulation of free floating pig to determine the flow parameters to avoid pig stalling in pigging operation. A free floating spherical shaped pig was design and equipped with necessary sensors to detect leak along the pipeline. The free floating pig does not have internal or external power supply to navigate through the pipeline. Instead, it is being driven by the flowing medium. In order to avoid stalling of the pig, it is essential to conduct simulation to determine the necessary flow parameters for different inclination angles. Accordingly, a pipeline section with inclination of 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, and 90° were modelled and simulated using ANSYS FLUENT 15.0 with water and oil as working medium. For each case, the minimum velocity required to propel the free floating pig through the inclination were determined. In addition, the trajectory of the free floating pig has been visualized in the simulation.

  2. Rolling and sliding motion of spheres propagating down inclined planes in still water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Yi Hui; Longmire, Ellen

    2016-11-01

    In modelling the motion of spheres submerged in liquid, gravity, drag, lift, and added mass forces have to be taken into account. For spheres contacting bounding surfaces, friction coefficients due to rolling and sliding increase the complexity of the model. In this study, experiments are conducted to investigate the effects of particle density and diameter on the rolling and sliding motion of spheres. Spherical particles with marked surfaces are released from rest on an inclined glass plate in still water at various inclination angles and allowed to accelerate. A 45° mirror mounted beneath the plate allows simultaneous capture of both longitudinal and spanwise motions of the sphere. Based on sequences obtained by high speed imaging, the translational and rotational velocities are determined. Particle Reynolds numbers at terminal velocity range from 400 to 2500 corresponding with Galileo numbers of 800 to 2800. By comparing the translational and rotational velocities, the occurrence of sliding motion can be identified. The onset of sliding motion is then determined as a function of inclination angle and Galileo number for multiple particle materials. The experimental results are also compared against the existing models from the literature. Supported by NSF (CBET-1510154).

  3. Valuation of coefficient of rolling friction by the inclined plane method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciornei, F. C.; Alaci, S.; Ciogole, V. I.; Ciornei, M. C.

    2017-05-01

    A major objective of tribological researches is characterisation of rolling friction, due to various cases encountered in classical engineering applications, like gear transmissions and cam mechanisms or more recent examples met in bioengineering and biomedical devices. A characteristic of these examples consists in reduced dimensions of the contact zones, theoretically zero, the relative motion occurring between the contact points being either sliding or rolling. A characteristic parameter for the rolling motion is the coefficient of rolling friction. The paper proposes a method for estimation of coefficient of rolling friction by studying the motion of a body of revolution on an inclined plane. Assuming the hypothesis that moment of rolling friction is proportional to the normal reaction force, the law of motion for the body on the inclined plane is found under the premise of pure rolling. It is reached the conclusion that there is an uniformly accelerated motion, and thus for a known plane slope, it is sufficient to find the time during which the body runs a certain distance, starting from motionless situation. To obtain accurate results assumes finding precisely the time of motion. The coefficient of rolling friction was estimated for several slopes of the inclined plane and it is concluded that with increased slope, the values of coefficient of rolling friction increase, fact that suggest that the proportionality between the rolling torque and normal load is valid only for domains of limited variations of normal load.

  4. Heat transfer coefficient in pool boiling for an electrically heated tube at various inclinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmy, A.S.A.; Mariy, A.H.; Mahmoud, S.I.; Ibrahim, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation is carried out study the behaviour of heat transfer in pool boiling from a vertical and inclined heated tube at atmospheric pressure. An imperial correlation joining the different parameters affecting the heat transfer coefficient in pool boiling for an electrically heated tube at various inclinations is developed. Two test sections (zircaloy-4 and stainless steel) of 16 n n outer diameter and 120 nm length are investigated. Four levels of heat flux are used for heating the two lest sections (e.g. 381, 518, 721 and 929 k.watt/n 2). The maximum surface temperature achieved is 146.5 degree c for both materials, and the maximum bulk temperature is 95 degree C. It is found that the average heat transfer coefficient is inversely proportional with heated length l, where it reaches a constant value in the horizontal position. The heat transfer coefficient curves at various inclinations with respect to the heated tube length pass around one point which is defined as limit length

  5. Maximal respiratory pressures among adolescent swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Rocha Crispino Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Maximal inspiratory pressures (MIP and maximal expiratory pressures (MEP are useful indices of respiratory muscle strength in athletes.The aims of this study were: to describe the strength of the respiratory muscles of Olympic junior swim team, at baseline and after a standard physical training; and to determine if there is a differential inspiratory and expiratory pressure response to the physical training.A cross-sectional study evaluated 28 international-level swimmers with ages ranging from 15 to 17 years, 19 (61% being males. At baseline, MIP was found to be lower in females (P = .001. The mean values reached by males and females were: MIP(cmH2O = M: 100.4 (± 26.5/F: 67.8 (± 23.2; MEP (cmH2O = M: 87.4 (± 20.7/F: 73.9 (± 17.3. After the physical training they reached: MIP (cmH2O = M: 95.3 (± 30.3/F: 71.8 (± 35.6; MEP (cmH2O = M: 82.8 (± 26.2/F: 70.4 (± 8.3.No differential pressure responses were observed in either males or females. These results suggest that swimmers can sustain the magnitude of the initial maximal pressures. Other studies should be developed to clarify if MIP and MEP could be used as a marker of an athlete's performance Sumário: Pressões inspiratórias máximas (PIM e pressões expiratórias máximas (PEM são indicadores úteis de força muscular em atletas.Os objetivos desse estudo foram: descrever a força da musculatura respiratória de uma equipe Olímpica júnior de natação, em repouso e após um exercício físico padronizado e. determinar o diferencial de pressão inspiratória e expiratória obtido como resposta ao exercício físico.Um estudo descritivo avaliou 28 nadadores de nível internacional, com idades variáveis entre 15 a 17 anos, sendo 19 (61% do sexo masculino. Em repouso, os valores mais baixos de PIM foram encontrados no sexo feminino (p = 0,001. Os valores m

  6. Witten spinors on maximal, conformally flat hypersurfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frauendiener, Joerg; Nester, James M; Szabados, Laszlo B

    2011-01-01

    The boundary conditions that exclude zeros of the solutions of the Witten equation (and hence guarantee the existence of a 3-frame satisfying the so-called special orthonormal frame gauge conditions) are investigated. We determine the general form of the conformally invariant boundary conditions for the Witten equation, and find the boundary conditions that characterize the constant and the conformally constant spinor fields among the solutions of the Witten equations on compact domains in extrinsically and intrinsically flat, and on maximal, intrinsically globally conformally flat spacelike hypersurfaces, respectively. We also provide a number of exact solutions of the Witten equation with various boundary conditions (both at infinity and on inner or outer boundaries) that single out nowhere vanishing spinor fields on the flat, non-extreme Reissner-Nordstroem and Brill-Lindquist data sets. Our examples show that there is an interplay between the boundary conditions, the global topology of the hypersurface and the existence/non-existence of zeros of the solutions of the Witten equation.

  7. New features of the maximal abelian projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornyakov, V.G.; Polikarpov, M.I.; Syritsyn, S.N.; Schierholz, G.; Suzuki, T.

    2005-12-01

    After fixing the Maximal Abelian gauge in SU(2) lattice gauge theory we decompose the nonabelian gauge field into the so called monopole field and the modified nonabelian field with monopoles removed. We then calculate respective static potentials and find that the potential due to the modified nonabelian field is nonconfining while, as is well known, the monopole field potential is linear. Furthermore, we show that the sum of these potentials approximates the nonabelian static potential with 5% or higher precision at all distances considered. We conclude that at large distances the monopole field potential describes the classical energy of the hadronic string while the modified nonabelian field potential describes the string fluctuations. Similar decomposition was observed to work for the adjoint static potential. A check was also made of the center projection in the direct center gauge. Two static potentials, determined by projected Z 2 and by modified nonabelian field without Z 2 component were calculated. It was found that their sum is a substantially worse approximation of the SU(2) static potential than that found in the monopole case. It is further demonstrated that similar decomposition can be made for the flux tube action/energy density. (orig.)

  8. New features of the maximal abelian projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornyakov, V.G.; Polikarpov, M.I.; Schierholz, G.; Suzuki, T.; Syritsyn, S.N.

    2006-01-01

    After fixing the Maximal Abelian gauge in SU(2) lattice gauge theory we decompose the nonabelian gauge field into the so called monopole field and the modified nonabelian field with monopoles removed. We then calculate respective static potentials and find that the potential due to the modified nonabelian field is nonconfining while, as is well known, the monopole field potential is linear. Furthermore, we show that the sum of these potentials approximates the nonabelian static potential with 5% or higher precision at all distances considered. We conclude that at large distances the monopole field potential describes the classical energy of the hadronic string while the modified nonabelian field potential describes the string fluctuations. Similar decomposition was observed to work for the adjoint static potential. A check was also made of the center projection in the direct center gauge. Two static potentials, determined by projected Z 2 and by modified nonabelian field without Z 2 component were calculated. It was found that their sum is a substantially worse approximation of the SU(2) static potential than that found in the monopole case. It is further demonstrated that similar decomposition can be made for the flux tube action/energy density

  9. Maximizing Exosome Colloidal Stability Following Electroporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Joshua L.; Scott, Michael J.; Wickline, Samuel A.

    2014-01-01

    Development of exosome based semi-synthetic nanovesicles for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes requires novel approaches to load exosomes with cargo. Electroporation has previously been used to load exosomes with RNA. However, investigations into exosome colloidal stability following electroporation have not been considered. Herein, we report the development of a unique trehalose pulse media (TPM) that minimizes exosome aggregation following electroporation. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and RNA absorbance were employed to determine the extent of exosome aggregation and electroextraction post electroporation in TPM compared to common PBS pulse media or sucrose pulse media (SPM). Use of TPM to disaggregate melanoma exosomes post electroporation was dependent on both exosome concentration and electric field strength. TPM maximized exosome dispersal post electroporation for both homogenous B16 melanoma and heterogeneous human serum derived populations of exosomes. Moreover, TPM enabled heavy cargo loading of melanoma exosomes with 5 nm superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION5) while maintaining original exosome size and minimizing exosome aggregation as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy. Loading exosomes with SPION5 increased exosome density on sucrose gradients. This provides a simple, label free means to enrich exogenously modified exosomes and introduces the potential for MRI driven theranostic exosome investigations in vivo. PMID:24333249

  10. Optimal topologies for maximizing network transmission capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenhao; Wu, Jiajing; Rong, Zhihai; Tse, Chi K.

    2018-04-01

    It has been widely demonstrated that the structure of a network is a major factor that affects its traffic dynamics. In this work, we try to identify the optimal topologies for maximizing the network transmission capacity, as well as to build a clear relationship between structural features of a network and the transmission performance in terms of traffic delivery. We propose an approach for designing optimal network topologies against traffic congestion by link rewiring and apply them on the Barabási-Albert scale-free, static scale-free and Internet Autonomous System-level networks. Furthermore, we analyze the optimized networks using complex network parameters that characterize the structure of networks, and our simulation results suggest that an optimal network for traffic transmission is more likely to have a core-periphery structure. However, assortative mixing and the rich-club phenomenon may have negative impacts on network performance. Based on the observations of the optimized networks, we propose an efficient method to improve the transmission capacity of large-scale networks.

  11. Maximizing binding capacity for protein A chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Sanchayita; Zhang, Jennifer; Conley, Lynn; Caple, Ryan; Williams, Kevin P; Cecchini, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Advances in cell culture expression levels in the last two decades have resulted in monoclonal antibody titers of ≥10 g/L to be purified downstream. A high capacity capture step is crucial to prevent purification from being the bottleneck in the manufacturing process. Despite its high cost and other disadvantages, Protein A chromatography still remains the optimal choice for antibody capture due to the excellent selectivity provided by this step. A dual flow loading strategy was used in conjunction with a new generation high capacity Protein A resin to maximize binding capacity without significantly increasing processing time. Optimum conditions were established using a simple empirical Design of Experiment (DOE) based model and verified with a wide panel of antibodies. Dynamic binding capacities of >65 g/L could be achieved under these new conditions, significantly higher by more than one and half times the values that have been typically achieved with Protein A in the past. Furthermore, comparable process performance and product quality was demonstrated for the Protein A step at the increased loading. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  12. Why People with More Emotion Regulation Difficulties Made a More Deontological Judgment: The Role of Deontological Inclinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lisong; Li, Zhongquan; Wu, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Ziyuan

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the key role of emotion in moral judgment, and explored the relationship between emotion regulation and moral judgment. The present study investigated the influence of individual differences in emotion regulation difficulties on moral judgment. Study 1 examined whether individuals with high emotion regulation difficulties made a more deontological judgment. Study 2 explored the underlying mechanism using a process-dissociation approach, examining whether deontological inclinations and utilitarian inclinations separately or jointly accounted for the association. The results indicated that individuals with high emotion regulation difficulties rated the utilitarian actions less morally appropriate, and one's deontological inclinations mediated the association between emotion regulation difficulties and moral judgment.

  13. Combined free and forced laminar convection in inclined rectangular channels heated from below and cooled from above

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinsete, V.A.; Bello-Ochende, F.L.

    1981-01-01

    Steady-state numerical results for the solution to the non-linear thermal problem of combined free and forced laminar convection in inclined rectangular channels with constant but unequal surface temperature are presented for an incompressible, viscous fluid whose Prandtl number, Pr = 0.73. Fluid properties are assumed constant, except for density variations with temperature. Maximum values exist for the mean friction factor, Nusselt and Stanton numbers when the inclination to the horizontal lies between 30 0 and 60 0 for a given Archimedes number, Ar. Also, for any given inclination a unique solution exists when Ar = 0,50. (Author) [pt

  14. Influence of the nucleation surface inclination on heat transfers and on the growth dynamics of a steam bubble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthes, M.; Reynard, Ch.; Santini, R.; Tadrist, L.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of the inclination of the nucleation surface on heat and mass transfers and on the growth dynamics of a single steam bubble is experimentally studied. The bubble is created beneath a wall with an imposed heating flux. The evolution of geometrical bubble parameters and of the frequency of emission with respect to the inclination angle are presented. The total heat flux measurements are compared to the evaporation fluxes determined by image processing. Contrary to the evaporation flux, the total flux is conditioned by the inclination and thus is correlated to the frequency of bubbles emission. (J.S.)

  15. The Inclination of the Soft X-Ray Transient A0620-00 and the Mass of its Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Andrew G.; Bailyn, Charles D.; Orosz, Jerome A.; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Remillard, Ronald A.; Froning, Cynthia S.; Neilsen, Joseph; Gelino, Dawn M.; Gou, Lijun

    2010-02-01

    We analyze photometry of the soft X-ray transient A0620 - 00 spanning nearly 30 years, including previously published and previously unpublished data. Previous attempts to determine the inclination of A0620 using subsets of these data have yielded a wide range of measured values of i. Differences in the measured value of i have been due to changes in the shape of the light curve and uncertainty regarding the contamination from the disk. We give a new technique for estimating the disk fraction and find that disk light is significant in all light curves, even in the infrared. We also find that all changes in the shape and normalization of the light curve originate in a variable disk component. After accounting for this disk component, we find that all the data, including light curves of significantly different shapes, point to a consistent value of i. Combining results from many separate data sets, we find i = 51fdg0 ± 0fdg9, implying M = 6.6 ± 0.25 M sun. Using our dynamical model and zero-disk stellar VIH magnitudes, we find d = 1.06 ± 0.12 kpc. Understanding the disk origin of nonellipsoidal variability may assist with making reliable determinations of i in other systems, and the fluctuations in disk light may provide a new observational tool for understanding the three-dimensional structure of the accretion disk.

  16. THE INCLINATION OF THE SOFT X-RAY TRANSIENT A0620-00 AND THE MASS OF ITS BLACK HOLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantrell, Andrew G.; Bailyn, Charles D.; Orosz, Jerome A.; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Gou, Lijun; Remillard, Ronald A.; Froning, Cynthia S.; Neilsen, Joseph; Gelino, Dawn M.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze photometry of the soft X-ray transient A0620 - 00 spanning nearly 30 years, including previously published and previously unpublished data. Previous attempts to determine the inclination of A0620 using subsets of these data have yielded a wide range of measured values of i. Differences in the measured value of i have been due to changes in the shape of the light curve and uncertainty regarding the contamination from the disk. We give a new technique for estimating the disk fraction and find that disk light is significant in all light curves, even in the infrared. We also find that all changes in the shape and normalization of the light curve originate in a variable disk component. After accounting for this disk component, we find that all the data, including light curves of significantly different shapes, point to a consistent value of i. Combining results from many separate data sets, we find i = 51. 0 0 ± 0. 0 9, implying M = 6.6 ± 0.25 M sun . Using our dynamical model and zero-disk stellar VIH magnitudes, we find d = 1.06 ± 0.12 kpc. Understanding the disk origin of nonellipsoidal variability may assist with making reliable determinations of i in other systems, and the fluctuations in disk light may provide a new observational tool for understanding the three-dimensional structure of the accretion disk.

  17. Comparison of the activity of the gluteus medius according to the angles of inclination of a treadmill with vertical load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Da-Eun; Lee, Su-Kyoung; Kim, Kyoung

    2014-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the muscle activity of the gluteus medius according to treadmill inclination during gait with a vertical load on a treadmill. [Methods] Sixteen healthy subjects were recruited for this study. The subjects walked on a treadmill at inclination angles of 0, 5, and 10 degrees. [Results] Muscle activity of the gluteus medius increased at 5° compared to 0° treadmill inclination, though the difference was not significant. On the other hand, gluteus medius muscle activity significantly decreased in treadmill walking at an inclination of 10° compared to 5°. [Conclusion] Selective strengthening exercises using a 5° treadmill angle could be useful for patients experiencing gluteus medius weakness.

  18. POLITENESS MAXIM OF MAIN CHARACTER IN SECRET FORGIVEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Ayu Isnu Maharani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Maxim of Politeness is an interesting subject to be discussed, since politeness has been criticized from our childhood. We are obliques to be polite to anyone either in speaking or in acting. Somehow we are manage to show politeness in our spoken expression though our intention might be not so polite. For example we must appriciate others opinion although we feel objection toward the opinion. In this article the analysis of politeness is based on maxim proposes by Leech. He proposed six types of politeness maxim. The discussion shows that the main character (Kristen and Kami use all types of maxim in their conversation. The most commonly used are approbation maxim and agreement maxim

  19. Shareholder, stakeholder-owner or broad stakeholder maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Niels

    2004-01-01

    including the shareholders of a company. Although it may be the ultimate goal for Corporate Social Responsibility to achieve this kind of maximization, broad stakeholder maximization is quite difficult to give a precise definition. There is no one-dimensional measure to add different stakeholder benefits...... by other stakeholders' interests. These constraints vary for dif-ferent stakeholder owners and new standards for Corporate Social Responsibility and more active political consumers will strengthen these constraints.......With reference to the discussion about shareholder versus stakeholder maximization it is argued that the normal type of maximization is in fact stakeholder-owner maxi-mization. This means maximization of the sum of the value of the shares and stake-holder benefits belonging to the dominating...

  20. Measurement of defects on the wall by use of the inclination angle of laser slit beam and position tracking algorithm of camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Hwan; Yoon, Ji Sup; Jung, Jae Hoo; Hong, Dong Hee; Park, Gee Yong

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a method of measuring the size of defects on the wall and restructuring the defect image is proposed based on the estimation algorithm of a camera orientation which uses the declination angle of the line slit beam. To reconstruct the image, an algorithm of estimating the horizontally inclined angle of CCD camera is presented. This algorithm adopts a 3-dimensional coordinate transformation of the image plane where both the LASER beam and the original image of the defects exist. The estimation equation is obtained by using the information of the beam projected on the wall and the parameters of this equation are experimentally obtained. With this algorithm, the original image of the defect can be reconstructed into the image which is obtained by a camera normal to the wall. From the result of a series of experiment shows that the measuring accuracy of the defect is within 0.5% error bound of real defect size under 30 degree of the horizontally inclined angle. Also, the accuracy is deteriorates with the error rate of 1% for every 10 degree increase of the horizontally inclined angle. The estimation error increases in the range of 30{approx}50 degree due to the existence of dead zone of defect depth, and defect length can not be measured due to the disappearance of image data above 70 degree. In case of under water condition, the measuring accuracy is also influenced due to the changed field of view of both the camera and the laser slit beam caused by the refraction rate in the water. The proposed algorithm provides the method of reconstructing the image taken at any arbitrary camera orientation into the image which is obtained by a camera normal to the wall and thus it enables the accurate measurement of the defect lengths only by using a single camera and a laser slit beam.