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Sample records for inclemente desastre natural

  1. Los desastres de origen natural en México: el papel del FONDEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Rodríguez Esteves

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Por su ubicación geográfica, México es escenario de la manifestación de varios tipos de fenómenos naturales. Los huracanes y los sismos son quizás las principales fuentes de amenaza que enfrenta el territorio nacional y cuya intensidad puede ocasionar desastres. El impacto que los desastres de origen natural pueden llegar a causar debe considerarse en la planeación de los centros de población. El presente trabajo aborda las consecuencias que han tenido los desastres de origen natural en México en los últimos años. Ante la “inevitabilidad” de la manifestación de estos fenómenos, se analiza el papel que ha jugado el Fondo Nacional de Desastres Naturales (FONDEN como instrumento financiero para atender a la población afectada por los mismos

  2. Los desastres de origen natural en México: el papel del FONDEN

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    José Manuel Rodríguez Esteves

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Por su ubicaciÛn geogr·fica, MÈxico es escenario de la manifestaciÛn de va- rios tipos de fenÛmenos naturales. Los huracanes y los sismos son quiz·s las principales fuentes de amenaza que enfrenta el territorio nacional y cuya intensidad puede ocasionar de- sastres. El impacto que los desastres de origen natural pueden llegar a cau- sar debe considerarse en la planea- ciÛn de los centros de poblaciÛn. El presente trabajo aborda las con- secuencias que han tenido los desas- tres de origen natural en MÈxico en los ̇ltimos aÒos. Ante la nevitabilidad de la manifestaciÛn de estos fenÛme- nos, se analiza el papel que ha jugado el Fondo Nacional de Desastres Natu- rales ( FONDEN como instrumento financiero para atender a la poblaciÛn afec- tada por los mismos.

  3. Processos de ramificació, criticitat i autoorganització: aplicació als desastres naturals

    OpenAIRE

    Corral, Álvaro; Font-Clos, Francesc

    2014-01-01

    L'estadística dels desastres naturals conté molts resultats antiintuïtius. Fent servir els terratrèmols com a exemple, mostrarem que l'energia radiada per aquests esdeveniments segueix una distribució de tipus Pareto, és a dir, una llei de potències. Això implica, en teoria, que el valor esperat de l'energia és infinit, i a la pràctica, que la mitjana d'un conjunt finit de dades mai no és representativa del total de la població. A més a més, aquesta distribució presenta invarià...

  4. O SUPORTE SOCIAL DURANTE A TRANSIÇÃO FAMILIAR NO PÓS-DESASTRE NATURAL

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    Gisele Cristina Manfrini Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigación cualitativa de base analítica-interpretativa que tuvo como objetivo presentar las percepciones de las familias sobre el soporte social en la transición del postdesastre natural. Fueron entrevistados seis núcleos familiares residentes en una localidad rural del Sur del Brasil, y que fue afectada por un desastre natural en el año 2008. Los datos fueron obtenidos en el 2010, a partir de la observación participativa, entrevista narrativa, genograma y ecomapa. Las narraciones obtenidas fueron analizadas siguiendo las etapas del método de Fritz Schütze. Los resultados revelan la ayuda recibida durante la fase de transición, la falta de ayuda esperada, el soporte emocional de familiares y amigos y los recursos recordados por las familias en sus ecomapas, los cuales tuvieron una importancia fundamental para la fase inicial de recuperación postdesastre. El estudio contribuye para la comprensión del contexto de recuperación de las familias y destaca la pertinencia del soporte social como un medio de enfrentar los cambios.

  5. Desastre natural: catástrofe sexual. Adolescentes, redes sociales y riesgo en el posterremoto

    OpenAIRE

    González Vélez, Ana Cristina; Londoño Vélez, Argelia

    2003-01-01

    Este libro contiene los resultados de la investigación «Salud sexual y reproductiva de los/las adolescentes en situaciones de desastre. Hacia la construcción de un modelo de prevención de embarazos no planeados y enfermedades de transmisión sexual», que se realizó en la Zona 11 de Armenia entre agosto del año 2001 y octubre de 2002.

  6. Mudanças das rotinas familiares na transição inesperada por desastre natural Cambios sobre las rutinas familiares en la transición inesperada por desastre natural Family routines changes in the unexpected transition due to natural disasters

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    Gisele Cristina Manfrini Fernandes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Desastres naturais são eventos disruptivos às rotinas e rituais familiares e promovem mudanças significativas na vida e na saúde. O objetivo deste artigo foi discutir as rotinas diárias ao longo das trajetórias na transição familiar pela ocorrência de um desastre natural ocorrido em uma área rural. Trata-se de um estudo qualitativo de múltiplos casos, realizado com seis famílias com crianças. Os dados foram coletados em 2010, com técnicas de observação participante, entrevista narrativa, genograma, ecomapa e o calendário de rotinas familiares. Foi feita a análise das narrativas, e os resultados revelaram a mudança nas rotinas e rituais nas trajetórias entre o pré, o pós-desastre e atualidade. A transição abrupta gerou reações estressantes, afetando a saúde dos membros. São necessários mais estudos sobre a saúde no pós-desastre que contribuam ao conhecimento, ao ensino e à prática do cuidado de enfermagem, especialmente na estratégia de saúde da família.Los desastres naturales son eventos disruptivos a las rutinas y rituales familiares y promueven cambios significativos en la vida y en la salud. El objetivo de este artículo es discutir las rutinas diarias a lo largo de las trayectorias en la transición familiar debido a un desastre natural ocurrido en un área rural. Se trata de un estudio cualitativo de múltiples casos, realizado con seis familias con niños. Los datos fueron obtenidos en 2010, con técnicas de observación participante, entrevista narrativa, genograma, ecomapa y el calendario de rutinas familiares. Se realizó un análisis de las narrativas y los resultados revelaron cambios en las rutinas y rituales, en las trayectorias entre el pre y el post desastre y la actualidad. La transición abrupta generó reacciones estresantes, afectando la salud de los miembros. Se hace necesario más estudios sobre la salud en el post desastre, que contribuyan al conocimiento, enseñanza y práctica del

  7. Epidemiologia de Desastres Naturais

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    Eun-Kee PARK

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Los sismos, inundaciones, huracanes, tsunamis, etc., son todos fenómenos naturales que han estado presentes a lo largo de millones de años en la conformación dinámica de nuestro planeta. Dichos fenómenos naturales no son en sí mismos un problema, sino se convierten en agentes perturbadores capaces de generar un desastre cuando se presentan en lugares donde se encuentran asentamientos humanos. Por su origen, los desastres pueden ser naturales o antropogénicos, aunque en ambos se presentan daños a las personas, a los bienes materiales y al ambiente. La epidemiología, como disciplina científica dedicada al estudio de los factores que determinan la distribución y frecuencia de los procesos de salud y enfermedad, no puede estar ajena al estudio de los desastres. Estos representan un campo de acción donde pueden aplicarse directamente los métodos epidemiológicos, desde el estudio de los efectos en salud relacionados con la exposición a los diferentes agentes perturbadores, la identificación de grupos vulnerables, el diseño de planes de emergencia, la evaluación de las intervenciones y de las medidas de mitigación implementadas durante y posterior a la ocurrencia de desastres, así como la propuesta de medidas de seguridad que minimicen los futuros impactos en la salud pública. El establecimiento de un extenso Plan Nacional en cada país que atienda los problemas de salud y seguridad derivados de la ocurrencia de desastres naturales, el cual incluya aspectos de salud mental en grupos vulnerables, debe ser una prioridad reflejada en términos prácticos y en apoyos a la investigación en este campo.

  8. Japón: Fomento del Turismo y Cambio en la Imagen del Destino. Análisis del antes y después de un desastre natural.

    OpenAIRE

    GANDIA CALABUIG, ANGELA

    2012-01-01

    Los desastres varían dependiendo del contexto, tanto físico como social, donde los fenómenos impactan. Identificar y analizar la incidencia y las nuevas tendencias, referentes al turismo, después de un desastre natural como el ocurrido en Japón el 11 de Marzo del 2011, así como el fomento y cambio en la imagen de Japón como destino turístico. Cómo fomentar el turismo en un país como Japón, después de un suceso como el que ocurrió en el noreste del país y que tuvo muchísimos daños materiales, ...

  9. Desastres y trauma psicológico

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    Mauricio Gaborit

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Los desastres, a través de la historia, han provocado pérdidas humanas y han tenido un severo impacto económico, social, médico y psicológico en las sociedades. El comprender mejor cómo y a quienes afecta psicológicamente un desastre socio-natural posibilita la intervención psicosocial de manera oportuna y efectiva. En este artículo se señalan las causas sociales que hicieron que los terremotos de enero y febrero 2001 en El Salvador tuvieran consecuencias tan funestas para personas y comunidades. Se identifican las distintas reacciones que tienen las personas en las distintas fases después del evento traumático, entre las que se destacan la re-experimentación, la evitación, estados disociativos, y algunas reacciones secundarias tales como la depresión, la culpabilidad y la baja autoestima. Se describen, además, aquellos factores que median las relaciones psicol ógicas de las personas al evento traumático: factores biológicos, evolutivos, sociales y de personalidad. Finalmente, se presenta un pequeño modelo que conceptualiza el estrés traumático en desastres tomando en cuenta variables socio-psicológicas

  10. Hospitales seguros ante desastres

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    Celso Vladimir Bambaren Alatrista

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Entre 1982 a 2005 se registraron daños en 1 143 establecimientos de salud en el Perú, generalmente debido a sismos, lluvias e inundaciones. Los daños en los servicios de salud producen la interrupción de la atención de la población y de los programas de salud, así como generan un gran gasto para la rehabilitación y reconstrucción. Por ello, se requiere proteger a los establecimientos de salud y desarrollar una política de hospitales seguros ante desastres que incluya medidas para prevenir o reducción de la vulnerabilidad estructural, no estructural y funcional en los nuevos establecimientos y en los existentes.(Rev Med Hered 2007;18:149-154.

  11. A relação entre o social e o natural nas abordagens de hazards e de desastres The relation between the social and the natural in the approach of hazards and disasters

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    Marcos Antônio Mattedi

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda as teorias dos Hazards e dos Desastres. Nos últimos anos estas duas tradições teóricas têm recebido novos impulsos pela renovação de seus marcos de referência conceitual. Construídas em torno de uma longa tradição de pesquisa empírica, estas teorias explicam os impactos provocados por fenômenos como enchentes, terremotos, tornados e epidemias mediante a integração analítica das dimensões natural e social. Neste sentido, seu estudo pode fornecer subsídios para a interpretação destes problemas no Brasil.The article deals with the theory of hazards and disasters. Over the past years, these two theoretical traditions have received new impulse through the renovation of their conceptual foundations. Constructed around a long tradition of empirical research, these theories explain the impacts brought by phenomena like floods, earthquakes, tornadoes and epidemics through the analytical integration of social and natural dimensions. In this regard, its study may provide grants in order to interpret these problems in Brazil.

  12. The effect of inclement weather on trauma orthopaedic workload.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cashman, J P

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Climate change models predict increasing frequency of extreme weather. One of the challenges hospitals face is how to make sure they have adequate staffing at various times of the year. AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of this severe inclement weather on hospital admissions, operative workload and cost in the Irish setting. We hypothesised that there is a direct relationship between cold weather and workload in a regional orthopaedic trauma unit. METHODS: Trauma orthopaedic workload in a regional trauma unit was examined over 2 months between December 2009 and January 2010. This corresponded with a period of severe inclement weather. RESULTS: We identified a direct correlation between the drop in temperature and increase in workload, with a corresponding increase in demand on resources. CONCLUSIONS: Significant cost savings could be made if these injuries were prevented. While the information contained in this study is important in the context of resource planning and staffing of hospital trauma units, it also highlights the vulnerability of the Irish population to wintery weather.

  13. “Lar Doce Lar”: apego ao lugar em área de risco diante de desastres naturais = Home Sweet Home: place attachment in risk area facing natural disasters = Holgar, Dulce Holgar: apego al lugar en area de riesgo delante de desastres naturales

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    Alves, Roberta Borghetti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo dessa pesquisa foi compreender as características do apego à moradia localizada em área de risco. A natureza do trabalho foi qualitativa com abordagem multimétodos, por meio do Walk-around-the-block e entrevista semiestruturada com 18 pessoas residentes em área avaliada pela Defesa Civil como de risco muito alto para inundações e deslizamentos. As falas foram analisadas por meio da Grounded Theory onde estabeleceu-se categorias de análise. Evidenciou-se que o processo funcional e o simbólico do apego ao lugar contribuíram para a manutenção deste fenômeno e para a permanência na casa. Em contrapartida, a ocorrência do desastre natural e os decorrentes sentimentos de insegurança e medo juntamente com as características físicas da moradia influenciaram no apego e no cuidado do ambiente de modo que houve uma ambivalência de sentimentos entre os participantes, repercutindo no anseio entre o partir e o permanecer na casa

  14. Avaliação de políticas públicas relacionadas aos desastres naturais no Brasil, entre 1990 – 2014Public policies reviewed related to natural disasters in Brazil between 1990 – 2014

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva, Augusto César Pinheiro; Pinto, Rodrigo Wagner Paixão; de Freitas, Marcelo Motta

    2016-01-01

    A ocorrência de desastres naturais entre 1990-2014 aumentou, significativamente, no Brasil, levando-se a inúmeras perdas materiais e óbitos. Dentre esses desastres, destacam-se os movimentos de massa deflagrados nas encostas do eixo Sul/Sudeste, além da intensa seca recorrente na região Nordeste, que promove grande prejuízo social, e as cheias nos rios da região Norte. O presente artigo tem por objetivo avaliar as políticas públicas destinadas à ocorrência de desastres naturais, através de um...

  15. Modeling Inclement Weather Impacts on Traffic Stream Behavior

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    Hesham Rakha, PhD., P.Eng.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The research identifies the steady-state car-following model parameters within state-of-the-practice traffic simulation software that require calibration to reflect inclement weather and roadway conditions. The research then develops procedures for calibrating non-steady state car-following models to capture inclement weather impacts and applies the procedures to the INTEGRATION software on a sample network. The results demonstrate that the introduction of rain precipitation results in a 5% reduction in light-duty vehicle speeds and a 3% reduction in heavy-duty vehicle speeds. An increase in the rain intensity further reduces light-duty vehicle and heavy-duty truck speeds resulting in a maximum reduction of 9.5% and 5.5% at the maximum rain intensity of 1.5 cm/h, respectively. The results also demonstrate that the impact of rain on traffic stream speed increases with the level of congestion and is more significant than speed differences attributed to various traffic operational improvements and thus should be accounted for in the analysis of alternatives. In the case of snow precipitation, the speed reductions are much more significant (in the range of 55%. Furthermore, the speed reductions are minimally impacted by the snow precipitation intensity. The study further demonstrates that precipitation intensity has no impact on the relative merit of various scenarios (i.e. the ranking of the scenario results are consistent across the various rain intensity levels. This finding is important given that it demonstrates that a recommendation on the optimal scenario is not impacted by the weather conditions that are considered in the analysis.

  16. Riesgo y desastres en periodismo

    OpenAIRE

    Toussaint Alcaráz, Florence; García Méndez, Carlos Alberto

    2017-01-01

    En todas las épocas el periodismo responde al modelo económico político imperante en la sociedad en que se ejerce. La tecnología que acompaña dichos procesos le da cuerpo, ritmo y estructura. Partiendo de este principio, el presente texto se ocupa de establecer algunas consideraciones sobre cómo la vida social del siglo XXI, acelerada y consumista, incierta y riesgosa se refleja, influye, matiza el ejercicio periodístico. En este contexto, la temática de los desastres naturales encuentra acom...

  17. A importância da hidrologia na prevenção e mitigação de desastres naturais / The importance of hydrology in the prevention and mitigation of natural disasters

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    Leandro Redin Vestena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem por objetivo apresentar os principais conceitos associados aos desastres naturais e destacar a importância da ciência hidrológica na prevenção e mitigação dos desastres naturais ocasionadospela dinâmica do movimento da água sobre, na e sob a superfície da Terra. A partir de uma breve revisão bibliográfi ca os fundamentos conceituais sobre desastres naturais são definidos e o número de ocorrências ofi ciais evidenciados quantitativamente por tipo, gênese e distribuição. Osdesastres naturais ocorridos no Brasil são essencialmente de origemhidrometeorológica, sendo assim analisa-se o papel da ciência hidrológicana prevenção e mitigação dos mesmos.

  18. La resiliencia como factor clave en la recuperación de destinos turísticos : aplicación al caso de un desastre natural en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Vega, Cecilia Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Los diversos escenarios de crisis y desastres naturales han afectado fuertemente el sector turístico, reflejando la vulnerabilidad y sensibilidad de éstos ante adversidades. Este trabajo de investigación plantea como objetivo general la generación de un modelo que permita la evaluación de la resiliencia en destinos turísticos afectados por desastres naturales y que posibilite, al menos parcialmente, explicar los distintos niveles de recuperación de los destinos turísticos afectados por desast...

  19. Infectious disease risks from dead bodies following natural disasters Riesgo de transmisión de enfermedades infecciosas por contacto con cadáveres después de desastres naturales

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    Oliver Morgan

    2004-05-01

    , clear information about the risks is needed so that responsible local authorities ensure that the bodies of disaster victims are handled appropriately and with due respect. This paper provides a source of information for those who are in the unfortunate position of managing those bodies.OBJETIVO: Realizar una revisión bibliográfica encaminada a determinar los riesgos de infección que plantean los cadáveres después de un desastre natural, particularmente quiénes corren mayor peligro, qué precauciones se deben tomar y cómo se debe disponer de los cadáveres. MÉTODOS: Para que una enfermedad se transmita, es necesario que haya un agente infeccioso, una exposición a dicho agente y un huésped susceptible. Estos son los elementos que se tuvieron en cuenta para calcular el peligro que plantean los cadáveres como fuentes de infección. Se buscaron trabajos sobre el riesgo de infección al que se exponen los trabajadores que velan por la seguridad del público (personal médico de emergencia, bomberos, la policía y los empleados de casas funerarias, y sobre las pautas observadas para disponer de los cadáveres y prevenir infecciones. También se revisaron unos cuantos trabajos importantes sobre la disposición de los cadáveres y la contaminación de las aguas subterráneas por los cementerios. RESULTADOS: Las víctimas de desastres naturales suelen morir de traumatismos y raras veces tienen infecciones agudas que puedan producir epidemias. Esto significa que los cadáveres plantean un riesgo sumamente pequeño para el público. No obstante, las personas que entran en contacto cercano con los muertos -el personal militar, el personal de rescate, los trabajadores voluntarios y demás- pueden verse expuestas a fuentes de infecciones crónicas, tales como los virus de las hepatitis B y C, VIH, organismos enteropatógenos y Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Algunas medidas de precaución orientadas a proteger a estas personas son el adiestramiento, el uso de bolsones para los

  20. Avaliação de algumas experiências de prevenção e mitigação de desastres na América Latina: atores e papéis

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    Joel Audefroy

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Los desastres de origen" natural" han provocado miles de muertos y heridos y daños materiales por miles de millones de dólares en los últimos veinte años. Essos desastres han sido originados no tanto por los fenómenos naturales extraordinarios sino más bien por la falta de planes y programas de prevención y mitigación de desastres. En este trabajo se analizan algunas experiencias exitosas en materia de prevención y mitigación de desastres en algunos países de América Latina.

  1. Impacto de los desastres en la salud mental

    OpenAIRE

    Cernuda Martínez, José Antonio

    2012-01-01

    En situaciones de desastre, tanto la salud física como la mental se ven afectadas de una manera importantísima. Ante una catástrofe (natural o causada por el hombre) los mecanismos psicológicos de los que disponemos las personas para poder enfrentarnos a estas situaciones límite pueden ser insuficientes, por lo que la patología mental aparecerá. Trastorno por estrés postraumático, depresión, trastornos de ansiedad, ideación suicida o intentos de suicidio son algunas de las patologías observad...

  2. Preparation and response to radiation and nuclear emergencies in case of natural disasters; Preparacion y respuesta a emergencias nucleares y radiologicas en caso de desastres naturales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vegueria, Pablo Jerez, E-mail: pablo@orasen.co.cu [Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear (CNSN), La Habana (Cuba); Lafortune, J.F., E-mail: padijeff@gmail.com [VP International Affairs, International Safety Research (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The impact of natural disasters in cities and communities has grown by different causes in different parts of the world. There are several examples of the impact that have caused extreme natural events in facilities and activities in which ionizing radiation are used. The recent example of the accident at the nuclear power plant of Fukushima Daichi with release of radioactive substances to the environment caused by an earthquake and a tsunami show the need of the increasing improvement in the safety of facilities and activities that use ionizing radiation and radioactive materials in general. Planning and response to events of this nature is another aspect that is important and needs attention. The IAEA documents offer a comprehensive and effective guide to achieve an appropriate degree of readiness to respond to nuclear and radiological emergencies in any situation. However, there are specific challenges for planning and response posed a radiological emergency caused by an extreme natural event or occurring simultaneously with this. The present work deals with essential aspects to take into account by the authorities who coordinate the planning and response to radiological emergencies to deal with extreme natural events.

  3. Desastres naturais: convivência com o risco

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    SAMIA NASCIMENTO SULAIMAN

    Full Text Available RESUMO Estudos sobre riscos de desastres naturais têm-se aprimorado de uma abordagem fisicalista para uma perspectiva socioambiental. No entanto, planejamento e gestão ainda seguem o paradigma antropocêntrico da superioridade humana e do poder ilimitado da ciência e tecnologia. Evidencia-se uma incapacidade cognitiva, cultural e de ação por parte de especialistas, científicos e tomadores de decisão (claimmakers para identificar e atuar sobre as causas sociais da produção de risco. Frente a uma ciência cartesiana e positivista na resolução de problemas, baseada na segurança e controle sobre o mundo natural, propõe-se uma ciência pós-normal que considera os riscos e incertezas do conhecimento científico e das problemáticas ambientais. Essa nova proposta também incide sobre a participação e o diálogo entre stakeholders como referência para ampliar a qualidade do saber científico e o entendimento da complexidade das questões ambientais. Este artigo discute a necessidade de se promover um salto epistemológico sobre a forma de pensar e produzir conhecimentos, bem como implementar a gestão dos riscos de desastres, tendo como objeto de estudo processos de comunicação e educação para prevenção de desastres.

  4. Templanza y solidaridad frente al desastre

    OpenAIRE

    Duque Escobar, Gonzalo

    2010-01-01

    El desastre ambiental que vive Colombia expresa las contradicciones de un modelo de desarrollo consumista y la falta de una cultura ambiental. Con 8 veces el número de perjudicados y 2,5 veces el costo del terremoto del Eje Cafetero de 1999, el desatre climático resulta ser profundamente rural.

  5. ANÁLISE ESPACIAL DOS MOVIMENTOS DE MASSA EM NOVA FRIBURGO/RJ: O CASO DO DESASTRE NATURAL DE JANEIRO DE 2011

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    Gustavo Medeiros de Pinho

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Em janeiro de 2011, a região serrana do Estado do Rio de Janeiro vivenciou uma grande catástrofe natural, quando chuvas torrenciais caíram em poucas horas, deflagrando inúmeros movimentos de massa e inundações. Neste trabalho foram analisadas as relações espaciais entre as cicatrizes dos movimentos de massa, o uso e cobertura da terra, a declividade, as linhas de drenagem (linhas de convergência de águas e os topos de morros no bairro de Córrego D’Antas, localizado no município de Nova Friburgo. Por meio de mapeamentos empregando técnicas de geoprocessamento, verificou-se que as cicatrizes de movimentos de massa tiveram grande ocorrência nas classes de declividade acima de 30%, de vegetação arbórea, de faixa marginal de linhas de drenagem e de topos de morro.

  6. Ameaças naturais e avaliação subjetiva na construção da vulnerabilidade social diante de desastres naturais no Chile e Brasil Amenazas naturales y evaluación subjetiva en la construcción de la vulnerabilidad social ante desastres naturales en chile y brasil Naturalhazards and subjective assessment in the construction of social vulnerability to cope with natural disasters in chile and brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Romero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available PortuguêsSão analisados de pontos de vista objetivo e subjetivo, alguns dos fatores econômicos, políticos, sociais e culturais que participam da construção da vulnerabilidade social com que comunidades do Chile e Brasil têm enfrentado desastres naturais recentes, que incluem inundações, deslizamentos, terremotos e tsunamis. Fatores globais têm gerado restrições econômicas que se manifestam localmente em um aumento da vulnerabilidade social devido à falta de inversões públicas em obras de proteção. Adicionalmente, se observam processos de exclusão e segregação social, traduzidos em uma ocupação humana permanente e sistemática de áreas expostas às ameaças naturais, nas quais se localiza a população de menores recursos. As percepções dos riscos naturais, as formas de organização social e as expectativas e frustrações das comunidades locais constituem valiosas lições que deveriam ser bases do aprendizado social necessário para evitar que estas tragédias continuem repetindo-se em nossos países. Español Se analiza desde los puntos de vista objetivo y subjetivo, algunos de los factores económicos, políticos, sociales y culturales que han participado de la construcción de la vulnerabilidad social con que, comunidades de Chile y Brasil, han enfrentado desastres naturales recientes, que han incluido inundaciones, remociones en masa de sedimentos, terremotos y tsunamis. Factores globales han generado restricciones económicas que se han manifestado localmente en un aumento de la vulnerabilidad social debido a la falta de inversiones públicas en obras de protección. Adicionalmente, se han observado procesos de exclusión y segregación social, traducidos en una ocupación humana permanente y sistemática de áreas expuestas a las amenazas naturales, en las cuáles se ha ubicado a la población de menores recursos. Las percepciones de los riesgos naturales, las formas de organización social y las expectativas y

  7. ¿Progreso social o desastre natural?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Carolina Guzmán

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Este artículo de investigación está dirigido a establecer la conexión entre la idea de progreso que nace con el establecimiento de la sociedad y el problema del cambio climático global. Desde el nacimiento de la civilización en Grecia este concepto ha venido acompañando cada proceso de avance de las distintas épocas de la humanidad; asimismo, el problema del cambio climático global se presenta como un fenómeno contemporáneo que ha generado muchas discusiones desde todas las disciplinas y que nos obliga a reflexionar sobre la idea de progreso y sus consecuencias para la vida sobre el planeta tal y como hoy la conocemos.Palabras claves:Progreso, cambio climático global, filosofía contemporánea.Abstract:This research project aims to establish the connection between the idea of progress that comes with the development of society and the problem of global climate change. Since the birth of civilization in Greece this concept has been following every process of moving the ages of humanity, also the problem of global climate change is presented as a contemporary phenomenon that has generated a lot of discussions from all disciplines and we necessary to reflect on the idea of progress and its consequences for life on the planet as we know it today.Key words:Progress, global climate change, contemporary philosophy.

  8. Los desastres naturales en Mexicali, B.C.: Diagnóstico sobre el riesgo y la vulnerabilidad urbana

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    Juan Manuel Rodríguez Esteves

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo expone el problema de los desastres naturales en la ciudad de Mexicali, B.C., México. Asimismo presenta una referencia sobre la importancia de su estudio en el ámbito mundial y la forma de atención de los desastres en México. Esta investigación muestra un diagnóstico sobre el riesgo y la vulnerabilidad urbana ante lluvias intensas y sismos, y concluye que en Mexicali son más frecuentes éstos que aquéllas. Además existen algunos vacíos en la legislación, especialmente en la estatal, en materia de protección civil para la prevención, mitigación y tratamiento de los desastres de origen natural.

  9. As transformações socioambientais da paisagem rural a partir de um desastre ambiental (Paraná, 1963)

    OpenAIRE

    Paixão,Letícia Aparecida; Priori,Angelo Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é analisar as transformações ocorridas na paisagem rural do estado do Paraná na década de 1960. Toma-se como referência um desastre ambiental (incêndio florestal) ocorrido no ano de 1963, que vitimou 110 pessoas e deixou milhares desabrigadas, além de destruir florestas e plantações. A hipótese principal é a de que o desastre foi resultado das relações dos homens com o meio natural. Por isso mesmo, é fundamental dar historicidade a essas relações, para compreend...

  10. Lecciones aprendidas en desastres y la gestión del conocimiento en salud y desastres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian María Céspedes Mora

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Se revisan los últimos trabajos publicados sobre la conciencia que se tiene acerca de la producción y diseminación de las lecciones aprendidas en desastres para la gestión del conocimiento en materia de medicina y desastres. Se destaca la influencia de las lecciones aprendidas como elemento importante en la toma de decisiones ante el manejo de los desastres. Se expone la inquietud que para el Centro Latinoamericano de Medicina de Desastres constituye la necesidad de rescatar e incentivar la producción de las lecciones aprendidas por el personal de la salud en su enfrentamiento a catástrofes y en el desempeño de sus funciones en Cuba y en Latinoamérica.This paper reviewed the last papers published about the awareness of the production and dissemination of lessons learned on disasters for the knowledge management in terms of medicine and disaster. It underlined the effect of the lessons learned as an important element in the decision-taking on disaster management. It showed the concern of the Latin-American Center of Disaster Medicine about the need of rescuing and encouraging the production of the lessons learned by the health personnel in facing up to catastrophes and in performing its work in Cuba and Latin America

  11. Mortalidad y morbilidad por desastres en España Mortality and morbidity from disasters in Spain

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    Pedro Arcos González

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Este estudio analiza los episodios de desastres ocurridos en España entre 1950 y 2005, para conocer su distribución y estimar su impacto en la mortalidad y la morbilidad. Métodos: Estudio observacional retrospectivo en el que se ha utilizado la definición de Naciones Unidas y se ha considerado desastre al episodio, natural o tecnológico, con más de 15 muertos y/o más de 50 heridos, excluidos los desastres medioambientales y los fenómenos epidémicos. Resultados: La frecuencia de desastres en España ha aumentado durante el período estudiado, especialmente en las últimas 4 décadas, y son el doble en el segundo semestre del año, con una gran variabilidad geográfica. España tiene un perfil de desastre mixto, con predominio de los desastres tecnológicos, que son 4,5 veces más frecuentes que los naturales. El desastre natural más frecuente en nuestro país es la inundación y el tecnológico, el accidente de tránsito.Objective: To analyze disaster episodes in Spain between 1950 and 2005 in order to characterize their pattern and evaluate their impact on morbidity and mortality. Methods: We performed an observational retrospective study using the United Nations' definition of disaster. A disaster was considered as each episode, natural or technological, causing more than 15 deaths and/or more than 50 wounded persons. Epidemic and environmental disasters were excluded. Results: The frequency of disasters has increased in Spain, especially during the four last decades. The frequency of disasters doubles in the second semester of the year and shows wide geographical variation. Spain has a mixed disaster pattern, with a predominance of technological disasters, which are 4.5 times more frequent than natural disasters. The most frequent type of natural disaster in Spain is flooding and most frequent technological disasters are traffic accidents.

  12. Lecciones aprendidas durante desastres naturales: 1970-2007

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    Raquel E. Cohen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Los desastres naturales impactan vidas y propiedades, devastando comunidades por largos periodos. En este articulo se presenta, cómo algunos conocimientos basados en experiencias y el avance de la ciencia biológica, psicosocial y de la conducta, siguen ayudándonos a entender el comportamiento del sobreviviente. La capacidad de poder aplicar lineamientos y operaciones de ayuda, obtener datos y prácticas basadas en evidencias, así como estudios empíricos en el ámbito de desastres, es un proceso evolutivo para los profesionales en este campo.

  13. As transformações socioambientais da paisagem rural a partir de um desastre ambiental (Paraná, 1963

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Aparecida Paixão

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é analisar as transformações ocorridas na paisagem rural do estado do Paraná na década de 1960. Toma-se como referência um desastre ambiental (incêndio florestal ocorrido no ano de 1963, que vitimou 110 pessoas e deixou milhares desabrigadas, além de destruir florestas e plantações. A hipótese principal é a de que o desastre foi resultado das relações dos homens com o meio natural. Por isso mesmo, é fundamental dar historicidade a essas relações, para compreender o real significado do evento e a forma como ele está inserido em um contexto mais amplo, marcado pela erradicação dos cafezais na região norte e pelo desflorestamento da região central do estado.

  14. ¿Vivimos en situación de desastre?

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    Elia Figueira Petit

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Con frecuencia nos hemos hecho esta pregunta todos los que habitamos Venezuela y particularmente los que trabajamos en el sector salud, para responder esta interrogante es necesario aclarar algunos puntos . Primero: El término desastre deriva del latín des (negativo, sin fortuna y astre (estrellas, se entiende desastre como: Calamidad que viene de los astros, de los dioses ¡nada más lejos de la realidad!, por lo general, el desastre se refiere a un even to que afecta a un número considerable de personas y sus dimensiones sobrepasan la atención que pueden brindar los servicios públicos y privados del área donde ocurre. Por lo tanto, el acontecimiento interrumpe y modifica la dinámica de una comunidad; supo ne una situación de crisis donde las demandas exceden los recursos disponibles. Así, se puede localizar el desastre en un tiempo y espacio en el que una sociedad afronta peligros severos, con pérdidas humanas y materiales, ruptura de estructuras y funcion es sociales, cambios en el desempeño de roles individuales y surgimiento de demandas poco usuales que exigen respuestas de protección y defensa por parte de las autoridades.

  15. Eventos de massa, desastres e Saúde Pública

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    Camilla Figueiredo de Castro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil tem sediado eventos de massa (EM e seus participantes estão sujeitos a riscos à saúde. Objetivou-se sistematizar as principais relações, de interesse da Saúde Pública, entre eventos de massa e ocorrência de desastres. Foram realizadas três estratégias metodológicas: revisão da literatura de EM, com busca sistemática, sistematização das principais informações sobre EM e seleção e sistematização das Referências que tratavam do tema desastre em suas palavras-chave, título ou Resumo. Foram selecionadas 28 Referências sobre EM, a maioria artigo científico, revisão de literatura, de 2012 e de natureza esportiva. Os principais assuntos abordados foram sistemas de vigilância e planejamento dos EM. Evidenciou-se a pouca informação analítica sobre os EM, bem como a importância de eventos não transmissíveis para a ocorrência de desastres, com destaque aos relacionados à multidão. O risco de desastres deve ser considerado no planejamento dos EM, para aumentar a capacidade de resposta considerando áreas estratégicas como: emergência médica, vigilância de doenças transmissíveis e vetores, segurança alimentar e dos serviços de saúde, saúde ambiental e laboratório. Ressalta-se a importância de pesquisas analíticas e de registro das experiências relacionadas aos EM, para a redução de risco de desastres.

  16. Infectious disease risks from dead bodies following natural disasters Riesgo de transmisión de enfermedades infecciosas por contacto con cadáveres después de desastres naturales

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver Morgan

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review existing literature to assess the risks of infection from dead bodies after a natural disaster occurs, including who is most at risk, what precautions should be taken, and how to safely dispose of the bodies. METHODS: Disease transmission requires the presence of an infectious agent, exposure to that agent, and a susceptible host. These elements were considered to characterize the infectious disease risk from dead bodies. Using the PubMed on-line databases of the National...

  17. Enfrentamento de desastres naturais: o uso de um coping coletivo

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    Fernanda Menna Barreto Krum

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Os desastres naturais estão, atualmente, entre os mais comuns tipos de trauma. O impacto sofrido pelos indivíduos e pela comunidade atingida gera inúmeras respostas emocionais, tornando imperativa a mobilização de esforços para lidar com o evento. Esses são entendidos como estratégias de coping utilizadas para adaptar-se a situações estressoras. Muitos modelos e classificações foram propostos para explicar este conceito, entretanto a maioria permanece com uma percepção individual do processo. O modelo multi-axial de coping de Hobfoll traz uma perspectiva social ao fenômeno, vinculando o indivíduo ao contexto em que está inserido. Nesse sentido, sugere-se uma alternativa de entendimento do coping de vítimas de desastres naturais, propondo o conceito de coping coletivo.

  18. Avaliação de propostas de candidatos a prefeitos em relação aos riscos de desastres naturais / Evaluation of proposals of candidates for mayors to the risks of natural disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érico Soriano

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Government plans are documents created by candidates to the mayor position in Brazilian municipalities, including goals to be achieved during their term. This work performs an analysis of candidates' plans for municipalities which are monitored by Cemaden - Brazilian Centre for Monitoring and Warnings of natural Disasters - for Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo states. Themes directly related to the community vulnerability and disasters were considered, such as risk areas, Civil Defense, Management Plan and basic sanitation. There was little attention from candidates to those themes, concerning official documents and answers to this work's survey. As many municipalities have historical disaster records and vulnerable population, the candidates behavior does not match the problems they will have to deal with. There was more attention to those themes in municipalities with recent occurrence of disasters, such as Petrópolis, Teresópolis and Nova Friburgo.

  19. Los desastres nunca serán naturales

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    Carlos Llanes Burón

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La visión de los desastres como fenómenos naturales peligrosos, difíciles de prevenir y controlar, ha sido la concepción que ha prevalecido durante mucho tiempo. Ésta ha generado políticas y acciones dirigidas a la atención de las emergencias en el momento en que éstas ocurren. Sin embargo, hoy día sabemos que estas políticas y acciones han sido insuficientes para disminuir significativamente los daños y pérdidas resultantes.

  20. Afrontamiento de desastres naturales: el uso de un coping colectivo

    OpenAIRE

    Krum, Fernanda Menna Barreto; Bandeira, Denise Ruschel

    2008-01-01

    Os desastres naturais estão, atualmente, entre os mais comuns tipos de trauma. O impacto sofrido pelos indivíduos e pela comunidade atingida gera inúmeras respostas emocionais, tornando imperativa a mobilização de esforços para lidar com o evento. Esses são entendidos como estratégias de coping utilizadas para adaptar-se a situações estressoras. Muitos modelos e classificações foram propostos para explicar este conceito, entretanto a maioria permanece com uma percepção individual do processo....

  1. Perspectiva territorial de la gestión de riesgos de desastres en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Teresa Martínez Rubiano

    2011-01-01

    La prevención y atención de desastres en Colombia se consideraba hasta hace una década como algo novedoso, actualmente,  la gestión del riesgo de desastres es proyectada en diferentes dimensiones del desarrollo en correlación con otras políticas del Estado, con el propósito de conjugar iniciativas, propuestas y esfuerzos que garanticen su adecuada ejecución. Sin embargo, hasta la fecha los avances en la gestión del riesgo para reducir los desastres son insuficientes. En Colombia se han imp...

  2. INVENTARIO DE EMERGENCIAS Y DESASTRES EN EL VALLE DE ABURRÁ. ORIGINADOS POR FENÓMENOS NATURALES Y ANTROPICOS EN EL PERIODO 1880-2007

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    Aristizábal Edier

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años, los desastres de origen natural y antrópico han afectado un gran número de personas alrededor del mundo, en especial, las que habitan en aquellos países en vía de desarrollo localizados en el trópico, como Colombia. Por ésta y otras razones, se hace necesario construir detalladas bases de datos de desastres que evalúen los impactos humanos y económicos, de tal manera que se pueda desarrollar políticas para la prevención y evaluación del riesgo. Desde esta perspectiva, el Área Metropolitana del Valle de Aburrá ha implementado una base de datos sobre desastres, utilizando el software DesInventar, el cual ha sido desarrollado por LA RED, Red de Estudios Sociales en Prevención de Desastres en América Latina. La metodología de DesInventar consiste en dos módulos. El modulo DesInventar permite la entrada de datos tanto espaciales como temporales, de acuerdo al tipo, causas y fuentes; y el modulo DesConsultar posibilita el acceso y consulta a la base de datos en términos de figuras, gráficos y mapas temáticos. Esta base de datos ha sido construida a partir de estudios anteriores realizados por la Universidad EAFIT, el Sistema Municipal para la Prevención y Atención de Desastre del municipio de Medellín, SIMPAD, y los trabajos de Hormaza (1991 y Saldarriaga (2002. El presente artículo se enfoca en la evaluación de los impactos humanos y económicos generados por los desastres de origen natural y antrópico en el Valle de Aburrá, territorio que ha sido afectado por una gran cantidad de eventos de magnitud media y moderada, principalmente. Durante el período 1880 a 2007 se registraron 6750 eventos, de los cuales las inundaciones corresponden al 42%, los movimientos en masa al 35% y los incendios forestales al 15%. Los desastres originados por la intervención antrópica son pequeños. Sin embargo, han aumentado en las últimas décadas. Las ciudades más pobladas son aquellas que presentan las mayores

  3. La salud mental en situación de desastre. Una aproximación a sus particularidades

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    Roberto Anselmo Ramos Valverde

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A lo largo de la historia de la humanidad, la naturaleza ha demostrado el poder de los fenómenos naturales. El mundo antiguo fue testigo de catastróficos sismos que demolieron valiosos tesoros de la cultura universal. Hoy en día devastadores peligros hidrometeorológicos han venido impactando a países, cuyas poblaciones nunca antes habían visto tan impresionantes fuerzas. La escalada de desastres a nivel mundial sugiere fortalecer las capacidades de la reducción del riesgo de desastres para abatir la sinergia reinante entre los peligros, de conjunto con las dinámicas de la naturaleza y las sociedades. (1 Las consecuencias de los desastres para la salud física de las personas resultan evidentes, por lo que han sido objeto de atención por la Medicina desde su surgimiento como ciencia. Sin embargo, el estudio de sus consecuencias en el plano psicológico es relativamente reciente, lo que ha provocado la permanencia de las manifestaciones psicopatológicas reactivas al desastre en las poblaciones afectadas cual huella indeleble en su psiquismo, descrito en la literatura científica por los primeros semiólogos dedicados al estudio de tales afecciones, como neurosis traumática. (1 La OMS define a un desastre natural como: un acto de la naturaleza, de tal magnitud que da origen a una situación catastrófica en la que súbitamente se alteran los patrones cotidianos de la vida, y la gente se ve hundida en el desamparo y el sufrimiento; como resultado de ello, las víctimas necesitan víveres, ropa, vivienda, asistencia médica y de enfermería, así como otros elementos fundamentales de la vida y protección contra factores y condiciones ambientales desfavorables, los cuales en la mayor parte de los casos, deberán provenir de áreas que estén fuera de la zona de desastre. (1 En tal condición, la relación del individuo con el medio está alterada. Los factores del medio se vuelven muy agresivos, están fuera del control del individuo y su

  4. Potencial de la percepción remota - estudio basado en desastres naturales ocurridos durante los últimos 5 años en Chile

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    Guido Staub

    Full Text Available A través de desastres naturales ocurridos en Chile durante los últimos 5 años se ejemplifica como observaciones adquiridas por los diversos sensores, hoy en día disponibles en la Percepción Remota, fueron utilizadas con éxito en varias ocasiones, tanto durante como después de que ha ocurrido una catástrofe. Los ejemplos presentados en el presente artículo están relacionados con el terremoto y posterior tsunami ocurrido en febrero 2010 y las erupciones volcánicas en los años 2008 y 2011. Se da a conocer las plataformas y los sensores remotos más convenientes para realizar una administración moderna de desastres naturales. Aunque el catastro de daños producidos por un desastre natural es la aplicación más conocida en público, la Percepción Remota también puede ser usada en todas las fases de su administración: Mitigación, Preparación, Respuesta y Recuperación. Por tal motivo también se muestra como y en que situación puede ser útil el uso de datos adquiridos por sensores remotos. Como la Percepción Remota puede ser considerada como una de las más importantes herramientas en el ámbito de la administración de desastres naturales se concluye que en un país como Chile, su aplicación debe ser intensificado para poder superar cualquier catástrofe.

  5. Emergencias y desastres: desafíos y oportunidades (de la casualidad a la causalidad

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    Nelson Morales-Soto

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available El Perú es un país donde han ocurrido y seguirán ocurriendo desastres naturales, el último terremoto sucedido en Pisco demuestra que el afrontar los desastres continúa como un gran desafío para nuestro sistema de salud. En este artículo se revisan los avances, desafíos y recomendaciones para aprovechar las oportunidades y mejorar la gestión del riesgo.

  6. Desastre e acontecimento na realidade psíquica

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    Ângela Maria Resende Vorcar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O texto problematiza a sincronia na estruturação do sujeito sem recorrer às teorias de desenvolvimento humano. Para isso, considera a diacronia do trajeto de infans a sujeito por meio do entrecruzamento em trança das três dimensões da realidade psíquica: real, simbólico e imaginário. Este artigo tem como objetivo demonstrar que os acidentes implicados nos entrecruzamentos entre real, simbólico e imaginário são acontecimentos constitutivos da estrutura tridimensional da realidade psíquica de um sujeito qualquer. Diferentemente desses acidentes, os desastres na estruturação do sujeito podem configurar as séries das graves psicopatologias. Como hipótese de trabalho, esta proposta deverá submeter-se à clínic

  7. Salud mental en desastres naturales: estrategias interventivas con adultos mayores en sectores rurales de Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio-Parraguez, Paulina; Espinoza, Adriana

    2016-06-01

    En el presente artículo se da a conocer una estrategia de intervención llevada a cabo con adultos mayores en la comuna de Paredones, sexta región de Chile, con posterioridad al terremoto y tsunami del 27 de febrero 2010 en Chile, en el contexto de una investigación sobre fortalezas y vulnerabilidades desplegadas por este grupo etario, con posterioridad a un desastre natural. Se presenta una descripción del desarrollo metodológico de la intervención y de los sustentos teóricos y conceptuales en los que se basa. Como resultado de este proceso, se propone una estrategia que trabaje a través de la identificación de las propias experiencias y fortalezas de los sujetos. De tal forma se minimizan los efectos negativos de los determinantes sociales de la salud (como la edad y el lugar de residencia) en contexto de crisis; permitiendo a los adultos mayores fortalecer sus recursos individuales y colectivos, en pro de su bienestar psicosocial. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Información general sobre la preparación y la respuesta frente a desastres naturales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esta página brinda información general sobre la manera en que se puede preparar para enfrentar desastres naturales potenciales y las acciones a tomar después de dichos desastres naturales y otras emergencias ambientales.

  9. El sistema internacional de respuesta a los desastres. Limitaciones y tendencias

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    Francisco Rey Marcos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available El aumento de los desastres de componente natural, y el nuevo  tipo de conflictividad violenta que vive nuestro mundo, han hecho que la acción humanitaria haya crecido en las últimas décadas y se hayan creado o revitalizado organismos internacionales para abordar la respuesta a estas crisis. Sin embargo, así como en otros ámbitos de la cooperación internacional trató de diseñarse, al menos teóricamente, un sistema coherente que dividiera las competencias entre las diversas instituciones y asignara roles más o menos claros a cada una de ellas, esto no ha sido así en el ámbito humanitario. No ha existido un Bretón Woods, como en el caso de la ayuda al desarrollo, ni conferencias internacionales que propusieran avances en esta concepción sistemática. Ahora, vinculado con el necesario proceso de reforma de las Naciones Unidas y con el creciente protagonismo del Vicesecretario General para Asuntos Humanitarios y la Oficina para la Coordinación de los Asuntos Humanitarios (OCHA parece una oportunidad excelente para reflexionar sobre los retos a los que se enfrenta nuestro mundo en los próximos años y, más en concreto, sobre el sistema internacional de respuesta a las crisis y desastres. A esto, vienen a unirse además, recientes acontecimientos internacionales como tsunami que asoló el sur de Asia a finales de diciembre de 2004, la Conferencia Internacional sobre Reducción de Desastres en Kobe (Japón o los efectos de los huracanes Katrina y Rita en Estados Unidos, que han venido a poner aun más de relieve la necesidad de promover el fortalecimiento de un sistema internacional de respuesta a los desastres. El artículo pretende explorar estos temas, profundizando en los instrumentos e instituciones con los que cuenta la comunidad internacional para ello y centrándonos en los de carácter oficial: Naciones Unidas, Comité de Ayuda al Desarrollo (CAD de la OCDE y Unión Europea a través de la Oficina Humanitaria

  10. Geografía y su enfoque de los desastres

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    Campos Sánchez, Nuria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo desarrolla aspectos generales de la ciencia geográfica, como su relación con otras ciencias, los enfoques y métodos que utiliza y algunos ejemplos de su aplicación. Explica su relación con la temática de los desastres y la reducción del riesgo. Expone algunos de sus campos de acción y su aplicación en el ordenamiento y planificación territorial. Comenta algunas de los instrumentos que utiliza como los mapas y los sistemas de información geográfica The article develops general aspects of the geographic science, as well as its relation with other sciences, focus and methods used and some examples of its implementation. It explains its relation with the topic of disasters and risk reduction. It presents some of the action areas and their implementation in the territory laws and planning. It comments on some of the instruments used, such as maps and the geographical information systems

  11. LA PERCEPCIÓN DE LOS DESASTRES: ALGUNOS ELEMENTOS DESDE LA CULTURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caballero A. José Humberto

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Se propone una corta reflexión sobre el tema de la percepción social de los desastres y sus implicaciones en el desarrollo y evolución de las políticas públicas en materia de prevención y atención. La percepción es al tiempo consecuencia de condiciones psicológicas particulares y de ideas socialmente aceptadas que se conforman como parte del pensamiento colectivo en función de los desarrollos de la cultura. Se mencionan cuatro momentos en el desarrollo de la percepción social que explican, en conjunto, la forma en que se percibe la influencia de los desastres. En primer lugar se interpreta la fuerza del mito judeocristiano relacionado con la idea de que los desastres son el castigo de la divinidad como respuesta al mal comportamiento. En segundo lugar se mira la idea de que los desastres son el resultado de las fuerzas de la naturaleza, lo que ha llevado a construir la idea de la negación como forma de respuesta; los desastres ocurren pero a mi no me pasan, porque mi entorno local es seguro. En tercer lugar se da una mirada a la falsa percepción de seguridad por la excesiva confianza en la ciencia y en la técnica; se incrementa así la vulnerabilidad al desastre en particular entre las clases más altas de la sociedad que creen tener con que pagar el costo de estos desarrollos. Por último se miran muy rápidamente algunas ideas recientes según las cuales los daños ambiéntales ocasionados por la intervención humana, en especial en lo referente al cambio climático global serían los responsables del incremento en los factores de riesgo.

  12. Histórico ambiental: desastres ambientais e o despertar de um novo pensamento

    OpenAIRE

    Pott, Crisla Maciel; Estrela, Carina Costa

    2017-01-01

    Resumo A Revolução Industrial ocorrida no final do século XVIII foi ponto de partida para grandes mudanças no planeta. Como consequência da alteração das atividades produtivas, anos depois, desastres ambientais ocorreram causando milhares de mortes e chamando atenção, a partir do final da década de 1960, para a necessidade de reformas no sistema produtivo e de consumo. Através de uma revisão bibliográfica, este trabalho se propôs a discorrer a respeito desses desastres ambientais, suas causas...

  13. O desastre de Fukushima: nas linhas (e entrelinhas) da controvérsia nuclear

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Dayse Lúcia Moraes

    2014-01-01

    O desastre nuclear de Fukushima, ocorrido em março de 2011, foi central para a crise que se instalou, desde então, no governo e na economia do Japão e ainda para a reativação, em termos globais, da persistente controvérsia sobre a energia nuclear. A abordagem do desastre pela mídia estendeu-se além da cobertura restrita do acidente, prováveis causas e consequências imediatas, e levou Fukushima e seus desdobramentos a ocupar, durante meses, lugar central nos noticiários sobre te...

  14. GESTÃO DO CONHECIMENTO NAS RESPOSTAS A DESASTRES NATURAIS: A EXPERIÊNCIA DA DEFESA CIVIL DO ESTADO DE SANTA CATARINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cardoso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo apresentar a importância da gestão do conhecimento nas ações de resposta a desastres naturais, uma vez que tais situações normalmente se caracterizam pela necessidade da adoção de medidas emergenciais, ao passo que o acesso a dados ou informações para a tomada de decisões torna-se difícil ou mais restrito. Utiliza-se como metodologia a pesquisa de campo, exploratória, qualitativa, baseada na análise documental e em entrevista não estruturada com representante da Defesa Civil do Estado de Santa Catarina como técnica de levantamento de dados. Como resultado, tem-se que a gestão do conhecimento é fundamental para garantir o fluxo adequado de conhecimento entre os grupos envolvidos em um desastre natural, de forma a aumentar a eficiência das ações voltadas a apoiar as possíveis vítimas ou minimizar os eventuais impactos naturais. Em suma, verifica-se a relevância de uma adequada preparação e planejamento das autoridades envolvidas em situações de emergência para uma efetiva ação de resposta, e para isso, faz-se necessário prever alternativas e métodos para o acesso a dados e trocas de informações que sejam eficientes para a mitigação dos riscos e controle das consequências geradas pelo desastre.

  15. RESPONSABILIDADE E MEIO AMBIENTE: ANÁLISE DO DESASTRE AMBIENTAL OCORRIDO EM 2008 NO MORRO DO BAÚ EM ILHOTA (SC)

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso Neto, Nicolau; Sabel, Hélio

    2016-01-01

    O presente artigo pretende contribuir para o entendimento sobre a responsabilidade civil objetiva em matéria ambiental. A fim de orientar a pesquisa, será analisado o caso do desastre ocorrido em novembro de 2008 na localidade do Morro do Baú, em Ilhota (SC). Assim, o objetivo deste estudo é identificar se o estado, que não age preventivamente de forma a evitar dano ou desastre, pode solidarizar-se quanto à responsabilidade civil pelos danos decorrentes de desastres. Para tanto, será estudado...

  16. Premio Sasakawa de las Naciones Unidas para la Reducción del Riesgo de Desastres

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo Madrigal, Mauren

    2015-01-01

    Compilación de información sobre el premio Sasakawa de las Naciones Unidas para la Reducción del Riesgo de Desastres, su importancia y los laureados a lo largo de su historia Compilation of information on the Sasakawa Award United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR), its importance and the laureates throughout history

  17. Premio Sasakawa de las Naciones Unidas para la Reducción del Riesgo de Desastres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidalgo Madrigal, Mauren

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Compilación de información sobre el premio Sasakawa de las Naciones Unidas para la Reducción del Riesgo de Desastres, su importancia y los laureados a lo largo de su historia Compilation of information on the Sasakawa Award United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR, its importance and the laureates throughout history

  18. O desastre na perspectiva sociológica e psicológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Favero

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem por objetivo revisar e discutir conceitos de desastre na perspectiva de autores da Sociologia e da Psicologia, no sentido de contribuir com as discussões atuais sobre a abrangência do termo. Foi utilizada revisão de literatura incluindo-se os conceitos dos principais teóricos sobre o tema. No âmbito da Sociologia a palavra desastre abrange fenômenos delimitados no tempo e no espaço, capazes de causar danos físicos, perdas, rupturas sociais e mudanças no funcionamento da rotina diária. Características como o contexto social vulnerável em que a demanda exceda a capacidade de resposta são importantes para determinar um desastre. No âmbito da Psicologia, o termo, que faz menção a eventos súbitos e com potencial traumático delimitados no tempo e no espaço, refere-se a fenômenos coletivos que geram alto grau de estresse e provocam consequências/reações psicológicas nos envolvidos. Conclui-se que, embora os conceitos sejam importantes para classificar e delimitar fronteiras, torna-se fundamental compreender o desastre dentro do contexto social, político e econômico onde ele ocorre. Essas variáveis permitem avaliar a dimensão psicossocial das suas consequências, de modo que os desastres situam-se tanto como objeto de interesse científico quanto como problema de relevância social.

  19. Estigma territorial y gentrificación post desastre 2014. El caso de las poblaciones pericentrales norte de Iquique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gricel Maria Labbé Céspedes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available La gentrificación en ciudades intermedias como Iquique, es un fenómeno incipiente. Sin embargo, la velocidad de esta dinámica ha llevado al capital inmobiliario y al gobierno local a mirar espacios históricos, devaluados debido al estigma territorial con el que cargan, así como al deterioro causado en los últimos desastres naturales, para emplazar nuevas ofertas inmobiliarias. Es por esto que el caso de las poblaciones pericentrales norte de Iquique ayuda a profundizar el estudio sobre la gentrificación en un escenario post desastre, donde los sujetos potencialmente desplazados son los habitantes más vulnerables de la ciudad. En dicho escenario, gentrificar el área post desastre representa una oportunidad para el gobierno local de hacer limpieza social, y a su vez permite a los agentes inmobiliarios capitalizar con los desastres.

  20. DE LA ATENCIÓN DEL DESASTRE A LA GESTIÓN DEL RIESGO; UNA VISIÓN DESDE LA GEOGRAFÍA

    OpenAIRE

    Barrantes Castillo, Gustavo; Márquez Reyes, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    Se revisan los aportes de la geografía en el estudio de los desastres naturales, así mismo se hace una presentación de los paradigmas que están vigentes en la disminución de las pérdidas debidas a desastres, fnalmente de evalúa el estado actual de la gestión de riesgos por desastres desde un enfoque territorial y educativo.

  1. Vulnerabilidad, pobreza y desastres 'socioculturales' en Centroamérica y El Caribe

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    Salas Serrano, Julián

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses and quantifies the relative level of risk in a geographical area that is vulnerable to natural phenomena and with a high proportion of its population in a situation of residential poverty. We deduce that the hazard in the area, composed of nine Central American and Caribbean countries, is significantly higher than the world average. The first aspect is covered in the sections Population at risk and Natural phenomena, which analyse the "study area". The second aspect is covered by Poverty in the "study area", various analyses of the physical situation in the target area, inhabited by almost 160 million people. Contrasted information is used as a basis for the concepts underpinning the extraordinary presence and seriousness of the socio-natural phenomena in this area. The interrelationship between th degree of vulnerability and poverty leads to the conclusion that these are the primary causes of disaster-related destruction, which in a 33 year period (1972 to 2005 has left an annual average of 20,000 human lives lost, 250,000 directly affected and approximately ten billion dollars in material damage.El trabajo pretende el estudio y cuantificación del riesgo relativo en una geografía física propensa a los fenómenos naturales y con una alta proporción de población en situación de pobreza habitacional, del que se deduce que el riesgo en la zona conformada por nueve países –de Centroamérica y el Caribe- es extraordinariamente superior a la media mundial. Del primer aspecto se ocupan los apartados relativos a delimitar el 'Área de Estudio': fenómenos naturales y población bajo riesgo. El segundo aspecto se aborda estudiando la situación material objetiva en la que se alojan y viven casi 160 millones de habitantes: Pobreza en el 'Área de Estudio'. En base a información contrastada se articulan los fundamentos en los que se sustenta la extraordinaria presencia y gravedad de los fenómenos 'socionaturales' en la

  2. Génesis de las contingencias catastróficas: etiopatogenia del desastre

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    Nelson Morales-Soto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El Perú ha sido repetidamente afectado por diferentes desastres que han generado extensas pérdidas vitales y materiales que interfieren con el proceso de desarrollo, donde la población pobre es la más vulnerable a estos eventos. La naturaleza puede ser la causa de muchos desastres en forma de terremotos, maremotos, erupciones volcánicas, deslizamientos, aludes, El Niño, desbordes de ríos, sequías, etc. También pueden ser provocados por el hombre en forma accidental (incendios, accidentes químicos, nucleares o de medios de transporte masivo o ser intencionales (terrorismo, guerras, y otras formas de violencia.

  3. Planeamiento urbano para la prevencion de desastres naturales en el Perú. Un asunto territorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo O'Connor Salmon

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo, se refiere a los distintos aspectos que tocan a los desastres naturales en el Perú en las últimas décadas, cuyo territorio por sus características, se ve permanentemente amenazado por innumerables riesgos que atentan contra su geografía y entre las que las ciudades sufren parte de los más importantes embates catastróficos. Por lo anterior, es que en este documento, se plantea la necesidad de una política de prevención de desastres, que permita prever y minimizar los impactos de esos desastres, destacando que ésta es una labor de todos los estamentos de la sociedad y que una forma racional de esa prevención es la herramienta de la planificación urbana y del territorio.Parte importante de esta investigación, es resultado de las innume-rables acciones acometidas tanto por el estado como por las distintas organizaciones civiles, privadas y estatales, de la República

  4. A atuação do psicólogo diante dos desastres naturais: uma revisão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Borghetti Alves

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Os desastres naturais vêm afetando cada vez mais pessoas em todo o mundo, causando muitas vezes sofrimento psicológico às populações atingidas. Diante disso, questiona-se: como o psicólogo pode atuar em relação aos desastres naturais? Este artigo objetivou analisar a produção científica no campo da psicologia, disponível em bibliotecas virtuais nacionais e internacionais no período de 2000 a 2010, acerca da atuação do psicólogo diante dos desastres naturais. Para tanto, foi realizada uma análise de conteúdo da produção bibliográfica disponível nos bancos de dados CRID, BIREME e LILACS. Dos 72 trabalhos acessados, 47,67% relacionavam-se ao tema, sendo 43,33% em língua portuguesa. Quanto às práticas descritas, verifica-se maior enfoque nas ações do pós-desastre, especificamente no tratamento de transtornos mentais, em especial no transtorno do estresse pós-traumático. A partir dos dados levantados, salienta-se a necessidade de produzir artigos e outros trabalhos científicos como forma de divulgar orientações que sejam capazes de subsidiar as ações dos psicólogos diante dos desastres naturais, não focando somente o pós-desastre, mas também ações preventivas que visem fortalecer e preparar a comunidade para enfrentar os desastres naturais.

  5. Natural Hazards Observer. Volume 24 Number 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    Spanish, see http://ops-oms.org/ve/ desastres . Natural Hazards Observer March 2000 World Bank Launches ProVention Consortium to Mitigate Disasters...and explain critical incident stress management. The booklet describes the types of emergency assistance provided by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

  6. AMEAÇAS E DESASTRES NATURAIS NA AMAZÔNIA SUL OCIDENTAL: ANÁLISE DA BACIA DO RIO PURUS

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    Denise Marini Pereira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A região Sul Ocidental da Amazônia no Brasil registra numerosos eventos hidroclimáticos extremos e desastres naturais, mas poucos trabalhos as analisam na escala de bacias hidrográficas. Com vistas a contribuir para a gestão de risco de desastres na Amazônia, esta pesquisa analisa as ameaças e os desastres naturais na bacia transfronteiriça do rio Purus. São empregados dados fluviométricos, documentos oficiais de organismos de defesa civil e informações de artigos jornalísticos para identificação, descrição e mapeamento das ameaças e desastres entre 1971 e 2012. Foram identificados 17 anos com variações hidrológicas extremas, 104 registros de desastres associados ao incremento e à intensa redução das precipitações com mais de 400.000 pessoas afetadas e danos materiais, ambientais, sociais e econômicos acima 450 milhões de Reais. As áreas mais ameaçadas são os municípios de Rio Branco (AC e Boca do Acre (AM, situadas na região do alto curso da bacia do rio Purus, e que registram as maiores populações da bacia. Concluiu-se que uma abordagem holística dos fatores e processos envolvidos numa unidade de analise como a bacia hidrográfica e a quantificação de danos e prejuízos são elementos fundamentais no subsidio as discussões acerca do planejamento e gestão de riscos de desastres na Amazônia.

  7. Introducción a la Estrategia Internacional para la Reducción de los Desastres

    OpenAIRE

    Miguélez Morán, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Este documento pretende realizar una síntesis sobre la evolución y el desarrollo de la percepción y actuación frente a los desastres por parte de la Organización de las Naciones Unidas (ONU), desde su fundación hasta la actualidad. En los años 60 del pasado siglo, los desastres únicamente eran mencionados en Resoluciones marginales, dando una prioridad absoluta a la atención tras los hechos. Con el paso de los años y el aprendizaje adquirido se ha llegado a la conclusión de que son la prevenc...

  8. Los desastres naturales en Mexicali, B.C.: Diagnóstico sobre el riesgo y la vulnerabilidad urbana

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Manuel Rodríguez Esteves

    2002-01-01

    Este trabajo expone el problema de los desastres naturales en la ciudad de Mexicali, B.C., México. Asimismo presenta una referencia sobre la importancia de su estudio en el ámbito mundial y la forma de atención de los desastres en México. Esta investigación muestra un diagnóstico sobre el riesgo y la vulnerabilidad urbana ante lluvias intensas y sismos, y concluye que en Mexicali son más frecuentes éstos que aquéllas. Además existen algunos vacíos en la legislación, especialmente en la estata...

  9. Elementos para una reinterpretación de la relación. Riesgos-desastres-damnificados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Linayo

    2010-10-01

    Dejar de entender a los desastres como fenómenos fortuitos y comenzar a interpretarlos como resultados de procesos complejos de interacción hombre-territorio, promueve un replanteamiento de la manera como los gobiernos tienden a responder ante las victimas de desastres. Se recogen aquí algunos lineamientos propios de dicho enfoque y se muestran algunos dilemas asociados a su adopción en lo que al tratamiento regional que se brinda a los damnificados se refiere.

  10. Alternativas para la medición de impactos de los desastres naturales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gu00F3mez Lu00F3pez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo corresponde a los principales aspectos analizados en desarrollo de la investigación denominada "Adaptación de una metodología de evaluación de impactos socioeconómicos de desastres naturales para Colombia", realizada con el apoyo de Colciencias y de la Fundación Universitaria del Área Andina, institución que ha venido incursionando en la temática con el fin de incorporarla sistemáticamente en los distintos programas académicos que ofrece. Inicialmente, las metodologías de intervención frente a los desastres fueron propuestas por la Organización Mundial de la Salud y por los organismos de socorro, como la Cruz Roja y la Defensa Civil, ya que se trataba de atender víctimas. En la medida en que se ha venido comprendiendo que, además de atender víctimas, se necesita restablecer las condiciones de desarrollo perdidas de las personas afectadas y que las víctimas son ciudadanos con derechos económicos, sociales y políticos, el tema se amplía a otros campos, lo cual pone de presente la necesidad de metodologías más comprensivas e integrales, que involucren la atención de emergencia, la atención posterior de rehabilitación, la reconstrucción y la prevención frente a futuros eventos que puedan causar nuevos desastres.

  11. GALERAS: AVANCES Y RETOS DE LA SITUACIÓN DE DESASTRE

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    Dorado G. Lina Marlene

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available El volcán Galeras es considerado como el más activo de Colombia. En los últimos 17 años de vigilancia permanente, las erupciones presentadas por el volcán se han catalogado como pequeñas. En la zona de amenaza alta habitan 7.935 personas que deben ser evacuadas cada vez que el nivel de actividad del volcán es II “erupción probable en término de días o semanas”. Por primera vez en Colombia, se declaró una situación de desastre antes de que ésta ocurra. El 15 de Noviembre de 2005, mediante Decreto 4106, el Gobierno Nacional declaró la existencia de una situación de desastre en los municipios de Pasto, Nariño y La Florida del departamento de Nariño, por considerar que en estos municipios, se estaba presentando una alteración grave de las condiciones normales de vida de los habitantes, ante una probable erupción del volcán Galeras. El presente trabajo muestra los avances y retos del manejo de la emergencia y los analiza con el modelo de presión y liberación de los desastres (PAR; este análisis es una reflexión sobre las dificultades, los aspectos positivos y por mejorar, los avances y retos para el manejo de evacuaciones tan prolongadas como las realizadas en la zona de amenaza alta del volcán Galeras.

  12. Alternativas para la medición de impactos de los desastres naturales

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Gu00F3mez Lu00F3pez

    2007-01-01

    El presente artículo corresponde a los principales aspectos analizados en desarrollo de la investigación denominada "Adaptación de una metodología de evaluación de impactos socioeconómicos de desastres naturales para Colombia", realizada con el apoyo de Colciencias y de la Fundación Universitaria del Área Andina, institución que ha venido incursionando en la temática con el fin de incorporarla sistemáticamente en los distintos programas académicos que ofrece. Inicialmente, las metodologías de...

  13. Versões de vulnerabilidade em artigos científicos brasileiros sobre desastres ambientais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Henrique da Mata Martins

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nesta pesquisa, analisamos versões de vulnerabilidade em artigos científicos brasileiros sobre desastres ambientais. Para alcançar esse objetivo, realizamos uma revisão bibliográfica da literatura disponível em uma base de dados especializada em desastres e saúde e uma revisão reticulada da bibliografia encontrada. Em seguida, descrevemos o conteúdo dos artigos, identificamos os repertórios linguísticos de vulnerabilidade que utilizam e as versões de vulnerabilidade que esses repertórios produzem. Nossos resultados mostram que parte dos artigos não define com clareza o que é vulnerabilidade, mas especificam ou associam as áreas do saber habilitadas a falar sobre o assunto, rotulam pessoas como vulneráveis e hierarquizam vulnerabilidades pelo uso de instrumentos de medição e quantificação. Concluímos que é necessário discutir as formas pelas quais a literatura científica tem produzido versões de vulnerabilidade a partir de repertórios linguísticos de modo a promover diálogos entre campos de saber.

  14. Percepción social y respuesta institucional frente al desastre de Tierradentro, Colombia

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    Laura Astrid Ramírez Elizalde

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available En junio de 1994, un sismo sacudió el suroccidente de Colombia, el cual, sumado a las fuertes lluvias y a las condiciones geofísicas de la zona de Tierradentro, desencadenó una serie de avalanchas, generando un evento complejo que dejó más de mil muertos y una severa destrucción de viviendas y cultivos, cuyos afectados fueron, en su mayoría, indígenas nasa. Este artículo analiza, bajo un enfoque histórico y territorial, cómo se gestó la respuesta institucional frente al desastre de Tierradentro, y cómo esta respuesta se articuló con la percepción social del desastre que tuvo la comunidad afectada y los medios de comunicación. Para responder a esta pregunta se siguió una metodología que vinculó etnografía, cartografía social y revisión de archivo.

  15. La odontología forense en la identificación de víctimas de grandes desastres.

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Villa, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    El propósito de este Trabajo Fin de Máster es el de estudiar cómo la odontología forense ha contribuido en la identificación de víctimas en 10 desastres seleccionados, ocurridos en los últimos 40 años.

  16. Desastre y Memoria Material: La Inundacion 2003 de Santa Fe, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susann Baez Ullberg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available On April 29, 2003, a catastrophic flood occurred in the Argentina city of Santa Fe de la Vera Cruz. Soon, the disaster became a political issue, as they had made serious accusations against the authorities and decision makers regarding negligence, corruption and lack of disaster preparedness. A local protest movement emerged, claiming both the allocation of responsibilities and financial compensation for the losses suffered by the victims. This article analyses the role of material memory and oblivion on the post disaster scene, more specifically, how different social actors in Santa Fe used places and objects in the contentious making of a disaster memoryscape. The analysis is based on ethnography from transtemporal translocal and field research conducted in Santa Fe between 2004 and 2011, and applies anthropological and sociological theories of memory to analyse these processes. Resumen El 29 de abril de 2003, ocurrió la peor inundación catastrófica en la historia de la ciudad argentina de Santa Fe de la Vera Cruz. Al poco tiempo, el desastre se convirtió en una cuestión política, ya que se habían realizado graves acusaciones contra las autoridades y tomadores de decisiones con respecto a la negligencia, la corrupción y la falta de preparación para desastres. Surgió un movimiento de protesta demandando tanto la asignación de responsabilidades, como la compensación económica por las pérdidas sufridas por las víctimas. Este artículo analiza el papel de la memoria material y el olvido en el escenario del posdesastre, y más específicamente cómo los diferentes actores sociales en Santa Fe usaron los lugares y los objetos en una contienda por construir un memo-paisaje del desastre. El análisis se basa en etnografía de trabajo de campo translocal y transtemporal realizado en Santa Fe entre 2004 y 2011, y aplica las teorías antropológicas y sociológicas de la memoria a fines de analizar estos procesos.

  17. La alfabetización informacional desde una perspectiva global: el desastre agudiza nuestras mentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Byrne

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La alfabetización informacional (Alfin resulta crucial para todas las personas, tal y como se ha demostrado dramáticamente tanto en tiempos de desastre como en épocas más normales. Sus múltiples dimensiones han sido tratadas ampliamente en la literatura biblioteconómica y definidas por medio de normas en varios países. La aplicación de estos conceptos en la práctica presenta retos logísticos y de recursos que tenemos que afrontar si queremos contribuir a una sociedad global de la información más justa y más capacitada.

  18. MAPEAMENTO DE PERNAMBUCO FRENTE AOS DESASTRES NATURAIS - UMA ANÁLISE SOCIOECONÔMICA

    OpenAIRE

    de Lira Borges, Maria Alice; da Silva, Hernande Pereira; Romão Caldas, Karina Francine

    2016-01-01

    É perceptível que os desastres naturais afetam a produção e o nível de riqueza das regiões que sofrem com esses eventos. Nos últimos anos, essas catástrofes assolaram diferentes regiões do mundo. Além de afetar a economia não só no capital físico, mas também no capital humano. Saber quantificar a magnitude desse problema é importante para existir um melhor planejamento de como evitar tais catástrofes e evitar tantas perdas a sociedade. O artigo teve como base a correlação de dados socioeconôm...

  19. La visión ilustrada de los desastres naturales en Lima durante el siglo XVIII

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    Carlos Guillermo Carcelén Reluz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante el siglo XVIII, Perú fue afectado por una serie de desastres naturales y epidemias que mermaron tanto la población como la producción agrícola. El artículo analiza tres casos: el período recurrente de frío extremo en los meses de invierno desde 1714 hasta 1720, que posibilitó una gran epidemia que asoló el sur de los Andes; el terremoto de 1746 en Lima, que marcó un hito en la sociedad, debido a la magnitud de su destrucción, y el fenómeno de 'el niño' (o ENSO de 1791 a 1794, uno de los que más daños generó, sobretodo en la costa norte del país.

  20. La visión ilustrada de los desastres naturales en Lima durante el siglo XVIII

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    Carcelén Reluz Carlos Guillermo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Durante el siglo XVIII, Perú fue afectado por una serie de desastres naturales y epidemias que mermaron tanto la población como la producción agrícola. El artículo analiza tres casos: el período recurrente de frío extremo en los meses de invierno desde 1714 hasta 1720, que posibilitó una gran epidemia que asoló el sur de los Andes; el terremoto de 1746 en Lima, que marcó un hito en la sociedad, debido a la magnitud de su destrucción, y el fenómeno de ‘el niño’ (o ENSO de 1791 a 1794, uno de los que más daños generó, sobretodo en la costa norte del país.

  1. Histórico ambiental: desastres ambientais e o despertar de um novo pensamento

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    Crisla Maciel Pott

    Full Text Available Resumo A Revolução Industrial ocorrida no final do século XVIII foi ponto de partida para grandes mudanças no planeta. Como consequência da alteração das atividades produtivas, anos depois, desastres ambientais ocorreram causando milhares de mortes e chamando atenção, a partir do final da década de 1960, para a necessidade de reformas no sistema produtivo e de consumo. Através de uma revisão bibliográfica, este trabalho se propôs a discorrer a respeito desses desastres ambientais, suas causas e consequências, tais como o desencadeamento da movimentação mundial em termos de percepção das questões ambientais. Tal movimentação deu origem às conferências realizadas por entidades e chefes de Estado, com vistas a encontrar uma forma de conciliar a economia com a conservação do meio ambiente, para a manutenção do equilíbrio dos ecossistemas, e na busca da garantia de qualidade da saúde da população mundial. Através de cinquenta anos de história relatada ao longo do texto, chega-se à atualidade com mudanças significativas no que tange à questão ambiental, tida ainda, atualmente, como um obstáculo para o crescimento econômico, apesar dos contínuos esforços dedicados à mudança desse paradigma.

  2. La guerra como desastre. Sus consecuencias psicológicas War as a disaster. Its psychological consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Liuba Yamila Peña Galbán; Arnaldo Espíndola Artola; Jorge Cardoso Hernández; Tomás González Hidalgo

    2007-01-01

    En más de 100 conflictos bélicos que se han producido en los últimos diez años, más del 80 por ciento de las víctimas son civiles. Se ha producido un desarrollo acelerado en las investigaciones concernientes a las consecuencias psico-sociales de la guerra en la población civil, la cual es el blanco principal de las víctimas en la guerra contemporánea. Este trabajo constituye una revisión bibliográfica sobre la guerra como desastre, acerca de los conceptos “modernos” de “guerra total”, desastr...

  3. Reflexiones sobre la educación de la prevención del riesgo a desastres Costa Rica

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    Jeannette Arauz Muñoz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta en este artículo una reflexión sobre la importancia de la educación para la prevención de riesgos a desastres en el sistema educativo nacional. Se parte de la lectura y análisis de textos básicos y consulta en Internet sobre esta temática. Además, se hizo la revisión de conceptos relacionados con la educación, riesgos, desastres y, desarrollo sostenible, entre otros. Está dividido en una introducción, donde se exponen las principales razones de por qué es importante la preparación de los educandos y educadores en esta materia; luego se presenta una base conceptual y de último se mencionan algunos logros de la inserción de los riesgos a desastres en el sistema educativo nacional. También se expresan algunas ideas para contribuir a la reflexión final de la necesidad de la formación de una cultura de prevención o de la seguridad en el contexto educativo costarricense.

  4. Los animales y la gestión del riesgo de desastre

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    Morales Yglesias, Eugenia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Los animales juegan un papel fundamental en la vida de las personas, pues forman parte del sustento económico, emocional y componente esencial de la seguridad alimentaria de millones de familias en todo el mundo. Sin embargo, rara vez se consideran al diseñar los procesos de gestión del riesgo de desastre. Este artículo recopila las experiencias recientes de Protección Animal Mundial en la integración de los animales en la gestión integral del riesgo, desde tres perspectivas: enfoque gubernamental, en el ámbito nacional; enfoque comunitario y un enfoque de concienciación pública. Antes de detallar los ejemplos, se realizará una contextualización del papel de los animales para la humanidad, tanto desde una perspectiva económica como social. Además, se describirá cómo los animales son visualizados en el nuevo marco de acción para la reducción del riesgo de desastres y el concepto de resiliencia. Finalmente, se integra el concepto de bienestar animal, que es un pilar fundamental en cualquier esfuerzo que busque mejorar las condiciones de los animales. En los casos de estudio se presenta el ejemplo de la creación de un fondo específico para la atención de los animales en el caso de los desastres, por parte del gobierno de Costa Rica. Desde un enfoque comunitario se destaca el proyecto realizado por Protección Animal Mundial en Aldama en Chihuahua, México donde se colaboró con los ganaderos locales para ayudarles a enfrentar la sequía. Finalmente, se detallará un proceso de concienciación pública cuyo objetivo fue crear una cultura de preparación entre los costarricenses dueños de mascotas / Animals play a key role in people´s lives, they provide emotional and financial support, and are an essential component of food security for millions of families around the world. However, they are rarely considered in the design of disaster risk management processes. This article compiles the recent experiences of World Animal

  5. Diagnóstico Meteorológico dos Desastres Naturais Ocorridos nos Últimos 20 Anos na Cidade de Duque de Caxias

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    Priscila da Cunha Luz Barcellos

    Full Text Available Resumo Este trabalho buscou auxiliar o planejamento de ações, medidas preventivas e mitigadoras, a desastres naturais para a Defesa Civil da cidade de Duque de Caxias, e utilizou a Classificação e Codificação Brasileira de Desastres (COBRADE para identificação de 35 desastres naturais ocorridos entre os anos de 1996 a 2015, onde 74% desses eventos ocorreram entre os meses de novembro e fevereiro, sendo 20% ocorridos no ano de 2009. Para diagnosticar os sistemas meteorológicos, foram utilizados o Boletim de Climanálise do Centro de Previsão do Tempo de Estudos Climáticos – CPTEC, onde 57% dos desastres foram associados à Zona de Convergência do Atlântico Sul (ZCAS, 29% a passagem de frentes frias e 14% a áreas de instabilidade local. Objetivando subsidiar a confecção dos protocolos de acionamento de sirenes, foram analisadas a espacialização da precipitação ocorrida em 116 pluviômetros. Os resultados mostram que, para eventos de ZCAS, a faixa de maior frequência de acumulados diários de chuva variou entre 10 e 50 mm nas 24 h antecedentes, e entre 60 e 110 mm no dia do desastre. Para frentes frias, os acumulados variaram entre 40 e 110 mm, e para áreas de instabilidade entre 30 e 95 mm.

  6. Molduras de uma tragédia anunciada: enquadramentos do desastre de Mariana

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    Rafael Cardoso Sampaio

    Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo busca analisar a diversidade de enquadramentos disponíveis nos media sobre a tragédia de Mariana. Baseados na noção de enquadramento de Entman (1993 e de diversidade de enquadramentos de Porto (2007, propomos uma análise de conteúdo das matérias apresentadas em uma mescla de veículos, de forma a englobar um meio local (Estado de Minas, três portais dedicados exclusivamente ao jornalismo online (G1, R7, Uol e três outros veículos de abrangência nacional (Folha de S. Paulo, O Estado de S. Paulo, O Globo em uma amostra de conveniência que busca avaliar a repercussão imediata e, também, subsequente. Nossa análise revela uma cobertura que privilegiou as fontes oficiais, dando pouco espaço à perspectiva das pessoas afetadas pelo desastre ou ainda de “interesse público”.

  7. Intervención municipal en la gestión del riesgo por desastre

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    Romero Vargas, Lorena

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available El documento describe el papel que tienen las municipalidades, como actores sociales, en la reducción del riesgo por desastre a corto, mediano y largo plazo. Señala que no existe a nivel municipal una política establecida al respecto, no obstante, se puede realizar una intervención correctiva y prospectiva dentro de las potencialidades y limitaciones existentes. Expone acciones que se pueden ejecutar desde el quehacer cotidiano municipal, las cuales pueden llevarse en paralelo a procesos, programas, proyectos o actividades que se realizan The document describes the role of the municipalities as social actors in the risk reduction by disasters at short, medium and long term. It indicates that at the municipal level there is not a policy established in this regard; nevertheless, there could be a corrective and prospective intervention within the existing potentiality and limitations. It presents actions that can be executed from the daily operation of the municipality and that can be developed in parallel processes, programs, projects or activities

  8. Ação e reação: Intervenções urbanas e a atuação das instituições no pós-desastre em Blumenau (Brasil

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    Pedro R Jacobi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Em novembro de 2008, no Vale do Itajaí, na Região Sul do Brasil, ocorreu um desastre associado à precipitação extrema de chuvas, que atingiu 1,5 milhões de pessoas, com 135 mortos e cerca de 80.000 desabrigados e desalojados. Após o evento, algumas intervenções foram propostas no Município de Blumenau, tais como, a urbanização da margem do Rio Itajaí-açu, na área central da cidade. O artigo aborda essa proposta de intervenção, a partir das discussões sobre o planejamento territorial pós-desastre e a atuação das instituições na gestão dos recursos naturais e do espaço urbano. O caso mostra que, apesar da necessária reflexão sobre o padrão da ocupação urbana, os desastres tornamse oportunidades para intervenções com caráter de exceção e emergência, sem o devido planejamento e discussão sobre os impactos nos sistemas sociais e ecológicos. A frágil governança deu origem a um conflito entre a Prefeitura Municipal e instituições e atores organizados em torno da proteção ambiental e dos recursos hídricos, o que levou a impasses na intervenção emergencial.In November 2008, in the Itajai Valley in the South Region of Brazil, a disaster occurred with extreme of precipitation affecting 1.5 million people, with 135 dead and around 80,000 displaced or homeless. Afier the event, interventions were proposed in the City of Blumenau such as the urbanization on the margin of the Itajai-açu river in the central area. The paper addresses this intervention within the context of discussions on post disaster territorial planning and institutional performance in natural resource management and urban space. This case shows that despite the necessary reflection on the pattern of urban occupation, disasters become opportunities for interventions characterized as exceptions and emergency, without an adequate planning and discussion about the impacts of the social and ecological systems. The fragile governance resulted in a

  9. Potencial uso de la logística focalizada en sistemas logísticos de atención de desastres. Un análisis conceptual

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo José González Rodríguez; Dusko Kalenatic; Feizar Javier Rueda Velasco; César Amílcar López Bello

    2012-01-01

    La logística focalizada ha sido desarrollada para responder a entornos asimétricos, inseguros y muy variables, propios de los escenarios militares actuales, sin embargo estos escenarios comparten muchas características con los generados por los desastres naturales, por lo que el propósito de este artículo es mostrar desde la perspectiva conceptual como se podría aplicar la logística focalizada a la operación de los sistemas logísticos de atención de desastres. Para esto se parte del análisis ...

  10. Usos e aplicações de novas TIC´S na gestão de desastres naturais

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    Julia Bellia Margoto

    Full Text Available RESUMO Trata-se de um ensaio teórico cujo objetivo é apresentar possibilidades de usos e aplicações de novas Tecnologias da Informação e Comunicação (TICs, na gestão de desastres naturais, especialmente a partir da perspectiva das redes sociais e do crowdsourcing. Para isso, enfatizam-se os exemplos de tais aplicações realizadas no contexto do terremoto ocorrido no Haiti em 2010. Imediatamente após o desastre, de elevada magnitude, o uso de ferramentas de crowdsourcing baseadas em novas TICs possibilitou a participação de voluntários localizados em diferentes partes do planeta, além da colaboração da população local em inúmeras atividades de resposta como: a construção de mapas, a localização de demandas de atendimento pelas organizações humanitárias, além de ações voltadas para a reconstrução do país. Apesar de ainda possuírem algumas limitações, estes usos e aplicações são capazes de abrir novos caminhos comunicacionais em situações de desastres naturais, oferecendo uma consciência situacional agregada, aumentando a rede de voluntários envolvida nas ações de resposta e ampliando as possibilidades de assistência às vítimas.

  11. Desastres naturales, rogativas públicas y santos protectores en la Nueva Granada (siglos XVIII y XIX

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    Juan Carlos Jurado Jurado

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available ¿Como eran enfrentados los desastres naturales en los siglos XVIII y XIX, cuando no existían los mecanismos institucionales que hoy conocemos bajo el moderno concepto de la 'prevención de desastres', con todo su sistema de ayudas tecnológicas, médicas e institucionales? Los desastres se asemejan a las enfermedades, al ser un elemento de desorganización social y un factor de temido desarreglo para la vida cotidiana, por lo que permiten hacer visibles las articulaciones internas de una sociedad y las tensiones que la atraviesan. Son un punto privilegiado para percibir el significado de mecanismos administrativos y prácticas religiosas en torno a fenómenos que vulneran una comunidad, así como la imagen que una sociedad tiene de sí misma. A pesar de que los archivos coloniales y republicanos poseen información dispersa sobre el tema, es posible identificar la manera como se sucedían con recurrencia fuertes temporadas de invierno que obstaculizaban el comercio y la movilización de personas y mercancías. Los documentos históricos también permiten conocer la ocurrencia de tempestades, granizadas, inundaciones, largas temporadas de sequía, vendavales, erupciones volcánicas, terremotos y deslizamientos de tierra y lodo. que podían arrasar cultivos, animales del campo y poblaciones enteras. Al hecho de que sucedieran estos eventos, contribuían las acciones humanas de intervención sobre los paisajes naturales.

  12. TELEVISIÓN EDUCATIVA Y DESASTRES NATURALES: ESCOLARES CHILENOS Y SUS PROFESORAS VALORAN USO DEL VIDEO EDUCATIVO EN EL AULA

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    Carolina Rodríguez Malebrán

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El uso del video educativo como recurso didáctico ha permitido complementar el aprendizaje del estudiantado y apoyar el trabajo de los y las docentes. Si bien, en internet existen numerosos sitios especializados con videos educativos que pueden ser utilizados por los profesores y las profesoras en sus clases, la gran mayoría de estos recursos no han sido valorados por su principal público: estudiantes y docentes. El presente artículo describe la valoración que estudiantes de sexto año básico de la escuela pública David León Tapia, de la localidad de Tongoy en Chile, realizaron del video educativo “Benvoy y las hormigas”, que busca apoyar el aprendizaje del alumnado sobre los desastres naturales, sus causas, consecuencias y prevención. Para ello se solicitó a 27 alumnos y alumnas que contestaran una encuesta, luego de haber observado el video educativo dentro de su sala de clases, posteriormente se aplicaron entrevistas semiestructuradas a las docentes del curso. Se les consultó por preferencias de contenidos, tipos de recursos para el aprendizaje y relación con su entorno. Podemos concluir que la mayoría de los y las estudiantes que participaron en la encuesta indicaron que el video “Benvoy y las hormigas” les había ayudado a comprender los desastres naturales, calificándolo positivamente. Sobre los contenidos, los y las escolares mostraron preferencia por los capítulos sobre la prevención y normas de seguridad que se deben tomar ante desastres naturales y, en segundo lugar, las causas y consecuencias de los tsunamis. Las docentes, por su parte, destacaron la trama y la relación de los personajes con la vida cotidiana de los estudiantes.

  13. LOS DESASTRES NATURALES Y LOS MEDIOS EN COLOMBIA: ¿INFORMACIÓN PARA LA PREVENCIÓN?

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    Hermelin Daniel

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia se ha estudiado poco la relación entre la sociedad y el tratamiento que hacen los medios de comunicación de los desastres naturales. Este es un objeto de estudio que le concierne el campo de investigación denominado comunicación de las ciencias. En este sentido, se necesitan enfoques transdiscplinarios que permitan entender las condiciones de producción de la información, la construcción mediática de los acontecimientos y las percepciones y apropiaciones por parte del público Algunos estudios han mostrado que hay una tendencia en los medios colombianos a detenerse en la descripción detallada de los acontecimientos, y poco en las explicaciones sobre sus causas y consecuencias, desde la perspectiva de los científicos y los expertos. Explicaciones que cuando aparecen son limitadas, o incluso se intercalan con las de carácter sobrenatural. Las aproximaciones sobre la recepción de la información son necesarias, de manera que no se entienda el tratamiento de este tipo de acontecimientos como simples manipulaciones por parte de los medios. Se ha mostrado cómo el público también elige, en la medida en que sus imaginarios son cercanos a los imaginarios “propuestos” por los medios, en relación con los desastres naturales. Pero, si bien son claras las responsabilidades de las autoridades y de la sociedad civil a este respecto, lo anterior no elude sino que invita a la discusión sobre las responsabilidades de los medios de comunicación colombianos en la prevención de los desastres naturales.

  14. LOS DESASTRES NATURALES Y LOS MEDIOS EN COLOMBIA: ¿INFORMACIÓN PARA LA PREVENCIÓN?

    OpenAIRE

    Hermelin Daniel

    2008-01-01

    En Colombia se ha estudiado poco la relación entre la sociedad y el tratamiento que hacen los medios de comunicación de los desastres naturales. Este es un objeto de estudio que le concierne el campo de investigación denominado comunicación de las ciencias. En este sentido, se necesitan enfoques transdiscplinarios que permitan entender las condiciones de producción de la información, la construcción mediática de los acontecimientos y las percepciones y apropiaciones por parte del público ...

  15. Biossegurança e desastres: conceitos, prevenção, saúde pública e manejo de cadáveres Biosecurity and disaster: concepts, prevention, public health and management of corpses

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    Telma Abdalla de Oliveira Cardoso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute a complexidade dos desastres, realçando situações de risco e a essencialidade do suporte da Biossegurança, uma vez que, em episódios com vítimas fatais, os procedimentos formulados por este campo devem ser adotados no manejo de cadáveres, sobretudo quando da ocorrência de soterramento com busca de corpos. Contextualiza a magnitude dos desastres caracterizados pelas chuvas e suas consequências (deslizamentos, soterramento, enfatizando o fenômeno do aquecimento global e as mudanças climáticas e seus impactos sobre as comunidades, em especial as mais pobres, valorizando a análise do conceito de vulnerabilidade a partir do cenário da urbanização, da degradação do meio ambiente causada pelo manejo inadequado dos recursos naturais, da contaminação ambiental, das políticas públicas ineficientes, sublinhando o baixo investimento em infraestrutura. Sublinha o conceito de desastre como fenômeno imprevisível, súbito e violento, que causa grande número de mortos e destruição. Enfatiza as problemáticas sociais, sanitárias, jurídicas e operacionais quando do registro de um número elevado mortes ocorridas ao mesmo tempo ou em curto espaço de tempo. Traz para a análise a contribuição da Biossegurança como orientadora dos planos de emergência voltados para os desastres, realçando o risco biológico e as medidas necessárias para o manejo de cadáveres.The paper discusses the complexity of disasters, enhancing risk situations and the importance of support from Biosecurity, as in episodes with fatalities, procedures formulated by this field should be adopted in the handling of corpses, particularly when occurring with search of buried bodies. It contextualizes the magnitude of the disaster characterized by rain and its aftermath (landslides, burying, emphasizing the phenomenon of global warming and climate change and its impacts on communities, especially the poorest, valuing the concept analysis of

  16. Vulnerabilidade socioambiental, redução de riscos de desastres e construção da resiliência: lições do terremoto no Haiti e das chuvas fortes na Região Serrana, Brasil Socio-environmental vulnerability, disaster risk-reduction and resilience-building: lessons from the earthquake in Haiti and torrential rains in the mountain range close to Rio de Janeiro in Brazil

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    Carlos Machado de Freitas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Dados sobre desastres no mundo apontam para uma maior gravidade nos países com menores níveis de desenvolvimento econômico e social. Neste contexto, políticas de redução de riscos de desastres e construção da resiliência constituem prioridades na agenda do desenvolvimento sustentável, estando entre os temas eleitos para a Rio+20. O objetivo deste artigo é, através de uma contribuição de natureza conceitual e dos exemplos de desastres em países com níveis de desenvolvimento diferentes, o terremoto do Haiti e as chuvas fortes na Região Serrana (Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, demonstrar como a vulnerabilidade socioambiental cria condições para os desastres, ao mesmo tempo em que limita as estratégias para prevenção e mitigação. Ao final são apontados alguns dos desafios que a redução de riscos de desastres e a construção da resiliência exigem em contextos de vulnerabilidade socioambiental, o que inclui mudanças nos padrões de desenvolvimento social, econômico e ambiental orientados para a sustentabilidade ecológica e a justiça social como pilares do desenvolvimento sustentável.Data on disasters around the world reveal greater seriousness in countries with lower social and economic development levels. In this context, disaster risk-reduction and resilience-building policies are priorities in the sustainable development agenda, featuring among the topics selected for the Rio+20 Summit. By means of a contribution of a conceptual nature and from examples of disasters in countries with different development levels, namely the Haiti earthquake and the torrential rains in the mountain range close to Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, the scope of this article is to demonstrate how socio-environmental vulnerability creates conditions for disasters, while at the same time limiting strategies for their prevention and mitigation. Lastly, some of the measures that disaster risk reduction and resilience-building demand in a socio

  17. Compilación y análisis de los desastres naturales reportados en el departamento de Antioquia, exceptuando los municipios del Valle de Aburrá-Colombia, entre 1920-1999 Compilación y análisis de los desastres naturales reportados en el departamento de Antioquia, exceptuando los municipios del Valle de Aburrá-Colombia, entre 1920-1999

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    Camilo Polanco

    2005-04-01

    étera. Las pérdidas económicas fueron aproximadamente de unos 25.000 millones de pesos colombianos (a pesos del año 2000, cifra bastante baja si se compara con la gran cantidad de desastres naturales (1.701 reportados entre 1.920 y 1.999This paper is a compilation and analysis of the available information about natural disasters reported in the department of Antioquia (Colombia, excepting the municipalities of the Aburr´a Valley, from 1894 to 1999, using a software named DesInventar. A total of 1.701 disasters were reported for 115 municipalities. 45% corresponded to landslides, 17% to floods, 15% to flashfloods, 7% to earthquakes and the last 16% to others disasters like hailstorms, storms, tidal waves, forest fire, soil liquefaction, hurricanes, drought, frost, urban fires, mud eruptions, rockfalls and stream erosion. 1.233 people died, 99.100 persons and 1.418 families were affected. Death toll due to landslides was 58%, followed by flashfloods with 25%, 17% by floods, others with 2% and earthquakes with 1%. 13.106 houses were affected and 835 destroyed. Earthquakes were responsible for 48% of houses damages, 31% were destroyed by floods and 12% by landslides. Houses destruction was 37%, 36% y 10% in that order and the last 5% due to flash floods. Natural disasters trend is increasing as well as their human and infrastructure effects; the two main causes are the hydrometeorological phenomenon like rainfall and human activities like poor land management, deforestation, overgrazing, urban expansion without planning. The economic losses were approximately of Col $25.000 millions (prices for year 2000. This cost is very low if it is compared with the total number of natural disasters (1.701 reported between 1920 and 1999.

  18. Resignificación de la experiencia de vida en adultos mayores afectados por tres tipos de desastre en Chile

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    Christian Arriagada Díaz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo desarrolla un análisis sobre los efectos que tienen en un grupo de adultos mayores chilenos, tres tipos de desastres. Dichos eventos, generan una resignificación de la experiencia de vida en los adultos mayores, en cuanto se presentan como eventos disruptivos que afectan su existencia y su posición en el mundo. De esta manera, surge la resignificación de sus redes y sentidos de vida. Por medio de un análisis de contenido, y utilizando algunos de los aportes del método comparativo constante, se analizan los discursos de los adultos mayores afectados por tres tipos de desastres: contaminación ambiental, terremoto y erupción volcánica. Los resultados nos invitan a observar los procesos de resignificación valorativa que se producen a raíz de estos eventos disruptivos. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs160174

  19. “Lo del agua al agua”: desarrollo y desastre en la Zona Metropolitana del Valle de México

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    Oscar Adán Castillo Oropeza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN En este artículo se discute sobre la idea de desarrollo y desastre, a partir del crecimiento de la Zona Metropolitana del Valle de México. Se analiza que la formación sociohistórica de ese proceso de metropolización, implica una disputa por el espacio y el manejo del agua. Asimismo, se establece la relación entre el entubamiento del agua, los hundimientos y las inundaciones, como parte del escenario de riesgo-desastre en este lugar. Así, concluimos que dicho contexto es a consecuencia de la idea de desarrollo que posibilitó el surgimiento de un tipo de ciudad heredada y depredadora del ambiente, la cual actualmente sufre sus consecuencias, como las constantes inundaciones. ABSTRACT This article discusses the idea of development and disaster, from the growth of the Metropolitan Area of the Valley of Mexico. It analyzes the socio historical formation of the urbanization process involves a dispute over space and water management. Furthermore, the relationship between the piping of water, subsidence and flooding, as part of disaster-risk scenario here is established. Thus, we conclude that this context is a consequence of the idea of development that enabled the emergence of a type of inherited and environmental predatory city, which is currently suffering its consequences as constant flooding.

  20. Mauricio Onetto Pavez (2017. Temblores de tierra en el jardín del Edén. Desastre, memoria e identidad. Chile, siglos XVI-XVIII

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    Melina López Calvo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Reseña bibliográfica: Mauricio Onetto Pavez (2017. Temblores de tierra en el jardín del Edén. Desastre, memoria e identidad. Chile, siglos XVI-XVIII. Ediciones de la Dirección de Bibliotecas, Archivos y Museos. 2017. Santiago, Chile. El patrimonio de Chile. Centro de investigaciones Diego Barros Arana

  1. Percepción de riesgo de desastre en la Escuela de Geografía de la Universidad de Costa Rica

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    Vargas Navarro, Johnny

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de apoyar la gestión de riesgo de desastres dentro del campus universitario Rodrigo Facio de la Universidad de Costa Rica, y facilitar la definición de acciones de prevención y mitigación ante eventualidades de esa índole, se realizó un estudio preliminar de la percepción del riesgo entre docentes y estudiantes de la Escuela de Geografía. Se aplicó una encuesta que incluyó un total de 60 personas, quienes dieron a conocer el tipo y grado de riesgos a los que ellos se consideran expuestos, lo mismo que el espacio físico en que se desempeñan. Los resultados obtenidos, muestran que los eventos geológicos (regionales y tecnológicos (locales son considerados como los de mayor peligro de afectación To support disasters risk management within the University of Costa Rica, Rodrigo Facio campus, and to facilitate the definition of prevention and mitigation actions in case of events of this nature, a preliminary study about risk perception among professors and students of the Geography Faculty was developed. They applied a survey to 60 people who expressed the type and degree of risks to which they consider they are exposed to and the physical space in which they develop. The results obtained prove that the geological events (regional and technological (local are considered the ones of the highest affectation risk

  2. Preparação da assistência farmacêutica para desastres: um estudo em cinco municípios brasileiros

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    Paula Pimenta-de-Souza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Uma série de municípios brasileiros foram acometidos por desastres nos últimos anos. Neste sentido, os gestores precisam investir na preparação para mitigar o impacto dos eventos e aliviar o dano causado. A preparação para desastres deve ser realizada em diversos frentes, inclusive no setor saúde, em que se insere a assistência farmacêutica. Objetivou-se descrever e analisar a preparação da assistência farmacêutica para desastres em municípios recentemente acometidos por desastres. Para tal, foi realizado um estudo com desenho transversal em cinco municípios brasileiros, em duas regiões do país. Foram analisadas fontes documentais, matérias jornalísticas e bases de dado de acesso público, além de entrevistas a atores-chave da AF através de um instrumento baseado em um modelo lógico e indicadores. Foram identificadas poucas medidas de preparação da assistência farmacêutica nos municípios estudados. Ainda que o histórico dos municípios esteja ligado a eventos que redundaram em desastres, a gestão municipal da assistência farmacêutica não foi capaz de preparar-se. Espera-se que a apresentação da experiência desses municípios favoreça a preparação da assistência farmacêutica em outros municípios do país.

  3. Espacio urbano y riesgo de desastres: la expansión de las urbanizaciones cerradas sobre áreas inundables de Tigre (Argentina Urban space and risk of disasters: the expansions of gated communities on Tigre's flood-prone areas (Argentina

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    Diego Ríos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El crecimiento espacial de las ciudades y de los llamados desastres "naturales" son dos temas que adquieren cada vez mayor notoriedad a nivel mundial. El trabajo parte de considerar a ambos fenómenos como productos sociales, por lo que intenta avanzar en el conocimiento sobre la articulación entre producción social del espacio urbano y de riesgo de desastres, a partir de un estudio de caso: la expansión de las urbanizaciones cerradas ocurrida desde fines del siglo XX sobre áreas inundables de Tigre (Argentina.Urban growth and the increase of so-called "natural" disasters are two topics which are getting more and more notorious worldwide. This work considers both phenomena as social outcomes, advancing the knowledge about the articulation between the social production of urban space and the risk of disasters from a case study: the expansions of gated communities since the end of the XX century on the flood prone areas of the River Tigre in Argentina.

  4. Prevención, diagnóstico y tratamiento de infecciones pediátricas en desastres naturales

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    Flavia Morán

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El objetivo de esta revisión es brindar pautas sobre el diagnóstico, tratamiento y prevención de las enfermedades infecciosas más frecuentes en niños, en situaciones de desastres naturales, como las inundaciones y huaicos ocurridos en el verano del 2017 en Perú. Está dirigido a los médicos y personal de salud del primer nivel de atención. Se discute el manejo de las enfermedades diarreicas, respiratorias, de piel y ojos, enfermedades asociadas a vectores como el dengue, chikungunya y zika, y zoonosis como la leptospirosis. Se enfatiza en los aspectos básicos de la educación sanitaria a la población, sobre todo en las medidas preventivas como el uso de agua segura, lactancia materna, inmunizaciones, lavado de manos y el control de vectores.

  5. Redes sociales como fuentes de información en la gestión del riesgo de desastres

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    Hidalgo Madrigal, Mauren

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La presente nota técnica informa acerca del rol que han tenido las redes sociales en la gestión del riesgo de desastre. Cuáles son las ventajas y desventajas, los usos específicos que les han dado. Y además presentar un directorio con las principales redes sociales nacionales e internacionales de instituciones miembros del Sistema Nacional de Gestión del Riesgo de Costa Rica, defensas civiles, protecciones civiles y otras instituciones afines a nivel internacional This document inform about the role that social networks have on disaster risk management. What are the advantages and disadvantages, specific uses that have given? And finally present a directory with the main national and international networks of institutions first responders, institutions of National Risk Management System of Costa Rica, civil defense, civil protection and other related institutions worldwide

  6. Hoja de ruta en la construcción de una sociedad resiliente y menos vulnerable a los riesgos de desastres

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    Brenes Reyes, Iván

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente documento constituye el compromiso del Gobierno de Costa Rica, presentado en la Conferencia Global para la Reducción del Riesgo de Desastres, del 14 al 18 de marzo de 2015 en Sendai, Japón Este compromiso forma parte de los "Compromisos Voluntarios de los Gobiernos Locales hacia el Marco Post-2015 para la Reducción del Riesgo de Desastres. Y es parte de la iniciativa "Hoja de Ruta de Ciudades Latinoamericanas para la Resiliencia" This document is the commitment of the Government of Costa Rica, presented at the Global Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction, from 14 to March 18, 2015 in Sendai, Japan This commitment is part of the "Voluntary Commitment of Local Governments to the Post-2015 Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction". And it is part of the "Roadmap to Resilience Latin American Cities" initiative

  7. Estrategia de comunicación de Creu Roja a Catalunya en situación de emergencia, crisis o desastre

    OpenAIRE

    Torralba Pouso, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    El propòsit d'aquest treball és el d'establir l'estratègia de comunicació de Creu Roja a Catalunya a l'hora de declarar-se una situació d'emergència, crisis o desastre a qualsevol dels nivells d'actuació de la institució humanitària. El propósito de este trabajo es el de establecer la estrategia de comunicación de Cruz Roja en Cataluña al declararse una situación de emergencia, crisis o desastre en cualquiera de los niveles de actuación de la institución humanitaria. The aim of this pro...

  8. Potencial uso de la logística focalizada en sistemas logísticos de atención de desastres. Un análisis conceptual

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    Leonardo José González Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La logística focalizada ha sido desarrollada para responder a entornos asimétricos, inseguros y muy variables, propios de los escenarios militares actuales, sin embargo estos escenarios comparten muchas características con los generados por los desastres naturales, por lo que el propósito de este artículo es mostrar desde la perspectiva conceptual como se podría aplicar la logística focalizada a la operación de los sistemas logísticos de atención de desastres. Para esto se parte del análisis de los entornos de operación militar y de desastres, los cuales se describen y comparan entre sí, y con los entornos empresariales, para determinar que conceptos de logística focalizada son aplicables a los sistemas logísticos humanitarios, finalmente se comparan las estructuras básicas de los sistemas logísticos militar y humanitario y se identifican modelos cuantitativos potencialmente transferibles entre ambos tipos de sistemas. La investigación encontró que dada la similitud de condiciones de operación de los sistemas logísticos militares y humanitarios, son aplicables a la atención de desastres los conceptos funcionales originados en logística focalizada, así como sus metas, capacidades básicas de implementación y varios conceptos emergentes. La novedad de la investigación radica principalmente en la propuesta de utilizar logística focalizada en sistemas logísticos humanitarios con el fin de mejorar sus tiempos de respuesta y la eficiencia en el uso de los recursos destinados a atender la población afectada.

  9. An integrated program to train local health care providers to meet post-disaster mental health needs Programa integrado para entrenar a proveedores de servicios sanitarios locales a satisfacer las necesidades de salud mental después de un desastre

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    Stan Kutcher

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a post-disaster mental health training program developed by the International Section of the Department of Psychiatry at Dalhousie University (Halifax, Canada and delivered in Grenada after Hurricane Ivan struck the country in September 2004. This train-the-trainer program used an integrated community health model to help local health care providers develop the necessary skills for the identification and evidenced-based treatment of mental disorders occurring after a natural disaster. The approach also provided for ongoing, sustainable mental health care delivered in the community setting, as advocated by the World Health Organization and the Pan American Health Organization. This approach is in contrast to the largely ineffective and costly vertical whole-population psychosocial counseling activities that have often been used in the Caribbean following natural disasters.En el presente trabajo se describe un programa de entrenamiento para la atención de la salud mental después de desastres, desarrollado por la Sección Internacional del Departamento de Psiquiatría de la Universidad de Dalhousie (Halifax, Canadá y llevado a cabo en la isla de Granada después de que el huracán Iván azotó ese país en septiembre de 2004. Este programa de entrenamiento para entrenadores utilizó un modelo integrado de salud comunitaria para ayudar a los proveedores de los servicios sanitarios locales a desarrollar las habilidades necesarias para identificar los trastornos mentales frecuentes después de un desastre natural y aplicar tratamientos basados en pruebas científicas. Este programa también favorece el enfoque actual de atención sostenible de salud mental en la comunidad, promovido por la Organización Mundial de la Salud y la Organización Panamericana de la Salud. Además, se contrapone a las actividades verticales de consejería psicosocial dirigidas a toda la población, en su mayoría ineficaces y costosas, que se han

  10. Método modificado de muestreo por conglomerados para la evaluación rápida de necesidades después de un desastre

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    Malilay J.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available El método de muestreo por conglomerados puede utilizarse para llevar a cabo la evaluación rápida de las necesidades de salud y de otro tipo en comunidades afectadas por desastres naturales. El método, que se basa en el modelo usado por el Programa Ampliado de Inmunización de la OMS para estimar la cobertura con vacunación, ha sido modificado para que proporcione 1 estimaciones de la población que queda en una zona determinada y 2 estimaciones del número de personas con necesidades específicas en la zona que ha sido afectada por un desastre. Este enfoque difiere del que se ha usado anteriormente a raíz de otros desastres en que las evaluaciones rápidas de las necesidades solo han consistido en estimar la proporción de la población con necesidades específicas. Aquí se propone un diseño de encuesta modificado que se basa en el uso de n x k para calcular la población restante, la gravedad del daño, la proporción y el número de personas con necesidades específicas, el número de domicilios dañados o destruidos y los cambios que sufren estas estimaciones en determinado período como parte de la encuesta.

  11. Os desastres podem até cair dos céus... Mas a culpa não é de Deus

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    Josué Petrônio Quirino de Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O propósito desta pesquisa é apresentar uma reflexão sobre o descaso em que a politica de enfrentamento aos desastres naturais vem sendo abordada no Brasil nos últimos 100 anos.  Com uma população cada vez mais urbana as cidades passam a ser o centro não só do poder econômico e político, mas também dos mais diversos eventos decorrentes das mudanças climáticas. Uma série de problemas agrava essa urbanização vulnerável e desencadeiam uma crise socioambiental determinada por fatores sociais, políticos, econômicos, tecnológicos, culturais e ecológicos que, de forma integrada, provocam consequências devastadoras. Inundações, deslizamentos, ciclones, incêndios florestais, enxurradas, estiagens, enchentes, secas e terremotos provocam impactos inesperados e pressionam ainda mais este quadro urbano complexo a uma dinâmica preocupante. O desastre não são as principais ameaças, mas a incapacidade de planejamento e enfrentamento na gestão dos desastres demostraram o descaso com a questão foi tratado no país ao longo de décadas.

  12. The Role of Law in Engineering 'Natural' Disasters

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    Arthur F McEvoy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available What people perceive as “natural disasters” typically take place when extractive industries operate at levels high enough that the ecological systems from which they draw resources lose their ability to buffer transient shocks, whether of environmental or technological origin. Legal institutions whose purpose it is to prevent such disasters from taking place may in fact encourage them, insofar as they must also broker competing demands for greater access to resources. Legal institutions may adapt to ecological instability in the wake of such disasters, “learning” from the experience more or less successfully depending on the conditions under which the disaster takes place. This paper will develop these ideas in the context of a number of noteworthy disasters, including the sinking of the Deepwater Horizon in 2010. Lo que se percibe como “desastres naturales” suelen ocurrir cuando las industrias extractivas operan a niveles tan elevados que los sistemas ecológicos de los que extraen los recursos pierden su capacidad para amortiguar las sacudidas transitorias, sean éstas de origen ambiental o tecnológico. Las instituciones legales, cuya finalidad es prevenir que ocurran estos desastres, puede en realidad promoverlos, desde el momento en que tienen que negociar las demandas de las partes interesadas en obtener un mayor acceso a los recursos. Las instituciones legales pueden adaptarse a la inestabilidad ecológica como consecuencia de tales catástrofes, "aprendiendo" de la experiencia de forma más o menos exitosa, dependiendo de las condiciones bajo las que ocurre el desastre. Este artículo va a desarrollar estas ideas en el contexto de una serie de desastres destacados, entre ellos el hundimiento de la plataforma petrolífera Deepwater Horizon en 2010.

  13. Inclement Weather Crater Repair Tool Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-30

    public good. Find out more at www.erdc.usace.army.mil. To search for other technical reports published by ERDC, visit the ERDC online library at...dry Shop -Vac vacuum and accessories. ........................................................................ 23 Figure 25. Vinyl tarps...from the backfill surface immediately prior to capping the repairs. The wet/dry Shop -Vac vacuum (Item 10) shown in Figure 24 can also be used for

  14. Vivir para contarlo, Día Internacional para la Reducción de Desastres 13 de octubre : nota conceptual

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    Centro de Documentación e Información

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Para el año 2016, la UNISDR ha lanzado la campaña "Sendai Siete" con el propósito de promover cada una de las siete metas incluidas en el Marco de Sendai para la Reducción del Riesgo de Desastres, adoptado en Japón, en marzo de 2015. De forma similar a lo que sucedió durante la campaña "Un paso hacia adelante", el éxito de la campaña Sendai Siete dependerá de la participación de una amplia variedad de grupos interesados, a fin de promover una mayor sensibilización sobre el Marco de Sendai y las acciones necesarias para aplicarlo y lograr sus metas. La campaña Sendai Siete representa una oportunidad para que todos los actores, incluidos los gobiernos nacionales y locales, los grupos comunitarios, las organizaciones de la sociedad civil, el sector privado, las organizaciones internacionales y la familia de la ONU, promuevan las mejores prácticas existentes en el ámbito internacional, regional y nacional y en los diversos sectores, con el fin de reducir el riesgo de desastres y las pérdidas que éstos ocasionan. / In 2016, UNISDR launched the "Sendai Seven" campaign to promote each of the seven goals included in the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction adopted in Japan in March 2015. Similar to what happened during the "One Step Forward" campaign, the success of the Sendai Seven campaign will depend on the participation of a wide variety of stakeholders, in order to promote greater awareness of the Sendai Framework and the actions needed To apply it and achieve its goals. The Sendai Seven campaign represents an opportunity for all actors, including national and local governments, community groups, civil society organizations, the private sector, international organizations and the UN family, to promote existing best practices At the international, regional and national levels and in the various sectors, in order to reduce the risk of disasters and the losses they cause.

  15. Acciones gubernamentales frente a los desastres provocados por fenómenos hidrometeorológicos en México

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    Gabriel Angelotti Pasteur

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Las acciones realizadas tras los desastres constituyen una oportunidad para el cambio social, en específico, para construir sociedades resilientes. Sin embargo, cuando en los procesos de reconstrucción se persiguen intereses exógenos (económicos, sociales o políticos y, preferentemente, ajenos a las necesidades de la sociedad afectada, se incrementan las condiciones de riesgo y la vulnerabilidad ante futuras amenazas. En el presente trabajo se analiza lo ocurrido en Yucatán (México cuando, tras el paso del huracán Isidoro (2002, se implementó un programa de reconstrucción con el fin de suplir aquellas viviendas que habían sido dañadas y destruidas por ese fenómeno hidrometeorológico. Mediante el mismo se esperaba dotar a las familias damnificadas de una vivienda digna, resistente, moderna y, de este modo, contribuir a forjar una sociedad más segura. Sin embargo, los resultados alcanzados ponen en duda esta meta del gobierno.

  16. El enfoque de género en la etapa de reconstrucción de un desastre: análisis de programas sociales aplicados con equidad de género en Angangueo, Michoacán

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    Francisco Javier Verduzco Miramón

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El documento plantea como objetivo principal analizar los programas sociales aplicados en la etapa de reconstrucción del desastre ocurrido en Angangueo, Michoacán, tras las inundaciones y deslizamientos de laderas ocurridos en febrero del 2010. La estrategia metodológica empleada fue de corte cualitativa, utilizando técnicas como la documental, entrevistas y observación no participante, con las cuales se logró identificar los programas aplicados por las dependencias que auxiliaron a la población afectada: Empleo Temporal (pet, diconsa sa de cv "atención a desastres", Hábitat, Ahorro y Subsidio para la Vivienda, Tu Casa, Opciones Productivas, además del Fondo Nacional de Apoyos para Empresas en Solidaridad (fonaes y el Fondo de Desastres Naturales (fonden, que financió la mayoría de los programas aplicados.

  17. natural

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    Elías Gómez Macías

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de óxido de magnesio comercial se preparó una suspensión acuosa, la cual se secó y calcinó para conferirle estabilidad térmica. El material, tanto fresco como usado, se caracterizó mediante DRX, área superficial BET y SEM-EPMA. El catalizador mostró una matriz de MgO tipo periclasa con CaO en la superficie. Las pruebas de actividad catalítica se efectuaron en lecho fijo empacado con partículas obtenidas mediante prensado, trituración y clasificación del material. El flujo de reactivos consistió en mezclas gas natural-aire por debajo del límite inferior de inflamabilidad. Para diferentes flujos y temperaturas de entrada de la mezcla reactiva, se midieron las concentraciones de CH4, CO2 y CO en los gases de combustión con un analizador de gases tipo infrarrojo no dispersivo (NDIR. Para alcanzar conversión total de metano se requirió aumentar la temperatura de entrada al lecho a medida que se incrementó el flujo de gases reaccionantes. Los resultados obtenidos permiten desarrollar un sistema de combustión catalítica de bajo costo con un material térmicamente estable, que promueva la alta eficiencia en la combustión de gas natural y elimine los problemas de estabilidad, seguridad y de impacto ambiental negativo inherentes a los procesos de combustión térmica convencional.

  18. Reducción del riesgo de desastres y adaptación al cambio climático : diseño de un modelo para su convergencia en el ámbito local

    OpenAIRE

    Giménez García, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    El estudio de las crisis de los últimos decenios revela la relación entre Cambio Climático (CC) y desastres. En efecto, la magnitud y frecuencia de muchas amenazas varían a causa del CC, que también afecta negativamente a la capacidad de afrontamiento ante las crisis. Por ello, la conjunción entre las medidas para la Adaptación al Cambio Climático (ACC) y la Reducción del Riesgo de Desastres (RRD) es fundamental. Es muy previsible que estas sinergias den como resultados la reducción de pé...

  19. Percepciones sobre la salud en estudiantes que viven en áreas de riesgo de desastres de origen hidrometeorológico: el caso de Motozintla, Chiapas, México

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    Cándido Roberto Vázquez-Morales

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Motozintla es una ciudad de alto riesgo histórico de desastres de origen hidrometeorológico como lluvias torrenciales y huracanes. Se han registrado grandes pérdidas materiales y de proyectos de vida en la población. El objetivo de este estudio es conocer las percepciones sobre la salud y desastres que son albergadas por estudiantes que viven en este municipio del estado de Chiapas, México. Métodos: Se aplicaron 378 cuestionarios que contenían preguntas cerradas y abiertas a estudiantes del Centro de Bachillerato Tecnológico Industrial y de Servicios No. 243 y de la Universidad de Ciencias y Artes de Chiapas. Las preguntas se centraron en la salud y su relación con los desastres. Resultados: muestran que el 45.5% del estudiantado consultado percibió la salud en una manera integral, como un estado de bienestar en los aspectos físico, psicológico o social; el 26.7% la percibió como la ausencia de enfermedad, dolor o molestias. El 26.2% mencionó diversos aspectos del bienestar individual relacionado con la alimentación, el sentirse bien o mal y otras satisfacciones de la vida. Con relación al contexto de los desastres, el 36.8% percibió el desastre como la presencia de los fenómenos naturales; un 29.4%, como un suceso que provoca destrucción y muerte. El 17.2% restante mencionó el desastre como algún problema físico o social, como algo imprevisto o como un peligro. Conclusión: La mayoría de los estudiantes percibió la salud como el bienestar físico, psicológico y social. Los desastres los encuentran relacionados con los fenómenos naturales y, en general, subestiman el riesgo; la salud no es dependiente ni relacionada con los desastres.

  20. Avaliação econômica dos casos de Dengue atribuídos ao desastre de 2011 em Nova Friburgo (RJ, Brasil

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    Carlos Alexandre Rodrigues Pereira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A perspectiva apontada pelos cenários climáticos desenvolvidos para o Brasil é de provável aumento no número de eventos hidrometeorológicos extremos nos próximos anos. Por isso, se faz importante o estudo dos agravos em saúde que poderão se intensificar em decorrência desses eventos. Portanto, por meio deste artigo, propõe-se estimar o custo representado pelos casos de dengue atribuídos ao desastre de 2011, em Nova Friburgo (RJ. Verificou-se que ocorreram 1.356 casos suspeitos de dengue, dos quais 937 foram confirmados. O custo total da doença pode ter variado, no mínimo, entre R$ 66 mil e R$ 499 mil, no cenário de menor valor de salário, sendo que cerca de 70% desse custo ocorreu entre os casos confirmados. O desastre provocou grandes mudanças no ambiente do município que, junto com os problemas de saneamento e limpeza urbana, que ocorreram em períodos posteriores ao evento, acabou por aumentar a disponibilidade de locais que pudessem servir de criadouro do mosquito, facilitando sua proliferação e aumentando a incidência da dengue, doença que na década anterior ao desastre teve baixa incidência no município. Isso ilustra o potencial que eventos como ao ocorrido em 2011, em Nova Friburgo, podem ter no incremento desses casos e, consequentemente, nos custos da doença.

  1. Televisión educativa y desastres naturales: estudiantes chilenos y sus profesoras valoran uso del video educativo en el aula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Malebrán, Carolina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available El uso del video educativo como recurso didáctico ha permitido complementar el aprendizaje del estudiantado y apoyar el trabajo de los y las docentes. Si bien, en internet existen numerosos sitios especializados con videos educativos que pueden ser utilizados por los profesores y las profesoras en sus clases, la gran mayoría de estos recursos no han sido valorados por su principal público: estudiantes y docentes. El presente artículo describe la valoración que estudiantes de sexto año básico de la escuela pública David León Tapia, de la localidad de Tongoy en Chile, realizaron del video educativo “Benvoy y las hormigas”, que busca apoyar el aprendizaje del alumnado sobre los desastres naturales, sus causas, consecuencias y prevención. Para ello se solicitó a 27 alumnos y alumnas que contestaran una encuesta, luego de haber observado el video educativo dentro de su sala de clases, posteriormente se aplicaron entrevistas semiestructuradas a las docentes del curso. Se les consultó por preferencias de contenidos, tipos de recursos para el aprendizaje y relación con su entorno. Podemos concluir que la mayoría de los y las estudiantes que participaron en la encuesta indicaron que el video “Benvoy y las hormigas” les había ayudado a comprender los desastres naturales, calificándolo positivamente. Sobre los contenidos, los y las escolares mostraron preferencia por los capítulos sobre la prevención y normas de seguridad que se deben tomar ante desastres naturales y, en segundo lugar, las causas y consecuencias de los tsunamis. Las docentes, por su parte, destacaron la trama y la relación de los personajes con la vida cotidiana de los estudiantes.

  2. Avance en la prevención de desastres naturales en la cuenca del río Paute, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available PREMIERS RESULTATS SUR LA PREVENTION DES DESASTRES NATURELS DANS LE BASSIN DU RIO PAUTE, ÉQUATEUR. L’énorme glissement de terrain de La Josefina, qui a barré la riviè re Paute en mars 1993 et ses conséquences funestes, ont mis en évidence l’importance qui doit ê tre prê tée aux catastrophes naturelles et au manque d’études de prévention. En se basant sur cette expérience, le Corps suisse de secours et diverses institutions équatoriennes ont lancé un projet pilote et pluridisciplinaire, pour la période 1994-1997. Celui ci a pour but l’étude et le suivi des phénomè nes naturels qui pourraient affecter le bassin de la riviè re Paute sur une surface de 3.700 km2. Dans cet espace vivent 700.000 personnes, entre la population rurale et celle de Cuenca, troisiè me ville du pays. Les résultats de la premiè re année d’activités sont présentés, sur 2 de ses 6 champs d’action. Géologiquement, on a pu identifier les zones de terrains instables en élaborant des cartes géologiques, des phénomè nes et de dangers à une échelle de 1:25.000 sur une surface de 380 km2, les glissements de terrain ont été classés en actifs, potentiels et anciens avec des volumes entre 1x105 y 1x109 m3 . Les instabilités sont surtout liées á la présence des roches sédimentaires et métamorphiques incompétentes ou des colluvions et éluvions peu compacts, ces phénomè nes s’aggravent dans la saison des pluies. Seize zones les plus actives ont été délimitées et étudiées au 1:10.000 avec des cartes de vecteurs de vitesse. Le glissement de Paccha est un cas particulier avec des mouvements pouvant aller jusqu’à 8.400 cm/an. Des réseaux de mesure géodésique ont été installés afin de suivre et d’étudier l’activité des principaux glissements. Dans le domaine de l’hydrométéorologie un réseau unifié de mesure et d’alerte de crues et d’inondations sera implanté. Parallè lement des

  3. Preparación de los adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos para hacer frente a los desastres naturales: encuesta a escala nacional*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-rousan, Tala M.; Rubenstein, Linda M.; Wallace, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Nos propusimos determinar el grado de preparación frente a los desastres naturales de los adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos y evaluar los factores que pueden afectar negativamente la salud y la seguridad durante este tipo de incidentes. Métodos. Obtuvimos una muestra de adultos de 50 años en adelante (n = 1 304) de la encuesta del 2010 del Estudio de la Salud y la Jubilación (HRS por su sigla en inglés). La encuesta recogió datos sobre las características demográficas generales, el estado de discapacidad o las limitaciones funcionales, y también sobre factores y comportamientos relacionados con la preparación frente a los desastres. Calculamos una puntuación global de preparación mediante indicadores individuales a fin de evaluar el grado de preparación general. Resultados. La media de la edad de los participantes (n = 1 304) fue de 70 años (desviación estándar [DE] = 9,3). Solo 34,3% informaron que habían participado en un programa formativo o que habían leído materiales sobre la preparación para los desastres. Casi 15% indicaron que usaban dispositivos médicos eléctricos que podían correr riesgo de no funcionar si se interrumpiera el suministro eléctrico. La puntuación de preparación indicó que la edad más avanzada, la discapacidad física y el menor nivel de escolaridad y de ingresos se asociaban independiente y significativamente a un grado de preparación general inferior. Conclusiones. A pesar de la mayor vulnerabilidad ante los desastres y del número cada vez mayor de adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos, muchos de los problemas sustanciales que encontramos son remediables y requieren atención en los sectores de la sociedad dedicados a la atención clínica, a la salud pública y al manejo de situaciones de emergencia.

  4. Preparación de los adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos para hacer frente a los desastres naturales: encuesta a escala nacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tala M. Al-rousan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Nos propusimos determinar el grado de preparación frente a los desastres naturales de los adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos y evaluar los factores que pueden afectar negativamente la salud y la seguridad durante este tipo de incidentes. MÉTODOS: Obtuvimos una muestra de adultos de 50 años en adelante (n = 1 304 de la encuesta del 2010 del Estudio de la Salud y la Jubilación (HRS por su sigla en inglés. La encuesta recogió datos sobre las características demográficas generales, el estado de discapacidad o las limitaciones funcionales, y también sobre factores y comportamientos relacionados con la preparación frente a los desastres. Calculamos una puntuación global de preparación mediante indicadores individuales a fin de evaluar el grado de preparación general. RESULTADOS: La media de la edad de los participantes (n = 1 304 fue de 70 años (desviación estándar [DE] = 9,3. Solo 34,3% informaron que habían participado en un programa formativo o que habían leído materiales sobre la preparación para los desastres. Casi 15% indicaron que usaban dispositivos médicos eléctricos que podían correr riesgo de no funcionar si se interrumpiera el suministro eléctrico. La puntuación de preparación indicó que la edad más avanzada, la discapacidad física y el menor nivel de escolaridad y de ingresos se asociaban independiente y significativamente a un grado de preparación general inferior. CONCLUSIONES: A pesar de la mayor vulnerabilidad ante los desastres y del número cada vez mayor de adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos, muchos de los problemas sustanciales que encontramos son remediables y requieren atención en los sectores de la sociedad dedicados a la atención clínica, a la salud pública y al manejo de situaciones de emergencia.

  5. La cooperación descentralizada entre España y Colombia en el marco de la gestión de los riesgos de desastres

    OpenAIRE

    Velásquez Peñaloza, Amparo

    2015-01-01

    El aumento de la resiliencia para las ciudades y países en el mundo son una prioridad de las agendas Nacionales y los organismos internacionales. La construcción de resiliencia pasa por la comprensión, interpretación y práctica de la gestión del riesgo de desastres y en ese marco la cooperación al desarrollo puede jugar un papel muy importante para contribuir a construir desarrollo sostenible o perpetuar riesgos en los lugares que coopera. En este contexto el objetivo de esta investigación es...

  6. Estrategias de afrontamiento y labor voluntaria: un estudio exploratorio en un equipo psicosocial que trabaja en gestión del riesgo de desastres

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal Pérez, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Artículo (Programa de Psicología). Universidad de Manizales. Facultad de Ciencias Sociales y Humanas, 2014 El grupo de estudiantes vinculados a la línea de investigación promoción, prevención y redes en salud, (perteneciente al grupo psicología clínica y procesos de salud ) y el equipo de la Brigada Psicosocial, ambos de la Universidad de Manizales, han venido trabajando en el escenario de Psicología en emergencias y desastres desde la Gestión de Riesgo (GR) en cada una de sus etapas, y u...

  7. Svetlana Alexievich, Vozes de Chernobyl: história de um desastre nuclear. Tradução de Galina Mitrakhovich. Lisboa: Elsinore, 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Sarapicos, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Sofrimento humano extremo, destruição ambiental, medo de morte num espaço e num tempo incertos, descrença. Estes temas atravessam Vozes de Chernobyl: história de um desastre nuclear. O subtítulo evidencia uma ‘história’, que Svetlana Alexievich, a autora, Nobel da Literatura em 2015, e os depoimentos orais que ela registou, sustentam ao longo do livro, de capa ilustrada por uma roda do parque de diversões de Prípiat, cidade abandonada, Publicada em russo, em 1997, a obra chega a Lisboa, em 2...

  8. La guerra como desastre. Sus consecuencias psicológicas War as a disaster. Its psychological consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuba Yamila Peña Galbán

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En más de 100 conflictos bélicos que se han producido en los últimos diez años, más del 80 por ciento de las víctimas son civiles. Se ha producido un desarrollo acelerado en las investigaciones concernientes a las consecuencias psico-sociales de la guerra en la población civil, la cual es el blanco principal de las víctimas en la guerra contemporánea. Este trabajo constituye una revisión bibliográfica sobre la guerra como desastre, acerca de los conceptos “modernos” de “guerra total”, desastre y las consecuencias psicológicas de la guerra en la población civil, la utilización de los niños como soldados lo cual acarrea desórdenes mentales marcados y se aborda el problema de la violencia sexual como arma de guerra. Las mujeres, las jóvenes, e incluso niñas, son a menudo sometidas, violadas, secuestradas y forzadas a la esclavitud sexual o cualquier tipo de abuso sexual; son vejadas, humilladas y dañadas en lo más profundo de sus sentimientos psicológicos, y valores morales, lo que también trasciende al grupo social, comunidad, clase social o etnia a la que pertenecen. El deterioro o la destrucción de la infraestructura económica, social y política de las naciones en conflicto impide la atención de las necesidades básicas de la población. El trastorno por estrés postraumático es la entidad nosológica más frecuente en las víctimas de la guerra, pero existen otros trastornos mentales que hay que tener en cuentaIn over 100 war conflicts that have occurred in the last 10 years, m ore than 80 percent of the victims were civilians. The scope of recent studies has been increasingly focused on psychological and social effects among civilians who are the target and main victims of contemporary wars. This article is an explanation of why war is considered a disaster, a revision of modern terms for war, disaster and the psychological effects of war on civilians, the training of children as soldiers, and the resulting

  9. Concientización y patriarcado en “Desastres íntimos” de Cristina Peri Rossi

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    Mingyo Suh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cristina Peri Rossi, escritora reconocida por su carácter subversivo, continuamente ha cuestionado el orden patriarcal. “Desastres íntimos” muestra un proceso en el que la protagonista se concientiza de la injusticia de la realidad y reacciona contra el sistema vigente. Aunque algunos críticos han destacado las características antipatriarcales del cuento, no se ha formulado ninguna interpretación con respecto al funcionamiento del patriarcado y el proceso de la toma de conciencia de la protagonista. En este artículo, pretendo analizar dichas dimensiones, en relación con la postura declarada por la autora y a la luz de la reflexión teórica de Bryson (1999. La caracterización de la protagonista subraya la doble condición de madre soltera y trabajadora por su voluntad, en donde la ausencia de la figura masculina en su vida convierte en indirecta e inadvertida la influencia del patriarcado. La toma de conciencia de la protagonista se podría comprender con el símbolo del ‘atasco’, que el narrador utiliza en diversos niveles para destacar el concepto del fallo inherente al sistema. La estrategia discursiva de la autora se refleja en el cambio de actitud de la protagonista, que decide seguir la estrategia de la contratación equitativa, en donde cada beneficiario pagaría lo que le correspondiera, tanto en la vida personal como en el nivel social. Se resalta, finalmente, la importancia de la acción comunal como un requisito para cambiar el sistema patriarcal arraigado en la realidad social.

  10. Nota técnica No. 3: Primer simposio costarricense sobre fuentes y recursos de información en gestión de riesgos y desastres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallejos Vásquez, Sheily

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Expone la experiencia del Centro de Documentación e Información de la Comisión Nacional de Prevención de Riesgos y Atención de Emergencias en la realización del I Simposio Costarricenses sobre Fuentes y Recursos de Información en Gestión de Riesgos y Desastres, dirigido a los miembros de la Red de Documentación e Información que conforman la Biblioteca Virtual de Desarrollo Sostenible y Desastres (BVSD. Además hace referencia a los temas desarrollados en el simposio It exposes the experience of the Documentation and Information Center of the National Commission of Risk Prevention and Emergency Response in organizing the I Costa Rican Symposium about Information Sources and Resources in Risk Management and Disasters, addressed to the members of the Documentation and Information Network of the Sustainable Development and Disasters Virtual Library (BVSD - acronym in Spanish. It also refers to the topics developed during the Symposium

  11. A abordagem psicológica da problemática dos desastres: um desafio cognitivo e profissional para a Psicologia

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    Marcos Antônio Mattedi

    Full Text Available O texto aborda o tema das contribuições da Psicologia para a construção de comunidades mais seguras1 e sustenta que a adequação das intervenções da Psicologia na produção da segurança constitui o resultado da forma como se configura a insegurança e de como as comunidades são dimensionadas. O desenvolvimento desse argumento baseia-se em dois procedimentos analíticos: o primeiro refere-se à apresentação das formas de caracterização da insegurança, considerando três tradições de pesquisa: os estudos de hazards, desastres e riscos, e o segundo diz respeito à apresentação das transformações que marcam o desenvolvimento da sociedade moderna nas últimas décadas. Com base nesses dois procedimentos, apresentaremos as contribuições da Psicologia para a construção de comunidades mais seguras, através da possibilidade de estabelecer uma Psicologia dos desastres no Brasil.

  12. A abordagem psicológica da problemática dos desastres: um desafio cognitivo e profissional para a psicologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antônio Mattedi

    Full Text Available O texto aborda o tema das contribuições da Psicologia para a construção de comunidades mais seguras1 e sustenta que a adequação das intervenções da Psicologia na produção da segurança constitui o resultado da forma como se configura a insegurança e de como as comunidades são dimensionadas. O desenvolvimento desse argumento baseia-se em dois procedimentos analíticos: o primeiro refere-se à apresentação das formas de caracterização da insegurança, considerando três tradições de pesquisa: os estudos de hazards, desastres e riscos, e o segundo diz respeito à apresentação das transformações que marcam o desenvolvimento da sociedade moderna nas últimas décadas. Com base nesses dois procedimentos, apresentaremos as contribuições da Psicologia para a construção de comunidades mais seguras, através da possibilidade de estabelecer uma Psicologia dos desastres no Brasil.

  13. El gasto público por la "Acción en Marruecos" tras el Desastre de Annual (1921-1922

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    María Araceli Casasola Balsells

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo contribuye a la línea de investigación sobre historia de la contabilidad pública en un contexto de Guerra al estudiar las consecuencias contables y financieras, que tuvo el gasto enla “Acciónen Marruecos” tras el Desastre de Annual, en el Presupuesto General del Estado. El trabajo analiza, primero, el destino y forma de concesión de los créditos adicionales otorgados por el Gobierno para dotar de los medios materiales y humanos necesarios en la reconquista de las posiciones perdidas en Annual. Y segundo, se estudian las críticas vertidas por el Tribunal de Cuentas al proceso presupuestario y rendición de cuentas públicas. Para ello, se han utilizado como fuentes primarias los textos legales publicados en la Gaceta de Madrid.

  14. Imagen y escritura del poder. Acerca de Códice rompecabezas sobre recontrapoder en cajón desastre de Luis Felipe Noé

    OpenAIRE

    Ponce, Néstor

    2017-01-01

    Códice rompecabezas sobre recontrapoder en cajón desastre, conocido también simplemente como Recontrapoder, fue publicado por Luis Felipe Noé en 1974 y pasó desapercibido por la crítica. Se trata de un libro de 95 páginas, que incluye la inserción de once dibujos del pintor («Los dibujos que ilustran la obra pertenecen a Luis Felipe Noé» (NOÉ, 1974: 6) y que podemos englobar en la relación del artista plástico Noé con la escritura, a través de una nutrida producción teórica, en la inserción d...

  15. Papel de la Universidad para elevar la preparación de la población ante la ocurrencia de desastres

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    Yarileisy Medina-De la Paz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available La universidad cubana juega un papel determinante en la formación y educación de una cultura ambiental en la reducción de riesgos ante el cambio climático. En función de elevar la capacidad de respuesta de la población ante la ocurrencia de un desastre hidrometeorológico, la sede universitaria de Yateras, a través de su labor de extensión, desarrolla un trabajo que se sustenta en el diseño de un conjunto de actividades organizadas en talleres, conferencias, videos debates, las que se explican en el presente trabajo.

  16. ¿Como se construye el viaje-producto?: el turismo como herramienta de recuperación post desastre de Fukuyima, Japón.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Korstanje

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available No es extraño observar como en momentos de emergencia y/o desastres naturales, surgen diversos mecanismos que ayudan a los grupos a comprender lo que está sucediendo y a no desintegrarse. El nacionalismo y el apego-consumocultura son dos mecanismos sociales cuya función radica en comprender los eventos del mundo sensible. La tragedia presupone una exterminación radical pero a la vez una fortaleza individual y grupal para sobreponerse a la misma. Es en ese contexto, el orgullo por lo nacional se exacerba luego de un evento de tales proporciones como un terremoto o tsunami. En este sentido, analizamos la cobertura de algunos medios y la reacción de la comunidad japonesa en Buenos Aires frente al terremoto y posterior peligro nuclear de Fukuyima. Los elementos que se desprenden de nuestro trabajo son válidos para ser aplicados en otros contextos.

  17. La Contribución de la Antropología al Estudio de Crisis y Desastres en América Latina

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    Susann Baez Ullberg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue focuses on the phenomena of disasters and crises, and how such extraordinary and disruptive events can be understood from the perspective of social anthropology. Critical events are not unique to Latin America, yet the impact of hydro-meteorological and geological disasters have dramatically increased in the region in the last century (IDB 2010, UNISDR and Corporation OSSO 2013 and many countries have historical and recent experience of profound social, political and economic crises. They are complex challenges for societies to manage, mitigate and reduce, which is why social science has a major contribution to make in understanding both the causes and the effects, and forward sustainable solutions. This special issue presents four articles based on empirical cases from Latin America, with an emphasis on Argentina and Brazil, which demonstrate the anthropological contribution to the understanding of critical events. The authors make no claim to provide a complete view of the anthropology of disasters and crises in Latin America, but rather to account for a growing research field in the region, which is already making important contributions to multidisciplinary studies of critical events, and to the policy development of disaster risk reduction and crisis management. Abstracto  El tema del presente número especial el de los eventos críticos, extraordinarios y disruptivos; de los sucesos y situaciones que interrumpen un determinado orden social, ya sean de índole ambiental, tecnológico, financiero, político o social, y que tienen un impacto grande en la sociedad involucrada. Nos proponemos aquí introducir al lector cómo se puede abordar este objeto de estudio desde la antropología social. El problema de los desastres y de las crisis no es de ahora, ni es exclusivo de América Latina. No obstante, en la región han aumentado dramáticamente los impactos de los desastres de origen hidrometeorológico y geológico en el

  18. Desastres do pós-guerra civil espanhola: uma leitura de \\'Tiempo de Silencio\\', de Luis Martín-Santos e \\'Nada\\', de Carmen Laforet

    OpenAIRE

    Margareth dos Santos

    2006-01-01

    O trabalho propõe-se a analisar os romances Nada (1945), de Carmen Laforet e Tiempo de Silencio (1962), de Luis Martín-Santos para examinar o traço singular da construção de ambas obras, qual seja, a apropriação das séries de gravuras Los Caprichos e Los Desastres de la Guerra de Goya. Em Nada, abordamos a integração do aspecto monstruoso ao espaço romanesco, o apagamento da fronteira entre o mundo onírico e o real, a representação fragmentária e a diluição dos limites entre o passado da maté...

  19. Base de dados de desastres naturais no município de Poços de Caldas/MG: ferramenta para o planejamento e a gestão territorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego de Souza Sardinha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available O município de Poços de Caldas, no Estado de Minas Gerais, localiza-se em uma região com elevados índices pluviométricos e apresenta um contexto geológico e geomorfológico muito diversificado, com relevos e declividades contrastantes, além de desníveis marcantes, propensos a desastres naturais. O levantamento histórico e o cadastro das ocorrências de desastres naturais registradas no município foram realizados a fim de disponibilizar uma ferramenta de suporte às ações de planejamento e de gestão territorial. Foram cadastradas 25 ocorrências relacionadas a desastres naturais entre 2000 e 2013. Os meses de janeiro e de novembro registraram as maiores ocorrências, com 46 e 27% dos casos, respectivamente, dos quais a queda de barreiras representou 27%, seguida pelas inundações, alagamentos e escorregamentos/deslizamentos, com 15% cada. O total pluviométrico, registrado no dia do evento em que ocorreram desastres naturais, foi mais significativo na classe de 0,00 a 50,00 mm (85,6% e, para o total acumulado em cinco dias, foi na classede 50,01 a 100,00 (38,9%. O levantamento dos desastres naturais e a sua correlação com os registros de chuvas, associados à previsão meteorológica, subsidiam a previsão temporal e espacial da ocorrência desses eventos, com vistas a antecipar ações de defesa civil e, consequentemente, reduzir os riscos de vítimas fatais e das perdas econômicas associadas. Portanto, essas ações devem pautar-se em uma política pública voltada à proteção e à defesa civil, orientando o gerenciamento de riscos e de desastres naturais no município de Poços de Caldas.

  20. MANEJO DE DESASTRES E PROTEÇÃO FINANCEIRA À INUNDAÇÃO NO VALE DO AÇU/RN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Rayssa Costa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Os municípios de Açu, Ipanguaçu, Alto do Rodrigues, Pendências e Carnaubais foram inundados diversas vezes, causado impactos econômicos, sociais e ambientais. Em virtude de tal situação se fez necessário realizar pesquisas para avaliar a vulnerabilidade e o risco existente à inundação nestas áreas. Contudo, este artigo tem como objetivo expor o manejo de desastres e governabilidade e proteção financeira no que concerne a inundação em municípios do Vale do Açu/RN por meio de Indicadores de Manejo de Desastres e de Governabilidade e Proteção Financeira. Como metodologia utilizou-se indicadores elaborados por Cardona et al. (2005 por meio de questionários estruturados aos gestores municipais relativo à gestão institucional do ano de 2009. Os resultados mostram que os municípios que melhor maneja (IMD e protege financeiramente (IPF o risco à inundação respectivamente são: Açu (IMD e IPF qualificado como razoável, Ipanguaçu (IMD classificado como razoável e IPF – péssimo e os demais municípios tanto o IMD como IPF foram ponderados como péssimos, devido ausência de algumas ações e recursos, como criação de fundo de investimentos sociais permanentes para o apoio de comunidades vulneráveis, com foco nos extratos socioeconômicos mais pobres e programas regulares de microcrédito, além de atividades do gênero, orientadas à redução da vulnerabilidade humana.

  1. Silêncios Da Dor: Enfoque Geracional E Agência No Caso Do Desastre Radioativo De Goiânia, Brasil

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    Telma Camargo da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The text focuses on the Goiânia radiological disaster from the point of view of young people’s narratives, expressed in 2004, about their experiences as children back in 1987. The research draws on observations made in long term fieldwork with these young people as they hid their identities as disaster victims in the public sphere. Hence, in contexts in which the remembrances configure traumatic memory from this disaster and engender the 'cesium persona', I argue that their silence is a form of agency. I sustain as well that the understanding of the social and emotional impacts of a critical event implies taking into consideration the situation of social vulnerabilities of the people affected, including those which are produced over generations. Resumo Este texto focaliza o desastre radioativo de Goiânia, Brasil, a partir das narrativas enunciadas, em 2004, por jovens que vivenciaram a catástrofe, em 1987, enquanto crianças. A pesquisa foi motivada pela constatação, através do trabalho de campo realizado ao longo das últimas décadas, que estes jovens ocultavam no cenário público o pertencimento do desastre. Desta forma, em contexto em que as lembranças configuram a memória traumática e instituem uma 'persona césio', problematizo o silêncio como uma forma de agencia. Argumento também que a compreensão dos impactos sociais e emocionais de um evento crítico demanda uma reflexão sobre as situações de vulnerabilidade social dos grupos envolvidos entre as quais aquelas engendradas pela geração.

  2. Mal-estar na civilização e desastre totalitário Malaise in civilization and totalitarian disaster

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    François Villa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O autor interroga a relação entre o desastre totalitário e a psicanálise. Será que a psicanálise, os psicanalistas, tem algo pertinente a dizer acerca da barbárie? Esta não é uma dimensão que estaria fora do nosso campo? Será que podemos afirmar que o desastre que sobreveio na cultura não teria tido senão pouca ou nenhuma consequência sobre nossa "teoria", nossas "práticas", nossa "arte"? Não é incrível que demos seguimento à tarefa psicanalítica como se a onda da irrupção do terror e da barbárie na cultura não tivesse abalado as quatro paredes de nossos consultórios? Estas são perguntas que este artigo enfrenta e que levam o autor a se voltar sobre a questão dos estados limites a partir de sua reflexão acerca dos efeitos psíquicos duradouros do totalitarismo.Malaise in civilization and totalitarian disaster. The author cross-examines the relationship between psychoanalysis and totalitarian disaster. Does psychoanalysis, psychoanalysts, have something relevant to say about the barbarism? Isn't this a dimension which is beyond our field? Can we say that the disaster that befell the culture would not have had but little or no consequence on our "theory", our "practice" our "art"? Isn't it amazing that we follow the psychoanalytic task as if the wave of eruption of terror and barbarism in culture had not shaken the four walls of our offices? These are questions which this article is facing, and leading the author to get back on the issue of borderline states since his reflection on the lasting psychological effects of totalitarianism.

  3. Escribir después del desastre: Violencia y testimonio en dos novelas de Álvaro Bisama

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    Natalia Alejandra Anabalon

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available La escritura del escritor y académico chileno Álvaro Bisama Mayné empieza después del desastre, puede ser un huracán que está por venir, un incendio gigantesco en algún cerro de Valparaíso o lo que queda fuera de una fotografía.   El autor ha incursionado desde crítica literaria, el ensayo, la novela y la crónica buscando evidenciar la cultura moderna como desecho, el vacío de las personas, las relaciones humanas, la degradación y la violencia. En el siguiente ensayo me propongo analizar las distintas manifestaciones de la violencia y el testimonio, para ello se escogí las novelas Estrellas Muertas (2010 y Ruido (2012 siendo la primera un espejo de los hijos de la transición política de Chile post dictadura. Mientras que en  Ruido el autor vuelve al Chile convulsionado en el horror político y social de la Dictadura Militar de Augusto Pinochet cuando entre los años de 1983 y 1988 un joven huérfano dijo comunicarse con la Virgen María, posteriormente se lo conocería a él como Karol Romanov. Aquí deseo postular que son las mujeres quienes pueden contar la historia, quienes vuelven de lugares insospechados mientras que los hombres pasan deambulando en el relato, ambas novelas entregan una particular, para ello se harán dialogar las posturas de dos investigadoras argentinas, la primera es Pilar Calveiro (“Poder y Desaparición. Los campos de concentración en Argentina”. 1998 quien permite entender esta novela como un ejercicio de memoria estableciendo que tanto mujeres como hombres tienen distintas maneras de testimoniar sosteniendo que el hombre es más preciso para dar datos como nombres y lugares y pese a lo cruento de la experiencia logra ser objetivo; por el contrario, la mujer que da información entra en vivencia iniciado el acto del recuerdo. A continuación seguirá el planteamiento de Nora Strejilevich, (“El arte de no olvidar: literatura testimonial en Chile, Argentina y Uruguay, entre los 80 y los 90

  4. Educación superior en América Latina y el Caribe para la Gestión y Reducción del Riesgo de Desastres: ¿Estamos preparando a nuestra población?

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    Alejandro Lara San Martín

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Comprendiendo que la educación es el pilar fundamental y transversal para el desarrollo de los pueblos, esta investigación pretende identificar la presencia del tópico sobre reducción del riesgo de desastres, en la educación superior de América Latina y el Caribe. Para ello se ha diseñado una metodología mixta, la cual, a través del análisis documental y la aplicación de entrevistas telefónicas, ha permitido elaborar un mapeo y analizar las distintas ofertas académicas, existentes sobre este tema. Los resultados indican la escasa presencia de la reducción del riesgo de desastre en la educación superior, junto con las brechas existentes entre países, referidas a este mismo tema.

  5. Efecto de la diversidad sobre la cognición y los procesos de coordinación implícita de equipos que trabajan en emergencias y desastres

    OpenAIRE

    Marín Uribe, Humberto

    2016-01-01

    El aumento en la frecuencia y el impacto de las emergencias y los desastres en todo el mundo requiere tener equipos mejor preparados para responder a ellos, particularmente los equipos de respuesta voluntarios. Sin embargo, para que estos equipos puedan tener un desempeño exitoso, no solamente requieren habilidades individuales, disposición y experiencia, sino que también factores a nivel de equipo que promuevan las acciones conjuntas y una sinergia apropiada entre sus miembros. En respuesta ...

  6. Organização, disponibilização e possibilidades de análise de dados sobre desastres de origem climática e seus impactos sobre a saúde no Brasil

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    Diego Ricardo Xavier

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de desastres muitas vezes é associada a processos naturais imprevisíveis. No entanto, a análise de grandes bases de dados permite mostrar tendências sazonais e de longo prazo, bem como padrões e áreas onde se concentram riscos. Neste trabalho é descrito o processo de aquisição e organização de dados sobre desastres, coletados pelos órgãos de defesa civil, e disponibilizados pelo Observatório Nacional de Clima e Saúde. As análises preliminares mostram a concentração de eventos desastres causados por chuvas intensas ao longo da costa brasileira, principalmente durante o verão. As secas apresentam maior duração e extensão, atingindo grande parte do sul e nordeste do país. Estes dados podem ser usados para analisar e monitorar o impacto de eventos climáticos extremos sobre a saúde, bem como seus determinantes de vulnerabilidade e clima.

  7. Abastecimiento de sangre durante desastres: la experiencia de Chile en 2010 Blood supply during disasters: the experience of Chile in 2010

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    Marcela Vásquez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión de la gestión del abastecimiento y suministro de sangre durante desastres a partir de las experiencias de diversos eventos ocurridos principalmente en la primera década de este siglo, y en particular el terremoto grado 8,8 en la escala de Richter que afectó la zona centro sur de Chile el 27 de febrero de 2010. El objetivo fue proporcionar información que pueda ser útil para mejorar las estrategias y planes de respuesta durante potenciales desastres futuros. La información descriptiva sobre los procedimientos de respuesta se obtuvo mediante entre-vistas, reportes internos y la base de datos del sistema informático del Centro Productivo Regional de Sangre del Maule. Los resultados permiten concluir que para responder de manera eficiente y efectiva a las necesidades de sangre inmediatamente después de un desastre es de importancia clave tener un sistema centralizado de gestión que facilite el abastecimiento y el suministro de sangre y con-tar con personal voluntario competente en salud que esté dispuesto a acudir con celeridad durante estos eventos. Asimismo, se ha observado que durante dichas emergencias se produce un cambio en el perfil de quienes donan sangre. En Chile, por ejemplo, durante las dos semanas siguientes al terremoto la razón hombre/mujer en los donantes se invirtió, con 61,1% de participación por parte de las mujeres, quienes en la semana previa al evento representaban a solo 37%.A review of the management of blood supply and its administration during disasters was conducted based on the experience of several events that occurred primarily from 2000-2010, particularly the earthquake that measured 8.8 on the Richter scale that struck central and southern Chile on 27 February 2010. The objective was to provide information that could be useful in improving response plans and strategies during potential future disasters. The descriptive information on response procedures was obtained from

  8. Desastres relacionados à seca e saúde coletiva – uma revisão da literatura científica

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    Tais Ariza Alpino

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo No Brasil, a história das secas é marcada por seguidas tragédias sociais e sanitárias, com estimativas de 3 milhões de óbitos entre o início do século XIX e o final do século XX e o registro de quase 32 mil eventos e mais de 96 milhões de afetados entre 1991 e 2010. Apesar de no Brasil a seca ser um desastre histórico, não encontramos, desde a expedição científica de Arthur Neiva e Belisário Penna em 1912 nas zonas flageladas pela seca, muitas pesquisas sobre a relação seca e saúde no Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar uma revisão dos artigos científicos sobre a relação seca e saúde coletiva. Foram utilizadas as bases de dados PubMed, Portal Preparação e Respostas a Desastres da BVS e Portal de Periódicos da Capes, utilizando-se os descritoresdrought and health no título e resumo, selecionando-se somente artigos em inglês e espanhol com relação direta com os temas em saúde. Dentre os efeitos sobre a saúde encontrados, destacam-se os relacionados à desnutrição e deficiências nutricionais, saúde mental, qualidade das águas e do ar, além do comprometimento da qualidade e do acesso aos serviços de saúde. Considerando-se as tendências de episódios de seca mais intensos e frequentes e de escassez de água até 2030, torna-se urgente ampliar as pesquisas sobre o tema e revisões da literatura.

  9. Plan Nacional de Gestión de Riesgo de Costa Rica en el marco de la Agenda Global de Cambio para reducir los riesgos a desastres

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    Markus, Patrick C.G.F

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se analiza el Plan Nacional de Gestión del Riesgo 2016-2020 de Costa Rica. En primera instancia se revisaron los objetivos, principales enfoques y algunas interrelaciones de los marcos internacionales que conforman la Agenda Global respecto al cambio climático (el Acuerdo de París, el desarrollo sostenible (la Agenda 2030 y la reducción del riesgo de desastres (el Marco Sendai. Se ubicará al lector en el contexto costarricense referente a esta Agenda Global Transformativa y la Política Nacional de Gestión del Riesgo 2016-2030. También, examina brevemente las relaciones entre esta Agenda y las prácticas de Gestión del Riesgo y los conceptos del riesgo de desastres en que se basa. Además, tiene como objetivo contestar las preguntas: ¿Cuál es el carácter de la transformación que la Agenda intenta inducir?, ¿Cuáles procesos requieren ser transformados? y ¿Quiénes tendrán que realizar estas transformaciones? Se concluye que la visión expresada en la agenda se ve bien reflejada en la Política Nacional de Gestión del Riesgo y en su primer plan quinquenio. A la vez se ofrecen recomendaciones con base en un análisis del cambio organizacional que se requiere para su implementación This paper analyzes the Costa Rican National Risk Management Plan for 2016-2020. It starts with a review of the objectives, main approaches and relationships between the international framework agreements that form the Global Agenda with respect to climate change (the Paris Agreement, sustainable development (the 2030 Agenda and disaster risk reduction (the Sendai Framework. The reader is oriented on the Costa Rican context regarding this Global Transformative Agenda and the National Policy for Disaster Risk Management 2016-2030. The paper briefly analyzes the relations between this Agenda and risk management practices and conceptions of disaster risks on which it is based, and aims to answer the questions what is the character

  10. La gestión del riesgo de desastres en el cantón de Cañas, Guanacaste

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    Cabezas Ramos, Erika Patricia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se expone la experiencia de la Municipalidad de Cañas en la gestión del riesgo, basado en las acciones realizadas a través del Proyecto BOSAI, de la Comisión Nacional de Prevención de Riesgos y Atención de Emergencias en conjunto con la Agencia de Cooperación Internacional de Japón. Este proyecto busca que la comunidad adquiera una cultura de prevención de desastres, por medio del trabajo conjunto con la municipalidad. Ofrece un acercamiento a la filosofía BOSAI y la metodología utilizada "DIGA" (Desarrollando ideas generando aprendizajes. Presentan los logros alcanzados a nivel municipal, entre ellos uno de los más importantes la realización del foro "Experiencias centroamericanas del proyecto BOSAI: construcción de un modelo sustentable de la gestión BOSAI municipal para la prevención de desastres". Presenta el caso de la comunidad Hotel como ejemplo de buenas prácticas y lecciones aprendidas. Concluye con una reflexión sobre las principales enseñanzas de la filosofía BOSAI This presents the experience of the Cañas Municipality in risk management, based on the actions developed through the Project BOSAI, of the National Commission of Risk Prevention and Emergency Response together with the Japanese International Cooperation Agency. The objective of this project is that the Community acquires a disaster prevention culture through teamwork with the Municipality. It offers a rapprochement between the BOSAI philosophy and the "DIGA" (Desarrollando ideas generando aprendizajes - Developing Ideas Generating Learning methodology used. It presents municipal achievements, one of the most important: organizing the forum "Central American Experiences of the Project BOSAI: construction of a sustainable model for the municipal BOSAI management to prevent disasters." It presents the case of the community Hotel as an example of good practices and lessons learned. It concludes with a reflection about the main teachings of the BOSAI

  11. La naturaleza social de los desastres asociados a inundaciones y deslizamientos en Medellín (1930-1990.

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    Carlos A. Serna Quintana.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article qualitatively links the disasters associated with landslides and flooding in Medellin with characteristics of the process of urban growth, such as double marginality and the intensive transformation of nature. It identifies the social construction of risk, a process that defines the social nature of disasters, thus suggesting ways to question the supposed natural character of such disasters.

  12. Cadeia de suprimentos humanitária: uma análise dos processos de atuação em desastres naturais

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    Sérgio Ricardo Argollo da Costa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O presente artigo apresenta uma análise dos processos logísticos adotados em resposta a seis desastres naturais ocorridos entre 2000 e 2011: Moçambique (2000; Oceano Índico (2004; Paquistão (2005; Haiti (2010; Japão (2011, Brasil (2011. A seleção dos eventos estudados baseou-se na dimensão do seu impacto com relação ao número de fatalidades e ao número de pessoas atingidas. Através de uma análise realizada por meio de dados secundários, foram identificadas as melhores práticas, os problemas ocorridos e principais desafios destas operações humanitárias, de forma a identificar condições comuns aos cenários. Como resultado da análise, são propostas sugestões para aumentar a eficácia e o sucesso do processo logístico em outras operações de resposta humanitária. Este estudo contribui para a identificação de procedimentos que podem servir como base para o desenvolvimento de modelos para respostas mais eficazes em eventos similares.

  13. Amenazas naturales y evaluación subjetiva en la construcción de la vulnerabilidad social ante desastres naturales en Chile y Brasil

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    Hugo Romero

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-1384.2012v9n1p127   Se analiza desde los puntos de vista objetivo y subjetivo,  algunos de los factores económicos, políticos, sociales y culturales que han participado de la construcción de la vulnerabilidad social con que, comunidades de Chile y Brasil, han enfrentado desastres naturales recientes, que han incluido inundaciones, remociones en masa de sedimentos, terremotos y tsunamis. Factores globales han generado restricciones económicas que se han manifestado localmente en un aumento de la vulnerabilidad social debido a la falta de inversiones públicas  en obras de protección. Adicionalmente, se han observado procesos de exclusión y segregación social, traducidos en una ocupación humana permanente y sistemática de áreas expuestas a las amenazas naturales, en las cuáles se ha ubicado a la población de menores recursos. Las percepciones de los riesgos naturales, las formas de organización social y las expectativas y frustraciones de las comunidades locales constituyen valiosas lecciones que deberían ser las bases del aprendizaje social necesario para evitar que estas tragedias continúen repitiéndose en nuestros países.

  14. Entendiendo los orígenes del crimen estatal-corporativo. Un análisis de los desastres del Prestige y Morecambe Bay

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    Ignasi Bernat Molina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available El vertido de petróleo del Prestige y sus trágicas consecuencias son analizadas en este artículo en el contexto de una estructura general de producción de petróleo, transporte y patrón de impunidad que protege a los actores estatal y corporativo clave. El artículo desafía la asunción general de que el estado y la corporación existen como instituciones independientes y autónomas, y por tanto, el error que supone entender los estados y las corporaciones como representantes de los intereses opuestos entre lo público y lo privado. De este modo, ofrece una corrección a la asunción preponderante de que los crímenes corporativos emergen de los ‘momentos de ruptura’ o de la ruptura de las capacidades de los estados para regular el poder corporativo. De hecho, argumenta que la formación de las condiciones del desastre son el resultado de un amplio régimen de permisividad para un sistema de acumulación de capital, donde los estados garantizan la reproducción del poder del capital en su forma corporativa.  

  15. Fenómeno el niño y desastres naturales: intervenciones en salud pública para la preparación y respuesta

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    Gisely Hijar

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El presente artículo realiza una revisión de las intervenciones en salud pública para la preparación y respuesta ante desastres naturales en el contexto del fenómeno El Niño (FEN a partir de revisiones sistemáticas y una revisión de revisiones con énfasis en las enfermedades transmitidas por vectores, transmitidas por el agua, malnutrición, estrés térmico, sequías, enfermedades asociadas a inundaciones, problemas de salud mental, vulnerabilidad de la infraestructura física de los servicios de salud, así como de las políticas a largo plazo orientadas a proteger a la población en estos casos. Se identificaron intervenciones ambientales, como el control de vectores, quimioprofilaxis, vacunación y tratamiento intradomiciliario de agua. Si bien estos hallazgos se basan principalmente en revisiones sistemáticas, es necesario evaluar el beneficio de estas intervenciones en la población, de acuerdo con la realidad de cada región.

  16. Dispelling disaster myths about dead bodies and disease: the role of scientific evidence and the media Se despejan los mitos sobre la relación de los cadáveres con las enfermedades en situaciones de desastre: el papel de las pruebas científicas y de los medios de comunicación

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    Oliver Morgan

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available For decades, after nearly every natural disaster, fear of disease has encouraged communities, local authorities, and governments to rapidly dispose of the bodies of the victims without first identifying them. In May 2004 this journal published the first-ever review article to comprehensively assess the scientific evidence on the infectious disease risks of dead bodies following natural disasters, along with an editorial commenting on the persistence of myths concerning the dangers allegedly posed by dead bodies. This paper assesses the impact that the review article and the editorial have had on the way that health risks from dead bodies have been reported by the media over the following year, especially focusing on the South Asian tsunami disaster of December 2004. While some media outlets have reported erroneous information, hundreds of other news stories have accurately reported that dead bodies pose no public health risk, and have explained the priority for properly identifying the deceased. Nevertheless, publication of scientific evidence alone is insufficient to bring about public health action. International agencies need to continue their work on producing standards, guidelines, and practical guidance on managing dead bodies. There needs to be a community-centered approach to informing communities about the management of the dead following disasters and the rights of individuals to be treated respectfully after death. Nongovernmental organizations should be encouraged to provide expertise and technical support in identifying and burying large numbers of dead. There also needs to be ongoing assessment of the technical processes involved in the recovery, identification, and disposal of dead bodies, as well as the effectiveness of disaster preparedness plans and communication with the affected population.A lo largo de varios decenios se ha visto que, a raíz de casi todos los desastres naturales, el temor a la propagación de enfermedades

  17. Una aproximación al estudio conceptual de los desastres urbanos en América Latina : La importancia de un proceso de gestión integrado para desarrollar estrategias de prevención de riesgos y disminuir la vulnerabilidad social

    OpenAIRE

    Galarza, Laura

    2005-01-01

    En este trabajo se intenta principalmente realizar una aproximación teórica a los conceptos de desastre urbano, vulnerabilidad social, degradación ambiental y riesgo; desde una perspectiva que tenga en cuenta las siguientes consideraciones. - Los desastres desencadenados por fenómenos naturales son procesos sociales, económicos y políticos. - La degradación ambiental en el ámbito urbano. - La importancia de la percepción y la construcción social en el concepto de riesgo. - La v...

  18. Una aproximación integral desde la metodología del descubrimiento del conocimiento al problema de la predicción de supervivencia en el desastre del Titanic

    OpenAIRE

    Calderón Pezo, Hector Orlando

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar el Desastre del Titanic, utilizando la metodología del Descubrimiento del Conocimiento (KDD). La tesis propone diferentes variantes de cómo aplicar técnicas de Minería de Datos y herramientas del Aprendizaje Automático para predecir de forma eficiente la sobrevivencia de los pasajeros. Con este fin se han adaptado diferentes algoritmos de pre-procesamiento de datos, selección de variables y clasificación, a las características particulares del problema ...

  19. Enfoque multidimensional de la reconstrucción post-desastre de la vivienda social y el hábitat en países en vías de desarrollo: Estudios de casos en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Olivera,A; González,G

    2010-01-01

    El artículo muestra los resultados de una investigación realizada con el objetivo de demostrar, mediante el estudio de casos en escenarios locales cubanos afectados por huracanes, la necesidad de aplicar un enfoque multidimensional en la reconstrucción post-desastre de la vivienda social y el hábitat, profundizando en problemas que son comunes a otros contextos, en particular en países en vías de desarrollo. El núcleo conceptual del artículo lo constituye el carácter multidimensional que debe...

  20. Panorama Epidemiológico de los Desastres Naturales. Ensayo a propósito del Fenómeno El Niño en el Perú (1998

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    Hernán Sanabria Rojas

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A manera de ensayo se hace una actualización de los conocimientos aceptados internacionalmente en relación a desastres. Se enfatiza en la última experiencia adquirida en el fenómeno El Niño en el Perú y su relación con las enfermedades infecciosas emergentes. Asimismo, se informa de algunas acciones y experiencias conexas al fenómeno realizadas por instituciones gubernamentales y no gubernamentales relacionadas con el sector salud.

  1. DESASTRES, MEDIOS MASIVOS Y COMUNICACIÓN PÚBLICA DE LA CIENCIA: ENTRE LA VULNERABILIDAD Y LA COHESIÓN SOCIAL EN COLOMBIA Y AMÉRICA LATINA

    OpenAIRE

    Hermelin, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    La cohesión social constituye un asunto transversal para buena parte del campo de los estudios de la comunicación y del campo de la comunicación pública de la ciencia, en Colombia y en América Latina. No obstante, la relación entre medios masivos, desastres y sociedad, se ha abordado poco en este ámbito nacional y regional, y menos desde cruces de aproximaciones entre dichos campos. En este artículo se plantea la necesidad de trabajar con objetos de estudio de esta naturaleza, y se aborda su ...

  2. Uma análise das reportagens no jornal "A Sirene": um porta-voz dos atingidos pelo desastre da Samarco

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    Marcelo Silva Celestino

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo traz uma análise sobre o jornal “A Sirene: para não esquecer” que foi criado por uma das ações do coletivo #UmMinutoDeSirene com o intuito de produzir um periódico feito pelos atingidos e para os atingidos. Esse jornal se constitui como um meio de comunicação para portar informações, reflexões e questionamentos sobre o desastre da barragem de rejeitos da Samarco/Vale/BHP. As reportagens foram examinadas a luz da análise de conteúdo com o objetivo de apresentar um mapeamento a partir das edições do jornal "A Sirene", visando identificar as temáticas mais frequentes no periódico. Constatamos que as temáticas mais frequentes são às que envolvem aspectos sociais e jurídicos. São temáticas que estão interligadas e se retroalimentam pois dizem respeito aos problemas mais próximos à vivência dos atingidos que denunciam constantemente a violação dos direitos individuais e coletivos por parte da empresa. Acreditamos que esse material jornalístico se qualifica como um dos porta-vozes importantes para a promoção de uma discussão mais abrangente e crítica da mineração e das consequências do desastre da Samarco na vida dos mais diferentes atingidos. ABSTRACT: This article presents an analysis about the newspaper "A Sirene: para não esquecer", that was created by one of the actions of the collective #UmMinutoDeSirene, with the intention of producing a journal, made by those affected and for those affected. This newspaper constitutes a means of communication to carry information, reflections and questions about the Samarco/Vale/BHP tailings dam disaster. The articles were examined under the prism of the content analysis, with the aim of presenting a mapping from the editions of the newspaper "A Sirene", in order to identify the most frequent topics in the journal. We have found that the most frequent themes are those involving social and legal aspects. These are themes that are interconnected and feedback

  3. Hospital seguro frente aos desastres: uma reflexão sobre biossegurança e arquitetura Hospitals safe from disasters: a reflection on architecture and biosafety

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    Lucia Cristina de Paiva Saba

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Um dos maiores desafios da sociedade atual é o enfrentamento das adversidades causadas pelos desastres. Os estabelecimentos de saúde, principalmente os hospitais, são considerados essenciais nessas situações. Este trabalho discute os princípios da arquitetura do hospital seguro frente aos desastres, como propõem a Organização Mundial da Saúde e a Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde. Projetar um hospital seguro exige ações multidisciplinares, com envolvimento de administradores, arquitetos, engenheiros, médicos e enfermeiros. O planejamento de cada hospital pressupõe uma análise de riscos e aspectos de segurança específicos. Também é importante agregar a biossegurança ao conceito de hospital seguro. O equilíbrio entre aspectos arquitetônicos e biossegurança permite a compreensão dos riscos associados ao trabalho, facilitando o dimensionamento de espaços para suportar as ações de resposta frente às emergências. Em suma, a programação de um hospital seguro requer uma síntese de conhecimentos que relacionam diversos saberes, entre eles os da biossegurança e da arquitetura hospitalar. Esses princípios devem embasar as indagações sobre o hospital seguro e o planejamento de projetos arquitetônicos com foco na manutenção das instalações em capacidade máxima mesmo diante de situações adversas.One of the biggest challenges in today’s society is facing adversity caused by disasters. Health facilities, especially hospitals, are considered essential in these situations. This article discusses the principles of architectural design of hospitals safe from disasters, as proposed by the World Health Organization and the Pan American Health Organization. Designing a safe hospital requires multidisciplinary efforts, involving administrators, architects, engineers, physicians, and nurses. The planning of each hospital demands the analysis of specific risks and safety concerns. The concept of biosafety should also be

  4. España y los sefardíes. El desastre del 98 en El Avenir [continuación

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    Asenjo, Rosa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The typical image of Spain created after 1492 would be kept by the modernising Ottoman Sephardic Jews on the eve of the 20th century, as shown by new literary genres such as journalism. Indeed, in newspapers dealing with historical and cultural aspects of contemporary Spain, the Sephardim seem unable to tranform the old stereotypes, fearing the consequences this change could have in the perception of their own identity. A series of articles about the «disaster of '98» published in the Salonican newspaper El Avenir, are an example of this situation.La visión tópica que se había ido creando sobre España después de 1492 se mantendrá entre los judíos sefardíes otomanos de finales del siglo XIX, a pesar de la llegada de la modernidad. Los sefardíes finiseculares parecen incapaces de cambiar esta imagen tópica porque su desaparición tendría repercusiones en la percepción de su propia identidad. El periodismo, uno de los nuevos géneros literarios adoptados por los sefardíes, refleja esos tópicos en las noticias de contenido histórico-cultural que se refieren a la España del momento. Un ejemplo de esta situación lo presentan las noticias publicadas con motivo del «desastre del 98» en el periódico salonicense El Avenir.

  5. Una estrategia de atención primaria de salud en situaciones de desastres A primary healthcare strategy in disaster situations

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    Blanca Terry Berro

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la experiencia y la práctica profesional de una brigada médica cubana que prestó colaboración en la zona del Eje Cafetero Colombiano después del terremoto de 25 de enero de 1999. Las acciones fueron dirigidas a las áreas de atención primaria de salud, atención primaria ambiental, saneamiento ambiental y vigilancia epidemiológica, tomando en cuenta la organización de los damnificados en alojamientos de emergencia, en un municipio afectado. La vigilancia epidemiológica activa puso de manifiesto que las principales causas de morbilidad fueron las infecciones respiratorias agudas, las enfermedades diarreicas agudas y las afecciones de la piel. En los asentamientos se observó una correspondencia entre las malas condiciones de saneamiento ambiental y determinadas enfermedades asociadas. La experiencia de este trabajo de campo puede servir como guía para los profesionales de salud en caso de desastres y poblaciones desplazadas.The present article describes the experience of the Cuban Medical Team in the Colombian Coffee Area after the earthquake of January 25, 1999. The interventions were directed at the areas of primary health care, primary environmental care, environmental health, and epidemiological surveillance, bearing in mind the organization of earthquake victims sheltered in emergency settlements in the affected municipality. Active epidemiological surveillance showed that the main causes of morbidity were acute diarrheic diseases, acute respiratory infections, and skin diseases. Evaluation of the settlements showed a correlation between poor environmental health conditions and associated diseases. The results of this field study could serve as a guide for health professionals in the event of disasters and displaced populations.

  6. Gestão ambiental municipal: análise da situação institucional em municípios afetados por desastres naturais – o caso do Furacão Catarina

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    Daniel Trento do Nascimento

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo busca analisar a atual situação e estrutura de gestão ambiental dos municípios afetados pelo primeiro furacão do Atlântico Sul, o Furacão Catarina, cinco anos após sua ocorrência. Nesse sentido, procurou-se verificar em que medida a percepção de ameaças globais, como as mudanças climáticas e os consequentes desastres naturais, aumenta a predisposição para melhoria institucional relacionada ao meio ambiente nos municípios. Para tanto, foram visitados todos os municípios atingidos pelo furacão com danos classificados com impacto médio, alto ou muito alto. Com base em dados primários e secundários, procurou-se comparar a estrutura de gestão ambiental na época da ocorrência do desastre e a estrutura atual. Como conclusão, é possível afirmar que pouco mudou em termos de gestão ambiental municipal, mesmo passados 5 anos da ocorrência do fenômeno.

  7. Una aproximación a las relaciones entre espacio urbano y riesgo de desastres. Dos casos de estudio para el centro y la periferia inundable del Aglomerado Gran Buenos Aires

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    Diego Ríos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A menudo los estudios que abordan la temática de riesgo de desastres le otorgan escasa importancia a la base urbana partícipe en la gestación de esos problemas. Este artículo propone una aproximación a las relaciones existentes entre espacio urbano y riesgo de desastres en términos de su producción, tomando dos estudios de caso para el centro y la periferia inundable del Aglomerado Gran Buenos Aires.Para ello se analizan los procesos materiales y simbólicos que participan de la incorporación urbana de áreas inundables (valle inferior del Arroyo Maldonado y bañados de Tigre, destacando la dinámica que adquiere el accionar de los actores económicos privados (asociados al capital inmobiliario-financiero y el Estado durante los cambios ocurridos en las últimas décadas.

  8. O Desastre como substância alquímica: mergulho e tentativa de apreensão através de L'Écriture du Désastre

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    Ciro Lubliner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2176-8552.2015n18p193 Este artigo visa refletir – e produzir reflexões – acerca do conceito de desastre tal qual desenvolvido pelo pensador francês Maurice Blanchot (1907-2003. Através de seu livro L'Écriture du Désastre (1980 uma nova forma de prática-teoria crítica, literária e filosófica, necessariamente fragmentária, foi posta em operação. Por se tratar de um conceito bastante complexo, no sentido mesmo de ser composto por inúmeros pavimentos e construções, e que segundo o próprio autor passa pela ordem do inapreensível, buscamos de alguma maneira fazer ressoar perspectivas iluminadoras acerca dos temas que o atravessam, em meio a utilização também de exemplos pontuais na literatura e no cinema. Optamos também pela adoção de uma compreensão singular do desastre blanchotiano, pensando-o como substância alquímica, composta por elementos e fatores específicos, geradores de operações próprias à escrita e à literatura.

  9. PREPARACIÓN DEL PERSONAL SANITARIO EN UN ÁREA DE SALUD DE ASTURIAS ALTAMENTE INDUSTRIALIZADA PARA RESPONDER ANTE UN DESASTRE INDUSTRIAL

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    Rafael Castro Delgado

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Para responder a los accidentes industriales, de cara a minimizar sus consecuencias, es necesaria una correcta preparación del personal sanitario que trabaja en zonas de riesgo. El objetivo de este estudio es establecer el grado de percepción subjetiva que tienen los profesionales sanitarios sobre su preparación para actuar en un accidente industrial con múltiples víctimas, así como su conocimiento sobre los riesgos industriales propios de la zona. Métodos: Se diseñó un cuestionario para medir cinco dimensiones relacionadas con la respuesta ante accidentes industriales (conocimiento técnicos, conocimientos del Área, habilidades prácticas, actitudes y formación. La muestra estaba formada por todos los médicos y personal de enfermería de Atención Primaria del Área y del Servicio de Urgencias del hospital de referencia. Resultados: La tasa de respuesta fue del 61,2%. Los resultados en las cuestiones de cada dimensión, con un valor máximo de 4, fueron: Conocimientos técnicos (µ=1,3; d=0,81; Conocimientos del Área (µ=0,75; d=0,96; Habilidades prácticas (µ=0,9; d=0,8; Actitudes (µ=3,25; d=0,73; y Formación (µ=0,75; d=0,88. Obtienen mejores puntuaciones los trabajadores del servicio de urgencias hospitalario y aquellos con contratos indefinidos o temporales, por encima de los trabajadores con contrato fijo. Conclusiones: Existe un déficit de información y de formación entre los profesionales sanitarios que contrasta con el interés mostrado por subsanar estas carencias. Es necesario establecer un programa de información y formación básica para responder ante desastres industriales en nuestra Área de Salud.

  10. Preparación del personal sanitario en un área de salud de Asturias altamente industrializada para responder ante un desastre industrial

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    Castro Delgado Rafael

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Para responder a los accidentes industriales, de cara a minimizar sus consecuencias, es necesaria una correcta preparación del personal sanitario que trabaja en zonas de riesgo. El objetivo de este estudio es establecer el grado de percepción subjetiva que tienen los profesionales sanitarios sobre su preparación para actuar en un accidente industrial con múltiples víctimas, así como su conocimiento sobre los riesgos industriales propios de la zona. Métodos: Se diseñó un cuestionario para medir cinco dimensiones relacionadas con la respuesta ante accidentes industriales (conocimiento técnicos, conocimientos del Área, habilidades prácticas, actitudes y formación. La muestra estaba formada por todos los médicos y personal de enfermería de Atención Primaria del Área y del Servicio de Urgencias del hospital de referencia. Resultados: La tasa de respuesta fue del 61,2%. Los resultados en las cuestiones de cada dimensión, con un valor máximo de 4, fueron: Conocimientos técnicos (µ=1,3; delta=0,81; Conocimientos del Área (µ=0,75; d=0,96; Habilidades prácticas (µ=0,9; delta=0,8; Actitudes (µ=3,25; delta=0,73; y Formación (µ=0,75; d=0,88. Obtienen mejores puntuaciones los trabajadores del servicio de urgencias hospitalario y aquellos con contratos indefinidos o temporales, por encima de los trabajadores con contrato fijo. Conclusiones: Existe un déficit de información y de formación entre los profesionales sanitarios que contrasta con el interés mostrado por subsanar estas carencias. Es necesario establecer un programa de información y formación básica para responder ante desastres industriales en nuestra Área de Salud.

  11. ATRIBUTOS QUÍMICOS E FÍSICOS DE SOLO CULTIVADO COM OLERÁCEAS EM MICROBACIA HIDROGRÁFICA, APÓS DESASTRE AMBIENTAL

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    Celeste Queiroz Rossi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A matéria orgânica do solo é uma importante fonte primária de nutrientes às plantas e influencia a infiltração, retenção de água, suscetibilidade à erosão e agregação do solo. No entanto, esse processo está condicionado à qualidade e quantidade da matéria orgânica aportada. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do desastre ambiental causado pela chuva em áreas de produção de oleráceas na região Serrana do Rio de Janeiro. Foram selecionadas as seguintes áreas: A1: sem impacto (testemunha; A2: soterramento total e cultivo de aveia + ervilhaca; A3: transbordamento do rio e cultivo de milheto + girassol; A4: transbordamento do rio e grande deposição de areia com cultivo de aveia-preta; A5: transbordamento do rio com grande deposição de areia e sem cultivo; e A6: transbordamento do rio em pequena escala e sem cultivo. As propriedades edáficas analisadas foram: textura; densidade do solo (Ds; densidade de partículas (Dp; diâmetro médio ponderado (DMP e diâmetro médio geométrico (DMG de agregados estáveis em água; pH(H2O, Al3+, Ca2++Mg2+, Na+, H+Al, K, P e carbono orgânico total (COT; e frações granulométricas e químicas da matéria orgânica. Os maiores valores de DMP e DMG foram observados nas áreas A3 e A6, que seguem a mesma tendência dos maiores teores de argila. Os teores de COT e suas frações químicas e físicas apresentaram diferenças em relação à testemunha com os menores valores verificados nas áreas que foram submetidas ao impacto pelo transbordamento do rio e grande deposição de areia. As áreas que foram impactadas pelo soterramento com predomínio da fração argila apresentaram valores semelhantes ou superiores aos da testemunha. As variáveis foram selecionadas e avaliadas por meio da análise de componentes principais, que evidenciou distinção entre as áreas estudadas, com separação entre elas associada à textura do solo e densidade de partículas.

  12. Evaluación y modelización hidrológica para el diagnóstico de “desastres naturales”

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    Pla Sentís Ildefonso

    2012-05-01

    errores en la evaluación de procesos de degradación de suelos y de sus efectos sobre desastres naturales. Deberían preferirse métodos de campo simples y directos, adaptables a diferentes tipos de suelos y climas, y a los tamaños de muestras y variabilidad espacial de las propiedades hidráulicas a evaluar a nivel de campo. Se propone un sistema de modelización basado en procesos hidrológicos, debidamente evaluados con metodologías adecuadas para cada combinación de suelos, topografía, clima y sistema de manejo, la cual ha probado ya su utilidad en la evaluación de las causas y efectos de degradación de suelos y aguas bajo muy diferentes condiciones.

  13. EL CONTRATO SOCIAL DEL MÉDICO ANTE EL DESASTRE DE LA SALUD Pronunciamiento de la Academia Nacional de Medicina 9 de mayo de 2011

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    Academia Nacional de Medicina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Con el advenimiento de la atención “gerenciada” de la salud (managed care que implantó en Colombia la Ley 100 de diciembre 23 de 1993 se ha pretendido modificar el contrato social del médico, sustituir el imperativo hipocrático de considerar ante todo el bien del paciente por una pretendida “justicia distributiva” que ha llevado a Colombia al actual desastre en el sistema de atención de la salud. Economistas de la llamada escuela neoliberal que preconizan la privatización con ánimo de lucro y la mano invisible del mercado como los factores supremos de desarrollo y regulación y propenden por el debilitamiento del Estado y de las instituciones de carácter público, han manejado directa o indirectamente el sistema de salud. Esto tal vez ilustra lo inexplicable: a los 17 años de la creación del Sistema General de Seguridad Social en Salud (SGSSS todavía no existe un sistema de información con registro único, y la Superintendencia Nacional de Salud es extremadamente débil y continúa adscrita al Ministerio de la Protección Social, dando amplio campo de acción a las aseguradoras, que más bien son intermediarios financieros. Se debe tener en cuenta que un sistema de salud es, en esencia, un sistema de información, y que al crear el mercado de la salud se requerían mecanismos de vigilancia y control muy fuertes. Ni sistema de información, ni adecuada vigilancia, ni estricto control ha tenido el actual sistema de salud colombiano. Sin embargo, la Academia Nacional de Medicina, por ley órgano consultor del Gobierno, ha advertido repetidamente tales fallas desde hace años.

    El modelo de la atención “gerenciada” de la salud significa un cambio profundo en uno de los pilares de la estructura de la sociedad, el de la atención de la salud, y altera en forma dramática tanto el ejercicio de la medicina como la esencia misma de la profesión, con detrimento de la calidad de la atención. En efecto, el modelo

  14. An alternative solution for the repair of electrical breakdowns after natural disasters based on ant colony optimization

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    Yasel José Costa-Salas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En la literatura especializada existe abundante literatura sobre la aplicación de meta-heurísticas en la planeación de rutas. Sin embargo, la mayoría de las investigaciones en este campo han sido desarrolladas bajo escenarios normales (ejemplo bajo condiciones meteorológicas normales. Los desastres naturales, por ejemplo los huracanes, incrementan la complejidad en este tipo de problemas combinatorios. En este artículo se resuelve un problema de planeación de ruta, específicamente para la reparación de averías eléctricas que suceden posteriores a un desastre natural. El problema es modelado empleando una formulación entera basada en asignación para Múltiples Viajeros Vendedores (mTSP. Por otra parte, en el artículo se propone una aplicación creativa de un algoritmo de optimización basado en Colonia de Hormigas (ACO, específicamente Sistema de Hormigas Multi-tipos, donde cada colonia representa un conjunto de posibles soluciones globales del problema. Las hormigas cooperan y compiten mediante frecuentes intercambios de feromonas para buscar una solución del problema. El desempeño del algoritmo ha sido comparado con otras variantes de ACO, mostrando la eficacia del algoritmo propuesto en ambiente realístico de la toma de decisiones.

  15. La actuación de la comunidad internacional frente a desastres naturales. Estudio de caso: cooperación internacional humanitaria y de emergencia hacia Japón luego del terremoto y tsunami del 11 de marzo de 2011

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    Martínez Barreto, Derly Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Este trabajo pretende mostrar el manejo que le da la comunidad internacional a los desastres naturales, a partir del envío de cooperación humanitaria y de emergencia. Para ello se realizó un estudio de caso de Japón y la ayuda que recibió luego del terremoto y tsunami del 11 de marzo de 2011. Esta tesis está dividida en 4 partes: el primer capítulo está dedicado a Japón, en este se pretende mostrar la vulnerabilidad del país frente a los desastres y los problemas que afrontó luego de la emerg...

  16. Respuestas psicológicas ante un desastre natural: estrés y crecimiento postraumático (Psychological responses to a natural disaster: stress and post-traumatic growth

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    Felipe E. García Martínez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El propósito de este estudio fue identificar procesos psicológicos relacionados con la sintomatología del estrés postraumático (SPT y el crecimiento postraumático (CPT. A través de un análisis de sendero se evaluó un modelo que relacionó SPT y CPT con severidad subjetiva, impacto en las creencias básicas, compartir social y rumiación relacionada a un evento. Participaron 291 estudiantes que estuvieron expuestos al terremoto y tsunami de Chile del 2010. El modelo final demuestra que SPT y CPT se producen por vías distintas, aun cuando en algunas fases del proceso participan las mismas variables psicológicas, como la severidad subjetiva y el compartir social. La rumiación intrusiva aparece como un factor mediador del desarrollo de la SPT y la rumiación deliberada del CPT. ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to identify psychological processes related with posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS and posttraumatic growth (PTG. Through a path analysis it was evaluated a model that related the PTS and PTG with subjective severity of trauma, impact on the basic beliefs, social sharing and rumination related to an event. Were selected 291 college students who were exposed to the earthquake and tsunami in Chile, 2010. The final model obtained shows that the PTS and PTG are produced by different routes, even when in some phases the same psychological variables are involved such as the subjective severity and social sharing. The intrusive rumination appears as a mediator of the PTS and the deliberate rumination of the PTG.

  17. Gestión para la seguridad frente a desastres en áreas urbanas históricas: un modelo de planificación estratégica, sistémica y prospectiva

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    Susana Palma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available El artículo sintetiza los resultados de la tesis doctoral en Arquitectura de la Universidad de San Carlos, misma que evidenció la necesidad de contar con un instrumento de planificación para procurar la seguridad urbana frente a desastres en las áreas urbanas históricas (AUH del país, además de poner a disposición de los planificadores del nivel municipal de una herramienta de planificación participativa. La metodología de planificación que aquí se presenta, se sustenta en los enfoques estratégico, sistémico y prospectivo que resultan útiles para hacer aportaciones positivas a la seguridad urbana. Por lo que se presenta una breve descripción sobre tales enfoques, incluyendo el de riesgo y patrimonio histórico, hasta exponer el esquema del proceso de planificación.

  18. La escuela en tiempos de crisis:Puntos de fuga para re-instaurar la esperanza en contextos post-desastre The school in times of crisis:Projecting points to restore hope in post disaster contexts

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    Bibiana Vélez Medina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La modernidad contingente es el resultado de la modernidad ilustrada e industrializada, de allí que la contingencia devenga en riesgo y se instale como condición de posibilidad contemporánea. El riesgo aparece entonces como un costructo social e historico que permea todos los ambitos de la cultura occidental, entre ellos el de la educación, el cual debe ser deconstruido desde la emergencia de la incertidumbre que produce la catastrofe del ideal moderno. En este orden de ideas, el presente texto indaga sobre las nuevas condiciones de oportudinad de la escuela en el contexto post-desastre y los riesgos del futuro devenir educativo.Abstract Contingent modernity can be described as the result of enlightened and industrialized modernity and hence bears the risk of being transformed into a condition of contemporary possibility. In this manner, risk appears as a social and historical construct permeating all fields of western culture, among them the field of education, which must be deconstructed from the emergency of uncertainty, which produces the catastrophe of the modern ideal. From this vein of ideas, the following text examines new conditions of opportunity for the school in a post-disaster context and the risks of future educational transformation.

  19. Organização dos serviços urbanos de saúde frente à mudança do clima e ao risco de desastres na América Latina

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    Carlos Alexandre Rodrigues Pereira

    Full Text Available Países da América Latina que sofreram com eventos extremos e desastres nas últimas décadas têm buscado alternativas para melhorar a organização e a capacidade de resposta dos serviços de saúde, evitando o impacto que a população sofreria no caso de tais serviços serem afetados. Neste artigo são relatadas experiências de países da América Latina no que se refere à preparação e adaptação às mudanças do clima no setor saúde, que poderiam ser replicadas em outros locais. Espera-se, por meio desta revisão crítica da literatura, que se possa motivar o setor saúde a se reorganizar para que se torne menos vulnerável aos efeitos das mudanças do clima.

  20. Natural gas; Gas Natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Carlos A.; Moraes, Claudia C.D. [Eletricidade de Sao Paulo S.A. (ELETROPAULO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fonseca, Carlos H.F. [Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina S.A., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Silva, Clecio Fabricio da; Alves, Ricardo P. [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Sposito, Edivaldo Soares; Hulle, Lutero [Espirito Santo Centrais Eletricas S.A. (ESCELSA), Vitoria, ES (Brazil); S. Martins, Icaro da [Centrais Eletricas do Norte do Brasil S.A. (ELETRONORTE), Belem, PA (Brazil); Vilhena, Joao Luiz S. de [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Fagundes, Zaluar Aquino [Companhia Estadual de Energia Eletrica do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    An increase in the consumption of natural gas in Brazil is an expected fact in what concerns energetic planning. This work presents the existing situation in what concerns natural gas utilization in the main world economies, as well as an analysis of the participation of this fuel among the energy final consumption per sources. The Brazilian consumption of natural gas is also analysed as well as the international agreement between Brazil and Bolivia for natural gas commercialization. Some legal, institutional and political aspects related to natural gas commercialization are also discussed. Finally, several benefits to be brought by the utilization of natural gas are presented 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  1. Los riesgos geográficos y su impacto en la sociedad: amenazas y desastres. / Geographical risks and their impact on society: threats and disasters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrando A., Francisco J.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Los riesgos son un constructo social en la medida que es el hombre el que se instala o construye en lugares inadecuados y con formas inadecuadas, respecto de la dinámica de la naturaleza, de las amenazas más frecuentes./Risks are a social construction in the sense that man settles and or builds on inadequate places and in an inadequate ways, concerning the dynamics of nature and the more frequent hazards.

  2. Análise da percepção de risco e vulnerabilidade a partir dos alunos do ensino médio na vivência de Nova Friburgo RJ após desastre natural de 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Gonzalez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A precipitação intensa num intervalo de poucas horas, causou uma série de deslizamentos de encostas e enchentes e/ou inundações de rios na Região Serrana do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, especialmente no município de Nova Friburgo no mês de janeiro de 2011. Baseada na vivência dos alunos do 1º ano do Ensino Médio de dois colégios da rede estadual de ensino, esta pesquisa se utilizou do fato desta região ter sofrido este evento extremo. Observou-se a percepção de risco dos alunos através do que viveram e com os conteúdos da geografia Com o aplicativo Google Earth,foi elaborado o mapa de área de risco pelos mesmos, havendo uma comparação entre os resultados encontrados nas duas escolas, além de confrontá-los com dados da prefeitura sobre o assunto. Além disso, houve a análise da vulnerabilidade da população a partir de mapas temáticos com base no censo do IBGE(2010.

  3. Impuesto a la carne: memoria del desastre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Fernando Rodrigo-Mendizábal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza las dimensiones narrativas de Impuesto a la carne de Diamela Eltit. Escrita como la memoria de la nación fracasada en Chile, producto del autoritarismo que caracteriza su historia desde su emancipación, la novela deriva en un relato distópico que denuncia cómo el poder político hizo de aquella el motivo de su constitución. A esa nación “malparida” se la ha capturado y con ella se sigue experimentando; empero, esta nación en ruinas sigue gritando desde el interior de su reclusión. Eltit, con dicha novela, enfrenta el imaginario neoliberal que hizo olvidar las conquistas sociales, sobre todo las de mujeres chilenas. This article analyzes the narrative dimensions of Diamela Eltit’s Impuesto a la carne. Written as the memory of a failed nation in Chile, product of the authoritarianism that characterized its history since its emancipation, the novel derives into dystopian tale that denounces how political power made it the reason for its establishment. This bad calved nation has captured and with it is still experiencing; however, this nation in ruins still screams from it inside detention. Eltit, with this novel, faces the neoliberal imaginary that made us forget the social conquests, especially of the Chilean women.

  4. Los desastres naturales: el rol del pediatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Loredo Abdalá

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ¿Es factible que los médicos pediatras puedan intervenir orientando a los papás de sus pacientes o a cualquier persona sobre alguna de las diversas estrategias que se requieren para alcanzar los acuerdos y la reconstrucción de los daños causados por los sismos, terremotos, huracanes e inundaciones como los que en meses previos afectaron a Chiapas, Oaxaca, Guerrero, Morelos, Puebla y la Ciudad de México?

  5. PLURALIZING NATURE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2014-01-01

    not necessary mean planning for a one common nature. As exemplified by the River Aire Re-naturalization Project (2002-2015), landscape architecture might provide an alternative approach to nature restoration that is more site specific and allows for multiple interpretations to coexist. In the presentation...

  6. The effect of inclement weather on ankle fracture management in an Irish trauma unit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, B J

    2013-09-01

    Ireland is unfamiliar with extreme weather conditions. Such conditions occurred in winter 2009-2010 and 2010-2011, with much of the country being affected by snow and ice. We reviewed the effect that these conditions had on the treatment of ankle fractures in our trauma unit.

  7. PLURALIZING NATURE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2014-01-01

    Denmark is widely recognised for its democratic approach to planning and the idea of planning for the common good. This interest in the common good and common values seems also to be reflected in the way which nature restoration is planned and managed – one common nature directed by the public...... authorities. But nature restoration is far from being a neural undertaking. Just like any other type of heritage production it can be the source of dissonance – ‘our’ nature is not necessary ‘their’ nature. Often this dissonance is managed in ways, which are not particular sensitive to site......-specificity. As exemplified by the Skjern River Restoration Project (1999-2003), one interpretation of the landscape sometimes suppresses other valid interpretations neglecting its diverse history. However, evidence from Switzerland suggests that planning for the common good, in the case of nature restoration, does...

  8. Temporal naturalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolin, Lee

    2015-11-01

    Two people may claim both to be naturalists, but have divergent conceptions of basic elements of the natural world which lead them to mean different things when they talk about laws of nature, or states, or the role of mathematics in physics. These disagreements do not much affect the ordinary practice of science which is about small subsystems of the universe, described or explained against a background, idealized to be fixed. But these issues become crucial when we consider including the whole universe within our system, for then there is no fixed background to reference observables to. I argue here that the key issue responsible for divergent versions of naturalism and divergent approaches to cosmology is the conception of time. One version, which I call temporal naturalism, holds that time, in the sense of the succession of present moments, is real, and that laws of nature evolve in that time. This is contrasted with timeless naturalism, which holds that laws are immutable and the present moment and its passage are illusions. I argue that temporal naturalism is empirically more adequate than the alternatives, because it offers testable explanations for puzzles its rivals cannot address, and is likely a better basis for solving major puzzles that presently face cosmology and physics. This essay also addresses the problem of qualia and experience within naturalism and argues that only temporal naturalism can make a place for qualia as intrinsic qualities of matter.

  9. Natural Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, Ann M.

    2006-01-01

    Natural philosophy” is often used by European historians as an umbrella term to designate the study of nature before it can easily be identified with what we call “science” today, to avoid the modern and potentially anachronistic connotations of that term. But “natural philosophy” (and its equivalents in different languages) was also an actor's category, a term commonly used throughout the early modern period and typically defined quite broadly as the study of natural bodies. As the central ...

  10. Framing nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This PhD thesis is about communication concerning nature in the Netherlands. The purpose of this exploratory study is to take both a theoretical and an empirical look at whether (implicit) religious elements play a role in this communication about nature in the Netherlands.

    In this PhD

  11. natural theology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    ancient Greece. The aim of this article is not to propose a new natural theology; nor does it seek to resurrect older models. It is necessary, however, to examine the extent to ... In studies like this one the South African context is relevant, as Barth is ... human reason to reach knowledge about God's nature and works insofar as.

  12. Nature Watch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nature Watch. When Dragons Fly ... K A Subramanian. A Natural History of Odonata. We have all held them by their wings, made them lift pebbles from our palms, tied their tails to paper flags and watched them flyaway, wondering all the while where and how they lived and what they did. I only knew that we called them ...

  13. Nature Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, Natalie; Lee, Richard E.; Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Richard Louv's "Last Child in the Woods" (2008) added to a growing consensus to get children outside and experiencing nature. Using ideas from place-based education, the authors present a simple year-long project that brings science, nature, and other curriculum standards to life right in your school yard. With a focus on journaling, this project…

  14. Matematica Natural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Patricia; Medearis, Linda

    Matematica Natural (Natural Mathematics) is a mathematics curriculum for young children based on the assumption that they learn mathematics through concrete, real life, relevant experiences and that educational differences rather than cultural differences influence math achievement. The curriculum uses hands-on materials and activities to teach…

  15. Natur formet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Malene Hauxner, "Fra naturlig natur til SUPERNATUR – Europæisk landskabsarkitektur 1967-2007 set fra Danmark", Risskov: Ikaros Press, 2011.......Anmeldelse af Malene Hauxner, "Fra naturlig natur til SUPERNATUR – Europæisk landskabsarkitektur 1967-2007 set fra Danmark", Risskov: Ikaros Press, 2011....

  16. Framing nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This PhD thesis is about communication concerning nature in the Netherlands. The purpose of this exploratory study is to take both a theoretical and an empirical look at whether (implicit) religious elements play a role in this communication about nature in the Netherlands.   In this PhD thesis

  17. Dissonant Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2013-01-01

    Nature restoration is far from being a neural undertaking. Just like any other type of heritage production it can be the source of dissonance – ‘our’ nature is not necessary ‘their’ nature. Often this dissonance is managed in ways, which are not particular sensitive to site......-specificity. As exemplified by the Skjern River Restoration Project (1999-2003), one interpretation of the landscape sometimes suppresses other valid interpretations neglecting its diverse history. Landscape architecture might, however, provide an alternative approach to nature restoration that is more site specific...... and allows for multiple interpretations to coexist. Evidence can be found in the Re-naturalization of River Aire (2002-2015), a restoration project, which reveals approaches that could be labelled landscape architecture specific....

  18. Retos y aprendizajes en la prevención de desastres en el ámbito comunitario: la experiencia del trabajo comunal universitario gestión para la reducción del riesgo en comunidades amenazadas del país

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escalante Meza, Jimena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se pretende reflexionar sobre la experiencia del proyecto Trabajo comunal universitario (TCU: gestión para la reducción del riesgo en comunidades amenazadas del país, de la Escuela de Psicología de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Dicho proyecto nace en el año 2007 con el objetivo de abordar la prevención de desastres en comunidades del país, a partir de las necesidades que se evidencian con el trabajo de la Brigada de Atención Psicosocial en Emergencias y desastres, también de la Escuela de Psicología de la UCR. Se busca visibilizar el trabajo del proyecto en las comunidades en que se ha intervenido, como los son: San Antonio de Belén, zonas aledañas al volcán Turrialba, Salitral de Santa Ana y comunidades costeras de Guanacaste de los cantones de Santa Cruz y Nicoya. A partir de estas experiencias se plantean aprendizajes teóricos y metodológicos en el gran reto que ha significado el trabajo interdisciplinario entre estudiantes de diversas carreras y el intercambio entre actores sociales locales; para pensar la posibilidad de organización local para la prevención y mitigación de sus propios riesgos psicosociales This article intends to reflect on the experience acquired in the University Communal Project (TCU in Spanish Management for risk reduction in communities threatened across the country, from the School of Psychology at the University of Costa Rica (UCR. This project was born in 2007 with the aim of addressing disaster prevention in communities across the country, from the needs become evident in the work of the Psychosocial Care in Emergency and Disaster Brigade, also part of the School of Psychology at the UCR. The work done in the communities intervened is presented. These communities are San Antonio de Belen, areas near the Turrialba Volcano, Salitral de Santa Ana and coastal communities of Guanacaste (Santa Cruz and Nicoya. From these experiences, theoretical and methodological learnings presented

  19. Writing Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Asdal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of the Nordic Journal of Science and Technology Studies is interested in how nature, in different versions and forms, is invited into our studies, analyses, and stories. How is it that we “write nature”? How is it that we provide space for, and actually describe the actors, agents, or surroundings, in our stories and analyses? The articles in the issue each deal with different understandings of both the practices of writing and the introduction of various natures into these. In this introduction to the issue the editors engage with actor-network theory as a material semiotic resource for writing nature. We propose to foreground actor-network theory as a writing tool, at the expense of actor-network theory as a distinct vocabulary. In doing this and pointing out the semiotic origins to material-semiotics we also want to problematize a clear-cut material approach to writing nature.

  20. Natural Childbirth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things That Help Feelings Expert Answers Q&A Movies & More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes ... the Pain? Print en español Parto natural Some women choose to give birth using no medications at ...

  1. Natural Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset shows the locations of known tracts of high quality natural communities in Kansas, generalized to the PLSS section. It is not a compehensive dataset of...

  2. Pluralising Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2017-01-01

    Denmark is recognised for its democratic approach to planning, and for the idea of planning for the common good. This interest in the common good and in common values also seems to be reflected in the way that the restoration of nature is planned and managed, suggesting that there is one common...... “nature” that everyone can agree on. But nature restoration is far from being an unproblematic undertaking. As with any other type of heritage production, it can be the source of dissonance. As exemplified by the Skjern River Restoration Project, one perception of a landscape and its value as “nature” can...... suppress other valid perceptions, in conflict with the need for different groups of people to be able to identify with the same territory. However, planning for the common good, in the case of nature restoration, does not necessarily mean planning for one common nature. Understanding and working...

  3. Natural Propositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernfelt, Frederik

    Preface -- Introduction -- The generality of signs -- Dicisigns -- Some consequences of the dicisign doctrine -- Dicisigns and cognition -- Natural propositions--the evolution of semiotic self-control -- Dicisigns beyond language -- Operational and optimal iconicity in Peirce's diagrammatology...

  4. Natural aphrodisiacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloul, Rany

    2010-01-01

    The search for a remedy or a prescription that can enhance sexual function and/or treat male erectile dysfunction has been an obsession throughout known history. Whether it was an Eastern civilization or a Western one, religious or atheist, man's aspiration for a better or best "manhood" has been a history-time goal. This review will discuss the current research done on the most popular natural aphrodisiacs and examine the weight of evidence to support or discourage the use of any of these substances to enhance sexual desire and/or function. Review of the current evidence on the use of natural substances as aphrodisiacs. Efficacy of natural aphrodisiacs in enhancing sexual function in men and women. There is little evidence from literature to recommend the usage of natural aphrodisiacs for the enhancement of sexual desire and/or performance. Data on yohimbine's efficacy does not support the wide use of the drug, which has only mild effects in the treatment of psychogenic ED. Although there's a positive trend towards recommending ginseng as an effective aphrodisiac, however, more in depth studies involving large number of subjects and its mechanism of action are needed before definite conclusions could be reached. Data on the use of natural aphrodisiacs in women is limited. The current body of objective evidence does not support the use of any natural aphrodisiac as an effective treatment for male or female sexual dysfunctions. Potent men and men with ED will continue the search for natural aphrodisiacs despite the current disappointing data on their effectiveness. Care should be taken regarding the fraud addition of sildenafil analogues to natural aphrodisiacs.

  5. Natural Disaster and Natural Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Uchida, Hirofumi; Miyakawa, Daisuke; Hosono, Kaoru; Ono, Arito; Uchino, Taisuke; Uesugi, Iichiro

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate whether a natural selection mechanism works for firm exit. By using data of firms after a devastating earthquake, the Greeat Tohoku Earthquake, we examine the impact of firm efficiency on firm exit both inside and outside the earthquake-affected areas. We find evidence suggesting that more efficeint firms are less likely to exit both inside and outside the affected areas, which supports the natural selection mechanism. However, we also find that the mechanism is ...

  6. Emancipating Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    2012-01-01

    The issue of riverine flooding in the UK is closely tied up with computer simulations. Arguably, these modelling practices are ripe with the anticipation of nature. They aspire to pre-empt it, hence expect it to be ‘out there’, and ultimately work through formalized distillations of it – hydrodyn......The issue of riverine flooding in the UK is closely tied up with computer simulations. Arguably, these modelling practices are ripe with the anticipation of nature. They aspire to pre-empt it, hence expect it to be ‘out there’, and ultimately work through formalized distillations...... of it – hydrodynamic equations – which have their own anticipations and place their own demands on their modellers. Through the experience of a flood modelling apprenticeship I argue that the taking-place of such anticipations paradoxically relies on the birth of a hybrid, the model-modeller, and thus on a nature...

  7. Provincialising Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Provincialising Nature: Multidisciplinary Approaches to the Politics of the Environment in Latin America offers a timely analysis of some of the crucial challenges, contradictions and promises within current environmental discourses and practices in the region. This book shows both challenging...... scenarios and original perspectives that have emerged in Latin America in relation to the globally urgent issues of climate change and the environmental crisis. Two interconnected analytical frameworks guide the discussions in the book: the relationship between nature, knowledge and identity and their role...

  8. Natural pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csibra, Gergely; Gergely, György

    2009-04-01

    We propose that human communication is specifically adapted to allow the transmission of generic knowledge between individuals. Such a communication system, which we call 'natural pedagogy', enables fast and efficient social learning of cognitively opaque cultural knowledge that would be hard to acquire relying on purely observational learning mechanisms alone. We argue that human infants are prepared to be at the receptive side of natural pedagogy (i) by being sensitive to ostensive signals that indicate that they are being addressed by communication, (ii) by developing referential expectations in ostensive contexts and (iii) by being biased to interpret ostensive-referential communication as conveying information that is kind-relevant and generalizable.

  9. Natural aerodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Scorer, R S

    1958-01-01

    Natural Aerodynamics focuses on the mathematics of any problem in air motion.This book discusses the general form of the law of fluid motion, relationship between pressure and wind, production of vortex filaments, and conduction of vorticity by viscosity. The flow at moderate Reynolds numbers, turbulence in a stably stratified fluid, natural exploitation of atmospheric thermals, and plumes in turbulent crosswinds are also elaborated. This text likewise considers the waves produced by thermals, transformation of thin layer clouds, method of small perturbations, and dangers of extra-polation.Thi

  10. Nature Watch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 2. Nature Watch Decline of a Montane Ecosystem. Kartik Shanker. Feature Article Volume 2 Issue 2 February 1997 pp 75-82. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/02/0075-0082 ...

  11. Nature Watch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 8. Nature Watch - Hornbills – Giants Among the Forest Birds. T R Shankar Raman Divya Mudappa. Feature Article Volume 3 Issue 8 August 1998 pp 56-65. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  12. Nature Watch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 9. Nature Watch - Coral Reefs and their Fauna: An Underwater Fantasyland. Anuradha Bhat. Feature Article Volume 9 Issue 9 September 2004 pp 62-73. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  13. Nature Watch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Annual Meetings · Mid Year Meetings · Discussion Meetings · Public Lectures · Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 7. Nature Watch - Tent-making Bats. N Gopukumar J Balasingh. Feature Article Volume 7 Issue ...

  14. Nature Watch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 3. Nature Watch Diversity of Bats. G Marimuthu. Feature Article Volume 1 Issue 3 March 1996 pp 103-110. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/03/0103-0110. Author Affiliations.

  15. Nature Watch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 5. Nature Watch Will the Meek Inherit the Earth? Kartik Shanker. Feature Article Volume 2 Issue 5 May 1997 pp 54-59. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/05/0054-0059 ...

  16. Nature Watch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 8. Nature Watch: On the Trail of Skinks of the Western Ghats. Anirudha Datta-Roy. Feature Article Volume 19 Issue 8 August 2014 pp 753-763. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  17. Nature Watch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 3. Nature Watch Diversity of Bats. G Marimuthu. Feature Article Volume 1 Issue 3 March 1996 pp 103-110. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/03/0103-0110. Author Affiliations.

  18. Nature Watch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    After the 1960s man's attention was diverted towards the Thar ... effects also. The alluvial and inter-dunal plains have gypsiferous hard pen sediments, which are responsible for serious water logging and salinity-alkalinity problems. Moreover, natural surface drainage system is absent and the ground water is highly saline.

  19. Nature Watch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 8. Nature Watch - Secrets of the Shieldtails. Kartik Shanker. Feature Article Volume 1 Issue 8 August 1996 pp 64-70. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/08/0064-0070 ...

  20. Nature Watch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 7. Nature Watch - Singapore's Jurong BirdPark: A Study Model. Abraham Verghese. Feature Article Volume 6 Issue 7 July 2001 pp 74-88. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  1. Nature Watch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 7. Nature Watch - The Odyssey of the Olive Ridley. Kartik Shanker. Feature Article Volume 4 Issue 7 July 1999 pp 68-78. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/07/0068-0078 ...

  2. Nature Watch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 12. Nature Watch - Sarus Crane: On its Way to Extinction. Alok Kumar Mishra. Feature Article Volume 14 Issue 12 December 2009 pp 1206-1209. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  3. Kritikkens natur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schatz-Jakobsen, Claus

    1999-01-01

    Artiklen introducerer det nye forskningsfelt inden for samtænkning af litteratur, kultur og natur, den såkaldt økologiske kritik, og kaster et kritisk blik på  dens brug af romantisk litteratur som proto-økologisk kanon....

  4. Nature Watch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nature Watch - Tracking Turtles through Time and Space. Kartik Shanker. General Article Volume 7 Issue 6 June 2002 ... Keywords. Turtles; animal navigation; conservation biology; nesting behaviour; telemetry. Author Affiliations. Kartik Shanker1. Wildlife Institute of India PO Box 18, Chandrabani Dehradun 248001, India.

  5. Nature Watch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 5. Nature Watch - Thinking Like a Tahr: When Males and Females go their Separate Ways. M D Madhusudan. Feature Article Volume 3 Issue 5 May 1998 pp 43-47 ...

  6. Nature Watch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 10. Nature Watch The Amazing Desert Gerbil. Ishwar Prakash. Feature Article Volume 2 Issue 10 October 1997 pp 54-61. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/10/0054-0061 ...

  7. Nature Watch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 3. Nature Watch: Symbiosis in Coastal Marine Communities. Neelam Pereira. Feature Article Volume 20 Issue 3 March 2015 pp 245-253. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  8. Natural fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig M. Clemons; Daniel F. Caulfield

    2005-01-01

    The term “natural fibers” covers a broad range of vegetable, animal, and mineral fibers. However, in the composites industry, it usually refers to wood fiber and agrobased bast, leaf, seed, and stem fibers. These fibers often contribute greatly to the structural performance of the plant and, when used in plastic composites, can provide significant reinforcement. Below...

  9. Nature Watch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 8. Nature Watch - Secrets of the Shieldtails. Kartik Shanker. Feature Article Volume 1 Issue 8 August 1996 pp 64-70. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/08/0064-0070 ...

  10. Nature Watch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 10. Nature Watch - When Dragons Fly. K A Subramanian. Feature Article Volume 7 Issue 10 October 2002 pp 69-78. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/007/10/0069-0078 ...

  11. Nature Watch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 8. Nature Watch - The Treasures of the Night Sky. P N Shankar B S Shylaja. Feature Article Volume 6 Issue 8 August 2001 pp 82-89. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/08/0082- ...

  12. Nature Watch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 1. Nature Watch The Kokum Tree. M D Subash Chandran. Feature Article Volume 1 Issue 1 January 1996 pp 86-89. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/01/0086-0089 ...

  13. Nature Watch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 7. Nature Watch - On Observing the Night Sky. P N Shankar B S Shylaja. Feature Article Volume 6 Issue 7 July 2001 pp 89-96. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/07/0089-0096 ...

  14. Nature Watch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 4. Nature Watch The Ancient Mariners. Kartik Shanker. Feature Article Volume 1 Issue 4 April 1996 pp 50-57. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/04/0050-0057. Author Affiliations.

  15. Nature Watch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... ... 20; Issue 1. Nature Watch: A Tale of Two Turtles. V Deepak. Feature Article Volume 20 Issue 1 January 2015 pp 47-54. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/020/01/0047-0054. Keywords. Ecology; endemic; India; turtles; tortoises; Western Ghats.

  16. Nature Watch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 7. Nature Watch - The Odyssey of the Olive Ridley. Kartik Shanker. Feature Article Volume 4 Issue 7 July 1999 pp 68-78. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/07/0068-0078 ...

  17. Unbounded Naturalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Taggart

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available nbsp;font face="Times, serif"font size="3"In the Anglo-American reception of John McDowellrsquo;s /font/fontfont face="Times, serif"font size="3"emMind and World/em/font/fontfont face="Times, serif"font size="3", there has been little attention paid to the developmental aspect of his lsquo;partially re-enchantedrsquo; naturalism. In lsquo;Naturalism Unboundedrsquo;, I argue that McDowellrsquo;s story of our normal upbringing (/font/fontfont face="Times, serif"font size="3"emBildung/em/font/fontfont face="Times, serif"font size="3" presents problems for his claim that we have a lsquo;standing obligationrsquo; to reflect on our perceptual experiences. I follow this critique up with a Hegelian-inspired attempt to retain and revise the vital points he makes about experience./font/font

  18. Jagtens natur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Borkfelt, Sune; Gamborg, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Jagt kan ses som en konfrontation mellem menneskeverdenen og den vilde natur. I dag kan det dog være svært at få øje på det vilde i naturen i et land som Danmark, hvor over 60 % af det samlede areal anvendes til landbrug, og kun få pletter er overladt til sig selv. Ikke desto mindre spiller naturen...... en stor rolle for både jægerne og for de, der forholder sig kritisk til jagt. Der er stor enighed mellem disse parter om, at naturen er noget, vi skal tage vare på – men når det kommer til, hvilken natur der sigtes til, og hvordan vi skal tage vare på den, skilles vandene. Det skal bemærkes, at vi i...

  19. Natural games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anttila, Jani; Annila, Arto

    2011-01-01

    A course of a game is formulated as a physical process that will consume free energy in the least time. Accordingly, the rate of entropy increase is the payoff function that will subsume all forms of free energy that motivate diverse decisions. Also other concepts of game theory are related to their profound physical counterparts. When the physical portrayal of behavior is mathematically analyzed, the course of a game is found to be inherently unpredictable because each move affects motives in the future. Despite the non-holonomic character of the natural process, the objective of consuming free energy in the least time will direct an extensive-form game toward a Lyapunov-stable point that satisfies the minimax theorem. -- Highlights: → Behavior in the context of game theory is described as a natural process. → The rate of entropy increase, derived from statistical physics of open systems, is identified as the payoff function. → Entropy as the payoff function also clarifies motives of collaboration and subjective nature of decision making. → Evolutionary equation of motion that accounts for the course of a game is inherently unpredictable.

  20. Riita Oittinen, Blanca-Ana Roig Rechou (coords. (2016: A Grey Background in Children‘s literature: Death, Shipwreck, War, and Disasters - Literatura infantil y juvenil con fondo gris: muerte, naufragios, guerras y desastres. München: Iudicium Verlag; 327 pp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Pregelj

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Los temas considerados tabú o difíciles llevan ganando terreno en la literatura infantil y juvenil desde los años noventa. También la crítica literaria, sobre todo los investigadores y los estudiosos de la literatura infantil y juvenil, ha percibido el fenómeno que se viene desarrollando sistemáticamente desde el inicio del siglo XXI. El monográfico A Grey Background in Children‘s literature: Death, Shipwreck, War, and Disasters - Literatura infantil y juvenil con fondo gris: muerte, naufragios, guerras y desastres es un buen ejemplo del intento de abarcar lo inabarcable, pues presta atención investigadora a un fenómeno simultáneo a sí mismo, lo que dificulta su trabajo. En primer lugar, porque a falta de distancia temporal, el corpus de los textos es incontrolable. Otra de las dificultades del trabajo con ‚la materia viva‘ es una posible falta de distanciamiento y dejarse influir por los autores, las editoriales, el mercado, etc. Todo esto hace que la reflexión crítica sea todavía más ardua, no obstante, también más necesaria, ya que requiere más valentía, conceptos críticos todavía más claros y una visión panorámica sobre un terreno difícilmente abarcable.

  1. Natural relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzola, Luca; Raidal, Martti

    2016-11-01

    Motivated by natural inflation, we propose a relaxation mechanism consistent with inflationary cosmology that explains the hierarchy between the electroweak scale and Planck scale. This scenario is based on a selection mechanism that identifies the low-scale dynamics as the one that is screened from UV physics. The scenario also predicts the near-criticality and metastability of the Standard Model (SM) vacuum state, explaining the Higgs boson mass observed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Once Majorana right-handed neutrinos are introduced to provide a viable reheating channel, our framework yields a corresponding mass scale that allows for the seesaw mechanism as well as for standard thermal leptogenesis. We argue that considering singlet scalar dark matter extensions of the proposed scenario could solve the vacuum stability problem and discuss how the cosmological constant problem is possibly addressed.

  2. Natural uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerich, Marc; Frot, Patricia; Gambini, Denis-Jean; Gauron, Christine; Moureaux, Patrick; Herbelet, Gilbert; Lahaye, Thierry; Pihet, Pascal; Rannou, Alain

    2014-08-01

    This sheet belongs to a collection which relates to the use of radionuclides essentially in unsealed sources. Its goal is to gather on a single document the most relevant information as well as the best prevention practices to be implemented. These sheets are made for the persons in charge of radiation protection: users, radioprotection-skill persons, labor physicians. Each sheet treats of: 1 - the radio-physical and biological properties; 2 - the main uses; 3 - the dosimetric parameters; 4 - the measurement; 5 - the protection means; 6 - the areas delimitation and monitoring; 7 - the personnel classification, training and monitoring; 8 - the effluents and wastes; 9 - the authorization and declaration administrative procedures; 10 - the transport; and 11 - the right conduct to adopt in case of incident or accident. This sheet deals specifically with natural uranium

  3. Natural isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    14 C dates between 600 and 900 AD were obtained for early Iron Age sites in Natal, and from 1300 to 1450 AD for rock engraving sites in Bushmanland. Palaeoenvironmental data derived from the dating of samples related to sedimentary and geomorphic features in the central and northern Namib Desert enabled the production of a tentative graph for the changes in humidity in the region over the past 40000 years. These results suggest that relatively humid conditions came to an end in the Namib at ±25000 BP (before present). The increased precision of the SIRA mass spectrometer enabled the remeasurement of 13 C and 18 O in the Cango stalagmite. This data confirmed that the environmental temperatures in the Southern Cape remained constant to within ±1 o C during the past 5500 years. Techniques and applications for environmental isotopes in hydrology were developed to determine the origin and movement of ground water. Isotopic fractionation effects in light elements in nature were investigated. The 15 N/ 14 N ratio in bones of animals and humans increases in proportion to the aridity of the environment. This suggests that 15 N in bone from dated archaeological sites could be used to detect changes in past climatic conditions as naturally formed nitrate minerals are higly soluble and are only preserved in special, very dry environments. The sources and sinks of CO 2 on the South African subcontinent were also determined. The 13 C/ 12 C ratios of air CO 2 obtained suggest that the vegetation provides the major proportion of respired CO 2 . 9 refs., 1 fig

  4. Gestión del riesgo natural y el caso de Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Duque Escobar, Gonzalo

    2008-01-01

    Necesidad de reducir los efectos de los desastres por la vía de la vulnerabilidad en Latinoamérica y El Caribe, y particularmente en Colombia. El SINPAD y las amenazas naturales en Colombia. La gestión ambiental, los riesgos específico y de cúmulo, y relaciones con CTS.

  5. Nature and nature values in organic agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lene; Noe, Egon; Højring, Katrine

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between agriculture and nature is a centra issue in the current agricultural debate. Organic farming has ambitions and a special potential in relation to nature. Consideration for nature is part of the guiding principals of organic farming and many organic farmers are committed...... to protecting natural qualities. However, the issue of nature, landscape, and land use is not straightforward. Nature is an ambiguous concept that involves multiple interests and actors reaching far beyond farmers. The Danish research project ......

  6. Meteorología, socioeconomía y gestión del riesgo de desastres del evento El Niño Oscilación del Sur en Colombia (Meteorology, socioeconomics and disaster risk management of the El Niño Southern Oscillation in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Azcárate

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available El Niño Oscilación del Sur (ENOS es un evento de variabilidad climática interanual. En Colombia durante la fase cálida “El Niño” se atenúan los períodos lluviosos e intensifican los secos sin seguir un patrón común en las regiones Andina, Caribe y en la parte norte de la región Pacífica mientras que en la fase fría “La Niña” sucede lo contrario, se intensifican las lluvias y se atenúa la época seca. Estos eventos han generado efectos perjudiciales en los sectores económicos agropecuario, energético, transporte, vivienda y ambiental. Desde la década de los 80 se hizo evidente fortalecer los sistemas de monitoreo meteorológico, los modelos de predicción y desarrollar los planes de contingencia de respuesta ante emergencias. Sin embargo, para que los modelos de predicción climática sean más acertados es necesario que las mediciones in situ sean continuas y estandarizadas, además de la generación de índices socioeconómicos que permitan mejorar las medidas de gestión del riesgo de desastres sociales, físicos y ambientales generados por eventos extremos en el país asociados al ENOS. (Abstract. The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO is a climate variability event. In Colombia during the warm phase “El Niño” rainy periods are dimmed and intensify dry without following a common pattern in the Andean, Caribbean and the north-Pacific regions while the cold phase “La Niña” opposite happens, rains intensify and the dry season is attenuated. These events have generated adverse effects on the agriculture, energy, transport, housing and enviromental economic sectors. Since the 80s it became evident to strengthen the weather monitoring systems, predictive models and develop the contingency plans for emergency response. However, in order to get more accurate climate prediction models it is necessary that the in situ measurements are continuous and standardized, in addition to the generation of socio

  7. El IDRC en Costa Rica

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Prevenir los desastres. Financiamiento para Costa Rica: CA$50 540. Duración: 2008–2009. Beneficiario: Departamento de Desarrollo. Sostenible, OEA, Estados Unidos. Los sistemas de comunicación son fundamentales para alertar a la población de un inminente desastre natural y ayudar a las víctimas en sus secuelas.

  8. Nature and nature values in organic agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lene; Noe, Egon; Højring, Katrine

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between agriculture and nature is a centra issue in the current agricultural debate. Organic farming has ambitions and a special potential in relation to nature. Consideration for nature is part of the guiding principals of organic farming and many organic farmers are committed t...

  9. Natural gas trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.

    1991-01-01

    This book provides data on many facets of the natural gas industry. Topics include: Canadian, Mexican; US natural gas reserves and production; Mexican and US natural gas consumption; market conditions for natural gas in the US; and Canadian natural gas exports

  10. Natural Colorants: Food Colorants from Natural Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdson, Gregory T; Tang, Peipei; Giusti, M Mónica

    2017-02-28

    The color of food is often associated with the flavor, safety, and nutritional value of the product. Synthetic food colorants have been used because of their high stability and low cost. However, consumer perception and demand have driven the replacement of synthetic colorants with naturally derived alternatives. Natural pigment applications can be limited by lower stability, weaker tinctorial strength, interactions with food ingredients, and inability to match desired hues. Therefore, no single naturally derived colorant can serve as a universal alternative for a specified synthetic colorant in all applications. This review summarizes major environmental and biological sources for natural colorants as well as nature-identical counterparts. Chemical characteristics of prevalent pigments, including anthocyanins, carotenoids, betalains, and chlorophylls, are described. The possible applications and hues (warm, cool, and achromatic) of currently used natural pigments, such as anthocyanins as red and blue colorants, and possible future alternatives, such as purple violacein and red pyranoanthocyanins, are also discussed.

  11. Regularities, Natural Patterns and Laws of Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stathis Psillos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available  The goal of this paper is to sketch an empiricist metaphysics of laws of nature. The key idea is that there are regularities without regularity-enforcers. Differently put, there are natural laws without law-makers of a distinct metaphysical kind. This sketch will rely on the concept of a natural pattern and more significantly on the existence of a network of natural patterns in nature. The relation between a regularity and a pattern will be analysed in terms of mereology.  Here is the road map. In section 2, I will briefly discuss the relation between empiricism and metaphysics, aiming to show that an empiricist metaphysics is possible. In section 3, I will offer arguments against stronger metaphysical views of laws. Then, in section 4 I will motivate nomic objectivism. In section 5, I will address the question ‘what is a regularity?’ and will develop a novel answer to it, based on the notion of a natural pattern. In section 6, I will raise the question: ‘what is a law of nature?’, the answer to which will be: a law of nature is a regularity that is characterised by the unity of a natural pattern.

  12. What is 'Natural'in Natural Selection?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 5. What is 'Natural' in Natural Selection? Abhijeet S Bardapurkar. Classroom Volume 18 Issue 5 May 2013 pp 475-482. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/018/05/0475-0482. Keywords.

  13. Natural and near natural tropical forest values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel H. Henning

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies and describes some of the values associated with tropical rain forests in their natural and near-natural conditions. Tropical rain forests are moist forests in the humid tropics where temperature and rainfall are high and the dry season is short. These closed (non-logged) and broad-leaved forests are a global resource. Located almost entirely in...

  14. Learning from nature: Nature-inspired algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albeanu, Grigore; Madsen, Henrik; Popentiu-Vladicescu, Florin

    2016-01-01

    During last decade, the nature has inspired researchers to develop new algorithms. The largest collection of nature-inspired algorithms is biology-inspired: swarm intelligence (particle swarm optimization, ant colony optimization, cuckoo search, bees' algorithm, bat algorithm, firefly algorithm etc...

  15. Three Sorts of Naturalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Hans

    2006-01-01

    In "Two sorts of Naturalism" John McDowell is sketching his own sort of naturalism in ethics as an alternative to "bald naturalism". In this paper I distinguish materialist, idealist and absolute conceptions of nature and of naturalism in order to provide a framework for a clearer understanding...... of what McDowell's own naturalism amounts to. I argue that nothing short of an absolute naturalism will do for a number of McDowell's own purposes, but that it is far from obvious that this is his position. If he directly denies that it is, he seems to be left with some rather awkward choices....

  16. Three Sorts of Naturalism

    OpenAIRE

    Fink, Hans

    2006-01-01

    In "Two sorts of Naturalism" John McDowell is sketching his own sort of naturalism in ethics as an alternative to "bald naturalism". In this paper I distinguish materialist, idealist and absolute conceptions of nature and of naturalism in order to provide a framework for a clearer understanding of what McDowell's own naturalism amounts to. I argue that nothing short of an absolute naturalism will do for a number of McDowell's own purposes, but that it is far from obvious that this is his posi...

  17. Chernobylsk, return on a disaster; Tchernobyl, retour sur un desastre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, G

    2006-07-01

    The author gives the result of the situation after the Chernobylsk disaster. She made its own inquiry by traveling in the forbidden area, meeting operators, victims, scientific people and ecologists. (N.C.)

  18. Visione spagnole delle filippine prima e dopo il 'desastre'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Minesso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En tres siglos de colonización, las relaciones culturales entre España y Filipinas fueron escasas. Varios factores contribuyeron a popularizar lo filipino en la Península a partir de la segunda mitad del siglo XIX. A esta época pertenecen los textos de Cañamaque y de Entrala, en abierta polémica el uno con el otro, que expresan posturas diferentes acerca del fenómeno colonial, así como percepciones opuestas con respecto a los filipinos y a la sociedad española de Manila. Después de 1898, los vínculos afectivos entre la ex madre patria y la antigua colonia no cesaron, como demuestra Julio Palacios, que vierte en su libro —también objeto de análisis— el orgullo de constatar la presencia de una importante y positiva herencia española en el archipiélago.

  19. The Nature of Natural Hazards Communication (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, Y. Y.

    2013-12-01

    Some of the many issues of interest to natural hazards professionals include the analysis of proactive approaches to the governance of risk from natural hazards and approaches to broaden the scope of public policies related to the management of risks from natural hazards, as well as including emergency and environmental management, community development and spatial planning related to natural hazards. During the talk we will present results of scientific review, analysis and synthesis, which emphasize same new trends in communication of the natural hazards theories and practices within an up-to-the-minute context of new environmental and climate change issues, new technologies, and a new focus on resiliency. The presentation is divided into five sections that focus on natural hazards communication in terms of education, risk management, public discourse, engaging the public, theoretical perspectives, and new media. It includes results of case studies and best practices. It delves into natural hazards communication theories, including diffusion, argumentation, and constructivism, to name a few. The presentation will provide information about: (1) A manual of natural hazards communication for scientists, policymakers, and media; (2) An up-to-the-minute context of environmental hazards, new technologies & political landscape; (3) A work by natural hazards scientists for geoscientists working with social scientists and communication principles; (4) A work underpinned by key natural hazards communication theories and interspersed with pragmatic solutions; (5) A work that crosses traditional natural hazards boundaries: international, interdisciplinary, theoretical/applied. We will further explore how spatial planning can contribute to risk governance by influencing the occupation of natural hazard-prone areas, and review the central role of emergency management in risk policy. The goal of this presentation is to contribute to the augmentation of the conceptual framework

  20. Natural short sleeper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep - natural short sleeper ... 7 to 9 hours of sleep each night. Short sleepers sleep less than 75% of what is normal for their age. Natural short sleepers are different from people who chronically do ...

  1. Natural gas annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience. The 1996 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas from it`s production to it`s end use.

  2. Vermont Natural Resources Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The purpose of the�Natural Resources Atlas�is to provide geographic information about environmental features and sites that the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources...

  3. Natural Weathering Exposure Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Corps of Engineers' Treat Island Natural Weathering Exposure Station is a long-term natural weathering facility used to study concrete durability. Located on the...

  4. Effects of natural and simulated rainfall on indicators of ensilability and nutritive value for wilting alfalfa forages sampled before preservation as silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coblentz, W K; Muck, R E

    2012-11-01

    The frustrations of forage producers attempting to conserve high-quality alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage during periods of unstable or inclement weather are widely known. Our objectives for this series of studies were to (1) assess indicators of ensilability, such as pH, buffering capacity, water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC), and starch for wilting alfalfa forages receiving no rainfall or damaged by simulated or natural rainfall events; (2) use these data as inputs to calculate the threshold moisture concentration that would prohibit a clostridially dominated fermentation; and (3) further evaluate the effects of rain damage or no rain damage on measures of forage nutritive value. Rainfall events were applied to wilting forages by both simulated and natural methods over multiple studies distributed across 4 independent forage harvests. Generally, simulated rainfall was applied to alfalfa under controlled conditions in which forages were relatively wet at the time of application, and subsequently were dried to final moisture endpoints under near ideal conditions within a constant temperature/humidity environmental chamber, thereby limiting postwetting wilting time to ≤21 h. As a result, indicators of ensilability, as well as measures of nutritive value, changed only marginally as a result of treatment. Consistently, reductions in concentrations of WSC and starch occurred, but changes in WSC were relatively modest, and postwetting concentrations of WSC may have been buoyed by hydrolysis of starch. When forages were subjected to natural rainfall events followed by prolonged exposure under field conditions, indicators of ensilability were much less desirable. In one study in which alfalfa received 49.3mm of natural rainfall over a prolonged (8-d) field-exposure period, fresh pH increased from 6.48 to 7.43 within all forages exposed to these extended, moist wilting conditions. Furthermore, sharp reductions were observed in buffering capacity (410 vs. 337 meq/kg of

  5. Natural Language Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Preeti; BrahmaleenKaurSidhu

    2013-01-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) work began more than sixty years ago; it is a field of computer science and linguistics devoted to creating computer systems that use human (natural) language. Natural Language Processing holds great promise for making computer interfaces that are easier to use for people, since people will be able to talk to the computer in their own language, rather than learn a specialized language of computer commands. Natural Language processing techniques can make possi...

  6. Natural gas annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1993 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1989 to 1993 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  7. Natural gas annual 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-17

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1994 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1990 to 1994 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  8. Natural gas annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  9. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1991 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition form 1987 to 1991 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  10. Natural Gas Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    Natural gas powers about 150,000 vehicles in the United States and roughly 22 million vehicles worldwide. Natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are a good choice for high-mileage fleets -- such as buses, taxis, and refuse vehicles -- that are centrally fueled or operate within a limited area or along a route with natural gas fueling stations. This brochure highlights the advantages of natural gas as an alternative fuel, including its domestic availability, established distribution network, relatively low cost, and emissions benefits.

  11. Natural Gas Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-08

    Natural gas powers about 150,000 vehicles in the United States and roughly 22 million vehicles worldwide. Natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are a good choice for high-mileage fleets -- such as buses, taxis, and refuse vehicles -- that are centrally fueled or operate within a limited area or along a route with natural gas fueling stations. This brochure highlights the advantages of natural gas as an alternative fuel, including its domestic availability, established distribution network, relatively low cost, and emissions benefits.

  12. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual 1991 provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1991 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of selected companies

  13. Naturalisms and religion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drees, Willem

    1997-01-01

    Such terms as materialism, naturalism, and near synonyms evoke strong negative reactions among many believers. However, the notion of naturalism has various meanings; implications for religion differ for the several varieties of naturalism. In this paper I analyze epistemological and ontological

  14. Natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, A.

    2006-01-01

    Following a decade-long upsurge in the use of natural gas in the energy sector (heating and especially electricity), new outlets for natural gas are being developed in the transport sector. For countries endowed with substantial local resources, development in this sector can help reduce oil dependence. In addition, natural gas is often used to reduce pollution, particularly in cities

  15. Nature and Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartig, T.; Mitchell, R.; Vries, de S.; Frumkin, H.

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization, resource exploitation, and lifestyle changes have diminished possibilities for human contact with nature in urbanized societies. Concern about the loss has helped motivate research on the health benefits of contact with nature. Reviewing that research here, we focus on nature as

  16. Capturing Nature's Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascolutti, Mauro; Campitelli, Marc; Nguyen, Bao; Pham, Ngoc; Gorse, Alain-Dominique; Quinn, Ronald J.

    2015-01-01

    Natural products are universally recognized to contribute valuable chemical diversity to the design of molecular screening libraries. The analysis undertaken in this work, provides a foundation for the generation of fragment screening libraries that capture the diverse range of molecular recognition building blocks embedded within natural products. Physicochemical properties were used to select fragment-sized natural products from a database of known natural products (Dictionary of Natural Products). PCA analysis was used to illustrate the positioning of the fragment subset within the property space of the non-fragment sized natural products in the dataset. Structural diversity was analysed by three distinct methods: atom function analysis, using pharmacophore fingerprints, atom type analysis, using radial fingerprints, and scaffold analysis. Small pharmacophore triplets, representing the range of chemical features present in natural products that are capable of engaging in molecular interactions with small, contiguous areas of protein binding surfaces, were analysed. We demonstrate that fragment-sized natural products capture more than half of the small pharmacophore triplet diversity observed in non fragment-sized natural product datasets. Atom type analysis using radial fingerprints was represented by a self-organizing map. We examined the structural diversity of non-flat fragment-sized natural product scaffolds, rich in sp3 configured centres. From these results we demonstrate that 2-ring fragment-sized natural products effectively balance the opposing characteristics of minimal complexity and broad structural diversity when compared to the larger, more complex fragment-like natural products. These naturally-derived fragments could be used as the starting point for the generation of a highly diverse library with the scope for further medicinal chemistry elaboration due to their minimal structural complexity. This study highlights the possibility to capture a

  17. Nature in Preschool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Mia; Frøkjær, Thorleif

    Nature and nature phenomena’ has formed a specific curriculum theme in Danish preschool since early childhood curriculum was prescribed by law in 2004. However, recent evaluations show that the implementation of an early childhood curriculum has not produced an increased pedagogical focus...... on ‘nature and nature phenomena’ in preschools (EVA 2012). This finding, along with an increased political interest in goals and measurable outcome of early childhood curriculum (Broström 2012), will be the starting point in our ambition to carry out a more thorough qualitative investigation into links...... between preschool teachers’ understanding and interest in teaching nature and the rather poor evaluation....

  18. Natural gas marketing II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of gas marketing, from the basic regulatory structure to the latest developments in negotiating agreements and locating markets. Topics include: Federal regulation of the gas industry; Fundamentals of gas marketing contracts; FERC actions encouraging competitive markets; Marketing conditions from the pipelines' perspective; State non-utility regulation of natural gas production, transportation, and marketing; Natural gas wellhead agreements and tariffs; Natural gas processing agreements; Effective management of producer's natural gas contracts; Producer-pipeline litigation; Natural gas purchasing from the perspective of industrial gas users; Gas marketing by co-owners: problems of disproportionate sales, gas balancing, and accounting to royalty owners; Alternatives and new directions in marketing

  19. On nature and bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Paul Silas

    2010-01-01

    The account of nature and humanity's relationship to nature are of central importance for bioethics. The Scientific Revolution was a critical development in the history of this question and many contemporary accounts of nature find their beginnings here. While the innovative approach to nature going out of the seventeenth century was reliant upon accounts of nature from the early modern period, the Middle Ages, late-antiquity and antiquity, it also parted ways with some of the understandings of nature from these epochs. Here I analyze this development and suggests that some of the insights from older understandings of nature may be helpful for bioethics today, even if there can be no simple return to them.

  20. Nature as Dissonant Heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2014-01-01

    Many former sites of land reclamation, where rivers and wetlands have been cultivated for the purpose of modern agriculture, are now subject to projects of nature restoration. In this context nature is often referred to as ‘the nature’ or simply ‘nature’ as it was something objective and self......-evident. But who define and decide what kind of nature to restore? And is nature restoration not a contradiction in terms in our deeply cultivated landscapes? To examine these questions it makes sense to draw parallels between nature restoration and the concept of ‘dissonant heritage’ (Ashworth 2010), which...... concerns situations of mismatch between people and their heritage. The aim of the paper is to uncover the latent cultural dissonance in relation to nature restoration and to explain how landscape architecture could play an important role in the management of this dissonance. If one accepts that heritage...

  1. Nature and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartig, Terry; Mitchell, Richard; de Vries, Sjerp; Frumkin, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization, resource exploitation, and lifestyle changes have diminished possibilities for human contact with nature in urbanized societies. Concern about the loss has helped motivate research on the health benefits of contact with nature. Reviewing that research here, we focus on nature as represented by aspects of the physical environment relevant to planning, design, and policy measures that serve broad segments of urbanized societies. We discuss difficulties in defining "nature" and reasons for the current expansion of the research field, and we assess available reviews. We then consider research on pathways between nature and health involving air quality, physical activity, social cohesion, and stress reduction. Finally, we discuss methodological issues and priorities for future research. The extant research does describe an array of benefits of contact with nature, and evidence regarding some benefits is strong; however, some findings indicate caution is needed in applying beliefs about those benefits, and substantial gaps in knowledge remain.

  2. Natural gas annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs

  3. The City and Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Tovmasyan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Animate “nature–1” around us is transforming into supported or non-supported by man “nature-2” within the framework of the urban development of town areas. Interaction of town and nature is a bilateral process. Experts underline 4 groups of town planning risks related to the interaction of town and nature: ecological, natural and biosphere, sanitary-epidemiologic risks as well as planning and management risks. The latter is often connected with protest population activities. The magazine is looking forward to readers comments.

  4. Natural gas outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molyneaux, M.P.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of natural gas markets in Canada and in the United States was provided. The major factors that determine the direction of natural gas prices were depicted graphically. Price volatility has decreased in recent months. As expected, April through November total energy consumption reached historically high levels. Demand for natural gas during the summer of 1997 was not as strong as anticipated. Nuclear energy appears to be on the slippery slope, with natural gas-driven electricity projects to fill the void. Hydroelectricity had a strong showing in 1997. Prospects are less bright for 1998 due to above average temperatures. Canadian natural gas export capacity has increased 5.5 times between 1986 and estimated 1999 levels. Despite this, in 1997, deliveries to the United States were marginally behind expectations. Natural gas consumption, comparative fuel prices, natural gas drilling activity, natural gas storage capacity, actual storage by region, and average weekly spot natural gas prices, for both the U. S. and Canada, were also provided. With regard to Canada, it was suggested that Canadian producers are well positioned for a significant increase in their price realization mostly because of the increase in Canada's export capacity in 1997 (+175 Mmcf/d), 1998 (1,060 Mmcf/d) and potentially in 1999 or 2000, via the Alliance Pipeline project. Nevertheless, with current production projections it appears next to impossible to fill the 10.9 Bcf/d of export capacity that will be potentially in place by the end of 1999. tabs., figs

  5. Nature-based integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitkänen, Kati; Oratuomi, Joose; Hellgren, Daniela

    Increased attention to, and careful planning of the integration of migrants into Nordic societies is ever more important. Nature based integration is a new solution to respond to this need. This report presents the results of a Nordic survey and workshop and illustrates current practices of nature...... based integration by case study descriptions from Denmark, Sweden Norway and Finland. Across Nordic countries several practical projects and initiatives have been launched to promote the benefits of nature in integration and there is also growing academic interest in the topic. Nordic countries have...... the potential of becoming real forerunners in nature based integration even at the global scale....

  6. Early modern natural history

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Early modern natural history: Contributions from the Americas and India. Rajesh Kochhar. Perspectives Volume 37 Issue ... Keywords. India; medical botany; natural history; scientific botany; the Americas. Author Affiliations. Rajesh Kochhar1. Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Mohali 140 306 Punjab, India ...

  7. Nature Foil Reliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Shaw J.

    2012-01-01

    Nature has always been a source of inspiration for artists across the centuries. Artists such as Leonardo da Vinci, Georgia O'Keeffe, Ansel Adams, and Andy Goldsworthy all drew inspiration for their work from nature. Seeds come from the dried pods, which when planted and cared for, bear fruit. In this article, the author describes how her…

  8. SUIKERBOSRAND NATURE RESERVE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve and fts educational facilities are run by the Transvaal. Division of. Nature Conservation. ... tion and the education facilities provided. The former are utilized mainly by the general public ... artist Paul Bosman (already reviewed in the EEASA newsletter). The co-founders of the Foundation are.

  9. European natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thackeray, Fred

    1999-11-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Main issues; Natural gas consumption and supply: statistics and key features of individual countries; Sectoral natural gas consumption; Indigenous production; Imports; Prices and taxes; The spot market: The interconnector; Forecasts of production and consumption and contracted imports; Progress of markets liberalisation; Effects of environmentalist developments; Transmission networks and storage; Some principal players. (Author)

  10. Natural Ventilation in Atria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svidt, Kjeld; Heiselberg, Per; Hendriksen, Ole Juhl

    This case study comprises a monitoring programme as well as a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of a natural ventilated atrium. The purpose has been to analyse the performance of a typical natural ventilation system in Denmark under both summer and winter conditions....

  11. Nature and landscape protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In accordance with National Council of the Slovak Republic Act N. 287/1994 Coll. on Nature and Landscape Protection, the system of complex nature landscape protection has been designed based on five levels of protection. Categories of protected areas as well as cultural monuments in the Slovak Republic are reviewed.Slovak contribution to the world heritage is included

  12. Exposure to natural radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, B.M.R.

    1985-01-01

    A brief report is given of a seminar on the exposure to enhanced natural radiation and its regulatory implications held in 1985 at Maastricht, the Netherlands. The themes of the working sessions included sources of enhanced natural radiation, parameters influencing human exposure, measurement and survey programmes, technical countermeasures, risk and assessment studies, philosophies of dose limitations and national and international policies. (U.K.)

  13. Chemistry of Natural Dyes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The sulfonated oils, which possess better metal bind- ing capacity than the natural oils due to the presence of sulfonic acid group, bind to metal ions forming a complex with the dye to give superior fastness and hue. Limitations of Natural Dyes. Tedious extraction of colouring component from the raw mate- rial, low colour ...

  14. Archives: Sciences & Nature

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 9 of 9 ... Archives: Sciences & Nature. Journal Home > Archives: Sciences & Nature. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 9 of 9 Items. 2011. Vol 8, No 1-2 ...

  15. Modeling Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogiages, Christopher A.; Lotter, Christine

    2011-01-01

    In their research, scientists generate, test, and modify scientific models. These models can be shared with others and demonstrate a scientist's understanding of how the natural world works. Similarly, students can generate and modify models to gain a better understanding of the content, process, and nature of science (Kenyon, Schwarz, and Hug…

  16. Nature as Measure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2011-01-01

    The potential for biomimicry lies far beyond the direct imitation of natural forms. Guest-editor Terri Peters describes how Janine Benyus, the biologist and innovation consultant, is using biomimicry to create performance metrics from natural technologies and processes for assessing aspects...

  17. Revenge of Mother Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    2018-01-01

    by employing the well-known mythical trope of the forest. This specific attention towards nature, the forest and the Swedish landscape not only establishes a supernatural sense of place and nature. While creating a generic hybrid between crime fiction and tropes and motifs from the horror genre and what has...... been dubbed ecohorror (Murray & Heumann 2016; Crosby 2014), the supernaturalisation of the landscape in both series establishes an ecocriti-cal consideration of retaliating nature reacting against human interference with nature. The visual etymology of such place sensibilities reaches back in Nordic...... landscape iconography with an obvious relationship with the notion of the Nordic sublime in romantic landscape painting (Alsen & Landmann 2016). These dramas address nature and ecocritical issues by way of a supernature with agency....

  18. Nature teaching structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wester, Ture

    2002-01-01

    -living nature a number of striking statical and kinematical peculiarities have been observed. The paper will try to isolate and describe some of these observations and their relation to our engineered structures based on human thinking. The paper will deal with basic aspects as geometry, topology, redundancy...... and rare piece of fine architecture - or a common organism in Nature. That is why Nature makes an excellent object for architectural students to study structures from a conceptual and a morphological point of view. And that is why Nature - who has developed her structural systems by trial-and-error through...... millions of years - acts as an excellent teacher of these topics. At the same time, the idiom of Nature seems to possess a considerable attraction for students and is able to convey inspiration and imagination to the creative process of shaping architectural structures. In our surrounding living and non...

  19. Unnaturalised racial naturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, Adam

    2014-06-01

    Quayshawn Spencer (2014) misunderstands my treatment of racial naturalism. I argued that racial naturalism must entail a strong claim, such as "races are subspecies", if it is to be a substantive position that contrasts with anti-realism about biological race. My recognition that not all race naturalists make such a strong claim is evident throughout the article Spencer reviews (Hochman, 2013a). Spencer seems to agree with me that there are no human subspecies, and he endorses a weaker form of racial naturalism. However, he supports his preferred version of 'racial naturalism' with arguments that are not well described as 'naturalistic'. I argue that Spencer offers us an unnaturalised racial naturalism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Almacenamiento de gas natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Correa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The largest reserves of natural gas worldwide are found in regions far of main cities, being necessary different alternatives to transport the fluid to the consumption cities, such as pipelines, CNG or ships, LNG, depending on distances between producing regions and demanding regions and the producing volumes. Consumption regions have three different markets to naturalgas; residential and commercial, industrial and power generation sector. The residential and commercial is highly seasonal and power generation sector is quite variable depending on increases of temperature during summer time. There are also external issuesthat affect the normal gas flow such as fails on the national system or unexpected interruptions on it, what imply that companies which distribute natural gas should design plans that allow supplying the requirements above mentioned. One plan is using underground natural gas storage with capacities and deliverability rates enough to supply demands. In Colombia there are no laws in this sense but it could be an exploration to discuss different ways to store gas either way as underground natural gas storage or above superficies. Existing basically three different types of underground natural gas storage; depleted reservoirs, salt caverns and aquifers. All ofthem are adequate according to geological characteristics and the needs of the distributors companies of natural gas. This paper is anexploration of technical and economical characteristics of different kind of storages used to store natural gas worldwide.

  1. Natural gas in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, M.

    1999-01-01

    A series of overhead viewgraphs accompanied this presentation which focused on various aspects of the natural gas industry in Mexico. Some of the viewgraphs depicted statistics from 1998 regarding natural gas throughput from various companies in North America, natural gas reserves around the world, and natural gas reserves in Mexico. Other viewgraphs depicted associated and non-associated natural gas production from 1988 to 1998 in million cubic feet per day. The Burgos Basin and the Cantarell Basin gas production from 1997 to 2004 was also depicted. Other viewgraphs were entitled: (1) gas processing infrastructure for 1999, (2) cryogenic plant at Cd. PEMEX, (3) average annual growth of dry natural gas production for 1997-2004 is estimated at 5.2 per cent, (4) gas flows for December 1998, (5) PGPB- interconnect points, (6) U.S. Mexico gas trade for 1994-1998, (7) PGPB's interconnect projects with U.S., and (8) natural gas storage areas. Technological innovations in the industry include more efficient gas turbines which allow for cogeneration, heat recovery steam generators which reduce pollutant emissions by 21 per cent, cold boxes which increase heat transfer efficiency, and lateral reboilers which reduce energy consumption and total costs. A pie chart depicting natural gas demand by sector shows that natural gas for power generation will increase from 16 per cent in 1997 to 31 per cent in 2004. The opportunities for cogeneration projects were also reviewed. The Comision Federal de Electricidad and independent power producers represent the largest opportunity. The 1997-2001 investment program proposes an 85 per cent sulphur dioxide emission reduction compared to 1997 levels. This presentation also noted that during the 1998-2001 period, total ethane production will grow by 58 tbd. 31 figs

  2. Living in cities, naturally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartig, Terry; Kahn, Peter H

    2016-05-20

    Natural features, settings, and processes in urban areas can help to reduce stress associated with urban life. In this and other ways, public health benefits from, street trees, green roofs, community gardens, parks and open spaces, and extensive connective pathways for walking and biking. Such urban design provisions can also yield ecological benefits, not only directly but also through the role they play in shaping attitudes toward the environment and environmental protection. Knowledge of the psychological benefits of nature experience supports efforts to better integrate nature into the architecture, infrastructure, and public spaces of urban areas. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. EEC's: natural uramium supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The demand for nuclear fuel to supply the nuclear plants within the ECC (31,200 MW at the end of last year) totalled nearly 9,600 tons of natural uranium and 4,900 of separation work units (SWU). Once reactors currently under construction come into service, the demand for natural uranium will reach 13,200 tons by 1985 and that for SWUs to 8,600. If one takes the years 1981 to 1985, total natural uranium needs during this period will be 56,300 tons and those for SWUs 35.100 [fr

  4. Closer to Nature?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkfelt, Sune; Kondrup, Sara; Röcklinsberg, Helena

    2015-01-01

    discourses in order to sell one image of animal welfare in intensive animal production while the actual production at the same time presupposes a quite different paradigm of animal welfare. Specifically, product advertising utilizes representations tied to concepts of naturalness in depictions of both animal...... lives and product processes as “natural”. Product marketing suggests a coherence between nature, production process (farm, animal), and end product, thereby creating associations that the lives of production animals are lived in nature and that their products bring a wholesome and sustainable...

  5. Structural patterns in nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wester, Ture

    2003-01-01

    It seemens that some very basic randomly produced geometric/topological patterns are commonly found in Nature and have often very distinctive structural qualities. In Nature we find the same pattern in all scales from the universe to molecules, from solar systems to packing of cells, from glaciers...... to sea shells, from river systems to trees etc. Sometimes this seeming archetypical morphology involve structrual action and sometimes not-but the fact that it often posses efficient structural action opens a tool for evaluation and analysis of structures in nature and at the same time might...

  6. Structural patterns in nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wester, Ture

    2004-01-01

    It seems that some very basic randomly produced geometric/topological patterns are commonly found in Nature and have often very distinctive structural qualities. In nature we find the same pattern in all scales from the universe to molecules, from solar systems to packing of cells, from glaciers...... to sea shells, from river systems to trees etc. Sometimes this seeming archetypical morphology involve structural action and sometimes not - but the fact that it often posses efficient structural action opens a tool for evaluation and analyses of structures in nature and at the same time might...

  7. The unnatural racial naturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Quayshawn

    2014-06-01

    In the recent article, "Against the New Racial Naturalism", Adam Hochman (2013, p. 332) argues that new racial naturalists have been too hasty in their racial interpretation of genetic clustering results of human populations. While Hochman makes a number of good points, the purpose of this paper is to show that Hochman's attack on new racial naturalists is misguided due to his definition of 'racial naturalism'. Thus, I will show that Hochman's critique is merely a consequence of an unnatural interpretation of racial naturalism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The mechanization of natural philosophy

    CERN Document Server

    Garber, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This book reviews the transformation of natural philosophy in the 16th and 17th centuries: description of nature in mathematical terms; comparison of natural phenomena to existing or imaginary machines and the use of mechanical analogies in natural philosophy.

  9. Natural Gas Acquisition Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The "NGAP" system is a web based application which serves NGAP GSA users for tracking information details for various natural gas supply chain elements like Agency,...

  10. Vermont Designated Natural Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Under Natural Areas Law (10 Vermont Statutes Annotated, Chapter 83 � 2607) the FPR commissioner, with the approval of the governor, may designate and set aside areas...

  11. Biomimetics: nature based innovation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2012-01-01

    "Based on the concept that nature offers numerous sources of inspiration for inventions related to mechanisms, materials, processes, and algorithms, this book covers the topic of biomimetics and the inspired innovation...

  12. Natural radioactive phon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birjukovs, V.; Birjukov, P.

    2004-01-01

    The natural radiating phon is determined by radioactive isotopes of elements which time of half-decay is commensurable in due course existence of the Earth, dispersing in rocks, ground, water and air, and also space radiation. (authors)

  13. Natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauveron, S. de

    1996-01-01

    This article presents compressed natural gas for vehicles (CNG), which can provide considerable advantages both as an alternative fuel and as a clean fuel. These assets are not only economic but also technical. The first part deals with what is at stake in developing natural gas as a motor fuel. The first countries to use CNG were those with natural gas resources in their subsoil. Today, with a large number of countries having to cope with growing concern about increasing urban pollution, natural gas is also seen as a clean fuel that can help cut vehicle pollutant emissions dramatically. In the second part a brief technical descriptions is given of CNG stations and vehicles, with the aim of acquainting the reader with some of CNG's specific technical features as compared to gasoline and diesel oil. Here CNG technologies are seen to be very close to the more conventional ones. (author)

  14. Natural gas benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The General Auditor in the Netherlands studied the natural gas policy in the Netherlands, as has been executed in the past decades, in the period 1997-1999. The purpose of the study is to inform the Dutch parliament on the planning and the backgrounds of the natural gas policy and on the policy risks with respect to the benefits for the Dutch State, taking into account the developments in the policy environment. The final conclusion is that the proposed liberalization of the national natural gas market will result in a considerable deprivation of income for the State in case the benefit policy is not adjusted. This report includes a reaction of the Dutch Minister of Economic Affairs and an afterword of the General Auditor. In the appendix an outline is given of the natural gas policy

  15. Web life: Ask Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Ask Nature is a site devoted to biomimicry, an interdisciplinary field in which practitioners study how animals and plants solve problems, and then use those solutions to develop better human technologies.

  16. Natural gas pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedenthal, C.

    1993-01-01

    Natural gas pricing is the heart and soul of the gas business. Price specifically affects every phase of the industry. Too low a price will result in short supplies as seen in the mid-1970s when natural gas was scarce and in tight supply. To fully understand the pricing of this energy commodity, it is important to understand the total energy picture. In addition, the effect and impact of world and US economies, and economics in general are crucial to understanding natural gas pricing. The purpose of this presentation will be to show the parameters going into US natural gas pricing including the influence of the many outside industry factors like crude oil and coal pricing, market drivers pushing the gas industry, supply/demand parameters, risk management for buyers and sellers, and other elements involved in pricing analysis

  17. Art, Technology and Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Since 1900, the connections between art and technology with nature have become increasingly inextricable. Through a selection of innovative readings by international scholars, this book presents the first investigation of the intersections between art, technology and nature in post-medieval times....... Transdisciplinary in approach, this volume’s 14 essays explore art, technology and nature’s shifting constellations that are discernible at the micro level and as part of a larger chronological pattern. Included are subjects ranging from Renaissance wooden dolls, science in the Italian art academies, and artisanal...... Camilla Skovbjerg Paldam and Jacob Wamberg trace the Kantian heritage of radically separating art and technology, and inserting both at a distance to nature, suggesting this was a transient chapter in history. Thus, they argue, the present renegotiation between art, technology and nature is reminiscent...

  18. Nature as Dissonant Heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2014-01-01

    -evident. But who define and decide what kind of nature to restore? And is nature restoration not a contradiction in terms in our deeply cultivated landscapes? To examine these questions it makes sense to draw parallels between nature restoration and the concept of ‘dissonant heritage’ (Ashworth 2010), which...... concerns situations of mismatch between people and their heritage. The aim of the paper is to uncover the latent cultural dissonance in relation to nature restoration and to explain how landscape architecture could play an important role in the management of this dissonance. If one accepts that heritage...... is not the same as history, but a contemporary product shaped from history, it is clear that the same area or object could be part of different heritages, creates by different groups of people for different reasons. Heritance logically and potentially involves disinheritance – our heritage is not necessary...

  19. Natural product antifoulants

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raveendran, T.V.; Mol, V.P.L.

    Natural Product Antifoulants (NPAs) have been proposed as one of the best replacement options for the most successful antifouling agent, tri-n-butyl tin (TBT), which, due to its ecological incompatibility, is currently facing total global ban...

  20. Breast reconstruction - natural tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After a mastectomy , some women choose to have cosmetic surgery to remake their breast. This type of surgery ... cancer - breast reconstruction with natural tissue Patient Instructions Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge Mastectomy and breast reconstruction - what to ask ...

  1. Solitonic natural orbitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioslowski, Jerzy

    2018-04-01

    The dependence of the natural amplitudes of the harmonium atom in its ground state on the confinement strength ω is thoroughly investigated. A combination of rigorous analysis and extensive, highly accurate numerical calculations reveals the presence of only one positive-valued natural amplitude ("the normal sign pattern") for all ω ≥1/2 . More importantly, it is shown that unusual, weakly occupied natural orbitals (NOs) corresponding to additional positive-valued natural amplitudes emerge upon sufficient weakening of the confinement. These solitonic NOs, whose shapes remain almost invariant as their radial positions drift toward infinity upon the critical values of ω being approached from below, exhibit strong radial localization. Their asymptotic properties are extracted from the numerical data and their relevance to calculations on fully Coulombic systems is discussed.

  2. Historic Natural Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — In 2001, the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (BOR) contracted with the California State University, Chico Research Foundation...

  3. Natural Gas Liquid Pipelines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Natural gas interstate and intrastate pipelines in the United States. Based on a variety of sources with varying scales and levels of accuracy and therefore accuracy...

  4. Is image steganography natural?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Alvaro; Sapiro, Guillermo; Seroussi, Gadiel

    2005-12-01

    Steganography is the art of secret communication. Its purpose is to hide the presence of information, using, for example, images as covers. We experimentally investigate if stego-images, bearing a secret message, are statistically "natural." For this purpose, we use recent results on the statistics of natural images and investigate the effect of some popular steganography techniques. We found that these fundamental statistics of natural images are, in fact, generally altered by the hidden "nonnatural" information. Frequently, the change is consistently biased in a given direction. However, for the class of natural images considered, the change generally falls within the intrinsic variability of the statistics, and, thus, does not allow for reliable detection, unless knowledge of the data hiding process is taken into account. In the latter case, significant levels of detection are demonstrated.

  5. Natural Hazards Image Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photographs and other visual media provide valuable pre- and post-event data for natural hazards. Research, mitigation, and forecasting rely on visual data for...

  6. Natural gas supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-10-01

    This article comments data about the share of natural gas in the energy demand in Europe, about the uses of natural gas by different sectors (housing and office buildings, electricity production, and industry) in Europe, and about gas European imports and about gas supply origins. Graphs are displaying the evolution of energy demand in some European countries between 1990 and 2006 and for different energy sources (natural gas, coal, oil, primary energy, and renewable energies), the evolution of gas production and consumption in different countries of the European Union between 1990 and 2006, and gas import origins in the European Union in 2006. Gas pipeline projects between gas producing countries and Europe are briefly presented, and the development of liquefied natural gas is briefly commented and outlined as a contribution to supply diversification

  7. Natural Gas Market Hubs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A hub is a physical transfer point for natural gas where several pipelines are connected. A market center is a hub where the operator offers services that facilitate...

  8. Radon - natural health threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrixon, Anthony

    1985-01-01

    Natural sources of radiation attract little attention, yet a survey has found radon gas in buildings at levels which put the occupants at some risk. The author wants safety standards set without undue delay. (author)

  9. Are Emotions Natural Kinds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2006-03-01

    Laypeople and scientists alike believe that they know anger, or sadness, or fear, when they see it. These emotions and a few others are presumed to have specific causal mechanisms in the brain and properties that are observable (on the face, in the voice, in the body, or in experience)-that is, they are assumed to be natural kinds. If a given emotion is a natural kind and can be identified objectively, then it is possible to make discoveries about that emotion. Indeed, the scientific study of emotion is founded on this assumption. In this article, I review the accumulating empirical evidence that is inconsistent with the view that there are kinds of emotion with boundaries that are carved in nature. I then consider what moving beyond a natural-kind view might mean for the scientific understanding of emotion. © 2006 Association for Psychological Science.

  10. More natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leprince, P.; Valais, M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports that large resources and growing markets are the salient prospects of natural gas for the coming decades. The greater impact of natural gas on the worldwide energy market can become a reality if several scientific disciplines can be mobilized in order to succeed in cutting production costs. Modeling, mechanics of complex fluids, and physical chemistry of interfaces are basic disciplines for understanding and mastering the gas processing technologies

  11. Lesson "Balance in Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapanova, V.

    2012-04-01

    Lesson "Balance in Nature" This simulation game-lesson (Balance in Nature) gives an opportunity for the students to show creativity, work independently, and to create models and ideas. It creates future-oriented thought connected to their experience, allowing them to propose solutions for global problems and personal responsibility for their activities. The class is divided in two teams. Each team chooses questions. 1. Question: Pollution in the environment. 2. Question: Care for nature and climate. The teams work on the chosen tasks. They make drafts, notes and formulate their solutions on small pieces of paper, explaining the impact on nature and society. They express their points of view using many different opinions. This generates alternative thoughts and results in creative solutions. With the new knowledge and positive behaviour defined, everybody realizes that they can do something positive towards nature and climate problems and the importance of individuals for solving global problems is evident. Our main goal is to recover the ecological balance, and everybody explains his or her own well-grounded opinions. In this work process the students obtain knowledge, skills and more responsible behaviour. This process, based on his or her own experience, dialogue and teamwork, helps the participant's self-development. Making the model "human↔ nature" expresses how human activities impact the natural Earth and how these impacts in turn affect society. Taking personal responsibility, we can reduce global warming and help the Earth. By helping nature we help ourselves. Teacher: Veselina Boycheva-Chapanova " Saint Patriarch Evtimii" Scholl Str. "Ivan Vazov"-19 Plovdiv Bulgaria

  12. Natural gas supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    After having briefly commented the share of natural gas in the primary consumed energy in Europe and in France, and the reasons for its evolution, this document highlights that gas is mainly used for heating, electricity production and industrial purposes, that Europe possesses limited gas resources and must therefore rely on importations. It comments the diversification of supply sources, evokes new gas-pipeline projects between Europe and producer countries (mainly Russia), and briefly comments the development of liquefied natural gas

  13. Natural Hazards, Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhban, Badaoui

    Natural disaster loss is on the rise, and the vulnerability of the human and physical environment to the violent forces of nature is increasing. In many parts of the world, disasters caused by natural hazards such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, drought, wildfires, intense windstorms, tsunami, and volcanic eruptions have caused the loss of human lives, injury, homelessness, and the destruction of economic and social infrastructure. Over the last few years, there has been an increase in the occurrence, severity, and intensity of disasters, culminating with the devastating tsunami of 26 December 2004 in South East Asia.Natural hazards are often unexpected or uncontrollable natural events of varying magnitude. Understanding their mechanisms and assessing their distribution in time and space are necessary for refining risk mitigation measures. This second edition of Natural Hazards, (following a first edition published in 1991 by Cambridge University Press), written by Edward Bryant, associate dean of science at Wollongong University, Australia, grapples with this crucial issue, aspects of hazard prediction, and other issues. The book presents a comprehensive analysis of different categories of hazards of climatic and geological origin.

  14. The system of nature

    CERN Document Server

    D'Holbac, Baron

    1999-01-01

    "The source of Man's unhappiness is his ignorance of Nature."D'Holbach believed that the misery he saw in mankind around him was caused by religion and its superstitious beliefs - that there was a God who controlled destiny and would reward or punish individuals. The System of Nature was written to replace these delusions with a schema of understanding based solely on the physical workings of nature. "Let Man study this nature, let him learn her laws, contemplate her energies." For d'Holbach the soul is only the physical body, understood from a certain point of view, which dies when the body dies. All the events and the nature of the world can be understood in terms of the motion and properties of matter; even the tiniest causes contribute to huge events - a simple change in the diet of an Emperor (or some other such insignificant cause), he suggests might have been capable of "saving kingdoms." For him, nature's laws are fixed and necessary, and if Man wants to find happiness it is best to accept this - if g...

  15. Natural Resource Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, T. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Schwager, K. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This comprehensive Natural Resource Management Plan (NRMP) for Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) was built on the successful foundation of the Wildlife Management Plan for BNL, which it replaces. This update to the 2003 plan continues to build on successes and efforts to better understand the ecosystems and natural resources found on the BNL site. The plan establishes the basis for managing the varied natural resources located on the 5,265-acre BNL site, setting goals and actions to achieve those goals. The planning of this document is based on the knowledge and expertise gained over the past 15 years by the Natural Resources management staff at BNL in concert with local natural resource agencies including the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Long Island Pine Barrens Joint Planning and Policy Commission, The Nature Conservancy, and others. The development of this plan works toward sound ecological management that not only benefits BNL’s ecosystems but also benefits the greater Pine Barrens habitats in which BNL is situated. This plan applies equally to the Upton Ecological and Research Reserve (Upton Reserve). Any difference in management between the larger BNL area and the Upton Reserve are noted in the text.

  16. Blackouts and natural risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danihelka, P.; Paldusová, E.; Dobeš, P.

    2009-04-01

    "Blackout" has become the common definition for the situation when electricity supply and demand are not balanced and security of supply fails. These failures have many impacts besides the lights going out, but this term is used commonly. Blackouts have drastic impacts for the society on whole and its citizens and some of them can influence big areas and last for long period, so the consequences are catastrophic. Even if at the European scale, the large extend blackouts are supposed to be exceptional, real frequency is relatively high, approximately once per two years. According to statistics, blackouts are often caused by natural causes, especially lightning. An example of lightning caused blackout is New York blackout 1977, leading to the stand-by of nuclear power plant Indian Point and with overall cost more than 300 mil. USD. There is a clear a distinction between those blackouts caused by nature and those that were caused by other faults. Usually, the nature-caused disturbances as Canada 1988, Sweden 2005 and France 1999, stay inside one country. However, their duration can extend to several weeks, and thus the costs of the interruptions and social impacts are high. Blackouts of only technologic and/or anthropogenic origin are frequently shorter, but may concern more end-users, when cascading from one country to another. Lightning is not the only natural event causing blackouts. Eighteen various case studies of blackout caused by natural events different then lightning were studied and following natural phenomenon found as a root causes: 1x forest fire, 1x snow calamity, 1x ice storm, 1x landslide, 1x high temperature, 1x geomagnetic storm, 2x earthquake, 2x inundation, 2x contact of line with trees, 6x storm (wind, hurricane…). We can conclude, that natural event are frequent cause of blackout of medium or large extend and this phenomena should be studied more in details. This contribution was supported by Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic.

  17. Natural Dietary Phytosterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Susan B; Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Ostlund, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    Most clinical phytosterol studies are performed by adding purified supplements to smaller phytosterol amounts present in the natural diet. However, natural dietary phytosterols themselves may also have important effects on cholesterol metabolism. Epidemiological work using food frequency questionnaires to estimate dietary intake suggest that extremes of normal consumption may be associated with 3-14% changes in LDL cholesterol. Standardized food databases do not have enough phytosterol values to allow calculation of phytosterol intake for individuals outside of specialized studies. Natural diets contain phytosterol amounts ranging from less than 60 mg/2000 kcal to over 500 mg/2000 kcal. Physiological studies in which whole body cholesterol metabolism is investigated show large effects of natural dietary phytosterols on cholesterol absorption efficiency, cholesterol biosynthesis and cholesterol excretion which exceed the magnitude of changes in LDL cholesterol. The dual effects of natural phytosterols on both LDL-C and whole body cholesterol metabolism need to be considered in relating them to potential protection from coronary heart disease risk.

  18. Symmetries in nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainzer, K.

    1988-01-01

    Symmetry, disymmetry, chirality etc. are well-known topics in chemistry. But they cannot only be found on the molecular level of matter. Atoms and elementary particles in physics are also characterized by particular symmetry groups. Even living organisms and populations on the macroscopic level have functional properties of symmetry. The whole physical, chemical, and biological evolution seems to be regulated by the emergence of new symmetries and the breaking down of old ones. One is reminded of Heisenberg's famous statement: 'Die letzte Wurzel der Erscheinungen ist also nicht die Materie, sondern das mathematische Gesetz, die Symmetrie, die mathematische Form' (Wandlungen in den Grundlagen der Naturwissenschaften, 1959). Historically the belief in symmetry and simplicity of nature has a long philosophical tradition from the Pythagoreans, Plato and Greek astronomers to Kepler and modern scientists. Today, 'symmetries in nature' is a common topic of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. A lot of Nobel prizes were given in honour of inquiries concerning symmetries in nature. The fascination of symmetries is not only motivated by science, but by art and religion too. Therefore 'symmetris in nature' is an interdisciplinary topic which may help to overcome C.P. Snow's 'Two Cultures' of natural sciences and humanities. (author) 17 refs., 21 figs

  19. Natural gas purchasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedenthal, C.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, natural gas has gained new momentum because of changes in marketing and regulations. The gas industry has always received an inordinate amount of regulatory control starting at the well head where the gas is produced to the consuming burner tip. Regulations have drastically impacted the availability of gas. Changes in the marketing and regulations have made the natural gas market sensitive at the point of production, the well head. Now, with plentiful supply and ease of transportation to bring the gas from the producing fields to the consumer, natural gas markets are taking advantage of the changed conditions. At the same time, new markets are developing to take advantage of the changes. This section shows consumers, especially the energy planners for large buyers of fuel, the advantages, sources and new methods of securing natural gas supplies. Background on how natural gas is produced and marketed are given. This section lists marketing sources, regulatory agencies and information groups available to help buyers and consumers of this important fuel for US industries and residences. 7 figs., 8 tabs

  20. Natural resource damage assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddelmeyer, J.

    1991-01-01

    The assessment and collection of natural resource damages from petroleum and chemical companies unfortunate enough to have injured publicly owned natural resources is perhaps the most rapidly expanding area of environmental liability. The idea of recovering for injury to publicly owned natural resources is an extension of traditional common law tort concepts under which a person who negligently injures another or his property is called upon to compensate the injured party. Normally, once liability has been established, it is a fairly straightforward matter to calculate the various elements of loss, such as the cost to repair or replace damaged property, or medical expenses, and lost income. More difficult questions, such as the amount to be awarded for pain and suffering or emotional distress, are left to the jury, although courts limit the circumstances in which the jury is permitted to award such damages

  1. Natural gas storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bautz, R.

    2009-01-01

    Storage is an important link in the natural gas supply chain. It is a valuable aid to providing the link between remote sources of production and consumption locations. After a brief recall covering the role of storage this article describes the various options for storing natural gas: saline cavities, aquifers, liquefied gas tanks or artificial cavities. A report follows on the different solutions adopted in Europe and in Switzerland, more particularly that chosen by Gaznat in order to contribute to securing supplies in Western Switzerland. Market deregulation has brought changes to the regulations, which are in turn modifying the rules that were in force until just recently, and new topics are arising, such as strategic reserves and pricing rules for stored natural gas. (author)

  2. Natural photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneron, Jean Pol; Simonis, Priscilla

    2012-10-01

    Photonic structures appeared in nature several hundred millions years ago. In the living world, color is used for communication and this important function strongly impacts the individual chances of survival as well as the chances to reproduce. This has a statistical influence on species populations. Therefore, because they are involved in evolution, natural color-generating structures are - from some point of view - highly optimized. In this short review, a survey is presented of the development of natural photonic crystal-type structures occurring in insects, spiders, birds, fishes and other marine animals, in plants and more, from the standpoint of light-waves propagation. One-, two-, and three-dimensional structures will be reviewed with selected examples.

  3. Hauntings of Human Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clasen, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    The central conflicts of Stephen King’s horror novel The Shining are rooted in human nature and reflect evolutionarily recurrent adaptive problems—the problem of balancing conflicting evolved motives, such as motives for selfish status striving versus motives for affiliative nurturing behavior...... the psychological underpinnings of the novel and the crucial function of the supernatural elements in the meaning structure of the novel. Hence we need an evolutionary psychological perspective which builds on recent findings in the sciences of human nature to account for the novel’s meaning, effects, and continued......, and the problem of surviving the hostile forces of nature. Moreover, the supernatural elements of the novel resonate with evolved intuitions about non-material, moral forces at work in the world. That is why the novel continues to engage readers worldwide. Most critics, however, have overlooked or distorted...

  4. nature in the city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2016-08-01

    The object of the issue is a wonderful museum on the Kulikovo Field designed by Sergey Gnedovsky. The unusual architecture of the new museum makes it akin to the earth’s tectonic fault caused by an intolerable tension in expectation of the battle (pp. 113-123. Oleg Yavein and Ilya Lezhava bring us back to the classic of the 20th century Mies van der Rohe and his unique dialogue with nature (pp. 162-175. Relationship between architecture and nature is a rich and limitless theme, like both of these substances. That is why the new Project Baikal issue contains, as usual, more questions than answers. Such is the nature of our journal.

  5. Down with natural selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigliucci, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    Biologists are increasingly reexamining the conceptual structure of evolutionary theory, which dates back to the so-called Modern Synthesis of the 1930s and 1940s. Calls for an Extended Evolutionary Synthesis (EES) cite a number of empirical and theoretical advances that need to be accounted for, including evolvability, evolutionary novelties, capacitors of phenotypic evolution, developmental plasticity, and phenotypic attractors. In Biological Emergences, however, Robert Reid outlines a theory of evolution in which natural selection plays no role or-worse-actually impedes evolution by what Reid calls "natural experimentation." For Reid, biological complexity emerges because of intrinsic mechanisms that work in opposition to natural selection, a view that would reopen old questions of orthogenesis and Lamarckism. This review outlines why we do need an EES, but also why it is unlikely to take the shape that Reid advocates.

  6. Nature/culture/seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Seawater has occupied an ambiguous place in anthropological categories of "nature" and "culture." Seawater as nature appears as potentiality of form and uncontainable flux; it moves faster than culture - with culture frequently figured through land-based metaphors - even as culture seeks to channel water's (nature's) flow. Seawater as culture manifests as a medium of pleasure, sustenance, travel, disaster. I argue that, although seawater's qualities in early anthropology were portrayed impressionistically, today technical, scientific descriptions of water's form prevail. For example, processes of globalization - which may also be called "oceanization" - are often described as "currents," "flows," and "circulations." Examining sea-set ethnography, maritime anthropologies, and contemporary social theory, I propose that seawater has operated as a “theory machine” for generating insights about human cultural organization. I develop this argument with ethnography from the Sargasso Sea and in the Sea Islands. I conclude with a critique of appeals to water's form in social theory.

  7. Knowledge and Natural Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø; Justinussen, Jens Christian Svabo

    2016-01-01

    Arctic economies are generally natural resource based economies, whether they are indigenous economies largely dependent on living on the land or industrialized economies depending on marine resources, mineral resources or fossil or renewable energy resources. However, the central role of knowledge...... for Arctic communities to secure local benefits and achieve sustainable development around their natural resources is often overlooked in the literature. This chapter will look at the knowledge-natural resources link for local benefits and sustainable Arctic development. For doing so, the chapter will focus...... on the Icelandic and Faroese experiences with marine resources and renewable energy resources in geothermal, hydro, tidal and wind power. Iceland and the Faroe Islands are selected because they are examples of very small Arctic societies, which particularly well illustrate how the combination of human capital...

  8. Natural gas's hottest spot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews the growing power and economic strength of Enron Corp., a natural gas distributor and exploration company. The paper reviews the policy of the company to exploit deregulation at home and privatization of all sorts of energy companies abroad. Enron is actively building its own power plants in the US and has successfully boosted their profits by 20 percent in what was considered a flat natural gas market. The paper goes on to discuss the company's view of the new energy tax and how it should benefit natural gas companies as a whole. Finally the paper reviews the contracting procedures of the company to secure long-term fixed price contracts in a volatile market which precludes most companies from taking the risk

  9. Canadian natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    Canada's natural gas industry enjoys a quiet confidence as it looks ahead to the 1990s. In this paper, the author explains why, despite some critical uncertainties, the optimism endures. Reviewing the current conditions of supply, production, consumption, pipelines, and pipeline expansion plans, the author contends that the New World of the 1990s will belong to natural gas. The author's assessment of natural gas markets proceeds far beyond the borders of Canada. The author examines the determinants of gas prices throughout North America and he identifies the one force that promises to seize almost complete control of gas prices throughout the continent. While the analysis points out the attributes of this new pricing regime, it also names the obstacles that could prevent this emerging mechanism from assuming its anticipated position

  10. Natural products in endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almadi, Ebtissam M; Almohaimede, Amal A

    2018-02-01

    Herbal remedies are used throughout the world, either in earlier or in recent times. The number of studies on this alternative therapeutic system increased in the last decades. In this paper, the relevant literature on the use of natural products in root canal therapy is revised from a MEDLINE database search. The uses of medicinal plants in endodontics include cleaning and disinfection of root canals, intracanal medicaments between appointments, sealer cements, and for removal of obturation material. Other studies showed the effect of natural products in pulpal and dentin repair. Their use is anecdotal, and their effectiveness showed to be variable and is always compared to the chemical standards currently being used. Alkaloids, coumarins, saponins, and flavonoids are aromatic substances that are produced by plants and evaluated for their therapeutic potential. Further investigation into benefits of natural products is warranted.

  11. Natural Selection and Morality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Rosas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:En este ensayo abordo los intentos, relativamente recientes, de dar una explicación de la moralidad como adaptación por selección natural. Mi exposición tiene una introducción y cuatro partes: en la primera explico en qué consiste la paradoja del altruismo biológico. En la segunda expongo la solución que apela a la selección de grupos, recientemente resurgida; la solución que presuntamente aplicó Charles Darwin cuando formuló sus reflexiones biológicas sobre la moralidad humana. En la tercera expongo la solución sociobiológica, que opta por negar que la selección natural pueda explicar directamente la moralidad humana. La moralidad se presenta más bien como opuesta a la naturaleza diseñada por selección natural. En la cuarta parte desarrollo brevemente una explicación de la moralidad como adaptación que beneficia a los individuos. No opone la moralidad a la naturaleza, ni apela a la selección de grupos. Se sirve de un mecanismo de selección que opera a través de preferencias en la interacción social.Abstract:In this essay, I address recent attempts to account for morality as an adaptation due to natural selection. After a brief introduction, my exposition has four sections. I first explain the paradox of biological altruism. Second, I explain the solution to the paradox in terms of group selection. This solution was presumably applied by Darwin himself as he discussed human morality, and it has experienced a recent revival, though it remains suspicious to most biologists. In the third section I offer a socio-biological solution that opts for denying that morality can be explained by any form of natural selection. Morality is opposed to human nature as designed by natural selection. In the fourth, I argue for an explanation in terms of individual selection. It does not oppose morality to nature, and does not need the workings of group selection; rather, it operates through the agents’ psychological preferences

  12. MENOPAUSE AND NATURAL HEALING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucija Vrabič Dežman

    2008-12-01

    The studies could not decisively confirm the effectiveness of various phytoestrogens inamelioration of climacteric symptoms. Most studies have proven the effectiveness of thenatural medication made of Cimicifuga racemosa and its safe short-term use. Gynecologists should be familiar with the basics of phytotherapy and the results of clinical studiesin this field in order to confidently advise women to use the natural medications in caseswhere despite the climacteric symptoms they cannot or will not use HRT, consequentlygreatly reducing the quality of their lives. In cases where climacteric symptoms are mild tomoderate, some menopausal societies around the globe suggest trying natural medicationfirst, and only later implementing HRT

  13. The natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagrasta, F.; Kaminski, V.; Prevatt, R.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter presents a brief history of the natural gas market highlighting the changes in the gas market and examining risk management in practice detailing the types of price risks, and the use of hedging using forwards and swaps. Options to manage risk are identified, and the role of risk management in financing, the role of the intermediary, and the market outlook are discussed. Panels describing the market structure, storage and natural gas risk management, the art of risk management, the winter 1995-96 basis blowout, spark spreads, the UK gas market and Europe, and weather derivatives are presented

  14. Natures of Conduct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sielemann, Rasmus Basse

    Natures of Conduct explores the rationalities, practices and techniques of government processes in the Danish West Indies in the period between the late eighteenth century to the end of Danish colonial rule in 1917. In doing so, it engages Michel Foucault’s concepts of governmentality and the ‘di......Natures of Conduct explores the rationalities, practices and techniques of government processes in the Danish West Indies in the period between the late eighteenth century to the end of Danish colonial rule in 1917. In doing so, it engages Michel Foucault’s concepts of governmentality...

  15. Monitoring natural phytoplankton communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haraguchi, L.; Jakobsen, H. H.; Lundholm, Nina

    2017-01-01

    -consuming and/or expensive, limiting sampling frequency. The use of faster methods, such as flow cytometry, has become more frequent in phytoplankton studies, although comparisons between this technique and traditional ones are still scarce. This study aimed to assess if natural phytoplankton communities...... carbon biomass with PFCM, applying the same conversion factors as for microscopy. Biomasses obtained with PFCM, estimated from live cells, were higher than microscopy for natural samples. We conclude that PFCM results are comparable to classical techniques, yet the data from PFCM had poor taxonomic...

  16. The natural radiation background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggleby, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    The components of the natural background radiation and their variations are described. Cosmic radiation is a major contributor to the external dose to the human body whilst naturally-occurring radionuclides of primordial and cosmogenic origin contribute to both the external and internal doses, with the primordial radionuclides being the major contributor in both cases. Man has continually modified the radiation dose to which he has been subjected. The two traditional methods of measuring background radiation, ionisation chamber measurements and scintillation counting, are looked at and the prospect of using thermoluminescent dosimetry is considered

  17. Reducing natural disaster vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-04-01

    Because poor countries are vulnerable to the impact of natural disasters, the U.K. Department for International Development (DFID) launched on 30 March a new policy to better integrate natural disaster risk reduction into development and humanitarian activities. Gareth Thomas, U.K. development minister, said, ``There is nothing we can do to stop hurricanes, tsunamis, and earthquakes from striking. But what we can do is help put simple measures in place, such as better built houses, schools, and hospitals alongside more high-tech early warning systems to reduce the loss of life.''

  18. Training and natural immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Helge, Jørn Wulff; Richter, Erik

    2000-01-01

    these subjects were used to eliminate day-to-day variation in the immunological tests. Independently of diet, training increased the percentage of CD3-CD16+ CD56+ natural killer (NK) cells from [mean (SEM)] 14 (1) % to 20 (3) % (P = 0.05), whereas the NK-cell activity, either unstimulated or stimulated...... influence natural immunity, and suggest that ingestion of a fat-rich diet during training is detrimental to the immune system compared to the effect of a carbohydrate-rich diet....

  19. Nature of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos López Dawson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the formation of a new Constitution the constituents will require to know or reach an agreement on the nature of human rights; then, to determine how the State will enforce the respect to those rights. To do so, it is necessary to resort to the history and evolution of these rights, and the present work aims to contribute to an efficient productive debate about the nature of human rights, so that citizens can decide on the understanding that this is a thoughtful democratic and humanistic founded decision. The analysis is in the actual technical-ideological republican system which correspond to the current state of international law

  20. Battles Fought in Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Dorthe Varning; Stigsdottir, Ulrika S.

    2015-01-01

    Using horticultural activities and nature experiences to aid the recovery of returning soldiers has a long history. An increasing number of practical experiences and a few research studies confirm the fact that it may well be beneficial. A review by Varning Poulsen et al. (Under review) describes...... the contradiction between the large number of programs using nature-based therapy to treat veterans with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and the small amount of scientific studies in the field. In order to increase knowledge in this field, a project was initiated in Denmark. The overall aim of the project was...

  1. Natural language modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, J.K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This seminar describes a process and methodology that uses structured natural language to enable the construction of precise information requirements directly from users, experts, and managers. The main focus of this natural language approach is to create the precise information requirements and to do it in such a way that the business and technical experts are fully accountable for the results. These requirements can then be implemented using appropriate tools and technology. This requirement set is also a universal learning tool because it has all of the knowledge that is needed to understand a particular process (e.g., expense vouchers, project management, budget reviews, tax, laws, machine function).

  2. Structural patterns in nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wester, Ture

    2004-01-01

    It seems that some very basic randomly produced geometric/topological patterns are commonly found in Nature and have often very distinctive structural qualities. In nature we find the same pattern in all scales from the universe to molecules, from solar systems to packing of cells, from glaciers...... be an inspiration to structural morphologists and other dealing with the shaping of structures for buildings and other objects. Often the patterns appear in "dual" materializations, which indicate two radically different structural types of action. Randomness as a generator for optimal and basic structural action...

  3. Structural patterns in nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wester, Ture

    2003-01-01

    It seemens that some very basic randomly produced geometric/topological patterns are commonly found in Nature and have often very distinctive structural qualities. In Nature we find the same pattern in all scales from the universe to molecules, from solar systems to packing of cells, from glaciers...... be an inspiration to structural morphologists and other dealing with the shaping of structures for buildings and other objects. Often the patterns appear in "dual" materializations, which indicate two radically different structural types of action. Randomness as a generator for optimal and basic structural action...

  4. Enhance Nature Exploration with Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Patricia; Mahan, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Kids and nature seem like a natural combination, but what was natural a generation ago is different today. Children are spending less time outdoors but continue to need nature for their physical, emotional, and mental development. This fact has led author Richard Louv to suggest that today's children are suffering from "nature-deficit disorder"…

  5. AT THE WHIM OF NATURE "NATURAL DISASTERS": CAUSES AND PREVENTION

    OpenAIRE

    Akhand Pratibha; Akhand Archna

    2017-01-01

    This paper seeks to determine the natural disasters, causes and effects on environment. Natural disasters are any catastrophic event that is caused by nature or the natural processes of the earth. It could be related to weather, geology, biology or even factors outside the Earth. Examples are earthquakes, hurricanes, droughts and flooding. Nature is bountiful full of resources used by the living organisms use for their survival and well-being. But nature has its own control systems. Resources...

  6. Nature as Inspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tank, Kristina; Moore, Tamara; Strnat, Meg

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the final lesson within a seven-day STEM and literacy unit that is part of the Picture STEM curriculum (pictureSTEM. org) and uses engineering to integrate science and mathematics learning in a meaningful way (Tank and Moore 2013). For this engineering challenge, students used nature as a source of inspiration for designs to…

  7. THE NATURE OF COMPREHENSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CLELAND, DONALD L.

    THE NATURE OF COMPREHENSION IS DEFINED AND CLARIFIED. THE LITERATURE IS SURVEYED TO SHOW THAT THE DEVELOPMENT OF CONCEPTS IS IMPORTANT IN INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITIES. IT IS POINTED OUT THAT CONCEPTS ARE BUILT FROM PERCEPTS, IMAGES, SENSATION, AND MEMORIES, AND THAT THE STEPS WHICH ARE EMPLOYED AS CONCEPTS ARE BUILT AND REFINED AND INCLUDE PERCEIVING,…

  8. Livelihoods and natural resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cotta, Jamie Nicole

    This dissertation research contributes to the emerging body of knowledge on the economic contributions of natural resources to rural livelihoods, including their role in household shock coping, in the humid tropics. Data from one of the first comprehensive household income quantifications...

  9. Nature in motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenthen, M.; Keulartz, F.W.J.; Proctor, J.

    2009-01-01

    As Raymond Williams (1983) famously declared, nature is one of the most complex words in the English language – and, we may confidently predict, its Germanic relatives including Dutch. The workshop that took place in June 2007 in the Netherlands, from which this volume is derived, was based on an

  10. Saving Natural Inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croon, Djuna; Sanz, Verónica, E-mail: d.croon@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: v.sanz@sussex.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-01

    Slow-roll inflation requires the inflaton field to have an exceptionally flat potential, which combined with measurements of the scale of inflation demands some degree of fine-tuning. Alternatively, the flatness of the potential could be due to the inflaton's origin as a pseudo-Goldstone boson, as in Natural Inflation. Alas, consistency with Planck data places the original proposal of Natural Inflation in a tight spot, as it requires a trans-Planckian excursion of the inflaton. Although one can still tune the renormalizable potential to sub-Planckian values, higher order corrections from quantum gravity or sources of breaking of the Goldstone symmetry would ruin the predictivity of the model. In this paper we show how in more realistic models of Natural Inflation one could achieve inflation without a trans-Planckian excursion of the field. We show how a variant of Extra-natural inflation with bulk fermions can achieve the desired goal and discuss its four-dimensional duals. We also present a new type of four dimensional models inspired in Little Higgs and Composite Higgs models which can lead to sub-Planckian values of the inflaton field.

  11. Nature Identical Prosody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel Henrichsen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    ; such as low naturalness (DiSyn) and dependence on huge amounts of background data (UnitSyn). We present a hybrid model based on high-level speech data. As preliminary tests show, prosodic models combining DiSyn style at the phone level with UnitSyn style at the supra-segmental levels may approach Unit...

  12. Bosbus; mobile nature reserve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matton, T.; Kuypers, V.H.M.; Timmermans, W.

    2004-01-01

    Nature has discovered the global village. Over the years, hundreds of exotic plants and animals have made their way into the Netherlands. They take advantage of the existing urban infrastructure to seek out suitable niches in the city. People rarely think of these urban ecosystems in terms of

  13. Cultivating human nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, Maarten

    2007-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology claims to offer a unified perspective on human nature and culture, which can serve to further the integration of psychology and the social sciences. I describe four approaches to evolutionary psychology, and note increasing attention to the agency of the individual in

  14. Managing natural resources

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The balance between these two is a key issue in many developing ... that results when trees are cut to make fuel. New bamboo-based ... Improvement Center and the Mexican natural resources agency INIFAP can- vassed farmers and catalogued the attrib- utes of preferred varieties. These were then “frozen in time” in ...

  15. Surfaces with Natural Ridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Markvorsen, Steen

    2015-01-01

    We discuss surfaces with singularities, both in mathematics and in the real world. For many types of mathematical surface, singularities are natural and can be regarded as part of the surface. The most emblematic example is that of surfaces of constant negative Gauss curvature, all of which neces...

  16. Shooting mechanisms in nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakes, Aimée; Wiel, van der Marleen; Henselmans, Paul W.J.; Leeuwen, van Johan L.; Dodou, Dimitra; Breedveld, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background In nature, shooting mechanisms are used for a variety of purposes, including prey capture, defense, and reproduction. This review offers insight into the working principles of shooting mechanisms in fungi, plants, and animals in the light of the specific functional demands that these

  17. Patagonia: nature and territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Fabián Schweitzer

    2014-12-01

    This paper analyzes the place occupied by Patagonia in today’s fin de siècle scenario of commodities, hegemony crisis and multi-polar world emergence concurring with the convergence of consumerist guidelines, all of which would apparently lead to an in-depth socio-ecological crisis as well as to an accelerated dispute over nature and territory sense.

  18. SUIKERBOSRAND NATURE RESERVE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reserve, the total length being 66 km with six overnight huts. There are also the BokmakiePie. Nature Troil. and the Cheetah Interpretive Troil. which can be used by day visitors. The former has two loops, one of 10 km and another of 17 km. The. Cheetah Troil. is much shorter and various points of interest are interpreted en ...

  19. Sciences & Nature: Site Map

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home · Journals · Sciences & Nature · About · Log In · Register · Advanced Search · By Author · By Title. Issues. Current Issue · Archives · Open Journal Systems · Help. ISSN: 1812-0741. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  20. Sciences & Nature: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Sciences & nature publish original works in French or in English that have not been published previously, or submitted elsewhere simultaneously. Regular articles, short communications, research notes and reviews are considered. Contribution of 50.000 FCFA for each accepted manuscript will be in ...

  1. A new nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abraham, Anders

    ”A New Nature - 9 ARCHITECTURAL CONDITIONS BETWEEN LIQUID AND SOLID” opbygger en tankegang om arkitektur som tilstande i modsætning til arkitektur som form og type.  Ved at se på verden som tilstande og organiseringer mellem ”flydende” og ”fast”, homogent og heterogent m.v., er det muligt...

  2. Demystifying Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Judith; Bartels, Selina; Lederman, Norman; Gnanakkan, Dionysius

    2014-01-01

    With the emergence of the "Next Generation Science Standards" ("NGSS"; NGSS Lead States 2013), it is apparent that teaching and learning about nature of science (NOS) continues to be an important goal of science education for all K-12 students. With this emphasis on NOS, early childhood teachers are asking how to design…

  3. Annatto: a natural choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W C

    2000-09-01

    Annatto is a pigment derived from the seeds of Bixa orellana. It has been used from antiquity in South America and for over 100 years in Europe. It is now an important safe additive for a wide range of food, partly finding favour due to its natural origin.

  4. Nature in the City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melber, Leah W.

    2000-01-01

    Presents three science activities targeted to help urban students learn about nature: (1) observing coloration patterns of pigeons; (2) measuring local rainfall and comparing it to other areas; and (3) conducting a biodiversity study by observing a patch of lawn. (YDS)

  5. Nature, Education and Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rømer, Thomas Aastrup

    2013-01-01

    In this essay it is argued that the educational philosophy of John Dewey gains in depth and importance by being related to his philosophy of nature, his metaphysics. The result is that any experiental process is situated inside an event, an existence, a thing, and I try to interpret this "thing" as schools or major cultural events such…

  6. Eksistens og natur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pahuus, Mogens

    Eksistens og Natur er et centralt stykke livsfilosofi skrevet af en af dansk filosofis grand old men. Professor emeritus fra Aalborg Universitet Mogens Pahuus præsenterer her den grundidé om mennesket, at ethvert individ er formet i en dobbelthed mellem det givne i os - naturen - og det, at vi...

  7. Managing soil natural capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Ronggang; Termansen, Mette; Brady, Mark

    2017-01-01

    return but replenishes SOC. We find that managing soil natural capital can, not only improve farm profit while reducing the risk, but also reduce the downside risk. Prudent adaptation to future risks should therefore consider the impact of current agricultural management practices on the stock of soil...

  8. Natural Language Sourcebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Eva; And Others

    This sourcebook is intended to provide researchers and users of natural language computer systems with a classification scheme to describe language-related problems associated with such systems. Methods from the disciplines of artificial intelligence (AI), education, linguistics, psychology, anthropology, and psychometrics were applied in an…

  9. Limits on Natural Photosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Grondelle, Rienk; Boeker, Egbert

    2017-01-01

    Photosynthesis in nature does not use the far infrared part of the solar spectrum (lambda > 900 nm), comprising about 30% of the incoming solar energy. By simple thermodynamic arguments it is explained that this is due to the unavoidable back reactions during the night. It follows that lambda

  10. Natural gas annual 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, Volume 2, presents historical data for the Nation from 1930 to 1992, and by State from 1967 to 1992. The Supplement of this report presents profiles of selected companies

  11. Georgia: natural energy resources

    OpenAIRE

    Chomakhidze, Demur

    2007-01-01

    This article examines Georgia's natural fuel and energy resources (FER), both conventional (hydropower, oil, gas, coal) and non-conventional (alternative). Special attention is paid to hydropower and to alternative energy sources. The author assesses the current level of their development in the republic.

  12. Natural history of COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Lange, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The natural history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is usually described with a focus on change in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 ) over time as this allows for exploration of risk factors for an accelerated decline-and thus of developing COPD. From epidemiological studies we...

  13. Reinventing Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraedts, Caspar L.; Boersma, Kerst Th.

    2006-01-01

    Although many research studies report students' Lamarckian misconceptions, only a few studies present learning and teaching strategies that focus on the successful development of the concept of natural selection. The learning and teaching strategy for upper secondary students (aged 15-16) presented in this study conducted in The Netherlands is…

  14. Logic and Natural selection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peregrin, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 2 (2010), s. 207-223 ISSN 1661-8297 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/10/1279 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z9009908 Keywords : logic * natural selection * modus potens * inferentialism Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  15. Natural radiation environment III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gesell, T.F.; Lowder, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 52 research papers presented at this symposium in April 1978. The major topics in this volume deal with penetrating radiation measurements, radiation surveys and population exposure, radioactivity in the indoor environment, and technologically enhanced natural radioactivity

  16. Natural radiation environment III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gesell, T.F.; Lowder, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 57 research papers presented at this symposium in April 1978 at Houston, Texas. This symposium provided a common forum for scientists in several disciplines that deal with natural radiation because there is an increasing interest in the environment as it pertains to human health and the competition for scarce energy and material resources

  17. Nature's Solar Cell

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 2. Nature's Solar Cell. Stephen Suresh Gautham Nadig. Research News Volume 1 Issue 2 February 1996 pp 102-104. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/02/0102-0104 ...

  18. Wasserpflanzen in der Natur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole; Christensen, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Unsere Aquarienpflanzen kommen in der Natur vor oder sind Zuchtformen natürlicher Arten. Dennoch konnten erst sehr wenige Aquarianer diese Pflanzen in ihrer natürlichen Umgebung beobachten. Oft stellten sie fest, dass die Pflanzen meist ganz anders aussehen als im Aquarium. Neben einem ständigen...

  19. Radioactivity: A Natural Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronneau, C.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is misinformation people have on the subject of radiation. The importance of comparing artificial source levels of radiation to natural levels is emphasized. Measurements of radioactivity, its consequences, and comparisons between the risks induced by radiation in the environment and from artificial sources are included. (KR)

  20. How Is Nature Asymmetric?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 6. How Is Nature Asymmetric? - Discrete Symmetries in Particle Physics and their Violation ... Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai. Aligarh Muslim University. University of Rajasthan, Jaipur. Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India.

  1. Natural hazards science strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Robert R.; Jones, Lucile M.; Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Godt, Jonathan W.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Love, Jeffrey J.; Neal, Christina A.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Plunkett, Michael L.; Weaver, Craig S.; Wein, Anne; Perry, Suzanne C.

    2012-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in natural hazards is to develop and apply hazard science to help protect the safety, security, and economic well-being of the Nation. The costs and consequences of natural hazards can be enormous, and each year more people and infrastructure are at risk. USGS scientific research—founded on detailed observations and improved understanding of the responsible physical processes—can help to understand and reduce natural hazard risks and to make and effectively communicate reliable statements about hazard characteristics, such as frequency, magnitude, extent, onset, consequences, and where possible, the time of future events.To accomplish its broad hazard mission, the USGS maintains an expert workforce of scientists and technicians in the earth sciences, hydrology, biology, geography, social and behavioral sciences, and other fields, and engages cooperatively with numerous agencies, research institutions, and organizations in the public and private sectors, across the Nation and around the world. The scientific expertise required to accomplish the USGS mission in natural hazards includes a wide range of disciplines that this report refers to, in aggregate, as hazard science.In October 2010, the Natural Hazards Science Strategy Planning Team (H–SSPT) was charged with developing a long-term (10-year) Science Strategy for the USGS mission in natural hazards. This report fulfills that charge, with a document hereinafter referred to as the Strategy, to provide scientific observations, analyses, and research that are critical for the Nation to become more resilient to natural hazards. Science provides the information that decisionmakers need to determine whether risk management activities are worthwhile. Moreover, as the agency with the perspective of geologic time, the USGS is uniquely positioned to extend the collective experience of society to prepare for events outside current memory. The USGS has critical statutory

  2. Natural products as photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saewan, Nisakorn; Jimtaisong, Ampa

    2015-03-01

    The rise in solar ultraviolet radiation on the earth's surface has led to a depletion of stratospheric ozone over recent decades, thus accelerating the need to protect human skin against the harmful effects of UV radiation such as erythema, edema, hyperpigmentation, photoaging, and skin cancer. There are many different ways to protect skin against UV radiation's harmful effects. The most popular way to reduce the amount of UV radiation penetrating the skin is topical application of sunscreen products that contain UV absorbing or reflecting active molecules. Based on their protection mechanism, the active molecules in sunscreens are broadly divided into inorganic and organic agents. Inorganic sunscreens reflect and scatter UV and visible radiation, while organic sunscreens absorb UV radiation and then re-emit energy as heat or light. These synthetic molecules have limited concentration according to regulation concern. Several natural compounds with UV absorption property have been used to substitute for or to reduce the quantity of synthetic sunscreen agents. In addition to UV absorption property, most natural compounds were found to act as antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory agents, which provide further protection against the damaging effects of UV radiation exposure. Compounds derived from natural sources have gained considerable attention for use in sunscreen products and have bolstered the market trend toward natural cosmetics. This adds to the importance of there being a wide selection of active molecules in sunscreen formulations. This paper summarizes a number of natural products derived from propolis, plants, algae, and lichens that have shown potential photoprotection properties against UV radiation exposure-induced skin damage. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Natural products in chemical biology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Civjan, Natanya

    2012-01-01

    .... The book begins by introducing natural products from different origins, moves on to presenting and discussing biosynthesis of various classes of natural products, and then looks at natural products...

  4. Design, science and naturalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, David

    2008-09-01

    The Design Argument is the proposition that the presence of order in the universe is evidence for the existence of God. The Argument dates at least to the presocratic Greek philosophers, and is largely based on analogical reasoning. Following the appearance of Aquinas' Summa Theologica in the 13th century, the Christian Church in Europe embraced a Natural Theology based on observation and reason that allowed it to dominate the entire world of knowledge. Science in turn advanced itself by demonstrating that it could be of service to theology, the recognized queen of the sciences. During the heyday of British Natural Theology in the 17th and 18th centuries, the watchmaker, shipbuilder, and architect analogies were invoked reflexively by philosophers, theologians, and scientists. The Design Argument was not systematically and analytically criticized until David Hume wrote Dialogues on Natural Religion in the 1750s. After Darwin published Origin of Species in 1859, Design withered on the vine. But in recent years, the Argument has been resurrected under the appellation "intelligent design," and been the subject of political and legal controversy in the United States. Design advocates have argued that intelligent design can be formulated as a scientific hypothesis, that new scientific discoveries validate a design inference, and that naturalism must be removed as a methodological requirement in science. If science is defined by a model of concentric epistemological zonation, design cannot be construed as a scientific hypothesis because it is inconsistent with the core aspects of scientific methodology: naturalism, uniformity, induction, and efficient causation. An analytical examination of claims by design advocates finds no evidence of any type to support either scientific or philosophical claims that design can be unambiguously inferred from nature. The apparent irreducible complexity of biological mechanisms may be explained by exaptation or scaffolding. The argument

  5. RTE and Significant Natural Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Vermont Fish and Wildlife Department's Natural Heritage Inventory (NHI) maintains a database of rare, threatened and endangered species and natural (plant)...

  6. Art, Technology and Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Since 1900, the connections between art and technology with nature have become increasingly inextricable. Through a selection of innovative readings by international scholars, this book presents the first investigation of the intersections between art, technology and nature in post-medieval times....... Transdisciplinary in approach, this volume’s 14 essays explore art, technology and nature’s shifting constellations that are discernible at the micro level and as part of a larger chronological pattern. Included are subjects ranging from Renaissance wooden dolls, science in the Italian art academies, and artisanal...... epistemologies in the followers of Leonardo, to Surrealism and its precursors in Mannerist grotesques and the Wunderkammer, eighteenth-century plant printing, the climate and its artistic presentations from Constable to Olafur Eliasson, and the hermeneutics of bioart. In their comprehensive introduction, editors...

  7. Noncariogenic intense natural sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinghorn, A D; Kaneda, N; Baek, N I; Kennelly, E J; Soejarto, D D

    1998-09-01

    There is a definite relationship between the dietary consumption of sucrose and the incidence of dental caries. Noncaloric sucrose substitutes for use in the sweetening of foods, beverages, and medicines may be either synthetic compounds or natural products. In the United States, four potently sweet artificial sweeteners are approved, namely, saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame potassium, and sucralose. Highly sweet plant constituents are used in Japan and some other countries, including the diterpene glycoside stevioside and the protein thaumatin. Recent progress in a research project oriented towards the discovery and evaluation of novel potentially noncariogenic sweeteners from plants has focused on substances in the sesquiterpenoid, diterpenoid, triterpenoid, steroidal saponin, and proanthocyanidin structural classes. The feasibility of using Mongolian gerbil electrophysiological and behavioral assays to monitor the sweetness of plant extracts, chromatographic fractions, and pure isolates has been investigated. An in vivo cariogenicity study on the commercially available natural sweeteners stevioside and rebaudioside A has been carried out.

  8. Natural analogue working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Come, B.; Chapman, N.

    1986-01-01

    A Natural Analogue Working Group was established by the Commission of the European Communities in 1985. The purpose of this group is to bring together modellers with earth scientists and others, so that maximum benefit can be obtained from natural analogue studies with a view to safe geological disposal of radioactive waste. The first meeting of this group was held in Brussels from November 5 to 7, 1985. The discussions mainly concerned the identification of the modellers' needs and of the earth scientists' capacity to provide for them. Following the debates, a written statement was produced by the Group; this document forms the core of the present Report. Notes and outlines of many of the presentations made are grouped in four appendixes. The valuable contribution of all those involved in the meeting is gratefully acknowledged

  9. Responses to natural disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggs, William Ward

    Since 1964, natural disasters caused by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, or extreme weather in the form of floods, droughts, or hurricanes, have been responsible for more than 2,756,000 deaths worldwide in nations other than the United States, the Soviet Union, and the Eastern European Bloc, according to figures tabulated by the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) of the Agency for International Development (AID). Over 95% of these fatalities occurred in developing or third world countries. Damage resulting from these calamities has been severe but extremely difficult to estimate in monetary terms. In 1986, U.S. government and voluntary agencies spent $303 million on natural disaster assistance around the world, 79% of total world assistance. In 1985 the U.S. total was nearly $900 million, 48% of the $1.84 billion world total.

  10. Natural Blue Food Colour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roda-Serrat, Maria Cinta

    In recent years, there has been a growing tendency to avoid the use of artificial colorants and additives in food products, especially after some studies linked their consumption with behavioural changes in children. However, the incorporation of colorants from natural origin remains a challenge...... for food technologists, as these are typically less vivid and less stable than their synthetic alternatives. Regarding blue colorants, phycocyanins from cyanobacteria are currently in the spotlight as promising new natural blue colorants. Phycocyanins are proteins which blue colour results from...... the presence of the chromophore phycocyanobilin (PCB), a covalently attached linear tetrapyrrole. The applications of phycocyanins as food colorants are however limited, as they show poor stability in certain conditions of pH, light and temperature. Cleavage of PCB from the protein followed by careful product...

  11. Challenging Exclusionary Naturalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Robert Cockram

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to reconstruct Hilary Kornblith’s (2002 argument for excluding conceptual analysis from epistemological inquiry, and then provide three objections to it. More specifically, Kornblith argues that epistemological properties such as ‘knowledge’ reduce to natural kinds (with a constitutive essence which can only be discovered and investigated using the a posteriori methods of the natural sciences. Thus, he continues, conceptual analysis can’t properly illuminate the target domain. The three objections to Kornblith’s argument which I present are as follows: (i Multiple Realizeability, (ii Psychological Explanation, (iii Starting Points. On strength of these objections, I conclude that Kornblith’s brand of a posteriori epistemology both eliminates our ability to make epistemic evaluations in general, and also implies a strong form of scepticism.

  12. Natural soft leptogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, Yuval; Kitano, Ryuichiro; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2005-01-01

    Successful soft leptogenesis requires small B-terms for the right-handed sneutrinos and a large CP violating phase between the A- and B-terms. We show that this situation is realized naturally within the framework of gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking. The A-term is dominated by contribution from gauge mediation, while supergravity effects are more important for the B-term. The different origins naturally explain simultaneously the smallness of the B-term and the large CP violating phase. The most stringent bounds on the model come from the cosmological gravitino problem. We find a viable parameter region with very light gravitino m 3/2 ∼< 16 eV, providing a consistent framework for supersymmetry phenomenology, soft leptogenesis and cosmology

  13. Natural antimicrobials in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Stock, Sarah J.E.

    2008-01-01

    Natural antimicrobials are peptides that are essential components of the innate immune system, providing broad-spectrum protection against bacteria, yeasts and some viruses. In addition to their innate immune activity, they exhibit properties suggesting they interact with the adaptive immune system. These functions imply they may be of particular importance in pregnancy. Intrauterine infection is responsible for approximately one third of cases of preterm labour, and normal ...

  14. Nature Journal (Selected Articles),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-26

    in the basic disciplines of modern biology, physics and biophysics. 3. There will be ample scope for this special function in the field of bionics . It...is very suitable for measuring the temperature in locomotives and vessels. Shanghai No. 2 Automatic Instruments Factory Factoryaddress: 788 Hejian Road...philosophy, biology, bionics , biophysics, medicine and the theories of main and collateral channels in traditional Chinese medicine. Naturally, at present

  15. Natural gas outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, R.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation reviewed natural gas supply and demand issues facing Ontario and outlined TransCanada's role as a key player in Ontario's energy industry. TransCanada's gas transmission assets include 39,000 km of wholly owned pipelines from British Columbia to Atlantic Canada that carry 11 Bcf of gas per day. In addition, TransCanada operates 29 power generating plants, of which 6 are in Ontario. The company is also involved the proposed Mackenzie Valley and Alaska pipeline. A map illustrating Ontario and Quebec operations was included along with graphs depicting the 2004 base case for North American gas demand by region. Historical and forecasted gas demand by end use sector in Ontario and Quebec was also illustrated. A chart of North American gas supply indicates that new supply is needed to meet energy demands. Production forecasts for Western Canada for conventional and unconventional reserves indicates that by 2015, unconventional reserves such as coalbed methane (CBM) will make up a larger portion of the production mix. A map indicating existing and proposed import terminals along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts for liquefied natural gas (LNG) was included. The challenges facing the North American gas market include price volatility, the need to update energy policies, the need to improve regulatory efficiency, and aligning the interests of market participants. It was concluded that although natural gas from Western Canada will continue to be a stable supply source for many years, the natural gas market in North America is seeking new supply in frontier gas, LNG and CBM to meeting growing demand. 1 tab., 11 figs

  16. Monitoring natural phytoplankton communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haraguchi, L.; Jakobsen, H. H.; Lundholm, Nina

    2017-01-01

    The phytoplankton community can vary within hours (physiology) to years (climatic and anthropogenic responses), and monitoring at different timescales is relevant for understanding community functioning and assessing changes. However, standard techniques used in monitoring programmes are time...... carbon biomass with PFCM, applying the same conversion factors as for microscopy. Biomasses obtained with PFCM, estimated from live cells, were higher than microscopy for natural samples. We conclude that PFCM results are comparable to classical techniques, yet the data from PFCM had poor taxonomic...

  17. Harnessing natural ventilation benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, John

    2013-04-01

    Making sure that a healthcare establishment has a good supply of clean fresh air is an important factor in keeping patients, staff, and visitors, free from the negative effects of CO2 and other contaminants. John O'Leary of Trend Controls, a major international supplier of building energy management solutions (BEMS), examines the growing use of natural ventilation, and the health, energy-saving, and financial benefits, that it offers.

  18. Extremes in nature

    CERN Document Server

    Salvadori, Gianfausto; Kottegoda, Nathabandu T

    2007-01-01

    This book is about the theoretical and practical aspects of the statistics of Extreme Events in Nature. Most importantly, this is the first text in which Copulas are introduced and used in Geophysics. Several topics are fully original, and show how standard models and calculations can be improved by exploiting the opportunities offered by Copulas. In addition, new quantities useful for design and risk assessment are introduced.

  19. Natural SUSY endures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papucci, Michele; Ruderman, Joshua T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA (United States). Theoretical Physics Group; California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Weiler, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theoretical Physics Div.

    2011-10-31

    The first 1 fb{sup -1} of LHC searches have set impressive limits on new colored particles decaying to missing energy. We address the implication of these searches for naturalness in supersymmetry (SUSY). General bottom-up considerations of natural electroweak symmetry breaking show that higgsinos, stops, and the gluino should not be too far above the weak scale. The rest of the spectrum, including the squarks of the first two generations, can be heavier and beyond the current LHC reach. We have used collider simulations to determine the limits that all of the 1 fb{sup -1} searches pose on higgsinos, stops, and the gluino. We find that stops and the left-handed sbottom are starting to be constrained and must be heavier than about 200-300 GeV when decaying to higgsinos. The gluino must be heavier than about 600-800 GeV when it decays to stops and sbottoms. While these findings point toward scenarios with a lighter third generation split from the other squarks, we do find that moderately-tuned regions remain, where the gluino is just above 1 TeV and all the squarks are degenerate and light. Among all the searches, jets plus missing energy and same-sign dileptons often provide the most powerful probes of natural SUSY. Overall, our results indicate that natural SUSY has survived the first 1 fb{sup -1} of data. The LHC is now on the brink of exploring the most interesting region of SUSY parameter space. (orig.)

  20. Natural matrix standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, V.T.

    1976-01-01

    Environmental radiochemistry needs, for use in analytical intercomparision and as standard reference materials, very large homogeneous samples of a variety of matrices, each naturally contaminated by a variety of longer-lived radionuclides, at several different ranges of concentrations. The reasons for this need are discussed, and the minimum assortment of matrices of radionuclides, and of concentrations is established. Sources of suitable materials are suggested, and the international approach to meeting this need is emphasized

  1. Natural language generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybury, Mark T.

    The goal of natural language generation is to replicate human writers or speakers: to generate fluent, grammatical, and coherent text or speech. Produced language, using both explicit and implicit means, must clearly and effectively express some intended message. This demands the use of a lexicon and a grammar together with mechanisms which exploit semantic, discourse and pragmatic knowledge to constrain production. Furthermore, special processors may be required to guide focus, extract presuppositions, and maintain coherency. As with interpretation, generation may require knowledge of the world, including information about the discourse participants as well as knowledge of the specific domain of discourse. All of these processes and knowledge sources must cooperate to produce well-written, unambiguous language. Natural language generation has received less attention than language interpretation due to the nature of language: it is important to interpret all the ways of expressing a message but we need to generate only one. Furthermore, the generative task can often be accomplished by canned text (e.g., error messages or user instructions). The advent of more sophisticated computer systems, however, has intensified the need to express multisentential English.

  2. Potential Global Partners for Smaller-Scale Contingencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-01

    American Center for the Coordination of the Prevention of Natural Disasters or Centro de Coordinacion para La Prevencion de Desastres Naturales en...CEPGL Communaute Economique des Pays des Grands Lacs CEPREDNAC Coordinacion para La Prevencion de Desastres Naturales en America Central CERF Central...prime motivation of our response to disaster is to alleviate human suffering amongst those least able to withstand the stress caused by disaster. When we

  3. NATURAL RESOURCES ASSESSMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D.F. Fenster

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the scientific work that was performed to evaluate and assess the occurrence and economic potential of natural resources within the geologic setting of the Yucca Mountain area. The extent of the regional areas of investigation for each commodity differs and those areas are described in more detail in the major subsections of this report. Natural resource assessments have focused on an area defined as the ''conceptual controlled area'' because of the requirements contained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulation, 10 CFR Part 60, to define long-term boundaries for potential radionuclide releases. New requirements (proposed 10 CFR Part 63 [Dyer 1999]) have obviated the need for defining such an area. However, for the purposes of this report, the area being discussed, in most cases, is the previously defined ''conceptual controlled area'', now renamed the ''natural resources site study area'' for this report (shown on Figure 1). Resource potential can be difficult to assess because it is dependent upon many factors, including economics (demand, supply, cost), the potential discovery of new uses for resources, or the potential discovery of synthetics to replace natural resource use. The evaluations summarized are based on present-day use and economic potential of the resources. The objective of this report is to summarize the existing reports and information for the Yucca Mountain area on: (1) Metallic mineral and mined energy resources (such as gold, silver, etc., including uranium); (2) Industrial rocks and minerals (such as sand, gravel, building stone, etc.); (3) Hydrocarbons (including oil, natural gas, tar sands, oil shales, and coal); and (4) Geothermal resources. Groundwater is present at the Yucca Mountain site at depths ranging from 500 to 750 m (about 1,600 to 2,500 ft) below the ground surface. Groundwater resources are not discussed in this report, but are planned to be included in the hydrology

  4. NATURAL RESOURCES ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.F. Fenster

    2000-12-11

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the scientific work that was performed to evaluate and assess the occurrence and economic potential of natural resources within the geologic setting of the Yucca Mountain area. The extent of the regional areas of investigation for each commodity differs and those areas are described in more detail in the major subsections of this report. Natural resource assessments have focused on an area defined as the ''conceptual controlled area'' because of the requirements contained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulation, 10 CFR Part 60, to define long-term boundaries for potential radionuclide releases. New requirements (proposed 10 CFR Part 63 [Dyer 1999]) have obviated the need for defining such an area. However, for the purposes of this report, the area being discussed, in most cases, is the previously defined ''conceptual controlled area'', now renamed the ''natural resources site study area'' for this report (shown on Figure 1). Resource potential can be difficult to assess because it is dependent upon many factors, including economics (demand, supply, cost), the potential discovery of new uses for resources, or the potential discovery of synthetics to replace natural resource use. The evaluations summarized are based on present-day use and economic potential of the resources. The objective of this report is to summarize the existing reports and information for the Yucca Mountain area on: (1) Metallic mineral and mined energy resources (such as gold, silver, etc., including uranium); (2) Industrial rocks and minerals (such as sand, gravel, building stone, etc.); (3) Hydrocarbons (including oil, natural gas, tar sands, oil shales, and coal); and (4) Geothermal resources. Groundwater is present at the Yucca Mountain site at depths ranging from 500 to 750 m (about 1,600 to 2,500 ft) below the ground surface. Groundwater resources are not discussed in this

  5. Defining Nature-Based Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larimore, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Nature-based early childhood education. Nature-based preschool. Nature preschool. Forest kindergarten. Nature kindergarten. Waldkindergarten. Forest school. These are a few of the program terms currently being discussed among early childhood environmental education professionals in the United States. Why is there so much discussion about the names…

  6. Nature Quality in Organic Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybirk, Knud; Alrøe, Hugo; Frederiksen, Pia

    2004-01-01

    will explore how criteria for nature quality based on the Ecologist View can be developed and thereby feed into the ongoing discussion of the development of the organic farming practices. We suggest additional criteria for nature quality based on an Ecologist View of Nature: biodiversity, habitat diversity......Nature quality in relation to farming is a complex field. It involves different traditions and interests, different views of what nature is, and different ways of valuing nature. Furthermore there is a general lack of empirical data on many aspects of nature quality in the farmed landscape....... In this paper we discuss nature quality from the perspective of organic farming, which has its own values and goals in relation to nature – the Ecologist View of Nature. This is in contrast to the Culturist View characteristic of much conventional agriculture and the Naturalist View characteristic...

  7. Nature Inspired Surface Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubner, Michael

    2011-04-01

    Materials Scientists more and more are looking to nature for clues on how to create highly functional surface coatings with exceptional properties. The fog harvesting capabilities of the Namib Desert beetle, the beautiful iridescent colors of the hummingbird, and the super water repellant abilities of the Lotus leaf are but a few examples of the amazing properties developed over many years in the natural world. Nature also makes extensive use of the pH-dependent behavior of weak functional groups such as carboxylic acid and amine functional groups. This presentation will explore synthetic mimics to the nano- and microstructures responsible for these fascinating properties. For example, we have demonstrated a pH-induced porosity transition that can be used to create porous films with pore sizes that are tunable from the nanometer scale to the multiple micron scale. The pores of these films, either nano- or micropores, can be reversibly opened and closed by changes in solution pH. The ability to engineer pH-gated porosity transitions in heterostructured thin films has led to the demonstration of broadband anti-reflection coatings that mimic the anti-reflection properties of the moth eye and pH-tunable Bragg reflectors with a structure and function similar to that found in hummingbird wings and the Longhorn beetle. In addition, the highly textured honeycomb-like surfaces created by the formation of micron-scale pores are ideally suited for the creation of superhydrophobic surfaces that mimic the behavior of the self-cleaning lotus leaf. The development of synthetic "backbacks" on immune system cells that may one day ferry drugs to disease sites will also be discussed.

  8. Nature, Nurture and Epigenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, David; Gillette, Ross; Miller-Crews, Isaac; Gore, Andrea C.; Skinner, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    Real life by definition combines heritability (e.g., the legacy of exposures) and experience (e.g. stress during sensitive or ‘critical’ periods), but how to study or even model this interaction has proven difficult. The hoary concept of evaluating traits according to nature vs. nurture continues to persist despite repeated demonstrations that it retards, rather than advances, our understanding of biological processes. Behavioral genetics has proven the obvious, that genes influences behavior and, vice versa, that behavior influences genes. The concept of Genes X Environment (G X E) and its modern variants was viewed as an improvement on nature-nurture but has proven that, except in rare instances, it is not possible to fractionate phenotypes into these constituent elements. The entanglement inherent in terms such as nature-nurture or GXE is a Gordian knot that cannot be dissected or even split. Given that the world today is not what it was less than a century ago, yet the arbitrator (differential survival and reproduction) has stayed constant, de novo principles and practices are needed to better predict what the future holds. Put simply, the transformation that is now occurring within and between individuals as a product of global endocrine disruption is quite independent of what has been regarded as evolution by selection. This new perspective should focus on how epigenetic modifications might revise approaches to understand how the phenotype and, in particular its components, is shaped. In this review we summarize the literature in this developing area, focusing on our research on the fungicide vinclozolin. PMID:25102229

  9. The nature of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Jourdain, Philip E B

    2007-01-01

    Anyone with an interest in mathematics will welcome the republication of this little volume by a remarkable mathematician who was also a logician, a philosopher, and an occasional writer of fiction and poetry. Originally published in 1913, and later included in the acclaimed anthology The World of Mathematics, Jourdain's survey shows how and why the methods of mathematics were developed, traces the development of mathematical science from the earliest to modern times, and chronicles the application of mathematics to natural science.Starting with the ancient Egyptians and Greeks, the author p

  10. Closer to Nature?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkfelt, Sune; Kondrup, Sara; Röcklinsberg, Helena

    2015-01-01

    As public awareness of environmental issues and animal welfare has risen, catering to public concerns and views on these issues has become a potentially profitable strategy for marketing a number of product types, of which animal products such as dairy and meat are obvious examples. Our analysis...... discourses in order to sell one image of animal welfare in intensive animal production while the actual production at the same time presupposes a quite different paradigm of animal welfare. Specifically, product advertising utilizes representations tied to concepts of naturalness in depictions of both animal...

  11. Natural gas technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todaro, J.M.; Herbert, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation is devoted to a discussion regarding current and planned US fossil energy research and development for fiscal years 1996, 1997 and 1998. The principal focus of research in the immediate future will be: clean coal fuels, natural gas and oil exploration and production, especially reservoir life extension, advanced drilling completion and stimulation systems, advanced diagnostics and imaging systems, environmental compliance in technology development, regulatory streamlining and risk assessment. Program goals to 2010 were summarized as: increasing domestic oil and gas recovery; increasing recoverable reserves; decreasing cumulative industry environmental compliance costs; increasing revenues to the federal government; saving jobs in the U.S

  12. Marine natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunt, John W; Copp, Brent R; Keyzers, Robert A; Munro, Murray H G; Prinsep, Michèle R

    2016-03-01

    This review covers the literature published in 2014 for marine natural products (MNPs), with 1116 citations (753 for the period January to December 2014) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1378 in 456 papers for 2014), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Reviews, biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included.

  13. Natural outcrossing in cocona

    OpenAIRE

    Paiva, Waldelice Oliveira de

    1999-01-01

    Com o objetivo de avaliar a frequência de hibridação natural em Cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal) foram avaliadas em Manaus, AM, duas cultivares que se diferenciavam pela presença ou ausência de pigmentação de antocianina nos ramos, pecíolos e nervuras das folha. A taxa de polinização cruzada foi avaliada em três épocas do florescimento das plantas e foi estimada em 31%. Durante o desenvolvimento da cultura, observou-se grande presença de abelhas dos gêneros (Apidae) Paratrigona, Trigona e ...

  14. Natural radio-exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Although the amounts are small, man is exposed on a daily basis to alpha, beta, and gamma radiation emitted by radioactive elements present in the earth's crust. The natural radioactive elements are measurable, either by physicochemical means or by radiometric methods and can be the cause of external or internal exposure in man. Also of importance is cosmic radiation. Of galactic or solar origin, primary cosmic rays cause external radiation exposure. The majority of these particles disintegrate rapidly. They reach the ground at a mean rate of the order of one particle per square centimeter per minute

  15. Natural Analogue Synthesis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. M. Simmons

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to present analogue studies and literature reviews designed to provide qualitative and quantitative information to test and provide added confidence in process models abstracted for performance assessment (PA) and model predictions pertinent to PA. This report provides updates to studies presented in the ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' (CRWMS M and O 2000 [151945], Section 13) and new examples gleaned from the literature, along with results of quantitative studies conducted specifically for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The intent of the natural analogue studies was to collect corroborative evidence from analogues to demonstrate additional understanding of processes expected to occur during postclosure at a potential Yucca Mountain repository. The report focuses on key processes by providing observations and analyses of natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) systems to improve understanding and confidence in the operation of these processes under conditions similar to those that could occur in a nuclear waste repository. The process models include those that represent both engineered and natural barrier processes. A second purpose of this report is to document the various applications of natural analogues to geologic repository programs, focusing primarily on the way analogues have been used by the YMP. This report is limited to providing support for PA in a confirmatory manner and to providing corroborative inputs for process modeling activities. Section 1.7 discusses additional limitations of this report. Key topics for this report are analogues to emplacement drift degradation, waste form degradation, waste package degradation, degradation of other materials proposed for the engineered barrier, seepage into drifts, radionuclide flow and transport in the unsaturated zone (UZ), analogues to coupled thermal-hydrologic-mechanical-chemical processes, saturated zone (SZ) transport

  16. NATURAL ANALOGUE SYNTHESIS REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present analogue studies and literature reviews designed to provide qualitative and quantitative information to test and provide added confidence in process models abstracted for performance assessment (PA) and model predictions pertinent to PA. This report provides updates to studies presented in the Yucca Mountain Site Description (CRWMS M and O 2000 [151945], Section 13) and new examples gleaned from the literature along with results of quantitative studies conducted specifically for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). The intent of the natural analogue studies was to collect corroborative evidence from analogues to demonstrate additional understanding of processes expected to occur during postclosure at a potential Yucca Mountain repository. The report focuses on key processes by providing observations and analyses of natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) systems to improve understanding and confidence in the operation of these processes under conditions similar to those that could occur in a nuclear waste repository. The process models include those that represent both engineered and natural barrier processes. A second purpose of this report is to document the various applications of natural analogues to geologic repository programs, focusing primarily on the way analogues have been used by the YMP. This report is limited to providing support for PA in a confirmatory manner and to providing corroborative inputs for process modeling activities. Section 1.7 discusses additional limitations of this report. Key topics for this report are analogues to emplacement-drift degradation, waste-form degradation, waste-package degradation, degradation of other materials proposed for the engineered barrier, seepage into drifts, radionuclide flow and transport in the unsaturated zone (UZ), analogues to coupled thermal-hydrologic-mechanical-chemical processes, saturated-zone (SZ) transport, impact of radionuclide release on the biosphere

  17. Nature Identical Prosody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel Henrichsen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Today's synthetic voices are largely based on diphone synthesis (DiSyn) and unit selection synthesis (UnitSyn). In most DiSyn systems, prosodic envelopes are generated with formal models while UnitSyn systems refer to extensive, highly indexed sound databases. Each approach has its drawbacks......; such as low naturalness (DiSyn) and dependence on huge amounts of background data (UnitSyn). We present a hybrid model based on high-level speech data. As preliminary tests show, prosodic models combining DiSyn style at the phone level with UnitSyn style at the supra-segmental levels may approach Unit...

  18. Modulated natural inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappl, Rolf; Nilles, Hans Peter; Winkler, Martin Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    We discuss some model-independent implications of embedding (aligned) axionic inflation in string theory. As a consequence of string theoretic duality symmetries the pure cosine potentials of natural inflation are replaced by modular functions. This leads to “wiggles” in the inflationary potential that modify the predictions with respect to CMB-observations. In particular, the scalar power spectrum deviates from the standard power law form. As a by-product one can show that trans-Planckian excursions of the aligned effective axion are compatible with the weak gravity conjecture.

  19. En-gauging naturalness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharucha, Aoife [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Dept. T31; Goudelis, Andreas [Savoie Univ., CNRS, Annecy-le-Vieux (France). LAPTh; McGarrie, Moritz [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    The discovery of a 125.5 GeV Higgs with standard model-like couplings and naturalness considerations motivate gauge extensions of the MSSM. We analyse two variants of such an extension and carry out a phenomenological study of regions of the parameter space statisfying current direct and indirect constraints, employing state-of-the-art two-loop RGE evolution and GMSB boundary conditions. We find that due to the appearance of non-decoupled D-terms it is possible to obtain a 125.5 GeV Higgs with stops below 2 TeV, while the uncolored sparticles could still lie within reach of the LHC. We compare the contributions of the stop sector and the non-decoupled D-terms to the Higgs mass, and study their effect on the Higgs couplings. We further investigate the nature of the next-to lightest supersymmetric particle, in light of the GMSB motivated searches currently being pursued by ATLAS and CMS.

  20. Natural and artificial photoprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cripps, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    A solar simulator is described with collimated filtered radiation incorporating an optical integrator to more evenly diffuse the xenon 2.5 KW light source. Populations can be catogorized into skin types I-VI and the minimal erythema dose (MED) in each skin type measured in Joules/cm2 was compared to give a relative suntan photoprotection factor or SPF compared with type I (1.0) so that type II had an SPF of 1.67, type III SPF of 2.5, type IV V had an SPF of nearly 4, whereas the darker Negroid skin (type VI) had an SPF of 9.68, or nearly 10 times that of type I. In addition, various studies were performed to determine the natural protection factor after natural sunlight (3 1/2 mo of summer sun). In 21 subjects the mean SPF was 2.33 when compared to the MED on unexposed skin on the buttocks. Five subjects who had received a mean total dose of 3.49 J/cm2 of UVB within a 4-week period had a mean SPF of 8.01 and 5 subjects who had received a mean total dose of 20 J/cm2 of UVA with PUVA therapy within 2 weeks had a mean SPF of 2.7. These studies were compared with the photoprotection ability of topical chemical protective agents with a range of 4-15

  1. Natural radioactivity of wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zak, A.; Isajenko, K.; Piotrowska, B.; Kuczbajska, M.; Zabek, A.; Szczygielski, T.

    2010-01-01

    By-products of the combustion of coal (wastes) are often used for various types of construction (dwellings, roads, etc.). The legal regulations (The Ordinance of the Council of Ministers of 2 January 2007 'On the requirements for the content of natural radioactive isotopes of potassium K-40, radium Ra-226 and thorium Th-228 in raws and materials used in buildings for the residence of people and livestock, as well as in the industrial by-products used in the construction, and the control of the content of the aforementioned isotopes' - Law Gazette no. 4/2007 item 29) are in force in Poland. The regulations permit the possibility of utilization of raws and by-products basing upon the level of the natural radioactivity of the examined raws and materials. The article is a survey of the results obtained during the measurements of many types of raws and building materials for almost 30 years by the network of the laboratories in Poland. It is based upon the results stored in the database of the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection (CLRP), Warsaw. The article tends to outline the radioactivity of the waste materials with respect to other raws and materials used in the construction industry. The article shows the possibilities for the use of by-products originating in the power stations and heat- and power stations (mainly ashes, slag and hinter) in the construction of dwellings and roads. (authors)

  2. CERN in "Nature"

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    CERN is nestled within a verdant natural environment which, thanks to a conservation-oriented policy, is characterized by a remarkable biodiversity. The continued protection of that diversity calls for thoughtful, carefully planned measures.   CERN’s site is an extensive one: its 650 hectares include 210 hectares of buildings, roadways and parking lots, 100 hectares of fenced-off green area, and 340 hectares of non-fenced land, a patchwork of fields, woods and pasture. This land teems with a great variety of plants and animals, including some rare and unexpected species. In 2009 CERN received a certificate from the Swiss foundation Nature & économie for the Meyrin site, and the award was renewed in 2012 for three more years. “The green spaces inside the fenced area are tended by six ISS gardeners, whose duties also include keeping the sidewalks and footpaths clear of snow in winter. The Meyrin site also includes orchid sanctuaries, meadows and sheep pasture...

  3. Natural medicaments in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Dakshita J; Sinha, Ashish A

    2014-04-01

    The major objective in root canal treatment is to disinfect the entire root canal system. Cleaning, shaping, and use of antimicrobial medicaments are effective in reducing the bacterial load to some extent, but some bacteria do remain behind and multiply, causing reinfection. Taking into consideration the ineffectiveness, potential side-effects and safety concerns of synthetic drugs, the herbal alternatives for endodontic usage might prove to be advantageous. Over the past decade, interest in drugs derived from medicinal plants has markedly increased. Phytomedicine has been used in dentistry as anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, analgesic, sedative and also as endodontic irrigant. Herbal preparations can be derived from the root, leaves, seeds, stem, and flowers. The PubMed database search revealed that the reference list for natural medicaments featured 1480 articles and in dentistry 173 articles. A forward search was undertaken on the selected articles and author names. This review focuses on various natural drugs and products as well as their therapeutic applications when used as phytomedicine in dentistry.

  4. Querying Natural Logic Knowledge Bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik; Jensen, Per Anker

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the principles of a system applying natural logic as a knowledge base language. Natural logics are regimented fragments of natural language employing high level inference rules. We advocate the use of natural logic for knowledge bases dealing with querying of classes in ontol......This paper describes the principles of a system applying natural logic as a knowledge base language. Natural logics are regimented fragments of natural language employing high level inference rules. We advocate the use of natural logic for knowledge bases dealing with querying of classes...... in ontologies and class-relationships such as are common in life-science descriptions. The paper adopts a version of natural logic with recursive restrictive clauses such as relative clauses and adnominal prepositional phrases. It includes passive as well as active voice sentences. We outline a prototype...

  5. Nature's loss, Immunologists gain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluvihare

    2000-01-01

    Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology Nature Publishing Group (2000). ISSN 1471-0072. Monthly First there was Annual Reviews, then came the monthly Elsevier Trends Journals, both of which try to identify hot topics in their chosen fields. The Current Opinion journals followed several years later, and Current Opinion in Cell Biology is presently one of the highest 'impact factor' review journals, with a distinguished board of editors and advisors and a systematic approach to regular coverage of the major fields of cell biology. Important topics are visited once a year, whether or not something specially exciting happened in the last 12 months. Add to this list Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology, the FASEB journal and the countless minireviews in 'real' journals, and you begin to wonder how anyone finds any time for doing experiments, or indeed reading the primary literature. So, into this already crowded field arrive three important newcomers: Nature Reviews in Molecular Cell Biology, Genetics, and Neurosciences, of which the first two will probably interest readers of Journal of Cell Science the most. Backed by the name and money of Nature and edited by experienced Nature staff, it is hard to see how these publications can possibly do other than succeed with writers and readers alike. What's inside the first issue? The cover of Nature Reviews in Molecular Cell Biology presents a 3-colour montage of a blue cell nucleus surrounded by splotches of green GPI-anchored GFP overlaid by orange actin stress fibres that seem to come from somewhere else. This image trails a comprehensive review from Kai Simons and Derek Toomre about Lipid Rafts. There are another five major review articles: calcium puffs and sparks, rings around DNA, HIV inhibitors, kinesin and the circadian clock provide a rich and varied mix of topics from authors who know what they're talking about. Surrounding this core is an entertaining mixture of 'highlights' at the front: news and views about

  6. natural or artificial diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Meyer-Willerer

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se probaron alimentos artificiales y naturales con larva de camarón (Litopenaeus vannamei cultivados en diferentes recipientes. Estos fueron ocho frascos cónicos con 15L, ocho acuarios con 50L y como grupo control, seis tanques de fibra de vidrio con 1500L; todos con agua marina fresca y filtrada. La densidad inicial en todos los recipientes fue de 70 nauplios/L. Aquellos en frascos y acuarios recibieron ya sea dieta natural o artificial. El grupo control fue cultivado con dieta natural en los tanques grandes que utilizan los laboratorios para la producción masiva de postlarvas. El principal producto de excreción de larva de camarón es el ión amonio, que es tóxico cuando está presente en concentraciones elevadas. Se determinó diariamente con el método colorimétrico del indofenol. Los resultados muestran diferencias en la concentración del ión amonio y en la sobrevivencia de larvas entre las diferentes dietas y también entre los diferentes recipientes. En aquellos con volúmenes pequeños comparados con los grandes, se presentó mayor concentración de amonio (500 a 750µg/L, en aquellos con dietas naturales, debido a que este ión sirve de fertilizante a las algas adicionadas, necesitando efectuar recambios diarios de agua posteriores al noveno día de cultivo para mantener este ión a una concentración subletal. Se obtuvo una baja cosecha de postlarvas (menor a 15% con el alimento artificial larvario, debido a la presencia de protozoarios, alimentándose con el producto comercial precipitado en el fondo de los frascos o acuarios. Los acuarios con larvas alimentadas con dieta natural también mostraron concentraciones subletales de amonio al noveno día; sin embargo, la sobrevivencia fue cuatro veces mayor que con dietas artificiales. Los tanques control con dietas naturales presentaron tasas de sobrevivencia (70 ± 5% similares a la reportada por otros laboratorios.

  7. A Natural Logic for Natural-Language Knowledge Bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Styltsvig, Henrik Bulskov; Jensen, Per Anker

    2017-01-01

    We describe a natural logic for computational reasoning with a regimented fragment of natural language. The natural logic comes with intuitive inference rules enabling deductions and with an internal graph representation facilitating conceptual path finding between pairs of terms as an approach t......-conservative constructs in order to approach scientific use of natural language. Finally, we outline a prototype system addressing life science for the natural logic knowledge base setup being under continuous development.......We describe a natural logic for computational reasoning with a regimented fragment of natural language. The natural logic comes with intuitive inference rules enabling deductions and with an internal graph representation facilitating conceptual path finding between pairs of terms as an approach...

  8. Health effects of natural disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović-Arsić Danijela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural hazards have a number of adverse effects - they affect the life and health of humans and the survival of other living beings, destroy material goods and deteriorate socio-economic conditions of life. Without neglecting the impact of natural hazards lower intensity, in this paper emphasis is placed on natural hazards with the strongest effects for human health, that is to natural disasters. It covered the impact of various natural disasters on mortality and morbidity during and immediately after natural disasters, including earthquakes, floods and drought, which is to characterize on the Republic of Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176017

  9. Is disease a natural kind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, R

    1995-10-01

    In The Nature of Disease, Lawrie Reznek argues that disease is not a natural kind term. I raise objections to Reznek's two central arguments for establishing that disease is not a natural kind. In criticizing his a priori, conceptual argument against naturalism, I argue that his conclusion rests on a weaker argument that appeals to the empirical diversity in the symptoms and manifestations of disease. I also raise questions about the account of natural kinds which Reznek utilizes and his point that conventions for classification are excluded by there being natural kinds.

  10. Gas hydrate in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Carolyn D.

    2018-01-17

    Gas hydrate is a naturally occurring, ice-like substance that forms when water and gas combine under high pressure and at moderate temperatures. Methane is the most common gas present in gas hydrate, although other gases may also be included in hydrate structures, particularly in areas close to conventional oil and gas reservoirs. Gas hydrate is widespread in ocean-bottom sediments at water depths greater than 300–500 meters (m; 984–1,640 feet [ft]) and is also present in areas with permanently frozen ground (permafrost). Several countries are evaluating gas hydrate as a possible energy resource in deepwater or permafrost settings. Gas hydrate is also under investigation to determine how environmental change may affect these deposits.

  11. Predicting natural catastrophes tsunamis

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    1. Tsunamis - Introduction - Definition of phenomenon - basic properties of the waves Propagation and dispersion Interaction with coasts - Geological and societal effects Origin of tsunamis - natural sources Scientific activities in connection with tsunamis. Ideas about simulations 2. Tsunami generation - The earthquake source - conventional theory The earthquake source - normal mode theory The landslide source Near-field observation - The Plafker index Far-field observation - Directivity 3. Tsunami warning - General ideas - History of efforts Mantle magnitudes and TREMOR algorithms The challenge of "tsunami earthquakes" Energy-moment ratios and slow earthquakes Implementation and the components of warning centers 4. Tsunami surveys - Principles and methodologies Fifteen years of field surveys and related milestones. Reconstructing historical tsunamis: eyewitnesses and geological evidence 5. Lessons from the 2004 Indonesian tsunami - Lessons in seismology Lessons in Geology The new technologies Lessons in civ...

  12. Natural and political markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell

    2003-01-01

    factor markets. The paper develops the notion of political markets by drawing upon anempirical case that reconstructs the chain of events related to the transfer of flexible manufacturingsystems (FMS). The case account for the various actors and institutions involved in the technologytransfer, including...... as well as its master - the puretechnological relations. Neither the Natural market, nor Homo economicus can be brought intoexistence without pure technological relations. The existence of the latter is a necessary conditionfor the existence of the two former, as has already been recognized...... relations. Yet, inorder to provide for an explanation of such a successful outcome, it is not enough to account foreconomists among themselves. As has already been suggested by Callon (1998) and the associatedwork on the anthropology of markets, also such material associations as computer basedcalculations...

  13. The nature of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udry, J R

    1994-11-01

    I explain a biosocial model of women's gendered behavior (behavior on which the sexes differ). This model integrates a macro sociological theory with a biological theory derived from primate behavior. The sociological model is designed to explain changes in the relationship between sex and behavior over time or between groups. The biological model is designed to explain individual within-sex variance and between-sex variance in gendered behavior in a cohort. Results from an original study are presented to demonstrate that within-sex variance in women's gendered behavior is explained well by the primate model. I conclude that human nature is gendered. The implications of this conclusion are explored for demographic and other social science research.

  14. Natural Radioactivity in Bananas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagatto, V. A. B.; Medina, N. H.; Okuno, E.; Umisedo, N. K.

    2008-01-01

    The content of 40 K natural radionuclide in bananas (Musa sapientum) from the Vale do Ribeira region, Sao Paulo, Brazil, has been measured. We have collected several samples of bananas prata and nanica, its peels, leaves, and also different soils where the banana tree was planted, such as soil with a standard amount of fertilizer, the fertilizer itself and also soil without fertilizer for comparison. We have used the gamma-ray spectroscopy technique with a NaI(T1) crystal inside a 12 cm thick lead shield to detect the gamma-radiation. The results indicate that only part of the available potassium is absorbed by the plant, which is mainly concentrated in the banana peel

  15. Natural Radioactivity in Bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagatto, V. A. B.; Medina, N. H.; Okuno, E.; Umisedo, N. K.

    2008-08-01

    The content of 40K natural radionuclide in bananas (Musa sapientum) from the Vale do Ribeira region, São Paulo, Brazil, has been measured. We have collected several samples of bananas prata and nanica, its peels, leaves, and also different soils where the banana tree was planted, such as soil with a standard amount of fertilizer, the fertilizer itself and also soil without fertilizer for comparison. We have used the gamma-ray spectroscopy technique with a NaI(T1) crystal inside a 12 cm thick lead shield to detect the gamma-radiation. The results indicate that only part of the available potassium is absorbed by the plant, which is mainly concentrated in the banana peel.

  16. Natural flexible dermal armor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen; Chen, Irene H; Gludovatz, Bernd; Zimmermann, Elizabeth A; Ritchie, Robert O; Meyers, Marc A

    2013-01-04

    Fish, reptiles, and mammals can possess flexible dermal armor for protection. Here we seek to find the means by which Nature derives its protection by examining the scales from several fish (Atractosteus spatula, Arapaima gigas, Polypterus senegalus, Morone saxatilis, Cyprinius carpio), and osteoderms from armadillos, alligators, and leatherback turtles. Dermal armor has clearly been developed by convergent evolution in these different species. In general, it has a hierarchical structure with collagen fibers joining more rigid units (scales or osteoderms), thereby increasing flexibility without significantly sacrificing strength, in contrast to rigid monolithic mineral composites. These dermal structures are also multifunctional, with hydrodynamic drag (in fish), coloration for camouflage or intraspecies recognition, temperature and fluid regulation being other important functions. The understanding of such flexible dermal armor is important as it may provide a basis for new synthetic, yet bioinspired, armor materials. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Natural Product Molecular Fossils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Heinz; Wolkenstein, Klaus

    The natural products synthesized by organisms that were living a long time ago gave rise to their molecular fossils. These can consist of either the original unchanged compounds or they may undergo peripheral transformations in which their skeletons remain intact. In cases when molecular fossils can be traced to their organismic source, they are termed "geological biomarkers".This contribution describes apolar and polar molecular fossils and, in particular biomarkers, along the lines usually followed in organic chemistry textbooks, and points to their bioprecursors when available. Thus, the apolar compounds are divided in linear and branched alkanes followed by alicyclic compounds and aromatic and heterocyclic molecules, and, in particular, the geoporphyrins. The polar molecular fossils contain as functional groups or constituent units ethers, alcohols, phenols, carbonyl groups, flavonoids, quinones, and acids, or are polymers like kerogen, amber, melanin, proteins, or nucleic acids. The final sections discuss the methodology used and the fundamental processes encountered by the biomolecules described, including diagenesis, catagenesis, and metagenesis.

  18. Virtual-World Naturalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Reynolds

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes a player will stray from the path described by a game, moving into new spaces, developing new possible modes of interaction, and often discovering the rougher edges of the game world, where physics models break down, textures become incongruous, and the pieces don’t quite fit together. Gameplay that seeks out these spaces and these phenomena, that searches for such clues to the underlying construction of the virtual environment, is a kind of virtual-world naturalism, at once a return to an investigative urge that has been subsumed to the exhaustive mapping and description of the real world and a form of resistance to the very idea of pre-defined paths of action, of externally imposed limits, in virtual worlds as well as in our own.

  19. Natural climate solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griscom, Bronson W.; Adams, Justin; Ellis, Peter W.; Houghton, Richard A.; Lomax, Guy; Miteva, Daniela A.; Schlesinger, William H.; Shoch, David; Siikamäki, Juha V.; Smith, Pete; Woodbury, Peter; Zganjar, Chris; Blackman, Allen; Campari, João; Conant, Richard T.; Delgado, Christopher; Elias, Patricia; Gopalakrishna, Trisha; Hamsik, Marisa R.; Herrero, Mario; Kiesecker, Joseph; Landis, Emily; Laestadius, Lars; Leavitt, Sara M.; Minnemeyer, Susan; Polasky, Stephen; Potapov, Peter; Putz, Francis E.; Sanderman, Jonathan; Silvius, Marcel; Wollenberg, Eva; Fargione, Joseph

    2017-10-01

    Better stewardship of land is needed to achieve the Paris Climate Agreement goal of holding warming to below 2 °C; however, confusion persists about the specific set of land stewardship options available and their mitigation potential. To address this, we identify and quantify “natural climate solutions” (NCS): 20 conservation, restoration, and improved land management actions that increase carbon storage and/or avoid greenhouse gas emissions across global forests, wetlands, grasslands, and agricultural lands. We find that the maximum potential of NCS—when constrained by food security, fiber security, and biodiversity conservation—is 23.8 petagrams of CO2 equivalent (PgCO2e) y‑1 (95% CI 20.3–37.4). This is ≥30% higher than prior estimates, which did not include the full range of options and safeguards considered here. About half of this maximum (11.3 PgCO2e y‑1) represents cost-effective climate mitigation, assuming the social cost of CO2 pollution is ≥100 USD MgCO2e‑1 by 2030. Natural climate solutions can provide 37% of cost-effective CO2 mitigation needed through 2030 for a >66% chance of holding warming to below 2 °C. One-third of this cost-effective NCS mitigation can be delivered at or below 10 USD MgCO2‑1. Most NCS actions—if effectively implemented—also offer water filtration, flood buffering, soil health, biodiversity habitat, and enhanced climate resilience. Work remains to better constrain uncertainty of NCS mitigation estimates. Nevertheless, existing knowledge reported here provides a robust basis for immediate global action to improve ecosystem stewardship as a major solution to climate change.

  20. Which naturalism for bioethics? A defense of moderate (pragmatic) naturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Eric

    2008-02-01

    There is a growing interest in various forms of naturalism in bioethics, but there is a clear need for further clarification. In an effort to address this situation, I present three epistemological stances: anti-naturalism, strong naturalism, and moderate pragmatic naturalism. I argue that the dominant paradigm within philosophical ethics has been a form of anti-naturalism mainly supported by a strong 'is' and 'ought' distinction. This fundamental epistemological commitment has contributed to the estrangement of academic philosophical ethics from major social problems and explains partially why, in the early 1980s, 'medicine saved the life of ethics'. Rejection of anti-naturalism, however, is often associated with strong forms of naturalism that commit the naturalistic fallacy and threaten to reduce the normative dimensions of ethics to biological imperatives. This move is rightly dismissed as a pitfall since ethics is, in part, a struggle against the course of nature. Rejection of naturalism has drawbacks, however, such as deterring bioethicists from acknowledging the implicit naturalistic epistemological commitments of bioethics. I argue that a moderate pragmatic form of naturalism represents an epistemological position that best embraces the tension of anti-naturalism and strong naturalism: bioethics is neither disconnected from empirical knowledge nor subjugated to it. The discussion is based upon historical writings in philosophy and bioethics.

  1. Current status of natural fibres

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anandjiwala, RD

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibres and their products were prevalent since the early civilization of our society. Since then, the utilization and economic impact of natural fibre cultivation and down stream processing and products have been well established all over...

  2. Multiscale scenarios for nature futures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rosa, IMD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Targets for human development are increasingly connected with targets for nature, however, existing scenarios do not explicitly address this relationship. Here, we outline a strategy to generate scenarios centred on our relationship with nature...

  3. Natural gas monthly, December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This report presents information of interest to organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Data are presented on natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also included.

  4. Natural gas monthly: December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. Articles are included which are designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  5. Natural gas monthly, November 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground state data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information

  6. Natural gas monthly, May 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  7. Legal nature of affatomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Salian and Ripuarian Code affatomia represented a bilateral legal transaction that was aimed at changing of the scoped of heirs determined by the customs, at least insofar being applied in the absence of biological descendants only. However, almost all further similarities in the field cease at this point. The form for using affatomia with Ripuarian Franks was much simpler than the one with the Salian Franks. Unlike the Salian Franks, affatomia could by all odds be used by Ripuarian Franks spouses in determining each other for a heir. Legal nature of the Salian Franks affatomia is most similar to the mancipatio familiae type of will in the Roman law (which does not mean it emerged from this law, while its form in the Ripuarian Code is much closer to testamentary adoption. As with Ripuarian Franks, affatomia seems to have definitely produced legal effects only after the death of the disposant, while its legal effects with the Salian Code performed inter vivos. Contemporary authors are trying to designate the legal nature of legal affairs from the early development of human and legal civilization through modern institutes that represent the completion of their evolutionary path. Taking the inheritance contract of the German or Swiss law, or the future assets donation of the French law, for example, and then comparing them to affatomia and thinx is an anachronism. This is evident by the fact that the legal nature of these ancient Germanic institutes can not be viewed unilaterally, but always through a combination of those institutes which we know today as adoption, gift or mixed donation with retention of different modalities for the transferor or the testator (usually usufruct. In this sense, if we are looking for a inheritance agreement in the Middle Ages, the contract in which a person determines other person for his/her universal or singular successor in the modern sense, we will certainly not find one. However, if within this institute we

  8. Mother natural: Motivations and associations for consuming natural foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscato, Emily M; Machin, Jane E

    2018-02-01

    Natural is perceived as innately positive and is a widely sought-after attribute in food products. The natural food industry continues to grow in response to rising consumer demand. This qualitative study explored mothers' motivations for purchasing and consuming natural food products for themselves and their families. Mothers are an important population because of their disproportionate influence on household food consumption. We employed participant photography and a series of three weekly focus groups to derive a rich understanding of the activities surrounding and motivations behind seeking natural in everyday buying decisions. Five major themes were identified. First, natural nurtures well-being: physical, psychological, social, and emotional health. Second, natural behaves "supernaturally," allowing positive attributes to be transmitted from the source to the recipient. Third, natural is associated with authenticity, providing a sense of trust, transparency, and control. Fourth, consuming natural reinforces the socially constructed idea of a good mother. Lastly, the preference for natural does not always translate into purchase; mothers face compromises because of conflicting priorities and resources. Understanding mothers' multiple motivations provides deeper insight into the attraction for natural products. The findings have application in positioning interventions for more nutritional eating and revising regulations on the food label natural. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Natural resolution of inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Marcelo O; Van Dyke, Thomas E

    2013-10-01

    Inflammation is a protective response essential for maintaining human health and for fighting disease. As an active innate immune reaction to challenge, inflammation gives rise to clinical cardinal signs: rubor, calor, dolor, tumor and functio laesa. Termination of acute inflammation was previously recognized as a passive process; a natural decay of pro-inflammatory signals. We now understand that the natural resolution of inflammation involves well-integrated, active, biochemical programs that return tissues to homeostasis. This review focuses on recent advances in the understanding of the role of endogenous lipid mediators that modulate cellular fate and inflammation. Biosynthesis of eicosanoids and other lipids in exudates coincides with changes in the types of inflammatory cells. Resolution of inflammation is initiated by an active class switch in lipid mediators, such as classic prostaglandins and leukotrienes, to the production of proresolution mediators. Endogenous pro-resolving lipid mediators, including arachidonic acid-derived lipoxins, aspirin-triggered lipoxins, ω3-eicosapentaenoic acid-derived resolvins of the E-series, docosahexaenoic acid-derived resolvins of the D-series, protectins and maresins, are biosynthesized during the resolution phase of acute inflammation. Depending on the type of injury and the type of tissue, the initial cells that respond are polymorphonuclear leukocytes, monocytes/macrophages, epithelial cells or endothelial cells. The selective interaction of specific lipid mediators with G protein-coupled receptors expressed on innate immune cells (e.g. G protein-coupled receptor 32, lipoxin A4 receptor/formyl peptide receptor2, chemokine-like receptor 1, leukotriene B4 receptor type 1 and cabannoid receptor 2) induces cessation of leukocyte infiltration; vascular permeability/edema returns to normal with polymorphonuclear neutrophil death (mostly via apoptosis), the nonphlogistic infiltration of monocyte/macrophages and the removal

  10. Children's Moral Relationships with Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Peter H., Jr.; McCoy, Ann

    Two studies of the development of children's moral relationships with nature addressed such questions as: (1) What does it mean to say that we have an obligation not to harm the natural environment? (2) Does the natural environment feel pain? (3) Does it have rights? or (4) Is moral obligation an inappropriate construct by which to understand the…

  11. Natural gas for vehicles (NGV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, A.

    2006-01-01

    Following a decade-long upsurge in the use of natural gas in the energy sector (heating and especially electricity), new outlets for natural gas are being developed in the transport sector. For countries endowed with substantial local resources, development in this sector can help reduce oil dependence. In addition, natural gas is often used to reduce pollution, particularly in cities. (author)

  12. Natural fibres-based polymers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Natural fibres-based polymers: Part I—Mechanical analysis of Pine needles reinforced biocomposites. Vijay Kumar Thakur A S ... Keeping in view the various advantages of natural fibres, in current series of green composites a study on natural fibre reinforced polymer composites has been made. This paper presents the ...

  13. Natural gas for vehicles (NGV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieur, A

    2006-07-01

    Following a decade-long upsurge in the use of natural gas in the energy sector (heating and especially electricity), new outlets for natural gas are being developed in the transport sector. For countries endowed with substantial local resources, development in this sector can help reduce oil dependence. In addition, natural gas is often used to reduce pollution, particularly in cities. (author)

  14. Perception of naturalness in textiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overvliet, Krista E.; Karana, Elvin; Soto-Faraco, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    In many daily contexts, we prefer natural 'materials' over un-natural ones. Textiles embodied in garments that are worn on the body all day, or in bed sheets slept under every night touch us literally, on a daily basis. Hence among all other materials, 'naturalness perception' has a strong impact on

  15. Cellulite: nature and aetiopathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terranova, F; Berardesca, E; Maibach, H

    2006-06-01

    Only a limited number of studies on cellulite have been published in the international literature and many of them reach somewhat antithetical conclusions. Consequently, it is not yet possible to reconcile the extreme differences of opinion which have lingered on for years concerning the nature of this disorder, as well as its origin and even the most basic aspects of its histopathological classification. It does not even have a recognized name: in fact, the term 'cellulitis' is used in scientific English to indicate a spreading gangrenous infection of the subcutaneous cellular tissue. The other terms used from time to time [panniculitis, lipodystrophy, edematofibrosclerotic panniculitis (EFP), liposclerosis, lipoedema, etc.] have quite different morphological and pathogenetic connotations in general. Over the last few decades, three major conflicting theories have emerged in relation to the ethiopathogenesis of cellulite. These indicate, respectively, the following causes: 1. Oedema caused by excessive hydrophilia of the intercellular matrix. 2. A homeostatic alteration on a regional microcirculatory level; this pathogenetic theory is summarized in a synthetic and self-explanatory denomination: EFP. 3. A peculiar anatomical conformation of the subcutaneous tissue of women, different from male morphology. These theories must all now be updated in the light of recent advances on the sophisticated and composite physiopathology of the adipose organ - which acts not only as a control device which regulates the systematic equilibrium of energy and modulates the food intake and the metabolism of other tissue substrate through a multiple glandular secretion of hormones and parahormones.

  16. NATURAL POLYACETYLENE COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Nasukhova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In article the review of the initial stage of researches of natural polyacetylene compounds is resulted. The high reactionary ability leading to fast oxidation and degradation of these compounds, especially at influence of Uf-light, oxygen of air, pH and other factors, has caused the serious difficulties connected with an establishment of structure and studying of their physical and chemical properties. Therefore the greatest quantity of works of this stage is connected with studying of essential oils of plants from families Apiaceae, Araliaceae, Asteraceae, Campanulaceae, Olacaceae, Pittosporaceae and Santalaceae where have been found out, basically, diacetylene compounds. About development of physical and chemical methods of the analysis of possibility of similar researches have considerably extended. More than 2000 polyacetylenes are known today, from them more than 1100 are found out in plants fam. Asteraceae. Revolution in the field of molecular biology has allowed to study processes of biosynthesis of these compounds intensively.

  17. The nature of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Morgado Bernal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Consciousness is a unified state of mind, a qualitative and subjective state. And one of its most special forms is self-awareness, which allows us to be aware that we are aware and reflect on our own thoughts (section 1. This consciousness endows the human being with the ability to interpret the world and also respond to it. Thus (therefore, thanks to qualia, we have the ability to behave according to the circumstances (section 2. It is important to know the brain correlates and causes that give rise to consciousness. The capacity to be conscious lies in the cerebral cortex. The unity of perception might be related to the synchronization of neurons or functional integration (section 3. However, the problem of consciousness is not only to know its nature (material, but also to know how the emergence of the subjective imagination occurs, question for which no answer exists at the moment and even if it did it would not have any practical benefit for the species (section 4.

  18. Forces of nature

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2072602

    2016-01-01

    A breathtaking and beautiful exploration of our planet. This groundbreaking book, which accompanies the new BBC1 TV series, provides the deepest answers to the simplest questions. 'Why is the sky blue?' 'Why is the Earth round?' 'Why is every snowflake unique?' To answer these and many other questions, Professor Brian Cox will reveal some of the most extraordinary phenomena and events on Earth and in the Universe and beyond. From the immensity of Earth's globe to all the world's myriad snowflakes, the forces of nature shape everything we see. Pushed to extremes, the results are astonishing. From the realm of auroras to the heart of our planet, the ingredients that make everything on Earth connect each one of us in an eternal cycle of life. Brian will reveal why Earth is the most colourful world we know, exploring the white light of the sun as it travels through the darkness of space until it hits Earth's atmosphere where it begins a new journey, splitting into a rainbow of colours. From the great plains of th...

  19. Management of natural resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielo, Olivier; Loubens, Audrey

    2016-08-01

    As a sustainable exploitation of fossil natural resources has become an ecological opportunity, this publication proposes a set of articles focused on the cases of gas, oils (conventional or not) and coal. A first article outlines the unavoidable environmental issue associated with the exploitation of fossil energies. The second one comments the meaning of fossil fuel availability, and more particularly the distinction between resources and reserves, and the transformation of resources into reserves for saving purposes. This last issue of transformation of resources into reserves is addressed by next articles which respectively focus on conventional gases and oils, on non conventional gases and oils, and on coal. Two articles then comment perspectives by 2040 by discussing the high tension between fossil resources and geopolitical situation, and by discussing whether a world energy transition is possible. The three last articles notice that the abundance of fossil energies is hiding the potential of renewable energies, discuss whether chemical industry could do without oil, and comment the fact that Russia strengthens its claims on Arctic territories

  20. Periurbanisation and natural hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Loison

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In mountainous areas in recent decades urbanisation has expanded to areas where low ground adjoins mountainsides that are unstable in a number of respects. Periurbanisation in mountain basins with unstable sides poses specific problems that local players have to address. The Lavanchon basin (southeast of Grenoble, which is subject to very rapid urban growth combined with particularly dynamic mountainsides, is representative of the way activity is being brought into closer contact with potential hazards. A diachronic study of changes in land use between 1956 and 2001 shows how valley infrastructures at the bottom of mountainsides have become increasingly dense. In this context, a survey was carried out among a number of residents in the Lavanchon basin in an attempt to evaluate the degree of awareness that the population has of the natural hazards to which it is exposed. The results show that slightly more than half of the population surveyed was aware of the problem of natural hazards being present in the area, with most inhabitants being more concerned about industrial and pollution hazards. New residents were unaware of or were unwilling to accept the reality of hazards. The low incidence of significant natural events, the effectiveness of the protective structures built, the absence of information provided by the public authorities and the division of the basin between several management bodies appear to have engendered a feeling of safety from natural phenomena. The geographical distribution of appreciation of the hazard clearly shows a distinction between those inhabitants living on the low ground and those at the bottom of the mountainsides, and this corresponds fairly closely with the historical and current location of the main potentially hazardous events that have occurred.Dans les territoires de montagne, les dernières décennies ont vu l’expansion de l’urbanisation vers les zones de contact entre la plaine et les versants, lieux

  1. Natural zeolite bitumen cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznicki, S.M.; McCaffrey, W.C.; Bian, J.; Wangen, E.; Koenig, A. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2006-07-01

    A study was conducted to demonstrate how low cost heavy oil upgrading in the field could reduce the need for diluents while lowering the cost for pipelining. Low cost field upgrading could also contribute to lowering contaminant levels. The performance of visbreaking processes could be improved by using disposable cracking agents. In turn, the economics of field upgrading of in-situ derived bitumen would be improved. However, in order to be viable, such agents would have to be far less expensive than current commercial cracking catalysts. A platy natural zeolite was selected for modification and testing due to its unique chemical and morphological properties. A catalyst-bearing oil sand was then heat-treated for 1 hour at 400 degrees C in a sealed microreactor. Under these mild cracking conditions, the catalyst-bearing oil sand produced extractable products of much lower viscosity. The products also contained considerably more gas oil and middle distillates than raw oil sand processed under the same conditions as thermal cracking alone. According to model cracking studies using hexadecane, these modified mineral zeolites may be more active cracking agents than undiluted premium commercial FCC catalyst. These materials hold promise for partial upgrading schemes to reduce solvent requirements in the field. tabs., figs.

  2. SUSY naturalness without prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghilencea, D. M.

    2014-05-01

    Unlike the Standard Model (SM), supersymmetric models stabilize the electroweak (EW) scale v at the quantum level and predict that v is a function of the TeV-valued SUSY parameters (γα) of the UV Lagrangian. We show that the (inverse of the) covariance matrix of the model in the basis of these parameters and the usual deviation δχ2 (from χmin2 of a model) automatically encode information about the "traditional" EW fine-tuning measuring this stability, provided that the EW scale v ˜mZ is indeed regarded as a function v =v(γ). It is known that large EW fine-tuning may signal an incomplete theory of soft terms and can be reduced when relations among γα exist (due to GUT symmetries, etc.). The global correlation coefficient of this matrix can help one investigate if such relations are present. An upper bound on the usual EW fine-tuning measure ("in quadrature") emerges from the analysis of the δχ2 and the s-standard deviation confidence interval by using v =v(γ) and the theoretical approximation (loop order) considered for the calculation of the observables. This upper bound avoids subjective criteria for the "acceptable" level of EW fine-tuning for which the model is still "natural."

  3. Nature's Autonomous Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, H. G.; Yee, J.-H.; Mayr, M.; Schnetzler, R.

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinearity is required to produce autonomous oscillations without external time dependent source, and an example is the pendulum clock. The escapement mechanism of the clock imparts an impulse for each swing direction, which keeps the pendulum oscillating at the resonance frequency. Among nature's observed autonomous oscillators, examples are the quasi-biennial oscillation and bimonthly oscillation of the Earth atmosphere, and the 22-year solar oscillation. The oscillations have been simulated in numerical models without external time dependent source, and in Section 2 we summarize the results. Specifically, we shall discuss the nonlinearities that are involved in generating the oscillations, and the processes that produce the periodicities. In biology, insects have flight muscles, which function autonomously with wing frequencies that far exceed the animals' neural capacity; Stretch-activation of muscle contraction is the mechanism that produces the high frequency oscillation of insect flight, discussed in Section 3. The same mechanism is also invoked to explain the functioning of the cardiac muscle. In Section 4, we present a tutorial review of the cardio-vascular system, heart anatomy, and muscle cell physiology, leading up to Starling's Law of the Heart, which supports our notion that the human heart is also a nonlinear oscillator. In Section 5, we offer a broad perspective of the tenuous links between the fluid dynamical oscillators and the human heart physiology.

  4. Natural family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J B; Blackwell, L F; Billings, J J; Conway, B; Cox, R I; Garrett, G; Holmes, J; Smith, M A

    1987-10-01

    It is now well accepted that a woman can conceive from an act of intercourse for a maximum of only about 7 days of her menstrual cycle. The reliability of natural family planning depends on identifying this window of fertility without ambiguity. Several symptomatic markers, cervical mucus and basal body temperature, have been used extensively and with considerable success in most women but failures occur. Ovarian and pituitary hormone production show characteristic patterns during the cycle. Urinary estrogen and pregnanediol measurements yield reliable information concerning the beginning, peak, and end of the fertile period, provided that the assays are accurate and performed on timed specimens of urine. We have developed such enzyme immunoassays for urinary estrogen and pregnanediol glucuronides that can be performed at home. In the early versions of the assays, enzyme reaction rates were measured by eye, but more recently, a simple photoelectronic rate meter has been used. The final problem to be solved is not technologic but whether women are sufficiently motivated to expend the same time and effort each day for 10 days a month, with less cost, on fertility awareness as they spend on making a cup of tea.

  5. Natural gas marketing and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Overview of the natural gas industry; Federal regulation of marketing and transportation; State regulation of transportation; Fundamentals of gas marketing contracts; Gas marketing options and strategies; End user agreements; Transportation on interstate pipelines; Administration of natural gas contracts; Structuring transactions with the nonconventional source fuels credit; Take-or-pay wars- a cautionary analysis for the future; Antitrust pitfalls in the natural gas industry; Producer imbalances; Natural gas futures for the complete novice; State non-utility regulation of production, transportation and marketing; Natural gas processing agreements and Disproportionate sales, gas balancing, and accounting to royalty owners

  6. Natural gas monthly, September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-27

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  7. Natural gas monthly, July 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is entitled ``Intricate puzzle of oil and gas reserves growth.`` A special report is included on revisions to monthly natural gas data. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  8. Natural gas monthly, December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The article this month is entitled ``Recent Trends in Natural Gas Spot Prices.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  9. What drives natural gas prices?

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Stephen P. A.; Yücel, Mine K.

    2007-01-01

    For many years, fuel switching between natural gas and residual fuel oil kept natural gas prices closely aligned with those for crude oil. More recently, however, the number of U.S. facilities able to switch between natural gas and residual fuel oil has declined, and over the past five years, U.S. natural gas prices have been on an upward trend with crude oil prices but with considerable independent movement. Natural gas market analysts generally emphasize weather and inventories as drivers o...

  10. Natural Gas Monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-10

    The (NGM) Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature articles are: US Production of Natural Gas from Tight Reservoirs: and Expanding Rule of Underground Storage.

  11. Natural gas monthly, November 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``US natural gas imports and exports-1995``. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  12. Natural gas vehicles in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, F.

    1991-01-01

    The technology of compressed natural gas (CNG) for road vehicles originated 50 years ago in Italy, always able to adapt itself to changes in energy supply and demand situations and national assets. Now, due to the public's growing concern for air pollution abatement and recent national energy policies calling for energy diversification, the commercialization of natural gas road vehicles is receiving new momentum. However, proper fuel taxation and an increased number of natural gas distribution stations are required to support this growing market potential. Operators of urban bus fleets stand to gain substantially from conversion to natural gas automotive fuels due to natural gas being a relatively cheap, clean alternative

  13. Natural gas monthly, May 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``Restructuring energy industries: Lessons from natural gas.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  14. Natural radioactivity in water supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horner, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    This book outlines the scientific aspects of the control of natural radioactivity in water supplies, as well as the labyrinthine uncertainties in water quality regulation concerning natural radiocontamination of water. The author provides an introduction to the theory of natural radioactivity; addresses risk assessment, sources of natural radiocontamination of water, radiobiology of natural radioactivity in water, and federal water law concerning natural radiocontamination. It presents an account of how one city dealt with the perplexes that mark the rapidly evolving area of water quality regulation. The contents include: radioactivity and risk; an introduction to the atomic theory; an introduction to natural radioactivity; risk assessment; uranium and radium contamination of water; radiobiology of uranium and radium in water. Determination of risk from exposure to uranium and radium in water; the legal milieu; one city's experience; and summary: the determinants of evolving regulation

  15. Agrobacterium: nature's genetic engineer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nester, Eugene W

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium was identified as the agent causing the plant tumor, crown gall over 100 years ago. Since then, studies have resulted in many surprising observations. Armin Braun demonstrated that Agrobacterium infected cells had unusual nutritional properties, and that the bacterium was necessary to start the infection but not for continued tumor development. He developed the concept of a tumor inducing principle (TIP), the factor that actually caused the disease. Thirty years later the TIP was shown to be a piece of a tumor inducing (Ti) plasmid excised by an endonuclease. In the next 20 years, most of the key features of the disease were described. The single-strand DNA (T-DNA) with the endonuclease attached is transferred through a type IV secretion system into the host cell where it is likely coated and protected from nucleases by a bacterial secreted protein to form the T-complex. A nuclear localization signal in the endonuclease guides the transferred strand (T-strand), into the nucleus where it is integrated randomly into the host chromosome. Other secreted proteins likely aid in uncoating the T-complex. The T-DNA encodes enzymes of auxin, cytokinin, and opine synthesis, the latter a food source for Agrobacterium. The genes associated with T-strand formation and transfer (vir) map to the Ti plasmid and are only expressed when the bacteria are in close association with a plant. Plant signals are recognized by a two-component regulatory system which activates vir genes. Chromosomal genes with pleiotropic functions also play important roles in plant transformation. The data now explain Braun's old observations and also explain why Agrobacterium is nature's genetic engineer. Any DNA inserted between the border sequences which define the T-DNA will be transferred and integrated into host cells. Thus, Agrobacterium has become the major vector in plant genetic engineering.

  16. Can Realism Be Naturalized?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Norris

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Hilary Putnam has famously undergone some radical changes of mind with regard to the issue of scientific realism and its wider epistemological bearings. In this paper I defend the arguments put forward by early Putnam in his essays on the causal theory of reference as applied to natural-kind terms, despite his own later view that those arguments amounted to a form of 'metaphysical' realism which could not be sustained against various lines of sceptical attack. I discuss some of the reasons for Putnam's retreat, first to the theory of 'internal (or framework-relative realism proposed in his middle-period writings, and then to a commonsense pragmatist stance which claims to resituate this whole discussion on ground that has not been trodden into ruts by the contending philosophical schools. In particular I examine his protracted engagement with various forms of anti-realist doctrine (Michael Dummet’s most prominent among them, with Wittgenstein's thinking about language-games or meaning-as-use, and with a range of skeptical - relativist positions adopted in the wake of Quine’s influential attack on the two last 'dogmas' of logical empiricism. My paper seeks to show that Putnam has been over-impressed by some of the arguments — from these and other sources — which he takes to constitute a knock-down case against the kind of externalist and causal-realist approach developed in his early essays. It concludes by re-stating that position in summary form and relating it to other, more recent defences of causal realism in epistemology and philosophy of science.

  17. Socioconomic nature of terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Petrovich Chichkanov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the theoretical and methodological foundations of investigation of the  socioeconomic nature of terrorism are considered. Hypothesis of research is the existence of methodological criteria of territory classification on the basis of external and internal terrorism. On the basis of the analysis of theoretical works of national and foreign authors, normative documents of state and international level the genesis of approaches to the understanding of the essence of modern terrorism, its contents, the subject-object relations and manifestation forms is received. As the result, according to the authors’ definition “terrorism” is understood as an ideology connected with deliberate violence or threats against the civilian population or property to influence on the government or the interstate organizations. In the work, the factors of development and spreading of terrorism in the Russian Federation’s regions are allocated and quantitatively proved. Weight parameters of the specified factors are determined. The methodological differentiation of the specified factors on factors of terrorism external (attacks from the outside and an internal form (distribution and realization of radical ideas within the region in the territory is the distinctive feature of the conducted research. During the research, the cluster analysis of a region is carried out to distribute of Russia’s regions according to the typological characteristic of the region of internal and external terrorism. The obtained data are verified in accordance with empirical data, the hypothesis of the existence of methodological criteria of the region classification on the basis of external and internal terrorism is proved.

  18. Nonconventional natural gas resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-03-01

    It is concluded that it is impossible at this time to forecast the volume of natural gas dissolved in water that can be economically recovered. The investigation to southern Louisiana, both onshore and offshore was confined. Estimates of the dissolved methane content are based upon information on temperatures, pressures, sandstone thicknesses, sandstone porosities, salinity, and the solubility of methane. The salinity of waters encountered in wells was estimated from wireline logs, and in turn used to reduce the estimated content of dissolved gas. The reductions range from 51 to 61 percent of the solubility of methane in fresh water. The assessment does not include gas dissolved in water contained in shale beds. A series of maps display the information used in the computation. Methane solubility values were multiplied by porosity--feet values for each 1000-foot interval. The total dissolved methane in the resource base is estimated to be 6,143 trillion cubic feet (Tcf); assumptions on the effect of salinity reduce this to 3,264 Tcf. This figure does not include methane beneath the Texas coast. Very preliminary estimates of the recoverable proportion of dissolved gas in the highly ''geopressured'' zones range from 1 to over 20 percent. Not all of the resource base estimates of 3,264 Tcf occurs in the highly geopressured zone, and the proportions individually allocatable within the resource base to the highly ''geopressured'' zone, to the intermediate-pressure zone, and to the normal or ''hydropressure'' zone cannotbe estimated readily. The environmental aspects of recovery of dissolved gas are also presented. The review is necessarily generalized, since it could not be based on actual experience. The problems include subsidence of land surface and possibly increased seismic activity. Fluid withdrawal might result in subsidence of the land surface, as well as activation of growth faults, with adjustments

  19. Naturalism and un-naturalism among the Cartesian physicians

    OpenAIRE

    Manning, Gideon

    2008-01-01

    Highlighting early modern medicine's program of explanation and intervention, I claim that there are two distinctive features of the physician's naturalism. These are, first, an explicit recognition that each patient had her own individual and highly particularized nature and, second, a self-conscious use of normative descriptions when characterizing a patient's nature as healthy (ordered) or unhealthy (disordered). I go on to maintain that in spite of the well documented Cartesian rejection ...

  20. Nature's palette: the search for natural blue colorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Andrew G; Culver, Catherine A; van Breemen, Richard B

    2014-07-16

    The food and beverage industry is seeking to broaden the palette of naturally derived colorants. Although considerable effort has been devoted to the search for new blue colorants in fruits and vegetables, less attention has been directed toward blue compounds from other sources such as bacteria and fungi. The current work reviews known organic blue compounds from natural plant, animal, fungal, and microbial sources. The scarcity of blue-colored metabolites in the natural world relative to metabolites of other colors is discussed, and structural trends common among natural blue compounds are identified. These compounds are grouped into seven structural classes and evaluated for their potential as new color additives.